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Sample records for assay elisa-like fluorescence

  1. Time-Resolved Fluorescence Assays.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chen-Ting; Sergienko, Eduard A

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence-based detection techniques are popular in high throughput screening due to sensitivity and cost-effectiveness. Four commonly used techniques exist, each with distinct characteristics. Fluorescence intensity assays are the simplest to run, but suffer the most from signal interference. Fluorescence polarization assays show less interference from the compounds or the instrument, but require a design that results in change of fluorophore-containing moiety size and usually have narrow assay signal window. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is commonly used for detecting protein-protein interactions and is constrained not by the sizes of binding partners, but rather by the distance between fluorophores. Time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET), an advanced modification of FRET approach utilizes special fluorophores with long-lived fluorescence and earns its place near the top of fluorescent techniques list by its performance and robustness, characterized by larger assay window and minimized compound spectral interference. TR-FRET technology can be applied in biochemical or cell-based in vitro assays with ease. It is commonly used to detect modulation of protein-protein interactions and in detection of products of biochemical reactions and cellular activities. PMID:27316992

  2. Quantitation of flaviviruses by fluorescent focus assay.

    PubMed

    Payne, Anne F; Binduga-Gajewska, Iwona; Kauffman, Elizabeth B; Kramer, Laura D

    2006-06-01

    An indirect immunofluorescence assay for quantitation of flaviviruses was developed as an alternative to the standard plaque assay. The assay was validated with West Nile virus (WNV), St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), and Dengue virus (DENV) types 1-4. Vero cells were plated in 8-well chamber slides, and infected with 10-fold serial dilutions of virus. About 1-3 days after infection, cells were fixed, incubated with specific monoclonal antibody, and stained with a secondary antibody labeled with a fluorescent tag. Fluorescent foci of infection were observed and counted using a fluorescence microscope, and viral titers were calculated as fluorescent focus units (FFU) per ml. The optimal time for performing the fluorescent focus assay (FFA) on Vero cells was 24 h for WNV, and 48 h for SLEV and the four DENV serotypes. In contrast, the time required to complete a standard Vero cell plaque assay for these viruses range from 3 days for WNV to 11 days for DENV-1. Thus, the FFA method of virus titration is useful for viruses whose plaques develop slowly. In addition, these viruses can be quantitated by FFA on a mosquito cell line (C6/36), which does not support plaque formation. The FFA for flaviviruses was validated for accuracy, precision, specificity, and robustness of the assay.

  3. A new fluorescent assay for enalapril maleate.

    PubMed

    de los A Oliva, María; Sombra, Lorena L; Olsina, Roberto A; Masi, Adriana N

    2005-09-01

    A new spectrofluorimetric method for the enalapril maleate monitoring was studied. Enalapril maleate was found to be highly photolabile. This drug was evaluated according to photodegradation assay at pH 2.5 and 6. Enalapril maleate was exposed to UVA-UVB radiations. Under these specific conditions was found as degradation product, the diketopiperazine. The modification of the fluorescent properties of enalapril maleate in solution after exposure UV-radiation and the degradation mechanisms were studied. The photodegradation was followed by the developed spectrofluorimetric assay.

  4. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Materials Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Quiter, Brian; Ludewigt, Bernhard; Mozin, Vladimir; Prussin, Stanley

    2009-06-05

    This paper discusses the use of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) techniques for the isotopic and quantitative assaying of radioactive material. Potential applications include age-dating of an unknown radioactive source, pre- and post-detonation nuclear forensics, and safeguards for nuclear fuel cycles Examples of age-dating a strong radioactive source and assaying a spent fuel pin are discussed. The modeling work has ben performed with the Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code MCNPX, and the capability to simulate NRF has bee added to the code. Discussed are the limitations in MCNPX's photon transport physics for accurately describing photon scattering processes that are important contributions to the background and impact the applicability of the NRF assay technique.

  5. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Materials Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Quiter, Brian J.; Ludewigt, Bernhard; Mozin, Vladimir; Prussin, Stanley

    2009-06-29

    This paper discusses the use of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) techniques for the isotopic and quantitative assaying of radioactive material. Potential applications include age-dating of an unknown radioactive source, pre- and post-detonation nuclear forensics, and safeguards for nuclear fuel cycles Examples of age-dating a strong radioactive source and assaying a spent fuel pin are discussed. The modeling work has ben performed with the Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code MCNPX, and the capability to simulate NRF has bee added to the code. Discussed are the limitations in MCNPX?s photon transport physics for accurately describing photon scattering processes that are important contributions to the background and impact the applicability of the NRF assay technique.

  6. Fluorescence Polarization Assays in Small Molecule Screening

    PubMed Central

    Lea, Wendy A.; Simeonov, Anton

    2011-01-01

    Importance of the field Fluorescence polarization (FP) is a homogeneous method that allows rapid and quantitative analysis of diverse molecular interactions and enzyme activities. This technique has been widely utilized in clinical and biomedical settings, including the diagnosis of certain diseases and monitoring therapeutic drug levels in body fluids. Recent developments in the field has been symbolized by the facile adoption of FP in high-throughput screening (HTS) and small molecule drug discovery of an increasing range of target classes. Areas covered in this review The article provides a brief overview on the theoretical foundation of FP, followed by updates on recent advancements in its application for various drug target classes, including G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), enzymes and protein-protein interactions (PPIs). The strengths and weaknesses of this method, practical considerations in assay design, novel applications, and future directions are also discussed. What the reader will gain The reader will be informed of the most recent advancements and future directions of FP application to small molecule screening. Take home message In addition to its continued utilization in high-throughput screening, FP has expanded into new disease and target areas and has been marked by increased use of labeled small molecule ligands for receptor binding studies. PMID:22328899

  7. Rapid Fluorescent Detection Assay for Human Parainfluenza Viruses.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Tadanobu; Takano, Maiko; Kurebayashi, Yuuki; Agarikuchi, Takashi; Suzuki, Chihiro; Fukushima, Keijo; Takahashi, Shunsaku; Otsubo, Tadamune; Ikeda, Kiyoshi; Minami, Akira; Suzuki, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Human parainfluenza virus type 1 (hPIV1) does not form clear plaque by the conventional plaque formation assay because of slightly a cytopathic effects in many cell lines infected with hPIV1, thus making in virus titration, isolation and inhibitor evaluation difficult. We have succeeded in fluorescent histochemical visualization of sialidase activities of influenza A and B viruses, Newcastle disease virus and Sendai virus by using a novel fluorescent sialidase substrate, 2-(benzothiazol-2-yl)-4-bromophenyl 5-acetamido-3,5-dideoxy-α-D-glycero-D-galacto-2-nonulopyranosidonic acid (BTP3-Neu5Ac). In this study, we applied the BTP3-Neu5Ac assay for rapid detection of hPIV1 and hPIV type 3. The BTP3-Neu5Ac assay could histochemically visualize dot-blotted hPIVs on a membrane and hPIV-infected cells as local fluorescence under UV irradiation. We succeeded in distinct fluorescent visualization of hPIV1-infected cells in only 3 d using the BTP3-Neu5Ac assay. Due to there being no fixation, hPIV1 was isolated directly from fluorescent stained focus cells by the BTP3-Neu5Ac assay. Establishment of a sensitive, easy, and rapid fluorescent focus detection assay for hPIV, hPIV1 in particular will contribute greatly to progress in hPIV studies.

  8. Protein subcellular localization assays using split fluorescent proteins

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2009-09-08

    The invention provides protein subcellular localization assays using split fluorescent protein systems. The assays are conducted in living cells, do not require fixation and washing steps inherent in existing immunostaining and related techniques, and permit rapid, non-invasive, direct visualization of protein localization in living cells. The split fluorescent protein systems used in the practice of the invention generally comprise two or more self-complementing fragments of a fluorescent protein, such as GFP, wherein one or more of the fragments correspond to one or more beta-strand microdomains and are used to "tag" proteins of interest, and a complementary "assay" fragment of the fluorescent protein. Either or both of the fragments may be functionalized with a subcellular targeting sequence enabling it to be expressed in or directed to a particular subcellular compartment (i.e., the nucleus).

  9. A fluorescence polarization based assay for glucose sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummins, Brian M.; Coté, Gerard L.

    2012-03-01

    A fluorescence polarization (FP) assay was developed to determine concentrations of glucose using concanavalin A (ConA) and fluorescently-labeled dextran. Predictive FP responses to glucose were elicited for different assay configurations using mathematical modeling and displayed herein. Using 4 kDa FITC-dextran, we predicted a change of 0.120 P units from 0 mg/dL glucose to 500 mg/dL. This shows the potential that a homogenous, reproducible FP assay can be engineered to measure glucose concentrations using tetrameric ConA and 4k kDa FITC-dextran.

  10. Assays using digital fluorescence: 1985-1998

    PubMed

    Kricka; Stanley

    1999-09-01

    Luminescence continues to provide comprehensive literature surveys which will be published in most issues. These are a continuation of the literature surveys begun in 1986 in the Journal of Bioluminescence and Chemiluminescence which, up until 1998, encompassed more than 6000 references cited by year or specialized topic. With this newly named journal these searches are expanding to reflect the journal's wider scope. In future we will cover all fundamental and applied aspects of biological and chemical luminescence and include not only bioluminescence and chemiluminescence but also fluorescence, time resolved fluorescence, electrochemiluminescence, phosphorescence, sonoluminescence, lyoluminescence and triboluminescence. The compilers would be pleased to receive any comments from the readership. Contact by e-mail: L.J. Kricka: larry_kricka@path1a.med.upenn.edu or P.E. Stanley: Stanley@LUMIWEB.COM Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:10512992

  11. Photon upconversion in homogeneous fluorescence-based bioanalytical assays.

    PubMed

    Soukka, Tero; Rantanen, Terhi; Kuningas, Katri

    2008-01-01

    Upconverting phosphors (UCPs) are very attractive reporters for fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based bioanalytical assays. The large anti-Stokes shift and capability to convert near-infrared to visible light via sequential absorption of multiple photons enable complete elimination of autofluorescence, which commonly impairs the performance of fluorescence-based assays. UCPs are ideal donors for FRET, because their very narrow-banded emission allows measurement of the sensitized acceptor emission, in principle, without any crosstalk from the donor emission at a wavelength just tens of nanometers from the emission peak of the donor. In addition, acceptor dyes emitting at visible wavelengths are essentially not excited by near-infrared, which further emphasizes the unique potential of upconversion FRET (UC-FRET). These characteristics result in favorable assay performance using detection instrumentation based on epifluorometer configuration and laser diode excitation. Although UC-FRET is a recently emerged technology, it has already been applied in both immunoassays and nucleic acid hybridization assays. The technology is also compatible with optically difficult biological samples, such as whole blood. Significant advances in assay performance are expected using upconverting lanthanide-doped nanocrystals, which are currently under extensive research. UC-FRET, similarly to other fluorescence techniques based on resonance energy transfer, is strongly distance dependent and may have limited applicability, for example in sandwich-type assays for large biomolecules, such as viruses. In this article, we summarize the essentials of UC-FRET, describe its current applications, and outline the expectations for its future potential.

  12. Fluorescence assay for evaluating microbicidal activity of hand antiseptics.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Gigosos, Rosa M; Mariscal, Alberto; Mariscal-Lopez, Eloisa; Gutierrez-Bedmar, Mario; Fernandez, Joaquin

    2015-11-01

    We developed a fluorescent β-d-glucuronidase activity (BGA)-based assay for detecting and quantifying Escherichia coli in samples to assess the biocide efficacy of hand antiseptics. The fluorescence level is proportional to the number of viable E. coli organisms present. We compared our assay results to those of the E. coli plate count method specified by the European standard for testing hygienic hand rub disinfectant products (EN1500). The plate count method requires excessive handling and materials and is not valid if the number of organisms per plate is too low or high for counting in many of the samples. We optimized the fluorescent assay based on the cleavage of 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-d-glucuronide by adding 4-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucuronide, a nonfluorogenic BGA substrate, to induce glucuronidase activity and reduce assay time. Furthermore, our method can be automated and eliminates the need for multiple dilutions. Fluorescence was temporally monitored, and the time required to reach a specific value of fluorescence was correlated with the initial number of viable E. coli organisms on the samples. There was a positive correlation (P < 0.05) with a high correlation coefficient (R(2) = 0.82) between the E. coli counts by plate count and fluorescence methods. Reported effects in fluorescent BGA were compared to the EN1500 plate count method with five hand disinfectants. We found our method more advantageous, because it was as sensitive as the EN1500 method, requires less time to complete, and is less expensive and less laborious than conventional plating techniques.

  13. Fluorescence assay for evaluating microbicidal activity of hand antiseptics.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Gigosos, Rosa M; Mariscal, Alberto; Mariscal-Lopez, Eloisa; Gutierrez-Bedmar, Mario; Fernandez, Joaquin

    2015-11-01

    We developed a fluorescent β-d-glucuronidase activity (BGA)-based assay for detecting and quantifying Escherichia coli in samples to assess the biocide efficacy of hand antiseptics. The fluorescence level is proportional to the number of viable E. coli organisms present. We compared our assay results to those of the E. coli plate count method specified by the European standard for testing hygienic hand rub disinfectant products (EN1500). The plate count method requires excessive handling and materials and is not valid if the number of organisms per plate is too low or high for counting in many of the samples. We optimized the fluorescent assay based on the cleavage of 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-d-glucuronide by adding 4-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucuronide, a nonfluorogenic BGA substrate, to induce glucuronidase activity and reduce assay time. Furthermore, our method can be automated and eliminates the need for multiple dilutions. Fluorescence was temporally monitored, and the time required to reach a specific value of fluorescence was correlated with the initial number of viable E. coli organisms on the samples. There was a positive correlation (P < 0.05) with a high correlation coefficient (R(2) = 0.82) between the E. coli counts by plate count and fluorescence methods. Reported effects in fluorescent BGA were compared to the EN1500 plate count method with five hand disinfectants. We found our method more advantageous, because it was as sensitive as the EN1500 method, requires less time to complete, and is less expensive and less laborious than conventional plating techniques. PMID:26276114

  14. Fluorescence Assay for Evaluating Microbicidal Activity of Hand Antiseptics

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Gigosos, Rosa M.; Mariscal-Lopez, Eloisa; Gutierrez-Bedmar, Mario; Fernandez, Joaquin

    2015-01-01

    We developed a fluorescent β-d-glucuronidase activity (BGA)-based assay for detecting and quantifying Escherichia coli in samples to assess the biocide efficacy of hand antiseptics. The fluorescence level is proportional to the number of viable E. coli organisms present. We compared our assay results to those of the E. coli plate count method specified by the European standard for testing hygienic hand rub disinfectant products (EN1500). The plate count method requires excessive handling and materials and is not valid if the number of organisms per plate is too low or high for counting in many of the samples. We optimized the fluorescent assay based on the cleavage of 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-d-glucuronide by adding 4-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucuronide, a nonfluorogenic BGA substrate, to induce glucuronidase activity and reduce assay time. Furthermore, our method can be automated and eliminates the need for multiple dilutions. Fluorescence was temporally monitored, and the time required to reach a specific value of fluorescence was correlated with the initial number of viable E. coli organisms on the samples. There was a positive correlation (P < 0.05) with a high correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.82) between the E. coli counts by plate count and fluorescence methods. Reported effects in fluorescent BGA were compared to the EN1500 plate count method with five hand disinfectants. We found our method more advantageous, because it was as sensitive as the EN1500 method, requires less time to complete, and is less expensive and less laborious than conventional plating techniques. PMID:26276114

  15. Rapid fluorescent assay for screening drugs on Leishmania amastigotes.

    PubMed

    Shimony, Orly; Jaffe, Charles L

    2008-10-01

    A rapid fluorescent viability assay employing alamarBlue was optimized for use with Leishmania axenic amastigotes, the stage of the parasite responsible for disease pathology. The activity of two protein kinase inhibitors, Staurosporine and H-89, as well as Amphotericin B, on promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania donovani and Leishmania tropica was compared. Both protein kinase inhibitors inhibited promastigote growth at lower concentrations than amastigotes, while the GI(50) for Amphotericin B on both stages was similar. This assay only requires a limited number of axenic amastigotes (50,000 cells/well) and can be used to rapidly screen large chemical or natural product libraries for activity against amastigotes.

  16. Fluorescent and Lanthanide Labeling for Ligand Screens, Assays, and Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Josan, Jatinder S.; De Silva, Channa R.; Yoo, Byunghee; Lynch, Ronald M.; Pagel, Mark D.; Vagner, Josef; Hruby, Victor J.

    2012-01-01

    The use of fluorescent (or luminescent) and metal contrast agents in high-throughput screens, in vitro assays, and molecular imaging procedures has rapidly expanded in recent years. Here we describe the development and utility of high-affinity ligands for cancer theranostics and other in vitro screening studies. In this context, we also illustrate the syntheses and use of heteromultivalent ligands as targeted imaging agents. PMID:21318902

  17. Enzyme-linked fluorescence assay: Ultrasensitive solid-phase assay for detection of human rotavirus.

    PubMed Central

    Yolken, R H; Stopa, P J

    1979-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has proven to be a useful assay system for the direct detection of infectious agents. However, when the usual color-producing substrates are employed, relatively large amounts of substrate must be hydrolyzed by the bound enzyme before detection can be achieved. We attempted to improve the sensitivity of ELISA by utilizing a substrate that yields a fluorescent product on enzyme action. The enzyme-linked fluorescence assay (ELFA) based on this principle was approximately 100 times more sensitive than the corresponding ELISA or radioimmunoassay for the detection of human rotavirus in a standard stool suspension. In addition, the ELFA for human rotavirus was capable of detecting antigen in six specimens that were negative by ELISA. Five of these specimens were obtained late in the course of confirmed rotavirus infections. ELFA provides a simple, reliable, ultrasensitive method for the rapid detection of viral antigen. PMID:226564

  18. A continuous fluorescent assay for protein prenyltransferases measuring diphosphate release.

    PubMed

    Pais, June E; Bowers, Katherine E; Stoddard, Andrea K; Fierke, Carol A

    2005-10-15

    Protein farnesyltransferase and protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I catalyze the transfer of a 15- and a 20-carbon prenyl group, respectively, from a prenyl diphosphate to a cysteine residue at the carboxyl terminus of target proteins, with the concomitant release of diphosphate. Common substrates include oncogenic Ras proteins, which are implicated in up to 30% of all human cancers, making prenyltransferases a viable target for chemotherapeutic drugs. A coupled assay has been developed to measure the rate constant of diphosphate (PPi) dissociation during the prenyltransferase reaction under both single and multiple turnover conditions. In this assay, the PPi group produced in the prenyltransferase reaction is rapidly cleaved by inorganic pyrophosphatase to form phosphate (Pi), which is then bound by a coumarin-labeled phosphate binding protein from Escherichia coli, resulting in a fluorescence increase. The observed rate constant for PPi release is equal to the rate constant of prenylation of the peptide, as measured by other assays, so that this nonradioactive assay can be used to measure prenyltransferase activity under either single or multiple turnover conditions. This assay can be adapted for high-throughput screening for potential prenyltransferase substrates and inhibitors.

  19. Hybridization assay based on evanescent fluorescence excitation and collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumner, James J.; Mmerole, Robert U.; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N.; Yi, Hyunmin; Bentley, William E.; Gillespie, James B.

    2003-08-01

    There is a great need for high throughput and sensitive sensors for genetic analysis. These sensors can be used for varied purposes from monitoring gene expression in organims to speciation of possible pathogens. Consequently, an instrument capable of these tasks would be a great benefit for food and water safety, medical diagnostics and defense of military and civilian populations from biological threats. This work examines the development of a hybridization-based biosensor using a novel tapered fiber optic rpobe. The immobilization of single-stranded, synthetic ologinucleotides utilizing aminoproplytriethoxysilane and glutaraldehyde was implemented on the fiber optic sensor. Hybridization takes place with a complementary analyte sequence followed by a fluorescent, labeled signaling probe to form a sandwich assay. Following hybridization, the fiber is interrogated with a diode laser source and the resulting fluorescence signal is detected using a miniature spectrometer.

  20. A Fluorescence-based Assay of Phospholipid Scramblase Activity.

    PubMed

    Ploier, Birgit; Menon, Anant K

    2016-01-01

    Scramblases translocate phospholipids across the membrane bilayer bidirectionally in an ATP-independent manner. The first scramblase to be identified and biochemically verified was opsin, the apoprotein of the photoreceptor rhodopsin. Rhodopsin is a G protein-coupled receptor localized in rod photoreceptor disc membranes of the retina where it is responsible for the perception of light. Rhodopsin's scramblase activity does not depend on its ligand 11-cis-retinal, i.e., the apoprotein opsin is also active as a scramblase. Although constitutive and regulated phospholipid scrambling play an important role in cell physiology, only a few phospholipid scramblases have been identified so far besides opsin. Here we describe a fluorescence-based assay of opsin's scramblase activity. Opsin is reconstituted into large unilamellar liposomes composed of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol and a trace quantity of fluorescent NBD-labeled PC (1-palmitoyl-2-{6-[7-nitro-2-1,3-benzoxadiazole-4-yl)amino]hexanoyl}-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine). Scramblase activity is determined by measuring the extent to which NBD-PC molecules located in the inner leaflet of the vesicle are able to access the outer leaflet where their fluorescence is chemically eliminated by a reducing agent that cannot cross the membrane. The methods we describe have general applicability and can be used to identify and characterize scramblase activities of other membrane proteins. PMID:27684510

  1. Fluorescent Receptor Binding Assay for Detecting Ciguatoxins in Fish

    PubMed Central

    Hardison, D. Ransom; Holland, William C.; McCall, Jennifer R.; Bourdelais, Andrea J.; Baden, Daniel G.; Darius, H. Taiana; Chinain, Mireille; Tester, Patricia A.; Shea, Damian; Flores Quintana, Harold A.; Morris, James A.; Litaker, R. Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is an illness suffered by > 50,000 people yearly after consumption of fish containing ciguatoxins (CTXs). One of the current methodologies to detect ciguatoxins in fish is a radiolabeled receptor binding assay (RBA(R)). However, the license requirements and regulations pertaining to radioisotope utilization can limit the applicability of the RBA(R) in certain labs. A fluorescence based receptor binding assay (RBA(F)) was developed to provide an alternative method of screening fish samples for CTXs in facilities not certified to use radioisotopes. The new assay is based on competition binding between CTXs and fluorescently labeled brevetoxin-2 (BODIPY®- PbTx-2) for voltage-gated sodium channel receptors at site 5 instead of a radiolabeled brevetoxin. Responses were linear in fish tissues spiked from 0.1 to 1.0 ppb with Pacific ciguatoxin-3C (P-CTX-3C) with a detection limit of 0.075 ppb. Carribean ciguatoxins were confirmed in Caribbean fish by LC-MS/MS analysis of the regional biomarker (C-CTX-1). Fish (N = 61) of six different species were screened using the RBA(F). Results for corresponding samples analyzed using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay (CBA-N2a) correlated well (R2 = 0.71) with those of the RBA(F), given the low levels of CTX present in positive fish. Data analyses also showed the resulting toxicity levels of P-CTX-3C equivalents determined by CBA-N2a were consistently lower than the RBA(F) affinities expressed as % binding equivalents, indicating that a given amount of toxin bound to the site 5 receptors translates into corresponding lower cytotoxicity. Consequently, the RBA(F), which takes approximately two hours to perform, provides a generous estimate relative to the widely used CBA-N2a which requires 2.5 days to complete. Other RBA(F) advantages include the long-term (> 5 years) stability of the BODIPY®- PbTx-2 and having similar results as the commonly used RBA(R). The RBA(F) is cost-effective, allows high sample

  2. Fluorescent Receptor Binding Assay for Detecting Ciguatoxins in Fish.

    PubMed

    Hardison, D Ransom; Holland, William C; McCall, Jennifer R; Bourdelais, Andrea J; Baden, Daniel G; Darius, H Taiana; Chinain, Mireille; Tester, Patricia A; Shea, Damian; Quintana, Harold A Flores; Morris, James A; Litaker, R Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is an illness suffered by > 50,000 people yearly after consumption of fish containing ciguatoxins (CTXs). One of the current methodologies to detect ciguatoxins in fish is a radiolabeled receptor binding assay (RBA(R)). However, the license requirements and regulations pertaining to radioisotope utilization can limit the applicability of the RBA(R) in certain labs. A fluorescence based receptor binding assay (RBA(F)) was developed to provide an alternative method of screening fish samples for CTXs in facilities not certified to use radioisotopes. The new assay is based on competition binding between CTXs and fluorescently labeled brevetoxin-2 (BODIPY®-PbTx-2) for voltage-gated sodium channel receptors at site 5 instead of a radiolabeled brevetoxin. Responses were linear in fish tissues spiked from 0.1 to 1.0 ppb with Pacific ciguatoxin-3C (P-CTX-3C) with a detection limit of 0.075 ppb. Carribean ciguatoxins were confirmed in Caribbean fish by LC-MS/MS analysis of the regional biomarker (C-CTX-1). Fish (N = 61) of six different species were screened using the RBA(F). Results for corresponding samples analyzed using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay (CBA-N2a) correlated well (R2 = 0.71) with those of the RBA(F), given the low levels of CTX present in positive fish. Data analyses also showed the resulting toxicity levels of P-CTX-3C equivalents determined by CBA-N2a were consistently lower than the RBA(F) affinities expressed as % binding equivalents, indicating that a given amount of toxin bound to the site 5 receptors translates into corresponding lower cytotoxicity. Consequently, the RBA(F), which takes approximately two hours to perform, provides a generous estimate relative to the widely used CBA-N2a which requires 2.5 days to complete. Other RBA(F) advantages include the long-term (> 5 years) stability of the BODIPY®-PbTx-2 and having similar results as the commonly used RBA(R). The RBA(F) is cost-effective, allows high sample

  3. A fluorescence probe for assaying micro RNA maturation.

    PubMed

    Davies, Brian P; Arenz, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    A class of small RNAs known as micro-RNAs (miRNAs) has been shown to play an important role in development and cellular regulation in eukaryotes. Recent evidence also associates aberrant expression of various miRNAs with multiple diseases in humans including many types of cancer. An up- or downregulation of certain miRNAs may play a significant role in the course of these diseases. We were interested in whether binding of small molecules to the inactive miRNA precursors would block their cleavage into the active miRNAs by the enzyme Dicer. The inhibition of miRNA maturation might provide a new rationale for future therapeutic strategies. We have developed a fluorescence beacon with which to study the maturation of miRNAs. Details are provided of a homogeneous assay for detecting potential inhibitors of miRNA maturation in a high-throughput format.

  4. A New Cytotoxicity Assay for Brevetoxins Using Fluorescence Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Jennifer R.; Elliott, Elizabeth A.; Bourdelais, Andrea J.

    2014-01-01

    Brevetoxins are a family of ladder-framed polyether toxins produced during blooms of the marine dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Consumption of shellfish or finfish exposed to brevetoxins can lead to the development of neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. The toxic effects of brevetoxins are believed to be due to the activation of voltage-sensitive sodium channels in cell membranes. The traditional cytotoxicity assay for detection of brevetoxins uses the Neuro-2A cell line, which must first be treated with the neurotoxins, ouabain and veratridine, in order to become sensitive to brevetoxins. In this study, we demonstrate several drawbacks of the Neuro-2A assay, which include variability for the EC50 values for brevetoxin and non-linear triphasic dose response curves. Ouabain/veratridine-treated Neuro-2A cells do not show a typical sigmoidal dose response curve in response to brevetoxin, but rather, have a polynomial shaped curve, which makes calculating EC50 values highly variable. We describe a new fluorescence live cell imaging model, which allows for accurate calculation of cytotoxicity via nuclear staining and additional measurement of other viability parameters depending on which aspect of the cell is stained. In addition, the SJCRH30 cell line shows promise as an alternative to Neuro-2A cells for testing brevetoxins without the need for ouabain and veratridine. PMID:25251033

  5. AFBI assay – Aptamer Fluorescence Binding and Internalization assay for cultured adherent cells

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, William H.; Giangrande, Paloma H.

    2016-01-01

    The SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) process allows for the enrichment of DNA or RNA aptamers from a complex nucleic acid library that are specific for a target molecule. The SELEX process has been adapted from identifying aptamers in vitro using recombinant target protein to cell-based methodologies (Cell-SELEX), where the targets are expressed on the surface of cells. One major advantage of Cell-SELEX is that the target molecules are maintained in a native confirmation. Additionally, Cell-SELEX may be used to discover novel therapeutic biomarkers by performing selections on diseased versus healthy cells. However, a caveat to Cell-SELEX is that testing of single aptamers identified in the selection is laborious, time-consuming, and expensive. The most frequently used methods to screen for aptamer binding and internalization on cells are flow cytometry and quantitative PCR (qPCR). While flow cytometry can directly assess binding of a fluorescently-labeled aptamer to a target, it requires significant starting material and is not easily scalable. qPCR-based approaches are highly sensitive but have non-negligible experiment-to-experiment variability due to the number of sample processing steps. Herein we describe a cell-based aptamer fluorescence binding and internalization (AFBI) assay. This assay requires minimal reagents and has few experimental steps/manipulations, thereby allowing for rapid screening of many aptamers and conditions simultaneously and direct quantitation of aptamer binding and internalization. PMID:26972784

  6. Novel assay for direct fluorescent imaging of sialidase activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomin, A.; Shkandina, T.; Bilyy, R.

    2011-07-01

    Here we describe a novel approach to sialidase activity estimation. Sialidases (EC 3.2.1.18, exo-α-sialidases), also known as neuraminidases, are the group of enzymes, which hydrolyze the glycoside bound between terminal sialic acid and subsequent carbohydrate residue in glycoproteins and glycolipids. Sialic acids are the group of monosaccharides with acidic properties, since they are acetylated or glycolylated derivates of neuraminic acid. Flu and some other viruses use neuraminidase activity to infect host cells. The level of sialylation was shown to be tightly connected with tumor cell invasiveness and metastatic potential, sialylation level also determines the clearance of aged or virus-infected cells. Thus, detection of sialidase activity is of primary importance for clinical diagnostics as well as life science research. The authors developed the assay for both visualization and estimation of sialidase activity in living cells. Previously known methods for sialidase activity detection required destruction of cellular material, or were low-sensitive, or provided no information on the activity localization in certain intracellular compartment. To overcome these problems, a fluorogenic neuraminidase substrate, 4-MUNA was utilized, and the method for detection of neuraminidase activity using fluorescent microscopy was proposed, it provided a high signal level and information on cellular localization of the studied enzyme. By using this approach the increase of sialidase activity on apoptotic cells was demonstrated in comparison to viable and primary necrotic cells.

  7. Calcofluor fluorescence assay for wort beta-glucan in a microplate format

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The widely-used fluorescent (Calcofluor) flow injection analysis method for determining the concentrations of beta-glucans in Congress worts from barley malts is adapted to microplate format. Adaptation of the Calcofluor assay to use widely available fluorescent microplate readers makes the assay m...

  8. Development of a quantitative fluorescence-based ligand-binding assay

    PubMed Central

    Breen, Conor J.; Raverdeau, Mathilde; Voorheis, H. Paul

    2016-01-01

    A major goal of biology is to develop a quantitative ligand-binding assay that does not involve the use of radioactivity. Existing fluorescence-based assays have a serious drawback due to fluorescence quenching that accompanies the binding of fluorescently-labeled ligands to their receptors. This limitation of existing fluorescence-based assays prevents the number of cellular receptors under investigation from being accurately measured. We have developed a method where FITC-labeled proteins bound to a cell surface are proteolyzed extensively to eliminate fluorescence quenching and then the fluorescence of the resulting sample is compared to that of a known concentration of the proteolyzed FITC-protein employed. This step enables the number of cellular receptors to be measured quantitatively. We expect that this method will provide researchers with a viable alternative to the use of radioactivity in ligand binding assays. PMID:27161290

  9. Fluorescence polarization competition assay: the range of resolvable inhibitor potency is limited by the affinity of the fluorescent ligand.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xinyi

    2003-02-01

    For the development of fluorescence polarization (FP) competition assays, there is a widespread belief that tight-binding fluorescent ligands should be avoided to identify inhibitors of low or intermediate potency in the screening of small-molecule compound libraries. It is demonstrated herein that this statement is a misconception; in fact, the higher the affinity of the fluorescent ligand, the wider the range of inhibitor potency that can be resolved. An approximate estimate for the low end of inhibitor K(i) values that can be resolved is the K(d) value of the fluorescent ligand. Because FP competition assays are typically conducted under nonstoichiometric titration conditions, it is suggested that a fluorescent ligand of highest affinity that also has an adequate quantum yield to satisfy such conditions be selected.

  10. A FLUORESCENCE BASED ASSAY FOR DNA DAMAGE: INDUCED BY RADIATION, CHEMICALS AND ENZYMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple and rapid assay to detect DNA damage is reported. This assay is based on the ability of certain dyes to fluoresce upon intercalation with dsDNA. Damage caused by ultraviolet (UV) radiation, chemicals or restriction enzymes is detected using this assay. UV radiation at...

  11. Screening for oligonucleotide binding affinity by a convenient fluorescence competition assay.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J G; Liu, X; Balasubramanian, S

    1999-09-01

    A competitive homogeneous quenched fluorescence assay system is described for the high throughput screening of DNA conjugates that bind to single-stranded DNA. Fluorescence signal is generated by competitive binding of the sample molecule to a target strand labelled with a quencher probe, which is otherwise hybridised to a complementary strand containing a fluorescent probe. Thus fluorescence generated is related to the affinity of the sample. Competitive analysis of a number of peptide-oligonucleotide conjugates gave data that correlated well with the corresponding UV melting data. The assay will be useful for screening of large numbers of potential single-stranded binding molecules.

  12. High-throughput screening assay of hepatitis C virus helicase inhibitors using fluorescence-quenching phenomenon

    SciTech Connect

    Tani, Hidenori; Akimitsu, Nobuyoshi; Fujita, Osamu; Matsuda, Yasuyoshi; Miyata, Ryo; Tsuneda, Satoshi; Igarashi, Masayuki; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Noda, Naohiro

    2009-02-20

    We have developed a novel high-throughput screening assay of hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) helicase inhibitors using the fluorescence-quenching phenomenon via photoinduced electron transfer between fluorescent dyes and guanine bases. We prepared double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) with a 5'-fluorescent-dye (BODIPY FL)-labeled strand hybridized with a complementary strand, the 3'-end of which has guanine bases. When dsDNA is unwound by helicase, the dye emits fluorescence owing to its release from the guanine bases. Our results demonstrate that this assay is suitable for quantitative assay of HCV NS3 helicase activity and useful for high-throughput screening for inhibitors. Furthermore, we applied this assay to the screening for NS3 helicase inhibitors from cell extracts of microorganisms, and found several cell extracts containing potential inhibitors.

  13. Antibiotic resistance in Streptomyces lividans: fluorescence assay for streptogramin B lyase.

    PubMed

    Bateman, K P; Armstrong, S M; White, R L; Ross, N W

    1997-06-01

    A fluorescence assay for streptogramin B lyase, an enzyme that confers resistance to streptogramin B antibiotics, has been developed. The antibiotic substrates are fluorescent and the linear peptide products formed in the lyase-catalyzed reaction are relatively nonfluorescent. The assay has potential for assessing bacterial resistance to streptogramin B antibiotics and will be utilized to direct the purification of streptogramin B lyase from bacterial extracts.

  14. Phytoplankton photosynthetic characteristics from fluorescence induction assays of individual cells

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.J.; Chekalyuk, A.M.; Sosik, H.M.

    1996-09-01

    Saturating-flash fluorescence techniques, which can provide information about the physiological state of phytoplankton, at present measure bulk water samples and so provide {open_quotes}averaged{close_quotes} values for all the fluorescent particles present. In analyzing natural samples, however, more detailed information about the distribution of photosynthetic characteristics among different cell types and(or) individual cells is desirable. Therefore we developed two methods for applying a {open_quotes}pump-during-probe{close_quotes} technique on a cell-by-cell basis. We used either an epifluorescence microscope or a flow cytometer to make time-resolved measurements of the increase in chlorophyll fluorescence induced by a rectangular excitation pulse of 100-{mu}s duration. We used a biophysical model of fluorescence induction to obtain information about the quantum yield of photochemistry in photosystem 2 (PS2) and the functional absorption cross-section for PS2. For several species (including the smallest phytoplankton, Prochlorococcus, which are 0.7 {mu}m in diameter), the maximum quantum yield of photochemistry in PS2 obtained by averaging data from many individual cells agreed well with estimates derived from bulk measurements of DCMU enhancement of Chl fluorescence. 40 refs., 9 figs.

  15. A FLUORESCENCE BASED ASSAY FOR DNA DAMAGE INDUCED BY RADIATION, CHEMICAL MUTAGENS AND ENZYMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple and rapid assay to detect DNA damage is reported. This novel assay is based on changes in melting/annealing behavior and facilitated using certain dyes that increase their fluorescence upon association with double stranded (ds)DNA. Damage caused by ultraviolet (UV) ra...

  16. A FLUORESCENCE BASED ASSAY FOR DNA DAMAGE INDUCED BY STYRENE OXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid and simple assay to detect DNA damage to calf thymus DNA caused by styrene oxide (SO) is reported. This assay is based on changes observed in the melting and annealing behavior of the damaged DNA. The melting annealing process was monitored using a fluorescence indicat...

  17. Quenched near-infrared fluorescent peptide substrate for HIV-1 protease assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xinzhan; Draney, Daniel R.; Volcheck, William M.

    2006-02-01

    The HIV-1 protease enzyme is an excellent target for drug therapy of HIV infection/AIDS. To measure the protease activity and screen for potent protease inhibitors, homogeneous protease assays based on quenched fluorescent peptide substrates have been widely used as a high-throughput screening methods. The major problem in these assays is the compound interference or assay artifacts from colored or insoluble materials in the assay, e.g. assay components, screening library compounds, etc. We report in this paper a near-infrared fluorescence resonance energy transfer (NIRFRET) based HIV-1 protease assay that can dramatically reduce or completely eliminate these assay artifacts by using a novel near-IR donor-quencher pair and long wavelength excitation (780 nm) and detection (820+/-10 nm). In this assay, a HIV-1 protease peptide substrate is conjugated with a near-IR fluorescent donor (IRDye TM 800CW), and a novel near-IR non-fluorescent quencher (QC1) on opposite sides of the proteolytic cleavage site. The quencher, QC1, has extremely good spectral overlap of its absorption spectrum with the donor emission spectrum to ensure the efficient quenching of the donor's fluorescence. In the HIV-1 protease assay, this NIR-FRET system shows a large dynamic range, high signal to noise ratio, excellent Z'-factors, a wide range of DMSO tolerance, and no compound interference. This system provides a sensitive, robust assay for high-throughput screening (HTS) and can be readily adapted to other therapeutically significant protease targets.

  18. Influence of fluorescent tag on the motility properties of kinesin-1 in single-molecule assays.

    PubMed

    Norris, Stephen R; Núñez, Marcos F; Verhey, Kristen J

    2015-03-10

    Molecular motors such as kinesin and dynein use the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to walk processively along microtubule tracks and transport various cargoes inside the cell. Recent advancements in fluorescent protein (FP) research enable motors to be fluorescently labeled such that single molecules can be visualized inside cells in multiple colors. The performance of these fluorescent tags can vary depending on their spectral properties and a natural tendency for oligomerization. Here we present a survey of different fluorescent tags fused to kinesin-1 and studied by single-molecule motility assays of mammalian cell lysates. We tested eight different FP tags and found that seven of them display sufficient fluorescence intensity and photostability to visualize motility events. Although none of the FP tags interfere with the enzymatic properties of the motor, four of the tags (EGFP, monomeric EGFP, tagRFPt, and mApple) cause aberrantly long motor run lengths. This behavior is unlikely to be due to electrostatic interactions and is probably caused by tag-dependent oligomerization events that appear to be facilitated by fusion to the dimeric kinesin-1. We also compared the single-molecule performance of various fluorescent SNAP and HALO ligands. We found that although both green and red SNAP ligands provide sufficient fluorescent signal, only the tetramethyl rhodamine (TMR) HALO ligand provides sufficient signal for detection in these assays. This study will serve as a valuable reference for choosing fluorescent labels for single-molecule motility assays. PMID:25762325

  19. Influence of Fluorescent Tag on the Motility Properties of Kinesin-1 in Single-Molecule Assays

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Stephen R.; Núñez, Marcos F.; Verhey, Kristen J.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular motors such as kinesin and dynein use the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to walk processively along microtubule tracks and transport various cargoes inside the cell. Recent advancements in fluorescent protein (FP) research enable motors to be fluorescently labeled such that single molecules can be visualized inside cells in multiple colors. The performance of these fluorescent tags can vary depending on their spectral properties and a natural tendency for oligomerization. Here we present a survey of different fluorescent tags fused to kinesin-1 and studied by single-molecule motility assays of mammalian cell lysates. We tested eight different FP tags and found that seven of them display sufficient fluorescence intensity and photostability to visualize motility events. Although none of the FP tags interfere with the enzymatic properties of the motor, four of the tags (EGFP, monomeric EGFP, tagRFPt, and mApple) cause aberrantly long motor run lengths. This behavior is unlikely to be due to electrostatic interactions and is probably caused by tag-dependent oligomerization events that appear to be facilitated by fusion to the dimeric kinesin-1. We also compared the single-molecule performance of various fluorescent SNAP and HALO ligands. We found that although both green and red SNAP ligands provide sufficient fluorescent signal, only the tetramethyl rhodamine (TMR) HALO ligand provides sufficient signal for detection in these assays. This study will serve as a valuable reference for choosing fluorescent labels for single-molecule motility assays. PMID:25762325

  20. Fluorescence polarization assays in high-throughput screening and drug discovery: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Matthew D.; Yasgar, Adam; Peryea, Tyler; Braisted, John C.; Jadhav, Ajit; Simeonov, Anton; Coussens, Nathan P.

    2016-06-01

    The sensitivity of fluorescence polarization (FP) and fluorescence anisotropy (FA) to molecular weight changes has enabled the interrogation of diverse biological mechanisms, ranging from molecular interactions to enzymatic activity. Assays based on FP/FA technology have been widely utilized in high-throughput screening (HTS) and drug discovery due to the homogenous format, robust performance and relative insensitivity to some types of interferences, such as inner filter effects. Advancements in assay design, fluorescent probes, and technology have enabled the application of FP assays to increasingly complex biological processes. Herein we discuss different types of FP/FA assays developed for HTS, with examples to emphasize the diversity of applicable targets. Furthermore, trends in target and fluorophore selection, as well as assay type and format, are examined using annotated HTS assays within the PubChem database. Finally, practical considerations for the successful development and implementation of FP/FA assays for HTS are provided based on experience at our center and examples from the literature, including strategies for flagging interference compounds among a list of hits.

  1. A Fluorescent In Vitro Assay to Investigate Paralog-Specific SUMO Conjugation.

    PubMed

    Eisenhardt, Nathalie; Chaugule, Viduth K; Pichler, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Protein modification with the small ubiquitin-related modifier SUMO is a potent regulatory mechanism implicated in a variety of biological pathways. In vitro sumoylation reactions have emerged as a versatile tool to identify and characterize novel SUMO enzymes as well as their substrates. Here, we present detailed protocols for the purification and fluorescent labeling of mammalian SUMO paralogs for their application in sumoylation assays. These assays provide a fast readout for in vitro SUMO chain formation activity of E3 ligases in a paralog-specific manner. Finally, we critically analyze the application of fluorescent SUMO proteins to study substrate modification in vitro revealing also the drawbacks of the system. PMID:27631798

  2. Combined thioflavin T-Congo red fluorescence assay for amyloid fibril detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girych, Mykhailo; Gorbenko, Galyna; Maliyov, Ivan; Trusova, Valeriya; Mizuguchi, Chiharu; Saito, Hiroyuki; Kinnunen, Paavo

    2016-09-01

    Fluorescence represents one of the most powerful tools for the detection and structural characterization of the pathogenic protein aggregates, amyloid fibrils. The traditional approaches to the identification and quantification of amyloid fibrils are based on monitoring the fluorescence changes of the benzothiazole dye thioflavin T (ThT) and absorbance changes of the azo dye Congo red (CR). In routine screening it is usually sufficient to perform only the ThT and CR assays, but both of them, when used separately, could give false results. Moreover, fibrillization kinetics can be measured only by ThT fluorescence, while the characteristic absorption spectra and birefringence of CR represent more rigid criteria for the presence of amyloid fibrils. Therefore, it seemed reasonable to use both these dyes simultaneously, combining the advantages of each technique. To this end, we undertook a detailed analysis of the fluorescence spectral behavior of these unique amyloid tracers upon their binding to amyloid fibrils from lysozyme, insulin and an N-terminal fragment of apolipoprotein A-I with Iowa mutation. The fluorescence measurements revealed several criteria for distinguishing between fibrillar and monomeric protein states: (i) a common drastic increase in ThT fluorescence intensity; (ii) a sharp decrease in ThT fluorescence upon addition of CR; (iii) an appearance of the maximum at 535-540 nm in the CR excitation spectra; (iv) increase in CR fluorescence intensity at 610 nm. Based on these findings we designed a novel combined ThT-CR fluorescence assay for amyloid identification. Such an approach not only strengthens the reliability of the ThT assay, but also provides new opportunities for structural characterization of amyloid fibrils.

  3. Combined thioflavin T–Congo red fluorescence assay for amyloid fibril detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girych, Mykhailo; Gorbenko, Galyna; Maliyov, Ivan; Trusova, Valeriya; Mizuguchi, Chiharu; Saito, Hiroyuki; Kinnunen, Paavo

    2016-09-01

    Fluorescence represents one of the most powerful tools for the detection and structural characterization of the pathogenic protein aggregates, amyloid fibrils. The traditional approaches to the identification and quantification of amyloid fibrils are based on monitoring the fluorescence changes of the benzothiazole dye thioflavin T (ThT) and absorbance changes of the azo dye Congo red (CR). In routine screening it is usually sufficient to perform only the ThT and CR assays, but both of them, when used separately, could give false results. Moreover, fibrillization kinetics can be measured only by ThT fluorescence, while the characteristic absorption spectra and birefringence of CR represent more rigid criteria for the presence of amyloid fibrils. Therefore, it seemed reasonable to use both these dyes simultaneously, combining the advantages of each technique. To this end, we undertook a detailed analysis of the fluorescence spectral behavior of these unique amyloid tracers upon their binding to amyloid fibrils from lysozyme, insulin and an N-terminal fragment of apolipoprotein A-I with Iowa mutation. The fluorescence measurements revealed several criteria for distinguishing between fibrillar and monomeric protein states: (i) a common drastic increase in ThT fluorescence intensity; (ii) a sharp decrease in ThT fluorescence upon addition of CR; (iii) an appearance of the maximum at 535–540 nm in the CR excitation spectra; (iv) increase in CR fluorescence intensity at 610 nm. Based on these findings we designed a novel combined ThT–CR fluorescence assay for amyloid identification. Such an approach not only strengthens the reliability of the ThT assay, but also provides new opportunities for structural characterization of amyloid fibrils.

  4. Long term response of a Concanavalin-A based fluorescence glucose sensing assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locke, Andrea K.; Cummins, Brian M.; Abraham, Alexander A.; Coté, Gerard L.

    2015-03-01

    Competitive binding assays comprised of the protein Concanavalin A (ConA) have shown potential for use in continuous glucose monitoring devices. However, its time-dependent, thermal instability can impact the lifetime of these ConA based assays. In an attempt to design sensors with longer in vivo lifetimes, different groups have immobilized the protein to various surfaces. For example, Ballerstadt et al. have shown that immobilizing ConA onto the interior of a micro-dialysis membrane and allowing dextran to be freely suspended within solution allowed for successful in vivo glucose sensing up to 16 days. This work explores the glucose response of an assay comprised of modified ConA and a single fluorescently labeled competing ligand in free solution to increase the in vivo sensing lifetime without immobilization,. The behavior of this assay in the presence of varying glucose concentrations is monitored via fluorescence anisotropy over a 30 day period.

  5. Real-time fluorescence assays of alkaline phosphatase and ATP sulfurylase activities based on a novel PPi fluorescent probe.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Zhiyang; Ma, Xiaoyan; Wen, Jinghan; Geng, Zhirong; Wang, Zhilin

    2015-05-01

    An anthracene-armed tetraaza macrocyclic fluorescent probe 3-(9-anthrylmethyl)-3,6,9,15-tetraazabicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca-1(15),11,13-triene(l) for detecting Zn(2+) in aqueous medium was synthesized. L-Zn(2+) complex, showed selectivity toward pyrophosphate ion (PPi) by quenching the fluorescence in aqueous HEPES buffer (pH 7.4). Furthermore, L-Zn(2+) was also used to set up a real-time fluorescence assay for monitoring enzyme activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and adenosine triphosphate sulfurylase (ATPS). In the presence of ALP inhibitor Na3VO4 and ATPS inhibitor chlorate, two enzymes activities decreased obviously, respectively.

  6. Assessment of Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Spent Nuclear Fuel Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Quiter, Brian; Ludewigt, Bernhard; Ambers, Scott

    2011-06-30

    In nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) measurements, resonances are excited by an external photon beam leading to the emission of gamma rays with specific energies that are characteristic of the emitting isotope. NRF promises the unique capability of directly quantifying a specific isotope without the need for unfolding the combined responses of several fissile isotopes as is required in other measurement techniques. We have analyzed the potential of NRF as a non-destructive analysis technique for quantitative measurements of Pu isotopes in spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Given the low concentrations of 239Pu in SNF and its small integrated NRF cross sections, the main challenge in achieving precise and accurate measurements lies in accruing sufficient counting statistics in a reasonable measurement time. Using analytical modeling, and simulations with the radiation transport code MCNPX that has been experimentally tested recently, the backscatter and transmission methods were quantitatively studied for differing photon sources and radiation detector types. Resonant photon count rates and measurement times were estimated for a range of photon source and detection parameters, which were used to determine photon source and gamma-ray detector requirements. The results indicate that systems based on a bremsstrahlung source and present detector technology are not practical for high-precision measurements of 239Pu in SNF. Measurements that achieve the desired uncertainties within hour-long measurements will either require stronger resonances, which may be expressed by other Pu isotopes, or require quasi-monoenergetic photon sources with intensities that are approximately two orders of magnitude higher than those currently being designed or proposed.This work is part of a larger effort sponsored by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative to develop an integrated instrument, comprised of individual NDA techniques with complementary features, that is fully capable of

  7. Medically Relevant Assays with a Simple Smartphone and Tablet Based Fluorescence Detection System

    PubMed Central

    Wargocki, Piotr; Deng, Wei; Anwer, Ayad G.; Goldys, Ewa M.

    2015-01-01

    Cell phones and smart phones can be reconfigured as biomedical sensor devices but this requires specialized add-ons. In this paper we present a simple cell phone-based portable bioassay platform, which can be used with fluorescent assays in solution. The system consists of a tablet, a polarizer, a smart phone (camera) and a box that provides dark readout conditions. The assay in a well plate is placed on the tablet screen acting as an excitation source. A polarizer on top of the well plate separates excitation light from assay fluorescence emission enabling assay readout with a smartphone camera. The assay result is obtained by analysing the intensity of image pixels in an appropriate colour channel. With this device we carried out two assays, for collagenase and trypsin using fluorescein as the detected fluorophore. The results of collagenase assay with the lowest measured concentration of 3.75 µg/mL and 0.938 µg in total in the sample were comparable to those obtained by a microplate reader. The lowest measured amount of trypsin was 930 pg, which is comparable to the low detection limit of 400 pg for this assay obtained in a microplate reader. The device is sensitive enough to be used in point-of-care medical diagnostics of clinically relevant conditions, including arthritis, cystic fibrosis and acute pancreatitis. PMID:26007723

  8. Medically relevant assays with a simple smartphone and tablet based fluorescence detection system.

    PubMed

    Wargocki, Piotr; Deng, Wei; Anwer, Ayad G; Goldys, Ewa M

    2015-01-01

    Cell phones and smart phones can be reconfigured as biomedical sensor devices but this requires specialized add-ons. In this paper we present a simple cell phone-based portable bioassay platform, which can be used with fluorescent assays in solution. The system consists of a tablet, a polarizer, a smart phone (camera) and a box that provides dark readout conditions. The assay in a well plate is placed on the tablet screen acting as an excitation source. A polarizer on top of the well plate separates excitation light from assay fluorescence emission enabling assay readout with a smartphone camera. The assay result is obtained by analysing the intensity of image pixels in an appropriate colour channel. With this device we carried out two assays, for collagenase and trypsin using fluorescein as the detected fluorophore. The results of collagenase assay with the lowest measured concentration of 3.75 µg/mL and 0.938 µg in total in the sample were comparable to those obtained by a microplate reader. The lowest measured amount of trypsin was 930 pg, which is comparable to the low detection limit of 400 pg for this assay obtained in a microplate reader. The device is sensitive enough to be used in point-of-care medical diagnostics of clinically relevant conditions, including arthritis, cystic fibrosis and acute pancreatitis. PMID:26007723

  9. A novel fluorescence-based assay for the rapid detection and quantification of cellular deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Peter M.; LaBonte, Melissa J.; Russell, Jared; Louie, Stan; Ghobrial, Andrew A.; Ladner, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Current methods for measuring deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) employ reagent and labor-intensive assays utilizing radioisotopes in DNA polymerase-based assays and/or chromatography-based approaches. We have developed a rapid and sensitive 96-well fluorescence-based assay to quantify cellular dNTPs utilizing a standard real-time PCR thermocycler. This assay relies on the principle that incorporation of a limiting dNTP is required for primer-extension and Taq polymerase-mediated 5–3′ exonuclease hydrolysis of a dual-quenched fluorophore-labeled probe resulting in fluorescence. The concentration of limiting dNTP is directly proportional to the fluorescence generated. The assay demonstrated excellent linearity (R2 > 0.99) and can be modified to detect between ∼0.5 and 100 pmol of dNTP. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for all dNTPs were defined as <0.77 and <1.3 pmol, respectively. The intra-assay and inter-assay variation coefficients were determined to be <4.6% and <10%, respectively with an accuracy of 100 ± 15% for all dNTPs. The assay quantified intracellular dNTPs with similar results obtained from a validated LC–MS/MS approach and successfully measured quantitative differences in dNTP pools in human cancer cells treated with inhibitors of thymidylate metabolism. This assay has important application in research that investigates the influence of pathological conditions or pharmacological agents on dNTP biosynthesis and regulation. PMID:21576234

  10. DETECTION OF LOW DOSE RADIATION INDUCED DNA DAMAGE USING TEMPERATURE DIFFERENTIAL FLUORESCENCE ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid and sensitive fluorescence assay for radiation-induced DNA damage is reported. Changes in temperature-induced strand separation in both calf thymus DNA and plasmid DNA (puc 19 plasmid from Escherichia coli) were measured after exposure to low doses of radiation. Exposur...

  11. Development of a competitive fluorescence-based synaptosome binding assay for brevetoxins.

    PubMed

    McCall, Jennifer R; Jacocks, Henry M; Baden, Daniel G; Bourdelais, Andrea J

    2012-09-01

    Brevetoxins are a family of ladder-frame polyether toxins produced during blooms of the marine dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. Inhalation of brevetoxins aerosolized by wind and wave action can lead to asthma-like symptoms in beach goers. Consumption of either shellfish or finfish exposed to K. brevis blooms can lead to the development of neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. The toxic effects of brevetoxins are due to activation of voltage-sensitive sodium channels (VSSCs) in cell membranes. Binding of brevetoxin analogs and competitors to site 5 on these channels has historically been measured using a radioligand competition assay that is fraught with difficulty, including slow analysis time, production of radioactive waste, and cumbersome and expensive methods associated with the generation of radioactive labeled ligands. In this study, we describe the development of a novel fluorescent synaptosome binding assay for the brevetoxin receptor. BODIPY(®)-conjugated to PbTx-2 was used as the labeled ligand. The BODIPY(®)-PbTx-2 conjugate was found to displace [(3)H]-PbTx-3 from its binding site on VSSCs on rat brain synaptosomes with an equilibrium inhibition constant of 0.11 nM. We have shown that brevetoxin A and B analogs are all able to compete for binding with the fluorescent ligand. Most importantly, this assay was validated against the current site 5 receptor binding assay standard, the radioligand receptor assay for the brevetoxin receptor using [(3)H]-PbTx-3 as the labeled ligand. The fluorescence based assay yielded equilibrium inhibition constants comparable to the radioligand assay for all brevetoxin analogs. The fluorescence based assay was quicker, far less expensive, and did not generate radioactive waste or need radioactive facilities. As such, this fluorescence-based assay can be used to replace the current radioligand assay for site 5 on voltage-sensitive sodium channels and will be a vital tool for future experiments examining the binding affinity of

  12. Detection of Viruses By Counting Single Fluorescent Genetically Biotinylated Reporter Immunophage Using a Lateral Flow Assay

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinsu; Adhikari, Meena; Dhamane, Sagar; Hagström, Anna E. V.; Kourentzi, Katerina; Strych, Ulrich; Willson, Richard C.; Conrad, Jacinta C.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated a lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) for detection of viruses using fluorescently-labeled M13 bacteriophage as reporters and single-reporter counting as the readout. AviTag-biotinylated M13 phage were functionalized with antibodies using avidin-biotin conjugation and fluorescently labeled with AlexaFluor 555. Individual phage bound to target viruses (here MS2 as a model) captured on an LFA membrane strip were imaged using epi-fluorescence microscopy. Using automated image processing, we counted the number of bound phage in micrographs as a function of target concentration. The resultant assay was more sensitive than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and traditional colloidal-gold nanoparticle LFAs for direct detection of viruses. PMID:25581289

  13. Using molecular beacons as a sensitive fluorescence assay for enzymatic cleavage of single-stranded DNA.

    PubMed

    Li, J J; Geyer, R; Tan, W

    2000-06-01

    Traditional methods to assay enzymatic cleavage of DNA are discontinuous and time consuming. In contrast, recently developed fluorescence methods are continuous and convenient. However, no fluorescence method has been developed for single-stranded DNA digestion. Here we introduce a novel method, based on molecular beacons, to assay single-stranded DNA cleavage by single strand-specific nucleases. A molecular beacon, a hairpin-shaped DNA probe labeled with a fluorophore and a quencher, is used as the substrate and enzymatic cleavage leads to fluorescence enhancement in the molecular beacon. This method permits real time detection of DNA cleavage and makes it easy to characterize the activity of DNA nucleases and to study the steady-state cleavage reaction kinetics. The excellent sensitivity, reproducibility and convenience will enable molecular beacons to be widely useful for the study of single-stranded DNA cleaving reactions.

  14. beta-Galactosidase activity assay using far-red-shifted fluorescent substrate DDAOG.

    PubMed

    Gong, Haibiao; Zhang, Bin; Little, Garrick; Kovar, Joy; Chen, Huaxian; Xie, Wen; Schutz-Geschwender, Amy; Olive, D Michael

    2009-03-01

    beta-Galactosidase (beta-gal) is commonly used as a reporter gene in biological research, and a wide variety of substrates have been developed to assay its activity. One substrate, 9H-(1,3-dichloro-9,9-dimethylacridin-2-one-7-yl) beta-d-galactopyranoside (DDAOG), can be cleaved by beta-gal to produce 7-hydroxy-9H(I,3-dichloro-9,9-dimethylacridin-2-one) (DDAO). On excitation, DDAO generates a far-red-shifted fluorescent signal. Using this substrate, we developed a beta-gal activity assay method. The DDAO signal was stable for at least 18h. The signal intensity was linearly related to both the enzyme amount and substrate concentration. An optimized buffer for the beta-gal/DDAOG assay was also formulated. When compared with the colorimetric substrate o-nitrophenyl-beta-d-galactopyranoside (ONPG), the signal-to-background ratio of the DDAOG method was approximately 12-fold higher. The beta-gal/DDAOG assay method was also tested in transiently transfected cells employing both pharmacologically and genetically inducible gene expression systems. The ability to detect signal induction is comparable to a similar assay using luciferase as the signal generating moiety. The beta-gal/DDAOG assay method should provide a fluorescent reporter assay system for the wide variety of beta-gal systems currently in use. PMID:19103143

  15. Fluorescent Filter-Trap Assay for Amyloid Fibril Formation Kinetics in Complex Solutions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid fibrils are the most distinct components of the plaques associated with various neurodegenerative diseases. Kinetic studies of amyloid fibril formation shed light on the microscopic mechanisms that underlie this process as well as the contributions of internal and external factors to the interplay between different mechanistic steps. Thioflavin T is a widely used noncovalent fluorescent probe for monitoring amyloid fibril formation; however, it may suffer from limitations due to the unspecific interactions between the dye and the additives. Here, we present the results of a filter-trap assay combined with the detection of fluorescently labeled amyloid β (Aβ) peptide. The filter-trap assay separates formed aggregates based on size, and the fluorescent label attached to Aβ allows for their detection. The times of half completion of the process (t1/2) obtained by the filter-trap assay are comparable to values from the ThT assay. High concentrations of human serum albumin (HSA) and carboxyl-modified polystyrene nanoparticles lead to an elevated ThT signal, masking a possible fibril formation event. The filter-trap assay allows fibril formation to be studied in the presence of those substances and shows that Aβ fibril formation is kinetically inhibited by HSA and that the amount of fibrils formed are reduced. In contrast, nanoparticles exhibit a dual-behavior governed by their concentration. PMID:25946560

  16. A high-throughput fluorescence-based assay for Plasmodium dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitor screening.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Iván; Lafuente, María José; Gamo, Francisco-Javier; Cid, Concepción

    2016-08-01

    Plasmodium dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) is a mitochondrial membrane-associated flavoenzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis. DHODH is a validated target for malaria, and DSM265, a potent inhibitor, is currently in clinical trials. The enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of dihydroorotate to orotate using flavin mononucleotide (FMN) as cofactor in the first half of the reaction. Reoxidation of FMN to regenerate the active enzyme is mediated by ubiquinone (CoQD), which is the physiological final electron acceptor and second substrate of the reaction. We have developed a fluorescence-based high-throughput enzymatic assay to find DHODH inhibitors. In this assay, the CoQD has been replaced by a redox-sensitive fluorogenic dye, resazurin, which changes to a fluorescent state on reduction to resorufin. Remarkably, the assay sensitivity to find competitive inhibitors of the second substrate is higher than that reported for the standard colorimetric assay. It is amenable to 1536-well plates with Z' values close to 0.8. The fact that the human enzyme can also be assayed in the same format opens additional applications of this assay to the discovery of inhibitors to treat cancer, transplant rejection, autoimmune diseases, and other diseases mediated by rapid cellular growth. PMID:27133204

  17. A Vinblastine Fluorescent Probe for Pregnane X Receptor in a Time-Resolved Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Assay

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wenwei; Chen, Taosheng

    2013-01-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) regulates the metabolism and excretion of xenobiotics and endobiotics by regulating the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. The unique structure of PXR allows the binding of many drugs and drug leads to it, possibly causing undesired drug-drug interactions. Therefore, it is crucial to evaluate whether lead compounds bind to PXR. Fluorescence-based assays are preferred because of their sensitivity and non-radioactive nature. One fluorescent PXR probe is currently commercially available; however, because its chemical structure is not publicly disclosed, it is not optimal for studying ligand-PXR interactions. Here we report the characterization of BODIPY FL Vinblastine, generated by labeling vinblastine with the fluorophore 4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (BODIPY FL), as a high-affinity ligand for human PXR with a Kd value of 673 nM. We provide evidence that BODIPY FL Vinblastine is a unique chemical entity different from either vinblastine or the fluorophore 4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene in its function as a high-affinity human PXR ligand. We describe a BODIPY FL Vinblastine-based human PXR Time-Resolved Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer assay, which was used to successfully test a panel of human PXR ligands. The BODIPY FL Vinblastine–based biochemical assay is suitable for high-throughput screening to evaluate whether lead compounds bind to PXR. PMID:24044991

  18. Fluorescence-based assay as a new screening tool for toxic chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Moczko, Ewa; Mirkes, Evgeny M.; Cáceres, César; Gorban, Alexander N.; Piletsky, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Our study involves development of fluorescent cell-based diagnostic assay as a new approach in high-throughput screening method. This highly sensitive optical assay operates similarly to e-noses and e-tongues which combine semi-specific sensors and multivariate data analysis for monitoring biochemical processes. The optical assay consists of a mixture of environmental-sensitive fluorescent dyes and human skin cells that generate fluorescence spectra patterns distinctive for particular physico-chemical and physiological conditions. Using chemometric techniques the optical signal is processed providing qualitative information about analytical characteristics of the samples. This integrated approach has been successfully applied (with sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 97%) in assessing whether particular chemical agents are irritating or not for human skin. It has several advantages compared with traditional biochemical or biological assays and can impact the new way of high-throughput screening and understanding cell activity. It also can provide reliable and reproducible method for assessing a risk of exposing people to different harmful substances, identification active compounds in toxicity screening and safety assessment of drugs, cosmetic or their specific ingredients. PMID:27653274

  19. Fluorescence-based assay as a new screening tool for toxic chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moczko, Ewa; Mirkes, Evgeny M.; Cáceres, César; Gorban, Alexander N.; Piletsky, Sergey

    2016-09-01

    Our study involves development of fluorescent cell-based diagnostic assay as a new approach in high-throughput screening method. This highly sensitive optical assay operates similarly to e-noses and e-tongues which combine semi-specific sensors and multivariate data analysis for monitoring biochemical processes. The optical assay consists of a mixture of environmental-sensitive fluorescent dyes and human skin cells that generate fluorescence spectra patterns distinctive for particular physico-chemical and physiological conditions. Using chemometric techniques the optical signal is processed providing qualitative information about analytical characteristics of the samples. This integrated approach has been successfully applied (with sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 97%) in assessing whether particular chemical agents are irritating or not for human skin. It has several advantages compared with traditional biochemical or biological assays and can impact the new way of high-throughput screening and understanding cell activity. It also can provide reliable and reproducible method for assessing a risk of exposing people to different harmful substances, identification active compounds in toxicity screening and safety assessment of drugs, cosmetic or their specific ingredients.

  20. Development of a Fluorescence Assay for the Characterization of Brevenal Binding to Rat Brain Synaptosomes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The marine dinoflagellate Karenia brevis produces a family of neurotoxins known as brevetoxins. Brevetoxins elicit their effects by binding to and activating voltage-sensitive sodium channels (VSSCs) in cell membranes. K. brevis also produces brevenal, a brevetoxin antagonist, which is able to inhibit and/or negate many of the detrimental effects of brevetoxins. Brevenal binding to VSSCs has yet to be fully characterized, in part due to the difficulty and expense of current techniques. In this study, we have developed a novel fluorescence binding assay for the brevenal binding site. Several fluorescent compounds were conjugated to brevenal to assess their effects on brevenal binding. The assay was validated against the radioligand assay for the brevenal binding site and yielded comparable equilibrium inhibition constants. The fluorescence-based assay was shown to be quicker and far less expensive and did not generate radioactive waste or need facilities for handling radioactive materials. In-depth studies using the brevenal conjugates showed that, while brevenal conjugates do bind to a binding site in the VSSC protein complex, they are not displaced by known VSSC site specific ligands. As such, brevenal elicits its action through a novel mechanism and/or currently unknown receptor site on VSSCs. PMID:25226846

  1. Azadioxatriangulenium: a long fluorescence lifetime fluorophore for large biomolecule binding assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Just Sørensen, Thomas; Thyrhaug, Erling; Szabelski, Mariusz; Luchowski, Rafal; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Laursen, Bo W.

    2013-06-01

    Of the many optical bioassays available, sensing by fluorescence anisotropy has great advantages as it provides a sensitive, instrumentally simple, ratiometric method of detection. However, it is hampered by a severe limitation, as the emission lifetime of the label needs to be comparable to the correlation lifetime (tumbling time) of the biomolecule which is labelled. For proteins of moderate size this is on the order of 20-200 ns, which due to practical issues currently limits the choice of labels to the dansyl-type dyes and certain aromatic dyes. These have the significant drawback of UV/blue absorption and emission as well as an often significant solvent sensitivity. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of a new fluorescent label for high molecular weight biomolecule assay based on the azadioxatriangulenium motif. The NHS ester of the long fluorescence lifetime, red-emitting fluorophore: azadioxatriangulenium (ADOTA-NHS) was conjugated to anti-rabbit Immunoglobulin G (antiIgG). The long fluorescence lifetime was exploited to determine the correlation time of the high molecular weight antibody and its complex with rabbit Immunoglobulin G (IgG) with steady-state fluorescence anisotropy and time-resolved methods: solution phase immuno-assay was performed following either steady-state or time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy. By performing a variable temperature experiment it was determined that the binding of the ligand resulted in an increase in correlation time of more than 75%, and an increase in the steady-state anisotropy of 18%. The results show that the triangulenium class of dyes can be used in anisotropy assay to detect binding events involving biomolecules of far larger size than what is possible with most other red-emitting organic dyes.

  2. Azadioxatriangulenium (ADOTA+): A long fluorescence lifetime fluorophore for large biomolecule binding assay

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Thomas Just; Thyrhaug, Erling; Szabelski, Mariusz; Luchowski, Rafal; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Laursen, Bo W.

    2013-01-01

    Of the many optical bioassays available, sensing by fluorescence anisotropy have great advantages as it provides a sensitive, instrumentally simple, ratiometric method of detection. However, it is hampered by a severe limitation as the emission lifetime of the label needs to be comparable to the correlation lifetime (tumbling time) of the biomolecule which is labelled. For proteins of moderate size this is in the order of 20–200 ns, which due to practical issues currently limits the choice of labels to the dansyl-type dyes and certain aromatics dyes. These have the significant drawback of UV/blue absorption and emission as well as an often significant solvent sensitivity. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of a new fluorescent label for high molecular weight biomolecules assay based on the azadioxatriangulenium motif. The NHS ester of the long fluorescence lifetime, red emitting fluorophore: azadioxatriangulenium (ADOTA-NHS) was conjugated to anti-rabbit Immunoglobulin G (antiIgG). The long fluorescence lifetime was exploited to determine the correlation time of the high molecular weight antibody and its complex with rabbit Immuniglobulin G (IgG) with steady-state fluorescence anisotropy and time-resolved methods: solution phase immuno-assay was performed following either steady-state or time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy. By performing a variable temperature experiment it was determined that the binding of the ligand resulted in an increase in correlation time by more than 75 %, and a change in the steady-state anisotropy increase of 18%. The results show that the triangulenium class of dyes can be used in anisotropy assay for detecting binding events involving biomolecules of far larger size than what is possible with the other red emitting organic dyes. PMID:24058730

  3. Fluorescence assays to monitor membrane fusion: potential application in biliary lipid secretion and vesicle interactions.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, D

    1990-09-01

    Membrane fusion constitutes an essential, intermediate step in numerous cell biological processes, occurring for example during endocytosis, membrane recycling and exocytosis. Also less desirable events such as the infection of cells by animal viruses are mediated by membrane fusion during which the viral envelope merges with a cellular membrane, causing the expulsion of the viral nucleocapsid into the cytoplasm of the cell as an initial step in virus replication. Much of our current knowledge concerning the mechanism of membrane fusion has been derived from studies using simple artificial membranes, such as liposomes or phospholipid vesicles, as model systems. A most essential feature of these studies has been the development of membrane fusion assays that register in a sensitive and continuous fashion the mixing of membranes or the aqueous volumes initially enclosed by these membranes. Not only do these assays allow one to readily detect and quantify fusion, but they also provide the possibility to relate the kinetics of fusion to the rate by which certain molecular changes in membranes take place. Obviously, this insight is of relevance for understanding the mechanism of membrane fusion. The principles and applications of some representative assays that rely on the use of fluorescence spectroscopy will be discussed. Assays that monitor membrane mixing are commonly based on the detection of changes in resonance energy transfer efficiency or the relief of fluorescence self-quenching of appropriate fluorescent lipid analogs. Contents mixing assays rely on either the formation of a (aqueous-soluble) fluorescent complex or quenching of a fluorophore, encapsulated in one vesicle population, by a suitable quencher, entrapped in a second population.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. A fluorescence-based quantitative real-time PCR assay for accurate Pocillopora damicornis species identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Luke; Stat, Michael; Evans, Richard D.; Kennington, W. Jason

    2016-09-01

    Pocillopora damicornis is one of the most extensively studied coral species globally, but high levels of phenotypic plasticity within the genus make species identification based on morphology alone unreliable. As a result, there is a compelling need to develop cheap and time-effective molecular techniques capable of accurately distinguishing P. damicornis from other congeneric species. Here, we develop a fluorescence-based quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay to genotype a single nucleotide polymorphism that accurately distinguishes P. damicornis from other morphologically similar Pocillopora species. We trial the assay across colonies representing multiple Pocillopora species and then apply the assay to screen samples of Pocillopora spp. collected at regional scales along the coastline of Western Australia. This assay offers a cheap and time-effective alternative to Sanger sequencing and has broad applications including studies on gene flow, dispersal, recruitment and physiological thresholds of P. damicornis.

  5. Conjugated polyelectrolyte based fluorescence turn-on assay for real-time monitoring of protease activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanyan; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Bin

    2010-10-15

    A fluorescence "turn-on" assay for monitoring protease activity is developed on the basis of a water-soluble carboxylated polyfluorene derivative, PFP-CO₂Na, and its different fluorescence response toward cytochrome c (cyt c) and its fragments. PFP-CO₂Na is synthesized via Suzuki coupling polymerization between 2,7-dibromo-9,9-bis(3'-tert-butyl propanoate)fluorene and 1,4-bis(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)-benzene, followed by treatment with trifluoroacetic acid and Na₂CO₃. The fluorescence of PFP-CO₂Na can be significantly quenched by cyt c due to complexation-mediated electron transfer between the polymer and protein. Using the complex of PFP-CO₂Na/cyt c as a substrate, a real-time fluorescence turn-on assay for trypsin activity study has been developed. Addition of trypsin to the substrate solution induces gradual recovery of the fluorescence intensity for PFP-CO₂Na due to trypsin-catalyzed hydrolysis of cyt c, which dissociates the heme moiety from the polymer vicinity. The time-dependent fluorescence intensity increase of PFP-CO₂Na in the presence of trypsin allows us to derive the initial reaction rates and k(cat)/K(m) (5350 M⁻¹ s⁻¹) for trypsin-catalyzed hydrolysis. Addition of trypsin inhibitor efficiently inhibits trypsin-catalyzed hydrolysis reaction of cyt c, which leads to a decreased fluorescence turn-on response of PFP-CO₂Na.

  6. An accurate assay for HCV based on real-time fluorescence detection of isothermal RNA amplification.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuping; Wang, Jianfang; Song, Jinyun; Li, Jiayan; Yang, Yongfeng

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the common reasons of liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Early, rapid and accurate HCV RNA detection is important to prevent and control liver disease. A simultaneous amplification and testing (SAT) assay, which is based on isothermal amplification of RNA and real-time fluorescence detection, was designed to optimize routine HCV RNA detection. In this study, HCV RNA and an internal control (IC) were amplified and analyzed simultaneously by SAT assay and detection of fluorescence using routine real-time PCR equipment. The assay detected as few as 10 copies of HCV RNA transcripts. We tested 705 serum samples with SAT, among which 96.4% (680/705) showed consistent results compared with routine real-time PCR. About 92% (23/25) discordant samples were confirmed to be same results as SAT-HCV by using a second real-time PCR. The sensitivity and specificity of SAT-HCV assay were 99.6% (461/463) and 100% (242/242), respectively. In conclusion, the SAT assay is an accurate test with a high specificity and sensitivity which may increase the detection rate of HCV. It is therefore a promising tool to diagnose HCV infection. PMID:27283884

  7. An accurate assay for HCV based on real-time fluorescence detection of isothermal RNA amplification.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuping; Wang, Jianfang; Song, Jinyun; Li, Jiayan; Yang, Yongfeng

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the common reasons of liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Early, rapid and accurate HCV RNA detection is important to prevent and control liver disease. A simultaneous amplification and testing (SAT) assay, which is based on isothermal amplification of RNA and real-time fluorescence detection, was designed to optimize routine HCV RNA detection. In this study, HCV RNA and an internal control (IC) were amplified and analyzed simultaneously by SAT assay and detection of fluorescence using routine real-time PCR equipment. The assay detected as few as 10 copies of HCV RNA transcripts. We tested 705 serum samples with SAT, among which 96.4% (680/705) showed consistent results compared with routine real-time PCR. About 92% (23/25) discordant samples were confirmed to be same results as SAT-HCV by using a second real-time PCR. The sensitivity and specificity of SAT-HCV assay were 99.6% (461/463) and 100% (242/242), respectively. In conclusion, the SAT assay is an accurate test with a high specificity and sensitivity which may increase the detection rate of HCV. It is therefore a promising tool to diagnose HCV infection.

  8. Development of time resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based assay for FXR antagonist discovery.

    PubMed

    Yu, Donna D; Lin, Wenwei; Chen, Taosheng; Forman, Barry M

    2013-07-15

    FXR (farnesoid X receptor, NRIH4), a nuclear receptor, plays a major role in the control of cholesterol metabolism. FXR ligands have been investigated in preclinical studies for targeted therapy against metabolic diseases, but have shown limitations. Therefore, there is a need for new agonist or antagonist ligands of FXR, both for potential clinical applications, as well as to further elucidate its biological functions. Here we describe the use of the X-ray crystal structure of FXR complexed with the potent small molecule agonist GW4064 to design and synthesize a novel fluorescent, high-affinity probe (DY246) for time resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) assays. We then used the TR-FRET assay for high throughput screening of a library of over 5000 bioactive compounds. From this library, we identified 13 compounds that act as putative FXR transcriptional antagonists.

  9. Gramicidin-based fluorescence assay; for determining small molecules potential for modifying lipid bilayer properties.

    PubMed

    Ingólfsson, Helgi I; Sanford, R Lea; Kapoor, Ruchi; Andersen, Olaf S

    2010-10-13

    Many drugs and other small molecules used to modulate biological function are amphiphiles that adsorb at the bilayer/solution interface and thereby alter lipid bilayer properties. This is important because membrane proteins are energetically coupled to their host bilayer by hydrophobic interactions. Changes in bilayer properties thus alter membrane protein function, which provides an indirect way for amphiphiles to modulate protein function and a possible mechanism for "off-target" drug effects. We have previously developed an electrophysiological assay for detecting changes in lipid bilayer properties using linear gramicidin channels as probes. Gramicidin channels are mini-proteins formed by the transbilayer dimerization of two non-conducting subunits. They are sensitive to changes in their membrane environment, which makes them powerful probes for monitoring changes in lipid bilayer properties as sensed by bilayer spanning proteins. We now demonstrate a fluorescence assay for detecting changes in bilayer properties using the same channels as probes. The assay is based on measuring the time-course of fluorescence quenching from fluorophore-loaded large unilamellar vesicles due to the entry of a quencher through the gramicidin channels. We use the fluorescence indicator/quencher pair 8-aminonaphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonate (ANTS)/Tl(+) that has been successfully used in other fluorescence quenching assays. Tl(+) permeates the lipid bilayer slowly but passes readily through conducting gramicidin channels. The method is scalable and suitable for both mechanistic studies and high-throughput screening of small molecules for bilayer-perturbing, and potential "off-target", effects. We find that results using this method are in good agreement with previous electrophysiological results.

  10. Cucurbiturils: molecular nanocapsules for time-resolved fluorescence-based assays.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Cesar; Huang, Fang; Nau, Werner M

    2004-03-01

    A new fluorescent host-guest system based on the inclusion of the fluorophore 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene (DBO) into the cavity of the molecular container compound cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) has been designed which possesses an exceedingly long-lived emission (690 ns in aerated water). The large binding constant of (4 +/- 1) x 10(5) M(-1) along with the resistance of the CB7.DBO complex toward external fluorescence quenchers allow the use of CB7 as an enhancer in time-resolved fluorescence-based assays, e.g., to screen enzyme activity or inhibition by using DBO-labeled peptides as substrates. The response of CB7.DBO to different environmental conditions and possible quenchers are described.

  11. Engineering a ribozyme cleavage-induced split fluorescent aptamer complementation assay

    PubMed Central

    Ausländer, Simon; Fuchs, David; Hürlemann, Samuel; Ausländer, David; Fussenegger, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Hammerhead ribozymes are self-cleaving RNA molecules capable of regulating gene expression in living cells. Their cleavage performance is strongly influenced by intra-molecular loop–loop interactions, a feature not readily accessible through modern prediction algorithms. Ribozyme engineering and efficient implementation of ribozyme-based genetic switches requires detailed knowledge of individual self-cleavage performances. By rational design, we devised fluorescent aptamer-ribozyme RNA architectures that allow for the real-time measurement of ribozyme self-cleavage activity in vitro. The engineered nucleic acid molecules implement a split Spinach aptamer sequence that is made accessible for strand displacement upon ribozyme self-cleavage, thereby complementing the fluorescent Spinach aptamer. This fully RNA-based ribozyme performance assay correlates ribozyme cleavage activity with Spinach fluorescence to provide a rapid and straightforward technology for the validation of loop–loop interactions in hammerhead ribozymes. PMID:26939886

  12. A Microfluidic Microbeads Fluorescence Assay with Quantum Dots-Bead-DNA Probe.

    PubMed

    Ankireddy, S R; Kim, Jongsung

    2016-03-01

    A microfluidic bead-based nucleic acid sensor for the detection of tumor causing N-Ras genes using quantum dots has been developed. Presently, quantum dots-bead-DNA probe based hybridization detection methods are often called as 'bead based assays' and their success is substantially influenced by the dispensing and manipulation capability of the microfluidic technology. This study reports the detection of N-Ras cancer gene by fluorescence quenching of quantum dots immobilized on the surface of polystyrene beads. A microfluidic chip was constructed in which the quantum dots-bead-DNA probes were packed in the channel. The target DNA flowed across the beads and hybridized with immobilized probe sequences. The target DNA can be detected by the fluorescence quenching of the quantum dots due to their transfer of emission energy to intercalation dye after DNA hybridization. The mutated gene also induces fluorescence quenching but with less degree than the perfectly complementary target DNA.

  13. A Fluorescence Polarization Assay To Detect Steroid Hormone Traces in Milk.

    PubMed

    Varriale, Antonio; Pennacchio, Anna; Pinto, Gabriella; Oliviero, Giorgia; D'Errico, Stefano; Majoli, Adelia; Scala, Andrea; Capo, Alessandro; Pennacchio, Angela; Di Giovanni, Stefano; Staiano, Maria; D'Auria, Sabato

    2015-10-21

    Steroids are a class of hormones improperly used in livestock as growth-promoting agents. Due to their high risk for human health, the European Union (EU) has strictly forbidden the administration of all natural and synthetic steroid hormones to food-producing animals, and the development of new rapid detection methods are greatly encouraged. This work reports a novel fluorescence polarization assay, ready to use, capable of detecting 17β-estradiol directly in milk samples with a low limit of detection of <10 pmol. It is based on the coupling of monospecific antibodies against 17β-estradiol and fluorophores, capable of modulating the fluorescence polarization emission on the basis of the specific binding of antibodies to fluorescence-labeled 17β-estradiol derivative. The successful detection of 17β-estradiol has disclosed the development of an efficient method, easily extensible to any food matrix and having the potential to become a milestone in food quality and safety.

  14. Alkaline phosphatase assay using a near-infrared fluorescent substrate merocyanine 700 phosphate.

    PubMed

    Gong, Haibiao; Little, Garrick; Cradduck, Mark; Draney, Daniel R; Padhye, Nisha; Olive, D Michael

    2011-05-15

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a phosphomonoester hydrolase that is commonly used as a conjugating enzyme in biological research. A wide variety of substrates have been developed to assay its activity. In this study, we developed an ALP assay method utilizing merocyanine 700 (MC700) based substrate MC700 phosphate (MC700p). MC700 is a near-infrared fluorescent merocyanine dye, and has excitation/emission maxima at 686 nm/722 nm in ALP assay buffer. Upon hydrolysis by ALP, MC700p is converted to MC700. The fluorescence of MC700 is dependent on the pH and detergent concentration in the buffer. The fluorescence signal produced by MC700p hydrolysis is linearly related to the ALP amount and substrate concentration. A stop solution containing EDTA could be used to stop the ALP/MC700p reaction. It was also demonstrated that MC700p could substitute pNpp as the ALP substrate in a commercial 17β-Estradiol enzyme immunoassay kit. PMID:21482307

  15. Assaying Dicer-mediated miRNA maturation by means of fluorescent substrates.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Marlen; Davies, Brian P; Arenz, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Assaying Dicer-mediated miRNA maturation is a valuable tool not only for validating miRNA maturation itself but also for testing Dicer activity in cell lysate and for screening small molecules inhibiting miRNA maturation in a high-throughput format. The classical assay for miRNA maturation relies on radioactive labeling of a pre-miRNA and subsequent gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. Here we present a fluorescently labeled and quenched pre-miRNA beacon that can be ligated easily out of two single labeled RNA strands. Upon Dicer cleavage of the beacon, fluorophore and quencher are separated, which results in an increase of fluorescence over time. Unlike (32)P-labeled probes, our fluorescently labeled pre-miRNA beacon is stable for at least 5 years under storage conditions. Dicer or miRNA maturation assays can be easily performed in a 384-well plate format, consuming less than 1 pmol of RNA beacon per reaction.

  16. Visualizing repetitive diffusion activity of double-strand RNA binding proteins by single molecule fluorescence assays.

    PubMed

    Koh, Hye Ran; Wang, Xinlei; Myong, Sua

    2016-08-01

    TRBP, one of double strand RNA binding proteins (dsRBPs), is an essential cofactor of Dicer in the RNA interference pathway. Previously we reported that TRBP exhibits repetitive diffusion activity on double strand (ds)RNA in an ATP independent manner. In the TRBP-Dicer complex, the diffusion mobility of TRBP facilitates Dicer-mediated RNA cleavage. Such repetitive diffusion of dsRBPs on a nucleic acid at the nanometer scale can be appropriately captured by several single molecule detection techniques. Here, we provide a step-by-step guide to four different single molecule fluorescence assays by which the diffusion activity of dsRBPs on dsRNA can be detected. One color assay, termed protein induced fluorescence enhancement enables detection of unlabeled protein binding and diffusion on a singly labeled RNA. Two-color Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) in which labeled dsRBPs is applied to labeled RNA, allows for probing the motion of protein along the RNA axis. Three color FRET reports on the diffusion movement of dsRBPs from one to the other end of RNA. The single molecule pull down assay provides an opportunity to collect dsRBPs from mammalian cells and examine the protein-RNA interaction at single molecule platform. PMID:27012177

  17. Quantitative Fluorescence Assays Using a Self-Powered Paper-Based Microfluidic Device and a Camera-Equipped Cellular Phone

    PubMed Central

    Thom, Nicole K.; Lewis, Gregory G.; Yeung, Kimy

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence assays often require specialized equipment and, therefore, are not easily implemented in resource-limited environments. Herein we describe a point-of-care assay strategy in which fluorescence in the visible region is used as a readout, while a camera-equipped cellular phone is used to capture the fluorescent response and quantify the assay. The fluorescence assay is made possible using a paper-based microfluidic device that contains an internal fluidic battery, a surface-mount LED, a 2-mm section of a clear straw as a cuvette, and an appropriately-designed small molecule reagent that transforms from weakly fluorescent to highly fluorescent when exposed to a specific enzyme biomarker. The resulting visible fluorescence is digitized by photographing the assay region using a camera-equipped cellular phone. The digital images are then quantified using image processing software to provide sensitive as well as quantitative results. In a model 30 min assay, the enzyme β-D-galactosidase was measured quantitatively down to 700 pM levels. This Communication describes the design of these types of assays in paper-based microfluidic devices and characterizes the key parameters that affect the sensitivity and reproducibility of the technique. PMID:24490035

  18. Development of Tyrosinase Promoter-Based Fluorescent Assay for Screening of Anti-melanogenic Agents.

    PubMed

    Lee, JaeHo; Lee, SeungJun; Lee, ByungMan; Roh, KyungBaeg; Park, DeokHoon; Jung, EunSun

    2015-01-01

    For screening of skin-whitening ingredients that modulate inhibition of melanogenesis, tyrosinase promoter-based assay using a three-dimensional (3D) spheroid culture technique is a beneficial tool to improve the accuracy of raw material screening in cosmetics through mimicking of the in vivo microenvironment. Although the advantages of high-throughput screening (HTS) are widely known, there has been little focus on specific cell-based promoter assays for HTS in identifying skin-whitening ingredients that inhibit accumulation of melanin. The aim of this study was therefore to develop a large-scale compatible assay through pTyr-EGFP, an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-based tyrosinase-specific promoter, to seek potential melanogenesis inhibitors for cosmetic use. Herein, a stably transfected human melanoma cell line expressing EGFP under the control of a 2.2-kb fragment derived from the tyrosinase gene was generated. Spontaneous induction of the tyrosinase promoter by 3D spheroid culture resulted in increased expression of EGFP, providing a significant correlation with the tyrosinase mRNA level, and subsequent inhibition of tyrosinase activity. Importantly, the pTyr-EGFP system provided successful tracking of the changes in the live image and real-time monitoring. Thus tyrosinase promoter-based fluorescent assay using a 3D spheroid culture can be useful as a screening system for exploring the efficiency of anti-melanogenesis ingredients. PMID:26179334

  19. A homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay for phosphatidylserine exposure on apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Gasser, Jean-Philippe; Hehl, Michaela; Millward, Thomas A

    2009-01-01

    A simple, "mix-and-measure" microplate assay for phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) exposure on the surface of apoptotic cells is described. The assay exploits the fact that annexin V, a protein with high affinity and specificity for PtdSer, forms trimers and higher order oligomers on binding to membranes containing PtdSer. The transition from soluble monomer to cell-bound oligomer is detected using time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer from europium chelate-labeled annexin V to Cy5-labeled annexin V. PtdSer detection is achieved by a single addition of a reagent mix containing labeled annexins and calcium ions directly to cell cultures in a 96-well plate, followed by a brief incubation before fluorescence measurement. The assay can be used to quantify PtdSer exposure on both suspension cells and adherent cells in situ. This method is simpler and faster than existing annexin V binding assays based on flow cytometry or microscopy, and it yields precise data with Z' values of 0.6-0.7. PMID:18835236

  20. Development of a Rapid Insulin Assay by Homogenous Time-Resolved Fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Farino, Zachary J; Morgenstern, Travis J; Vallaghe, Julie; Gregor, Nathalie; Donthamsetti, Prashant; Harris, Paul E; Pierre, Nicolas; Freyberg, Robin; Charrier-Savournin, Fabienne; Javitch, Jonathan A; Freyberg, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Direct measurement of insulin is critical for basic and clinical studies of insulin secretion. However, current methods are expensive and time-consuming. We developed an insulin assay based on homogenous time-resolved fluorescence that is significantly more rapid and cost-effective than current commonly used approaches. This assay was applied effectively to an insulin secreting cell line, INS-1E cells, as well as pancreatic islets, allowing us to validate the assay by elucidating mechanisms by which dopamine regulates insulin release. We found that dopamine functioned as a significant negative modulator of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Further, we showed that bromocriptine, a known dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist and newly approved drug used for treatment of type II diabetes mellitus, also decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in islets to levels comparable to those caused by dopamine treatment. PMID:26849707

  1. Development of a Rapid Insulin Assay by Homogenous Time-Resolved Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Vallaghe, Julie; Gregor, Nathalie; Donthamsetti, Prashant; Harris, Paul E.; Pierre, Nicolas; Freyberg, Robin; Charrier-Savournin, Fabienne; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Freyberg, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Direct measurement of insulin is critical for basic and clinical studies of insulin secretion. However, current methods are expensive and time-consuming. We developed an insulin assay based on homogenous time-resolved fluorescence that is significantly more rapid and cost-effective than current commonly used approaches. This assay was applied effectively to an insulin secreting cell line, INS-1E cells, as well as pancreatic islets, allowing us to validate the assay by elucidating mechanisms by which dopamine regulates insulin release. We found that dopamine functioned as a significant negative modulator of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Further, we showed that bromocriptine, a known dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist and newly approved drug used for treatment of type II diabetes mellitus, also decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in islets to levels comparable to those caused by dopamine treatment. PMID:26849707

  2. Homogeneous plate based antibody internalization assay using pH sensor fluorescent dye.

    PubMed

    Nath, Nidhi; Godat, Becky; Zimprich, Chad; Dwight, Stephen J; Corona, Cesear; McDougall, Mark; Urh, Marjeta

    2016-04-01

    Receptor-mediated antibody internalization is a key mechanism underlying several anti-cancer antibody therapeutics. Delivering highly toxic drugs to cancer cells, as in the case of antibody drug conjugates (ADCs), efficient removal of surface receptors from cancer cells and changing the pharmacokinetics profile of the antibody drugs are some of key ways that internalization impacts the therapeutic efficacy of the antibodies. Over the years, several techniques have been used to study antibody internalization including radiolabels, fluorescent microscopy, flow cytometry and cellular toxicity assays. While these methods allow analysis of internalization, they have limitations including a multistep process and limited throughput and are generally endpoint assays. Here, we present a new homogeneous method that enables time and concentration dependent measurements of antibody internalization. The method uses a new hydrophilic and bright pH sensor dye (pHAb dye), which is not fluorescent at neutral pH but becomes highly fluorescent at acidic pH. For receptor mediated antibody internalization studies, antibodies against receptors are conjugated with the pHAb dye and incubated with the cells expressing the receptors. Upon binding to the receptor, the dyes conjugated to the antibody are not fluorescent because of the neutral pH of the media, but upon internalization and trafficking into endosomal and lysosomal vesicles the pH drops and dyes become fluorescent. The enabling attributes of the pHAb dyes are the hydrophilic nature to minimize antibody aggregation and bright fluorescence at acidic pH which allows development of simple plate based assays using a fluorescent reader. Using two different therapeutic antibodies--Trastuzumab (anti-HER2) and Cetuximab (anti-EGFR)--we show labeling with pHAb dye using amine and thiol chemistries and impact of chemistry and dye to antibody ration on internalization. We finally present two new approaches using the pHAb dye, which will be

  3. Fluorescence assay of the interaction between hemoglobin and the cytoplasmic domain of erythrocyte membrane band 3.

    PubMed

    Sega, Martiana F; Chu, Haiyan; Christian, John A; Low, Philip S

    2015-10-01

    Oxygen tension has emerged as a potent regulator of multiple erythrocyte properties, including glucose metabolism, cell volume, ATP release, and cytoskeletal organization. Because hemoglobin (Hb)(1) binds to the cytoplasmic domain of band 3 (cdb3) in an oxygen dependent manner, with deoxyHb exhibiting significantly greater affinity for cdb3 than oxyHb, the deoxyHb-cdb3 interaction has been hypothesized to constitute the molecular switch for all O2-controlled erythrocyte processes. In this study, we describe a rapid and accurate method for quantitating the interaction of deoxyHb binding to cdb3. For this purpose, enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) is fused to the COOH-terminus of cdb3, and the binding of Hb to the NH2-terminus of cdb3-eGFP is quantitated by Hb-mediated quenching of cdb3-eGFP fluorescence. As expected, the intensity of cdb3-eGFP fluorescence decreases only slightly following addition of oxyHb. However, upon deoxygenation of the same Hb-cdb3 solution, the fluorescence decreases dramatically (i.e. confirming that deoxyHb exhibits much greater affinity for cdb3 than oxyHb). Using this fluorescence quenching method, we not only confirm previously established characteristics of the Hb-cdb3 interaction, but also establish an assay that can be exploited to screen for inhibitors of the sickle Hb-cdb3 interaction that accelerates sickle Hb polymerization.

  4. Single chip SPR and fluorescent ELISA assay of prostate specific antigen.

    PubMed

    Breault-Turcot, J; Poirier-Richard, H-P; Couture, M; Pelechacz, D; Masson, J-F

    2015-12-01

    A multi-channel system combining fluidics and micropatterned plasmonic materials with wavelength interrogation surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and fluorescence detection was integrated from the combination of a small and motorized fluorescence microscope mounted on a portable 4-channel SPR instrument. The SPR and fluorescent measurements were performed based on the same detection area in a multi-channel fluidic, with a sensing scheme for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) consisting of a sandwich assay with a capture anti-PSA immobilized onto the SPR sensor and a detection anti-PSA modified with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). In this dual-detection instrument, fluorescence was measured from the solution side of the micropatterned gold film, while the interface between the glass prism and the gold film served to interrogate the SPR response. The SPR sensors were comprised of microhole arrays fabricated by photolithography to enhance the instrumental response for PSA detection by approximately a factor of 2 to 3 and they were coated with a self-assembled monolayer of a peptide (3-MPA-HHHDD-OH) to minimize nonspecific adsorption. PSA was successfully detected at clinical concentrations from 10 pM to 50 nM with this integrated system in a single assay lasting 12 minutes, almost centering on the desired range for PSA diagnostic tests (>4 ng mL(-1) or >150 pM). The combination of two robust techniques in a single chip and instrument has led to a simple and effective assay that can be carried out on a small and portable instrument providing rapid biodetection of an important cancer biomarker with a dynamic range of nearly 4 orders of magnitude in the clinical range.

  5. A kinetic fluorescence assay reveals unusual features of Ca++ uptake in Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To facilitate development within erythrocytes, malaria parasites increase their host cell uptake of diverse solutes including Ca++. The mechanism and molecular basis of increased Ca++ permeability remains less well studied than that of other solutes. Methods Based on an appropriate Ca++ affinity and its greater brightness than related fluorophores, Fluo-8 was selected and used to develop a robust fluorescence-based assay for Ca++ uptake by human erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum. Results Both uninfected and infected cells exhibited a large Ca++-dependent fluorescence signal after loading with the Fluo-8 dye. Probenecid, an inhibitor of erythrocyte organic anion transporters, abolished the fluorescence signal in uninfected cells; in infected cells, this agent increased fluorescence via mechanisms that depend on parasite genotype. Kinetic fluorescence measurements in 384-well microplates revealed that the infected cell Ca++ uptake is not mediated by the plasmodial surface anion channel (PSAC), a parasite nutrient channel at the host membrane; it also appears to be distinct from mammalian Ca++ channels. Imaging studies confirmed a low intracellular Ca++ in uninfected cells and higher levels in both the host and parasite compartments of infected cells. Parasite growth inhibition studies revealed a conserved requirement for extracellular Ca++. Conclusions Nondestructive loading of Fluo-8 into human erythrocytes permits measurement of Ca++ uptake kinetics. The greater Ca++ permeability of cells infected with malaria parasites is apparent when probenecid is used to inhibit Fluo-8 efflux at the host membrane. This permeability is mediated by a distinct pathway and may be essential for intracellular parasite development. The miniaturized assay presented here should help clarify the precise transport mechanism and may identify inhibitors suitable for antimalarial drug development. PMID:24885754

  6. Microfluidic Chips Designed for Measuring Biomolecules Through a Microbead-Based Quantum Dot Fluorescence Assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Kwang-Seok; Lee, Dohoon; Kim, Hak-Sung; Yoon, Euisik

    This chapter introduces the demonstration of specific antibody detection by using a microbead-based assay with quantum dot (QD) fluorescence on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic chip. The microfluidic chip is designed to isolate a single microbead where the binding reaction of antibodies occurs on the surface. The microfluidic chip is fabricated on a glass substrate using a transparent silicone elastomer, PDMS, for easy access of monitoring and flexible gate operations to capture the single microbead. For antibody detection, a sequence of functionalized assays has been performed in the fabricated chip, including the capturing of microbeads, antibody injection into a microchamber, quantum dot injection, and fluorescence detection. Various concentrations of human IgG antibodies have been introduced to bind to a single microbead captured and isolated inside a designated microchamber in a small volume of 75 pL. Fluorescence detection is monitored using a CCD camera after the second binding with the QDs conjugated with anti-human IgG. In this experiment, a human IgG antibody concentration below 0.1 μg/mL has been successfully detected.

  7. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) Assays for Diagnosing Malaria in Endemic Areas

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jyotsna; Mark, Olivia; Weltman, Helena; Barcelo, Nicolas; Lo, Wai; Wronska, Danuta; Kakkilaya, Srinivas; Rao, Aravinda; Bhat, Shalia T.; Sinha, Ruchi; Omar, Sabah; Moro, Manuel; Gilman, Robert H.; Harris, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is a responsible for approximately 600 thousand deaths worldwide every year. Appropriate and timely treatment of malaria can prevent deaths but is dependent on accurate and rapid diagnosis of the infection. Currently, microscopic examination of the Giemsa stained blood smears is the method of choice for diagnosing malaria. Although it has limited sensitivity and specificity in field conditions, it still remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of malaria. Here, we report the development of a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) based method for detecting malaria infection in blood smears and describe the use of an LED light source that makes the method suitable for use in resource-limited malaria endemic countries. The Plasmodium Genus (P-Genus) FISH assay has a Plasmodium genus specific probe that detects all five species of Plasmodium known to cause the disease in humans. The P. falciparum (PF) FISH assay and P. vivax (PV) FISH assay detect and differentiate between P. falciparum and P. vivax respectively from other Plasmodium species. The FISH assays are more sensitive than Giemsa. The sensitivities of P-Genus, PF and PV FISH assays were found to be 98.2%, 94.5% and 98.3%, respectively compared to 89.9%, 83.3% and 87.9% for the detection of Plasmodium, P. falciparum and P. vivax by Giemsa staining respectively. PMID:26333092

  8. Upconversion ratiometric fluorescence and colorimetric dual-readout assay for uric acid.

    PubMed

    Fang, Aijin; Wu, Qiongqiong; Lu, Qiujun; Chen, Hongyu; Li, Haitao; Liu, Meiling; Zhang, Youyu; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2016-12-15

    A new upconversion colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescence detection method for uric acid (UA) has been designed. Yb(3+), Er(3+) and Tm(3+) co-doped NaYF4 nanoparticles (UCNPs) was synthesized. The co-doped NaYF4 nanoparticles, emit upconversion fluorescence with four typical emission peaks centered at 490nm, 557nm, 670nm and 705nm under the 980nm near-infrared (NIR) irradiation. The ZnFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) possessing excellent peroxidase-like activity was prepared and used to catalyze oxidation the coupling of N-ethyl-N-(3-sulfopropyl)-3-methylaniline sodium salt (TOPS) and 4-amino-antipyrine (4-AAP) in the presence of H2O2 to form purple products (compound 1) which has a characteristic absorption peak located at 550nm. The upconversion fluorescence at 557nm was quenched by the compound 1 while the upconversion emission at 705nm was essentially unchanged, the fluorescence ratio ((I557/I705)0/(I557/I705)) is positively proportional to UA concentration in existence of uricase. More importantly, colorimetric signal can be easily observed and applied to directly distinguish the concentration of UA by the naked eye. Under the optimized conditions, the linear range of colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescence sensing towards UA was 0.01-1mM, the detection limits were as low as 5.79μM and 2.86μM (S/N=3), respectively. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the analysis of UA in human serum. These results indicate that the colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescence dual-readout assay method has great potential for applications in physiological and pathological diagnosis. PMID:27471157

  9. Aptamers-based sandwich assay for silver-enhanced fluorescence multiplex detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Li, Hui; Xu, Danke

    2016-01-28

    In this work, aptamers-modified silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared as capture substrate, and fluorescent dyes-modified aptamers were synthesized as detection probes. The sandwich assay was based on dual aptamers, which was aimed to accomplish the highly sensitive detection of single protein and multiplex detection of proteins on one-spot. We found that aptamers-modified AgNPs based microarray was much superior to the aptamer based microarray in fluorescence detection of proteins. The result shows that the detection limit of the sandwich assay using AgNPs probes for thrombin or platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) is 80 or 8 times lower than that of aptamers used directly. For multiplex detection of proteins, the detection limit was 625 pM for PDGF-BB and 21 pM for thrombin respectively. The sandwich assay based on dual aptamers and AgNPs was sensitive and specific. PMID:26755149

  10. An Affinity-Based Fluorescence Polarization Assay for Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sheng; Chen, Lan; Kumar, Sanjai; Wu, Li; Lawrence, David S.; Zhang, Zhong-Yin

    2007-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are important signaling enzymes that control such fundamental processes as proliferation, differentiation, survival/apoptosis, as well as adhesion and motility. Potent and selective PTP inhibitors serve not only as powerful research tools, but also as potential therapeutics against a variety illness including cancer and diabetes. PTP activity-based assays are widely used in high throughput screening (HTS) campaigns for PTP inhibitor discovery. These assays suffer from a major weakness, in that the reactivity of the active site Cys can cause serious problems as highly reactive oxidizing and alkylating agents may surface as hits. We describe the development of a fluorescence polarization (FP)-based displacement assay that makes the use of an active site Cys to Ser mutant PTP (e.g., PTP1B/C215S) that retains the wild type binding affinity. The potency of library compounds is assessed by their ability to compete with the fluorescently labeled active site ligand for binding to the Cys to Ser PTP mutant. Finally, the substitution of the active site Cys by a Ser renders the mutant PTP insensitive to oxidation and alkylation and thus will likely eliminate “false” positives due to modification of the active site Cys that destroy the phosphatase activity. PMID:17532513

  11. Development of an immunochromatographic assay kit using fluorescent silica nanoparticles for rapid diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis.

    PubMed

    Toriyama, Koji; Suzuki, Takashi; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Eguchi, Hiroshi; Hoshi, Saichi; Inoue, Yoshitsugu; Aizawa, Hideki; Miyoshi, Kazutomi; Ohkubo, Michio; Hiwatashi, Eiji; Tachibana, Hiroshi; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    We developed an immunochromatographic assay kit that uses fluorescent silica nanoparticles bound to anti-Acanthamoeba antibodies (fluorescent immunochromatographic assay [FICGA]) and evaluated its efficacy for the detection of Acanthamoeba and diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). The sensitivity of the FICGA kit was evaluated using samples of Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts diluted to various concentrations. A conventional immunochromatographic assay kit with latex labels (LICGA) was also evaluated to determine its sensitivity in detecting Acanthamoeba trophozoites. To check for cross-reactivity, the FICGA was performed by using samples of other common causative pathogens of infectious keratitis, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Candida albicans. Corneal scrapings from patients with suspected AK were tested with the FICGA kit to detect the presence of Acanthamoeba, and the results were compared with those of real-time PCR. The FICGA kit detected organisms at concentrations as low as 5 trophozoites or 40 cysts per sample. There were no cross-reactivities with other pathogens. The FICGA was approximately 20 times more sensitive than the LICGA for the detection of Acanthamoeba trophozoites. The FICGA kit yielded positive results for all 10 patients, which corresponded well with the real-time PCR results. The FICGA kit demonstrated high sensitivity for the detection of Acanthamoeba and may be useful for the diagnosis of AK.

  12. Receptor-ligand interactions studied with homogeneous fluorescence-based assays suitable for miniaturized screening.

    PubMed

    Scheel, A A; Funsch, B; Busch, M; Gradl, G; Pschorr, J; Lohse, M J

    2001-02-01

    Cell membrane receptors play a central role in controlling cellular functions, making them the target of drugs for a wide variety of diseases. This report describes how a recently developed method, fluorescence intensity distribution analysis (FIDA), can be used to develop homogeneous, nonradioactive high throughput screening assays for membrane receptors. With FIDA, free ligand and ligand accumulated on receptor-bearing membrane vesicles can be distinguished on the basis of their particle brightness. This allows the concentration of both bound and free ligand to be determined reliably from a single measurement, without any separation. We demonstrate that ligand affinity, receptor expression level, and potency of inhibitors can be determined using the epidermal growth factor and beta(2)-adrenergic receptors as model systems. Highly focused confocal optics enable single-molecule sensitivity, and sample volumes can thus be reduced to 1 microl without affecting the quality of the fluorescence signal. Our results demonstrate that FIDA is an ideal method for membrane receptor assays offering substantial benefits for assay development and high throughput pharmaceutical screening.

  13. Measurement of glycated haemoglobin in whole blood by a novel fluorescence quenching assay.

    PubMed

    Blincko, S; Anzetse, J; Edwards, R

    2000-07-01

    We describe a method for the specific measurement of glycated Hb (GHb) by fluorescence quenching. Whole blood is added to lysing solution, then the lysate is mixed with eosin-boronic acid solution and reacted for at least 5 min at room temperature. The quenching of the fluorescence of the eosin-boronic acid solution is proportional to the concentration of GHb present. Total Hb concentration was measured by absorbance and the GHb expressed as a percentage of the total Hb. Comparison with a commercial high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system for HbA1c showed: %GHb=1.30 (SD 0.04) %HbA1c + 1.36 (SD 0.30), S(y/x) 0.803, n=95, r=0.965 (SD=standard deviation). Intra-assay coefficients of variation were <2.5% (for GHb concentrations in the range 6-20%) and inter-assay coefficients of variation were <4.1% (10 assays on six samples with GHb concentrations in the range 6-20%). Linearity of response was demonstrated by dilution. The effect of adding exogenous glucose, bilirubin and triglycerides was tested on samples with low, medium and high GHb concentrations. No significant interference was found. Variation of haematocrit over the range 0.4-0.6 also had no significant effect on percentage GHb. Preliminary results with samples containing variant Hb (HbAS and HbAC) indicated good agreement with HPLC for these samples also. PMID:10902866

  14. Dual-readout fluorescent assay of protein kinase activity by use of TiO2-coated magnetic microspheres.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jie; Zhao, Yunjie; Wang, Zhibin; Liu, Chenghui; Wang, Yucong; Li, Zhengping

    2013-05-01

    A simple, highly sensitive, and dual-readout fluorescent assay is developed for the detection of protein kinase activity based on the specific recognition utility of TiO2-coated Fe3O4/SiO2 magnetic microspheres (TMSPs) for kinase-induced phosphopeptides. When the fluorophore-labeled substrate peptides are phosphorylated by the kinase reaction, they can bind specifically to the TiO2 layer of TMSPs by means of phosphate groups, resulting in fluorophore enrichment on the TMSP surfaces. The accumulated fluorophores on the TMSPs are proportional to the kinase activity, and the fluorescence signal readout could be run through either direct fluorescent imaging of the TMSPs or measurement of the fluorescence intensity by simply detaching the fluorescent phosphopeptides into the solution. The TMSPs exhibit extremely high selectivity for capturing phosphorylated peptides over the nonphosphorylated ones, resulting in an ultrahigh fluorescence signal-to-background ratio of 42, which is the highest fluorescence change thus far in fluorescent assays for detection of protein kinase activities. Therefore, the proposed fluorescent assay presents high sensitivity, low detection limit of 0.1 milliunit/μL, and wide dynamic range from 0.5 milliunit/μL to 0.5 unit/μL with protein kinase A (PKA) as a model target. Moreover, the TMSP-based fluorescent assay can simultaneously quantify multiple kinase activities with their specific peptides labeled with different dyes. This new strategy is also successfully applied to monitoring drug-triggered PKA activation in cell lysates. Therefore, the TMSP-based fluorescent assay is very promising in high-throughput screening of kinase inhibitors and in highly sensitive detection of kinase activity, and thus it is a valuable tool for development of targeted therapy, clinical diagnosis, and studies of fundamental life science. PMID:23581884

  15. Early steps of supported bilayer formation probed by single vesicle fluorescence assays.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Joseph M; Ha, Taekjip; Chu, Steve; Boxer, Steven G

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a single vesicle assay to study the mechanisms of supported bilayer formation. Fluorescently labeled, unilamellar vesicles (30-100 nm diameter) were first adsorbed to a quartz surface at low enough surface concentrations to visualize single vesicles. Fusion and rupture events during the bilayer formation, induced by the subsequent addition of unlabeled vesicles, were detected by measuring two-color fluorescence signals simultaneously. Lipid-conjugated dyes monitored the membrane fusion while encapsulated dyes reported on the vesicle rupture. Four dominant pathways were observed, each exhibiting characteristic two-color fluorescence signatures: 1) primary fusion, in which an unlabeled vesicle fuses with a labeled vesicle on the surface, is signified by the dequenching of the lipid-conjugated dyes followed by rupture and final merging into the bilayer; 2) simultaneous fusion and rupture, in which a labeled vesicle on the surface ruptures simultaneously upon fusion with an unlabeled vesicle; 3) no dequenching, in which loss of fluorescence signal from both dyes occur simultaneously with the final merger into the bilayer; and 4) isolated rupture (pre-ruptured vesicles), in which a labeled vesicle on the surface spontaneously undergoes content loss, a process that occurs with high efficiency in the presence of a high concentration of Texas Red-labeled lipids. Vesicles that have undergone content loss appear to be more fusogenic than intact vesicles. PMID:12496104

  16. New applications of fluorescence polarization for enzyme assays and in genomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiforov, Theo; Coffin, Jill; Jeong, Sang; Simeonov, Anton; Bi, Xiahui

    2001-05-01

    We have developed new, fluorescence polarization-based approaches for performing enzyme assays in homogeneous solutions and for detecting the hybridization of peptide nucleic acids to DNA targets. In the first method, fluorescein-labeled peptides serving as protein kinase sustrates are thiophosphorylated in the presence of the ATP analog ATPγS. A sulfer-reactive biotin derivative is then added to the mixture and allowed to react with the thiophosphorylated peptide. The formation of a fluorescein-labeled, biotinylated product can be detected by measuring the fluorescence polarization signal of fluorescein upon addition of streptavidin. In the second method, fluorescein-labeled peptides are subjected to enzymatic phosphorylation, desphosphorlation, or proteollytic cleavage by protein kinases, phosphatases, and proteases. The differential binding of the enzymatic substrates and products to cationic polymers such as polyaraginine can be conveniently measured by fluorescence polarization. Finally, we have discovered that the process of hybridization of peptide nucleic acid probes (PNAs) to their target DNA molecules can be followed by measuring the fluorescence polarization of a fluorophore attached to the PNA probes. These measurements can be done either in the presence or absence of polylysine in solution. Examples of the application of this method for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing are presented.

  17. Upconversion nanoparticle-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay for organophosphorus pesticides.

    PubMed

    Long, Qian; Li, Haitao; Zhang, Youyu; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2015-06-15

    This paper reports a novel nanosensor for organophosphorus pesticides based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between NaYF4:Yb,Er upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The detection mechanism is based on the facts that AuNPs quench the fluorescence of UCNPs and organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) inhibit the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) which catalyzes the hydrolysis of acetylthiocholine (ATC) into thiocholine. Under the optimized conditions, the logarithm of the pesticides concentration was proportional to the inhibition efficiency. The detection limits of parathion-methyl, monocrotophos and dimethoate reached 0.67, 23, and 67 ng/L, respectively. Meanwhile, the biosensor shows good sensitivity, stability, and could be successfully applied to detection of OPs in real food samples, suggesting the biosensor has potentially extensive application clinic diagnoses assays.

  18. A Fluorescence-Based Assay for Proteinuria Screening in Larval Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Hanke, Nils; King, Benjamin L; Vaske, Bernhard; Haller, Hermann; Schiffer, Mario

    2015-10-01

    Analysis of genes compromising the glomerular filtration barrier in rodent models using transgenic or knockdown approaches is time- and resource-consuming and often leads to unsatisfactory results. Therefore, it would be beneficial to have a selection tool indicating that your gene of interest is in fact associated with proteinuria. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a rapid screening tool to study effects in glomerular filtration barrier integrity after genetic manipulation. We use either injection of high-molecular-weight dextrans or a transgenic fluorescent fish line [Tg(l-fabp:DBP:EGFP)] expressing a vitamin D-binding protein fused with eGFP for indirect detection of proteinuria. A loss of high-molecular-weight proteins from the circulation of the fish into the urine can be identified by monitoring fluorescence intensity in the zebrafish eye. Paired with an optimized analysis method, this assay provides an effective screening solution to detect filtration barrier damage with proteinuria before moving to a mammalian system.

  19. Fluorescence polarization assay and inhibitor design for MDM2/p53 interaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rumin; Mayhood, Todd; Lipari, Philip; Wang, Yaolin; Durkin, James; Syto, Rosalinda; Gesell, Jennifer; McNemar, Charles; Windsor, William

    2004-08-01

    MDM2 is an important negative regulator of the tumor suppressor protein p53 which regulates the expression of many genes including MDM2. The delicate balance of this autoregulatory loop is crucial for the maintenance of the genome and control of the cell cycle and apoptosis. MDM2 hyperactivity, due to amplification/overexpression or mutational inactivation of the ARF locus, inhibits the function of wild-type p53 and can lead to the development of a wide variety of cancers. Thus, the development of anti-MDM2 therapies may restore normal p53 function in tumor cells and induce growth suppression and apoptosis. We report here a novel high-throughput fluorescence polarization binding assay and its application in rank ordering small-molecule inhibitors that block the binding of MDM2 to a p53-derived fluorescent peptide.

  20. A Rapid Fluorescence Assay for Danofloxacin in Beef Muscle. Effect of Muscle Type on Limit of Quantitation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple, rapid fluorescence screening assay was applied to the analysis of beef muscle for danofloxacin at the U.S. tolerance level of 200 ng/g. Muscle samples were homogenized in acetic acid/acetonitrile, the resultant mixture centrifuged, and fluorescence of the supernatants was then measured. ...

  1. Nanoparticle-enhanced fluorescence emission for non-separation assays of carbohydrates using a boronic acid-alizarin complex.

    PubMed

    Li, Qianjin; Kamra, Tripta; Ye, Lei

    2016-03-01

    Addition of crosslinked polymer nanoparticles into a solution of a 3-nitrophenylboronic acid-alizarin complex leads to significant enhancement of fluorescence emission. Using the nanoparticle-enhanced boronic acid-alizarin system has improved greatly the sensitivity and extended the dynamic range of separation-free fluorescence assays for carbohydrates.

  2. A fluorescence-based assay to monitor transcriptional activity of NFAT in living cells.

    PubMed

    Rinne, Andreas; Blatter, Lothar A

    2010-09-01

    Ca(2+)-sensitive NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T-cells) transcription factors are implicated in many pathophysiological processes in different cell types. The precise control of activation varies with NFAT isoform and cell type. Here we present feasibility of an in vivo assay (NFAT-RFP) that reports transcriptional activity of NFAT via expression of red fluorescent protein (RFP) in individual cells. This new tool allows continuous monitoring of transcriptional activity of NFAT in a physiological context in living cells. Furthermore, NFAT-RFP can be used simultaneously with NFAT-GFP fusion proteins to monitor transcriptional activity and subcellular localization of NFAT in the same cell.

  3. Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation to Assay the Interactions of Ubiquitylation Enzymes in Living Yeast Cells.

    PubMed

    Blaszczak, Ewa; Prigent, Claude; Rabut, Gwenaël

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitylation is a versatile posttranslational protein modification catalyzed through the concerted action of ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) and ubiquitin ligases (E3s). These enzymes form transient complexes with each other and their modification substrates and determine the nature of the ubiquitin signals attached to their substrates. One challenge in the field of protein ubiquitylation is thus to identify the E2-E3 pairs that function in the cell. In this chapter, we describe the use of bimolecular fluorescence complementation to assay E2-E3 interactions in living cells, using budding yeast as a model organism. PMID:27613039

  4. Development of a Fluorescent Quenching Based High Throughput Assay to Screen for Calcineurin Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Abhisek; Syeb, Kathleen; Concannon, John; Callegari, Keri; Soto, Claudio; Glicksman, Marcie A.

    2015-01-01

    Currently there is no effective treatment available for major neurodegenerative disorders associated to protein misfolding, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson's disease. One of most promising therapeutic approaches under development focuses on inhibiting the misfolding and aggregation pathway. However, it is likely that by the time clinical symptoms appear, there is a large accumulation of misfolded aggregates and a very substantial damage to the brain. Thus, it seems that at the clinical stage of the disease it is necessary also to develop strategies aiming to prevent the neuronal damage produced by already formed misfolded aggregates. Chronic activation of calcineurin (CaN), a type IIB phosphatase, has been implicated as a pivotal molecule connecting synaptic loss and neuronal damage to protein misfolding. The fact that the crystal structure of CaN is also well established makes it an ideal target for drug discovery. CaN activity assays for High Throughput Screening (HTS) reported so far are based on absorbance. In this article we report the development of a fluorescent quenching based CaN activity assay suitable for robotic screening of large chemical libraries to find novel inhibitors. The assay yielded a Z score of 0.84 with coefficient of variance ≤ 15%. Our results also show that this assay can be used to identify CaN inhibitors with a wide range of potencies. PMID:26176772

  5. Development of a Fluorescent Quenching Based High Throughput Assay to Screen for Calcineurin Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Abhisek; Syeb, Kathleen; Concannon, John; Callegari, Keri; Soto, Claudio; Glicksman, Marcie A

    2015-01-01

    Currently there is no effective treatment available for major neurodegenerative disorders associated to protein misfolding, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. One of most promising therapeutic approaches under development focuses on inhibiting the misfolding and aggregation pathway. However, it is likely that by the time clinical symptoms appear, there is a large accumulation of misfolded aggregates and a very substantial damage to the brain. Thus, it seems that at the clinical stage of the disease it is necessary also to develop strategies aiming to prevent the neuronal damage produced by already formed misfolded aggregates. Chronic activation of calcineurin (CaN), a type IIB phosphatase, has been implicated as a pivotal molecule connecting synaptic loss and neuronal damage to protein misfolding. The fact that the crystal structure of CaN is also well established makes it an ideal target for drug discovery. CaN activity assays for High Throughput Screening (HTS) reported so far are based on absorbance. In this article we report the development of a fluorescent quenching based CaN activity assay suitable for robotic screening of large chemical libraries to find novel inhibitors. The assay yielded a Z score of 0.84 with coefficient of variance ≤ 15%. Our results also show that this assay can be used to identify CaN inhibitors with a wide range of potencies. PMID:26176772

  6. Identification of adiponectin receptor agonist utilizing a fluorescence polarization based high throughput assay.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yiyi; Zang, Zhihe; Zhong, Ling; Wu, Min; Su, Qing; Gao, Xiurong; Zan, Wang; Lin, Dong; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Zhonglin

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin, the adipose-derived hormone, plays an important role in the suppression of metabolic disorders that can result in type 2 diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis. It has been shown that up-regulation of adiponectin or adiponectin receptor has a number of therapeutic benefits. Given that it is hard to convert the full size adiponectin protein into a viable drug, adiponectin receptor agonists could be designed or identified using high-throughput screening. Here, we report on the development of a two-step screening process to identify adiponectin agonists. First step, we developed a high throughput screening assay based on fluorescence polarization to identify adiponectin ligands. The fluorescence polarization assay reported here could be adapted to screening against larger small molecular compound libraries. A natural product library containing 10,000 compounds was screened and 9 hits were selected for validation. These compounds have been taken for the second-step in vitro tests to confirm their agonistic activity. The most active adiponectin receptor 1 agonists are matairesinol, arctiin, (-)-arctigenin and gramine. The most active adiponectin receptor 2 agonists are parthenolide, taxifoliol, deoxyschizandrin, and syringin. These compounds may be useful drug candidates for hypoadiponectin related diseases. PMID:23691032

  7. Screening for small molecules' bilayer-modifying potential using a gramicidin-based fluorescence assay.

    PubMed

    Ingólfsson, Helgi I; Andersen, Olaf S

    2010-08-01

    Many drugs and other small molecules used to modulate biological function are amphiphiles that adsorb at the bilayer/solution interface and thereby alter lipid bilayer properties. This is important because membrane proteins are energetically coupled to their host bilayer by hydrophobic interactions. Changes in bilayer properties thus alter membrane protein function, which provides a possible mechanism for "off-target" drug effects. We have previously shown that channels formed by the linear gramicidins are suitable probes for changes in lipid bilayer properties, as experienced by bilayer-spanning proteins. We now report a gramicidin-based fluorescence assay for changes in bilayer properties. The assay is based on measuring the time course of fluorescence quenching in fluorophore-loaded large unilamellar vesicles, due to entry of a gramicidin channel-permeable quencher. The method is scalable and suitable for both mechanistic studies and high-throughput screening for bilayer-perturbing, potential off-target effects, which we illustrate using capsaicin (Cap) and other compounds.

  8. Rapid detection and quantitation of Bluetongue virus (BTV) using a Molecular Beacon fluorescent probe assay.

    PubMed

    Orrù, Germano; Ferrando, Maria Laura; Meloni, Mauro; Liciardi, Manuele; Savini, Giovanni; De Santis, Paola

    2006-10-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the causative agent of Bluetongue (BT) disease in ruminant livestock and occurs almost worldwide between latitudes 35 degrees S and 50 degrees N; 24 serotypes of BTV are known of which 8 circulate periodically within parts of the Mediterranean Region. A fast (about 3.5 h) and versatile diagnostic procedure able to detect and quantify BTV-RNA, has been developed using a Molecular Beacon (MB) fluorescent probe; PCR primers were designed to target 91 bp within the NS3 conserved region of the viral RNA segment 10 (S10) and bracketed the MB fluorescence probe hybridisation site. The MB fluorescent probe was used to develop two Bluetongue serogroup-specific assays: a quantitative real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and a traditional RT-PCR. These were tested using BTV-RNAs extracted from the blood and organs of BT-affected animals, and from virus isolate suspensions. The samples included ten serotypes (BTV-1-BTV-9 and BTV-16); of these, BTV serotypes -1, -2, -4, -9 and -16 have since 1998 been involved in the extensive outbreaks of BT across the Mediterranean Region. To evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of the MB probe, all positive samples (and negative controls) were tested using the developed quantitative real time RT-PCR and traditional RT-PCR assays. The former test had a detection limit of 10(3) cDNA molecules per reaction with a log-linear quantification range of up to 10(11) (R2 = 0.98), while the latter test was able to detect 500 cDNA-BTV molecules/PCR. The results show that the MB fluorescent probe is both rapid and versatile for the laboratory diagnosis of Bluetongue and for quantifying levels of viraemia in BTV-affected animals. An "in silico" comparison of the primers and MB fluorescent probe used in this study showed that it is possible to detect all 24 serotypes of BTV.

  9. Fluorescence Polarization Screening Assays for Small Molecule Allosteric Modulators of ABL Kinase Function

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Prerna; Shi, Haibin; Baumgartner, Matthew; Camacho, Carlos J.; Smithgall, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    The ABL protein-tyrosine kinase regulates intracellular signaling pathways controlling diverse cellular processes and contributes to several forms of cancer. The kinase activity of ABL is repressed by intramolecular interactions involving its regulatory Ncap, SH3 and SH2 domains. Small molecules that allosterically regulate ABL kinase activity through its non-catalytic domains may represent selective probes of ABL function. Here we report a screening assay for chemical modulators of ABL kinase activity that target the regulatory interaction of the SH3 domain with the SH2-kinase linker. This fluorescence polarization (FP) assay is based on a purified recombinant ABL protein consisting of the N-cap, SH3 and SH2 domains plus the SH2-kinase linker (N32L protein) and a short fluorescein-labeled probe peptide that binds to the SH3 domain. In assay development experiments, we found that the probe peptide binds to the recombinant ABL N32L protein in vitro, producing a robust FP signal that can be competed with an excess of unlabeled peptide. The FP signal is not observed with control N32L proteins bearing either an inactivating mutation in the SH3 domain or enhanced SH3:linker interaction. A pilot screen of 1200 FDA-approved drugs identified four compounds that specifically reduced the FP signal by at least three standard deviations from the untreated controls. Secondary assays showed that one of these hit compounds, the antithrombotic drug dipyridamole, enhances ABL kinase activity in vitro to a greater extent than the previously described ABL agonist, DPH. Docking studies predicted that this compound binds to a pocket formed at the interface of the SH3 domain and the linker, suggesting that it activates ABL by disrupting this regulatory interaction. These results show that screening assays based on the non-catalytic domains of ABL can identify allosteric small molecule regulators of kinase function, providing a new approach to selective drug discovery for this important

  10. Single-tube fluorescent product-enhanced reverse transcriptase assay with Ampliwax (STF-PERT) for retrovirus quantitation.

    PubMed

    Sears, Johnna F; Khan, Arifa S

    2003-03-01

    A TaqMan fluorescent probe-based product enhanced reverse transcriptase (RT) assay is described in which the RT and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) steps are set-up in a single tube, in two compartments separated by Ampliwax (designated as single-tube fluorescent product-enhanced reverse transcriptase assay (STF-PERT)). This simplification of the two-step method resulted in increased assay reproducibility and handling efficiency while maintaining the sensitivity of the PERT assay (<10 virions). The STF-PERT assay can be used to quantitate low amounts of retrovirus in clinical and research materials and to evaluate retrovirus contamination in cell substrates and biological products in human use.

  11. Quantitative ELISA-Like Immunohistochemistry of Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 in Diagnosis of Tumor-Induced Osteomalacia and Clinical Characteristics of the Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Fangke; Jiang, Chengying; Zhang, Qiang; Shi, Huaiyin; Wei, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare acquired paraneoplastic disorder and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) plays a key role in its pathogenesis. This study was conducted to describe a novel FGF23 detecting procedure and describe clinical features of the disease. Fourteen TIO cases were retrieved and FGF23 expression was measured by quantitative ELISA-like immunohistochemistry using formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues. As summarized from 14 TIO cases, clinical features of TIO were long-standing history of osteomalacia, hypophosphatemia, and urinary phosphate wasting. The associated tumors were mostly benign phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors mixed connective tissue variant (PMTMCT) which could be located anywhere on the body, and most of them could be localized by conventional examinations and octreotide scanning. By quantitative ELISA-like immunohistochemistry, all the 14 TIO cases had high FGF23 expression (median 0.69, 25%–75% interquartile 0.57–1.10, compared with 26 non-TIO tumors of median 0.07, 25%–75% interquartile 0.05–0.11, p < 0.001). The quantitative ELISA-like immunohistochemistry was a feasible and reproducible procedure to detect the high FGF23 expression in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded biopsies or specimens. Since TIO was often delay-diagnosed or misdiagnosed, clinicians and pathologists should be aware of TIO and PMTMCT, respectively. PMID:27034530

  12. High performance magnesium anode in paper-based microfluidic battery, powering on-chip fluorescence assay

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Youngmi; Sankar, Jagannathan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2014-01-01

    A high power density and long-lasting stable/disposable magnesium battery anode was explored for a paper-based fluidic battery to power on-chip functions of various Point of Care (POC) devices. The single galvanic cell with magnesium foil anode and silver foil cathode in Origami cellulose chip provided open circuit potential, 2.2 V, and power density, 3.0 mW/cm2. A paper-based fluidic galvanic cell was operated with one drop of water (80 μl) and continued to run until it was dry. To prove the concept about powering on-chip POC devices, two-serial galvanic cells are developed and incorporated with a UV-light emitting diode (λ = 365 nm) and fluorescence assay for alkaline phosphatase reaction. Further, detection using smart phones was performed for quantitative measurement of fluorescent density. To conclude, a magnesium-based fluidic battery paper chip was extremely low-cost, required minute sample volumes, was easy to dispose of, light weight, easy to stack, store and transport, easy to fabricate, scalable, and has faster analysis times. PMID:25332741

  13. A Fluorescence-Based Assay for Proteinuria Screening in Larval Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Hanke, Nils; King, Benjamin L; Vaske, Bernhard; Haller, Hermann; Schiffer, Mario

    2015-10-01

    Analysis of genes compromising the glomerular filtration barrier in rodent models using transgenic or knockdown approaches is time- and resource-consuming and often leads to unsatisfactory results. Therefore, it would be beneficial to have a selection tool indicating that your gene of interest is in fact associated with proteinuria. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a rapid screening tool to study effects in glomerular filtration barrier integrity after genetic manipulation. We use either injection of high-molecular-weight dextrans or a transgenic fluorescent fish line [Tg(l-fabp:DBP:EGFP)] expressing a vitamin D-binding protein fused with eGFP for indirect detection of proteinuria. A loss of high-molecular-weight proteins from the circulation of the fish into the urine can be identified by monitoring fluorescence intensity in the zebrafish eye. Paired with an optimized analysis method, this assay provides an effective screening solution to detect filtration barrier damage with proteinuria before moving to a mammalian system. PMID:26125680

  14. A Fluorescence-Based Assay for Proteinuria Screening in Larval Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    King, Benjamin L.; Vaske, Bernhard; Haller, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Analysis of genes compromising the glomerular filtration barrier in rodent models using transgenic or knockdown approaches is time- and resource-consuming and often leads to unsatisfactory results. Therefore, it would be beneficial to have a selection tool indicating that your gene of interest is in fact associated with proteinuria. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a rapid screening tool to study effects in glomerular filtration barrier integrity after genetic manipulation. We use either injection of high-molecular-weight dextrans or a transgenic fluorescent fish line [Tg(l-fabp:DBP:EGFP)] expressing a vitamin D-binding protein fused with eGFP for indirect detection of proteinuria. A loss of high-molecular-weight proteins from the circulation of the fish into the urine can be identified by monitoring fluorescence intensity in the zebrafish eye. Paired with an optimized analysis method, this assay provides an effective screening solution to detect filtration barrier damage with proteinuria before moving to a mammalian system. PMID:26125680

  15. High performance magnesium anode in paper-based microfluidic battery, powering on-chip fluorescence assay.

    PubMed

    Koo, Youngmi; Sankar, Jagannathan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2014-09-01

    A high power density and long-lasting stable/disposable magnesium battery anode was explored for a paper-based fluidic battery to power on-chip functions of various Point of Care (POC) devices. The single galvanic cell with magnesium foil anode and silver foil cathode in Origami cellulose chip provided open circuit potential, 2.2 V, and power density, 3.0 mW/cm(2). A paper-based fluidic galvanic cell was operated with one drop of water (80 μl) and continued to run until it was dry. To prove the concept about powering on-chip POC devices, two-serial galvanic cells are developed and incorporated with a UV-light emitting diode (λ = 365 nm) and fluorescence assay for alkaline phosphatase reaction. Further, detection using smart phones was performed for quantitative measurement of fluorescent density. To conclude, a magnesium-based fluidic battery paper chip was extremely low-cost, required minute sample volumes, was easy to dispose of, light weight, easy to stack, store and transport, easy to fabricate, scalable, and has faster analysis times.

  16. Design of fluorescent assays for cyanide and hydrogen peroxide based on the inner filter effect of metal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shang, Li; Dong, Shaojun

    2009-02-15

    We have demonstrated the design of a new type fluorescent assay based on the inner filter effect (IFE) of metal nanoparticles (NPs), which is conceptually different from the previously reported metal NPs-based fluorescent assays. With a high extinction coefficient and tunable plasmon absorption feature, metal NPs are expected to be capable of functioning as a powerful absorber to tune the emission of the fluorophore in the IFE-based fluorescent assays. In this work, we presented two proof-of-concept examples based on the IFE of Au NPs by choosing MDMO-PPV as a model fluorophore, whose fluorescence could be tuned by the absorbance of Au NPs with a much higher sensitivity than the corresponding absorbance approach. While the first assay worked in a turn-on mode upon the etching of Au NPs by the analyte, CN(-), the second one functioned in a turn-off mode upon the catalytic growth of Au NPs by the analyte, H(2)O(2). As a result, the present IFE-based approach can detect cyanide ranging from 1.0 x 10(-6) to 6.0 x 10(-4) M with a detection limit of 6.0 x 10(-7) M and H(2)O(2) ranging from 1.5 x 10(-7) to 2.2 x 10(-5) M with a detection limit of 8.5 x 10(-8) M, respectively. Notably, the present IFE-based approach allows the design of fluorescent assays in a more simple, time-saving, and economical approach when compared with conventional metal NPs-based fluorescent assays, since no modification step of the fluorophore was needed any more.

  17. Laser-assisted cryosurgery in ex vivo mice hepatic tissue: viability assays using green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Suástegui, L; Duperray, B; Godinez, F; Guillén, G; Slade, A; Aguilar, G

    2011-02-01

    An experimental investigation is carried out to develop a novel approach to cryosurgery, where laser heating counteracts tissue freezing to better confine damage to the targeted cancerous tissue within a lethal low-temperature isothermal boundary-an approach we refer to as laser-assisted cryosurgery (LAC). The advantage of this procedure relative to conventional cryosurgery assisted with urethral warmers or cryoheaters is that laser heating provides volumetric rather than superficial heating, which leads to deeper penetration, more homogeneous tissue protection and better demarcation of the destructive freezing effect to a well-defined targeted volume. Tissue viability assays are performed using green fluorescence protein (GFP) as a viability marker and correlated with temperature history after performing LAC procedures on ex vivo mice hepatic tissue. The limit for cell denaturation at the irradiated surface predicted by GFP analysis is further confirmed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, the correlation between GFP fluorescence and cell viability and loss of GFP fluorescence in non-viable cells has been tested and validated by histological analysis using a standard cell viability measuring method (hematoxylin and eosin staining). Analysis of our experimental measurements show that reproducible thermal gradients (of 236 °C/cm) and predictable tissue necrosis can be reliably produced by LAC without exceeding temperature thresholds for cell denaturation (of T (surf) ≈ 48 °C) beyond preset tissue boundaries (with resolution of 0.1 °C/mm). The results have shown the feasibility of controlling temperatures at specified tissue locations to prevent hyperthermal or freezing damage. PMID:20963494

  18. Single-label kinase and phosphatase assays for tyrosine phosphorylation using nanosecond time-resolved fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Harekrushna; Hennig, Andreas; Florea, Mara; Roth, Doris; Enderle, Thilo; Nau, Werner M

    2007-12-26

    The collision-induced fluorescence quenching of a 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene-labeled asparagine (Dbo) by hydrogen atom abstraction from the tyrosine residue in peptide substrates was introduced as a single-labeling strategy to assay the activity of tyrosine kinases and phosphatases. The assays were tested for 12 different combinations of Dbo-labeled substrates and with the enzymes p60c-Src Src kinase, EGFR kinase, YOP protein tyrosine phosphatase, as well as acid and alkaline phosphatases, thereby demonstrating a broad application potential. The steady-state fluorescence changed by a factor of up to 7 in the course of the enzymatic reaction, which allowed for a sufficient sensitivity of continuous monitoring in steady-state experiments. The fluorescence lifetimes (and intensities) were found to be rather constant for the phosphotyrosine peptides (ca. 300 ns in aerated water), while those of the unphosphorylated peptides were as short as 40 ns (at pH 7) and 7 ns (at pH 13) as a result of intramolecular quenching. Owing to the exceptionally long fluorescence lifetime of Dbo, the assays were alternatively performed by using nanosecond time-resolved fluorescence (Nano-TRF) detection, which leads to an improved discrimination of background fluorescence and an increased sensitivity. The potential for inhibitor screening was demonstrated through the inhibition of acid and alkaline phosphatases by molybdate.

  19. Photonic Crystal Surfaces as a General Purpose Platform for Label-Free and Fluorescent Assays

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Brian T.

    2009-01-01

    Photonic crystal surfaces can be designed to provide a wide range of functions that are used to perform biochemical and cell-based assays. Detection of the optical resonant reflections from photonic crystal surfaces enables high sensitivity label-free biosensing, while the enhanced electromagnetic fields that occur at resonant wavelengths can be used to enhance the detection sensitivity of any surface-based fluorescence assay. Fabrication of photonic crystals from inexpensive plastic materials over large surface areas enables them to be incorporated into standard formats that include microplates, microarrays, and microfluidic channels. This report reviews the design of photonic crystal biosensors, their associated detection instrumentation, and biological applications. Applications including small molecule high throughput screening, cell membrane integrin activation, gene expression analysis, and protein biomarker detection are highlighted. Recent results in which photonic crystal surfaces are used for enhancing the detection of Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, and the development of high resolution photonic crystal-based laser biosensors are also described. PMID:20383277

  20. Multi-residue fluorescent microspheres immunochromatographic assay for simultaneous determination of macrolides in raw milk.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangmei; Shen, Jianzhong; Wang, Qi; Gao, Shuxia; Pei, Xingyao; Jiang, Haiyang; Wen, Kai

    2015-12-01

    A rapid, reliable, sensitive, and quantitative multi-residue fluorescent microspheres immunochromatographic assay (FMCA) was developed for simultaneous detection of four macrolides in raw milk. The IC50 value of the optimized FMCA was 1.36, 1.22, 1.01, and 1.39 ng/mL for erythromycin (ERY), spiramycin (SPI), tilmicosin (TIM), and tylosin (TYL), respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) for the four macrolides was 0.13 ng/mL. The recoveries of ERY, SPI, TIM, and TYL from spiked raw milk ranged from 91.8-109.2, 89.6-114.4, 84.8-111.6, and 85.8-115.2%, respectively, with coefficients of variation (CVs) of 5.4-11.3, 7.9-15.7, 6.2-13.7, and 3.2-14.9%, respectively. The whole testing process was completed within 20 min. The antibody-mixed labeled method was successfully applied to the FMCA, which greatly simplified the operation steps and saved a lot of time. Compared with the immunogold chromatographic assay (IGCA), the FMCA is more sensitive and stable and has less antibody consumption. A parallel analysis in blind raw milk samples was conducted by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS); the results showed good correlation (r(2) = 0.99) between the two methods. Therefore, the developed multi-residue FMCA is reliable and can be easily applied to other antibiotics or other contaminants. PMID:26497839

  1. Cell damage detection using Escherichia coli reporter plasmids: fluorescent and colorimetric assays.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Martínez, Felipe; Carrizosa-Villegas, Luz Adriana; Rangel-Serrano, Ángeles; Paramo-Pérez, Itzel; Mondragón-Jaimes, Verónica; Anaya-Velázquez, Fernando; Padilla-Vaca, Felipe; Franco, Bernardo

    2015-08-01

    Bacterial reporter assays are powerful tools used to study the effect of different compounds that affect the physiology of cellular processes. Most bacterial reporters are luciferase based and can be monitored in real time. In the present study we designed and implemented two sets of Escherichia coli bacterial reporter assays, using a multicopy plasmid system. Each reporter strain was constructed using either green fluorescent protein or β-galactosidase (LacZ) proteins. The designed reporter strains are capable of responding in a specific manner to molecules that either oxidative stress, or membrane, protein, or DNA damage. In order to respond to the desired stimulus, promoter sequences from E. coli were used. These sequences correspond to the promoter of the major catalase (KatG) activated with cellular oxidative damage, the promoter of the β-hydroxydecanoyl-ACP dehydrase (FabA) which is activated with membrane perturbation, the promoter of DNA recombinase (RecA) which is activated by DNA lesions. For protein misfolding, the promoter of the heat-shock responsive chaperon (DnaK) was used. Our constructs displayed activation to damage from specific stimuli, and low response to nonspecific stimuli was detected. Our results suggest that these types of bacterial reporter strains can be used in semiquantitative (fluorometric) and qualitative (β-galactosidase activity) studies of different xenobiotic substances and pollutants.

  2. Small molecule aptamer assays based on fluorescence anisotropy signal-enhancer oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Perrier, Sandrine; Bouilloud, Prisca; De Oliveira Coelho, Gisella; Henry, Mickael; Peyrin, Eric

    2016-08-15

    Herein, we design novel fluorescence anisotropy (FA) aptamer sensing platforms dedicated to small molecule detection. The assay strategy relied on enhanced fluctuations of segmental motion dynamics of the aptamer tracer mediated by an unlabelled, partially complementary oligonucleotide. The signal-enhancer oligonucleotide (SEO) essentially served as a free probe fraction revealer. By targeting specific regions of the signalling functional nucleic acid, the SEO binding to the unbound aptamer triggered perturbations of both the internal DNA flexibility and the localized dye environment upon the free probe to duplex structure transition. This potentiating effect determined increased FA variations between the duplex and target bound states of the aptameric probe. FA assay responses were obtained with both pre-structured (adenosine) and unstructured (tyrosinamide) aptamers and with dyes of different photochemical properties (fluorescein and texas red). The multiplexed analysis ability was further demonstrated through the simultaneous multicolour detection of the two small targets. The FA method appears to be especially simple, sensitive and widely applicable. PMID:27085946

  3. Fluorescence-Based Transport Assays Revisited in a Human Renal Proximal Tubule Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Caetano-Pinto, Pedro; Janssen, Manoe J; Gijzen, Linda; Verscheijden, Laurens; Wilmer, Martijn J G; Masereeuw, Rosalinde

    2016-03-01

    Apical transport is key in renal function, and the activity of efflux transporters and receptor-mediated endocytosis is pivotal in this process. The conditionally immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cell line (ciPTEC) endogenously expresses these systems. Here, we used ciPTEC to investigate the activity of three major efflux transporters, viz., breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4), and P-glycoprotein (P-gp), as well as protein uptake through receptor-mediated endocytosis, using a fluorescence-based setup for transport assays. To this end, cells were exposed to Hoechst33342, chloromethylfluorescein-diacetate (CMFDA), and calcein-AM in the presence or absence of model inhibitors for BCRP (KO143), P-gp (PSC833), or MRPs (MK571). Overexpression cell lines MDCKII-BCRP and MDCKII-P-gp were used as positive controls, and membrane vesicles overexpressing one transporter were used to determine substrate and inhibitor specificities. Receptor-mediated endocytosis was investigated by determining the intracellular accumulation of fluorescently labeled receptor-associated protein (RAP-GST). In ciPTEC, BCRP and P-gp showed similar expressions and activities, whereas MRP4 was more abundantly expressed. Hoechst33342, GS-MF, and calcein are retained in the presence of KO143, MK571, and PSC833, showing clearly redundancy between the transporters. Noteworthy is the fact that both KO143 and MK571 can block BCRP, P-gp, and MRPs, whereas PSC833 appears to be a potent inhibitor for BCRP and P-gp but not the MRPs. Furthermore, ciPTEC accumulates RAP-GST in intracellular vesicles in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which was reduced in megalin-deficient cells. In conclusion, fluorescent-probe-based assays are fast and reproducible in determining apical transport mechanisms, in vitro. We demonstrate that typical substrates and inhibitors are not specific for the designated transporters, reflecting the complex interactions that can take place in

  4. Depolarization after resonance energy transfer (DARET): a sensitive fluorescence-based assay for botulinum neurotoxin protease activity.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Marcella A; Williams, Dudley; Okawa, Yumiko; Holguin, Bret; James, Nicholas G; Ross, Justin A; Roger Aoki, K; Jameson, David M; Steward, Lance E

    2011-06-01

    The DARET (depolarization after resonance energy transfer) assay is a coupled Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-fluorescence polarization assay for botulinum neurotoxin type A or E (BoNT/A or BoNT/E) proteolytic activity that relies on a fully recombinant substrate. The substrate consists of blue fluorescent protein (BFP) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) flanking SNAP-25 (synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa) residues 134-206. In this assay, the substrate is excited with polarized light at 387 nm, which primarily excites the BFP, whereas emission from the GFP is monitored at 509 nm. Energy transfer from the BFP to the GFP in the intact substrate results in a substantial depolarization of the GFP emission. The energy transfer is eliminated when the fluorescent domains separate on cleavage by the endopeptidase, and emission from the directly excited GFP product fragment is then highly polarized, resulting in an overall increase in polarization. This increase in polarization can be monitored to assay the proteolytic activity of BoNT/A and BoNT/E in real time. It allows determination of the turnover rate of the substrate and the kinetic constants (V(max) and k(cat)) based on the concentration of cleaved substrate determined directly from the measurements using the additivity properties of polarization. The assay is amenable to high-throughput applications.

  5. Improvement of the Mutation-Discrimination Threshold for Rare Point Mutations by a Separation-Free Ligase Detection Reaction Assay Based on Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer.

    PubMed

    Hagihara, Kenta; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhiko; Nakajima, Chinami; Esaki, Shinsuke; Hashimoto, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    We previously developed a separation-free ligase detection reaction assay based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer from a donor quantum dot to an acceptor fluorescent dye. This assay could successfully detect one cancer mutation among 10 wild-type templates. In the current study, the mutation-discrimination threshold was improved by one order of magnitude by replacing the original acceptor dye (Alexa Fluor 647) with another fluorescent dye (Cyanine 5) that was spectrally similar but more fluorescent. PMID:26960620

  6. In Situ SUMOylation and DeSUMOylation Assays: Fluorescent Methods to Visualize SUMOylation and DeSUMOylation in Permeabilized Cells.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Eri; Saitoh, Hisato

    2016-01-01

    This chapter deals with the fluorescence detection of SUMOylation and deSUMOylation in semi-intact cultured human cells, the so-called "in situ SUMOylation assay" and the "in situ deSUMOylation assay," respectively. In the in situ SUMOylation assay, the recombinant green-fluorescence protein fused to the SUMO1 (GFP-SUMO1) protein is used to visualize the nuclear rim, nucleolus, and nuclear bodies. These GFP signals represent cellular regions where SUMOylation efficiently takes place. If the recombinant SUMO-specific protease SENP1-catalytic domain is added after in situ SUMOylation, GFP signals can be erased. Therefore, the in situ SUMOylation assay can be used to assess deSUMOylation enzymatic activity. PMID:27631804

  7. Time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer as a versatile tool in the development of homogeneous cellular kinase assays.

    PubMed

    Saville, Lisa; Spais, Chrysanthe; Mason, Jennifer L; Albom, Mark S; Murthy, Seetha; Meyer, Sheryl L; Ator, Mark A; Angeles, Thelma S; Husten, Jean

    2012-12-01

    Homogeneous cellular assays can streamline product detection in the drug discovery process. One commercially available assay employing time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) that detects phosphorylated products was used to evaluate inhibitors of the receptor tyrosine kinase AXL in a cell line expressing an AXL-green fluorescent protein fusion protein. This TR-FRET assay was modified to evaluate the phosphorylation state of the AXL family member MER in a cell line expressing MER with a V5 tag by adding a fluorescein-labeled anti-V5 antibody. This homogeneous cellular assay was further modified to evaluate the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in cell lines that expressed an untagged kinase by the inclusion of a commercially available anti-FAK antibody conjugated with an acceptor dye. The methods described here can be further adapted for TR-FRET detection of other cellular kinase activities.

  8. Modeling and Application of a Rapid Fluorescence-Based Assay for Biotoxicity in Anaerobic Digestion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian Lin; Steele, Terry W J; Stuckey, David C

    2015-11-17

    The sensitivity of anaerobic digestion metabolism to a wide range of solutes makes it important to be able to monitor toxicants in the feed to anaerobic digesters to optimize their operation. In this study, a rapid fluorescence measurement technique based on resazurin reduction using a microplate reader was developed and applied for the detection of toxicants and/or inhibitors to digesters. A kinetic model was developed to describe the process of resazurin reduced to resorufin, and eventually to dihydroresorufin under anaerobic conditions. By modeling the assay results of resazurin (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mM) reduction by a pure facultative anaerobic strain, Enterococcus faecalis, and fresh mixed anaerobic sludge, with or without 10 mg L(-1) spiked pentachlorophenol (PCP), we found it was clear that the pseudo-first-order rate constant for the reduction of resazurin to resorufin, k1, was a good measure of "toxicity". With lower biomass density and the optimal resazurin addition (0.1 mM), the toxicity of 10 mg L(-1) PCP for E. faecalis and fresh anaerobic sludge was detected in 10 min. By using this model, the toxicity differences among seven chlorophenols to E. faecalis and fresh mixed anaerobic sludge were elucidated within 30 min. The toxicity differences determined by this assay were comparable to toxicity sequences of various chlorophenols reported in the literature. These results suggest that the assay developed in this study not only can quickly detect toxicants for anaerobic digestion but also can efficiently detect the toxicity differences among a variety of similar toxicants.

  9. A fluorescent assay amenable to measuring production of beta-D-glucuronides produced from recombinant UDP-glycosyl transferase enzymes.

    PubMed

    Trubetskoy, O V; Shaw, P M

    1999-05-01

    Beta-glucuronidase cleavage of 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-glucuronide generates the highly fluorescent compound, 4-methylumbelliferone. We show that other beta-D-glucuronide compounds act as competitors in this assay. The 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-glucuronide cleavage assay can easily be adapted to high throughput formats to detect the presence of beta-D glucuronides generated using recombinant glycosyl transferase preparations.

  10. Design and Implementation of Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) Assays for the Visualization of Protein Interactions in Living Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kerppola, Tom K.

    2008-01-01

    Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analysis enables direct visualization of protein interactions in living cells. The BiFC assay is based on the discoveries that two non-fluorescent fragments of a fluorescent protein can associate to form a fluorescent complex and that the association of the fragments can be facilitated by fusing them to two proteins that interact with each other. The non-covalent association of the fragments produces a bimolecular fluorescent complex. The specificity of bimolecular fluorescence complementation must be confirmed by parallel analysis of proteins in which the interaction interface has been mutated. It is not necessary for the interaction partners to juxtapose the fragments within a specific distance of each other since they can associate when they are tethered to a complex with flexible linkers. It is also not necessary for the interaction partners to form a complex with a long half-life or a high occupancy since the fragments can associate in a transient complex and un-associated fusion proteins do not interfere with detection of the complex. Many interactions can be visualized when the fusion proteins are expressed at concentrations comparable to their endogenous counterparts. The BiFC assay has been used for the visualization of interactions between many types of proteins in different subcellular locations and in different cell types and organisms. It is technically straightforward and can be performed using a regular fluorescence microscope and standard molecular biology and cell culture reagents. PMID:17406412

  11. Sensing of a nucleic acid binding protein via a label-free perylene probe fluorescence recovery assay.

    PubMed

    Liao, Dongli; Li, Wenying; Chen, Jian; Jiao, Huping; Zhou, Huipeng; Wang, Bin; Yu, Cong

    2013-10-01

    A novel label-free fluorescence recovery assay for the sensing of a DNA binding protein has been developed. A transcription factor c-Jun protein, and a 21 base pair duplex DNA containing the c-Jun protein binding site (J-DNA) were selected. J-DNA was mixed with a cationic fluorescent perylene probe (compound 1), and induced aggregation of the probe. Quenching of the probe's fluorescence was observed. However, when c-Jun protein was mixed with the J-DNA, c-Jun bound to the duplex DNA, which reduced the degree of the induced perylene probe aggregation, and a turn on fluorescence signal was observed. The recovered fluorescence intensity was directly related to the amount of c-Jun added. The method is highly selective, six non-DNA binding proteins and one randomly selected 21 base pair duplex DNA (con-1) were tested. No noticeable compound 1 fluorescence recovery was observed. Mutations were also introduced to the c-Jun recognition sequence and much reduced fluorescence recovery was observed. Our assay is label-free, convenient, inexpensive, and fast. It can be used in biomedical research such as high throughput screening of drugs targeted at DNA-binding proteins.

  12. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay for protein-protein interaction in onion cells using the helios gene gun.

    PubMed

    Hollender, Courtney A; Liu, Zhongchi

    2010-06-12

    Investigation of gene function in diverse organisms relies on knowledge of how the gene products interact with each other in their normal cellular environment. The Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) Assay(1) allows researchers to visualize protein-protein interactions in living cells and has become an essential research tool. This assay is based on the facilitated association of two fragments of a fluorescent protein (GFP) that are each fused to a potential interacting protein partner. The interaction of the two protein partners would facilitate the association of the N-terminal and C-terminal fragment of GFP, leading to fluorescence. For plant researchers, onion epidermal cells are an ideal experimental system for conducting the BiFC assay because of the ease in obtaining and preparing onion tissues and the direct visualization of fluorescence with minimal background fluorescence. The Helios Gene Gun (BioRad) is commonly used for bombarding plasmid DNA into onion cells. We demonstrate the use of Helios Gene Gun to introduce plasmid constructs for two interacting Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factors, SEUSS (SEU) and LEUNIG HOMOLOG (LUH)(2) and the visualization of their interactions mediated by BiFC in onion epidermal cells.

  13. Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) Assay for Protein-Protein Interaction in Onion Cells Using the Helios Gene Gun

    PubMed Central

    Hollender, Courtney A.; Liu, Zhongchi

    2010-01-01

    Investigation of gene function in diverse organisms relies on knowledge of how the gene products interact with each other in their normal cellular environment. The Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) Assay1 allows researchers to visualize protein-protein interactions in living cells and has become an essential research tool. This assay is based on the facilitated association of two fragments of a fluorescent protein (GFP) that are each fused to a potential interacting protein partner. The interaction of the two protein partners would facilitate the association of the N-terminal and C-terminal fragment of GFP, leading to fluorescence. For plant researchers, onion epidermal cells are an ideal experimental system for conducting the BiFC assay because of the ease in obtaining and preparing onion tissues and the direct visualization of fluorescence with minimal background fluorescence. The Helios Gene Gun (BioRad) is commonly used for bombarding plasmid DNA into onion cells. We demonstrate the use of Helios Gene Gun to introduce plasmid constructs for two interacting Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factors, SEUSS (SEU) and LEUNIG HOMOLOG (LUH)2 and the visualization of their interactions mediated by BiFC in onion epidermal cells. PMID:20567209

  14. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay for protein-protein interaction in onion cells using the helios gene gun.

    PubMed

    Hollender, Courtney A; Liu, Zhongchi

    2010-01-01

    Investigation of gene function in diverse organisms relies on knowledge of how the gene products interact with each other in their normal cellular environment. The Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) Assay(1) allows researchers to visualize protein-protein interactions in living cells and has become an essential research tool. This assay is based on the facilitated association of two fragments of a fluorescent protein (GFP) that are each fused to a potential interacting protein partner. The interaction of the two protein partners would facilitate the association of the N-terminal and C-terminal fragment of GFP, leading to fluorescence. For plant researchers, onion epidermal cells are an ideal experimental system for conducting the BiFC assay because of the ease in obtaining and preparing onion tissues and the direct visualization of fluorescence with minimal background fluorescence. The Helios Gene Gun (BioRad) is commonly used for bombarding plasmid DNA into onion cells. We demonstrate the use of Helios Gene Gun to introduce plasmid constructs for two interacting Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factors, SEUSS (SEU) and LEUNIG HOMOLOG (LUH)(2) and the visualization of their interactions mediated by BiFC in onion epidermal cells. PMID:20567209

  15. Measuring Norfloxacin Binding to Trypsin Using a Fluorescence Quenching Assay in an Upper-Division, Integrated Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Katherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence quenching assays are often used to measure dissociation constants that quantify the binding affinity between small molecules and proteins. In an upper-division undergraduate laboratory course, where students work on projects using a guided inquiry-based approach, a binding titration experiment at physiological pH is performed to…

  16. Large-scale drug screening against Babesia divergens parasite using a fluorescence-based high-throughput screening assay.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Mohamed Abdo; El-Sayed, Shimaa Abd El-Salam; AbouLaila, Mahmoud; Tuvshintulga, Bumduuren; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Igarashi, Ikuo

    2016-08-30

    The validation of a fluorescence-based high-throughput screening (HTS) assay for determining the efficacies of large chemical libraries against Babesia divergens (bovine strain) in in vitro cultures was evaluated in this study. Hematocrits (HCTs) of 2.5%, 5%, and 10% were used for the in vitro culture at 1% parasitemia without daily replacement of the medium. Linearity and HTS assay results revealed that the best HCTs were 5% and 10%. The obtained IC50 values of diminazene aceturate, either by fluorescence-based HTS assay with and without daily replacement of medium or by fluorescence- and microscopy-based methods, did not differ significantly at 5% HCT. Actinonin and chloroquine diphosphate were the most effective drugs against the in vitro growth of B. divergens, followed by pyronaridine tetraphosphate- and luteolin-treated cultures. On contrary, tetracycline hydrochloride and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate from green tea exhibited poor activity as compared with diminazene aceturate (positive control drug). The data indicated that 5% HCT without daily replacement of the culture medium mixed with bovine serum in vitro using a fluorescence-based HTS assay creates the best conditions for large-scale drug screening against B. divergens that infect cattle. PMID:27523944

  17. A simple aptamer-based fluorescent assay for the detection of Aflatoxin B1 in infant rice cereal.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lu; Wen, Fang; Li, Ming; Guo, Xiaodong; Li, Songli; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jiaqi

    2017-01-15

    A fluorescent assay for the rapid, sensitive and specific detection of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was developed in this study. Initially, a DNA/DNA duplex was formed between a fluorescein-labeled AFB1 aptamer and its partially complementary DNA strand containing a quencher moiety, resulting in fluorescence quenching due to the close proximity of fluorophore and quencher. Upon the addition of AFB1, an aptamer/AFB1 complex was generated to release the quencher-modified DNA strand, thus recovered the fluorescence of fluorescein and enabled quantitative detection for AFB1 by monitoring fluorescence enhancement. Under optimized conditions, this assay exhibited a linear response to AFB1 in the range of 5-100ng/mL with a detection limit down to 1.6ng/mL. Trials of this assay in infant rice cereal with satisfactory recovery in the range of 93.0%-106.8%, demonstrate that the new assay could be a potential sensing platform for AFB1 determination in food. PMID:27542489

  18. Testing a dual-fluorescence assay to monitor the viability of filamentous cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Tylor J; Hildreth, Michael B; Gu, Liping; Zhou, Ruanbao; Gibbons, William R

    2015-06-01

    Filamentous cyanobacteria are currently being engineered to produce long-chain organic compounds, including 3rd generation biofuels. Because of their filamentous morphology, standard methods to quantify viability (e.g., plate counts) are not possible. This study investigated a dual-fluorescence assay based upon the LIVE/DEAD® BacLight™ Bacterial Viability Kit to quantify the percent viability of filamentous cyanobacteria using a microplate reader in a high throughput 96-well plate format. The manufacturer's protocol calls for an optical density normalization step to equalize the numbers of viable and non-viable cells used to generate calibration curves. Unfortunately, the isopropanol treatment used to generate non-viable cells released a blue pigment that altered absorbance readings of the non-viable cell solution, resulting in an inaccurate calibration curve. Thus we omitted this optical density normalization step, and carefully divided cell cultures into two equal fractions before the isopropanol treatment. While the resulting calibration curves had relatively high correlation coefficients, their use in various experiments resulted in viability estimates ranging from below 0% to far above 100%. We traced this to the apparent inaccuracy of the propidium iodide (PI) dye that was to stain only non-viable cells. Through further analysis via microplate reader, as well as confocal and wide-field epi-fluorescence microscopy, we observed non-specific binding of PI in viable filamentous cyanobacteria. While PI will not work for filamentous cyanobacteria, it is possible that other fluorochrome dyes could be used to selectively stain non-viable cells. This will be essential in future studies for screening mutants and optimizing photobioreactor system performance for filamentous cyanobacteria.

  19. Photo- and biophysical studies of lectin-conjugated fluorescent nanoparticles: reduced sensitivity in high density assays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaqi; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C; Basu, Amit; Zimmt, Matthew B

    2010-11-18

    Lectin-conjugated, fluorescent silica nanoparticles (fNP) have been developed for carbohydrate-based histopathology evaluations of epithelial tissue biopsies. The fNP platform was selected for its enhanced emissive brightness compared to direct dye labeling. Carbohydrate microarray studies were performed to compare the carbohydrate selectivity of the mannose-recognizing lectin Concanavalin A (ConA) before and after conjugation to fluorescent silica nanoparticles (ConA-fNP). These studies revealed surprisingly low emission intensities upon staining with ConA-fNP compared to those with biotin-ConA/Cy3-streptavidin staining. A series of photophysical and biophysical characterizations of the fNP and ConA-fNP conjugates were performed to probe the low sensitivity from fNP in the microarray assays. Up to 1200 fluorescein (FL) and 80 tetramethylrhodamine (TR) dye molecules were incorporated into 46 nm diameter fNP, yielding emissive brightness values 400 and 35 times larger than the individual dye molecules, respectively. ConA lectin conjugated to carboxylic acid surface-modified nanoparticles covers 15-30% of the fNP surface. The CD spectra and mannose substrate selectivity of ConA conjugated to the fNP differed slightly compared to that of soluble ConA. Although, the high emissive brightness of fNP enhances detection sensitivity for samples with low analyte densities, large fNP diameters limit fNP recruitment and binding to samples with high analyte densities. The high analyte density and nearly two-dimensional target format of carbohydrate microarrays make probe size a critical parameter. In this application, fNP labels afford minimal sensitivity advantage compared to direct dye labeling.

  20. A fast and indirect fluorescent antibody assay for the vibrio in large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea (Richardson)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Su, Yongquan; Yan, Qingpi

    2003-03-01

    A fast and indirect fluorescent antibody assay for the Vibrio alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus infecting the large yellow croaker has been developed. The specific antisera for the two strains of vibrio were prepared with New Zealand rabbit and the antiserum and cross-reactive efficacy was tested by coagulation in tube. It showed that the goat anti-rabbit IgG had been labeled by fluorescence isothiocyanate (FITC). The results showed that positive reactions were 100% for the large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea with typical symptom of vibrio infection, while the positive reaction to the pathogen in healthy yellow croakers reached 40%, but seemed negative for aquaculture water. The results demonstrated that this fast and indirect fluorescent antibody assay can be used not only to test the vibrio pathogen in diseased yellow croaker but also in infected animals with no symptom.

  1. A Dual Readout Assay Based on Fluorescence Polarization and Time-Resolved Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer to Screen for RSK1 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Eun-mi; Lee, Mi Young; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Byung Ho; Oh, Kwang-Seok

    2016-01-01

    A dual readout assay based on fluorescence polarization (FP) and time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) exhibits many advantages over single assay technology in terms of screening quality and efficiency. In this study, we developed a dual readout assay combining FP and TR-FRET to identify ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (RSK1) inhibitors. This dual readout assay can monitor both FP and TR-FRET signals from a single RSK1 kinase reaction by using the immobilized metal affinity for phosphochemical (IMAP)-based assay. The Z' value and signal to background (S/B) ratio were 0.85 and 4.0 using FP, and 0.79 and 10.6 using TR-FRET, which led to performance of a pilot library screening against the drug repositioning set consisting of 2320 compounds with a reasonable reproducibility. From this screening, we identified 16 compounds showing greater than 50% inhibition against RSK1 for both FP and TR-FRET; 6 compounds with greater than 50% inhibition only for FP; and 4 compounds with greater than 50% inhibition only for TR-FRET. In a cell-based functional assay to validate the hit compounds, 10 compounds identified only in a single assay had little effect on the RSK-mediated phosphorylation of liver kinase B1, whereas 5 compounds showing greater than 80% inhibition for both FP and TR-FRET reduced the phosphorylation of liver kinase B1. These results demonstrate that the dual readout assay can be used to identify hit compounds by subsequently monitoring both FP and TR-FRET signals from one RSK1 reaction. PMID:27040627

  2. Beyond radio-displacement techniques for Identification of CB1 Ligands: The First Application of a Fluorescence-quenching Assay

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Agostino; Lembo, Francesca; Novellino, Ettore; Stornaiuolo, Mariano; Marinelli, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Cannabinoid type 1 Receptor (CB1) belongs to the GPCR family and it has been targeted, so far, for the discovery of drugs aimed at the treatment of neuropathic pain, nausea, vomit, and food intake disorders. Here, we present the development of the first fluorescent assay enabling the measurement of kinetic binding constants for CB1orthosteric ligands. The assay is based on the use of T1117, a fluorescent analogue of AM251. We prove that T1117 binds endogenous and recombinant CB1 receptors with nanomolar affinity. Moreover, T1117 binding to CB1 is sensitive to the allosteric ligand ORG27569 and thus it is applicable to the discovery of new allosteric drugs. The herein presented assay constitutes a sustainable valid alternative to the expensive and environmental impacting radiodisplacement techniques and paves the way for an easy, fast and cheap high-throughput drug screening toward CB1 for identification of new orthosteric and allosteric modulators. PMID:24441508

  3. A label-free fluorescent assay for free chlorine in drinking water based on protein-stabilized gold nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiaoli; Tang, Yan; Zhang, Liangliang; Zhao, Shulin

    2015-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin stabilized Au nanoclusters (BSA-AuNCs) were demonstrated as a novel fluorescence probe for sensitive and selective detection of free chlorine in drinking water. The fluorescence of BSA-AuNCs was found to be quenched effectively by the free chlorine, and the decrease in fluorescence intensity of BSA-AuNCs allowed the sensitive detection of free chlorine in the range of 0.8-800 μM. The detection limit is 0.50 μM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The present fluorescent assay for free chlorine possesses low detection limit, wide linear range and good selectivity. Real tap water samples were analyzed with satisfactory results, which suggested its potential for water quality analysis.

  4. "Molecular beacon"-based fluorescent assay for selective detection of glutathione and cysteine.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Hepel, Maria

    2011-02-01

    We report on the development of a fluorescence turn-on "molecular beacon" probe for the detection of glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (Cys). The method is based on a competitive ligation of Hg(2+) ions by GSH/Cys and thymine-thymine (T-T) mismatches in a DNA strand of the self-hybridizing beacon strand. The assay relies on the distance-dependent optical properties of the fluorophore/quencher pair attached to the ends of the molecular beacon DNA strand. In a very selective coordination of Hg(2+) to GSH/Cys, the fluorophore/quencher distance increases concomitantly with the dehybridization and dissociation of the beacon stem T-Hg(2+)-T due to the extraction of Hg(2+) ions. This process results in switching the molecular beacon to the "on" state. The concentration range of the probe is 4-200 nM with the limit of detection (LOD) of 4.1 nM for GSH and 4.2 nM Cys. The probe tested satisfactorily against interference for a range of amino acids including sulfur-containing methionine.

  5. Identification of Ancient Silk Using an Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay and Immuno-fluorescence Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Miaomiao; Xie, Jun; Zheng, Hailing; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Bing; Hu, Zhiwen

    2015-01-01

    The identification of ancient silk is of great importance in both archaeology and academia. In the present work, a specific antibody having the characteristics of low cost, easy operation and extensive applicability was developed directly through immunizing rabbits with complete antigen (silk fibroin, SF). Then, antibody-based immunoassays, i.e. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immuno-fluorescence microscopy (IFM), were established and conducted in tandem to identify the corresponding protein in ancient silks. The anti-SF antibody exhibits high sensitivity and specificity for the identification of modern and ancient silks. The detection limit of the ELISA method is about 0.1 ng/mL, and no cross-reactions with other possible interference antigens have been noted. IFM makes it possible to localize target proteins in archaeological samples, and also ensure the reliability of the ELISA results. Based on these advantages, immunological techniques have the potential to become powerful analytical tools at archaeological sites and conservation science laboratories.

  6. Fluorescence competition assay measurements of free energy changes for RNA pseudoknots.

    PubMed

    Liu, Biao; Shankar, Neelaabh; Turner, Douglas H

    2010-01-26

    RNA pseudoknots have important functions, and thermodynamic stability is a key to predicting pseudoknots in RNA sequences and to understanding their functions. Traditional methods, such as UV melting and differential scanning calorimetry, for measuring RNA thermodynamics are restricted to temperature ranges around the melting temperature for a pseudoknot. Here, we report RNA pseudoknot free energy changes at 37 degrees C measured by fluorescence competition assays. Sequence-dependent studies for the loop 1-stem 2 region reveal (1) the individual nearest-neighbor hydrogen bonding (INN-HB) model provides a reasonable estimate for the free energy change when a Watson-Crick base pair in stem 2 is changed, (2) the loop entropy can be estimated by a statistical polymer model, although some penalty for certain loop sequences is necessary, and (3) tertiary interactions can significantly stabilize pseudoknots and extending the length of stem 2 may alter tertiary interactions such that the INN-HB model does not predict the net effect of adding a base pair. The results can inform writing of algorithms for predicting and/or designing RNA secondary structures.

  7. Photonic Crystal Enhancement of a Homogeneous Fluorescent Assay using Submicron Fluid Channels Fabricated by E-jet Patterning

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yafang; Sutanto, Erick; Alleyne, Andrew G.; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the enhancement of a liquid-based homogenous fluorescence assay using the resonant electric fields from a photonic crystal (PC) surface. Because evanescent fields are confined to the liquid volume nearest to the photonic crystal, we developed a simple approach for integrating a PC fabricated on a silicon substrate within a fluid channel with submicron height, using electrohydrodynamic jet (e-jet) printing of a light-curable epoxy adhesive to define the fluid channel pattern. The PC is excited by a custom-designed compact instrument that illuminates the PC with collimated light that precisely matches the resonant coupling condition when the PC is covered with aqueous media. Using a molecular beacon nucleic acid fluorescence resonant energy transfer (FRET) probe for a specific miRNA sequence, we demonstrate an 8x enhancement of the fluorescence emission signal, compared to performing the same assay without exciting resonance in the PC detecting a miRNA sequence at a concentration of 62nM from a liquid volume of only ~20 nl. The approach may be utilized for any liquid-based fluorescence assay for applications in point-of-care diagnostics, environmental monitoring, or pathogen detection. PMID:24376013

  8. Photonic crystal enhancement of a homogeneous fluorescent assay using submicron fluid channels fabricated by E-jet patterning.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yafang; Sutanto, Erick; Alleyne, Andrew G; Cunningham, Brian T

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate the enhancement of a liquid-based homogenous fluorescence assay using the resonant electric fields from a photonic crystal (PC) surface. Because evanescent fields are confined to the liquid volume nearest to the photonic crystal, we developed a simple approach for integrating a PC fabricated on a silicon substrate within a fluid channel with submicron height, using electrohydrodynamic jet (e-jet) printing of a light-curable epoxy adhesive to define the fluid channel pattern. The PC is excited by a custom-designed compact instrument that illuminates the PC with collimated light that precisely matches the resonant coupling condition when the PC is covered with aqueous media. Using a molecular beacon nucleic acid fluorescence resonant energy transfer (FRET) probe for a specific miRNA sequence, we demonstrate an 8× enhancement of the fluorescence emission signal, compared to performing the same assay without exciting resonance in the PC detecting a miRNA sequence at a concentration of 62 nM from a liquid volume of only ∼20 nL. The approach may be utilized for any liquid-based fluorescence assay for applications in point-of-care diagnostics, environmental monitoring, or pathogen detection. PMID:24376013

  9. Photonic crystal enhancement of a homogeneous fluorescent assay using submicron fluid channels fabricated by E-jet patterning.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yafang; Sutanto, Erick; Alleyne, Andrew G; Cunningham, Brian T

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate the enhancement of a liquid-based homogenous fluorescence assay using the resonant electric fields from a photonic crystal (PC) surface. Because evanescent fields are confined to the liquid volume nearest to the photonic crystal, we developed a simple approach for integrating a PC fabricated on a silicon substrate within a fluid channel with submicron height, using electrohydrodynamic jet (e-jet) printing of a light-curable epoxy adhesive to define the fluid channel pattern. The PC is excited by a custom-designed compact instrument that illuminates the PC with collimated light that precisely matches the resonant coupling condition when the PC is covered with aqueous media. Using a molecular beacon nucleic acid fluorescence resonant energy transfer (FRET) probe for a specific miRNA sequence, we demonstrate an 8× enhancement of the fluorescence emission signal, compared to performing the same assay without exciting resonance in the PC detecting a miRNA sequence at a concentration of 62 nM from a liquid volume of only ∼20 nL. The approach may be utilized for any liquid-based fluorescence assay for applications in point-of-care diagnostics, environmental monitoring, or pathogen detection.

  10. A Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Assay For Monitoring α- Synclein Aggregation in a Caenorhabditis Elegans Model For Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Archana; Bodhicharla, Rakesh; Winter, Jody; Anbalagan, Charumathi; Morgan, Kevin; Searle, Mark; Nazir, Aamir; Adenle, Ademola; Fineberg, April; Brady, Declan; Vere, Kelly; Richens, Jo; O'Shea, Paul; Bell, David; de-Pomerai, David

    2015-01-01

    The aggregation of α-synuclein (Syn or S) to form insoluble fibrils is important in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, but key risk factors remain ill-defined. We have developed Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)-based assays for α-synuclein aggregation, using Green Fluorescent Protein variants Cerulean (C) or Venus (V), fused to each other (CV, VC) or to human synuclein (SC, SV etc). Bacterially expressed proteins were purified to homogeneity, and C-terminal fusions SC and SV largely retained their ability to aggregate in vitro. FRET signals from mixtures of SC and SV were used to monitor aggregation. These fusion genes were linked to the C. elegans unc-54 myosin promoter to generate integrated transgenic strains. Increased FRET signals, indicative of S aggregation, were observed following treatment of unc-54::SC + unc-54::SV double transgenic worms with low concentrations of mercury or chlorpyrifos, or with RNAi against hsp-70 and hip-1. Opposite changes in Yellow Fluorescent Protein (YFP) fluorescence in an unc-54::SV strain (NL5901) are likely to reflect FRET from Yellow Fluorescent Protein to aggregates of Syn fusion protein. This could provide the basis for a high throughput screening assay, which could be used for studying the effects of toxic chemicals and environmental pollutants on the aggregation of proteins such as Syn in vivo. PMID:26295817

  11. A sensitive "turn-on" fluorescent assay for quantification of ceftriaxone based on L-tryptophan-Pd(II) complex fluorophore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Man; Jiang, Junze; Yang, Jidong; Liu, Shaopu; Liu, Zhongfang; Hu, Xiaoli

    2016-05-01

    Based on L-tryptophan-Pd(II) system, a sensitive and selective fluorimetric assay for the quantification of ceftriaxone (CTRX) had been developed. The experimental results showed that in pH 4.0 Britton-Robinson (BR) buffer medium, the fluorescence of L-tryptophan (L-Trp) (λex/λem = 276 nm/352 nm) could be efficiently quenched by Pd(II). When CTRX was added to the mixed solution of the L-tryptophan and Pd(II), the fluorescence of L-Trp recovered. The reaction mechanism and the reasons for the fluorescence recovery were also discussed. Pd(II) reacted with L-Trp to form a 1:1 chelate complex, and then, after CTRX was added in L-Try-Pd(II) system, the ligand exchange reaction occurred between L-Trp and CTRX, which resulted in the fluorescence recovery. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the recovered fluorescence intensities at 352 nm showed excellent linear relationship with the concentration of CTRX over the range of 6.0 × 10- 8-2.4 × 10-6 mol L- 1 (0.040-1.59 μg mL- 1). The correlation coefficient (R) was 0.9997 and the detection limit was 1.8 × 10-8 mol L- 1 (11.9 ng mL- 1). Furthermore, the assay had been applied to determine trace amount of CTRX human urine samples with satisfactory results.

  12. Label-free detection of kanamycin based on a G-quadruplex DNA aptamer-based fluorescent intercalator displacement assay.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yun-Peng; Liu, Chun; Zhou, Xiao-Hong; Shi, Han-Chang

    2015-01-01

    This work was the first to report that the kanamycin-binding DNA aptamer (5'-TGG GGG TTG AGG CTA AGC CGA-3') can form stable parallel G-quadruplex DNA (G4-DNA) structures by themselves and that this phenomenon can be verified by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Based on these findings, we developed a novel label-free strategy for kanamycin detection based on the G4-DNA aptamer-based fluorescent intercalator displacement assay with thiazole orange (TO) as the fluorescence probe. In the proposed strategy, TO became strongly fluorescent upon binding to kanamycin-binding G4-DNA. However, the addition of kanamycin caused the displacement of TO from the G4-DNA-TO conjugate, thereby resulting in decreased fluorescent signal, which was inversely related to the kanamycin concentration. The detection limit of the proposed assay decreased to 59 nM with a linear working range of 0.1 μM to 20 μM for kanamycin. The cross-reactivity against six other antibiotics was negligible compared with the response to kanamycin. A satisfactory recovery of kanamycin in milk samples ranged from 80.1% to 98.0%, confirming the potential of this bioassay in the measurement of kanamycin in various applications. Our results also served as a good reference for developing similar fluorescent G4-DNA-based bioassays in the future. PMID:25634469

  13. Label-free detection of kanamycin based on a G-quadruplex DNA aptamer-based fluorescent intercalator displacement assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Yun-Peng; Liu, Chun; Zhou, Xiao-Hong; Shi, Han-Chang

    2015-01-01

    This work was the first to report that the kanamycin-binding DNA aptamer (5'-TGG GGG TTG AGG CTA AGC CGA-3') can form stable parallel G-quadruplex DNA (G4-DNA) structures by themselves and that this phenomenon can be verified by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Based on these findings, we developed a novel label-free strategy for kanamycin detection based on the G4-DNA aptamer-based fluorescent intercalator displacement assay with thiazole orange (TO) as the fluorescence probe. In the proposed strategy, TO became strongly fluorescent upon binding to kanamycin-binding G4-DNA. However, the addition of kanamycin caused the displacement of TO from the G4-DNA-TO conjugate, thereby resulting in decreased fluorescent signal, which was inversely related to the kanamycin concentration. The detection limit of the proposed assay decreased to 59 nM with a linear working range of 0.1 μM to 20 μM for kanamycin. The cross-reactivity against six other antibiotics was negligible compared with the response to kanamycin. A satisfactory recovery of kanamycin in milk samples ranged from 80.1% to 98.0%, confirming the potential of this bioassay in the measurement of kanamycin in various applications. Our results also served as a good reference for developing similar fluorescent G4-DNA-based bioassays in the future.

  14. Label-free detection of kanamycin based on a G-quadruplex DNA aptamer-based fluorescent intercalator displacement assay

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yun-Peng; Liu, Chun; Zhou, Xiao-Hong; Shi, Han-Chang

    2015-01-01

    This work was the first to report that the kanamycin-binding DNA aptamer (5′-TGG GGG TTG AGG CTA AGC CGA-3′) can form stable parallel G-quadruplex DNA (G4-DNA) structures by themselves and that this phenomenon can be verified by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Based on these findings, we developed a novel label-free strategy for kanamycin detection based on the G4-DNA aptamer-based fluorescent intercalator displacement assay with thiazole orange (TO) as the fluorescence probe. In the proposed strategy, TO became strongly fluorescent upon binding to kanamycin-binding G4-DNA. However, the addition of kanamycin caused the displacement of TO from the G4-DNA–TO conjugate, thereby resulting in decreased fluorescent signal, which was inversely related to the kanamycin concentration. The detection limit of the proposed assay decreased to 59 nM with a linear working range of 0.1 μM to 20 μM for kanamycin. The cross-reactivity against six other antibiotics was negligible compared with the response to kanamycin. A satisfactory recovery of kanamycin in milk samples ranged from 80.1% to 98.0%, confirming the potential of this bioassay in the measurement of kanamycin in various applications. Our results also served as a good reference for developing similar fluorescent G4-DNA-based bioassays in the future. PMID:25634469

  15. Development and validation of a simple cell-based fluorescence assay for dipeptidyl peptidase 1 (DPP1) activity.

    PubMed

    Thong, Bob; Pilling, James; Ainscow, Edward; Beri, Raj; Unitt, John

    2011-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 1 (DPP1) (EC 3.4.14.1; also known as cathepsin C, cathepsin J, dipeptidyl aminopeptidase, and dipeptidyl aminotransferase) is a lysosomal cysteinyl protease of the papain family involved in the intracellular degradation of proteins. Isolated enzyme assays for DPP1 activity using a variety of synthetic substrates such as dipeptide or peptide linked to amino-methyl-coumarin (AMC) or other fluorophores are well established. There is, however, no report of a simple whole-cell-based assay for measuring lysosomal DPP1 activity other than the use of flow cytometry (fluorescence-activated cell sorting) or the use of invasive activity-based probes or the production of physiological products such as neutrophil elastase. The authors investigated a number of DPP1 fluorogenic substrates that have the potential to access the lysosome and enable the measurement of DPP1 enzyme activity in situ. They describe the development and evaluation of a simple noninvasive fluorescence assay for measuring DPP1 activity in fresh or cryopreserved human THP-1 cells using the substrate H-Gly-Phe-AFC (amino-fluoro-coumarin). This cell-based fluorescence assay can be performed in a 96-well plate format and is ideally suited for determining the cell potency of potential DPP1 enzyme inhibitors.

  16. Optimization of a Fluorescence-Based Assay for Large-Scale Drug Screening against Babesia and Theileria Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Terkawi, Mohamed Alaa; Youssef, Mohamed Ahmed; El Said, El Said El Shirbini; Elsayed, Gehad; El-Khodery, Sabry; El-Ashker, Maged; Elsify, Ahmed; Omar, Mosaab; Salama, Akram; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Igarashi, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and accurate assay for evaluating antibabesial drugs on a large scale is required for the discovery of novel chemotherapeutic agents against Babesia parasites. In the current study, we evaluated the usefulness of a fluorescence-based assay for determining the efficacies of antibabesial compounds against bovine and equine hemoparasites in in vitro cultures. Three different hematocrits (HCTs; 2.5%, 5%, and 10%) were used without daily replacement of the medium. The results of a high-throughput screening assay revealed that the best HCT was 2.5% for bovine Babesia parasites and 5% for equine Babesia and Theileria parasites. The IC50 values of diminazene aceturate obtained by fluorescence and microscopy did not differ significantly. Likewise, the IC50 values of luteolin, pyronaridine tetraphosphate, nimbolide, gedunin, and enoxacin did not differ between the two methods. In conclusion, our fluorescence-based assay uses low HCT and does not require daily replacement of culture medium, making it highly suitable for in vitro large-scale drug screening against Babesia and Theileria parasites that infect cattle and horses. PMID:25915529

  17. Optimization of a Fluorescence-Based Assay for Large-Scale Drug Screening against Babesia and Theileria Parasites.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Mohamed Abdo; El-Sayed, Shimaa Abd El-Salam; Terkawi, Mohamed Alaa; Youssef, Mohamed Ahmed; El Said, El Said El Shirbini; Elsayed, Gehad; El-Khodery, Sabry; El-Ashker, Maged; Elsify, Ahmed; Omar, Mosaab; Salama, Akram; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Igarashi, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and accurate assay for evaluating antibabesial drugs on a large scale is required for the discovery of novel chemotherapeutic agents against Babesia parasites. In the current study, we evaluated the usefulness of a fluorescence-based assay for determining the efficacies of antibabesial compounds against bovine and equine hemoparasites in in vitro cultures. Three different hematocrits (HCTs; 2.5%, 5%, and 10%) were used without daily replacement of the medium. The results of a high-throughput screening assay revealed that the best HCT was 2.5% for bovine Babesia parasites and 5% for equine Babesia and Theileria parasites. The IC50 values of diminazene aceturate obtained by fluorescence and microscopy did not differ significantly. Likewise, the IC50 values of luteolin, pyronaridine tetraphosphate, nimbolide, gedunin, and enoxacin did not differ between the two methods. In conclusion, our fluorescence-based assay uses low HCT and does not require daily replacement of culture medium, making it highly suitable for in vitro large-scale drug screening against Babesia and Theileria parasites that infect cattle and horses.

  18. Optimization of a Fluorescence-Based Assay for Large-Scale Drug Screening against Babesia and Theileria Parasites.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Mohamed Abdo; El-Sayed, Shimaa Abd El-Salam; Terkawi, Mohamed Alaa; Youssef, Mohamed Ahmed; El Said, El Said El Shirbini; Elsayed, Gehad; El-Khodery, Sabry; El-Ashker, Maged; Elsify, Ahmed; Omar, Mosaab; Salama, Akram; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Igarashi, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and accurate assay for evaluating antibabesial drugs on a large scale is required for the discovery of novel chemotherapeutic agents against Babesia parasites. In the current study, we evaluated the usefulness of a fluorescence-based assay for determining the efficacies of antibabesial compounds against bovine and equine hemoparasites in in vitro cultures. Three different hematocrits (HCTs; 2.5%, 5%, and 10%) were used without daily replacement of the medium. The results of a high-throughput screening assay revealed that the best HCT was 2.5% for bovine Babesia parasites and 5% for equine Babesia and Theileria parasites. The IC50 values of diminazene aceturate obtained by fluorescence and microscopy did not differ significantly. Likewise, the IC50 values of luteolin, pyronaridine tetraphosphate, nimbolide, gedunin, and enoxacin did not differ between the two methods. In conclusion, our fluorescence-based assay uses low HCT and does not require daily replacement of culture medium, making it highly suitable for in vitro large-scale drug screening against Babesia and Theileria parasites that infect cattle and horses. PMID:25915529

  19. A homogenous fluorescence quenching based assay for specific and sensitive detection of influenza virus A hemagglutinin antigen.

    PubMed

    Chen, Longyan; Neethirajan, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Influenza pandemics cause millions of deaths worldwide. Effective surveillance is required to prevent their spread and facilitate the development of appropriate vaccines. In this study, we report the fabrication of a homogenous fluorescence-quenching-based assay for specific and sensitive detection of influenza virus surface antigen hemagglutinins (HAs). The core of the assay is composed of two nanoprobes namely the glycan-conjugated highly luminescent quantum dots (Gly-QDs), and the HA-specific antibody-modified gold nanoparticle (Ab-Au NPs). When exposed to strain-specific HA, a binding event between the HA and the two nanoprobes takes place, resulting in the formation of a sandwich complex which subsequently brings the two nanoprobes closer together. This causes a decrease in QDs fluorescence intensity due to a non-radiative energy transfer from QDs to Au NPs. A resulting correlation between the targets HA concentrations and fluorescence changes can be observed. Furthermore, by utilizing the specific interaction between HA and glycan with sialic acid residues, the assay is able to distinguish HAs originated from viral subtypes H1 (human) and H5 (avian). The detection limits in solution are found to be low nanomolar and picomolar level for sensing H1-HA and H5-HA, respectively. Slight increase in assay sensitivity was found in terms of detection limit while exposing the assay in the HA spiked in human sera solution. We believe that the developed assay could serve as a feasible and sensitive diagnostic tool for influenza virus detection and discrimination, with further improvement on the architectures. PMID:25884789

  20. A Homogenous Fluorescence Quenching Based Assay for Specific and Sensitive Detection of Influenza Virus A Hemagglutinin Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Longyan; Neethirajan, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Influenza pandemics cause millions of deaths worldwide. Effective surveillance is required to prevent their spread and facilitate the development of appropriate vaccines. In this study, we report the fabrication of a homogenous fluorescence-quenching-based assay for specific and sensitive detection of influenza virus surface antigen hemagglutinins (HAs). The core of the assay is composed of two nanoprobes namely the glycan-conjugated highly luminescent quantum dots (Gly-QDs), and the HA-specific antibody-modified gold nanoparticle (Ab-Au NPs). When exposed to strain-specific HA, a binding event between the HA and the two nanoprobes takes place, resulting in the formation of a sandwich complex which subsequently brings the two nanoprobes closer together. This causes a decrease in QDs fluorescence intensity due to a non-radiative energy transfer from QDs to Au NPs. A resulting correlation between the targets HA concentrations and fluorescence changes can be observed. Furthermore, by utilizing the specific interaction between HA and glycan with sialic acid residues, the assay is able to distinguish HAs originated from viral subtypes H1 (human) and H5 (avian). The detection limits in solution are found to be low nanomolar and picomolar level for sensing H1-HA and H5-HA, respectively. Slight increase in assay sensitivity was found in terms of detection limit while exposing the assay in the HA spiked in human sera solution. We believe that the developed assay could serve as a feasible and sensitive diagnostic tool for influenza virus detection and discrimination, with further improvement on the architectures. PMID:25884789

  1. Evaluation of three competitive ELISAs and a fluorescence polarisation assay for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Praud, A; Durán-Ferrer, M; Fretin, D; Jaÿ, M; O'Connor, M; Stournara, A; Tittarelli, M; Travassos Dias, I; Garin-Bastuji, B

    2016-10-01

    Bovine brucellosis is an infectious disease of worldwide public health and economic importance. The usual tests for the diagnosis of this disease include the Rose-Bengal test (RBT), complement fixation test (CFT), serum agglutination test (SAT) and indirect ELISA. New tests such as competitive ELISAs (C-ELISA) and fluorescence polarisation assay (FPA) have been developed. However, C-ELISA may correspond to different protocols and a wide variation may exist in their diagnostic performance. The aim of this study was to evaluate three commercially available C-ELISA kits (C-ELISA1-3) and FPA for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis and compare test performance with RBT, CFT, indirect ELISA and FPA. Sera submitted to EU laboratories in 2011 from 5111 adult cattle were tested. Individual test sensitivities (Se) and specificities (Sp) were estimated. Threshold assessment using the receiver operating characteristic method was also performed. The most sensitive tests were FPA (99.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 97.9-100%), C-ELISA1 (98.4%; 95% CI, 97.0-99.8%) and RBT (97.7%; 95% CI, 95.9-99.3%). The most specific tests were CFT (99.98%; 95% CI, 99.93-100%), SAT (99.98%; 95% CI, 99.93-100%) and RBT (99.89%; 95% CI, 99.79-99.99%). Among the new tests, none of the three C-ELISA kits studied could be recommended as a single screening test because of their low specificity, especially when used in a herd. C-ELISA3 could not be recommended as confirmatory test on individual animals to determine whether false positive serological test results had occurred. PMID:27687924

  2. A pre-breeding screening program for transgenic boars based on fluorescence in situ hybridization assay.

    PubMed

    Bou, Gerelchimeg; Sun, Mingju; Lv, Ming; Zhu, Jiang; Li, Hui; Wang, Juan; Li, Lu; Liu, Zhongfeng; Zheng, Zhong; He, Wenteng; Kong, Qingran; Liu, Zhonghua

    2014-08-01

    For efficient transgenic herd expansion, only the transgenic animals that possess the ability to transmit transgene into next generation are considered for breeding. However, for transgenic pig, practically lacking a pre-breeding screening program, time, labor and money is always wasted to maintain non-transgenic pigs, low or null transgenic transmission pigs and the related fruitless gestations. Developing a pre-breeding screening program would make the transgenic herd expansion more economical and efficient. In this technical report, we proposed a three-step pre-breeding screening program for transgenic boars simply through combining the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay with the common pre-breeding screening workflow. In the first step of screening, combined with general transgenic phenotype analysis, FISH is used to identify transgenic boars. In the second step of screening, combined with conventional semen test, FISH is used to detect transgenic sperm, thus to identify the individuals producing high quality semen and transgenic sperm. In the third step of screening, FISH is used to assess the in vitro fertilization embryos, thus finally to identify the individuals with the ability to produce transgenic embryos. By this three-step screening, the non-transgenic boars and boars with no ability to produce transgenic sperm or transgenic embryos would be eliminated; therefore only those boars could produce transgenic offspring are maintained and used for breeding and herd expansion. It is the first time a systematic pre-breeding screening program is proposed for transgenic pigs. This program might also be applied in other transgenic large animals, and provide an economical and efficient strategy for herd expansion.

  3. Development of a Cell-Based, High-Throughput Screening Assay for Cholesterol Efflux Using a Fluorescent Mimic of Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Cai, Sutang; Peterson, Blake R.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Reverse cholesterol transport is the process by which extrahepatic cells, including macrophage-derived foam cells in arterial atherosclerotic plaque, transport excessive cholesterol back to the liver for bile acid synthesis and excretion, thus lowering the peripheral lipid burden. Cholesterol efflux from peripheral cells is the first step in this process, and finding drugs and interventions that promote this event is an important endeavor. Radioisotope-labeled cholesterol traditionally has been employed in measuring efflux efficiency, but this reagent has limitations for high-throughput screening. We developed an alternative method to measure cholesterol efflux in macrophage-derived foam cells using a novel fluorescent cholesterol mimic comprising the Pennsylvania Green fluorophore, attached by a linker containing a glutamic acid residue, to a derivative of N-alkyl-3β-cholesterylamine. Compared with the traditional radioisotope-based assay, this fluorescence-based assay gave similar results in the presence of known modulators of cholesterol efflux, such as cyclic AMP, and different cholesterol acceptors. When the fluorescent probe was employed in a high-throughput screening format, a variety of chemicals and bioactive compounds with known and unknown effects on cholesterol efflux could be tested simultaneously by plate-reader in a short period of time. Treatment of THP-1-derived macrophages with inhibitors of the membrane transporter ATP-binding cassette A1, such as glyburide or a specific antibody, significantly reduced the export of this fluorescent compound, indicating that ATP-binding cassette A1 represents the primary mediator of its cellular efflux. This fluorescent mimic of cholesterol provides a safe, sensitive, and reproducible alternative to radioactive assays in efflux experiments and has great potential as a valuable tool when incorporated into a drug discovery program. PMID:21050070

  4. Expanding the synthesis of new trans-sulfonamide platinum complexes: cytotoxicity, SAR, fluorescent cell assays and stability studies.

    PubMed

    Del Solar, Virginia; Quiñones-Lombraña, Adolfo; Cabrera, Silvia; Padrón, José M; Ríos-Luci, Carla; Alvarez-Valdés, Amparo; Navarro-Ranninger, Carmen; Alemán, José

    2013-10-01

    In this manuscript, we describe the synthesis of new trans-N-sulfonamide platinum complexes and their antiproliferative activity (GI50, μM) in human solid tumors cells. The structure activity relationships (SAR), with different new synthesized complexes by variation in ligand, halogen and also in the stereochemistry of the ligand, has been studied. Solubility and stability studies have also been carried out as well as fluorescent cell assays in order to clarify the final target in the tumor cells. PMID:23474039

  5. Spatially selective photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence and application to background reduction for biomolecule detection assays

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhery, Vikram; Huang, Cheng-Sheng; Pokhriyal, Anusha; Polans, James; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2011-01-01

    By combining photonic crystal label-free biosensor imaging with photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence, it is possible to selectively enhance the fluorescence emission from regions of the PC surface based upon the density of immobilized capture molecules. A label-free image of the capture molecules enables determination of optimal coupling conditions of the laser used for fluorescence imaging of the photonic crystal surface on a pixel-by-pixel basis, allowing maximization of fluorescence enhancement factor from regions incorporating a biomolecule capture spot and minimization of background autofluorescence from areas between capture spots. This capability significantly improves the contrast of enhanced fluorescent images, and when applied to an antibody protein microarray, provides a substantial advantage over conventional fluorescence microscopy. Using the new approach, we demonstrate detection limits as low as 0.97 pg/ml for a representative protein biomarker in buffer. PMID:22109210

  6. Fluorescence assay for glycan expression on living cancer cells based on competitive strategy coupled with dual-functionalized nanobiocomposites.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ying; Lu, Danqin; Lin, Bin; Sun, Qianqian; Liu, Kai; Xu, Lili; Zhang, Shengping; Hu, Chen; Wang, Chuangui; Xu, Zhiai; Zhang, Wen

    2013-11-21

    Cell surface glycans are a class of sophisticated biomolecules related to cancer development and progression, and their analysis is of great significance for early cancer diagnosis and treatment. In this paper, we proposed a fluorescence assay to evaluate glycan expression on living cancer cells based on a competitive strategy coupled with dual-functionalized nanobiocomposites. The competitive assay was conducted between living cancer cells and thiomannosyl derivatives using concanavalin A (Con A)-modified electrode as the interaction platform. To impart fluorescence signaling ability to competitive derivatives, quantum dots (QDs) were anchored on BSA-protected Au nanoparticles, and thiomannosyl derivatives were further immobilized on the nanoparticle surface through Au-S binding. Due to the spacing between QDs and Au nanoparticles by BSA, the {QDs-Au-BSA-mannose} nanobiocomposites maintained the fluorescence of QDs and showed binding ability with the Con A-modified electrode. Au nanorods (AuNRs)-modified electrode was used as an effective substrate to immobilize Con A. This assay was successfully applied to the analysis of two cancer cells lines (A549 and QGY-7701). The method is simple and shows promise for the study of glycan expression on living cancer cells.

  7. A real-time fluorescent assay for the detection of alkaline phosphatase activity based on carbon quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhao Sheng; Chai, Lu Jing; Huang, Yuan Yuan; Tang, Cong; Shen, Jia Jia; Chen, Jian Rong; Feng, Hui

    2015-06-15

    A convenient and real-time fluorometric assay with the assistance of copper ions based on aggregation and disaggregation of carbon quantum dots (CQDs) was developed to achieve highly sensitive detection of alkaline phosphatase activity. CQDs and pyrophosphate anions (PPi) were used as the fluorescent indicator and substrate for ALP activity assessment respectively. Richness of carboxyl groups on the surface of CQDs enables their severe aggregation triggered by copper ions, which results in effective fluorescence quenching. Under the catalytic hydrolysis of ALP, PPi can be rapidly transformed to phosphate ions. Stronger affinity of phosphate ions to copper ions than carboxyl groups is taken advantage of to achieve fluorescence recovery induced by re-dispersion of CQDs in the presence of ALP and PPi. Quantitative evaluation of ALP activity in a broad range from 16.7 to 782.6 U/L with the detection limit of 1.1 U/L can be realized in this way, which endows the assay with high enough sensitivity for practical detection in human serum. This strategy broadens the sensing application of fluorescent CQDs with excellent biocompatibility, and provides an example based on disaggregation in optical probe development.

  8. A rapid fluorescence "switch-on" assay for glutathione detection by using carbon dots-MnO2 nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qi-Yong; Li, Jie; Ge, Jia; Zhang, Lin; Hu, Ya-Lei; Li, Zhao-Hui; Qu, Ling-Bo

    2015-10-15

    Glutathione (GSH) serves many cellular functions and plays crucial roles in human pathologies. Simple and sensitive sensors capable of detecting GSH would be useful tools to understand the mechanism of diseases. In this work, a rapid fluorescence "switch-on" assay was developed to detect trace amount of GSH based on carbon dots-MnO2 nanocomposites, which was fabricated through in situ synthesis of MnO2 nanosheets in carbon dots colloid solution. Due to the formation of carbon dots-MnO2 nanocomposites, fluorescence of carbon dots could be quenched efficiently by MnO2 nanosheeets through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). However, the presence of GSH would reduce MnO2 nanosheets to Mn(2+) ions and subsequently release carbon dots, which resulted in sufficient recovery of fluorescent signal. This proposed assay demonstrated highly selectivity toward GSH with a detection limit of 300nM. Moreover, this method has also shown sensitive responses to GSH in human serum samples, which indicated its great potential to be used in disease diagnosis. As no requirement of any further functionalization of these as-prepared nanomaterials, this sensing system shows remarkable advantages including very fast and simple, cost-effective as well as environmental-friendly, which suggest that this new strategy could serve as an efficient tool for analyzing GSH level in biosamples.

  9. Engineering and exploitation of a fluorescent HIV-1 gp120 for live cell CD4 binding assays

    SciTech Connect

    Costantini, Lindsey M.; Irvin, Susan C.; Kennedy, Steven C.; Guo, Feng; Goldstein, Harris; Herold, Betsy C.; Snapp, Erik L.

    2015-02-15

    The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, gp120, binds the host cell receptor, CD4, in the initial step of HIV viral entry and infection. This process is an appealing target for the development of inhibitory drugs and neutralizing antibodies. To study gp120 binding and intracellular trafficking, we engineered a fluorescent fusion of the humanized gp120 JRFL HIV-1 variant and GFP. Gp120-sfGFP is glycosylated with human sugars, robustly expressed, and secreted from cultured human cells. Protein dynamics, quality control, and trafficking can be visualized in live cells. The fusion protein can be readily modified with different gp120 variants or fluorescent proteins. Finally, secreted gp120-sfGFP enables a sensitive and easy binding assay that can quantitatively screen potential inhibitors of gp120-CD4 binding on live cells via fluorescence imaging or laser scanning cytometry. This adaptable research tool should aid in studies of gp120 cell biology and the development of novel anti-HIV drugs. - Highlights: • Development of fluorescent protein labeled HIV-1 envelope gp120. • Imaging of gp120 dynamics and trafficking in live cells. • Quantitative visual assay of antibody-mediated inhibition of gp120 binding to CD4 on live cells.

  10. Fluorescence Adherence Inhibition Assay: A Novel Functional Assessment of Blocking Virus Attachment by Vaccine-Induced Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Asati, Atul; Kachurina, Olga; Karol, Alex; Dhir, Vipra; Nguyen, Michael; Parkhill, Robert; Kouiavskaia, Diana; Chumakov, Konstantin; Warren, William; Kachurin, Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    Neutralizing antibodies induced by vaccination or natural infection play a critically important role in protection against the viral diseases. In general, neutralization of the viral infection occurs via two major pathways: pre- and post-attachment modes, the first being the most important for such infections as influenza and polio, the latter being significant for filoviruses. Neutralizing capacity of antibodies is typically evaluated by virus neutralization assays that assess reduction of viral infectivity to the target cells in the presence of functional antibodies. Plaque reduction neutralization test, microneutralization and immunofluorescent assays are often used as gold standard virus neutralization assays. However, these methods are associated with several important prerequisites such as use of live virus requiring safety precautions, tedious evaluation procedure and long assessment time. Hence, there is a need for a robust, inexpensive high throughput functional assay that can be performed rapidly using inactivated virus, without extensive safety precautions. Herein, we report a novel high throughput Fluorescence Adherence Inhibition assay (fADI) using inactivated virus labeled with fluorescent secondary antibodies virus and Vero cells or erythrocytes as targets. It requires only few hours to assess pre-attachment neutralizing capacity of donor sera. fADI assay was tested successfully on donors immunized with polio, yellow fever and influenza vaccines. To further simplify and improve the throughput of the assay, we have developed a mathematical approach for calculating the 50% titers from a single sample dilution, without the need to analyze multi-point titration curves. Assessment of pre- and post-vaccination human sera from subjects immunized with IPOL®, YF-VAX® and 2013-2014 Fluzone® vaccines demonstrated high efficiency of the assay. The results correlated very well with microneutralization assay performed independently by the FDA Center of

  11. Fluorescence Adherence Inhibition Assay: A Novel Functional Assessment of Blocking Virus Attachment by Vaccine-Induced Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Asati, Atul; Kachurina, Olga; Karol, Alex; Dhir, Vipra; Nguyen, Michael; Parkhill, Robert; Kouiavskaia, Diana; Chumakov, Konstantin; Warren, William; Kachurin, Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    Neutralizing antibodies induced by vaccination or natural infection play a critically important role in protection against the viral diseases. In general, neutralization of the viral infection occurs via two major pathways: pre- and post-attachment modes, the first being the most important for such infections as influenza and polio, the latter being significant for filoviruses. Neutralizing capacity of antibodies is typically evaluated by virus neutralization assays that assess reduction of viral infectivity to the target cells in the presence of functional antibodies. Plaque reduction neutralization test, microneutralization and immunofluorescent assays are often used as gold standard virus neutralization assays. However, these methods are associated with several important prerequisites such as use of live virus requiring safety precautions, tedious evaluation procedure and long assessment time. Hence, there is a need for a robust, inexpensive high throughput functional assay that can be performed rapidly using inactivated virus, without extensive safety precautions. Herein, we report a novel high throughput Fluorescence Adherence Inhibition assay (fADI) using inactivated virus labeled with fluorescent secondary antibodies virus and Vero cells or erythrocytes as targets. It requires only few hours to assess pre-attachment neutralizing capacity of donor sera. fADI assay was tested successfully on donors immunized with polio, yellow fever and influenza vaccines. To further simplify and improve the throughput of the assay, we have developed a mathematical approach for calculating the 50% titers from a single sample dilution, without the need to analyze multi-point titration curves. Assessment of pre- and post-vaccination human sera from subjects immunized with IPOL®, YF-VAX® and 2013–2014 Fluzone® vaccines demonstrated high efficiency of the assay. The results correlated very well with microneutralization assay performed independently by the FDA Center of

  12. Fluorescence Adherence Inhibition Assay: A Novel Functional Assessment of Blocking Virus Attachment by Vaccine-Induced Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Asati, Atul; Kachurina, Olga; Karol, Alex; Dhir, Vipra; Nguyen, Michael; Parkhill, Robert; Kouiavskaia, Diana; Chumakov, Konstantin; Warren, William; Kachurin, Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    Neutralizing antibodies induced by vaccination or natural infection play a critically important role in protection against the viral diseases. In general, neutralization of the viral infection occurs via two major pathways: pre- and post-attachment modes, the first being the most important for such infections as influenza and polio, the latter being significant for filoviruses. Neutralizing capacity of antibodies is typically evaluated by virus neutralization assays that assess reduction of viral infectivity to the target cells in the presence of functional antibodies. Plaque reduction neutralization test, microneutralization and immunofluorescent assays are often used as gold standard virus neutralization assays. However, these methods are associated with several important prerequisites such as use of live virus requiring safety precautions, tedious evaluation procedure and long assessment time. Hence, there is a need for a robust, inexpensive high throughput functional assay that can be performed rapidly using inactivated virus, without extensive safety precautions. Herein, we report a novel high throughput Fluorescence Adherence Inhibition assay (fADI) using inactivated virus labeled with fluorescent secondary antibodies virus and Vero cells or erythrocytes as targets. It requires only few hours to assess pre-attachment neutralizing capacity of donor sera. fADI assay was tested successfully on donors immunized with polio, yellow fever and influenza vaccines. To further simplify and improve the throughput of the assay, we have developed a mathematical approach for calculating the 50% titers from a single sample dilution, without the need to analyze multi-point titration curves. Assessment of pre- and post-vaccination human sera from subjects immunized with IPOL®, YF-VAX® and 2013-2014 Fluzone® vaccines demonstrated high efficiency of the assay. The results correlated very well with microneutralization assay performed independently by the FDA Center of

  13. How to Illustrate Ligand-Protein Binding in a Class Experiment: An Elementary Fluorescent Assay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marty, Alain; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes an experiment (taking approximately five hours) which illustrates the binding of a small molecule to a protein. By using an appropriate fluorescent ligand and a given protein, the fluorescent probe technique is applied to measure the number of bonding sites, and number of site classes, and their association constants. (JN)

  14. Identification of influenza virus inhibitors targeting NS1A utilizing fluorescence polarization-based high-throughput assay.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun Jeong; Xia, Shuangluo; Ma, Li-Chung; Robertus, Jon; Krug, Robert M; Anslyn, Eric V; Montelione, Gaetano T; Ellington, Andrew D

    2012-04-01

    This article describes the development of a simple and robust fluorescence polarization (FP)-based binding assay and adaptation to high-throughput identification of small molecules blocking dsRNA binding to NS1A protein (nonstructural protein 1 from type A influenza strains). This homogeneous assay employs fluorescein-labeled 16-mer dsRNA and full-length NS1A protein tagged with glutathione S-transferase to monitor the changes in FP and fluorescence intensity simultaneously. The assay was optimized for high-throughput screening in a 384-well format and achieved a z' score greater than 0.7. Its feasibility for high-throughput screening was demonstrated using the National Institutes of Health clinical collection. Six of 446 small molecules were identified as possible ligands in an initial screening. A series of validation tests confirmed epigallocatechine gallate (EGCG) to be active in the submicromolar range. A mechanism of EGCG inhibition involving interaction with the dsRNA-binding motif of NS1A, including Arg38, was proposed. This structural information is anticipated to provide a useful basis for the modeling of antiflu therapeutic reagents. Overall, the FP-based binding assay demonstrated its superior capability for simple, rapid, inexpensive, and robust identification of NS1A inhibitors and validation of their activity targeting NS1A.

  15. A reliable non-separation fluorescence quenching assay for total glycated serum protein: a simple alternative to nitroblue tetrazolium reduction.

    PubMed

    Blincko, S; Colbert, D; John, W G; Edwards, R

    2000-05-01

    A simple non-separation assay for the measurement of total glycated serum protein is described. It was found that the fluorescence intensity of a solution of a fluorescein-boronic acid derivative was quenched in proportion to the amount of serum added. This led to the development of an assay in which 10 microL of serum is added to 4 mL of a solution of the fluorescein-boronic acid derivative and the fluorescence intensity is measured after 15 min. The results, as measured by drop in fluorescence intensity, calibrated by a single standard, were compared with the results for nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction of fructosamine and showed good correlation (r=0.936, n=114). The intra-assay precision (seven samples each measured 10 times) was less than 2.1% (concentration range 190-660 micromol/L); inter-assay precision for seven samples in 10 assays was less than 2.5% (over the same concentration range). Dilution of serum that had a high concentration of total glycated protein showed the assay to be linear. Serum samples (with low, medium and high total glycated protein concentrations) showed less than 2.1% difference from base results with added glucose (up to 60 mmol/L), less than 9.7% difference with added bilirubin (up to 250 micromol/L) and less than 6.9% with added triglycerides (up to 50 mmol/L). Addition of haemoglobin (up to 0.9 g/dL) with high glycation (11.7% HbA1c) to plasma (298 micromol/L total glycated protein) showed less than 10% difference from the base result. Assays performed over a range of temperatures (12-34 degrees C) showed no significant differences in the results. The assay gives similar results to the currently used NTB method but with significantly less susceptibility to interferences. As such the method should be a useful aid in the management of diabetes. PMID:10817254

  16. Optimization of specimen preparation from formalin-fixed liver tissues for liver micronucleus assays: Hepatocyte staining with fluorescent dyes.

    PubMed

    Shigano, Miyuki; Takashima, Rie; Takasawa, Hironao; Hamada, Shuichi

    2016-04-01

    The liver micronucleus (MN) assay is an effective and important in vivo test for detecting genotoxic compounds, particularly those that require metabolic activation. For this assay, hepatocytes (HEPs) can be isolated by collagenase treatment but without requirement for in situ liver perfusion. Consequently, the liver MN assay can be integrated into a general repeated-dose (RD) toxicity study. The method is also applicable to liver MN assays involving partial hepatectomy or the use of juvenile rats. Here, we propose an improved method for staining HEPs prepared from formalin-fixed liver tissues for MN assays, without collagenase treatment. HEP suspensions are prepared by treating the tissues with concentrated KOH and a fluorescent dye, SYBR(®) Gold (SYGO), is used for staining. Visualization of the MN in SYGO-stained HEPs is clearer than with Wright-Giemsa staining. We compared the induction of MN as measured with our new method versus the conventional method using collagenase dispersion. Our method not only enables the integration of the liver MN assay into a general RD toxicity study but also allows it to be conducted retrospectively. PMID:27085473

  17. Development of a fluorescence anisotropy-based assay for Dop, the first enzyme in the pupylation pathway.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Nir; Gur, Eyal

    2015-09-15

    The Pup-proteasome system (PPS) carries out regulated tagging and degradation of proteins in bacterial species belonging to the phyla Actinobacteria and Nitrospira. In the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, where this proteolytic pathway was initially discovered, PPS enzymes are essential for full virulence and persistence in the mammalian host. As such, PPS enzymes are potential targets for development of antituberculosis therapeutics. Such development often requires sensitive and robust assays for measurements of enzymatic activities and the effect of examined inhibitors. Here, we describe the development of an in vitro activity assay for Dop, the first enzyme in the PPS. Based on fluorescence anisotropy measurements, this assay is simple, sensitive, and compatible with a high-throughput format for screening purposes. We demonstrate how this assay can also be reliably and conveniently used for detailed kinetic measurements of Dop activity. As such, this assay is of value for basic research into Dop and the PPS. Finally, we show that the assay developed here primarily for the mycobacterial Dop can be readily employed with other Dop enzymes, using the same simple protocol. PMID:26095396

  18. Optimization of specimen preparation from formalin-fixed liver tissues for liver micronucleus assays: Hepatocyte staining with fluorescent dyes.

    PubMed

    Shigano, Miyuki; Takashima, Rie; Takasawa, Hironao; Hamada, Shuichi

    2016-04-01

    The liver micronucleus (MN) assay is an effective and important in vivo test for detecting genotoxic compounds, particularly those that require metabolic activation. For this assay, hepatocytes (HEPs) can be isolated by collagenase treatment but without requirement for in situ liver perfusion. Consequently, the liver MN assay can be integrated into a general repeated-dose (RD) toxicity study. The method is also applicable to liver MN assays involving partial hepatectomy or the use of juvenile rats. Here, we propose an improved method for staining HEPs prepared from formalin-fixed liver tissues for MN assays, without collagenase treatment. HEP suspensions are prepared by treating the tissues with concentrated KOH and a fluorescent dye, SYBR(®) Gold (SYGO), is used for staining. Visualization of the MN in SYGO-stained HEPs is clearer than with Wright-Giemsa staining. We compared the induction of MN as measured with our new method versus the conventional method using collagenase dispersion. Our method not only enables the integration of the liver MN assay into a general RD toxicity study but also allows it to be conducted retrospectively.

  19. A high-throughput fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based endothelial cell apoptosis assay and its application for screening vascular disrupting agents

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Xiaoming; Fu, Afu; Luo, Kathy Qian

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An endothelial cell apoptosis assay using FRET-based biosensor was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fluorescence of the cells changed from green to blue during apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This method was developed into a high-throughput assay in 96-well plates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This assay was applied to screen vascular disrupting agents. -- Abstract: In this study, we developed a high-throughput endothelial cell apoptosis assay using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensor. After exposure to apoptotic inducer UV-irradiation or anticancer drugs such as paclitaxel, the fluorescence of the cells changed from green to blue. We developed this method into a high-throughput assay in 96-well plates by measuring the emission ratio of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) to cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) to monitor the activation of a key protease, caspase-3, during apoptosis. The Z Prime factor for this assay was above 0.5 which indicates that this assay is suitable for a high-throughput analysis. Finally, we applied this functional high-throughput assay for screening vascular disrupting agents (VDA) which could induce endothelial cell apoptosis from our in-house compounds library and dioscin was identified as a hit. As this assay allows real time and sensitive detection of cell apoptosis, it will be a useful tool for monitoring endothelial cell apoptosis in living cell situation and for identifying new VDA candidates via a high-throughput screening.

  20. Aptamer-based fluorescent screening assay for acetamiprid via inner filter effect of gold nanoparticles on the fluorescence of CdTe quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiajia; Li, Ying; Wang, Luokai; Xu, Jingyue; Huang, Yanjun; Luo, Yeli; Shen, Fei; Sun, Chunyan; Meng, Rizeng

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a novel aptamer-based fluorescent detection method for small molecules represented by acetamiprid based on the specific binding of aptamers with acetamiprid, and the inner filter effect (IFE) of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the fluorescence of CdTe quantum dots (CdTe QDs). When CdTe QDs were mixed with AuNPs, the fluorescence of CdTe QDs was significantly quenched via IFE. The IFE efficiency could be readily modulated by the absorption and the aggregation state of AuNPs. The presence of salt could easily induce the aggregation of AuNPs, resulting in the fluorescence recovery of the quenched QDs. Acetamiprid-binding aptamer (ABA) could adsorb on the negatively charged AuNPs through the coordination interaction to protect AuNPs from salt-induced aggregation, so the fluorescence of CdTe QDs would be quenched by the IFE of AuNPs. However, the specific binding of ABA with acetamiprid could release the ABA from the surfaces of AuNPs and decrease the salt tolerance of AuNPs, so the IFE-decreased fluorescence of CdTe QDs was regained with the presence of acetamiprid, and the fluorescence enhancement efficiency was driven by the concentration of acetamiprid. Based on this principle, the aptamer-based fluorescent method for acetamiprid has been established and optimized. The assay exhibited excellent selectivity towards acetamiprid over its analogues and other pesticides which may coexist with acetamiprid. Under the optimum experiment conditions, the established method could be applied for the determination of acetamiprid with a wide linear range from 0.05 to 1.0 μM, and a low detection limit of 7.29 nM (3σ). Furthermore, this IFE-based method has been successfully utilized to detect acetamiprid in six types of vegetables, and the results were in full agreement with those from HPLC and LC-MS. The proposed method displays remarkable advantages of high sensitivity, rapid analysis, excellent selectivity, and would be suitable for the practical application

  1. Development of a Direct and Continuous Phospholipase D Assay Based on the Chelation-Enhanced Fluorescence Property of 8-Hydroxyquinoline.

    PubMed

    Rahier, Renaud; Noiriel, Alexandre; Abousalham, Abdelkarim

    2016-01-01

    Through its production of phosphatidic acid (PA), phospholipase D (PLD) is strongly involved in vesicular trafficking and cell signaling, making this enzyme an important therapeutic target. However, most PLD assays developed so far are either discontinuous or based on the indirect determination of choline released during PLD-catalyzed phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis, making its kinetic characterization difficult. We present here the development of a direct, specific, and continuous PLD assay that is based on the chelation-enhanced fluorescence property of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) following Ca(2+) complexation with PLD-generated PA. The real-time fluorescence intensity from 8HQ/Ca(2+)/PA complexes can be converted to concentrations of product using a calibration curve, with a detection limit of 1.2 μM of PA on a microplate scale, thus allowing measurement of the PLD-catalyzed reaction rate parameters. Hence, this assay is well adapted for studying the substrate specificity of PLD, together with its kinetic parameters, using natural phospholipids with various headgroups. In addition, the assay was found to be effective in monitoring the competitive inhibition of PA formation in the production of phosphatidylalcohols following the addition of primary alcohols, such as ethanol, propan-1-ol, or butan-1-ol. Finally, this assay was validated using the purified recombinant Vigna unguiculata PLD, as well as the PLD from Streptomyces chromofuscus, cabbage, or peanuts, and no PA production could be detected using phospholipase A1, phospholipase A2, or phospholipase C, allowing for a reliable determination of PLD activity in crude protein extract samples. This easy to handle PLD assay constitutes, to our knowledge, the first direct and continuous PA determination method on a microplate scale. PMID:26636829

  2. A novel cell-based duplex high-throughput screening assay combining fluorescent Ca(2+) measurement with homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence technology.

    PubMed

    Kiss, László; Cselenyák, Attila; Varga, Ágnes; Visegrády, András

    2016-08-15

    Cell-based assays for G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activation applied in high-throughput screening (HTS) monitor various readouts for second messengers or intracellular effectors. Recently, our understanding of diverging signaling pathways downstream of receptor activation and the capability of small molecules to selectively modulate signaling routes has increased substantially, underlining the importance of selecting appropriate readouts in cellular functional screens. To minimize the rate of false negatives in large-scale screening campaigns, it is crucial to maximize the chance of a ligand being detected, and generally applicable methods for detecting multiple analytes from a single well might serve this purpose. The few assays developed so far based on multiplexed GPCR readouts are limited to only certain applications and usually rely on genetic manipulations hindering screening in native or native-like cellular systems. Here we describe a more generally applicable and HTS-compatible homogeneous assay based on the combination of fluorometric detection of [Ca(2+)] with subsequent homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF) cAMP readout in the same well. Besides describing development and validation of the assay, using a cell line recombinantly expressing the human PTH1 receptor screening of a small library is also presented, demonstrating the robustness and HTS compatibility of the novel paradigm.

  3. A novel cell-based duplex high-throughput screening assay combining fluorescent Ca(2+) measurement with homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence technology.

    PubMed

    Kiss, László; Cselenyák, Attila; Varga, Ágnes; Visegrády, András

    2016-08-15

    Cell-based assays for G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activation applied in high-throughput screening (HTS) monitor various readouts for second messengers or intracellular effectors. Recently, our understanding of diverging signaling pathways downstream of receptor activation and the capability of small molecules to selectively modulate signaling routes has increased substantially, underlining the importance of selecting appropriate readouts in cellular functional screens. To minimize the rate of false negatives in large-scale screening campaigns, it is crucial to maximize the chance of a ligand being detected, and generally applicable methods for detecting multiple analytes from a single well might serve this purpose. The few assays developed so far based on multiplexed GPCR readouts are limited to only certain applications and usually rely on genetic manipulations hindering screening in native or native-like cellular systems. Here we describe a more generally applicable and HTS-compatible homogeneous assay based on the combination of fluorometric detection of [Ca(2+)] with subsequent homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF) cAMP readout in the same well. Besides describing development and validation of the assay, using a cell line recombinantly expressing the human PTH1 receptor screening of a small library is also presented, demonstrating the robustness and HTS compatibility of the novel paradigm. PMID:27235172

  4. A High-Throughput Fluorescence Polarization Assay for Inhibitors of the GoLoco Motif/G-alpha Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Kimple, Adam J.; Yasgar, Adam; Hughes, Mark; Jadhav, Ajit; Willard, Francis S.; Muller, Robin E.; Austin, Christopher P.; Inglese, James; Ibeanu, Gordon C.; Siderovski, David P.; Simeonov, Anton

    2008-01-01

    The GoLoco motif is a short Gα-binding polypeptide sequence. It is often found in proteins that regulate cell-surface receptor signaling, such as RGS12, as well as in proteins that regulate mitotic spindle orientation and force generation during cell division, such as GPSM2/LGN. Here, we describe a high-throughput fluorescence polarization (FP) assay using fluorophore-labeled GoLoco motif peptides for identifying inhibitors of the GoLoco motif interaction with the G-protein alpha subunit Gαi1. The assay exhibits considerable stability over time and is tolerant to DMSO up to 5%. The Z′-factors for robustness of the GPSM2 and RGS12 GoLoco motif assays in a 96-well plate format were determined to be 0.81 and 0.84, respectively; the latter assay was run in a 384-well plate format and produced a Z′-factor of 0.80. To determine the screening factor window (Z-factor) of the RGS12 GoLoco motif screen using a small molecule library, the NCI Diversity Set was screened. The Z-factor was determined to be 0.66, suggesting that this FP assay would perform well when developed for 1,536-well format and scaled up to larger libraries. We then miniaturized to a 4 μL final volume a pair of FP assays utilizing fluorescein- (green) and rhodamine- (red) labeled RGS12 GoLoco motif peptides. In a fully-automated run, the Sigma-Aldrich LOPAC1280 collection was screened three times with every library compound being tested over a range of concentrations following the quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) paradigm; excellent assay performance was noted with average Z-factors of 0.84 and 0.66 for the green- and red-label assays, respectively. PMID:18537560

  5. Assay of ceftazidime and cefepime based on fluorescence quenching of carbon quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu; Zhang, Ying; Yan, Zhengyu; Liao, Shenghua

    2015-11-01

    A novel and sensitive method for the determination of ceftazidime and cefepime in an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) has been developed based on the fluorescence quenching of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)2000-capped carbon quantum dots (CQDs) prepared using a chemical oxidation method. The quenching of fluorescence intensity is proportional to the concentration of ceftazidime and cefepime over the range of 0.33-3.30 and 0.24-2.40 µg/mL, respectively. The mode of interaction between PEG2000-capped CQDs and ceftazidime/cefepime in aqueous solutions was investigated using a fluorescence, UV/Vis and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) at physiological pH. UV/Vis and FTIR spectra demonstrated that ground state compounds were formed through hydrophobic interaction the fluorescence quenching of CQDs caused by ceftazidime and cefepime. The quenching constants decreased with increases in temperature, which was consistent with static quenching.

  6. A fluorescence photobleaching assay of gap junction-mediated communication between human cells.

    PubMed

    Wade, M H; Trosko, J E; Schindler, M

    1986-04-25

    Gap junction-mediated communication between contiguous cells has been implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. This report describes a new technique to measure cell-cell communication, gap fluorescence redistribution after photobleaching, which is based on the diffusion-dependent return of 6-carboxyfluorescein-mediated fluorescence in a photobleached cell that is in contact with other fluorescently labeled cells. Fluorescence recovery rates are interpreted as dye transport across gap junctions. Results of experiments on normal human fibroblasts and human teratocarcinoma cells show that this technique can measure rapid dye transfer and detect inhibition of communication (between teratocarcinoma cells) by the tumor promoters 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate and the pesticide dieldrin. PMID:3961495

  7. Enhanced Sensitivity for Detection of HIV-1 p24 Antigen by a Novel Nuclease-Linked Fluorescence Oligonucleotide Assay

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Peihu; Li, Xiaojun; Su, Weiheng; Kong, Wei; Kong, Xianggui; Wang, Zhenxin; Wang, Youchun; Jiang, Chunlai; Gao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The relatively high detection limit of the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) prevents its application for detection of low concentrations of antigens. To increase the sensitivity for detection of HIV-1 p24 antigen, we developed a highly sensitive nuclease-linked fluorescence oligonucleotide assay (NLFOA). Two major improvements were incorporated in NLFOA to amplify antibody-antigen interaction signals and reduce the signal/noise ratio; a large number of nuclease molecules coupled to the gold nanoparticle/streptavidin complex and fluorescent signals generated from fluorescent-labeled oligonucleotides by the nuclease. The detection limit of p24 by NLFOA was 1 pg/mL, which was 10-fold more sensitive than the conventional ELISA (10 pg/mL). The specificity was 100% and the coefficient of variation (CV) was 7.8% at low p24 concentration (1.5 pg/mL) with various concentrations of spiked p24 in HIV-1 negative sera. Thus, NLFOA is highly sensitive, specific, reproducible and user-friendly. The more sensitive detection of low p24 concentrations in HIV-1-infected individuals by NLFOA could allow detection of HIV-1 infections that are missed by the conventional ELISA at the window period during acute infection to further reduce the risk for HIV-1 infection due to the undetected HIV-1 in the blood products. Moreover, NLFOA can be easily applied to more sensitive detection of other antigens. PMID:25915630

  8. Enhanced Sensitivity for Detection of HIV-1 p24 Antigen by a Novel Nuclease-Linked Fluorescence Oligonucleotide Assay.

    PubMed

    Fan, Peihu; Li, Xiaojun; Su, Weiheng; Kong, Wei; Kong, Xianggui; Wang, Zhenxin; Wang, Youchun; Jiang, Chunlai; Gao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The relatively high detection limit of the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) prevents its application for detection of low concentrations of antigens. To increase the sensitivity for detection of HIV-1 p24 antigen, we developed a highly sensitive nuclease-linked fluorescence oligonucleotide assay (NLFOA). Two major improvements were incorporated in NLFOA to amplify antibody-antigen interaction signals and reduce the signal/noise ratio; a large number of nuclease molecules coupled to the gold nanoparticle/streptavidin complex and fluorescent signals generated from fluorescent-labeled oligonucleotides by the nuclease. The detection limit of p24 by NLFOA was 1 pg/mL, which was 10-fold more sensitive than the conventional ELISA (10 pg/mL). The specificity was 100% and the coefficient of variation (CV) was 7.8% at low p24 concentration (1.5 pg/mL) with various concentrations of spiked p24 in HIV-1 negative sera. Thus, NLFOA is highly sensitive, specific, reproducible and user-friendly. The more sensitive detection of low p24 concentrations in HIV-1-infected individuals by NLFOA could allow detection of HIV-1 infections that are missed by the conventional ELISA at the window period during acute infection to further reduce the risk for HIV-1 infection due to the undetected HIV-1 in the blood products. Moreover, NLFOA can be easily applied to more sensitive detection of other antigens. PMID:25915630

  9. Enhanced Sensitivity for Detection of HIV-1 p24 Antigen by a Novel Nuclease-Linked Fluorescence Oligonucleotide Assay.

    PubMed

    Fan, Peihu; Li, Xiaojun; Su, Weiheng; Kong, Wei; Kong, Xianggui; Wang, Zhenxin; Wang, Youchun; Jiang, Chunlai; Gao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The relatively high detection limit of the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) prevents its application for detection of low concentrations of antigens. To increase the sensitivity for detection of HIV-1 p24 antigen, we developed a highly sensitive nuclease-linked fluorescence oligonucleotide assay (NLFOA). Two major improvements were incorporated in NLFOA to amplify antibody-antigen interaction signals and reduce the signal/noise ratio; a large number of nuclease molecules coupled to the gold nanoparticle/streptavidin complex and fluorescent signals generated from fluorescent-labeled oligonucleotides by the nuclease. The detection limit of p24 by NLFOA was 1 pg/mL, which was 10-fold more sensitive than the conventional ELISA (10 pg/mL). The specificity was 100% and the coefficient of variation (CV) was 7.8% at low p24 concentration (1.5 pg/mL) with various concentrations of spiked p24 in HIV-1 negative sera. Thus, NLFOA is highly sensitive, specific, reproducible and user-friendly. The more sensitive detection of low p24 concentrations in HIV-1-infected individuals by NLFOA could allow detection of HIV-1 infections that are missed by the conventional ELISA at the window period during acute infection to further reduce the risk for HIV-1 infection due to the undetected HIV-1 in the blood products. Moreover, NLFOA can be easily applied to more sensitive detection of other antigens.

  10. Activity assays of mammalian thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase: fluorescent disulfide substrates, mechanisms, and use with tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Montano, Sergio J; Lu, Jun; Gustafsson, Tomas N; Holmgren, Arne

    2014-03-15

    Thioredoxin (Trx) is a protein disulfide reductase that, together with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), controls oxidative stress or redox signaling via thiol redox control. Human cytosolic Trx1 has Cys32 and Cys35 as the active site and three additional cysteine residues (Cys62, Cys69, and Cys73), which by oxidation generates inactive Cys62 to Cys69 two-disulfide Trx. This, combined with TrxR with a broad substrate specificity, complicates assays of mammalian Trx and TrxR. We sought to understand the autoregulation of Trx and TrxR and to generate new methods for quantification of Trx and TrxR. We optimized the synthesis of two fluorescent substrates, di-eosin-glutathione disulfide (Di-E-GSSG) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled insulin (FiTC-insulin), which displayed higher fluorescence on disulfide reduction. Di-E-GSSG showed a very large increase in fluorescence quantum yield but had a relatively low affinity for Trx and was also a weak direct substrate for TrxR, in contrast to GSSG. FiTC-insulin was used to develop highly sensitive assays for TrxR and Trx. Reproducible conditions were developed for reactivation of modified Trx, commonly present in frozen or oxidized samples. Trx in cell extracts and tissue samples, including plasma and serum, were subsequently analyzed, showing highly reproducible results and allowing measurement of trace amounts of Trx.

  11. Highly sensitive and selective fluorescent assay for guanine based on the Cu2 +/eosin Y system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Huimin; Cui, Yi; Gong, Yijun; Feng, Suling

    2016-05-01

    A fluorescent probe has been developed for the determination of guanine based on the quenched fluorescence signal of Cu2 +/eosin Y. Cu2 + interacted with eosin Y, resulting in fluorescence quenching. Subsequently, with the addition of guanine to the Cu2 +/eosin Y system, guanine reacted with Cu2 + to form 1:1 chelate cation, which further combined with eosin Y to form a 1:1 ternary ion-association complex by electrostatic attraction and hydrophobic interaction, resulting in significant decrease of the fluorescence. Hence, a fluorescent system was constructed for rapid, sensitive and selective detection of guanine with a detection limit as low as 1.5 nmol L- 1 and a linear range of 3.3-116 nmol L- 1. The method has been applied satisfactorily to the determination of guanine in DNA and urine samples with the recoveries from 98.7% to 105%. This study significantly expands the realm of application of ternary ion-association complex in fluorescence probe.

  12. Suramin inhibits helicase activity of NS3 protein of dengue virus in a fluorescence-based high throughput assay format.

    PubMed

    Basavannacharya, Chandrakala; Vasudevan, Subhash G

    2014-10-24

    Dengue fever is a major health concern worldwide. The virus encoded non-structural protein 3 (NS3) is a multifunctional protein endowed with protease, helicase, nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase) and RNA 5' triphosphatase (RTPase) activities. Helicase activity of NS3 catalyzes the unwinding of double stranded polynucleotides by utilizing the energy released from ATP hydrolysis. As this activity is essential for replication, NS3 helicase represents an attractive drug target for developing a dengue antiviral drug. Here, we report fluorescence based molecular beacon helicase assay using a duplex RNA substrate that contains a fluorophore on the 5' end and a quencher on the 3' end of one of the strands. The assay was optimized with respect to several parameters and adapted to 384-well high-throughput screening format, with an average Z' factor of 0.65. Assay validation with a small diverse set library of 1600 compounds identified, suramin as a significant inhibitor of the helicase activity of NS3. Helicase activity deficient NS3 K199A was used in a counter-screen to identify compounds interfering with the assay. Suramin inhibited DENV (dengue virus) NS3 helicase activity with a Ki of 0.75±0.03μM as a non-competitive inhibitor. The molecular beacon helicase assay together with the counter screen and suramin as a tool compound can be used to identify novel inhibitors of DENV helicase.

  13. An improved high-throughput Nile red fluorescence assay for estimating intracellular lipids in a variety of yeast species

    PubMed Central

    Sitepu, I.R.; Ignatia, L.; Franz, A. K.; Wong, D. M.; Faulina, S.A.; Tsui, M.; Kanti, A.; Boundy-Mills, K.

    2012-01-01

    A rapid and inexpensive method for estimating lipid content of yeasts is needed for screening large numbers of yeasts samples. Nile red is a fluorescent lipophilic dye used for detection and quantification of intracellular lipid droplets in various biological system including algae, yeasts and filamentous fungi. However, a published assay for yeast is affected by variable diffusion across the cell membrane, and variation in the time required to reach maximal fluorescence emission. In this study, parameters that may influence the emission were varied to determine optimal assay conditions. An improved assay with a high-throughput capability was developed that includes the addition of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent to improve cell permeability, elimination of the washing step, the reduction of Nile red concentration, kinetic readings rather than single time-point reading, and utilization of a black 96-well microplate. The improved method was validated by comparison to gravimetric determination of lipid content of a broad variety of ascomycete and basidiomycete yeast species. PMID:22985718

  14. A Fluorescence Polarization Assay for Binding to Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and Crystal Structures for Complexes of Two Potent Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Human macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is both a keto–enol tautomerase and a cytokine associated with numerous inflammatory diseases and cancer. Consistent with observed correlations between inhibition of the enzymatic and biological activities, discovery of MIF inhibitors has focused on monitoring the tautomerase activity using l-dopachrome methyl ester or 4-hydroxyphenyl pyruvic acid as substrates. The accuracy of these assays is compromised by several issues including substrate instability, spectral interference, and short linear periods for product formation. In this work, we report the syntheses of fluorescently labeled MIF inhibitors and their use in the first fluorescence polarization-based assay to measure the direct binding of inhibitors to the active site. The assay allows the accurate and efficient identification of competitive, noncompetitive, and covalent inhibitors of MIF in a manner that can be scaled for high-throughput screening. The results for 22 compounds show that the most potent MIF inhibitors bind with Kd values of ca. 50 nM; two are from our laboratory, and the other is a compound from the patent literature. X-ray crystal structures for two of the most potent compounds bound to MIF are also reported here. Striking combinations of protein–ligand hydrogen bonding, aryl–aryl, and cation−π interactions are responsible for the high affinities. A new chemical series was then designed using this knowledge to yield two more strong MIF inhibitors/binders. PMID:27299179

  15. A Fluorescence Polarization Assay for Binding to Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and Crystal Structures for Complexes of Two Potent Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cisneros, José A; Robertson, Michael J; Valhondo, Margarita; Jorgensen, William L

    2016-07-13

    Human macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is both a keto-enol tautomerase and a cytokine associated with numerous inflammatory diseases and cancer. Consistent with observed correlations between inhibition of the enzymatic and biological activities, discovery of MIF inhibitors has focused on monitoring the tautomerase activity using l-dopachrome methyl ester or 4-hydroxyphenyl pyruvic acid as substrates. The accuracy of these assays is compromised by several issues including substrate instability, spectral interference, and short linear periods for product formation. In this work, we report the syntheses of fluorescently labeled MIF inhibitors and their use in the first fluorescence polarization-based assay to measure the direct binding of inhibitors to the active site. The assay allows the accurate and efficient identification of competitive, noncompetitive, and covalent inhibitors of MIF in a manner that can be scaled for high-throughput screening. The results for 22 compounds show that the most potent MIF inhibitors bind with Kd values of ca. 50 nM; two are from our laboratory, and the other is a compound from the patent literature. X-ray crystal structures for two of the most potent compounds bound to MIF are also reported here. Striking combinations of protein-ligand hydrogen bonding, aryl-aryl, and cation-π interactions are responsible for the high affinities. A new chemical series was then designed using this knowledge to yield two more strong MIF inhibitors/binders. PMID:27299179

  16. A label-free and sensitive fluorescent assay for one step detection of protein kinase activity and inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Yan, Xu; Su, Xingguang

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a label-free, highly sensitive and simple assay for one step detection of protein kinase (PKA) activity and inhibition that avoids the fluorescent dye process has been established. The detection was based on the fluorescence (FL) quenching of peptide-Ag nanoclusters (Ag NCs) caused by antibody modified Au nanoparticles (anti-Au NPs) via fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). With PKA and adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) introduced, the substrate peptide of Ag NCs could react with PKA via targeted phosphorylation, and followed by the linking interactions between peptide-Ag NCs and anti-Au NPs. According to the fluorescence quenching of Ag NCs, the activity of protein kinase can be facilely monitored in the range of 0.1-2000 mU/μL with high sensitivity. The detection limit for PKA is 0.039 mU/μL. We further explored the inhibitory effect of H-89 for protein kinase activity. The developed method was also applied to the investigation of drug-induced PKA activation in HeLa cells, which provides a promising means for screening of kinase-related drugs and the clinical diagnosis of disease. PMID:27543031

  17. A sensitive fluorescent assay for thiamine based on metal-organic frameworks with intrinsic peroxidase-like activity.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hongliang; Li, Qian; Zhou, Zhengchen; Ma, Chanjiao; Song, Yonghai; Xu, Fugang; Wang, Li

    2015-01-26

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with tunable structures and properties have recently been emerged as very interesting functional materials. However, the catalytic properties of MOFs as enzymatic mimics remain to be further investigated. In this work, we for the first time demonstrated the peroxidase-like activity of copper-based MOFs (HKUST-1) by employing thiamine (TH) as a peroxidase substrate. In the presence of H2O2, HKUST-1 can catalyze efficiently the conversion of non-fluorescent TH to strong fluorescent thiochrome. The catalytic activity of HKUST-1 is highly dependent on the temperature, pH and H2O2 concentrations. As a peroxidase mimic, HKUST-1 not only has the features of low cost, high stability and easy preparation, but also follows Michaelis-Menten behaviors and shows stronger affinity to TH than horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Based on the peroxidase-like activity of HKUST-1, a simple and sensitive fluorescent method for TH detection has been developed. As low as 1 μM TH can be detected with a linear range from 4 to 700 μM. The detection limit for TH is about 50 fold lower than that of HRP-based fluorescent assay. The proposed method was successfully applied to detect TH in tablets and urine samples and showed a satisfactory result. We believed that the present work could improve the understanding of catalytic behaviors of MOFs as enzymatic mimics and find out a wider application in bioanalysis.

  18. A near-infrared fluorescence assay method to detect patulin in food.

    PubMed

    Pennacchio, Anna; Varriale, Antonio; Esposito, Maria Grazia; Staiano, Maria; D'Auria, Sabato

    2015-07-15

    Patulin (PAT) is a toxic secondary metabolite (mycotoxin) of different fungal species belonging to the genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Byssochlamys. They can grow on a large variety of food, including fruits, grains, and cheese. The amount of PAT in apple derivative products is a crucial issue because it is the measure of the quality of both the used raw products and the performed production process. Actually, all current methodologies used for the quantification of PAT are time-consuming and require skilled personnel beyond the sample pretreatment methods (e.g., high-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, and electrophoresis techniques). In this work, we present a novel fluorescence polarization approach based on the use of emergent near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence probes. The use of these fluorophores coupled to anti-PAT antibodies makes possible the detection of PAT directly in apple juice without any sample pretreatment. This methodology is based on the increase of fluorescence polarization emission of a fluorescence-labeled PAT derivative on binding to specific antibodies. A competition between PAT and the fluorescence-labeled PAT derivative allowed detecting PAT. The limit of detection of the method is 0.06 μg/L, a value that is lower than maximum residue limit of PAT fixed at 50 μg/L from European Union regulation.

  19. A competition assay for DNA binding using the fluorescent probe ANS.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ian A; Kneale, G Geoff

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is a technique frequently employed to study protein-nucleic acid interactions. Often, the intrinsic fluorescence emission spectrum of tryptophan residues in a nucleic-acid-binding protein is strongly perturbed upon interaction with a target DNA or RNA. These spectral changes can then be exploited in order to construct binding isotherms and the extract equilibrium association constant together with the stoichiometry of an interaction. However, when a protein contains many tryptophan residues that are not located in the proximity of the nucleic-acid-binding site, changes in the fluorescence emission spectrum may not be apparent or the magnitude too small to be useful. Here, we make use of an extrinsic fluorescence probe, the environmentally sensitive fluorophore 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulphonic acid (1,8-ANS). Displacement by DNA of 1,8-ANS molecules from the nucleic-acid-binding site of the Type I modification methylase EcoR124I results in red shifting and an intensity decrease of the 1,8-ANS fluorescence emission spectrum. These spectral changes have been used to investigate the interaction of EcoR124I with DNA target recognition sequences.

  20. A Low-Cost, High-Performance System for Fluorescence Lateral Flow Assays

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Linda G.; Nordman, Eric S.; Johnson, Martin D.; Oldham, Mark F.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a fluorescence lateral flow system that has excellent sensitivity and wide dynamic range. The illumination system utilizes an LED, plastic lenses and plastic and colored glass filters for the excitation and emission light. Images are collected on an iPhone 4. Several fluorescent dyes with long Stokes shifts were evaluated for their signal and nonspecific binding in lateral flow. A wide range of values for the ratio of signal to nonspecific binding was found, from 50 for R-phycoerythrin (R-PE) to 0.15 for Brilliant Violet 605. The long Stokes shift of R-PE allowed the use of inexpensive plastic filters rather than costly interference filters to block the LED light. Fluorescence detection with R-PE and absorbance detection with colloidal gold were directly compared in lateral flow using biotinylated bovine serum albumen (BSA) as the analyte. Fluorescence provided linear data over a range of 0.4–4,000 ng/mL with a 1,000-fold signal change while colloidal gold provided non-linear data over a range of 16–4,000 ng/mL with a 10-fold signal change. A comparison using human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) as the analyte showed a similar advantage in the fluorescent system. We believe our inexpensive yet high-performance platform will be useful for providing quantitative and sensitive detection in a point-of-care setting. PMID:25586412

  1. A Fluorescence Immunochromatographic Assay Using Europium (III) Chelate Microparticles for Rapid, Quantitative and Sensitive Detection of Creatine Kinase MB.

    PubMed

    Lai, Xiao-Hong; Liang, Rong-Liang; Liu, Tian-Cai; Dong, Zhi-Ning; Wu, Ying-Song; Li, Lin-Hai

    2016-05-01

    The isoenzyme creatine kinase MB is very important for diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Some CK-MB immunoassays are sensitive, accurate and available for clinical application, but they are expensive and time-consuming procedures. Furthermore, conventional fluorescence immunochromatographic assays (FL-ICAs) have suffered from background fluorescence interference and low analytical sensitivity. A rapid and simple FL-ICA with Eu (III) chelate polystyrene microparticles was developed to determine CK-MB in 50uL serum samples using a portable test strip reader by measuring the fluorescence peak heights of the test line (HT) and the control line (HC) in 12 min. The assay was reliable with a good correlation coefficient between HT/HC ratio and CK-MB concentration in samples. A linear range was 0.85-100.29 ng/mL for CK-MB, and the LOD was 0.029 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CV) were both <10 % and the average recoveries were from 90.17 % -112.63 % for CK-MB. The system performed well in interference experiments. Furthermore, a highly significant correlation (r = 0.9794, P < 0.001) between this method and the commercially available bioMérieux mini VIDAS system were attained for measuring 120 CK-MB samples. These results indicated that the Eu (III) chelate microparticles-based FL-ICA is simple, fast, highly sensitive, reliable, and reproducible for point-of-care testing of CK-MB concentrations in serum. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  2. A Fluorescence Immunochromatographic Assay Using Europium (III) Chelate Microparticles for Rapid, Quantitative and Sensitive Detection of Creatine Kinase MB.

    PubMed

    Lai, Xiao-Hong; Liang, Rong-Liang; Liu, Tian-Cai; Dong, Zhi-Ning; Wu, Ying-Song; Li, Lin-Hai

    2016-05-01

    The isoenzyme creatine kinase MB is very important for diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Some CK-MB immunoassays are sensitive, accurate and available for clinical application, but they are expensive and time-consuming procedures. Furthermore, conventional fluorescence immunochromatographic assays (FL-ICAs) have suffered from background fluorescence interference and low analytical sensitivity. A rapid and simple FL-ICA with Eu (III) chelate polystyrene microparticles was developed to determine CK-MB in 50uL serum samples using a portable test strip reader by measuring the fluorescence peak heights of the test line (HT) and the control line (HC) in 12 min. The assay was reliable with a good correlation coefficient between HT/HC ratio and CK-MB concentration in samples. A linear range was 0.85-100.29 ng/mL for CK-MB, and the LOD was 0.029 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CV) were both <10 % and the average recoveries were from 90.17 % -112.63 % for CK-MB. The system performed well in interference experiments. Furthermore, a highly significant correlation (r = 0.9794, P < 0.001) between this method and the commercially available bioMérieux mini VIDAS system were attained for measuring 120 CK-MB samples. These results indicated that the Eu (III) chelate microparticles-based FL-ICA is simple, fast, highly sensitive, reliable, and reproducible for point-of-care testing of CK-MB concentrations in serum. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27034063

  3. A fluorescence-based hydrolytic enzyme activity assay for quantifying toxic effects of Roundup® to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Ørsted, Michael; Roslev, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Daphnia magna is a widely used model organism for aquatic toxicity testing. In the present study, the authors investigated the hydrolytic enzyme activity of D. magna after exposure to toxicant stress. In vivo enzyme activity was quantified using 15 fluorogenic enzyme probes based on 4-methylumbelliferyl or 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin. Probing D. magna enzyme activity was evaluated using short-term exposure (24-48 h) to the reference chemical K2 Cr2 O7 or the herbicide formulation Roundup®. Toxicant-induced changes in hydrolytic enzyme activity were compared with changes in mobility (International Organization for Standardization standard 6341). The results showed that hydrolytic enzyme activity was quantifiable as a combination of whole body fluorescence of D. magna and the fluorescence of the surrounding water. Exposure of D. magna to lethal and sublethal concentrations of Roundup resulted in loss of whole body enzyme activity and release of cell constituents, including enzymes and DNA. Roundup caused comparable inhibition of mobility and alkaline phosphatase activity with median effective concentration values at 20 °C of 8.7 mg active ingredient (a.i.)/L to 11.7 mg a.i./L. Inhibition of alkaline phosphatase activity by Roundup was lowest at 14 °C and greater at 20 °C and 26 °C. The results suggest that the fluorescence-based hydrolytic enzyme activity assay (FLEA assay) can be used as an index of D. magna stress. Combining enzyme activity with fluorescence measurements may be applied as a simple and quantitative supplement for toxicity testing with D. magna.

  4. Selective and sensitive determination of cypermethrin in fish via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-like method based on molecularly imprinted artificial antibody-quantum dot optosensing materials.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ting-Ting; Shi, Xi-Zhi; Jiao, Hai-Feng; Sun, Ai-Li; Ding, Hao; Zhang, Rong-Rrong; Pan, Dao-Dong; Li, De-Xiang; Chen, Jiong

    2016-01-15

    Molecularly imprinted silica layers appended to quantum dots (MIP-QDs) with customized selective artificial recognition sites were fabricated in this study by optimizing the ratio of the functional monomer to the template. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer–emmett–teller, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and selectivity assay analyses were also performed. Results demonstrated that the selective fluorescence quenching properties of MIP-QDs toward cypermethrin (CYP) are due to strong interactions between these molecules. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-like method based on the MIP-QDs was established under optimal conditions. The fluorescence quenching observed from this method showed a linear relationship with CYP concentration over the range of 0.05–60.0 mg/kg with a correlation coefficient of 0.9838. Good recovery (82.7–92.4%) and a relative standard deviation of less than 10.1% were obtained from fish samples spiked with three levels of CYP. This method also demonstrated a low detection limit of 1.2 μg/kg. The ELISA-like method based on MIP-QDs can be successfully employed to detect residual of CYP in fish samples.

  5. A cellular assay using metal-modified fluorescence lifetime analysis for high-content screening of protein internalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cade, Nic; Fruhwirth, Gilbert; Archibald, Stephen J.; Ng, Tony; Richards, David

    2010-04-01

    Current high-content screening (HCS) techniques involve the analysis of cellular assays using high-resolution imaging combined with sophisticated algorithms for automated image analysis. Commercially available platforms are invariably highly specialised and expensive. Here we present a novel assay utilising changes in fluorescence lifetime in the vicinity of a rough Au film. A mammary carcinoma cell line was created expressing EGFP in the membrane, and cells were plated onto multi-well slides covered with a 30 nm Au film. FLIM images show a large reduction in lifetime for membrane-bound GFP in close proximity to the Au surface. Addition of a suitable ligand leads to internalization of the GFP with a corresponding increase in lifetime. The degree of internalization can be very quickly and easily checked using standard lifetime analysis techniques, with no need for image analysis. We demonstrate the method by comparing the efficacies of two small molecule inhibitors interfering with the internalization process.

  6. Development of a fluorescent microsphere-based multiplexed high-throughput assay system for profiling of transcription factor activation.

    PubMed

    Yaoi, Takuro; Jiang, Xin; Li, Xianqiang

    2006-06-01

    Transcription factors (TFs), which play crucial roles in the regulation of gene expression in the human genome, are highly regulated by a variety of mechanisms. A single extracellular stimulus can trigger multiple signaling pathways, and these in turn can activate multiple TFs to mediate the inducible expression of target genes. Alterations in the activities of TFs are often associated with human diseases, such as altered activating factor 1, estrogen receptor, and p53 function in cancer, nuclear factor kappaB in inflammatory diseases, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in obesity. A systematic assay for profiling the activation of TFs will aid in elucidating the mechanisms of TF activation, reveal altered TFs associated with human diseases, and aid in developing assays for drug discovery. Here, we developed a 24-plex fluorescent microsphere-based TF activation assay system with a 96-well plate format. The assay system enabled high-throughput profiling of the DNA binding activity of TFs in multiple samples with high sensitivity. PMID:16834534

  7. A quantitative stopped-flow fluorescence assay for measuring polymerase elongation rates

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Peng; Campagnola, Grace; Peersen, Olve B.

    2009-01-01

    The measurement of nucleic acid polymerase elongation rates is often done via a lengthy experimental process involving radiolabeled substrates, quenched elongation experiments, electrophoretic product separation, and band quantitation. In this work we describe an alternative real-time stopped-flow assay for obtaining kinetic parameters for elongation of extended sequences. The assay builds on our earlier PETE assay designed for high-throughput screening purposes (Anal. Biochem. 365, 194-200) and relies of measuring how long it takes a polymerase to reach the end of a defined length template. Using poliovirus polymerase and self-priming hairpin RNA substrates with 6 to 26 nucleotide long templating regions, we demonstrate that the assay can be used to determine Vmax rates for elongation and apparent Km values for NTP utilization. Modeling the reaction kinetics as a series of irreversible steps allows us to numerically fit the entire time-based dataset by properly accounting for the temporal distribution of intermediate species. This enables us to determine average elongation rates over heterogeneous templating regions that mimic viral genome substrates. The assay is easily extendable to other RNA and DNA polymerases, can accommodate secondary structures in the template, and can in principle be used for any enzyme traversing along an extended substrate. PMID:19406094

  8. Optimization of fluorescence assay of cellular manganese status for high throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kevin K; Aboud, Asad A; Patel, Devin K; Aschner, Michael; Bowman, Aaron B

    2013-01-01

    The advent of high throughput screening (HTS) technology permits identification of compounds that influence various cellular phenotypes. However, screening for small molecule chemical modifiers of neurotoxicants has been limited by the scalability of existing phenotyping assays. Furthermore, the adaptation of existing cellular assays to HTS format requires substantial modification of experimental parameters and analysis methodology to meet the necessary statistical requirements. Here we describe the successful optimization of the Cellular Fura-2 Manganese Extraction Assay (CFMEA) for HTS. By optimizing cellular density, manganese (Mn) exposure conditions, and extraction parameters, the sensitivity and dynamic range of the fura-2 Mn response was enhanced to permit detection of positive and negative modulators of cellular manganese status. Finally, we quantify and report strategies to control sources of intra- and interplate variability by batch level and plate-geometric level analysis. Our goal is to enable HTS with the CFMEA to identify novel modulators of Mn transport.

  9. Stably transfected human cell lines as fluorescent screening assay for nuclear factor KB activation dependent gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellweg, Christine E.; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Horneck, Gerda

    2004-06-01

    Activation of the Nuclear Factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathway as a possible antiapoptotic route represents one important cellular stress response. For identifying conditions which are capable to modify this pathway, a screening assay for detection of NF-kappaB-dependent gene activation using the reporter proteins Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP) and its destabilized variant (d2EGFP) has been developed. Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK/293) cells were stably transfected with a vector carrying EGFP or d2EGFP under control of a synthetic promoter containing four copies of the NF-kappaB response element. Treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gave rise to substantial EGFP / d2EGFP expression in up to 90 % of the cells and was therefore used to screen different stably transfected clones for induction of NF-kappaB dependent gene expression. The time course of d2EGFP expression after treatment with TNF-alpha or phorbol ester was measured using flow cytometry. Cellular response to TNF-alpha was faster than to phorbol ester. Treatment of cells with TNF-alpha and DMSO revealed antagonistic interactions of these substances in the activation NF-kappaB dependent gene expression. The detection of d2EGFP expression required FACS analysis or fluorescence microscopy, while EGFP could also be measured in the microplate reader, rendering the assay useful for high-throughput screening.

  10. Fluorescent single-stranded DNA-based assay for detecting unchelated Gadolinium(III) ions in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Edogun, Osafanmwen; Nguyen, Nghia Huu; Halim, Marlin

    2016-06-01

    The main concern pertaining to the safety of Gadolinium(III)-based contrast agents (GBCAs) is the toxicity caused by the unchelated ion, which may be inadvertently present in the solution due most commonly to excess unreacted starting material or dissociation of the complexes. Detecting the aqueous free ion during the synthesis and preparation of GBCA solutions is therefore instrumental in ensuring the safety of the agents. This paper reports the development of a sensitive fluorogenic sensor for aqueous unchelated Gadolinium(III) (Gd(III)). Our design utilizes single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides with a specific sequence of 44 bases as the targeting moiety. The fluorescence-based assay may be run at ambient pH with very small amounts of samples in 384-well plates. The sensor is able to detect nanomolar concentration of Gd(III), and is relatively unresponsive toward a range of biologically relevant ions and the chelated Gd(III). Although some cross-reactivity with other trivalent lanthanide ions, such as Europium(III) and Terbium(III), is observed, these are not commonly found in biological systems and contrast agents. This convenient and rapid method may be useful in ascertaining a high purity of GBCA solutions. Graphical abstract Fluorescent aptamer-based assay for detecting unchelated Ln(III) ions in aqueous solution. PMID:27071762

  11. Detecting Autophagy and Autophagy Flux in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cells Using a Cyto-ID Fluorescence Spectrophotometric Assay.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sujuan; Pridham, Kevin J; Sheng, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a catabolic process whereby cellular components are degraded to fuel cells for longer survival during stress. Hence, autophagy plays a vital role in determining cell fate and is central for homeostasis and pathogenesis of many human diseases including chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). It has been well established that autophagy is important for the leukemogenesis as well as drug resistance in CML. Thus, autophagy is an intriguing therapeutic target. However, current approaches that detect autophagy lack reliability and often fail to provide quantitative measurements. To overcome this hurdle and facilitate the development of autophagy-related therapies, we have recently developed an autophagy assay termed as the Cyto-ID fluorescence spectrophotometric assay. This method uses a cationic fluorescence dye, Cyto-ID, which specifically labels autophagic compartments and is detected by a spectrophotometer to permit a large-scale and quantitative analysis. As such, it allows rapid, reliable, and quantitative detection of autophagy and estimation of autophagy flux. In this chapter, we further provide technical details of this method and step-by-step protocols for measuring autophagy or autophagy flux in CML cell lines as well as primary hematopoietic cells. PMID:27581142

  12. Chikungunya Virus Growth and Fluorescent Labeling: Detection of Chikungunya Virus by Immunofluorescence Assay.

    PubMed

    Moi, Meng Ling; Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2016-01-01

    Immunofluorescence assay (IFA) is a highly versatile and sensitive assay for detection and titration of chikungunya virus (CHIKV). The IFA technique requires virus-infected cells (viral antigen) and antibodies specific to the viral antigens for detection. Suitable antibodies for detection include monoclonal antibodies specific to CHIKV structural and nonstructural proteins, polyclonal antibodies, and convalescent serum samples. Here, the details of virus antigen preparation, detection by IFA method, and applications are described. The described IFA method is potentially useful in a wide range of studies including virus growth kinetics and virus infection mechanism studies. Additionally, the described IFA method can be modified for applications in arbovirus diagnosis, including CHIKV.

  13. Homogeneous competitive assay of ligand affinities based on quenching fluorescence of tyrosine/tryptophan residues in a protein via Főrster-resonance-energy-transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yanling; Yang, Xiaolan; Pu, Jun; Zhao, Yunsheng; Zhang, Ying; Xie, Guoming; Zheng, Jun; Yuan, Huidong; Liao, Fei

    2010-11-01

    A new homogeneous competitive assay of ligand affinities was proposed based on quenching the fluorescence of tryptophan/tyrosine residues in a protein via Főrster-resonance-energy-transfer using a fluorescent reference ligand as the acceptor. Under excitation around 280 nm, the fluorescence of a protein or a bound acceptor was monitored upon competitive binding against a nonfluorescent candidate ligand. Chemometrics for deriving the binding ratio of the acceptor with either fluorescence signal was discussed; the dissociation constant ( Kd) of a nonfluorescent candidate ligand was calculated from its concentration to displace 50% binding of the acceptor. N-biotinyl-N'-(1-naphthyl)-ethylenediamine (BNEDA) and N-biotinyl-N'-dansyl-ethylenediamine (BDEDA) were used as the reference ligands and acceptors to streptavidin to test this new homogeneous competitive assay. Upon binding of an acceptor to streptavidin, there were the quench of streptavidin fluorescence at 340 nm and the characteristic fluorescence at 430 nm for BNEDA or at 525 nm for BDEDA. Kd of BNEDA and BDEDA was obtained via competitive binding against biotin. By quantifying BNEDA fluorescence, Kd of each tested nonfluorescent biotin derivative was consistent with that by quantifying streptavidin fluorescence using BNEDA or BDEDA as the acceptor. The overall coefficients of variation were about 10%. Therefore, this homogeneous competitive assay was effective and promising to high-throughput-screening.

  14. Dopamine assay based on an aggregation-induced reversed inner filter effect of gold nanoparticles on the fluorescence of graphene quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Lin, Feng-E; Gui, Chuang; Wen, Wei; Bao, Ting; Zhang, Xiuhua; Wang, Shengfu

    2016-09-01

    We describe a fluorescent dopamine assay that is based on the inner filter effect (IFE) of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the fluorescence of graphene quantum dots (GQDs). The green fluorescence of GQDs is remarkably inhibited in the presence of citrate-stabilized AuNPs via IFE. Upon the addition of dopamine (DA), aggregation of the AuNPs occurs which is associated with a color change from red to blue. The IFE can no longer occur and the fluorescence of GQDs is recovered. Under the optimum conditions, a linear correlation exists between fluorescence intensity and the concentration of DA in the range from 20nM to 200nM with a detection limit of 15nM (at 3σ/s). The assay is rapid, inexpensive and highly sensitive. PMID:27343608

  15. Firefly Luciferase-Based Sequential Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET)-Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) Protease Assays.

    PubMed

    Branchini, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    We describe here the preparation of ratiometric luminescent probes that contain two well-separated emission peaks produced by a sequential bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)-fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) process. The probes are single soluble fusion proteins consisting of a thermostable firefly luciferase variant that catalyzes yellow-green (560 nm maximum) bioluminescence and a red fluorescent protein covalently labeled with a near-Infrared fluorescent dye. The two proteins are connected by a decapeptide containing a protease recognition site specific for factor Xa, thrombin, or caspase 3. The rates of protease cleavage of the fusion protein substrates were monitored by recording emission spectra and plotting the change in peak ratios over time. Detection limits of 0.41 nM for caspase 3, 1.0 nM for thrombin, and 58 nM for factor Xa were realized with a scanning fluorometer. This method successfully employs an efficient sequential BRET-FRET energy transfer process based on firefly luciferase bioluminescence to assay physiologically important protease activities and should be generally applicable to the measurement of any endoprotease lacking accessible cysteine residues. PMID:27424898

  16. Firefly Luciferase-Based Sequential Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET)-Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) Protease Assays.

    PubMed

    Branchini, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    We describe here the preparation of ratiometric luminescent probes that contain two well-separated emission peaks produced by a sequential bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)-fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) process. The probes are single soluble fusion proteins consisting of a thermostable firefly luciferase variant that catalyzes yellow-green (560 nm maximum) bioluminescence and a red fluorescent protein covalently labeled with a near-Infrared fluorescent dye. The two proteins are connected by a decapeptide containing a protease recognition site specific for factor Xa, thrombin, or caspase 3. The rates of protease cleavage of the fusion protein substrates were monitored by recording emission spectra and plotting the change in peak ratios over time. Detection limits of 0.41 nM for caspase 3, 1.0 nM for thrombin, and 58 nM for factor Xa were realized with a scanning fluorometer. This method successfully employs an efficient sequential BRET-FRET energy transfer process based on firefly luciferase bioluminescence to assay physiologically important protease activities and should be generally applicable to the measurement of any endoprotease lacking accessible cysteine residues.

  17. Adaptation of Tri-molecular fluorescence complementation allows assaying of regulatory Csr RNA-protein interactions in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gelderman, Grant; Sivakumar, Anusha; Lipp, Sarah; Contreras, Lydia

    2015-02-01

    sRNAs play a significant role in controlling and regulating cellular metabolism. One of the more interesting aspects of certain sRNAs is their ability to make global changes in the cell by interacting with regulatory proteins. In this work, we demonstrate the use of an in vivo Tri-molecular Fluorescence Complementation assay to detect and visualize the central regulatory sRNA-protein interaction of the Carbon Storage Regulatory system in E. coli. The Carbon Storage Regulator consists primarily of an RNA binding protein, CsrA, that alters the activity of mRNA targets and of an sRNA, CsrB, that modulates the activity of CsrA. We describe the construction of a fluorescence complementation system that detects the interactions between CsrB and CsrA. Additionally, we demonstrate that the intensity of the fluorescence of this system is able to detect changes in the affinity of the CsrB-CsrA interaction, as caused by mutations in the protein sequence of CsrA. While previous methods have adopted this technique to study mRNA or RNA localization, this is the first attempt to use this technique to study the sRNA-protein interaction directly in bacteria. This method presents a potentially powerful tool to study complex bacterial RNA protein interactions in vivo.

  18. Competitive detection of influenza neutralizing antibodies using a novel bivalent fluorescence-based microneutralization assay (BiFMA)

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Steven F.; Nogales, Aitor; Santiago, Felix W.; Topham, David J.; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Avian-derived influenza A zoonoses are closely monitored and may be an indication of virus strains with pandemic potential. Both successful vaccination and convalescence of influenza A virus in humans typically results in the induction of antibodies that can neutralize viral infection. To improve long-standing and new-generation methodologies for detection of neutralizing antibodies, we have employed a novel reporter-based approach that allows for multiple antigenic testing within a single sample. Central to this approach is a single-cycle infectious influenza A virus (sciIAV), where a functional hemagglutinin (HA) gene was changed to encode either the green or the monomeric red fluorescent protein (GFP and mRFP, respectively) and HA is complemented in trans by stable HA-expressing cell lines. By using fluorescent proteins with non-overlapping emission spectra, this novel bivalent fluorescence-based microneutralization assay (BiFMA) can be used to detect neutralizing antibodies against two distinct influenza isolates in a single reaction, doubling the speed of experimentation while halving the amount of sera required. Moreover, this approach can be used for the rapid identification of influenza broadly neutralizing antibodies. Importantly, this novel BiFMA can be used for any given influenza HA-pseudotyped virus under BSL-2 facilities, including highly pathogenic influenza HA isolates. PMID:26044496

  19. Fluorescence assay for monitoring Zn-deficient superoxide dismutase in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martyshkin, D. V.; Mirov, S. B.; Zhuang, Y.-X.; Crow, J. P.; Ermilov, V.; Beckman, J. S.

    2003-11-01

    A method has been developed for selective detection of the zinc-deficient form of Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) in vitro. Zinc-deficient SOD1 mutants have been implicated in the death of motor neurons leading in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gerhig's disease). Thus, this method may have applicability for detecting zinc-deficient SOD1 mutants in human ALS patients samples as well as in a transgenic mouse model of ALS and in cultured motor neurons. We determined previously that structural analogs of 1,10 phenanthroline, which react specifically with Cu(I), react with the active Cu(I) of SOD1 when zinc is absent, but not when zinc is also bound, as evidenced by the fact that the reaction is inhibited by pretreatment of the enzyme with zinc. We report herein that bathocuproine, or its water-soluble derivative bathocuproine disulfonate, react with zinc-deficient SOD1 to form a complex which fluoresces at 734 nm when excited at 482 nm. Fluorescent intensity is concentration dependent, thus we propose to use fluorescent confocal microscopy to measure intracellular levels of zinc-deficient SOD1 in situ.

  20. A FLUORESCENCE BASED ASSAY FOR DNA DAMAGE INDUCED BY TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the reported effects for exposure to many of the toxic industrial chemicals is DNA damage. The present study describes a simple, rapid and innovative assay to detect DNA damage resulting from exposure of surrogate DNA to toxic industrial chemicals (acrolein, allylamine, ch...

  1. A competition assay to identify amyloidogenesis inhibitors by monitoring the fluorescence emitted by the covalent attachment of a stilbene derivative to transthyretin.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sungwook; Kelly, Jeffery W

    2011-02-15

    Herein we demonstrate that competition between candidate kinetic stabilizer binding to transthyretin (TTR) and stilbene binding to and reaction with the same thyroxine sites within TTR can be utilized to discover potent and highly selective non-covalent TTR amyloidogenesis inhibitors. We report two stilbenes, S1 and S2, for use in distinct competition assays. Each bind selectively to TTR and then chemoselectively react to form an amide bond with the Lys-15 residue of TTR, creating a fluorescent conjugate. We used 28 TTR kinetic stabilizers exhibiting a known spectrum of plasma TTR binding selectivities and TTR amyloid fibril inhibition efficacies to validate the 'TTR fluorescence conjugate competition assay'. The kinetic stabilizers competed with S1 for binding to recombinant TTR in buffer and with S2 for binding to endogenous levels of TTR in human blood serum. In both assay scenarios, we demonstrate that the lower the TTR-stilbene conjugate fluorescence after a 3 h competition, the greater the binding selectivity and potency of the candidate TTR kinetic stabilizer. These assays, particularly the assay utilizing S2 in human serum, replace two assays previously utilized to gather the same information. While not the focus of this manuscript, it is clear that the 'TTR fluorescence conjugate competition assay' could be adapted for high throughput screening applications.

  2. Multi-Fluorescence Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection of RIF and INH Resistance of M. tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jingfu; Yu, Xiaoli; Cui, Zhenling; Xue, Wenfei; Luo, Ziyi; Wen, Zilu; Liu, Minghua; Jiang, Danqing; Zheng, Heping; Wu, Hai; Zhang, Shulin; Li, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Background: Failure to early detect multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) results in treatment failure and poor clinical outcomes, and highlights the need to rapidly detect resistance to rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH). Methods: In Multi-Fluorescence quantitative Real-Time PCR (MF-qRT-PCR) assay, 10 probes labeled with four kinds of fluorophores were designed to detect the mutations in regions of rpoB, katG, mabA-inhA, oxyR-ahpC, and rrs. The efficiency of MF-qRT-PCR assay was tested using 261 bacterial isolates and 33 clinical sputum specimens. Among these samples, 227 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were analyzed using drug susceptibility testing (DST), DNA sequencing and MF-qRT-PCR assay. Results: Compared with DST, MF-qRT-PCR sensitivity and specificity for RIF-resistance were 94.6 and 100%, respectively. And the detection sensitivity and specificity for INH-resistance were 85.9 and 95.3%, respectively. Compared with DNA sequencing, the sensitivity and specificity of our assay were 97.2 and 100% for RIF-resistance and 97.9 and 96.4% for INH-resistance. Compared with Phenotypic strain identification, MF-qRT-PCR can distinguish 227 M. tuberculosis complexes (MTC) from 34 Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) isolates with 100% accuracy rate. Conclusions: MF-qRT-PCR assay was an efficient, accurate, reliable, and easy-operated method for detection of RIF and INH-resistance, and distinction of MTC and NTM of clinical isolates. PMID:27199947

  3. Single Cell Assay for Molecular Diagnostics and Medicine: Monitoring Intracellular Concentrations of Macromolecules by Two-photon Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging.

    PubMed

    Pliss, Artem; Peng, Xiao; Liu, Lixin; Kuzmin, Andrey; Wang, Yan; Qu, Junle; Li, Yuee; Prasad, Paras N

    2015-01-01

    Molecular organization of a cell is dynamically transformed along the course of cellular physiological processes, pathologic developments or derived from interactions with drugs. The capability to measure and monitor concentrations of macromolecules in a single cell would greatly enhance studies of cellular processes in heterogeneous populations. In this communication, we introduce and experimentally validate a bio-analytical single-cell assay, wherein the overall concentration of macromolecules is estimated in specific subcellular domains, such as structure-function compartments of the cell nucleus as well as in nucleoplasm. We describe quantitative mapping of local biomolecular concentrations, either intrinsic relating to the functional and physiological state of a cell, or altered by a therapeutic drug action, using two-photon excited fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM). The proposed assay utilizes a correlation between the fluorescence lifetime of fluorophore and the refractive index of its microenvironment varying due to changes in the concentrations of macromolecules, mainly proteins. Two-photon excitation in Near-Infra Red biological transparency window reduced the photo-toxicity in live cells, as compared with a conventional single-photon approach. Using this new assay, we estimated average concentrations of proteins in the compartments of nuclear speckles and in the nucleoplasm at ~150 mg/ml, and in the nucleolus at ~284 mg/ml. Furthermore, we show a profound influence of pharmaceutical inhibitors of RNA synthesis on intracellular protein density. The approach proposed here will significantly advance theranostics, and studies of drug-cell interactions at the single-cell level, aiding development of personal molecular medicine.

  4. Single Cell Assay for Molecular Diagnostics and Medicine: Monitoring Intracellular Concentrations of Macromolecules by Two-photon Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pliss, Artem; Peng, Xiao; Liu, Lixin; Kuzmin, Andrey; Wang, Yan; Qu, Junle; Li, Yuee; Prasad, Paras N

    2015-01-01

    Molecular organization of a cell is dynamically transformed along the course of cellular physiological processes, pathologic developments or derived from interactions with drugs. The capability to measure and monitor concentrations of macromolecules in a single cell would greatly enhance studies of cellular processes in heterogeneous populations. In this communication, we introduce and experimentally validate a bio-analytical single-cell assay, wherein the overall concentration of macromolecules is estimated in specific subcellular domains, such as structure-function compartments of the cell nucleus as well as in nucleoplasm. We describe quantitative mapping of local biomolecular concentrations, either intrinsic relating to the functional and physiological state of a cell, or altered by a therapeutic drug action, using two-photon excited fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM). The proposed assay utilizes a correlation between the fluorescence lifetime of fluorophore and the refractive index of its microenvironment varying due to changes in the concentrations of macromolecules, mainly proteins. Two-photon excitation in Near-Infra Red biological transparency window reduced the photo-toxicity in live cells, as compared with a conventional single-photon approach. Using this new assay, we estimated average concentrations of proteins in the compartments of nuclear speckles and in the nucleoplasm at ~150 mg/ml, and in the nucleolus at ~284 mg/ml. Furthermore, we show a profound influence of pharmaceutical inhibitors of RNA synthesis on intracellular protein density. The approach proposed here will significantly advance theranostics, and studies of drug-cell interactions at the single-cell level, aiding development of personal molecular medicine. PMID:26155309

  5. Single Cell Assay for Molecular Diagnostics and Medicine: Monitoring Intracellular Concentrations of Macromolecules by Two-photon Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging.

    PubMed

    Pliss, Artem; Peng, Xiao; Liu, Lixin; Kuzmin, Andrey; Wang, Yan; Qu, Junle; Li, Yuee; Prasad, Paras N

    2015-01-01

    Molecular organization of a cell is dynamically transformed along the course of cellular physiological processes, pathologic developments or derived from interactions with drugs. The capability to measure and monitor concentrations of macromolecules in a single cell would greatly enhance studies of cellular processes in heterogeneous populations. In this communication, we introduce and experimentally validate a bio-analytical single-cell assay, wherein the overall concentration of macromolecules is estimated in specific subcellular domains, such as structure-function compartments of the cell nucleus as well as in nucleoplasm. We describe quantitative mapping of local biomolecular concentrations, either intrinsic relating to the functional and physiological state of a cell, or altered by a therapeutic drug action, using two-photon excited fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM). The proposed assay utilizes a correlation between the fluorescence lifetime of fluorophore and the refractive index of its microenvironment varying due to changes in the concentrations of macromolecules, mainly proteins. Two-photon excitation in Near-Infra Red biological transparency window reduced the photo-toxicity in live cells, as compared with a conventional single-photon approach. Using this new assay, we estimated average concentrations of proteins in the compartments of nuclear speckles and in the nucleoplasm at ~150 mg/ml, and in the nucleolus at ~284 mg/ml. Furthermore, we show a profound influence of pharmaceutical inhibitors of RNA synthesis on intracellular protein density. The approach proposed here will significantly advance theranostics, and studies of drug-cell interactions at the single-cell level, aiding development of personal molecular medicine. PMID:26155309

  6. The function of the milk-clotting enzymes bovine and camel chymosin studied by a fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Jacobsen, Jonas; Moss, Marcia L; Rasmussen, Fred; Qvist, Karsten Bruun; Larsen, Sine; van den Brink, Johannes M

    2015-05-01

    Enzymatic coagulation of bovine milk can be divided in 2 steps: an enzymatic step, in which the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein bovine κ-casein is cleaved, and an aggregation step. The aspartic peptidases bovine and camel chymosin (EC 3.4.23.4) are typically used to catalyze the enzymatic step. The most commonly used method to study chymosin activity is the relative milk-clotting activity test that measures the end point of the enzymatic and aggregation step. This method showed that camel chymosin has a 2-fold higher milk-clotting activity toward bovine milk than bovine chymosin. To enable a study of the enzymatic step independent of the aggregation step, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay has been developed using a peptide substrate derived from the 98-108 sequence of bovine κ-casein. This assay and Michaelis-Menten kinetics were employed to determine the enzymatic activity of camel and bovine chymosin under milk clotting-like conditions (pH 6.65, ionic strength 80 mM). The results obtained show that the catalytic efficiency of camel chymosin is 3-fold higher than bovine chymosin. The substrate affinity and catalytic activity of bovine and camel chymosin increase at lower pH (6.00 and 5.50). The glycosylation of bovine and camel chymosin did not affect binding of the fluorescence resonance energy transfer substrate, but doubly glycosylated camel chymosin seems to have slightly higher catalytic efficiency. In the characterization of the enzymes, the developed assay is easier and faster to use than the traditionally used relative milk-clotting activity test method.

  7. Design of peptide substrates for nanosecond time-resolved fluorescence assays of proteases: 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene as a noninvasive fluorophore.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Andreas; Florea, Mara; Roth, Doris; Enderle, Thilo; Nau, Werner M

    2007-01-15

    Fluorescence protease assays were investigated with peptide substrates containing a 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene-labeled asparagine (Dbo) as a fluorescent amino acid. The special characteristic of the fluorophore Dbo is its exceedingly long fluorescence lifetime (ca. 300 ns in water under air), which allows the use of nanosecond time-resolved fluorescence (Nano-TRF) detection to efficiently suppress shorter-lived background emission. In addition, the natural amino acids tryptophan and tyrosine can be employed as intramolecular fluorescence quenchers, which facilitates substrate design. Fourteen synthetic peptide substrates (composed of 2-19 amino acids) and five enzymes (trypsin, pepsin, carboxypeptidase A, leucine aminopeptidase, and chymotrypsin) were investigated and, in all 28 examined combinations, enzymatic activity was detected by monitoring the increase in steady state fluorescence with time and determining the reaction rates as kcat/Km values, which ranged from 0.2 to 80x10(6) M-1 min-1. The results suggest an excellent compatibility of the very small and hydrophilic fluorescent probe Dbo with solid-phase peptide synthesis and the investigated proteases. For all 14 peptides the fluorescence lifetimes before and after enzymatic cleavage were measured and Nano-TRF measurements were performed in 384-well microplates. The fluorescence lifetimes of the different peptides provide the basis for the rational design of Dbo-based fluorescent substrates for protease assays. Measurements in Nano-TRF mode revealed, in addition to efficient suppression of background fluorescence, an increased differentiation between cleaved and uncleaved substrate. The Dbo-based assays can be adapted for high-throughput screening.

  8. A Fluorescent Transport Assay Enables Studying AmpG Permeases Involved in Peptidoglycan Recycling and Antibiotic Resistance.

    PubMed

    Perley-Robertson, G Evan; Yadav, Anuj K; Winogrodzki, Judith L; Stubbs, Keith A; Mark, Brian L; Vocadlo, David J

    2016-09-16

    Inducible AmpC β-lactamases deactivate a broad-spectrum of β-lactam antibiotics and afford antibiotic resistance in many Gram-negative bacteria. The disturbance of peptidoglycan recycling caused by β-lactam antibiotics leads to accumulation of GlcNAc-1,6-anhydroMurNAc-peptides, which are transported by AmpG to the cytoplasm where they are processed into AmpC inducers. AmpG transporters are poorly understood; however, their loss restores susceptibility toward β-lactam antibiotics, highlighting AmpG as a potential target for resistance-attenuating therapeutics. We prepare a GlcNAc-1,6-anhydroMurNAc-fluorophore conjugate and, using live E. coli spheroplasts, quantitatively analyze its transport by AmpG and inhibition of this process by a competing substrate. Further, we use this transport assay to evaluate the function of two AmpG homologues from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and show that P. aeruginosa AmpG (Pa-AmpG) but not AmpP (Pa-AmpP) transports this probe substrate. We corroborate these results by AmpC induction assays with Pa-AmpG and Pa-AmpP. This fluorescent AmpG probe and spheroplast-based transport assay will enable improved understanding of PG recycling and of permeases from the major facilitator superfamily of transport proteins and may aid in identification of AmpG antagonists that combat AmpC-mediated resistance toward β-lactam antibiotics.

  9. Development of homogeneous binding assays based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer between quantum dots and Alexa Fluor fluorophores.

    PubMed

    Nikiforov, Theo T; Beechem, Joseph M

    2006-10-01

    We studied the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between quantum dots emitting at 565, 605, and 655 nm as energy donors and Alexa Fluor fluorophores with absorbance maxima at 594, 633, 647, and 680 nm as energy acceptors. As a first step, we prepared covalent conjugates between all three types of quantum dots and each of the Alexa Fluor fluorophores that could act as an energy acceptor. All of these conjugates displayed efficient resonance energy transfer. Then we prepared covalent conjugates of these quantum dots with biotin, fluorescein, and cortisol and established that the binding of these conjugates to suitable Alexa Fluor-labeled antibodies and streptavidin (in the case of biotin) can be efficiently detected by measuring the resonance energy transfer in homogeneous solutions. Finally, based on these observations, competitive binding assays for these three small analytes were developed. The performance of these assays as a function of the degree of labeling of the quantum dots was evaluated. It was found that decreasing the degree of loading of the quantum dots leads to decreases of the limits of detection. The results show the great potential of this FRET system for the development of new homogeneous binding assays.

  10. Anthracene derivative covalently immobilized on sensing membrane as a fluorescent carrier for water assay.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Chen-Xu; Han, Yuan-Yuan; Xing, Bao-Yan

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an optical chemical sensor based on a fluorescent dye 1-allyloxy-4-hydroxyanthracene-9, 10-dione (AHD) with terminal double bond, which is covalently bonded to quartz glass plate surface treated with a silanizing agent to prevent its leakage. The purpose of this work was to characterize and optimize the sensor for determining the water content in the acetone organic solvent. The sensor is resistant to swelling; the membrane possesses relatively long lifetime, short response and recovering time. The reversibility and reproducibility of the sensor are adequate for practical measurements.

  11. Ribonuclease activity of vaccinia DNA topoisomerase IB: kinetic and high-throughput inhibition studies using a robust continuous fluorescence assay.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Keehwan; Nagarajan, Rajesh; Stivers, James T

    2004-11-30

    Vaccinia type I DNA topoisomerase exhibits a strong site-specific ribonuclease activity when provided a DNA substrate that contains a single uridine ribonucleotide within a duplex DNA containing the sequence 5' CCCTU 3'. The reaction involves two steps: attack of the active site tyrosine nucleophile of topo I at the 3' phosphodiester of the uridine nucleotide to generate a covalent enzyme-DNA adduct, followed by nucleophilic attack of the uridine 2'-hydroxyl to release the covalently tethered enzyme. Here we report the first continuous spectroscopic assay for topoisomerase that allows monitoring of the ribonuclease reaction under multiple-turnover conditions. The assay is especially robust for high-throughput screening applications because sensitive molecular beacon technology is utilized, and the topoisomerase is released during the reaction to allow turnover of multiple substrate molecules by a single molecule of enzyme. Direct computer simulation of the fluorescence time courses was used to obtain the rate constants for substrate binding and release, covalent complex formation, and formation of the 2',3'-cyclic phosphodiester product of the ribonuclease reaction. The assay allowed rapid screening of a 500 member chemical library from which several new inhibitors of topo I were identified with IC(50) values in the range of 2-100 microM. Three of the most potent hits from the high-throughput screening were also found to inhibit plasmid supercoil relaxation by the enzyme, establishing the utility of the assay in identifying inhibitors of the biologically relevant DNA relaxation reaction. One of the most potent inhibitors of the vaccinia enzyme, 3-benzo[1,3]dioxol-5-yl-2-oxoproprionic acid, did not inhibit the closely related human enzyme. The inhibitory mechanism of this compound is unique and involves a step required for recycling the enzyme for steady-state turnover.

  12. A Fluorescence Displacement Assay for Antidepressant Drug Discovery Based on Ligand-Conjugated Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Jerry; Tomlinson, Ian; Warnement, Michael; Iwamoto, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (SERT) protein plays a central role in terminating 5-HT neurotransmission and is the most important therapeutic target for the treatment of major depression and anxiety disorders. We report an innovative, versatile, and target-selective quantum dot (QD) labeling approach for SERT in single Xenopus oocytes that can be adopted as a drug-screening platform. Our labeling approach employs a custom-made, QD-tagged indoleamine derivative ligand, IDT318, that is structurally similar to 5-HT and accesses the primary binding site with enhanced human SERT selectivity. Incubating QD-labeled oocytes with paroxetine (Paxil), a high-affinity SERT-specific inhibitor, showed a concentration- and time-dependent decrease in QD fluorescence, demonstrating the utility of our approach for the identification of SERT modulators. Furthermore, with the development of ligands aimed at other pharmacologically relevant targets, our approach may potentially form the basis for a multitarget drug discovery platform.

  13. A Fluorescence-Based High-Throughput Screening Assay to Identify Growth Inhibitors of the Pathogenic Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Smith, Thomas M; Richie, Daryl L; Tao, Jianshi

    2016-01-01

    Due to the advancements in modern medicine that have resulted in an increased number of immunocompromised individuals, the incidences and the associated mortality of invasive aspergillosis have continued to rise over the past three decades despite appropriate treatment. As a result, invasive aspergillosis has emerged as a leading cause of infection-related mortality in immunocompromised individuals. Utilizing the resazurin to resorufin conversion fluorescence readout to monitor cell viability, herein, we outline a high-throughput screening method amenable to profiling a large pharmaceutical library against the clinically relevant but less frequently screened fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. This enables the user to conduct high-throughput screening using a disease-relevant fungal growth assay and identify novel antifungal chemotypes as drug leads. PMID:27316995

  14. Use of Modern Chemical Protein Synthesis and Advanced Fluorescent Assay Techniques to Experimentally Validate the Functional Annotation of Microbial Genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, Stephen

    2012-07-20

    The objective of this research program was to prototype methods for the chemical synthesis of predicted protein molecules in annotated microbial genomes. High throughput chemical methods were to be used to make large numbers of predicted proteins and protein domains, based on microbial genome sequences. Microscale chemical synthesis methods for the parallel preparation of peptide-thioester building blocks were developed; these peptide segments are used for the parallel chemical synthesis of proteins and protein domains. Ultimately, it is envisaged that these synthetic molecules would be ‘printed’ in spatially addressable arrays. The unique ability of total synthesis to precision label protein molecules with dyes and with chemical or biochemical ‘tags’ can be used to facilitate novel assay technologies adapted from state-of-the art single molecule fluorescence detection techniques. In the future, in conjunction with modern laboratory automation this integrated set of techniques will enable high throughput experimental validation of the functional annotation of microbial genomes.

  15. Fragment Screening at Adenosine-A3 Receptors in Living Cells Using a Fluorescence-Based Binding Assay

    PubMed Central

    Stoddart, Leigh A.; Vernall, Andrea J.; Denman, Jessica L.; Briddon, Stephen J.; Kellam, Barrie; Hill, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise the largest family of transmembrane proteins. For GPCR drug discovery, it is important that ligand affinity is determined in the correct cellular environment and preferably using an unmodified receptor. We developed a live cell high-content screening assay that uses a fluorescent antagonist, CA200645, to determine binding affinity constants of competing ligands at human adenosine-A1 and -A3 receptors. This method was validated as a tool to screen a library of low molecular weight fragments, and identified a hit with submicromolar binding affinity (KD). This fragment was structurally unrelated to substructures of known adenosine receptor antagonists and was optimized to show selectivity for the adenosine-A3 receptor. This technology represents a significant advance that will allow the determination of ligand and fragment affinities at receptors in their native membrane environment. PMID:22999879

  16. Stopped-flow DNA polymerase assay by continuous monitoring of dNTP incorporation by fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Jesse L; Rejali, Nick; Wittwer, Carl T

    2013-10-15

    DNA polymerase activity was measured by a stopped-flow assay that monitors polymerase extension using an intercalating dye. Double-stranded DNA formation during extension of a hairpin substrate was monitored at 75°C for 2 min. Rates were determined in nucleotides per second per molecule of polymerase (nt/s) and were linear with time and polymerase concentration from 1 to 50 nM. The concentrations of 15 available polymerases were quantified and their extension rates determined in 50 mM Tris, pH 8.3, 0.5 mg/ml BSA, 2 mM MgCl₂, and 200 μM each dNTP as well as their commercially recommended buffers. Native Taq polymerases had similar extension rates of 10-45 nt/s. Three alternative polymerases showed faster speeds, including KOD (76 nt/s), Klentaq I (101 nt/s), and KAPA2G (155 nt/s). Fusion polymerases including Herculase II and Phusion were relatively slow (3-13 nt/s). The pH optimum for Klentaq extension was between 8.5 and 8.7 with no effect of Tris concentration. Activity was directly correlated to the MgCl2 concentration and inversely correlated to the KCl concentration. This continuous assay is relevant to PCR and provides accurate measurement of polymerase activity using a defined template without the need of radiolabeled substrates. PMID:23872003

  17. Fluorescence monitoring of riboswitch transcription regulation using a dual molecular beacon assay.

    PubMed

    Chinnappan, Raja; Dubé, Audrey; Lemay, Jean-François; Lafontaine, Daniel A

    2013-05-01

    Riboswitches are mRNA elements that specifically bind cellular metabolites and control gene expression by modifying their structure. As riboswitches often control essential genes in pathogenic bacteria, riboswitches have been proposed as new targets for antibiotics. High-throughput screening provides a powerful approach to identify riboswitch ligand analogs that could act as powerful antibacterial drugs. Biochemical assays have already been used to find riboswitch-binding analogs, but those methods do take into account the transcriptional context for riboswitch regulation. As the importance of co-transcriptional ligand binding has been shown for several riboswitches, it is vital to develop an assay that screens riboswitch-binding analogs during the transcriptional process. Here, we describe the development of a dual molecular beacon system monitoring the transcriptional regulation activity of the Bacillus subtilis pbuE adenine riboswitch. This system relies on two molecular beacons that enable the monitoring of transcription efficiency, as well as the regulatory activity of the riboswitch. Different analogs were tested using our system, and a good correlation was observed between riboswitch activity and reported metabolite affinities. This method is specific, reliable and could be applied at the high-throughput level for the identification of new potential antibiotics targeting any riboswitch-regulating gene expression at the mRNA level.

  18. A novel pair of split venus fragments to detect protein-protein interactions by in vitro and in vivo bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Kazumasa; Mizuno, Kensaku

    2014-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are critical components of almost every cellular process. The bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) method has been used to detect protein-protein interactions in both living cells and cell-free systems. The BiFC method is based on the principle that a fluorescent protein is reassembled from its two complementary non-fluorescent fragments when an interaction occurs between two proteins, each one fused to each fragment. In vivo and in vitro BiFC assays, which use a new pair of split Venus fragments composed of VN210 (amino acids 1-210) and VC210 (amino acids 210-238), are useful tools to detect and quantify various protein-protein interactions (including the cofilin-actin and Ras-Raf interactions) with high specificity and low background fluorescence. Moreover, these assays can be applied to screen small-molecule inhibitors of protein-protein interactions.

  19. A Fluorescent Microplate Assay Quantifies Bacterial Efflux and Demonstrates Two Distinct Compound Binding Sites in AcrB

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Annette; Rijnbrand, R.; Erwin, Alice L.

    2015-01-01

    A direct assay of efflux by Escherichia coli AcrAB-TolC and related multidrug pumps would have great value in discovery of new Gram-negative antibiotics. The current understanding of how efflux is affected by the chemical structure and physical properties of molecules is extremely limited, derived from antibacterial data for compounds that inhibit growth of wild-type E. coli. We adapted a previously described fluorescent efflux assay to a 96-well microplate format that measured the ability of test compounds to compete for efflux with Nile Red (an environment-sensitive fluor), independent of antibacterial activity. We show that Nile Red and the lipid-sensitive probe DiBAC4-(3) [bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid)-trimethine oxonol] can quantify efflux competition in E. coli. We extend the previous findings that the tetracyclines compete with Nile Red and show that DiBAC4-(3) competes with macrolides. The extent of the competition shows a modest correlation with the effect of the acrB deletion on MICs within the compound sets for both dyes. Crystallographic studies identified at least two substrate binding sites in AcrB, the proximal and distal pockets. High-molecular-mass substrates bound the proximal pocket, while low-mass substrates occupied the distal pocket. As DiBAC4-(3) competes with macrolides but not with Nile Red, we propose that DiBAC4-(3) binds the proximal pocket and Nile Red likely binds the distal site. In conclusion, competition with fluorescent probes can be used to study the efflux process for diverse chemical structures and may provide information as to the site of binding and, in some cases, enable rank-ordering a series of related compounds by efflux. PMID:25645845

  20. Optimization of a fluorescence sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Nyquist-Battie, Cynthia; Frank, Laura E; Lund, Deanna; Lim, Daniel V

    2004-12-01

    Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, especially when coupled with biosensor technology, is a simple methodology that can rapidly screen juices for Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination. However, sampling directly from apple juice and ciders has been postulated to reduce immunoassay sensitivity. In fluorescence sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using commercially available polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies, sampling pasteurized apple juice spiked with E. coli O157:H7 compared to spiked phosphate-buffered saline shifted the range of detection. The spiked apple juice range of detection was 10(4) to 10(6) CFU/ml, whereas that for spiked phosphate-buffered saline was 10(6) to 10(8) CFU/ml, representing a hundredfold difference in sensitivity. Apple juice also increased background fluorescence intensity (P < 0.001) while reducing the net fluorescence intensity per CFU (P < 0.001). The addition of the polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone to apple juice significantly improved assay performance by increasing sensitivity and net fluorescence intensity per CFU and by reducing background fluorescence. Adjusting pH of apple juice from 3.9 to 7.4 improved assay performance but not to the degree seen with phosphate-buffered saline or polyvinylpyrrolidone-treated apple juice samples. The apple juice polyphenol, epicatechin, reduced net fluorescence intensity in a concentration-dependent manner, a change that was reversed by polyvinylpyrrolidone. Taken all together, these results suggest that polyvinylpyrrolidone can improve detection of O157:H7 in juices by reducing the effect of polyphenols on fluorescence sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay performance. PMID:15633682

  1. High-throughput fluorescence screening assay for the identification and comparison of antimicrobial peptides' activity on various yeast species.

    PubMed

    Kodedová, Marie; Sychrová, Hana

    2016-09-10

    New antifungal compounds that circumvent the resistance of the pathogen by directly damaging yeast cell surface structures are promising agents for the treatment of fungal infections, due to their different mechanism of action from current clinically used antifungal drugs. We present here a rapid and cost-effective fluorescence method suitable for identifying new potent drugs that directly target yeast cell surface structures, causing cell permeabilization and thus bypassing the multidrug resistance mechanisms of pathogens. The fluorescence assay enabled us to detect with high sensitivity damage to the Candida plasma membrane (its hyperpolarization and permeabilization) as a result of short-term exposure to the antifungal compounds. Results can be obtained in 1-2h with minimal effort and consumption of the tested compounds, also 96 samples can be analysed simultaneously. We used this method to study antimicrobial peptides isolated from the venom of bees and their synthetic analogs, compare the potency of the peptides and determine their minimal effective concentrations. The antimicrobial peptides were able to kill yeast cells at low concentrations within a 15-min treatment, the LL-III peptide exhibited a broad spectrum of antifungal activity on various Saccharomyces, pathogenic Candida and osmotolerant yeast species. PMID:27369550

  2. Development of a fluorescence-based in vivo phagocytosis assay to measure mononuclear phagocyte system function in the rat.

    PubMed

    Tartaro, Karrie; VanVolkenburg, Maria; Wilkie, Dean; Coskran, Timothy M; Kreeger, John M; Kawabata, Thomas T; Casinghino, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) which provides protection against infection is made up of phagocytic cells that engulf and digest bacteria or other foreign substances. Suppression of the MPS may lead to decreased clearance of pathogenic microbes. Drug delivery systems and immunomodulatory therapeutics that target phagocytes have a potential to inhibit MPS function. Available methods to measure inhibition of MPS function use uptake of radioactively-labeled cells or labor-intensive semi-quantitative histologic techniques. The objective of this work was to develop a non-radioactive quantitative method to measure MPS function in vivo by administering heat-killed E. coli conjugated to a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye (Bioparticles(®)). Fluorescence of the Bioparticles(®) is increased at low pH when they are in phagocytic lysosomes. The amount of Bioparticles(®) phagocytosed by MPS organs in rats was determined by measuring fluorescence intensity in livers and spleens ex vivo using an IVIS(®) Spectrum Pre-clinical In Vivo Imaging System. Phagocytosis of the particles by peripheral blood neutrophils was measured by flow cytometry. To assess method sensitivity, compounds likely to suppress the MPS [clodronate-containing liposomes, carboxylate-modified latex particles, maleic vinyl ether (MVE) polymer] were administered to rats prior to injection of the Bioparticles(®). The E. coli particles consistently co-localized with macrophage markers in the liver but not in the spleen. All of the compounds tested decreased phagocytosis in the liver, but had no consistent effects on phagocytic activity in the spleen. In addition, administration of clodronate liposomes and MVE polymer increased the percentage of peripheral blood neutrophils that phagocytosed the Bioparticles(®). In conclusion, an in vivo rat model was developed that measures phagocytosis of E. coli particles in the liver and may be used to assess the impact of test compounds on MPS function. Still, the

  3. A rapid fluorescence assay for hSMUG1 activity based on modified molecular beacon.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue; Tong, Chunyi; Long, Ying; Liu, Bin

    2011-01-01

    A new method for assay of hSMUG1 in real-time using molecular beacon is reported. hSMUG1 could be detected linearly in the range from 0.67 nM to 10.05 nM and the detection limit is 0.168 nM. In addition, this method was applied to detect the activity of hSMUG1 in tumor cells and study kinetics. The probe with low background signal has been shown to be suitable for the real-time monitoring of hSMUG1 activity, making this a promising method of high-throughput clinical sample analysis.

  4. Ultrasensitive Quantum Dot Fluorescence quenching Assay for Selective Detection of Mercury Ions in Drinking Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Jun; Li, Xinyong; Zhao, Qidong; Hou, Yang; Chen, Junhong

    2014-07-01

    Mercury is one of the most acutely toxic substances at trace level to human health and living thing. Developing a rapid, cheap and water soluble metal sensor for detecting mercury ions at ppb level remains a challenge. Herein, a metal sensor consisting of MPA coated Mn doped ZnSe/ZnS colloidal nanoparticles was utilized to ultrasensitively and selectively detect Hg2+ ions with a low detection limit (0.1 nM) over a dynamic range from 0 to 20 nM. According to strong interaction between thiol(s) and mercury ions, mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) was used as a highly unique acceptor for mercury ions in the as-obtained ultrasensitive sensor. In the presence of mercury ions, colloidal nanoparticles rapidly agglomerated due to changes of surface chemical properties, which results in severe quenching of fluorescent intensity. Meanwhile, we find that the original ligands are separated from the surface of colloidal nanoparticles involving strongly chelation between mercury ion and thiol(s) proved by controlled IR analysis. The result shows that the QD-based metal ions sensor possesses satisfactory precision, high sensitivity and selectivity, and could be applied for the quantification analysis of real samples.

  5. Characterization of the bacterial metalloendopeptidase pitrilysin by use of a continuous fluorescence assay.

    PubMed Central

    Anastasi, A; Knight, C G; Barrett, A J

    1993-01-01

    Pitrilysin (EC 3.4.99.44) has been purified from an over-expressing strain of Escherichia coli. A 13-residue quenched-fluorescent-peptide substrate for the enzyme has been synthesized, and found also to be cleaved by the homologous enzyme, insulinase (EC 3.4.99.45). The action of pitrilysin on peptides and proteins was studied: insulin B chain was the most rapidly degraded, small peptides down to 10 residues in length were cleaved more slowly, intact insulin was cleaved very slowly but with a very low Km, and there was no action on the larger proteins tested. Since the activity of pitrilysin is confined to substrates smaller than proteins, it can be described as an endopeptidase of the 'oligopeptidase' type, and like other such enzymes, it did not interact with alpha 2-macroglobulin. The metal-dependence of pitrilysin was confirmed, and it was found to be inhibited by bacitracin, especially in the presence of zinc. Images Figure 1 PMID:7680857

  6. Ultrasensitive quantum dot fluorescence quenching assay for selective detection of mercury ions in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Ke, Jun; Li, Xinyong; Zhao, Qidong; Hou, Yang; Chen, Junhong

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is one of the most acutely toxic substances at trace level to human health and living thing. Developing a rapid, cheap and water soluble metal sensor for detecting mercury ions at ppb level remains a challenge. Herein, a metal sensor consisting of MPA coated Mn doped ZnSe/ZnS colloidal nanoparticles was utilized to ultrasensitively and selectively detect Hg(2+) ions with a low detection limit (0.1 nM) over a dynamic range from 0 to 20 nM. According to strong interaction between thiol(s) and mercury ions, mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) was used as a highly unique acceptor for mercury ions in the as-obtained ultrasensitive sensor. In the presence of mercury ions, colloidal nanoparticles rapidly agglomerated due to changes of surface chemical properties, which results in severe quenching of fluorescent intensity. Meanwhile, we find that the original ligands are separated from the surface of colloidal nanoparticles involving strongly chelation between mercury ion and thiol(s) proved by controlled IR analysis. The result shows that the QD-based metal ions sensor possesses satisfactory precision, high sensitivity and selectivity, and could be applied for the quantification analysis of real samples. PMID:25005836

  7. Ultrasensitive quantum dot fluorescence quenching assay for selective detection of mercury ions in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Ke, Jun; Li, Xinyong; Zhao, Qidong; Hou, Yang; Chen, Junhong

    2014-07-09

    Mercury is one of the most acutely toxic substances at trace level to human health and living thing. Developing a rapid, cheap and water soluble metal sensor for detecting mercury ions at ppb level remains a challenge. Herein, a metal sensor consisting of MPA coated Mn doped ZnSe/ZnS colloidal nanoparticles was utilized to ultrasensitively and selectively detect Hg(2+) ions with a low detection limit (0.1 nM) over a dynamic range from 0 to 20 nM. According to strong interaction between thiol(s) and mercury ions, mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) was used as a highly unique acceptor for mercury ions in the as-obtained ultrasensitive sensor. In the presence of mercury ions, colloidal nanoparticles rapidly agglomerated due to changes of surface chemical properties, which results in severe quenching of fluorescent intensity. Meanwhile, we find that the original ligands are separated from the surface of colloidal nanoparticles involving strongly chelation between mercury ion and thiol(s) proved by controlled IR analysis. The result shows that the QD-based metal ions sensor possesses satisfactory precision, high sensitivity and selectivity, and could be applied for the quantification analysis of real samples.

  8. Organophosphorus pesticides detection using broad-specific single-stranded DNA based fluorescence polarization aptamer assay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cunzheng; Wang, Li; Tu, Zhui; Sun, Xing; He, Qinghua; Lei, Zhaojing; Xu, Chongxin; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Xiao; Yang, Jingyi; Liu, Xianjin; Xu, Yang

    2014-05-15

    An approach is developed to detect the organophosphorus pesticides via competitive binding to a recombinant broad-specificity DNA aptamer with a molecular beacon (MB), the binding of the MB to the aptamer results in the activation of a fluorescent signal, which can be measured for pesticide quantification. Aptamers selected via the Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) were structurally modified and truncated to narrow down the binding region of the target, which indicated that loops of the aptamer contributed different functions for different chemical recognition. Thereafter, a variant fused by two different minimum functional structures, was clarified with broad specificity and increased affinity. Further molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations was conducted to understand the molecular interaction between DNA structure and chemicals. 3D modeling revealed a hot spot area formed by 3 binding sites, forces including hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions appear to play a significant role in enabling and stabilizing the binding of chemicals. Finally, an engineered aptamer based approach for the detection of organophosphorus pesticides was successfully applied in a test using a real sample, the limit of quantification (LOQ) for phorate, profenofos, isocarbophos, and omethoate reached 19.2, 13.4, 17.2, and 23.4 nM (0.005 mg L(-1)), respectively.

  9. Organophosphorus pesticides detection using broad-specific single-stranded DNA based fluorescence polarization aptamer assay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cunzheng; Wang, Li; Tu, Zhui; Sun, Xing; He, Qinghua; Lei, Zhaojing; Xu, Chongxin; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Xiao; Yang, Jingyi; Liu, Xianjin; Xu, Yang

    2014-05-15

    An approach is developed to detect the organophosphorus pesticides via competitive binding to a recombinant broad-specificity DNA aptamer with a molecular beacon (MB), the binding of the MB to the aptamer results in the activation of a fluorescent signal, which can be measured for pesticide quantification. Aptamers selected via the Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) were structurally modified and truncated to narrow down the binding region of the target, which indicated that loops of the aptamer contributed different functions for different chemical recognition. Thereafter, a variant fused by two different minimum functional structures, was clarified with broad specificity and increased affinity. Further molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations was conducted to understand the molecular interaction between DNA structure and chemicals. 3D modeling revealed a hot spot area formed by 3 binding sites, forces including hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions appear to play a significant role in enabling and stabilizing the binding of chemicals. Finally, an engineered aptamer based approach for the detection of organophosphorus pesticides was successfully applied in a test using a real sample, the limit of quantification (LOQ) for phorate, profenofos, isocarbophos, and omethoate reached 19.2, 13.4, 17.2, and 23.4 nM (0.005 mg L(-1)), respectively. PMID:24384262

  10. Development of an oligonucleotide-based fluorescence assay for the identification of tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1) inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Sarah; Meisenberg, Cornelia; Bibby, Rachel A.; Askwith, Trevor; Williams, Gareth; Rininsland, Frauke H.; Pearl, Laurence H.; Oliver, Antony W.; El-Khamisy, Sherif; Ward, Simon; Atack, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Topoisomerase 1 (TOP1) generates transient nicks in the DNA to relieve torsional stress encountered during the cellular processes of transcription, replication, and recombination. At the site of the nick there is a covalent linkage of TOP1 with DNA via a tyrosine residue. This reversible TOP1-cleavage complex intermediate can become trapped on DNA by TOP1 poisons such as camptothecin, or by collision with replication or transcription machinery, thereby causing protein-linked DNA single- or double-strand breaks and resulting in cell death. Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1) is a key enzyme involved in the repair of TOP1-associated DNA breaks via hydrolysis of 3′-phosphotyrosine bonds. Inhibition of TDP1 is therefore an attractive strategy for targeting cancer cells in conjunction with TOP1 poisons. Existing methods for monitoring the phosphodiesterase activity of TDP1 are generally gel based or of high cost. Here we report a novel, oligonucleotide-based fluorescence assay that is robust, sensitive, and suitable for high-throughput screening of both fragment and small compound libraries for the detection of TDP1 inhibitors. We further validated the assay using whole cell extracts, extending its potential application to determine of TDP1 activity in clinical samples from patients undergoing chemotherapy. PMID:24637157

  11. An Ultra-High Fluorescence Enhancement and High Throughput Assay for Revealing Expression and Internalization of Chemokine Receptor CXCR4.

    PubMed

    He, Hua; Wang, Xiaojuan; Cheng, Tiantian; Xia, Yongqing; Lao, Jun; Ge, Baosheng; Ren, Hao; Khan, Naseer Ullah; Huang, Fang

    2016-04-18

    Revealing chemokine receptor CXCR4 expression, distribution, and internalization levels in different cancers helps to evaluate cancer progression or prognosis and to set personalized treatment strategy. We here describe a sensitive and high-throughput immunoassay for determining CXCR4 expression and distribution in cancer cells. The assay is accessible to a wide range of users in an ordinary lab only by dip-coating poly(styrene-co-N-isopropylacrylamide) spheres on the glass substrate. The self- assembled spheres form three-dimensional photonic colloidal crystals which enhance the fluorescence of CF647 and Alexa Fluor 647 by a factor of up to 1000. CXCR4 in cells is detected by using the sandwich immunoassay, where the primary antibody recognizes CXCR4 and the secondary antibody is labeled with CF647. With the newly established assay, we quantified the total expression of CXCR4, its distribution on the cell membrane and cytoplasm, and revealed their internalization level upon SDF-1α activation in various cancer cells, even for those with extremely low expression level. PMID:26879206

  12. A High-Throughput Fluorescence-Based Assay System for Appetite-Regulating Gene and Drug Screening

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Yasuhito; Hirano, Minoru; Nishimura, Yuhei; Tanaka, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    The increasing number of people suffering from metabolic syndrome and obesity is becoming a serious problem not only in developed countries, but also in developing countries. However, there are few agents currently approved for the treatment of obesity. Those that are available are mainly appetite suppressants and gastrointestinal fat blockers. We have developed a simple and rapid method for the measurement of the feeding volume of Danio rerio (zebrafish). This assay can be used to screen appetite suppressants and enhancers. In this study, zebrafish were fed viable paramecia that were fluorescently-labeled, and feeding volume was measured using a 96-well microplate reader. Gene expression analysis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf), knockdown of appetite-regulating genes (neuropeptide Y, preproinsulin, melanocortin 4 receptor, agouti related protein, and cannabinoid receptor 1), and the administration of clinical appetite suppressants (fluoxetine, sibutramine, mazindol, phentermine, and rimonabant) revealed the similarity among mechanisms regulating appetite in zebrafish and mammals. In combination with behavioral analysis, we were able to evaluate adverse effects on locomotor activities from gene knockdown and chemical treatments. In conclusion, we have developed an assay that uses zebrafish, which can be applied to high-throughput screening and target gene discovery for appetite suppressants and enhancers. PMID:23300705

  13. Nucleic Acid Sandwich Hybridization Assay with Quantum Dot-Induced Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer for Pathogen Detection

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Cheng-Chung; Huang, Yi-Han

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a nucleic acid sandwich hybridization assay with a quantum dot (QD)-induced fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) reporter system. Two label-free hemagglutinin H5 sequences (60-mer DNA and 630-nt cDNA fragment) of avian influenza viruses were used as the targets in this work. Two oligonucleotides (16 mers and 18 mers) that specifically recognize two separate but neighboring regions of the H5 sequences were served as the capturing and reporter probes, respectively. The capturing probe was conjugated to QD655 (donor) in a molar ratio of 10:1 (probe-to-QD), and the reporter probe was labeled with Alexa Fluor 660 dye (acceptor) during synthesis. The sandwich hybridization assay was done in a 20 μL transparent, adhesive frame-confined microchamber on a disposable, temperature-adjustable indium tin oxide (ITO) glass slide. The FRET signal in response to the sandwich hybridization was monitored by a homemade optical sensor comprising a single 400 nm UV light-emitting diode (LED), optical fibers, and a miniature 16-bit spectrophotometer. The target with a concentration ranging from 0.5 nM to 1 μM was successfully correlated with both QD emission decrease at 653 nm and dye emission increase at 690 nm. To sum up, this work is beneficial for developing a portable QD-based nucleic acid sensor for on-site pathogen detection. PMID:23211753

  14. A high-throughput fluorescence-based assay system for appetite-regulating gene and drug screening.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Yasuhito; Hirano, Minoru; Nishimura, Yuhei; Tanaka, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    The increasing number of people suffering from metabolic syndrome and obesity is becoming a serious problem not only in developed countries, but also in developing countries. However, there are few agents currently approved for the treatment of obesity. Those that are available are mainly appetite suppressants and gastrointestinal fat blockers. We have developed a simple and rapid method for the measurement of the feeding volume of Danio rerio (zebrafish). This assay can be used to screen appetite suppressants and enhancers. In this study, zebrafish were fed viable paramecia that were fluorescently-labeled, and feeding volume was measured using a 96-well microplate reader. Gene expression analysis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf), knockdown of appetite-regulating genes (neuropeptide Y, preproinsulin, melanocortin 4 receptor, agouti related protein, and cannabinoid receptor 1), and the administration of clinical appetite suppressants (fluoxetine, sibutramine, mazindol, phentermine, and rimonabant) revealed the similarity among mechanisms regulating appetite in zebrafish and mammals. In combination with behavioral analysis, we were able to evaluate adverse effects on locomotor activities from gene knockdown and chemical treatments. In conclusion, we have developed an assay that uses zebrafish, which can be applied to high-throughput screening and target gene discovery for appetite suppressants and enhancers. PMID:23300705

  15. Comparative assay of fluorescent antibody test results among twelve European National Reference Laboratories using various anti-rabies conjugates.

    PubMed

    Robardet, E; Andrieu, S; Rasmussen, T Bruun; Dobrostana, M; Horton, D L; Hostnik, P; Jaceviciene, I; Juhasz, T; Müller, T; Mutinelli, F; Servat, A; Smreczak, M; Vanek, E; Vázquez-Morón, S; Cliquet, F

    2013-07-01

    Twelve National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) for rabies have undertaken a comparative assay to assess the comparison of fluorescent antibody test (FAT) results using five coded commercial anti-rabies conjugates (Biorad, Bioveta, Fujirebio, Millipore, and SIFIN conjugates). Homogenized positive brain tissues infected with various lyssavirus species as well as negative samples were analyzed blindly using a standardized FAT procedure. Conjugates B, C, D, and E were found to be significantly more effective than conjugate A for GS7 (French RABV) diluted samples (1/8 and 1/100) while the frequency of concordant results of conjugates C and D differ significantly from conjugates A, B and E for CVS 27. For detection of EBLV-1 strains, conjugates C and D also presented a significantly lower frequency of discordant results compared to conjugates A, B and E. Conjugates B, C and D were found to be significantly more effective than conjugates E and A for EBLV-2 and ABLV samples. In view of these results, conjugates C and D set themselves apart from the others and appeared as the most effective of this 5-panel conjugates. This study clearly demonstrates that the variability of conjugates used by National Reference Laboratories can potentially lead to discordant results and influence assay sensitivity. In case of false negative results this could have a dramatic impact if the animal under investigation is responsible for human exposure. To avoid such situations, confirmatory tests should be implemented.

  16. Comprehensive measurement of chromosomal instability in cancer cells: combination of fluorescence in situ hybridization and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay.

    PubMed

    Camps, Jordi; Ponsa, Immaculada; Ribas, Maria; Prat, Esther; Egozcue, Josep; Peinado, Miguel A; Miró, Rosa

    2005-05-01

    Most tumors show abnormal karyotypes involving either chromosome rearrangements and/or aneuploidies. The aim of our study is to measure the rate of both structural and numerical chromosome instability in two colorectal cancer cell lines: HCT116, and SW480 and its single subclones. To determine structural instability, we measured the nonclonal chromosome alterations of the last cell division by means of multicolor-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). To quantify numerical instability, we used centromere-specific DNA probes to simultaneously detect chromosome loss and nondisjunctional events in binucleated cells obtained by cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN). After clonal episodes, the structural chromosome instability rate increased significantly, confirming the large contribution of structural rearrangements to the heterogeneity of cancer cells. On the other hand, the aneuploidy rate was high and conserved in both the parental SW480 cell line and its subclones. The ability to differentiate chromosome loss and nondisjunction by the CBMN assay allowed us to conclude that no significant differences were detected among these events. Analysis of nucleoplasmic bridges, micronuclei, and nuclear blebs also demonstrated the differences among the structural instability rates of the parental cell line and its subclones. Overall, our results demonstrate the prevalence of structural over numerical chromosome instability in the subclones when comparing them with their parental cell line, confirming the contribution of ongoing chromosomal reorganizations in the generation of tumor cell heterogeneity.

  17. High-throughput fluorescence polarization assay to identify inhibitors of Cbl(TKB)-protein tyrosine kinase interactions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Eric A; Charvet, Casey D; Lokesh, G L; Natarajan, Amarnath

    2011-04-15

    The casitas B-lineage lymphoma (Cbl) proteins play an important role in regulating signal transduction pathways by functioning as E3 ubiquitin ligases. The Cbl proteins contain a conserved tyrosine kinase binding (TKB) domain that binds more than a dozen proteins, including protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs), in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. The cell surface expression levels of the PTKs are regulated by Cbl-mediated ubiquitination, internalization, and degradation. Dysfunction in this signaling cascade has resulted in prolonged activation of the PTKs and, therefore, has been implicated in inflammatory diseases and various cancers. Due to this negative regulatory function, Cbl has been largely ignored as a therapeutic target. However, recent studies, such as the identification of (i) gain of function c-Cbl mutations in subsets of myeloid cancer and (ii) c-Cbl as a prostate basal cell marker that correlates with poor clinical outcome, suggest otherwise. Here we report the development of a competitive high-throughput fluorescence polarization assay in a 384-well format to identify inhibitors of Cbl(TKB). The high-throughput screen readiness of the assay was demonstrated by screening the Prestwick Chemical Library. PMID:21129358

  18. Evaluation of a fluorescence polarization assay for the detection of serum antibodies to Brucella abortus in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Montagnaro, S; Longo, M; Mallardo, K; Pisanelli, G; De Martino, L; Fusco, G; Baldi, L; Pagnini, U; Iovane, G

    2008-09-15

    The fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) was evaluated for the serological diagnosis of brucellosis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in southern Italy. This assay uses O-polysaccharide prepared from Brucella abortus lipopolysaccharide conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate as a tracer. It has many methodological advantages over older, more established tests and can be performed in a fraction of the time. Sera from 890 buffalos from the Campania Region - 526 positive sera and 364 negative sera according to the complement fixation test (CFT) - were evaluated in this study. All samples were tested with the Rose Bengal test (RBT), CFT, and FPA in parallel and in blind fashion. Sensitivities (Sn) were 84.5% and 92.6%, and specificities (Sp) were 93.1% and 91.2% for RBT and FPA, respectively, relative to CFT. Finally, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis suggested a cut-off value of 117 millipolarization (mP) units. On the whole, these results suggested that FPA might replace RBT in the diagnosis of buffalo brucellosis for its better performance relative to CFT, its adjustable cut-off useful in different epidemiological situations, its reliability, ease of performance, and for its potential application in field and high-throughput laboratories.

  19. Development of a fluorescent enzyme-linked DNA aptamer-magnetic bead sandwich assay and portable fluorometer for sensitive and rapid leishmania detection in sandflies.

    PubMed

    Bruno, John G; Richarte, Alicia M; Phillips, Taylor; Savage, Alissa A; Sivils, Jeffrey C; Greis, Alex; Mayo, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    A fluorescent peroxidase-linked DNA aptamer-magnetic bead sandwich assay is described which detects as little as 100 ng of soluble protein extracted from Leishmania major promastigotes with a high molarity chaotropic salt. Lessons learned during development of the assay are described and elucidate the pros and cons of using fluorescent dyes or nanoparticles and quantum dots versus a more consistent peroxidase-linked Amplex Ultra Red (AUR; similar to resazurin) fluorescence version of the assay. While all versions of the assays were highly sensitive, the AUR-based version exhibited lower variability between tests. We hypothesize that the AUR version of this assay is more consistent, especially at low analyte levels, because the fluorescent product of AUR is liberated into bulk solution and readily detectable while fluorophores attached to the reporter aptamer might occasionally be hidden behind magnetic beads near the detection limit. Conversely, fluorophores could be quenched by nearby beads or other proximal fluorophores on the high end of analyte concentration, if packed into a small area after magnetic collection when an enzyme-linked system is not used. A highly portable and rechargeable battery-operated fluorometer with on board computer and color touchscreen is also described which can be used for rapid (<1 h) and sensitive detection of Leishmania promastigote protein extracts (∼ 100 ng per sample) in buffer or sandfly homogenates for mapping of L. major parasite geographic distributions in wild sandfly populations.

  20. Establishment of a 10-Plex Quantitative Fluorescent-PCR Assay for rapid diagnosis of sex chromosome aneuploidies.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xingmei; Liang, Qiaoyi

    2014-01-01

    Sex chromosome aneuploidies occur commonly in the general population, with an incidence of 1 in 400 newborns. However, no tests specifically targeting sex chromosomes have been carried out in prenatal diagnosis or newborn screening, resulting in late recognition of these diseases. In this study, a rapid diagnostic method for sex chromosome aneuploidies was established using Quantitative Fluorescent-PCR (QF-PCR). Ten markers were included in one multiplex QF-PCR assay, including two sex determination genes (AMXY and SRY), five X-linked short tandem repeats (STRs; DXS1053, DXS981, DXS6809, DXS1187, and DXS8377), one X/Y-common STR (X22), and two autosomal STRs (D13S305 and D21S11). Retrospective tests of 70 cases with known cytogenetic results indicated that the 10-plex QF-PCR assay could well determine sex chromosome copy numbers by both allelic peak numbers and a sex chromosome dosage calculation with the autosomal STRs as internal controls. Prospective comparison with cytogenetic karyotyping on 534 cases confirmed that the 10-plex QF-PCR assay could be well employed for sex chromosome aneuploidy diagnosis in at least the Chinese Han population. This is the first QF-PCR test for the diagnosis of sex chromosome aneuploidies in the Chinese population. This test is superior to previous designs by including up to 8 sex-linked markers covering different parts of sex chromosomes as well as employing internal controls for copy number dosage calculation in a single PCR reaction. Due to simple technique and data analysis, as well as easy implementation within routine clinical services, this method is of great clinical application value and could be widely applied.

  1. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) Assay Using Laser Compton Scattered (LCS) X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeem, Syed F.; Chouffani, Khalid; Wells, Douglas P.

    2009-03-01

    Laser Compton Scattered (LCS) X-rays are produced as a result of the interaction between accelerated electrons and a laser beam. The yield of LCS X-rays is dependent on the laser power, angle of collision between interacting particles, and the electron linear accelerator's (linac) electron beam energy and its current. One of our research goals at the Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC) focuses on applications such as detection and imaging of fissionable isotopes for nuclear non-proliferation, safeguards and homeland security. Quasi monochromatic LCS X-rays offer much better signal-to-noise ratios for such applications. The energy of LCS X-rays is tunable, that enable element-specific analysis. Two sharp 36.5 keV and 98.4 keV LCS peaks were observed in two separate experiments based on electron beams tuned at 32 MeV and 37 MeV, that were brought in collision with the (Power)peak = 4 GW Nd.YAG laser operating at 532 nm and 266 nm wavelengths. The linac was operating at 60 Hz with an electron beam pulse length of about 50 ps and a peak current of about 7 A. We exploited X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques to identify elemental Kα1, Kα2, and Kβ1 lines in a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, with a 0.5 mm thick Beryllium (Be) absorbing layer, emitted from tin (Sn), cadmium (Cd), silver (Ag), gold (Au), and lead (Pb) foils with thicknesses ranging from 25-500 μm, following absorption of 36.1 keV and 98.4 keV LCS X-rays. These reference foils were used for the proof of principle, and some have atomic numbers near to that of relevant fission products.

  2. Chromosome analysis of nuclear power plant workers using fluorescence in situ hybridization and Giemsa assay.

    PubMed

    Hristova, Rositsa; Hadjidekova, Valeria; Grigorova, Mira; Nikolova, Teodora; Bulanova, Minka; Popova, Ljubomira; Staynova, Albena; Benova, Donka

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation in vivo in exposed Bulgarian nuclear power plant workers by using classical cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic analyses of peripheral lymphocytes. Chromosome analysis using fluorescence in situ hybrydization (FISH) and Giemsa techniques was undertaken on 63 workers and 45 administrative staff controls from the Bulgarian Nuclear Power Plant. Using the Giemsa method, the frequencies of cells studied with chromosome aberrations, dicentrics plus rings and chromosome fragments in the radiation workers were significantly higher compared with the control group (P = 0.044, P = 0.014, and P = 0.033, respectively). A significant association between frequencies of dicentrics plus rings and accumulated doses was registered (P < 0.01). In the present study, a FISH cocktail of whole chromosome paints for chromosomes 1, 4 and 11 was used. A significant association between frequency of translocations and accumulated doses was also observed (P < 0.001). Within the control group, a correlation was found between age and the spontaneous frequency of translocations. No correlation was found between smoking status and frequency of translocations. When compared with the control group, workers with accumulated doses up to 100 mSv showed no increase in genome translocation frequency, whereas workers with accumulated doses from 101 to 200 mSv showed a statistically significant doubling of genome translocation frequency (P = 0.009). Thus, in cases of chronic exposure and for purposes of retrospective dosimetry, the genome frequency of translocations is a more useful marker for evaluation of genotoxic effects than dicentric frequency.

  3. Time-resolved fluorescence-based assay for rapid detection of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kulpakko, Janne; Kopra, Kari; Hänninen, Pekka

    2015-02-01

    Fast and simple detection of pathogens is of utmost importance in health care and the food industry. In this article, a novel technology for the detection of pathogenic bacteria is presented. The technology uses lytic-specific bacteriophages and a nonspecific interaction of cellular components with a luminescent lanthanide chelate. As a proof of principle, Escherichia coli-specific T4 bacteriophage was used to infect the bacteria, and the cell lysis was detected. In the absence of E. coli, luminescent Eu(3+)-chelate complex cannot be formed and low time-resolved luminescence signal is monitored. In the presence of E. coli, increased luminescence signal is observed as the cellular contents are leached to the surrounding medium. The luminescence signal is observed as a function of the number of bacteria in the sample. The homogeneous assay can detect living E. coli in bacterial cultures and simulated urine samples within 25 min with a detection limit of 1000 or 10,000 bacterial cells/ml in buffer or urine, respectively. The detection limit is at the clinically relevant level, which indicates that the method could also be applicable to clinical settings for fast detection of urine bacteria.

  4. Gold nanoclusters-Cu(2+) ensemble-based fluorescence turn-on and real-time assay for acetylcholinesterase activity and inhibitor screening.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian; Yang, Xiurong

    2015-12-15

    Based on the specific binding of Cu(2+) ions to the 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA)-protected AuNCs with intense orange-red emission, we have proposed and constructed a novel fluorescent nanomaterials-metal ions ensemble at a nonfluorescence off-state. Subsequently, an AuNCs@11-MUA-Cu(2+) ensemble-based fluorescent chemosensor, which is amenable to convenient, sensitive, selective, turn-on and real-time assay of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), could be developed by using acetylthiocholine (ATCh) as the substrate. Herein, the sensing ensemble solution exhibits a marvelous fluorescent enhancement in the presence of AChE and ATCh, where AChE hydrolyzes its active substrate ATCh into thiocholine (TCh), and then TCh captures Cu(2+) from the ensemble, accompanied by the conversion from fluorescence off-state to on-state of the AuNCs. The AChE activity could be detected less than 0.05 mU/mL within a good linear range from 0.05 to 2.5 mU/mL. Our proposed fluorescence assay can be utilized to evaluate the AChE activity quantitatively in real biological sample, and furthermore to screen the inhibitor of AChE. As far as we know, the present study has reported the first analytical proposal for sensing AChE activity in real time by using a fluorescent nanomaterials-Cu(2+) ensemble or focusing on the Cu(2+)-triggered fluorescence quenching/recovery. This strategy paves a new avenue for exploring the biosensing applications of fluorescent AuNCs, and presents the prospect of AuNCs@11-MUA-Cu(2+) ensemble as versatile enzyme activity assay platforms by means of other appropriate substrates/analytes. PMID:26141104

  5. SPONTANEOUS AND MNNG-INDUCED REVERSION OF AN EGFP CONSTRUCT IN HELA CELLS: AN ASSAY FOR OBSERVING MUTATIONS IN LIVING CELLS BY FLUORESCENT MICROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A HeLa cell line stably expressing the Enhanced Green Fluorescence Protein (EGFP) gene, interrupted by the IVS2-654 intron, was studied without treatment and after treatment with a single standard dose of 15 ?M of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). This assay was done ...

  6. Novel fluorescent antagonist as a molecular probe in A(3) adenosine receptor binding assays using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Eszter; Kumar, T Santhosh; Federico, Stephanie; Phan, Khai; Balasubramanian, Ramachandran; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Paoletta, Silvia; Moro, Stefano; Spalluto, Giampiero; Jacobson, Kenneth A

    2012-06-01

    The physiological role of the A(3) adenosine receptor (AR) was explored in cardiac ischaemia, inflammatory diseases and cancer. We report a new fluorophore-conjugated human (h) A(3)AR antagonist for application to cell-based assays in ligand discovery and for receptor imaging. Fluorescent pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-5-ylamine (pyrazolo-triazolo-pyrimidine, PTP) and triazolo[1,5-c]quinazolin-5-yl)amine (triazolo-quinazoline, TQ) AR antagonists were compared. A chain-extended and click-conjugated Alexa Fluor-488 TQ derivative (MRS5449) displayed a radioligand binding K(i) value of 6.4±2.5nM in hA(3)AR-expressing CHO cell membranes. MRS5449 antagonized hA(3)AR agonist-induced inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner (K(B)=4.8nM). Using flow cytometry (FCM), MRS5449 saturated hA(3)ARs with very high specific-to-nonspecific binding ratio with an equilibrium binding constant 5.15nM, comparable to the K(d) value of 6.65nM calculated from kinetic experiments. K(i) values of known AR antagonists in inhibition of MRS5449 binding in whole cell FCM were consistent with radioligand binding in membranes, but agonist binding was 5-20 fold weaker than obtained with agonist radioligand [(125)I]I-AB-MECA. Further binding analysis of MRS5549 suggested multiple agonist binding states of the A(3)AR. Molecular docking predicted binding modes of these fluorescent antagonists. Thus, MRS5449 is a useful tool for hA(3)AR characterization.

  7. Novel Fluorescent Antagonist as a Molecular Probe in A3 Adenosine Receptor Binding Assays Using Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Kozma, Eszter; Kumar, T. Santhosh; Federico, Stephanie; Phan, Khai; Balasubramanian, Ramachandran; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Paoletta, Silvia; Moro, Stefano; Spalluto, Giampiero; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    The physiological role of the A3 adenosine receptor (AR) was explored in cardiac ischaemia, inflammatory diseases and cancer. We report a new fluorophore-conjugated human (h) A3AR antagonist for application to cell-based assays in ligand discovery and for receptor imaging. Fluorescent pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-5-ylamine (pyrazolo-triazolo-pyrimidine, PTP) and triazolo[1,5-c]quinazolin-5-yl)amine (triazolo-quinazoline, TQ) AR antagonists were compared. A chain-extended and click-conjugated Alexa Fluor-488 TQ derivative (MRS5449) displayed a radioligand binding Ki value of 6.4 ± 2.5 nM in hA3AR-expressing CHO cell membranes. MRS5449 antagonized hA3AR agonist-induced inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner (KB 4.8 nM). Using flow cytometry (FCM), MRS5449 saturated hA3ARs with very high specific-to-nonspecific binding ratio with an equilibrium binding constant 5.15 nM, comparable to the Kd value of 6.65 nM calculated from kinetic experiments. Ki values of known AR antagonists in inhibition of MRS5449 binding in whole cell FCM were consistent with radioligand binding in membranes, but agonist binding was 5–20 fold weaker than obtained with agonist radioligand [125I]I-AB-MECA. Further binding analysis of MRS5549 suggested multiple agonist binding states of the A3AR. Molecular docking predicted binding modes of these fluorescent antagonists. Thus, MRS5449 is a useful tool for hA3AR characterization. PMID:22402302

  8. A high-throughput-compatible fluorescence anisotropy-based assay for competitive inhibitors of Escherichia coli UDP-N-acetylglucosamine acyltransferase (LpxA).

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Adam B; Ross, Philip L; Gao, Ning; Livchak, Stephania; Kern, Gunther; Yang, Wei; Andrews, Beth; Thresher, Jason

    2013-03-01

    LpxA, the first enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway for the Lipid A component of the outer membrane lipopolysaccharide in Gram-negative bacteria, is a potential target for novel antibacterial drug discovery. A fluorescence polarization assay was developed to facilitate high-throughput screening for competitive inhibitors of LpxA. The assay detects displacement of a fluorescently labeled peptide inhibitor, based on the previously reported inhibitor peptide 920, by active site ligands. The affinity of the fluorescent ligand was increased ~10-fold by acyl carrier protein (ACP). Competition with peptide binding was observed with UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (IC(50) ~6 mM), UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-N-acetylglucosamine (IC(50) ~200 nM), and DL-3-hydroxymyristic acid (IC(50) ~50 µM) and peptide 920 (IC(50) ~600 nM). The IC(50)s were not significantly affected by the presence of ACP.

  9. DNA damage and repair measured in different genomic regions using the comet assay with fluorescent in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Horváthová, Eva; Dusinská, Mária; Shaposhnikov, Sergey; Collins, Andrew R

    2004-07-01

    The comet assay is a sensitive method for measuring DNA strand breaks in eukaryotic cells. After embedding in agarose, cells are lysed and electrophoresed at high pH. DNA loops containing breaks (in which supercoiling is relaxed) escape from the nucleoid comet head to form a tail. Oligonucleotide probes were designed for 5' and 3' regions of the genes for dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), both from the Chinese hamster, and the human tumour suppressor p53 gene. Alternate ends were labelled with either biotin or fluorescein. These probes were hybridized to the DNA of comets from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells or human lymphocytes treated with H2O2 or photosensitizer plus light to induce oxidative damage. Amplification with Texas red- and fluorescein-tagged antibodies led, in the case of p53 in human cells, to red and green signals located in the comet tail (as well as in the head), indicating the presence of breaks in the vicinity of the gene. However, only one end of the MGMT gene appeared in the tail and almost no signals from the DHFR gene, either red or green, were in the tail of comets from CHO cells. Restriction on movement from the head to tail may result from the presence of a 'matrix-associated region' in the gene. The kinetics of repair of oxidative damage were followed; strand breaks in the p53 gene were repaired more rapidly than total DNA. Thus, fluorescent in situ hybridization in combination with the comet assay provides a powerful method for studying repair of specific genes in relation to chromatin structure. PMID:15215325

  10. Novel Alexa Fluor-488 labeled antagonist of the A(2A) adenosine receptor: Application to a fluorescence polarization-based receptor binding assay.

    PubMed

    Kecskés, Miklós; Kumar, T Santhosh; Yoo, Lena; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Jacobson, Kenneth A

    2010-08-15

    Fluorescence polarization (FP) assay has many advantages over the traditional radioreceptor binding studies. We developed an A(2A) adenosine receptor (AR) FP assay using a newly synthesized fluorescent antagonist of the A(2A)AR (MRS5346), a pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-5-amine derivative conjugated to the fluorescent dye Alexa Fluor-488. MRS5346 displayed a K(i) value of 111+/-16nM in radioligand binding using [(3)H]CGS21680 and membranes prepared from HEK293 cells stably expressing the human A(2A)AR. In a cyclic AMP functional assay, MRS5346 was shown to be an A(2A)AR antagonist. MRS5346 did not show any effect on A(1) and A(3) ARs in binding or the A(2B)AR in a cyclic AMP assay at 10microM. Its suitability as a fluorescent tracer was indicated in an initial observation of an FP signal following A(2A)AR binding. The FP signal was optimal with 20nM MRS5346 and 150microg protein/mL HEK293 membranes. The association and dissociation kinetic parameters were readily determined using this FP assay. The K(d) value of MRS5346 calculated from kinetic parameters was 16.5+/-4.7nM. In FP competition binding experiments using MRS5346 as a tracer, K(i) values of known AR agonists and antagonists consistently agreed with K(i) values from radioligand binding. Thus, this FP assay, which eliminates using radioisotopes, appears to be appropriate for both routine receptor binding and high-throughput screening with respect to speed of analysis, displaceable signal and precision. The approach used in the present study could be generally applicable to other GPCRs.

  11. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer-Based Intracellular Assay for the Conformation of Hepatitis C Virus Drug Target NS5A

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Dipankar; Ansari, Israrul H.; Mehle, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) is essential for hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication and assembly and is a critical drug target. Biochemical data suggest large parts of NS5A are unfolded as an isolated protein, but little is known about its folded state in the cell. We used fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to probe whether or not different regions of NS5A are in close proximity within the cell. Twenty-three separate reporter constructs were created by inserting one or more fluorophores into different positions throughout the three domains of NS5A. FRET efficiency was maximal when donor and acceptor fluorophores were positioned next to each other but also could be observed when the two fluorophores flanked NS5A domain 1 or domain 3. Informatic and biochemical analysis suggests that large portions of the carboxy terminus of NS5A are in an unfolded and disordered state. Quercetin, a natural product known to disrupt NS5A function in cells, specifically disrupted a conformationally specific domain 3 FRET signal. Intermolecular FRET indicated that the NS5A amino termini, but not other regions, are in close proximity in multimeric complexes. Overall, this assay provides a new window on the intracellular conformation(s) of NS5A and how the conformation changes in response to cellular and viral components of the replication and assembly complex as well as antiviral drugs. PMID:22623794

  12. Aggregation of oligoarginines at phospholipid membranes: molecular dynamics simulations, time-dependent fluorescence shift, and biomimetic colorimetric assays.

    PubMed

    Vazdar, Mario; Wernersson, Erik; Khabiri, Morteza; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Hof, Martin; Mann, Ella; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Jelinek, Raz; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2013-10-01

    A time-dependent fluorescence shift method, biomimetic colorimetric assays, and molecular dynamics simulations have been performed in search of explanations why arginine rich peptides with intermediate lengths of about 10 amino acids translocate well through cellular membranes, while analogous lysine rich peptides do not. First, we demonstrate that an important factor for efficient peptide adsorption, as the first prerequisite for translocation across the membrane, is the presence of negatively charged phospholipids in the bilayer. Second, we observe a strong tendency of adsorbed arginine (but not lysine) containing peptides to aggregate at the bilayer surface. We suggest that this aggregation of oligoarginines leads to partial disruption of the bilayer integrity due to the accumulated large positive charge at its surface, which increases membrane-surface interactions due to the increased effective charge of the aggregates. As a result, membrane penetration and translocation of medium length oligoarginines becomes facilitated in comparison to single arginine and very long polyarginines, as well as to lysine containing peptides.

  13. Cell Painting, a high-content image-based assay for morphological profiling using multiplexed fluorescent dyes.

    PubMed

    Bray, Mark-Anthony; Singh, Shantanu; Han, Han; Davis, Chadwick T; Borgeson, Blake; Hartland, Cathy; Kost-Alimova, Maria; Gustafsdottir, Sigrun M; Gibson, Christopher C; Carpenter, Anne E

    2016-09-01

    In morphological profiling, quantitative data are extracted from microscopy images of cells to identify biologically relevant similarities and differences among samples based on these profiles. This protocol describes the design and execution of experiments using Cell Painting, which is a morphological profiling assay that multiplexes six fluorescent dyes, imaged in five channels, to reveal eight broadly relevant cellular components or organelles. Cells are plated in multiwell plates, perturbed with the treatments to be tested, stained, fixed, and imaged on a high-throughput microscope. Next, an automated image analysis software identifies individual cells and measures ∼1,500 morphological features (various measures of size, shape, texture, intensity, and so on) to produce a rich profile that is suitable for the detection of subtle phenotypes. Profiles of cell populations treated with different experimental perturbations can be compared to suit many goals, such as identifying the phenotypic impact of chemical or genetic perturbations, grouping compounds and/or genes into functional pathways, and identifying signatures of disease. Cell culture and image acquisition takes 2 weeks; feature extraction and data analysis take an additional 1-2 weeks. PMID:27560178

  14. Rapid determination of the active fraction of DNA repair glycosylases: a novel fluorescence assay for trapped intermediates.

    PubMed

    Blaisdell, Jeffrey O; Wallace, Susan S

    2007-01-01

    Current methods to measure the fraction of active glycosylase molecules in a given enzyme preparation are slow and cumbersome. Here we report a novel assay for rapidly determining the active fraction based on molecular accessibility of a fluorescent DNA minor groove binder, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Several 5,6-dihydrouracil-containing (DHU) DNA substrates were designed with sequence-dependent DAPI-binding sites to which base excision repair glycosylases were covalently trapped by reduction. Trapped complexes impeded the association of DAPI in a manner dependent on the enzyme used and the location of the DAPI-binding site in relation to the lesion. Of the sequences tested, one was shown to give an accurate measure of the fraction of active molecules for each enzyme tested from both the Fpg/Nei family and HhH-GPD Nth superfamily of DNA glycosylases. The validity of the approach was demonstrated by direct comparison with current gel-based methods. Additionally, the results are supported by in silico modeling based on available crystal structures. PMID:17289752

  15. Clinical Application of an Innovative Multiplex-Fluorescent-Labeled STRs Assay for Prader-Willi Syndrome and Angelman Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kaihui; Liu, Shu; Feng, Bing; Yang, Yali; Zhang, Haiyan; Dong, Rui; Liu, Yi; Gai, Zhongtao

    2016-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are two clinically distinct neurodevelopmental disorders caused by absence of paternally or maternally expressed imprinted genes on chr15q11.2-q13.3. Three mechanisms are known to be involved in the pathogenesis: microdeletions, uniparental disomy (UPD) and imprinting defects. Both disorders are difficult to be definitely diagnosed at early age if no available molecular cytogenetic tests. In this study, we identified 5 AS patients with the maternal deletion and 26 PWS patients with paternal deletion on chr15q11-q13 by using an innovative multiplex-fluorescent-labeled short tandem repeats (STRs) assay based on linkage analysis, and validated by the methylation-specific PCR and array comparative genomic hybridization techniques. More interesting, one of these PWS patients was confirmed as maternal uniparental isodisomy by the STR linkage analysis. The phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of these individuals were also presented. Our results indicate that the new linkage analysis is much faster and easier for large-scale screening deletion and uniparental disomy, thus providing a valuable method for early diagnosis of PWS/AS patients, which is critical for genetic diagnosis, management and improvement of prognosis. PMID:26841067

  16. Clinical Application of an Innovative Multiplex-Fluorescent-Labeled STRs Assay for Prader-Willi Syndrome and Angelman Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Bing; Yang, Yali; Zhang, Haiyan; Dong, Rui; Liu, Yi; Gai, Zhongtao

    2016-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are two clinically distinct neurodevelopmental disorders caused by absence of paternally or maternally expressed imprinted genes on chr15q11.2-q13.3. Three mechanisms are known to be involved in the pathogenesis: microdeletions, uniparental disomy (UPD) and imprinting defects. Both disorders are difficult to be definitely diagnosed at early age if no available molecular cytogenetic tests. In this study, we identified 5 AS patients with the maternal deletion and 26 PWS patients with paternal deletion on chr15q11-q13 by using an innovative multiplex-fluorescent-labeled short tandem repeats (STRs) assay based on linkage analysis, and validated by the methylation-specific PCR and array comparative genomic hybridization techniques. More interesting, one of these PWS patients was confirmed as maternal uniparental isodisomy by the STR linkage analysis. The phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of these individuals were also presented. Our results indicate that the new linkage analysis is much faster and easier for large-scale screening deletion and uniparental disomy, thus providing a valuable method for early diagnosis of PWS/AS patients, which is critical for genetic diagnosis, management and improvement of prognosis. PMID:26841067

  17. Accuracy of the Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting Assay for the Aquaporin-4 Antibody (AQP4-Ab): Comparison with the Commercial AQP4-Ab Assay Kit

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoo-Jin; Cheon, So Young; Kim, Boram; Jung, Kyeong Cheon; Park, Kyung Seok

    2016-01-01

    Background The aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-Ab) is a disease-specific autoantibody to neuromyelitis optica (NMO). We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the FACS assay in detecting the AQP4-Ab compared with the commercial cell-based assay (C-CBA) kit. Methods Human embryonic kidney-293 cells were transfected with human aquaporin-4 (M23) cDNA. The optimal cut off values of FACS assay was tested using 1123 serum samples from patients with clinically definite NMO, those at high risk for NMO, patients with multiple sclerosis, patients with other idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating diseases, and negative controls. The accuracy of FACS assay and C-CBA were compared in consecutive 225 samples that were collected between January 2014 and June 2014. Results With a cut-off value of MFIi of 3.5 and MFIr of 2.0, the receiver operating characteristic curve for the FACS assay showed an area under the curve of 0.876. Among 225 consecutive sera, the FACS assay and C-CBA had a sensitivity of 77.3% and 69.7%, respectively, in differentiating the sera of definite NMO patients from sera of controls without IDD or of MS. Both assay had a good specificity of 100% in it. The overall positivity of the C-CBA among FACS-positive sera was 81.5%; moreover, its positivity was low as 50% among FACS-positive sera with relatively low MFIis. Conclusions Both the FACS assay and C-CBA are sensitive and highly specific assays in detecting AQP4-Ab. However, in some sera with relatively low antibody titer, FACS-assay can be a more sensitive assay option. In real practice, complementary use of FACS assay and C-CBA will benefit the diagnosis of NMO patients, because the former can be more sensitive among low titer sera and the latter are easier to use therefore can be widely used. PMID:27658059

  18. A fluorescent HTS assay for phosphohydrolases based on nucleoside 5'-fluorophosphates: its application in screening for inhibitors of mRNA decapping scavenger and PDE-I.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, M R; Nowicka, A; Jemielity, J; Kowalska, J

    2016-05-18

    Several nucleotide-specific phosphohydrolases can cleave P-F bonds in substrate analogues containing a fluorophosphate moiety to release fluoride ions. In this work, by employing a fluoride-sensitive molecular sensor, we harnessed this cleavage reaction to develop a fluorescence assay to screen for phosphohydrolase inhibitors. The assay is rapid, sensitive, and based on simple and synthetically available reagents. The assay was adapted to the high-throughput screening (HTS) format and its utility was demonstrated by screening an 'in-house' library of small nucleotides against two enzymes: DcpS, a metal-independent mRNA decapping pyrophosphatase of the histidine triad (HIT) family; and PDE-I, a divalent cation-dependent nuclease. Our screening results agreed with the known specificities of DcpS and PDE-I, and led to the selection of several inhibitors featuring low-micromolar IC50 values. For DcpS, we also verified the results by using an alternative method with the natural substrate. Notably, the assay presented here is the first fluorescence-based HTS-adaptable assay for DcpS, an established therapeutic target for spinal muscular atrophy. The assay should be useful for phosphohydrolase specificity profiling and inhibitor discovery, particularly in the context of DcpS and other HIT-family enzymes, which play key roles in maintaining cellular functions and have been linked to disease development.

  19. A fluorescent HTS assay for phosphohydrolases based on nucleoside 5'-fluorophosphates: its application in screening for inhibitors of mRNA decapping scavenger and PDE-I.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, M R; Nowicka, A; Jemielity, J; Kowalska, J

    2016-05-18

    Several nucleotide-specific phosphohydrolases can cleave P-F bonds in substrate analogues containing a fluorophosphate moiety to release fluoride ions. In this work, by employing a fluoride-sensitive molecular sensor, we harnessed this cleavage reaction to develop a fluorescence assay to screen for phosphohydrolase inhibitors. The assay is rapid, sensitive, and based on simple and synthetically available reagents. The assay was adapted to the high-throughput screening (HTS) format and its utility was demonstrated by screening an 'in-house' library of small nucleotides against two enzymes: DcpS, a metal-independent mRNA decapping pyrophosphatase of the histidine triad (HIT) family; and PDE-I, a divalent cation-dependent nuclease. Our screening results agreed with the known specificities of DcpS and PDE-I, and led to the selection of several inhibitors featuring low-micromolar IC50 values. For DcpS, we also verified the results by using an alternative method with the natural substrate. Notably, the assay presented here is the first fluorescence-based HTS-adaptable assay for DcpS, an established therapeutic target for spinal muscular atrophy. The assay should be useful for phosphohydrolase specificity profiling and inhibitor discovery, particularly in the context of DcpS and other HIT-family enzymes, which play key roles in maintaining cellular functions and have been linked to disease development. PMID:27031609

  20. Exploring the dynamics of fluorescence staining of bacteria with cyanine dyes for the development of kinetic assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Marlon Sheldon

    Bacterial infections continue to be one of the major health risks in the United States. The common occurrence of such infection is one of the major contributors to the high cost of health care and significant patient mortality. The work presented in this thesis describes spectroscopic studies that will contribute to the development of a fluorescent assay that may allow the rapid identification of bacterial species. Herein, the optical interactions between six bacterial species and a series of thiacyanine dyes are investigated. The interactions between the dyes and the bacterial species are hypothesized to be species-specific. For this thesis, two Gram-negative strains, Escherichia coli (E. coli) TOP10 and Enterobacter aerogenes; two Gram-positive bacterial strains, Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus subtilis; and two Bacillus endospores, B. globigii and B. thuringiensis, were used to test the proposed hypothesis. A series of three thiacyanine dyes---3,3'-diethylthiacyanine iodide (THIA), 3,3'-diethylthiacarbocyanine iodide (THC) and thiazole orange (THO)---were used as fluorescent probes. The basis of our spectroscopic study was to explore the bacterium-induced interactions of the bacterial cells with the individual thiacyanine dyes or with a mixture of the three dyes. Steady-state absorption spectroscopy revealed that the different bacterial species altered the absorption properties of the dyes. Mixed-dye solutions gave unique absorption patterns for each bacteria tested, with competitive binding observed between the bacteria and spectrophotometric probes (thiacyanine dyes). Emission spectroscopy recorded changes in the emission spectra of THIA following the introduction of bacterial cells. Experimental results revealed that the emission enhancement of the dyes resulted from increases in the emission quantum yield of the thiacyanine dyes upon binding to the bacteria cellular components. The recorded emission enhancement data were fitted to an exponential (mono

  1. The development of an efficient and rapid enzyme linked fluorescent assay method for the detection of Listeria spp. from foods.

    PubMed

    Sewell, A M; Warburton, D W; Boville, A; Daley, E F; Mullen, K

    2003-03-15

    Conventional isolation methods, including the Health Products and Food Branch (HPFB), Health Canada method used for the isolation and identification of Listeria species and Listeria monocytogenes from foods and environmental samples, can take a week or more to complete and are usually labor-intensive. This has led to the development of various rapid methods which attempt to generate results comparable to standard methods but in a reduced time-frame with less hands-on operation. Our previous work with rapid detection systems indicated that the recommended enrichment protocols failed to grow the Listeria to detectable levels in a reliable and consistent manner. In the present study, a novel enrichment protocol is described and consists of samples being pre-enriched in Palcam broth (incubated at 35 degrees C for 26 h), enriched in UVM 2 (30 degrees C for 26 h) and then plated and analysed by a rapid detection kit, with results being generated after 52 h of incubation. In total, 200 naturally contaminated samples were analysed by both the HPFB standard method and the Palcam method. The results showed that the Palcam method is comparable to the HPFB method. Further analysis involved a rapid detection system, which applies ELISA techniques and automation in an enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA) system. This system, referred to as the Vitek Immuno Diagnostic Assay System or VIDAS, can identify Listeria to the genus or species (L. monocytogenes) level. In this comparison, an additional 324 naturally contaminated samples were analysed by both the Palcam and ELFA methods. The sensitivity and specificity of the ELFA method were 98.1% and 97.0%, respectively, while the efficiency was 97.5%. False-negative and false-positive rates were 1.9% and 3.0%, respectively. These results show that the ELFA method (when using the Palcam method for pre- and secondary enrichment) was efficient and gave reliable results after 52 h of incubation, and met Health Canada's criteria for

  2. Development of a fluorescent enzyme-linked DNA aptamer-magnetic bead sandwich assay and portable fluorometer for sensitive and rapid listeria detection.

    PubMed

    Bruno, John G; Phillips, Taylor; Montez, Tiffany; Garcia, Adrian; Sivils, Jeffrey C; Mayo, Michael W; Greis, Alex

    2015-01-01

    A fluorescent DNA aptamer-magnetic bead sandwich assay was developed to detect listeriolysin O (LLO) protein from pathogenic Listeria bacteria using a peroxidase-linked system, Amplex Ultra Red (AUR; derivatized resazurin) substrate, and a custom-designed handheld fluorometer. The assay is highly sensitive with demonstrated limits of detection (LODs) in the range of 4 to 61 L. monocytogenes cells or the equivalent LLO produced by 4 to 61 cells on average in separate titration trials. Total assay processing and analysis time was approximately 30 mins. The assay has demonstrated the ability to detect 6 species of Listeria as desired by the USDA's Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS). The portable system was designed to be used primarily with surface swab samples from fomites, but it can also be used to assess enrichment cultures. The minimal time to detect a positive enrichment culture in our hands from an initial 10 cell inoculum in 200 ml of broth has been 8 h post-incubation at 37 °C in shaker flask cultures. An optional automated magnetic bead assay processing and wash device capable of simultaneously processing 6 samples with low and consistent fluorescence background for higher volume central laboratories is also described.

  3. Development of a fluorescent enzyme-linked DNA aptamer-magnetic bead sandwich assay and portable fluorometer for sensitive and rapid listeria detection.

    PubMed

    Bruno, John G; Phillips, Taylor; Montez, Tiffany; Garcia, Adrian; Sivils, Jeffrey C; Mayo, Michael W; Greis, Alex

    2015-01-01

    A fluorescent DNA aptamer-magnetic bead sandwich assay was developed to detect listeriolysin O (LLO) protein from pathogenic Listeria bacteria using a peroxidase-linked system, Amplex Ultra Red (AUR; derivatized resazurin) substrate, and a custom-designed handheld fluorometer. The assay is highly sensitive with demonstrated limits of detection (LODs) in the range of 4 to 61 L. monocytogenes cells or the equivalent LLO produced by 4 to 61 cells on average in separate titration trials. Total assay processing and analysis time was approximately 30 mins. The assay has demonstrated the ability to detect 6 species of Listeria as desired by the USDA's Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS). The portable system was designed to be used primarily with surface swab samples from fomites, but it can also be used to assess enrichment cultures. The minimal time to detect a positive enrichment culture in our hands from an initial 10 cell inoculum in 200 ml of broth has been 8 h post-incubation at 37 °C in shaker flask cultures. An optional automated magnetic bead assay processing and wash device capable of simultaneously processing 6 samples with low and consistent fluorescence background for higher volume central laboratories is also described. PMID:25511112

  4. A time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay suitable for high-throughput screening for inhibitors of immunoglobulin E-receptor interactions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beomkyu; Tarchevskaya, Svetlana S; Eggel, Alexander; Vogel, Monique; Jardetzky, Theodore S

    2012-12-15

    The interaction of immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies with the high-affinity receptor, FcεRI, plays a central role in initiating most allergic reactions. The IgE-receptor interaction has been targeted for treatment of allergic diseases, and many high-affinity macromolecular inhibitors have been identified. Small molecule inhibitors would offer significant advantages over current anti-IgE treatment, but no candidate compounds have been identified and fully validated. Here, we report the development of a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) assay for monitoring the IgE-receptor interaction. The TR-FRET assay measures an increase in fluorescence intensity as a donor lanthanide fluorophore is recruited into complexes of site-specific Alexa Fluor 488-labeled IgE-Fc and His-tagged FcεRIα proteins. The assay can readily monitor classic competitive inhibitors that bind either IgE-Fc or FcεRIα in equilibrium competition binding experiments. Furthermore, the TR-FRET assay can also be used to follow the kinetics of IgE-Fc-FcεRIα dissociation and identify inhibitory ligands that accelerate the dissociation of preformed complexes, as demonstrated for an engineered DARPin (designed ankyrin repeat protein) inhibitor. The TR-FRET assay is suitable for high-throughput screening (HTS), as shown by performing a pilot screen of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical Collection Library in a 384-well plate format.

  5. Thiazole orange as the fluorescent intercalator in a high resolution fid assay for determining DNA binding affinity and sequence selectivity of small molecules.

    PubMed

    Boger, D L; Tse, W C

    2001-09-01

    The viability of using thiazole orange as an alternative to ethidium bromide in a fluorescent intercalator displacement (FID) assay is explored by profiling the DNA binding affinity and sequence selectivity of netropsin. Utilizing a library of hairpin deoxyoligonucleotides containing all possible four base-pair sequences, the method provides a high resolution profile of the DNA binding properties of small molecules in a high throughput format.

  6. A suite of modular fluorescence assays interrogate the human immunodeficiency virus glycoprotein-41 coiled coil and assist in determining binding mechanism of low molecular weight fusion inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Gochin, Miriam

    2012-10-01

    Several different segments of the gp41 N-heptad repeat coiled coil have been constructed using N-terminal bipyridyl modification of composite peptides and inducing trimerization by adding ferrous ions. These metallopeptides act as receptors in fluorescence-binding assays with corresponding fluorescently labeled C-peptide probes. The Fe(II) coordination complex quenches C-peptide fluorescence upon binding, and reversal of quenching by a small molecule inhibitor can be used to obtain the inhibitor-binding constant. A total of 10 peptide pairs targeting 25-46 residue segments of the coiled coil were constructed, with C-peptide probes of different lengths and binding affinities. The result is a suite of assays for exploring binding in the mM to nM range to any desired region of the coiled coil, including the hydrophobic pocket (HP), extended regions on either side of the pocket, or a region associated with T20 resistance mutations. These assays are high-throughput ready, and could be used to discover novel compounds binding along various regions of the gp41 coiled coil groove. They were used to evaluate a sub-μM low molecular weight fusion inhibitor, resulting in the finding that the molecule bound specifically to the HP and attained its potency from a low off-rate.

  7. A novel label-free fluorescence strategy for methyltransferase activity assay based on dsDNA-templated copper nanoparticles coupled with an endonuclease-assisted signal transduction system.

    PubMed

    Lai, Q Q; Liu, M D; Gu, C C; Nie, H G; Xu, X J; Li, Z H; Yang, Z; Huang, S M

    2016-02-21

    Evaluating DNA methyltransferase (MTase) activity has received considerable attention due to its significance in the fields of early cancer clinical diagnostics and drug discovery. Herein, we proposed a novel label-free fluorescence method for MTase activity assay by coupling double-stranded DNA (dsDNA)-templated copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) with an endonuclease-assisted signal transduction system. In this strategy, dsDNA molecules were first methylated by DNA adenine methylation (Dam) MTase and then cleaved by the methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease DpnI. The cleaved DNA fragments could not act as efficient templates for the formation of fluorescent CuNPs and thus no fluorescence signal was produced. Under optimized experimental conditions, the developed strategy exhibited a sensitive fluorescence response to Dam MTase activity. This strategy was also demonstrated to provide an excellent platform to the inhibitor screening for Dam MTase. These results demonstrated the great potential for the practical applications of the proposed strategy for Dam MTase activity assay. PMID:26764536

  8. A fluorescence assay for measuring acetylcholinesterase activity in rat blood and a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y).

    PubMed

    Santillo, Michael F; Liu, Yitong

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an enzyme responsible for metabolism of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and inhibition of AChE can have therapeutic applications (e.g., drugs for Alzheimer's disease) or neurotoxic consequences (e.g., pesticides). A common absorbance-based AChE activity assay that uses 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) can have limited sensitivity and be prone to interference. Therefore, an alternative assay was developed, in which AChE activity was determined by measuring fluorescence of resorufin produced from coupled enzyme reactions involving acetylcholine and Amplex Red (10-acetyl-3,7-dihydroxyphenoxazine). The Amplex Red assay was used for two separate applications. First, AChE activity was measured in rat whole blood, which is a biomarker for exposure to AChE inhibitor pesticides. Activity was quantified from a 10(5)-fold dilution of whole blood, and there was a linear correlation between Amplex Red and DTNB assays. For the second application, Amplex Red assay was used to measure AChE inhibition potency in a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y), which is important for assessing pharmacological and toxicological potential of AChE inhibitors including drugs, phytochemicals, and pesticides. Five known reversible inhibitors were evaluated (IC50, 7-225 nM), along with irreversible inhibitors chlorpyrifos-oxon (ki=1.01 nM(-1)h(-1)) and paraoxon (ki=0.16 nM(-1)h(-1)). Lastly, in addition to inhibition, AChE reactivation was measured in SH-SY5Y cells incubated with pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM). The Amplex Red assay is a sensitive, specific, and reliable fluorescence method for measuring AChE activity in both rat whole blood and cultured SH-SY5Y cells. PMID:26165232

  9. Sensitive fluorescence assay of organophosphorus pesticides based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer between CdTe quantum dots and porphyrin.

    PubMed

    Xue, Gao; Yue, Zhao; Bing, Zhang; Yiwei, Tang; Xiuying, Liu; Jianrong, Li

    2016-08-01

    A sensitive and selective quantum dot (QD)-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensor was successfully fabricated for the detection of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). 5,10,15,20-Tetra(4-pyridyl)porphyrin (TPyP) with meso-pyridyl substituents was bound to the surface of CdTe QDs to produce self-assembled nanosensors, and the process of FRET between QDs and TPyP occurred. However, the process of FRET was switched off with the addition of OPs, due to the combination between TPyP and OPs. The fluorescence intensity of TPyP (donor) would decrease gradually with the increasing concentration of OPs. Under optimal conditions, a linear correlation was established between the fluorescence intensity ratio ITPyP/IQDs and the concentration of paraoxon in the range of 9.09 × 10(-12)-1.09 × 10(-6) mol L(-1) with a detection limit of 3.15 × 10(-12) mol L(-1). The attractive sensitivity was obtained due to the efficient FRET and the superior fluorescence properties of QDs. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of the OPs in real fruit samples with satisfactory results. PMID:27305657

  10. Fluorescence competition assay for the assessment of ATP binding to an isolated domain of Na+, K(+)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Kubala, M; Plásek, J; Amler, E

    2004-01-01

    An equation allowing estimation of the dissociation constant for binding of a non-fluorescent ligand to the enzyme is presented that is based on the competitive replacement of the ligand by its fluorescent analog. We derived an explicit formula for the probe fluorescence intensity, which is suitable for nonlinear least-squares analysis. We used this formula to evaluate the binding of ATP to the large cytoplasmic loop of Na+,K(+)-ATPase. The estimated value of KD (6.2+/- 0.7 mM) is comparable with the results from other laboratories for similar constructs obtained by a different method.

  11. Self-quenched covalent fluorescent dye-nucleic acid conjugates as polymeric substrates for enzymatic nuclease assays.

    PubMed

    Trubetskoy, Vladimir S; Hagstrom, James E; Budker, Vladimir G

    2002-01-01

    A fluorescent method is described for assessing nuclease activity. The technique is based on the preparation of quenched fluorophore-nucleic acid covalent conjugates and their subsequent dequenching due to degradation by nucleases. The resulting fluorescence increase can be measured by a spectrofluorometer and exhibits subpicogram per milliliter sensitivity level for RNase A and low picogram per milliliter level for DNase I. The method is adaptable for quantitative nuclease inhibitor testing.

  12. An integrated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system with an organic light-emitting diode and a charge-coupled device for fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Hizuru; Okuma, Yukiko; Morioka, Kazuhiro; Miyake, Mayo; Hemmi, Akihide; Tobita, Tatsuya; Yahiro, Masayuki; Yokoyama, Daisuke; Adachi, Chihaya; Soh, Nobuaki; Nakano, Koji; Xue, Shuhua; Zeng, Hulie; Uchiyama, Katsumi; Imato, Toshihiko

    2011-10-01

    A fluorescence detection system for a microfluidic device using an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) as the excitation light source and a charge-coupled device (CCD) as the photo detector was developed. The OLED was fabricated on a glass plate by photolithography and a vacuum deposition technique. The OLED produced a green luminescence with a peak emission at 512 nm and a half bandwidth of 55 nm. The maximum external quantum efficiency of the OLED was 7.2%. The emission intensity of the OLED at 10 mA/cm(2) was 13 μW (1.7 mW/cm(2)). The fluorescence detection system consisted of the OLED device, two band-pass filters, a five microchannel poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic device and a linear CCD. The fluorescence detection system was successfully used in a flow-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on a PDMS microfluidic device for the rapid determination of immunoglobulin A (IgA), a marker for human stress. The detection limit (S/N=3) for IgA was 16.5 ng/mL, and the sensitivity was sufficient for evaluating stress. Compared with the conventional 96-well microtiter plate assay, the analysis time and the amounts of reagent and sample solutions could all be reduced.

  13. Highly miniaturized formats for in vitro drug metabolism assays using vivid fluorescent substrates and recombinant human cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Trubetskoy, Olga V; Gibson, Jasmin R; Marks, Bryan D

    2005-02-01

    Highly miniaturized P450 screening assays designed to enable facile analysis of P450 drug interactions in a 1536-well plate format with the principal human cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP3A4, 2D6, 2C9, 2C19, and 1A2) and Vivid fluorogenic substrates were developed. The detailed characterization of the assays included stability, homogeneity, and reproducibility of the recombinant P450 enzymes and the kinetic parameters of their reactions with Vivid fluorogenic substrates, with a focus on the specific characteristics of each component that enable screening in a low-volume 1536-well plate assay format. The screening assays were applied for the assessment of individual cytochrome P450 inhibition profiles with a panel of selected assay modifiers, including isozyme-specific substrates and inhibitors. IC(50) values obtained for the modifiers in 96- and 1536-well plate formats were similar and comparable with values obtained in assays with conventional substrates. An overall examination of the 1536-well assay statistics, such as signal-to-background ratio and Z' factor, demonstrated that these assays are a robust, successful, and reliable tool to screen for cytochrome P450 metabolism and inhibition in an ultra-high-throughput screening format.

  14. Development of a real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid and quantitative detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum in soil.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jun; Zhan, Yuanfeng; Zeng, Fanyun; Long, Haibo; Pei, Yuelin; Guo, Jianrong

    2013-12-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon) is one of the major limiting factors for watermelon production worldwide. Rapid and accurate detection of the causal pathogen is the cornerstone of integrated disease management. In this paper, a real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RealAmp) assay was developed for the rapid and quantitative detection of Fon in soil. Positive products were amplified only from Fon isolates and not from any other species or formae speciales of F. oxysporum tested, showing a high specificity of the primer sets. The detection limit of the RealAmp assay was 1.2 pg μL(-1) genomic DNA or 10(3) spores g(-1) of artificially inoculated soil, whereas real-time PCR could detect as low as 12 fg μL(-1) or 10(2) spores g(-1). The RealAmp assay was further applied to detect eight artificially inoculated and 85 field soil samples. No significant differences were found between the results tested by the RealAmp and real-time PCR assays. The RealAmp assay is a simple, rapid and effective technique for the quantitative detection and monitoring of Fon in soil under natural conditions.

  15. Laboratory evaluation of five assay methods for vancomycin: bioassay, high-pressure liquid chromatography, fluorescence polarization immunoassay, radioimmunoassay, and fluorescence immunoassay.

    PubMed Central

    Pfaller, M A; Krogstad, D J; Granich, G G; Murray, P R

    1984-01-01

    We compared the precision and accuracy of five methods used to measure the concentration of vancomycin in serum: bioassay, high-pressure liquid chromatography, fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA [TDX; Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill.]), radioimmunoassay (RIA), and fluorescence immunoassay. Based on an analysis of seven standards and of 106 patient samples, all five methods were accurate, and four (bioassay, high-pressure liquid chromatography, FPIA, and RIA) were also precise. The FPIA was the most precise and the fluorescence immunoassay was the least precise of the methods tested; intrarun coefficients of variation for these two methods were 0.9 to 3.0% versus 8.9 to 14.5%, and interrun coefficients of variation were 2.8 to 8.1% versus 12.2 to 16.2%, respectively. The RIA was inconvenient because it required an extra dilution of the specimen being tested and an additional (64 micrograms/ml) vancomycin standard for specimens with 32 to 64 micrograms of vancomycin per ml. Based on its rapid turnaround time and the stability of its standard curve, we believe that the FPIA is the best method currently available to quantitate vancomycin in the clinical laboratory. PMID:6386852

  16. Visualization of cofilin-actin and Ras-Raf interactions by bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays using a new pair of split Venus fragments.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Kazumasa; Kiuchi, Tai; Shoji, Kazuyasu; Sampei, Kaori; Mizuno, Kensaku

    2012-01-01

    The bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay is a method for visualizing protein-protein interactions in living cells. To visualize the cofilin-actin interaction in living cells, a series of combinations of the N- and C-terminal fragments of Venus fused upstream or downstream of cofilin and actin were screened systematically. A new pair of split Venus fragments, Venus (1-210) fused upstream of cofilin and Venus (210-238) fused downstream of actin, was the most effective combination for visualizing the specific interaction between cofilin and actin in living cells. This pair of Venus fragments was also effective for detecting the active Ras-dependent interaction between H-Ras and Raf1 and the Ca(2+)-dependent interaction between calmodulin and its target M13 peptide. In vitro BiFC assays using the pair of purified BiFC probes provided the means to detect the specific interactions between cofilin and actin and between H-Ras and Raf1. In vivo and in vitro BiFC assays using the newly identified pair of Venus fragments will serve as a useful tool for measuring protein-protein interactions with high specificity and low background fluorescence and could be applied to the screening of inhibitors that block protein-protein interactions.

  17. Development of a fluorescence-based method for monitoring glucose catabolism and its potential use in a biomass hydrolysis assay

    PubMed Central

    Haney, Lisa J; Coors, James G; Lorenz, Aaron J; Raman, D Raj; Anex, Robert P; Scott, M Paul

    2008-01-01

    Background The availability and low cost of lignocellulosic biomass has caused tremendous interest in the bioconversion of this feedstock into liquid fuels. One measure of the economic viability of the bioconversion process is the ease with which a particular feedstock is hydrolyzed and fermented. Because monitoring the analytes in hydrolysis and fermentation experiments is time consuming, the objective of this study was to develop a rapid fluorescence-based method to monitor sugar production during biomass hydrolysis, and to demonstrate its application in monitoring corn stover hydrolysis. Results Hydrolytic enzymes were used in conjunction with Escherichia coli strain CA8404 (a hexose and pentose-consuming strain), modified to produce green fluorescent protein (GFP). The combination of hydrolytic enzymes and a sugar-consuming organism minimizes feedback inhibition of the hydrolytic enzymes. We observed that culture growth rate as measured by change in culture turbidity is proportional to GFP fluorescence and total growth and growth rate depends upon how much sugar is present at inoculation. Furthermore, it was possible to monitor the course of enzymatic hydrolysis in near real-time, though there are instrumentation challenges in doing this. Conclusion We found that instantaneous fluorescence is proportional to the bacterial growth rate. As growth rate is limited by the availability of sugar, the integral of fluorescence is proportional to the amount of sugar consumed by the microbe. We demonstrate that corn stover varieties can be differentiated based on sugar yields in enzymatic hydrolysis reactions using post-hydrolysis fluorescence measurements. Also, it may be possible to monitor fluorescence in real-time during hydrolysis to compare different hydrolysis protocols. PMID:19019221

  18. Establishing a cellular FRET-based fluorescence plate reader assay to monitor proNGF-induced cross-linking of sortilin and the neurotrophin receptor p75NTR

    PubMed Central

    Skeldal, Sune; Kjaergaard, Maj M; Alwasel, Saleh; Nyengaard, Jens R

    2015-01-01

    Whereas the proform of the nerve growth factor (proNGF) is crucial for eliminating superfluous cells during neuronal development it also promotes apoptosis following brain trauma and neuronal injury. The apoptotic signal is elicited upon formation of a trimeric receptor complex also containing the vps10p domain receptor sortilin and the neurotrophin receptor p75NTR. However, proNGF-induced receptor complex formation has been difficult to directly assess other than by western blotting. We here describe a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) based fluorescence plate reader assay to monitor the interaction between fluorescently tagged sortilin and p75NTR in live cells. The method is based on a standard fluorescent plate reader found in many biochemical laboratories and the results are evaluated using a microscopy-based quantified sensitized acceptor emission FRET approach making use of a pair of FRET standard constructs. As a result, the effect of proNGF on the interaction between sortilin and p75NTR can be evaluated in live cells allowing for screening and selection of therapeutic compounds interfering with proNGF-induced cell death. PMID:26823987

  19. Preliminary Study of the Efficacy of Using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence with Quasi-Monoenergetic Gamma-Ray Sources for Nuclear Safeguards Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M S; McNabb, D P; Hall, J M; Gonzalez, J J

    2011-02-17

    We have studied the efficacy of using nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF)-based techniques to assay spent nuclear fuel for Pu content using quasi-monoenergetic sources. We have developed two techniques to precisely determine the Pu content in a fuel rod/pin. One of our approaches is virtually free of systematic uncertainties. Using analytical models, we have determined the amount of time required to measure the Pu content in spent nuclear fuel rods and spent fuel assemblies to within 1% precision. We note that Pu content can be determined in a fuel assembly about as fast as in a single fuel pin. The performance of NRF-based assay techniques with improved photon sources, which are currently under development, will also estimated. For follow-on research we propose to: (1) Construct research prototype detection systems for both of the NRF-based assay systems proposed in this paper and measure their calibration curves; (2) Determine the systematic errors associated with both assay methods, explore ways to reduce the errors and fold the results into future performance calculations; (3) Develop an algorithm to assay a fuel assembly; (4) Perform validation measurements using a single pin and scaled assemblies; (5) Research and develop current-mode detection and/or threshold detection techniques to improve assay times; (6) Characterize the flux of newly constructed sources and fold the results into the calculations presented here to determine the feasibility of a variety of proposed sources; and (7) Collaborate with others in the safeguards community to build a prototype system and perform an NRF-based assay demonstration on spent fuel.

  20. Quantification of OH and HO2 radicals during the low-temperature oxidation of hydrocarbons by Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion technique

    PubMed Central

    Blocquet, Marion; Schoemaecker, Coralie; Amedro, Damien; Herbinet, Olivier; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique; Fittschen, Christa

    2013-01-01

    •OH and •HO2 radicals are known to be the key species in the development of ignition. A direct measurement of these radicals under low-temperature oxidation conditions (T = 550–1,000 K) has been achieved by coupling a technique named fluorescence assay by gas expansion, an experimental technique designed for the quantification of these radicals in the free atmosphere, to a jet-stirred reactor, an experimental device designed for the study of low-temperature combustion chemistry. Calibration allows conversion of relative fluorescence signals to absolute mole fractions. Such radical mole fraction profiles will serve as a benchmark for testing chemical models developed to improve the understanding of combustion processes. PMID:24277836

  1. Development of a fluorescent anti-factor Xa assay to monitor unfractionated and low molecular weight heparins.

    PubMed

    Harris, Leanne F; Castro-López, Vanessa; Hammadi, Nissrin; O'Donnell, James S; Killard, Anthony J

    2010-06-15

    Fluorogenic assays have many potential advantages over traditional clot-based and chromogenic assays such as the absence of interference from a range of factor deficiencies as well as offering the possibility of assays in platelet rich plasma or whole blood. A fluorogenic anti-factor Xa (anti-FXa) assay has been developed for the determination of unfractionated heparin (UFH), low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs), namely enoxaparin and tinzaparin, and the synthetic heparinoid danaparoid, in commercial human pooled plasma. The assay was based on the complexation of heparin-spiked plasmas with exogenous FXa at a concentration of 4nM in the presence of 0.9microM of the fluorogenic substrate methylsulfonyl-D-cyclohexylalanyl-glycyl-arginine-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin acetate (Pefafluor FXa). Pooled plasma samples were spiked with concentrations of anticoagulants in the range 0-1.6U/ml. The assay was capable of the measurement of UFH and danaparoid in the range 0-1U/ml, and enoxaparin and tinzaparin in the range 0-0.8 and 0-0.6U/ml, respectively. Correlation coefficients generated by linear regression of the log/lin data analysis were between 0.93 and 0.96 for the anticoagulants tested. Assay percentage coefficients of variation were typically below 7%. PMID:20441964

  2. Ag@SiO2-entrapped hydrogel microarray: a new platform for a metal-enhanced fluorescence-based protein assay.

    PubMed

    Jang, Eunji; Kim, Minsu; Koh, Won-Gun

    2015-05-21

    We developed a novel protein-based bioassay platform utilizing metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF), which is a hydrogel microarray entrapping silica-coated silver nanoparticles (Ag@SiO2). As a model system, different concentrations of glucose were detected using a fluorescence method by sequential bienzymatic reaction of hydrogel-entrapped glucose oxidase (GOX) and peroxidase (POD) inside a hydrogel microarray. Microarrays based on poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG) hydrogels were prepared by photopatterning a solution containing PEG diacrylate (PEG-DA), photoinitiator, enzymes, and Ag@SiO2. The resulting hydrogel microarrays were able to entrap both enzymes and Ag@SiO2 without leaching and deactivation problems. The presence of Ag@SiO2 within the hydrogel microarray enhanced the fluorescence signal, and the extent of the enhancement was dependent on the thickness of silica shells and the amount of Ag@SiO2. Optimal MEF effects were achieved when the thickness of the silica shell was 17.5 nm, and 0.5 mg mL(-1) of Ag@SiO2 was incorporated into the assay systems. Compared with the standard hydrogel microarray-based assay performed without Ag@SiO2, more than a 4-fold fluorescence enhancement was observed in a glucose concentration range between 10(-3) mM and 10.0 mM using hydrogel microarray entrapping Ag@SiO2, which led to significant improvements in the sensitivity and the limit of detection (LOD). The hydrogel microarray system presented in this study could be successfully combined with a microfluidic device as an initial step to create an MEF-based micro-total-analysis-system (μ-TAS).

  3. A Lanthanide-Based Chemosensor for Bioavailable Fe3+ Using a Fluorescent Siderophore: An Assay Displacement Approach

    PubMed Central

    Orcutt, Karen M.; Jones, W. Scott; McDonald, Andrea; Schrock, David; Wallace, Karl J.

    2010-01-01

    The measurement of trace analytes in aqueous systems has become increasingly important for understanding ocean primary productivity. In oceanography, iron (Fe) is a key element in regulating ocean productivity, microplankton assemblages and has been identified as a causative element in the development of some harmful algal blooms. The chemosenor developed in this study is based on an indicator displacement approach that utilizes time-resolved fluorescence and fluorescence resonance energy transfer as the sensing mechanism to achieve detection of Fe3+ ions as low as 5 nM. This novel approach holds promise for the development of photoactive chemosensors for ocean deployment. PMID:22205870

  4. [Direct fluorescent and indirect immunofluorescent assay in buffy coat for candidemia diagnosis in pediatric patients: a comparative study].

    PubMed

    Flores-Ruiz, Eric Moisés; Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe; Solórzano-Santos, Fortino; Sánchez-Huerta, Gustavo; Díaz-Ponce, Humberto

    2005-06-01

    The diagnosis of candidemia by blood culture has poor sensitivity; therefore, immunossupresed patients and those with risk factors may receive empirical antifungal therapy, wich is potentially toxic. Fluorescent tests have been developed to obtain an early and more sensitive diagnosis than blood culture. The aim of this study was to compare indirect immunofluorescence vs direct calcofluor white fluorescence in buffy coat for candidemia diagnosis. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, of positive and negative samples were 60%, 86%, 33%, 95% and 90%, 80%, 35%, 99%, for indirect immunofluorescence and calcofluor white, respectively.

  5. Development of a microsphere-based fluorescence immunochromatographic assay for monitoring lincomycin in milk, honey, beef, and swine urine.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Zhu, Kui; Xu, Fei; Wang, Wenjun; Jiang, Haiyang; Wang, Zhanhui; Ding, Shuangyang

    2014-12-10

    The residue of lincomycin (LIN) in edible animal foodstuffs caused by the widespread use of veterinary drugs is in need of rapid, simple, and sensitive detection methods. The present work introduces a fluorescent microsphere immunoassay (FMIA) for detecting LIN in different samples based on the competitive immunoreaction on the chromatography test strip. The residues of LIN in different samples compete with bovine serum albumin (BSA) labeled LIN conjugates on the T-line to bind to the anti-LIN monoclonal antibody labeled fluorescent microspheres (FM-mAbs). Captured FM-mAbs on the T-line represent the fluorescent intensity, which is detected under UV light and quantified by a fluorescent reader. Under optimized conditions, the dynamic range is from 1.35 to 3.57 ng/mL, and the 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) is 2.20 ng/mL. This method has 4.4% cross-reactivity with clindamycin and negligible cross-reactivity (<0.1%) with other analogues. To reduce the matrix effects, a dilution method is used to pretreat the samples, and the recoveries range from 73.92 to 120.50% with coefficient of variations <21.76%. In comparison with the results of ELISA and colloidal gold immunoassay, FMIA has obvious advantages such as easy operation, time savings, high sensitivity and specificity, and broader prospect. PMID:25290082

  6. Evaluation of α-cyano ethers as fluorescent substrates for assay of cytochrome P450 enzyme activity

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kyung-Don; Jones, Paul D.; Huang, Huazhang; Zhang, Rong; Mostovich, Lyudmila A.; Wheelock, Craig E.; Watanabe, Takaho; Gulyaeva, Lyudmila F.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2006-01-01

    We have previously reported the synthesis of four α-cyano-containing ethers based on 2-naphthaldehyde (2-NA) as cytochrome P450 (P450) fluorescent substrates. Activity detection was based on the formation of fluorescent 2-NA following substrate hydrolysis. A major limitation of these substrates was the need to remove NADPH, a required cofactor for P450 oxidation, before measuring 2-NA fluorescence. In this article, we report the synthesis of a new series of novel P450 substrates using 6-dimethylamino-2-naphthaldehyde (6-DMANA), which has a green fluorescent emission that is well separated from the NADPH spectrum. A major advantage of the 6-DMANA substrates is that NADPH removal is not required before fluorescence detection. We used eight α-cyano ether-based substrates to determine the O-dealkylation activity of human, mouse, and rat liver microsomes. In addition, substrate activities were compared with the commercial substrate 7-ethoxyresorufin (7-ER). The catalytic turnover rates of both the 6-DMANA- and 2-NA-based substrates were in some cases threefold faster than the catalytic turnover rate of 7-ER. The 2-NA-based substrates had greater turnover than did the 6-DMANA-based substrates. Murine and rat liver microsomes prepared from animals that had been treated with various P450 inducers were used to examine for isozyme-selective turnover of the substrates. The vastly improved optical properties and synthetic flexibility of the α-cyano ether compounds suggest that they are possibly good general P450 substrates. PMID:16083846

  7. Evaluation of alpha-cyano ethers as fluorescent substrates for assay of cytochrome P450 enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyung-Don; Jones, Paul D; Huang, Huazhang; Zhang, Rong; Mostovich, Lyudmila A; Wheelock, Craig E; Watanabe, Takaho; Gulyaeva, Lyudmila F; Hammock, Bruce D

    2005-09-15

    We have previously reported the synthesis of four alpha-cyano-containing ethers based on 2-naphthaldehyde (2-NA) as cytochrome P450 (P450) fluorescent substrates. Activity detection was based on the formation of fluorescent 2-NA following substrate hydrolysis. A major limitation of these substrates was the need to remove NADPH, a required cofactor for P450 oxidation, before measuring 2-NA fluorescence. In this article, we report the synthesis of a new series of novel P450 substrates using 6-dimethylamino-2-naphthaldehyde (6-DMANA), which has a green fluorescent emission that is well separated from the NADPH spectrum. A major advantage of the 6-DMANA substrates is that NADPH removal is not required before fluorescence detection. We used eight alpha-cyano ether-based substrates to determine the O-dealkylation activity of human, mouse, and rat liver microsomes. In addition, substrate activities were compared with the commercial substrate 7-ethoxyresorufin (7-ER). The catalytic turnover rates of both the 6-DMANA- and 2-NA-based substrates were in some cases threefold faster than the catalytic turnover rate of 7-ER. The 2-NA-based substrates had greater turnover than did the 6-DMANA-based substrates. Murine and rat liver microsomes prepared from animals that had been treated with various P450 inducers were used to examine for isozyme-selective turnover of the substrates. The vastly improved optical properties and synthetic flexibility of the alpha-cyano ether compounds suggest that they are possibly good general P450 substrates.

  8. Fluorescent assay of total serum cholesterol, with use of gas-liquid chromatography to study saponification efficiency.

    PubMed

    Majeski, E J; Seltzer, E J; Carter, P L; Howlett, D R; Stuart, J D

    1977-11-01

    We describe a fluorescent determination of total cholesterol in serum for which the accuracy and precision are comparable to that for the method of Abell-Kendall, a method of generally accepted accuracy. By the use of quality reagents and the rigorous exclusion of water, the strong fluorophor that develops on reacting concentrated sulfuric acid with cholesterol can be used to quantitatively determine the total cholesterol in serum. We used gas-liquid chromatography to monitor the extent of saponification of the cholesterol esters, because we found them to have fluorescent efficiencies that differed from that of free cholesterol. Sodium methoxide in methanol/methylene chloride (1/3 by vol) was shown by gas-liquid chromatography to very effectively saponify the cholesterol esters in serum.

  9. Real-time thermal imaging of microwave accelerated metal-enhanced fluorescence (MAMEF) based assays on sapphire plates.

    PubMed

    Previte, Michael J R; Zhang, Yongxia; Aslan, Kadir; Geddes, Chris D

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, we describe an optical geometry that facilitates our further characterization of the temperature changes above silver island films (SiFs) on sapphire plates, when exposed to microwave radiation. Since sapphire transmits IR, we designed an optical scheme to capture real-time temperature images of a thin water film on sapphire plates with and without SiFs during the application of a short microwave pulse. Using this optical scheme, we can accurately determine the temperature profile of solvents in proximity to metal structures when exposed to microwave irradiation. We believe that this optical scheme will provide us with a basis for further studies in designing metal structures to further improve plasmonic-fluorescence clinical sensing applications, such as those used in microwave accelerated metal-enhanced fluorescence (MAMEF). PMID:17902038

  10. Competitive fluorescence assay for specific recognition of atrazine by magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer based on Fe3O4-chitosan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangyang; Li, Tengfei; Yang, Xin; She, Yongxin; Wang, Miao; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Min; Wang, Shanshan; Jin, Fen; Jin, Maojun; Shao, Hua; Jiang, Zejun; Yu, Hailong

    2016-02-10

    A novel fluorescence sensing strategy for determination of atrazine in tap water involving direct competition between atrazine and 5-(4,6-dichlorotriazinyl) aminofluorescein (5-DTAF), and which exploits magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (MMIP), has been developed. The MMIP, based on Fe3O4-chitosan nanoparticles, was synthesized to recognize specific binding sites of atrazine. The recognition capability and selectivity of the MMIP for atrazine and other triazine herbicides was investigated. Under optimal conditions, the competitive reaction between 5-DTAF and atrazine was performed to permit quantitation. Fluorescence intensity changes at 515 nm was linearly related to the logarithm of the atrazine concentration for the range 2.32-185.4 μM. The detection limit for atrazine was 0.86μM (S/N=3) and recoveries were 77.6-115% in spiked tap water samples.

  11. Label-Free Fluorescence Assay of S1 Nuclease and Hydroxyl Radicals Based on Water-Soluble Conjugated Polymers and WS2 Nanosheets

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junting; Zhao, Qi; Tang, Yanli

    2016-01-01

    We developed a new method for detecting S1 nuclease and hydroxyl radicals based on the use of water-soluble conjugated poly[9,9-bis(6,6-(N,N,N-trimethylammonium)-fluorene)-2,7-ylenevinylene-co-alt-2,5-dicyano-1,4-phenylene)] (PFVCN) and tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanosheets. Cationic PFVCN is used as a signal reporter, and single-layer WS2 is used as a quencher with a negatively charged surface. The ssDNA forms complexes with PFVCN due to much stronger electrostatic interactions between cationic PFVCN and anionic ssDNA, whereas PFVCN emits yellow fluorescence. When ssDNA is hydrolyzed by S1 nuclease or hydroxyl radicals into small fragments, the interactions between the fragmented DNA and PFVCN become weaker, resulting in PFVCN being adsorbed on the surface of WS2 and the fluorescence being quenched through fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The new method based on PFVCN and WS2 can sense S1 nuclease with a low detection limit of 5 × 10−6 U/mL. Additionally, this method is cost-effective by using affordable WS2 as an energy acceptor without the need for dye-labeled ssDNA. Furthermore, the method provides a new platform for the nuclease assay and reactive oxygen species, and provides promising applications for drug screening. PMID:27304956

  12. Label-Free Fluorescence Assay of S1 Nuclease and Hydroxyl Radicals Based on Water-Soluble Conjugated Polymers and WS₂ Nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Li, Junting; Zhao, Qi; Tang, Yanli

    2016-06-13

    We developed a new method for detecting S1 nuclease and hydroxyl radicals based on the use of water-soluble conjugated poly[9,9-bis(6,6-(N,N,N-trimethylammonium)-fluorene)-2,7-ylenevinylene-co-alt-2,5-dicyano-1,4-phenylene)] (PFVCN) and tungsten disulfide (WS₂) nanosheets. Cationic PFVCN is used as a signal reporter, and single-layer WS₂ is used as a quencher with a negatively charged surface. The ssDNA forms complexes with PFVCN due to much stronger electrostatic interactions between cationic PFVCN and anionic ssDNA, whereas PFVCN emits yellow fluorescence. When ssDNA is hydrolyzed by S1 nuclease or hydroxyl radicals into small fragments, the interactions between the fragmented DNA and PFVCN become weaker, resulting in PFVCN being adsorbed on the surface of WS₂ and the fluorescence being quenched through fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The new method based on PFVCN and WS₂ can sense S1 nuclease with a low detection limit of 5 × 10(-6) U/mL. Additionally, this method is cost-effective by using affordable WS₂ as an energy acceptor without the need for dye-labeled ssDNA. Furthermore, the method provides a new platform for the nuclease assay and reactive oxygen species, and provides promising applications for drug screening.

  13. Fast and reliable screening of mutations in human tumors: use of multiple fluorescence-based long linker arm nucleotides assay (mf-LLA).

    PubMed

    Marcelino, L A; Galvin, M; Martins, G M; Proença, M J; Mayrand, E; Rueff, J A; Monteiro, C J

    1999-06-01

    Human tumor samples were screened for point mutations by adapting a mobility-shift assay to automated DNA sizing. This screen identifies the type of point mutation and relative amount of mutated DNA sequences present in a sample. Test samples having known hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt)/exon-3 sequence mutations were characterized by: (i) PCR amplification, (ii) fluorescent dye-primer extension with 36-atom linker derived deoxycytosine or deoxyuridine triphosphate and the remaining three natural nucleotides and (iii) sizing of the resulting fluorescently labeled modified strands, using an automated DNA sequencer. Routinely, a range of sizes is observed among the sequence variants of a single DNA target sequence. This is because nucleotide analogs are incorporated into DNA strands in a sequence-dependent manner, resulting in composition-dependent electrophoretic mobility. Thus, point mutations are identified as shifts in mobility between the fluorescently labeled modified strands of the control and test samples. The twenty different hprt/exon-3 single-base substitution mutations tested were easily identified, even at fourfold dilution with control DNA.

  14. Development of a Novel Green Fluorescent Protein-Based Binding Assay to Study the Association of Plakins with Intermediate Filament Proteins.

    PubMed

    Favre, Bertrand; Begré, Nadja; Bouameur, Jamal-Eddine; Borradori, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are fundamental for most biological processes, such as the formation of cellular structures and enzymatic complexes or in signaling pathways. The identification and characterization of protein-protein interactions are therefore essential for understanding the mechanisms and regulation of biological systems. The organization and dynamics of the cytoskeleton, as well as its anchorage to specific sites in the plasma membrane and organelles, are regulated by the plakins. These structurally related proteins anchor different cytoskeletal networks to each other and/or to other cellular structures. The association of several plakins with intermediate filaments (IFs) is critical for maintenance of the cytoarchitecture. Pathogenic mutations in the genes encoding different plakins can lead to dramatic manifestations, occurring principally in the skin, striated muscle, and/or nervous system, due to cytoskeletal disorganization resulting in abnormal cell fragility. Nevertheless, it is still unclear how plakins bind to IFs, although some general rules are slowly emerging. We here describe in detail a recently developed protein-protein fluorescence binding assay, based on the production of recombinant proteins tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and their use as fluid-phase fluorescent ligands on immobilized IF proteins. Using this method, we have been able to assess the ability of C-terminal regions of GFP-tagged plakin proteins to bind to distinct IF proteins and IF domains. This simple and sensitive technique, which is expected to facilitate further studies in this area, can also be potentially employed for any kind of protein-protein interaction studies.

  15. Fluorescence Ratiometric Assay Strategy for Chemical Transmitter of Living Cells Using H2O2-Sensitive Conjugated Polymers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunxia; Li, Shengliang; Feng, Liheng; Nie, Chenyao; Liu, Libing; Lv, Fengting; Wang, Shu

    2015-11-01

    A new water-soluble conjugated poly(fluorene-co-phenylene) derivative (PFP-FB) modified with boronate-protected fluorescein (peroxyfluor-1) via PEG linker has been designed and synthesized. In the presence of H2O2, the peroxyfluor-1 group can transform into green fluorescent fluorescein by deprotecting the boronate protecting groups. In this case, upon selective excitation of PFP-FB backbone at 380 nm, efficient fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from PFP-FB backbone to fluorescein occurs, and accordingly, the fluorescence color of PFP-FB changes from blue to green. Furthermore, the emission color of PFP-FB and the FRET ratio change in a concentration-dependent manner. By taking advantage of PFP-FB, ratiometric detection of choline and acetylcholine (ACh) through cascade enzymatic reactions and further dynamic monitoring of the choline consumption process of cancer cells have been successfully realized. Thus, this new polymer probe promotes the development of enzymatic biosensors and provides a simpler and more effective way for detecting the chemical transmitter of living cells.

  16. Real-time fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR assay for the expression of metallothioneins in rat hippocampal neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Hai-Hong; Wang, Fu-Di; Guo, Jun-Sheng; Shen, Hui; Li, Run-Ping

    2004-07-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are short, cysteine-rich proteins for heavy metal homeostasis and detoxification; they can bind a variety of heavy metals and also act as radical scavengers. In brain cells, they play a neuroprotective role in many aspects. However, because the previous methods can't quantify their gene expression at the mRNA level, their regulation in brain, especially in neurons, is not well known by now. In this study, we use a more accurate method, the real-time fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR technique, to determine the expression of three MT isomers on 100 μM zinc exposure after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours in primary culture rat hippocampal neurons. The result shows that the expression of all three MT isomers was higher compared with the values determined by other methods. This means that the roles played by neuron MTs in protecting neurons injury on zinc fluctuation was even stronger than what has been suspected before. In conclusion, our study proved that the real-time fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR technique is a simple, rapid and more precise method than previous techniques in the detection of gene expression, especially for those genes with low abundant mRNA. Our study also suggest that may of the past studies about gene expression should be verified by real-time Fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR once more in order to reach a more scientific explanation on certain problem.

  17. Highly sensitive fluorescence assay of T4 polynucleotide kinase activity and inhibition via enzyme-assisted signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Tao, Mangjuan; Zhang, Jing; Jin, Yan; Li, Baoxin

    2014-11-01

    DNA phosphorylation catalyzed by polynucleotide kinase (PNK) is an indispensable process in the repair, replication, and recombination of nucleic acids. Here, an enzyme-assisted amplification strategy was developed for the ultrasensitive monitoring activity and inhibition of T4 PNK. A hairpin oligonucleotide (hpDNA) was designed as a probe whose stem can be degraded from the 5' to 3' direction by lambda exonuclease (λ exo) when its 5' end is phosphorylated by PNK. So, the 3' stem and loop part of hpDNA was released as an initiator strand to open a molecular beacon (MB) that was designed as a fluorescence reporter, leading to a fluorescence restoration. Then, the initiator strand was released again by the nicking endonuclease (Nt.BbvCI) to hybridize with another MB, resulting in a cyclic reaction and accumulation of fluorescence signal. Based on enzyme-assisted amplification, PNK activity can be sensitively and rapidly detected with a detection limit of 1.0×10(-4)U/ml, which is superior to those of most existing approaches. Furthermore, the application of the proposed strategy for screening PNK inhibitors also demonstrated satisfactory results. Therefore, it provided a promising platform for monitoring activity and inhibition of PNK as well as for studying the activity of other nucleases.

  18. Identification of ACAT1- and ACAT2-specific inhibitors using a novel, cell-based fluorescence assay: individual ACAT uniqueness.

    PubMed

    Lada, Aaron T; Davis, Matthew; Kent, Carol; Chapman, James; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Omura, Satoshi; Rudel, Lawrence L

    2004-02-01

    Acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) and ACAT2 are enzymes responsible for the formation of cholesteryl esters in tissues. While both ACAT1 and ACAT2 are present in the liver and intestine, the cells containing either enzyme within these tissues are distinct, suggesting that ACAT1 and ACAT2 have separate functions. In this study, NBD-cholesterol was used to screen for specific inhibitors of ACAT1 and ACAT2. Incubation of AC29 cells, which do not contain ACAT activity, with NBD-cholesterol showed weak fluorescence when the compound was localized in the membrane. When AC29 cells stably transfected with either ACAT1 or ACAT2 were incubated with NBD-cholesterol, the fluorescent signal localized to the nonpolar core of cytoplasmic lipid droplets was strongly fluorescent and was correlated with two independent measures of ACAT activity. Several compounds were found to have greater inhibitory activity toward ACAT1 than ACAT2, and one compound was identified that specifically inhibits ACAT2. The demonstration of selective inhibition of ACAT1 and ACAT2 provides evidence for uniqueness in structure and function of these two enzymes. To the extent that ACAT2 is confined to hepatocytes and enterocytes, the only two cell types that secrete lipoproteins, selective inhibition of ACAT2 may prove to be most beneficial in the reduction of plasma lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. PMID:14617738

  19. An aqueous platinum nanotube based fluorescent immuno-assay for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lu; Ye, Shiyi; Cai, Kai; Zhang, Cuiling; Zhou, Guohua; He, Zhike; Han, Heyou

    2015-11-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been a significant pathogen towards global swine industry upon its emergence in the late 1980s and since then has exemplified a rapidly evolving, widely spreading pathogen. It is urgently important to develop a simple, rapid and cost effective method to detect this pathogen when virus outbreaks. In the present work, it was found that virus antibody modified platinum nanotubes (Pt-Ab) could act as a superquencher to CdTe:Zn(2+) quantum dots (CdTe:Zn(2+) QDs) fluorescence by Stern-Volmer constants nearly 10(9) M(-1) without any aggregation, the CdTe:Zn(2+) QDs fluorescence will recover as the Pt-Ab goes away by antibody and antigen interaction when virus was added into the probe solution, releasing CdTe:Zn(2+) QDs from the surface of Pt-Ab. By the recovery fluorescence intensity, it can realize qualitative and quantitative detection of PRRSV. This method gives a fast response to PRRSV concentration and provides a sensitive detection limit (2.4 ng/mL). Moreover, it can be applied in infected porcine serum samples and obtain satisfied results.

  20. A homogeneous and "off-on" fluorescence aptamer-based assay for chloramphenicol using vesicle quantum dot-gold colloid composite probes.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yang-Bao; Ren, Hong-Xia; Gan, Ning; Zhou, You; Cao, Yuting; Li, Tianhua; Chen, Yinji

    2016-07-27

    In this work, a novel homogeneous and signal "off-on" aptamer based fluorescence assay was successfully developed to detect chloramphenicol (CAP) residues in food based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The vesicle nanotracer was prepared through labeling single stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) on limposome-CdSe/ZnS quantum dot (SSB/L-QD) complexes. It was worth mentioning that the signal tracer (SSB/L-QD) with vesicle shape, which was fabricated being encapsulated with a number of quantum dots and SSB. The nanotracer has excellent signal amplification effects. The vesicle composite probe was formed by combining aptamer labeled nano-gold (Au-Apt) and SSB/L-QD. Which based on SSB's specific affinity towards aptamer. This probe can't emit fluoresce which is in "off" state because the signal from SSB/L-QD as donor can be quenched by the Au-aptas acceptor. When CAP was added in the composite probe solution, the aptamer on the Au-Apt can be preferentially bounded with CAP then release from the composite probe, which can turn the "off" signal of SSB/L-QD tracer into "on" state. The assay indicates excellent linear response to CAP from 0.001 nM to 10 nM and detection limit down to 0.3 pM. The vesicle probes with size of 88 nm have strong signal amplification. Because a larger number of QDs can be labeled inside the double phosphorus lipid membrane. Besides, it was employed to detect CAP residues in the milk samples with results being agreed well with those from ELISA, verifying its accuracy and reliability. PMID:27251948

  1. Unique Nanoparticle Optical Properties Confound Fluorescent Based Assays Widely Employed in Their In Vitro Toxicity Screening and Ranking

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are novel materials having at least one dimension less than 100 nm and display unique physicochemical properties due to their nanoscale size. An emphasis has been placed on developing high throughput screening (HTS) assays to characterize and rank the toxiciti...

  2. DETECTION OF LOW DOSE RADIATION-AND CHEMICALLY-INDUCED DNA DAMAGE USING TEMPERATURE DIFFERENTIAL FLUORESCENCE ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rapid, sensitive and simple assays for radiation- and chemically-induced DNA damage can be of significant benefit to a number of fields including radiation biology, clinical research, and environmental monitoring. Although temperature-induced DNA strand separation has been use...

  3. 4-Hydroxy-N-propyl-1,8-naphthalimide esters: New fluorescence-based assay for analysing lipase and esterase activity.

    PubMed

    Nalder, Tim D; Ashton, Trent D; Pfeffer, Frederick M; Marshall, Susan N; Barrow, Colin J

    2016-01-01

    Research using 1,8-naphthalimide derivatives has expanded rapidly in recent years owing to their cell-permeable nature, ability to target certain cellular locations and fluorescent properties. Here we describe the synthesis of three new esters of 4-hydroxy-N-propyl-1,8-naphthalimide (NAP) and the development of a simple and sensitive assay protocol to measure the activity of carboxylester hydrolases. The NAP fluorophore was esterified with short (butyrate), medium (octanoate) and long (palmitate) chain fatty acids. The esters were spectroscopically characterised and their properties investigated for their suitability as assay substrates. The esters were found to be relatively stable under the conditions of the assay and levels of spontaneous hydrolysis were negligible. Non-specific hydrolysis by proteins such as bovine serum albumin was also minimal. A simple and rapid assay methodology was developed and used to analyse a range of commercially available enzymes that included enzymes defined as lipases, esterases and phospholipases. Clear differences were observed between the enzyme classes with respect to the hydrolysis of the various chain length esters, with lipases preferentially hydrolysing the medium chain ester, whereas esterases reacted more favourably with the short ester. The assay was found to be highly sensitive with the fluorophore detectable to the low nM range. These esters provide alternate substrates from established coumarin-based fluorophores, possessing distinctly different excitation (447 nm) and emission (555 nm) optima. Absorbing at 440-450 nm also offers the flexibility of analysis by UV-visible spectrophotometry. This represents the first instance of a naphthalimide-derived compound being used to analyse these enzymes.

  4. Mapping the Distribution of Cysts from the Toxic Dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides in Bloom-Prone Estuaries by a Novel Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Assay

    PubMed Central

    Hattenrath-Lehmann, Theresa K.; Zhen, Yu; Wallace, Ryan B.

    2015-01-01

    Cochlodinium polykrikoides is a cosmopolitan dinoflagellate that is notorious for causing fish-killing harmful algal blooms (HABs) across North America and Asia. While recent laboratory and ecosystem studies have definitively demonstrated that Cochlodinium forms resting cysts that may play a key role in the dynamics of its HABs, uncertainties regarding cyst morphology and detection have prohibited even a rudimentary understanding of the distribution of C. polykrikoides cysts in coastal ecosystems. Here, we report on the development of a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay using oligonucleotide probes specific for the large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of C. polykrikoides. The LSU rDNA-targeted FISH assay was used with epifluorescence microscopy and was iteratively refined to maximize the fluorescent reaction with C. polykrikoides and minimize cross-reactivity. The final LSU rDNA-targeted FISH assay was found to quantitatively recover cysts made by North American isolates of C. polykrikoides but not cysts formed by other common cyst-forming dinoflagellates. The method was then applied to identify and map C. polykrikoides cysts across bloom-prone estuaries. Annual cyst and vegetative cell surveys revealed that elevated densities of C. polykrikoides cysts (>100 cm−3) during the spring of a given year were spatially consistent with regions of dense blooms the prior summer. The identity of cysts in sediments was confirmed via independent amplification of C. polykrikoides rDNA. This study mapped C. polykrikoides cysts in a natural marine setting and indicates that the excystment of cysts formed by this harmful alga may play a key role in the development of HABs of this species. PMID:26637596

  5. Mapping the Distribution of Cysts from the Toxic Dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides in Bloom-Prone Estuaries by a Novel Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Assay.

    PubMed

    Hattenrath-Lehmann, Theresa K; Zhen, Yu; Wallace, Ryan B; Tang, Ying-Zhong; Gobler, Christopher J

    2016-02-01

    Cochlodinium polykrikoides is a cosmopolitan dinoflagellate that is notorious for causing fish-killing harmful algal blooms (HABs) across North America and Asia. While recent laboratory and ecosystem studies have definitively demonstrated that Cochlodinium forms resting cysts that may play a key role in the dynamics of its HABs, uncertainties regarding cyst morphology and detection have prohibited even a rudimentary understanding of the distribution of C. polykrikoides cysts in coastal ecosystems. Here, we report on the development of a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay using oligonucleotide probes specific for the large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of C. polykrikoides. The LSU rDNA-targeted FISH assay was used with epifluorescence microscopy and was iteratively refined to maximize the fluorescent reaction with C. polykrikoides and minimize cross-reactivity. The final LSU rDNA-targeted FISH assay was found to quantitatively recover cysts made by North American isolates of C. polykrikoides but not cysts formed by other common cyst-forming dinoflagellates. The method was then applied to identify and map C. polykrikoides cysts across bloom-prone estuaries. Annual cyst and vegetative cell surveys revealed that elevated densities of C. polykrikoides cysts (>100 cm(-3)) during the spring of a given year were spatially consistent with regions of dense blooms the prior summer. The identity of cysts in sediments was confirmed via independent amplification of C. polykrikoides rDNA. This study mapped C. polykrikoides cysts in a natural marine setting and indicates that the excystment of cysts formed by this harmful alga may play a key role in the development of HABs of this species. PMID:26637596

  6. Mapping the Distribution of Cysts from the Toxic Dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides in Bloom-Prone Estuaries by a Novel Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Assay.

    PubMed

    Hattenrath-Lehmann, Theresa K; Zhen, Yu; Wallace, Ryan B; Tang, Ying-Zhong; Gobler, Christopher J

    2015-12-04

    Cochlodinium polykrikoides is a cosmopolitan dinoflagellate that is notorious for causing fish-killing harmful algal blooms (HABs) across North America and Asia. While recent laboratory and ecosystem studies have definitively demonstrated that Cochlodinium forms resting cysts that may play a key role in the dynamics of its HABs, uncertainties regarding cyst morphology and detection have prohibited even a rudimentary understanding of the distribution of C. polykrikoides cysts in coastal ecosystems. Here, we report on the development of a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay using oligonucleotide probes specific for the large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of C. polykrikoides. The LSU rDNA-targeted FISH assay was used with epifluorescence microscopy and was iteratively refined to maximize the fluorescent reaction with C. polykrikoides and minimize cross-reactivity. The final LSU rDNA-targeted FISH assay was found to quantitatively recover cysts made by North American isolates of C. polykrikoides but not cysts formed by other common cyst-forming dinoflagellates. The method was then applied to identify and map C. polykrikoides cysts across bloom-prone estuaries. Annual cyst and vegetative cell surveys revealed that elevated densities of C. polykrikoides cysts (>100 cm(-3)) during the spring of a given year were spatially consistent with regions of dense blooms the prior summer. The identity of cysts in sediments was confirmed via independent amplification of C. polykrikoides rDNA. This study mapped C. polykrikoides cysts in a natural marine setting and indicates that the excystment of cysts formed by this harmful alga may play a key role in the development of HABs of this species.

  7. A label-free fluorescence assay for thrombin based on aptamer exonuclease protection and exonuclease III-assisted recycling amplification-responsive cascade zinc(II)-protoporphyrin IX/G-quadruplex supramolecular fluorescent labels.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yanqin; Xue, Qingwang; Gu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Shuqiu; Liu, Jifeng

    2014-05-21

    A simple, label-free and sensitive fluorescence protein assay has been developed on the basis of aptamer exonuclease protection and exonuclease III (Exo III)-assisted recycling amplification-responsive cascade ZnPPIX/G-quadruplex supramolecular fluorescent labels. In the sensing system, a special aptamer probe containing the aptamer sequence at the 3'-terminus and the DNAzyme sequence at the 5'-terminus was applied, which has the capacity to recognize a protein target with high affinity and specificity. Exonuclease I (Exo I) can efficiently catalyze the degradation of free single stranded DNA probes in the 3' to 5' direction. In the presence of the target protein, the strong binding between the target protein and its aptamer can protect aptamer probes from degradation. Subsequently, the protected aptamer probes act as catalysators to trigger hybridization with the hairpin DNA probe that contains a partially "caged" G-quadruplex sequence. Upon interaction with the protected aptamer probes, the hairpin opens to yield the active G-quadruplex structure. In the presence of exonuclease III (Exo III), Exo III-assisted recycling amplification occurs generating numerous G-quadruplex supramolecular structures. The zinc(ii)-protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX) fluorophore binds to the G-quadruplexes and this results in the enhanced fluorescence of the fluorophore. The resulting fluorescence of the ZnPPIX/G-quadruplex provides the readout signal for the sensing event. Thrombin is used as the model analyte in the current proof-of-concept. The developed method was demonstrated to have very high sensitivity for the detection of proteins with a limit of detection of 0.2 pM without using washes or separations. In addition, this new method for protein detection is simple and inherits all the advantages of aptamers. The mechanism, moreover, may be generalized and used for other forms of protein analysis.

  8. Nuclear protein accumulation in cellular senescence and organismal aging revealed with a novel single-cell resolution fluorescence microscopy assay

    PubMed Central

    De Cecco, Marco; Jeyapalan, Jessie; Zhao, Xiaoai; Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi; Sedivy, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Replicative cellular senescence was discovered some 50 years ago. The phenotypes of senescent cells have been investigated extensively in cell culture, and found to affect essentially all aspects of cellular physiology. The relevance of cellular senescence in the context of age-associated pathologies as well as normal aging is a topic of active and ongoing interest. Considerable effort has been devoted to biomarker discovery to enable the microscopic detection of single senescent cells in tissues. One characteristic of senescent cells documented very early in cell culture studies was an increase in cell size and total protein content, but whether this occurs in vivo is not known. A limiting factor for studies of protein content and localization has been the lack of suitable fluorescence microscopy tools. We have developed an easy and flexible method, based on the merocyanine dye known as NanoOrange, to visualize and quantitatively measure total protein levels by high resolution fluorescence microscopy. NanoOrange staining can be combined with antibody-based immunofluorescence, thus providing both specific target and total protein information in the same specimen. These methods are optimally combined with automated image analysis platforms for high throughput analysis. We document here increasing protein content and density in nuclei of senescent human and mouse fibroblasts in vitro, and in liver nuclei of aged mice in vivo. Additionally, in aged liver nuclei NanoOrange revealed protein-dense foci that colocalize with centromeric heterochromatin. PMID:22006542

  9. Evaluation of modified Ziehl-Neelsen, direct fluorescent-antibody and PCR assay for detection of Cryptosporidium spp. in children faecal specimens.

    PubMed

    Aghamolaie, S; Rostami, A; Fallahi, Sh; Tahvildar Biderouni, F; Haghighi, A; Salehi, N

    2016-09-01

    To determine the sensitivity and specificity of routine screening methods for cryptosporidiosis, three methods including conventional modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN), direct fluorescent-antibody (DFA) and Nested-PCR assay compared together. To this end, their ability to identify the low concentrations of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in children fecal samples was evaluated. The sample population of this study was children under 12 years old who had diarrhea and referred to pediatric hospitals in Tehran, Iran. 2,510 stool specimens from patients with diarrhea were screened for Cryptosporidium oocysts by concentration method and MZN. To determine sensitivity and specificity, Nested-PCR and DFA were performed on 30 positive and 114 negative samples which previously had been proved by MZN. By using the microscopic method, DFA assay and PCR analysis, a total of 30 (1.2 %), 28 (1.1 %) and 32 (1.27 %) positive samples were detected respectively. According to the results, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the Nested-PCR assay were 100 %, compared to 94, 100, 100, and 98 %, respectively, for MZN and 87.5, 100, 100, and 96 %, respectively, for DFA. Results of the present study showed that the Nested-PCR assay was more sensitive than the other two methods and laboratories can use the Nested-PCR method for precise diagnosis of Cryptosporidium spp. However, regarding the costs of Nested-PCR and its unavailability in all laboratories and hospitals, MZN staining on smears has also enough accuracy for Cryptosporidium diagnosis.

  10. Rapid screening and identification of dominant B cell epitopes of HBV surface antigen by quantum dot-based fluorescence polarization assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Zhongji; Song, Ruihua; Chen, Yue; Zhu, Yang; Tian, Yanhui; Li, Ding; Cui, Daxiang

    2013-03-01

    A method for quickly screening and identifying dominant B cell epitopes was developed using hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen as a target. Eleven amino acid fragments from HBV surface antigen were synthesized by 9-fluorenylmethoxy carbonyl solid-phase peptide synthesis strategy, and then CdTe quantum dots were used to label the N-terminals of all peptides. After optimizing the factors for fluorescence polarization (FP) immunoassay, the antigenicities of synthetic peptides were determined by analyzing the recognition and combination of peptides and standard antibody samples. The results of FP assays confirmed that 10 of 11 synthetic peptides have distinct antigenicities. In order to screen dominant antigenic peptides, the FP assays were carried out to investigate the antibodies against the 10 synthetic peptides of HBV surface antigen respectively in 159 samples of anti-HBV surface antigen-positive antiserum. The results showed that 3 of the 10 antigenic peptides may be immunodominant because the antibodies against them existed more widely among the samples and their antibody titers were higher than those of other peptides. Using three dominant antigenic peptides, 293 serum samples were detected for HBV infection by FP assays; the results showed that the antibody-positive ratio was 51.9% and the sensitivity and specificity were 84.3% and 98.2%, respectively. In conclusion, a quantum dot-based FP assay is a very simple, rapid, and convenient method for determining immunodominant antigenic peptides and has great potential in applications such as epitope mapping, vaccine designing, or clinical disease diagnosis in the future.

  11. Evaluation of modified Ziehl-Neelsen, direct fluorescent-antibody and PCR assay for detection of Cryptosporidium spp. in children faecal specimens.

    PubMed

    Aghamolaie, S; Rostami, A; Fallahi, Sh; Tahvildar Biderouni, F; Haghighi, A; Salehi, N

    2016-09-01

    To determine the sensitivity and specificity of routine screening methods for cryptosporidiosis, three methods including conventional modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN), direct fluorescent-antibody (DFA) and Nested-PCR assay compared together. To this end, their ability to identify the low concentrations of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in children fecal samples was evaluated. The sample population of this study was children under 12 years old who had diarrhea and referred to pediatric hospitals in Tehran, Iran. 2,510 stool specimens from patients with diarrhea were screened for Cryptosporidium oocysts by concentration method and MZN. To determine sensitivity and specificity, Nested-PCR and DFA were performed on 30 positive and 114 negative samples which previously had been proved by MZN. By using the microscopic method, DFA assay and PCR analysis, a total of 30 (1.2 %), 28 (1.1 %) and 32 (1.27 %) positive samples were detected respectively. According to the results, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the Nested-PCR assay were 100 %, compared to 94, 100, 100, and 98 %, respectively, for MZN and 87.5, 100, 100, and 96 %, respectively, for DFA. Results of the present study showed that the Nested-PCR assay was more sensitive than the other two methods and laboratories can use the Nested-PCR method for precise diagnosis of Cryptosporidium spp. However, regarding the costs of Nested-PCR and its unavailability in all laboratories and hospitals, MZN staining on smears has also enough accuracy for Cryptosporidium diagnosis. PMID:27605818

  12. The effects of affinity-purified anti-DNA antibodies from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus on the fluorescent antinuclear antibody assay using HEp-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kimihiro; Kawamura, Masahide; Mineo, Midori; Shinohara, Tadashi; Kataharada, Koji; Okada, Makoto; Takada, Kunio; Miyawaki, Shoji; Ohsuzu, Fumitaka

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of anti-dsDNA antibodies on the titer and the nuclear staining pattern(s) in a fluorescent antinuclear antibody (FANA) assay using HEp-2 cells. Anti-dsDNA derived from 14 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was individually affinity-purified. The anti-dsDNA titer of the purified anti-dsDNA solution was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) or by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In the FANA assay, the anti-dsDNA solution was diluted in a stepwise manner and its titer was expressed by the endpoint dilution. The nuclear staining pattern in the anti-dsDNA solution was examined at the 1:5 and 1:20 dilutions and at the endpoint dilution. The anti-dsDNA titers of the affinity-purified anti-dsDNA solution were high enough (13 to 126 IU/ml) to be measured by RIA. However, the antinuclear antibody (ANA) titers of this solution were relatively low: 1:20 to 1:320. In the study of nuclear staining the peripheral pattern was observed in nine of the 14 cases at a 1:5 dilution. However, at the endpoint dilution, all cases exhibited the homogeneous pattern. These findings indicate that in the FANA assay using HEp-2 cells, 1) although serum samples show high anti-dsDNA titers by RIA or by ELISA, the antibodies' direct contribution to ANA titers is limited, and 2) when samples reveal a homogeneous staining pattern at the endpoint dilution, this suggests the presence of anti-dsDNA.

  13. A novel four-color fluorescence in situ hybridization assay for the detection of TMPRSS2 and ERG rearrangements in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiaoyu; Randhawa, Grace; Friedman, Cynthia; O'Hara-Larrivee, Siobhan; Kroeger, Kathleen; Dumpit, Ruth; True, Larry; Vakar-Lopez, Funda; Porter, Christopher; Vessella, Robert; Nelson, Peter; Fang, Min

    2013-01-01

    Since the identification of the TMPRSS2-ERG rearrangement as the most common fusion event in prostate cancer, various methods have been developed to detect this rearrangement and to study its prognostic significance. We report a novel four-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay that detects not only the typical TMPRSS2-ERG fusion but also alternative rearrangements of the TMPRSS2 or ERG gene. We validated this assay on fresh, frozen, or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded prostate cancer specimens, including cell lines, primary prostate cancer tissues, xenograft tissues derived from metastatic prostate cancer, and metastatic tissues from castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. When compared with either reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction or the Gen-Probe method as the technical reference, analysis using the four-color FISH assay demonstrated an analytical sensitivity of 94.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.80-0.99) and specificity of 100% (95% CI 0.89-1.00) for detecting the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion. The TMPRSS2-ERG fusion was detected in 41% and 43% of primary prostate cancer (n = 59) and CRPC tumors (n = 82), respectively. Rearrangements other than the typical TMPRSS2-ERG fusion were confirmed by karyotype analysis and found in 7% of primary cancer and 13% of CRPC tumors. Successful karyotype analyses are reported for the first time on four of the xenograft samples, complementing the FISH results. Analysis using the four-color FISH assay provides sensitive detection of TMPRSS2 and ERG gene rearrangements in prostate cancer.

  14. Characterization and inhibition of norovirus proteases of genogroups I and II using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Takahashi, Daisuke; Prakash, Om; Kim, Yunjeong

    2012-02-20

    Noroviruses are the major cause of food- or water-borne gastroenteritis outbreaks in humans. The norovirus protease that cleaves a large viral polyprotein to nonstructural proteins is essential for virus replication and an attractive target for antiviral drug development. Noroviruses show high genetic diversity with at least five genogroups, GI-GV, of which GI and GII are responsible for the majority of norovirus infections in humans. We cloned and expressed proteases of Norwalk virus (GI) and MD145 virus (GII) and characterized the enzymatic activities with fluorescence resonance energy transfer substrates. We demonstrated that the GI and GII proteases cleaved the substrates derived from the naturally occurring cleavage site in the open reading frame (ORF) 1 of G1 norovirus with similar efficiency, and that enzymatic activity of both proteases was inhibited by commercial protease inhibitors including chymostatin. The interaction of chymostatin to Norwalk virus protease was validated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.

  15. Rapid, low-cost fluorescent assay of β-lactamase-derived antibiotic resistance and related antibiotic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdem, S. Sibel; Khan, Shazia; Palanisami, Akilan; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2014-10-01

    Antibiotic resistance (AR) is increasingly prevalent in low and middle income countries (LMICs), but the extent of the problem is poorly understood. This lack of knowledge is a critical deficiency, leaving local health authorities essentially blind to AR outbreaks and crippling their ability to provide effective treatment guidelines. The crux of the problem is the lack of microbiology laboratory capacity available in LMICs. To address this unmet need, we demonstrate a rapid and simple test of β-lactamase resistance (the most common form of AR) that uses a modified β-lactam structure decorated with two fluorophores quenched due to their close proximity. When the β-lactam core is cleaved by β-lactamase, the fluorophores dequench, allowing assay speeds of 20 min to be obtained with a simple, streamlined protocol. Furthermore, by testing in competition with antibiotics, the β-lactamase-associated antibiotic susceptibility can also be extracted. This assay can be easily implemented into standard lab work flows to provide near real-time information of β-lactamase resistance, both for epidemiological purposes as well as individualized patient care.

  16. Rapid, low-cost fluorescent assay of β-lactamase-derived antibiotic resistance and related antibiotic susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Erdem, S. Sibel; Khan, Shazia; Palanisami, Akilan; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Antibiotic resistance (AR) is increasingly prevalent in low and middle income countries (LMICs), but the extent of the problem is poorly understood. This lack of knowledge is a critical deficiency, leaving local health authorities essentially blind to AR outbreaks and crippling their ability to provide effective treatment guidelines. The crux of the problem is the lack of microbiology laboratory capacity available in LMICs. To address this unmet need, we demonstrate a rapid and simple test of β-lactamase resistance (the most common form of AR) that uses a modified β-lactam structure decorated with two fluorophores quenched due to their close proximity. When the β-lactam core is cleaved by β-lactamase, the fluorophores dequench, allowing assay speeds of 20 min to be obtained with a simple, streamlined protocol. Furthermore, by testing in competition with antibiotics, the β-lactamase-associated antibiotic susceptibility can also be extracted. This assay can be easily implemented into standard lab work flows to provide near real-time information of β-lactamase resistance, both for epidemiological purposes as well as individualized patient care. PMID:25321396

  17. Measurement of X-ray-induced DNA double-strand breaks at various stages of the cell cycle using the total fluorescence as a comet assay parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attia, Atef M. M.; Nabil, Ghada M.; Frankenberg, Dieter; Frankenberg-Schwager, M.

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a protocol for both estimating cell cycle position and the level of ionizing radiation-induced DNA dsb using the neutral comet assay. Using DNA histograms, cell cycle positions were determined for human dermal fibroblasts. The tail intensity was used to estimate the level of DNA damage induced by X-rays, at different positions of the cell cycle. The results of tail intensity versus DNA content bivariate analysis of exponentially growing cells showed a remarkable decrease in tail intensity with transition of cells from G1 to S-phase and increases slightly with transition to G2/M phase. This effect is observed at all doses including unirradiated cells, indicating that the effect is not caused by X-rays and the comet assay based on the current tail parameters is not relevant to measure DNA damage at various stages of the cell cycle. The results of dose response curves showed a linear decrease in the comet fluorescence with the X-ray dose. This observation provides a basis for estimating the fraction of damaged DNA, based on the fluorescence decrement induced by ionizing radiation. The results of this new approach showed a linear increase in DNA damage with dose, at various stages of the cell cycle, with rates, which vary in the following order G0>G2/M>S/G1 cells.These results suggest that G0 and G2/M cells are the most sensitive to X-rays among all phases of the cell cycle and suggest synchronization of cells at these phases to increase the cellular radiosensitivity during radiotherapy.

  18. A comparative study of the CYP450 inhibition potential of marketed drugs using two fluorescence based assay platforms routinely used in the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Kajbaf, Mahmud; Longhi, Raffaele; Montanari, Dino; Vinco, Federica; Rigo, Monica; Fontana, Stefano; Read, Kevin D

    2011-01-01

    Semi-automated high throughput screening for the inhibition of major human cytochrome P450 enzymes (1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A4) expressed in Escherichia Coli (Cypex bactosomes) or human lymphoblastoid cells (Gentest cDNA microsomes) using fluorescent probes has been evaluated using 68 marketed drugs. In general lower IC50 values were obtained with Cypex bactosomes compared with Gentest cDNA microsomes. This could be due to use of higherconcentration of protein and also the lower activity of Gentest cDNA microsomes. Notably, when compared with in vivo clinical drug-drug interactions (cDDIs) gathered from clinical studies reported in the scientific literature Cypex bactosome data was better at predicting in vivo cDDI. Consequently, from the data obtained in this comparative study, a fluorescence based assay using Cypex bactosomes is more suitable as a front-line screen for the prediction of potential downstream CYP450 driven cDDIs.

  19. A Fluorescence-based Exonuclease Assay to Characterize DmWRNexo, Orthologue of Human Progeroid WRN Exonuclease, and Its Application to Other Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Penelope A.; Boubriak, Ivan; Cox, Lynne S.

    2013-01-01

    WRN exonuclease is involved in resolving DNA damage that occurs either during DNA replication or following exposure to endogenous or exogenous genotoxins. It is likely to play a role in preventing accumulation of recombinogenic intermediates that would otherwise accumulate at transiently stalled replication forks, consistent with a hyper-recombinant phenotype of cells lacking WRN. In humans, the exonuclease domain comprises an N-terminal portion of a much larger protein that also possesses helicase activity, together with additional sites important for DNA and protein interaction. By contrast, in Drosophila, the exonuclease activity of WRN (DmWRNexo) is encoded by a distinct genetic locus from the presumptive helicase, allowing biochemical (and genetic) dissection of the role of the exonuclease activity in genome stability mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate a fluorescent method to determine WRN exonuclease activity using purified recombinant DmWRNexo and end-labeled fluorescent oligonucleotides. This system allows greater reproducibility than radioactive assays as the substrate oligonucleotides remain stable for months, and provides a safer and relatively rapid method for detailed analysis of nuclease activity, permitting determination of nuclease polarity, processivity, and substrate preferences. PMID:24378758

  20. Highly sensitive fluorescence assay of DNA methyltransferase activity via methylation-sensitive cleavage coupled with nicking enzyme-assisted signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongxi; Chen, Feng; Wu, Yayan; Dong, Yanhua; Fan, Chunhai

    2013-04-15

    Herein, using DNA adenine methylation (Dam) methyltransferase (MTase) as a model analyte, a simple, rapid, and highly sensitive fluorescence sensing platform for monitoring the activity and inhibition of DNA MTase was developed on the basis of methylation-sensitive cleavage and nicking enzyme-assisted signal amplification. In the presence of Dam MTase, an elaborately designed hairpin probe was methylated. With the help of methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease DpnI, the methylated hairpin probe could be cleaved to release a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Subsequently, this released ssDNA would hybridize with the molecular beacon (MB) to open its hairpin structure, resulting in the restoration of fluorescence signal as well as formation of the double-stranded recognition site for nicking enzyme Nt.BbvCI. Eventually, an amplified fluorescence signal was observed through the enzymatic recycling cleavage of MBs. Based on this unique strategy, a very low detection limit down to 0.06 U/mL was achieved within a short assay time (60 min) in one step, which is superior to those of most existing approaches. Owing to the specific site recognition of MTase toward its substrate, the proposed sensing system was able to readily discriminate Dam MTase from other MTase such as M.SssI and even detect the target in complex biological matrix. Furthermore, the application of the proposed sensing strategy for screening Dam MTase inhibitors was also demonstrated with satisfactory results. This novel method not only provides a promising platform for monitoring activity and inhibition of DNA MTases, but also shows great potentials in biological process researches, drugs discovery and clinical diagnostics.

  1. Detection of HIV-1 DNA in cells and tissue by fluorescent in situ 5'-nuclease assay (FISNA).

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, B K; Jiyamapa, D; Mayrand, E; Hoff, B; Abramson, R; Garcia, P M

    1996-01-01

    The critical aspects of successful in situ amplification include fixation, permeabilization, amplification and detection. We address these aspects and present a novel detection scheme that eliminates hybridization following amplification. We use the 5'-nuclease activity of Taq polymerase to cleave in situ a 5'-reporter dye from an oligonucleotide probe which hybridizes to the target amplicon during amplification. The 5'-reporter dye is disassociated from the 3'-quenching dye and remains localized by charge interactions. In addition, we describe probe design constraints for 5'-nuclease assays both in solution and in situ. Using this technique, we show the sensitive and specific detection of HIV-1 DNA in cells lines and tissue from HIV-1-infected individuals. PMID:8836201

  2. Design and validation of a homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence cell-based assay targeting the ligand-gated ion channel 5-HT3A.

    PubMed

    Blanc, Emilie; Wagner, Patrick; Plaisier, Fabrice; Schmitt, Martine; Durroux, Thierry; Bourguignon, Jean-Jacques; Partiseti, Michel; Dupuis, Elodie; Bihel, Frederic

    2015-09-01

    Ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) are considered as attractive protein targets in the search for new therapeutic agents. Nowadays, this strategy involves the capability to screen large chemical libraries. We present a new Tag-lite ligand binding assay targeting LGICs on living cells. This technology combines the use of suicide enzyme tags fused to channels of interest with homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF) as the detection readout. Using the 5-HT3 receptor as system model, we showed that the pharmacology of the HALO-5HT3 receptor was identical to that of the native receptor. After validation of the assay by using 5-HT3 agonists and antagonists of reference, a pilot screen enabled us to identify azelastine, a well-known histamine H1 antagonist, as a potent 5-HT3 antagonist. This interesting result was confirmed with electrophysiological experiments. The method described here is easy to implement and could be applicable for other LGICs, opening new ways for the screening of chemical libraries. PMID:25998104

  3. Development and validation of RP-HPLC-fluorescence method for quantitative determination of quinidine, a probe substrate for P-glycoprotein inhibition assay using Caco-2 cell monolayer.

    PubMed

    Patil, Anand G; Reddy, Dilip; D'Souza, Russell; Damre, Anagha

    2010-06-01

    A simple, sensitive and specific reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method with fluorescence detection was developed for quantitation of quinidine from HBSS buffer. The method was applicable in the bi-directional transport assay for evaluation of the inhibitory effect of test compounds on P-glycoprotein-mediated quinidine transport; quinidine was used as a probe P-glycoprotein substrate. The calibration curve was linear (correlation coefficient >/=99) in the range 0.30-100.00 nm. The method was validated and is specific and sensitive with limit of quantitation of 300 pm for quinidine. The method was found to be accurate and precise in the working calibration range. Stability studies were carried out at different storage conditions where the analyte was found to be stable. The applicability and reliability of the analytical method was evaluated by successful demonstration of efflux ratio (P(app)B --> A/P(app)A --> B) in the Caco-2 cell monolayer efflux assay. The efflux ratio for quinidine (100 nm) alone was 10.8, which reduced to less than 2 in the presence of the classical P-gp inhibitors verapamil and ketoconazole (100 mum each).

  4. Sensitivity of the Quidel Sofia Fluorescent Immunoassay Compared With 2 Nucleic Acid Assays and Viral Culture to Detect Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09.

    PubMed

    Arbefeville, Sophie S; Fickle, Ann R; Ferrieri, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    To confirm a diagnosis of influenza at the point of care, healthcare professionals may rely on rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs). RIDTs have low to moderate sensitivity compared with viral culture or real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). With the resurgence of the influenza A (Flu A; subtype H1N1) pandemic 2009 (pdm09) strain in the years 2013 and 2014, we evaluated the accuracy of the United State Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved Sofia Influenza A+B Fluorescent Immunoassay to detect epidemic Flu A(H1N1)pdm09 in specimens from the upper-respiratory tract. During a 3-month period, we collected 40 specimens that tested positive via PCR and/or culture for Flu A of the H1N1 pdm09 subtype. Of the 40 specimens, 27 tested positive (67.5%) via Sofia assay for Flu A. Of the 13 specimens with a negative result via Sofia testing, 4 had coinfection, as detected by the GenMark Diagnostics eSensor Respiratory Viral Panel. This sensitivity of the RIDT Sofia assay to detect Flu A(H1N1) pdm09 was comparable to previously reported sensitivities ranging from 10% to 75% for older RIDTs.

  5. Implementation of a fluorescence-based screening assay identifies histamine H3 receptor antagonists clobenpropit and iodophenpropit as subunit-selective N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Kasper B; Mullasseril, Praseeda; Dawit, Sara; Kurtkaya, Natalie L; Yuan, Hongjie; Vance, Katie M; Orr, Anna G; Kvist, Trine; Ogden, Kevin K; Le, Phuong; Vellano, Kimberly M; Lewis, Iestyn; Kurtkaya, Serdar; Du, Yuhong; Qui, Min; Murphy, T J; Snyder, James P; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Traynelis, Stephen F

    2010-06-01

    N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate a slow, Ca(2+)-permeable component of excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system and play a pivotal role in synaptic plasticity, neuronal development, and several neurological diseases. We describe a fluorescence-based assay that measures NMDA receptor-mediated changes in intracellular calcium in a BHK-21 cell line stably expressing NMDA receptor NR2D with NR1 under the control of a tetracycline-inducible promoter (Tet-On). The assay selectively identifies allosteric modulators by using supramaximal concentrations of glutamate and glycine to minimize detection of competitive antagonists. The assay is validated by successfully identifying known noncompetitive, but not competitive NMDA receptor antagonists among 1800 screened compounds from two small focused libraries, including the commercially available library of pharmacologically active compounds. Hits from the primary screen are validated through a secondary screen that used two-electrode voltage-clamp recordings on recombinant NMDA receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. This strategy identified several novel modulators of NMDA receptor function, including the histamine H3 receptor antagonists clobenpropit and iodophenpropit, as well as the vanilloid receptor transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1) antagonist capsazepine. These compounds are noncompetitive antagonists and the histamine H3 receptor ligand showed submicromolar potency at NR1/NR2B NMDA receptors, which raises the possibility that compounds can be developed that act with high potency on both glutamate and histamine receptor systems simultaneously. Furthermore, it is possible that some actions attributed to histamine H3 receptor inhibition in vivo may also involve NMDA receptor antagonism.

  6. Implementation of a Fluorescence-Based Screening Assay Identifies Histamine H3 Receptor Antagonists Clobenpropit and Iodophenpropit as Subunit-Selective N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Kasper B.; Mullasseril, Praseeda; Dawit, Sara; Kurtkaya, Natalie L.; Yuan, Hongjie; Vance, Katie M.; Orr, Anna G.; Kvist, Trine; Ogden, Kevin K.; Le, Phuong; Vellano, Kimberly M.; Lewis, Iestyn; Kurtkaya, Serdar; Du, Yuhong; Qui, Min; Murphy, T. J.; Snyder, James P.; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2010-01-01

    N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate a slow, Ca2+-permeable component of excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system and play a pivotal role in synaptic plasticity, neuronal development, and several neurological diseases. We describe a fluorescence-based assay that measures NMDA receptor-mediated changes in intracellular calcium in a BHK-21 cell line stably expressing NMDA receptor NR2D with NR1 under the control of a tetracycline-inducible promoter (Tet-On). The assay selectively identifies allosteric modulators by using supramaximal concentrations of glutamate and glycine to minimize detection of competitive antagonists. The assay is validated by successfully identifying known noncompetitive, but not competitive NMDA receptor antagonists among 1800 screened compounds from two small focused libraries, including the commercially available library of pharmacologically active compounds. Hits from the primary screen are validated through a secondary screen that used two-electrode voltage-clamp recordings on recombinant NMDA receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. This strategy identified several novel modulators of NMDA receptor function, including the histamine H3 receptor antagonists clobenpropit and iodophenpropit, as well as the vanilloid receptor transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1) antagonist capsazepine. These compounds are noncompetitive antagonists and the histamine H3 receptor ligand showed submicromolar potency at NR1/NR2B NMDA receptors, which raises the possibility that compounds can be developed that act with high potency on both glutamate and histamine receptor systems simultaneously. Furthermore, it is possible that some actions attributed to histamine H3 receptor inhibition in vivo may also involve NMDA receptor antagonism. PMID:20197375

  7. Development of a Fluorescence-based Trypanosoma cruzi CYP51 Inhibition Assay for Effective Compound Triaging in Drug Discovery Programmes for Chagas Disease.

    PubMed

    Riley, Jennifer; Brand, Stephen; Voice, Michael; Caballero, Ivan; Calvo, David; Read, Kevin D

    2015-09-01

    Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), is a life threatening global health problem with only two drugs available for treatment (benznidazole and nifurtimox), both having variable efficacy in the chronic stage of the disease and high rates of adverse drug reactions. Inhibitors of sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) have proven effective against T. cruzi in vitro and in vivo in animal models of Chagas disease. Consequently two azole inhibitors of CYP51 (posaconazole and ravuconazole) have recently entered clinical development by the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative. Further new drug treatments for this disease are however still urgently required, particularly having a different mode of action to CYP51 in order to balance the overall risk in the drug discovery portfolio. This need has now been further strengthened by the very recent reports of treatment failure in the clinic for both posaconazole and ravuconazole. To this end and to prevent enrichment of drug candidates against a single target, there is a clear need for a robust high throughput assay for CYP51 inhibition in order to evaluate compounds active against T. cruzi arising from phenotypic screens. A high throughput fluorescence based functional assay using recombinantly expressed T. cruzi CYP51 (Tulahuen strain) is presented here that meets this requirement. This assay has proved valuable in prioritising medicinal chemistry resource on only those T. cruzi active series arising from a phenotypic screening campaign where it is clear that the predominant mode of action is likely not via inhibition of CYP51. PMID:26394211

  8. Development and implementation of a miniaturized high-throughput time-resolved fluorescence energy transfer assay to identify small molecule inhibitors of polo-like kinase 1.

    PubMed

    Sharlow, Elizabeth R; Leimgruber, Stephanie; Shun, Tong Ying; Lazo, John S

    2007-12-01

    Polo-like kinase (Plk) 1 is a key enzyme involved in regulating the mammalian cell cycle that is also a validated anticancer drug target. Nonetheless, there are relatively few readily available potent and selective small molecule inhibitors of Plk1. To increase the availability of pharmacologically valuable Plk1 inhibitors, we describe herein the development, variability assessment, validation, and implementation of a 384-well automated, miniaturized high-throughput time-resolved fluorescence energy transfer screening assay designed to identify Plk1 kinase inhibitors. Using a small molecule library of pharmaceutically active compounds to gauge high-throughput assay robustness and reproducibility, we found nine general kinase inhibitors, including H-89, which was selected as the minimum control. We then interrogated a 97,101 compound library from the National Institutes of Health repository for small molecule inhibitors of Plk1 kinase activity. The initial primary hit rate in a single 10 microM concentration format was 0.21%. Hit compounds were subjected to concentration-response confirmation and interference assays. Identified in the screen were seven compounds with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values below 1 microM, 20 compounds with IC50 values between 1 microM and 5 microM, and eight compounds with IC50 values between 5 and 10 microM, which could be assigned to seven distinct chemotype classes. Hit compounds were also examined for their ability to inhibit other kinases such as protein kinase D, focal adhesion kinase, rho-associated coiled coil protein kinase 2, c-jun NH2-terminal kinase 3, and protein kinase A via experimentation or data-mining. These compounds should be useful as probes for the biological activity of Plk1 and as leads for the development of new selective inhibitors of Plk1. PMID:18181689

  9. Development of a Fluorescence-based Trypanosoma cruzi CYP51 Inhibition Assay for Effective Compound Triaging in Drug Discovery Programmes for Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Jennifer; Brand, Stephen; Voice, Michael; Caballero, Ivan; Calvo, David; Read, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), is a life threatening global health problem with only two drugs available for treatment (benznidazole and nifurtimox), both having variable efficacy in the chronic stage of the disease and high rates of adverse drug reactions. Inhibitors of sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) have proven effective against T. cruzi in vitro and in vivo in animal models of Chagas disease. Consequently two azole inhibitors of CYP51 (posaconazole and ravuconazole) have recently entered clinical development by the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative. Further new drug treatments for this disease are however still urgently required, particularly having a different mode of action to CYP51 in order to balance the overall risk in the drug discovery portfolio. This need has now been further strengthened by the very recent reports of treatment failure in the clinic for both posaconazole and ravuconazole. To this end and to prevent enrichment of drug candidates against a single target, there is a clear need for a robust high throughput assay for CYP51 inhibition in order to evaluate compounds active against T. cruzi arising from phenotypic screens. A high throughput fluorescence based functional assay using recombinantly expressed T. cruzi CYP51 (Tulahuen strain) is presented here that meets this requirement. This assay has proved valuable in prioritising medicinal chemistry resource on only those T. cruzi active series arising from a phenotypic screening campaign where it is clear that the predominant mode of action is likely not via inhibition of CYP51. PMID:26394211

  10. Molecular Beacon-Based Fluorescent Assay for Specific Detection of Oversulfated Chondroitin Sulfate Contaminants in Heparin without Enzyme Treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih-Yi; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2015-01-01

    Oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) is a harmful contaminant in the pharmaceutical heparin. The development of a rapid, convenient, sensitive, and selective method is required for routine analysis of OSCS in pharmaceutical heparin. Here we report a simple, rapid, sensitive, and enzyme-free method for detecting OSCS in heparin based on the competitive binding between OSCS and the adenosine-repeated molecular beacon (MB) stem to coralyne in the presence of Ca(2+) ions. The MB (A8-MB-A8) contains a 22-mer loop, a stem of a pair of 8-mer adenosine (A) bases, a fluorophore unit at the 5'-end, and a quencher at the 3'-end. The presence of coralyne promotes these A-A mismatches to form a hairpin-shaped MB. However, this kind of MB is incapable of differentiating between heparin and OSCS because they both exhibit strong electrostatic attraction with coralyne. This study found that while Ca(2+) ions can efficiently suppress the negative charges of heparin, they do not neutralize the negative charge of OSCS. Thus, in the presence of Ca(2+) ions, OSCS can remove coralyne from the MB stem, initiating fluorescence of the MB. Under optimal conditions (10 nM A8-MB-A8, 800 nM coralyne, and 0.5 mM Ca(2+) ions), the proposed system can detect 0.01% w/w OSCS in heparin in under 5 min without enzyme treatment. This study also validates the practicality of the proposed system to determine 0.01% w/w OSCS in the pharmaceutical heparin.

  11. Red/far-red fluorescing DNA-specific anthraquinones for nucl:cyto segmentation and viability reporting in cell-based assays.

    PubMed

    Edward, Roy

    2012-01-01

    The advent and wide use of image-based, high-content screening assay formats demands reliable solutions for cellular compartment segmentation to track critical events-for example, those reported by GFP fusions within cell cycle control pathways, signaling pathways, protein translocations, and those associated with drug-induced toxicity such as mitochondrial membrane depolarization, plasma membrane permeabilization, and reactive oxygen species. To meet this need, a series of nuclear/cytoplasmic discriminating probes has been developed: the supravital dyes DRAQ5™ and CyTRAK Orange™ and most recently the viability dye DRAQ7™. These are all spectrally compatible with GFP reporters offering new solutions in imaging and cytometry. As red/far-red emitting dyes, they provide convenient fluorescent emission signatures which are spectrally separated from the majority of commonly used reporter proteins (e.g., eGFP, YFP, mRFP), and a wide range of fluorescent tags such as Alexafluor 488, fluorescein, and Cy2 and fluorescent functional probes used to report cell health status or demark organellar structures. In addition, they are not excited by UV wavelengths thus avoiding complications of the frequently seen pharmacophore UV-autofluorescence in drug discovery. Conversely, their preferential red excitation reduces interference by biological sample autofluorescence. High water solubility and high-affinity DNA-binding properties provide a convenient means of stoichiometrically labeling cell nuclei in live cells without the aid of DMSO and can equally be used for fixed cells. Powerfully, they permit the simultaneous and differential labeling of both nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments in live and fixed cells to clearly render the precise location of cell boundaries which may be beneficial for quantitative expression measurements, cell-cell interactions, and most recently compound in vitro toxicology testing. In one case, DRAQ7™, the core structure has been chemically

  12. [Development of the high-throughput fluorescence assay detecting SNPs in hemostasis and folate metabolism genes for clinical use].

    PubMed

    Prasolova, M A; Shchepotina, E G; Dymshits, G M

    2013-01-01

    Genetic predisposition of an individual patient should be taken in account to choose the proper treatment. Implementation to clinical practice requires the development of rapid, high-throughput, and easy assays intended to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms. A detection kit intended to identify the hemostasis and folate cycle gene mutations G20210A FII, G1691A FV, G10976A FVII, G103T FXIII, C807T ITGA2, T1565C ITGB3, 5G(-675)4G PAI, G(-455)A FGB, C677T and A1298C MTHFR, A2756G MTR, A66G MTRR was suggested in this work. The method is based on the polymerase chain reaction and subsequent melt curve analysis of the complexes of amplicons with specific probe. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms can be identified in one tube using our detection kit that increases the productivity of the analysis in the clinical use. Different types of biological samples (buccal epithelium, saliva, plasma, serum, and urogenital swabs) can be used as the initial material for DNA isolation and further analysis by the method developed in this work.

  13. Ultra-sensitive detection of two garlic potyviruses using a real-time fluorescent (Taqman) RT-PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Lunello, Pablo; Mansilla, Carmen; Conci, Vilma; Ponz, Fernando

    2004-06-01

    A method for the detection of Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV) and Leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV), the two most prevalent garlic potyviruses, has been developed that combines IC-RT-PCR/RT-PCR with the use of TaqMan probes. Comparisons with ELISA results obtained with identical OYDV and LYSV infected samples showed sensitivity in detecting these viruses increased up to 10(6)-fold. OYDV and LYSV were detected using different fluorochromes in the probe, thus allowing unequivocal diagnosis for each of them. The polyvalence of the designed virus-specific primers and probes was shown through their application to the detection of three isolates from very different geographical areas and from different hosts. A second version of the method avoids the need for an immunocapture step through the performance of a TaqMan RT-PCR assay directly on extracts of garlic cloves. This modification on the proposed basic method allows the analysis of bulb samples in 3-4h but did not give reproducible results with leaves. Both versions of the new diagnostic method bear great potential for their implementation in virus-free certification schemes in garlic, a vegetatively propagated crop for which such a certification is critical for a high-quality product.

  14. Comparison of Clot-based, Chromogenic, and Fluorescence Assays for Measurement of Factor VIII Inhibitors in the U.S. Hemophilia Inhibitor Research Study

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Connie H.; Rice, Anne S.; Boylan, Brian; Shapiro, Amy D.; Lentz, Steven R.; Wicklund, Brian M.; Kelly, Fiona M.; Soucie, J. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Detection and validation of inhibitors (antibodies) to hemophilia treatment products are important for clinical care, evaluation of product safety, and assessment of population trends. Methods Centralized monitoring for factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitors was conducted for patients in the Hemophilia Inhibitor Research Study using a previously reported modified Nijmegen-Bethesda clotting assay (NBA), a chromogenic Bethesda assay (CBA), and a novel fluorescence immunoassay (FLI). Results NBA and CBA were performed on 1005 specimens and FLI on 272 specimens. CBA was negative on 880/883 specimens (99.7%) with Nijmegen-Bethesda units (NBU)<0.5 and positive on 42/42 specimens (100%) with NBU≥2.0 and 43/80 specimens (53.8%) with NBU 0.5–1.9. Among specimens with positive NBA and negative CBA, 58.1% were FLI-negative, 12.9% had evidence of lupus anticoagulant, and 35.5% had non-time-dependent inhibition. CBA and FLI were positive on 72.4% and 100% of 1.0–1.9 NBU specimens and 43.1% and 50.0% of 0.5–0.9 NBU specimens. FLI detected antibodies in 98.0% of CBA-positive and 81.6% of NBA-positive specimens (P=0.004). Among 21 new inhibitors detected by NBA, 5 (23.8%) with 0.7–1.3 NBU did not react in CBA or FLI. Among previously positive patients with 0.5–1.9 NBU, 7/25 (28%) were not CBA or FLI positive. FLI was positive on 36/169 NBU-negative specimens (21.3%). Conclusions FVIII specificity could not be demonstrated by CBA or FLI for 26% of inhibitors of 0.5–1.9 NBU; such results must be interpreted with caution. Low titer inhibitors detected in clot-based assays should always be repeated, with consideration given to evaluating their reactivity with FVIII using more specific assays. PMID:23601690

  15. Peptide nucleic acid-fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) assay for specific detection of Mycobacterium immunogenum and DNA-FISH assay for analysis of pseudomonads in metalworking fluids and sputum.

    PubMed

    Selvaraju, Suresh B; Kapoor, Renuka; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2008-01-01

    Specific and rapid detection and quantification of mycobacteria in contaminated metalworking fluid (MWF) are problematic due to complexity of the matrix and heavy background co-occurring microflora. Furthermore, cross-reactivity among neighboring species of Mycobacterium makes species differentiation difficult for this genus. Here, we report for the first time a species-specific peptide nucleic acid-fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) method for Mycobacterium immunogenum, a non-tuberculous Mycobacterium species prevalent in MWF and implicated in occupational lung disease hypersensitivity pneumonitis and pseudo-outbreaks. A novel species-specific 14-bp PNA probe was designed for M. immunogenum based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence and was validated for specificity, by testing against a panel of other phylogenetically closely related rapidly growing mycobacteria and representative species of gram-positive, gram-negative, and acid fast organisms. In addition, a DNA-FISH protocol was optimized for co-detection of Pseudomonas, the most predominantly co-occurring genus in contaminated MWF. Reliable quantification for both the test organisms was achieved at or above a cell density of 10(3)cellsml(-1), a recognized minimum limit for microscopic quantification. The mycobacterial PNA-FISH assay was successfully adapted to human sputum demonstrating its potential for clinical diagnostic applications in addition to industrial MWF monitoring, to assess MWF-associated exposures and pseudo-outbreaks.

  16. The cellular distribution of fluorescently labeled arrestins provides a robust, sensitive, and universal assay for screening G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Robert H; Hudson, Christine C; Cruickshank, Rachael D; Meyers, Diane M; Payne, Richard E; Rhem, Shay M; Loomis, Carson R

    2002-11-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have proven to be a rich source of therapeutic targets; therefore, finding compounds that regulate these receptors is a critical goal in drug discovery. The Transfluor technology utilizes the redistribution of fluorescently labeled arrestins from the cytoplasm to agonist-occupied receptors at the plasma membrane to monitor quantitatively the activation or inactivation of GPCRs. Here, we show that the Transfluor technology can be quantitated on the INCell Analyzer system (INCAS) using the vasopressin V(2) receptor (V(2)R), which binds arrestin with high affinity, and the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (beta(2)AR), which binds arrestin with low affinity. U2OS cells stably expressing an arrestin-green fluorescent protein conjugate and either the V(2)R or the beta(2)AR were plated in 96-well plastic plates and analyzed by the INCAS at a screening rate of 5 min per plate. Agonist dose-response and antagonist dose-inhibition curves revealed signal-to-background ratios of approximately 25:1 and 8:1 for the V(2)R and beta(2)AR, respectively. EC(50) values agreed closely with K(d) values reported in the literature for the different receptor agonists. In addition, small amounts of arrestin translocation induced by sub-EC(50) doses of agonist were distinguished from the background noise of untreated cells. Furthermore, differences in the magnitude of arrestin translocation distinguished partial agonists from full agonists, and Z' values for these ligands were >0.5. These data show that the Transfluor technology, combined with an automated image analysis system, provides a direct, robust, and universal assay for high throughput screening of known and orphan GPCRs.

  17. Development and validation of a fluorescence-based HTS assay for the identification of P/Q-type calcium channel blockers.

    PubMed

    Mezler, Mario; Hermann, David; Swensen, Andrew M; Draguhn, Andreas; Terstappen, Georg C; Gross, Gerhard; Schoemaker, Hans; Freiberg, Gail; Pratt, Steve; Gopalakrishnan, Sujatha M; Nimmrich, Volker

    2012-06-01

    Dysfunction of P/Q-type calcium channels is thought to underlie a variety of neurological diseases. There is evidence that migraine, Alzheimer's disease, and epilepsy involve a gain-of-function of the channel, leading to abnormal presynaptic vesicle release. P/Q-channel blockers may normalize current flow and consequently lead to an alleviation of disease symptoms. Although the medical need is high, there are no such compounds on the market. Here we describe a high throughput screen (HTS) for P/Q-type calcium channel blockers and the confirmation of hits by automated electrophysiology. We generated a HEK293 cell line stably expressing the α1A subunit of the P/Q-type calcium channel under control of a tetracycline (Tet) promoter. The accessory β1.1 and α2δ1 subunits were co-expressed constitutively. The cell line was pharmacologically characterized by ion channel specific modulators, and revealed functional P/Q-type calcium currents. Using a fluorescence imaging plate reader (FLIPR), an assay for P/Q-type calcium channels was established based on a calcium sensitive dye. HTS of a 150,000 compound-containing sub-library led to the identification of 3262 hits that inhibited the fluorescence signal with potencies below 10 μM. Hit-to-lead (HTL) efforts identified 12,400 analogues. Compounds were clustered into 37 series, and 8 series of interest were prioritized. An electrophysiological secondary screen, providing a more direct measure of channel function, was implemented into the HTL process. 27 selected exemplars of different chemotypes were validated by automated whole-cell patch clamp analysis at inactivated channel state. The discovery of P/Q-channel blockers may foster the development of new therapeutics for a variety of neurological diseases.

  18. Structure-activity studies on the fluorescent indicator in a displacement assay for the screening of small molecules binding to RNA.

    PubMed

    Umemoto, Shiori; Im, Seongwang; Zhang, Jinhua; Hagihara, Masaki; Murata, Asako; Harada, Yasue; Fukuzumi, Takeo; Wazaki, Takahiro; Sasaoka, Shin-ichi; Nakatani, Kazuhiko

    2012-08-01

    A series of xanthone and thioxanthone derivatives with aminoalkoxy substituents were synthesized as fluorescent indicators for a displacement assay in the study of small-molecule-RNA interactions. The RNA-binding properties of these molecules were investigated in terms of the improved binding selectivity to the loop region in the RNA secondary structure relative to 2,7-bis(2-aminoethoxy)xanthone (X2S) by fluorimetric titration and displacement assay. An 11-mer double-stranded RNA and a hairpin RNA mimicking the stem loop IIB of Rev response element (RRE) RNA of HIV-1 mRNA were used. The X2S derivatives with longer aminoalkyl substituents showed a higher affinity to the double-stranded RNA than the parent molecule. Introduction of a methyl group on the aminoethoxy moiety of X2S effectively modulated the selectivity to the RNA secondary structure. Methyl group substitution at the C1' position suppressed the binding to the loop regions. Substitution with two methyl groups on the amino nitrogen atom resulted in reducing the affinity to the double-stranded region by a factor of 40%. The effect of methyl substitution on the amino nitrogen atom was also observed for a thioxanthone derivative. Titration experiments, however, suggested that thioxanthone derivatives showed a more prominent tendency of multiple binding to RNA than xanthone derivatives. The selectivity index calculated from the affinity to the double-stranded and loop regions suggested that the N,N-dimethyl derivative of X2S would be suitable for the screening of small molecules binding to RRE.

  19. Application of the Fluorescence Polarization Assay for Detection of Caprine Antibodies to Brucella melitensis in Areas of High Prevalence and Widespread Vaccination▿

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Pfeiffer, C.; Nielsen, K.; Smith, P.; Marín-Ricalde, F.; Rodríguez-Padilla, C.; Gomez-Flores, R.

    2007-01-01

    The screening Rose Bengal test (RBT), the buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT), and the confirmatory complement fixation test (CFT) are currently approved by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) for diagnosis of goat brucellosis. However, RBT (at 3% or 8% cell concentration) is known to be affected by vaccinal antibodies. In the present study, Mexican and Canadian OIE tests were compared with the fluorescence polarization assay (FPA), alone or in combination, using indirect and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays as classification variables for goat sera obtained from an area of high prevalence and widespread vaccination. The relative sensitivities and specificities were, respectively, 99.7% and 32.5% for RBT3, 92.8% and 68.8% for RBT8, 98.4% and 84.8% for Canadian CFT, 83.7% and 65.5% for Mexican CFT, and 78.1% and 89.3% for FPA. The use of FPA as the confirmatory test in combination with other tests significantly increased the final specificities of the screening tests alone; BPAT, RBT3, and RBT8 plus FPA resulted in final specificities of 90%, 91.2%, and 91.3%, respectively, whereas for the combinations RBT3 plus Mexican CFT, RBT8 plus Mexican CFT, and BPAT plus Canadian CFT, specificities were 65.5%, 63.2%, and 91.7%, respectively. We suggest that FPA may be routinely applied as an adaptable screening test for diagnosis of goat brucellosis and as a confirmatory test for screening test series. Some advantages of FPA are that its cutoff can be adjusted to improve its sensitivity or specificity, it is a low-cost and easy-to-perform test of choice when specificity is relevant or when an alternative confirmatory test is not available, and it is not affected by vaccination, thus reducing the number of misdiagnosed and killed goats. PMID:17267588

  20. Real-time PCR and enzyme-linked fluorescent assay methods for detecting Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli in mincemeat samples.

    PubMed

    Stefan, A; Scaramagli, S; Bergami, R; Mazzini, C; Barbanera, M; Perelle, S; Fach, P

    2007-03-01

    This work aimed to compare real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the commercially available enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA) VIDAS ECOLI O157 for detecting Escherichia coli O157 in mincemeat. In addition, a PCR-based survey on Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) in mincemeat collected in Italy is presented. Real-time PCR assays targeting the stx genes and a specific STEC O157 sequence (SILO157, a small inserted locus of STEC O157) were tested for their sensitivity on spiked mincemeat samples. After overnight enrichment, the presence of STEC cells could be clearly determined in the 25 g samples containing 10 bacterial cells, while the addition of five bacteria provided equivocal PCR results with Ct values very close to or above the threshold of 40. The PCR tests proved to be more sensitive than the ELFA-VIDAS ECOLI O157, whose detection level started from 50 bacterial cells/25 g of mincemeat. The occurrence of STEC in 106 mincemeat (bovine, veal) samples collected from September to November 2004 at five different points of sale in Italy (one point of sale in Arezzo, Tuscany, central Italy, two in Mantova, Lombardy, Northern Italy, and two in Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, upper-central Italy) was less than 1%. Contamination by the main STEC O-serogroups representing a major public health concern, including O26, O91, O111, O145, and O157, was not detected. This survey indicates that STEC present in these samples are probably not associated with pathogenesis in humans. PMID:17538642

  1. Identification of a Compound That Disrupts Binding of Amyloid-β to the Prion Protein Using a Novel Fluorescence-based Assay*

    PubMed Central

    Risse, Emmanuel; Nicoll, Andrew J.; Taylor, William A.; Wright, Daniel; Badoni, Mayank; Yang, Xiaofan; Farrow, Mark A.; Collinge, John

    2015-01-01

    The prion protein (PrP) has been implicated both in prion diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, where its monomeric cellular isoform (PrPC) is recruited into pathogenic self-propagating polymers of misfolded protein, and in Alzheimer disease, where PrPC may act as a receptor for synaptotoxic oligomeric forms of amyloid-β (Aβ). There has been considerable interest in identification of compounds that bind to PrPC, stabilizing its native fold and thereby acting as pharmacological chaperones to block prion propagation and pathogenesis. However, compounds binding PrPC could also inhibit the binding of toxic Aβ species and may have a role in treating Alzheimer disease, a highly prevalent dementia for which there are currently no disease-modifying treatments. However, the absence of a unitary, readily measurable, physiological function of PrP makes screening for ligands challenging, and the highly heterogeneous nature of Aβ oligomer preparations makes conventional competition binding assays difficult to interpret. We have therefore developed a high-throughput screen that utilizes site-specifically fluorescently labeled protein to identify compounds that bind to PrP and inhibit both Aβ binding and prion propagation. Following a screen of 1,200 approved drugs, we identified Chicago Sky Blue 6B as the first small molecule PrP ligand capable of inhibiting Aβ binding, demonstrating the feasibility of development of drugs to block this interaction. The interaction of Chicago Sky Blue 6B was characterized by isothermal titration calorimetry, and its ability to inhibit Aβ binding and reduce prion levels was established in cell-based assays. PMID:25995455

  2. Identification of a Compound That Disrupts Binding of Amyloid-β to the Prion Protein Using a Novel Fluorescence-based Assay.

    PubMed

    Risse, Emmanuel; Nicoll, Andrew J; Taylor, William A; Wright, Daniel; Badoni, Mayank; Yang, Xiaofan; Farrow, Mark A; Collinge, John

    2015-07-01

    The prion protein (PrP) has been implicated both in prion diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, where its monomeric cellular isoform (PrP(C)) is recruited into pathogenic self-propagating polymers of misfolded protein, and in Alzheimer disease, where PrP(C) may act as a receptor for synaptotoxic oligomeric forms of amyloid-β (Aβ). There has been considerable interest in identification of compounds that bind to PrP(C), stabilizing its native fold and thereby acting as pharmacological chaperones to block prion propagation and pathogenesis. However, compounds binding PrP(C) could also inhibit the binding of toxic Aβ species and may have a role in treating Alzheimer disease, a highly prevalent dementia for which there are currently no disease-modifying treatments. However, the absence of a unitary, readily measurable, physiological function of PrP makes screening for ligands challenging, and the highly heterogeneous nature of Aβ oligomer preparations makes conventional competition binding assays difficult to interpret. We have therefore developed a high-throughput screen that utilizes site-specifically fluorescently labeled protein to identify compounds that bind to PrP and inhibit both Aβ binding and prion propagation. Following a screen of 1,200 approved drugs, we identified Chicago Sky Blue 6B as the first small molecule PrP ligand capable of inhibiting Aβ binding, demonstrating the feasibility of development of drugs to block this interaction. The interaction of Chicago Sky Blue 6B was characterized by isothermal titration calorimetry, and its ability to inhibit Aβ binding and reduce prion levels was established in cell-based assays. PMID:25995455

  3. Fluorescence-based assay for polyprenyl phosphate-GlcNAc-1-phosphate transferase (WecA) and identification of novel antimycobacterial WecA inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mitachi, Katsuhiko; Siricilla, Shajila; Yang, Dong; Kong, Ying; Skorupinska-Tudek, Karolina; Swiezewska, Ewa; Franzblau, Scott G; Kurosu, Michio

    2016-11-01

    Polyprenyl phosphate-GlcNAc-1-phosphate transferase (WecA) is an essential enzyme for the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and some other bacteria. Mtb WecA catalyzes the transformation from UDP-GlcNAc to decaprenyl-P-P-GlcNAc, the first membrane-anchored glycophospholipid that is responsible for the biosynthesis of mycolylarabinogalactan in Mtb. Inhibition of WecA will block the entire biosynthesis of essential cell wall components of Mtb in both replicating and non-replicating states, making this enzyme a target for development of novel drugs. Here, we report a fluorescence-based method for the assay of WecA using a modified UDP-GlcNAc, UDP-Glucosamine-C6-FITC (1), a membrane fraction prepared from an M. smegmatis strain, and the E. coli B21WecA. Under the optimized conditions, UDP-Glucosamine-C6-FITC (1) can be converted to the corresponding decaprenyl-P-P-Glucosamine-C6-FITC (3) in 61.5% yield. Decaprenyl-P-P-Glucosamine-C6-FITC is readily extracted with n-butanol and can be quantified by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrometry. Screening of the compound libraries designed for bacterial phosphotransferases resulted in the discovery of a selective WecA inhibitor, UT-01320 (12) that kills both replicating and non-replicating Mtb at low concentration. UT-01320 (12) also kills the intracellular Mtb in macrophages. We conclude that the WecA assay reported here is amenable to medium- and high-throughput screening, thus facilitating the discovery of novel WecA inhibitors. PMID:27530653

  4. Glycoprofiling as a novel tool in serological assays of systemic sclerosis: A comparative study with three bioanalytical methods

    PubMed Central

    Klukova, Ludmila; Bertok, Tomas; Petrikova, Miroslava; Sediva, Alena; Mislovicova, Danica; Katrlik, Jaroslav; Vikartovska, Alica; Filip, Jaroslav; Kasak, Peter; Andicsová-Eckstein, Anita; Mosnáček, Jaroslav; Lukáč, Jozef; Rovenský, Jozef; Imrich, Richard; Tkac, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease seriously affecting patient´s quality of life. The heterogeneity of the disease also means that identification and subsequent validation of biomarkers of the disease is quite challenging. A fully validated single biomarker for diagnosis, prognosis, disease activity and assessment of response to therapy is not yet available. The main aim of this study was to apply an alternative assay protocol to the immunoassay-based analysis of this disease by employment of sialic acid recognizing lectin Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA) to glycoprofile serum samples. To our best knowledge this is the first study describing direct lectin-based glycoprofiling of serum SSc samples. Three different analytical methods for glycoprofiling of serum samples relying on application of lectins are compared here from a bioanalytical point of view including traditional ELISA-like lectin-based method (ELLA), novel fluorescent lectin microarrays and ultrasensitive impedimetric lectin biosensors. Results obtained by all three bioanalytical methods consistently showed differences in the level of sialic acid present on glycoproteins, when serum from healthy people was compared to the one from patients having SSc. Thus, analysis of sialic acid content in human serum could be of a diagnostic value for future detection of SSc, but further work is needed to enhance selectivity of assays for example by glycoprofiling of a fraction of human serum enriched in antibodies for individual diagnostics. PMID:25467503

  5. The role of cyclodextrins in ORAC-fluorescence assays. antioxidant capacity of tyrosol and caffeic acid with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    García-Padial, Marcos; Martínez-Ohárriz, María Cristina; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo; Zornoza, Arantza

    2013-12-18

    Tyrosol and caffeic acid are biophenols that contribute to the beneficial properties of virgin olive oil. The influence of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβ-CD) on their respective antioxidant capacities was analyzed. The ORAC antioxidant activity of tyrosol (expressed as μM Trolox equivalents/μM Tyrosol) was 0.83 ± 0.03 and it increased up to 1.20 ± 0.11 in the presence of 0.8 mM HPβ-CD. However, the ORAC antioxidant activity of caffeic acid experienced no change. The different effect of HPβ-CD on each compound was discussed. In addition, the effect of increasing concentrations of different cyclodextrins in the development of ORAC-fluorescence (ORAC-FL) assays was studied. The ORAC signal was higher for HPβ-CD, followed by Mβ-CD, β-CD, γ-CD and finally α-CD. These results could be explained by the formation of inclusion complexes with fluorescein.

  6. Effectiveness of Rose Bengal test and fluorescence polarization assay in the diagnosis of Brucella spp. infections in free range cattle reared in endemic areas in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Muma, J B; Lund, A; Nielsen, K; Matope, G; Munyeme, M; Mwacalimba, K; Skjerve, E

    2009-06-01

    The effectiveness of Rose Bengal test (RBT) and fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) in diagnosing cattle brucellosis in endemic areas was assessed and RBT and FPA test agreement was compared (n = 319). The sensitivity of RBT and FPA in detecting low Brucella titres were evaluated in paired sera (n = 34). A logistic regression model was constructed to predict cattle test result in FPA using RBT as the main predictor and incorporating bio-data and animal history. There was 79.3% agreement between the RBT and FPA (Kappa = 0.59; Std error = 0.05; p = 0.000) and a high correspondence between high RBT scores and positive FPA results suggesting that sera with high RBT score may not require confirmation with tests such as competitive-ELISA or CFT. High FPA cut-off points were more likely to miss animals with low antibody titres. The RBT had a reduced ability in detecting low antibody titres compared to the FPA. FPA test interpretation was improved if a priori information, such as sex and age was used. Under the challenging disease surveillance conditions prevailing in rural Africa, field-testing methods that are sensitive and specific; allow single animal contact, low technical skills in data interpretation are suitable.

  7. Comparison of the membrane-filtration fluorescent antibody test, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the polymerase chain reaction to detect Renibacterium salmoninarum in salmon ovarian fluid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pascho, R.J.; Chase, D.; McKibben, C.L.

    1998-01-01

    Ovarian fluid samples from naturally infected chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were examined for the presence of Renibacterium salmoninarum by the membrane-filtration fluorescent antibody test (MF-FAT), an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). On the basis of the MF-FAT, 64% (66/103) samples contained detectable levels of R. salmoninarum cells. Among the positive fish, the R. salmoninarum concentrations ranged from 25 cells/ml to 4.3 3 109 cells/ml. A soluble antigenic fraction of R. salmoninarum was detected in 39% of the fish (40/103) by the ELISA. The ELISA is considered one of the most sensitive detection methods for bacterial kidney disease in tissues, yet it did not detect R. salmoninarum antigen consistently at bacterial cell concentrations below about 1.3 3 104 cells/ml according to the MF-FAT counts. When total DNA was extracted and tested in a nested PCR designed to amplify a 320-base-pair region of the gene encoding a soluble 57-kD protein of R. salmoninarum, 100% of the 100 samples tested were positive. The results provided strong evidence that R. salmoninarum may be present in ovarian fluids thought to be free of the bacterium on the basis of standard diagnostic methods.

  8. A Fluorescence-Coupled Assay for Gamma Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Reveals Metabolic Stress-Induced Modulation of GABA Content in Neuroendocrine Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ippolito, Joseph E.; Piwnica-Worms, David

    2014-01-01

    Pathways involved in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of high grade neuroendocrine (NE) neoplasms as well as neoplasms from a non-NE lineage. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas, overexpression of the GABA synthetic enzyme, glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD1), was found to be associated with decreased disease free-survival in prostate adenocarcinoma and decreased overall survival in clear cell renal cell carcinomas. Furthermore, GAD1 was found to be expressed in castrate-resistant prostate cancer cell lines, but not androgen-responsive cell lines. Using a novel fluorescence-coupled enzymatic microplate assay for GABA mediated through reduction of resazurin in a prostate neuroendocrine carcinoma (PNEC) cell line, acid microenvironment-induced stress increased GABA levels while alkaline microenvironment-induced stress decreased GABA through modulation of GAD1 and glutamine synthetase (GLUL) activities. Moreover, glutamine but not glucose deprivation decreased GABA through modulation of GLUL. Consistent with evidence in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms that GABA synthesis mediated through GAD1 may play a crucial role in surviving stress, GABA may be an important mediator of stress survival in neoplasms. These findings identify GABA synthesis and metabolism as a potentially important pathway for regulating cancer cell stress response as well as a potential target for therapeutic strategies. PMID:24551133

  9. Comparison of the Raji cell line fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen test and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for determination of immunity to varicella-zoster virus.

    PubMed Central

    Iltis, J P; Castellano, G A; Gerber, P; Le, C; Vujcic, L K; Quinnan, G V

    1982-01-01

    A prospective study was performed comparing the fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen (FAMA) test and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for identifying susceptibility and seroconversion to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection. A total of 75 sera were collected from index cases and from sibling and parent contacts in 10 families. Varicella-zoster virus-infected human diploid embryonic fibroblasts and continuous lymphoblastoid cells (Raji cells) were compared as indicator cells in the FAMA test. Equivalent results were obtained with both types of cell. Results of the FAMA test and the ELISA were identical in two ways. (i) The same 11 individuals were initally defined as susceptible (seronegative), and 9 of them (82%) developed fourfold rises in antibody titers, clinical varicella, or both. (ii) Of 21 immune (seropositive) individuals, 4 developed fourfold antibody rises by FAMA tests, and 3 of these 4 responded by ELISA. Infection was asymptomatic in these individuals. The geometric mean titer by ELISA was significantly higher than by the FAMA test. The results indicated that the ELISA and the FAMA test have similar capacities to define susceptibility to varicella-zoster virus and that subclinical infection with varicella-zoster virus may be common. PMID:6759530

  10. A fluorescence-coupled assay for gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) reveals metabolic stress-induced modulation of GABA content in neuroendocrine cancer.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, Joseph E; Piwnica-Worms, David

    2014-01-01

    Pathways involved in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of high grade neuroendocrine (NE) neoplasms as well as neoplasms from a non-NE lineage. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas, overexpression of the GABA synthetic enzyme, glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD1), was found to be associated with decreased disease free-survival in prostate adenocarcinoma and decreased overall survival in clear cell renal cell carcinomas. Furthermore, GAD1 was found to be expressed in castrate-resistant prostate cancer cell lines, but not androgen-responsive cell lines. Using a novel fluorescence-coupled enzymatic microplate assay for GABA mediated through reduction of resazurin in a prostate neuroendocrine carcinoma (PNEC) cell line, acid microenvironment-induced stress increased GABA levels while alkaline microenvironment-induced stress decreased GABA through modulation of GAD1 and glutamine synthetase (GLUL) activities. Moreover, glutamine but not glucose deprivation decreased GABA through modulation of GLUL. Consistent with evidence in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms that GABA synthesis mediated through GAD1 may play a crucial role in surviving stress, GABA may be an important mediator of stress survival in neoplasms. These findings identify GABA synthesis and metabolism as a potentially important pathway for regulating cancer cell stress response as well as a potential target for therapeutic strategies.

  11. Development of a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay for cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and identification of its ATP-noncompetitive inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lo, Mei-Chu; Ngo, Rachel; Dai, Kang; Li, Cong; Liang, Lingming; Lee, Josie; Emkey, Renee; Eksterowicz, John; Ventura, Manuel; Young, Stephen W; Xiao, Shou-Hua

    2012-02-15

    Protein kinases are recognized as important drug targets due to the pivotal roles they play in human disease. Many kinase inhibitors are ATP competitive, leading to potential problems with poor selectivity and significant loss of potency in vivo due to cellular ATP concentrations being much higher than K(m). Consequently, there has been growing interest in the development of ATP-noncompetitive inhibitors to overcome these problems. There are challenges to identifying ATP-noncompetitive inhibitors from compound library screens because ATP-noncompetitive inhibitors are often weaker and commonly excluded by potency-based hit selection criteria in favor of abundant and highly potent ATP-competitive inhibitors in screening libraries. Here we report the development of a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) assay for protein kinase cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and the identification of ATP-noncompetitive inhibitors by high-throughput screening after employing a strategy to favor this type of inhibitors. We also present kinetic characterization that is consistent with the proposed mode of inhibition.

  12. A label-free, G-quadruplex DNAzyme-based fluorescent probe for signal-amplified DNA detection and turn-on assay of endonuclease.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhixue; Du, Yan; Zhang, Libing; Dong, Shaojun

    2012-04-15

    A novel G-quadruplex DNAzyme molecular beacon (G-DNAzymeMB) strategy is developed for assays of target DNA and restriction endonuclease. The detection system consists of G-DNAzymeMB strand and a blocker DNA by using the fluorescence of 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H(2)DCFDA) catalyzed by G-DNAzymeMB as a signal reporter. G-DNAzymeMB exhibits peroxidase activity in its free hairpin structure, and forms a catalytically inactive hybrid when hybridized with blocker DNA. Upon displacement of blocker DNA by target DNA or cleavage by restriction endonuclease, G-DNAzymeMB is released and two lateral portions of G-DNAzymeMB form a G-quadruplex structure, resulting in the recovery of catalytic activity which acts as a cofactor to catalyze H(2)O(2)-mediated oxidation of H(2)DCFDA. For DNA detection system, exonuclease III (Exo III)-catalyzed amplification strategy is introduced to improve the sensitivity and target DNA could be detected as low as 0.1 pM. With respect to restriction endonuclease detection system, 0.1 U/mL EcoRI endonuclease could be detected and this method could be easily transported to other restriction endonuclease analysis by simply changing the recognition sequence. These results demonstrate that the proposed G-DNAzymeMB strategy could be used as a label-free, simple, sensitive and cost-effective approach in analysis of target DNA and restriction endonuclease.

  13. Identification, expression profiling and fluorescence-based binding assays of a chemosensory protein gene from the Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Ke; Lei, Zhong-Ren

    2015-01-01

    Using RT-PCR and RACE-PCR strategies, we cloned and identified a new chemosensory protein (FoccCSP) from the Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, a species for which no chemosensory protein (CSP) has yet been identified. The FoccCSP gene contains a 387 bp open-reading frame encoding a putative protein of 128 amino acids with a molecular weight of 14.51 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.41. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal peptide of 19 amino acid residues at the N-terminus, as well as the typical four-cysteine signature found in other insect CSPs. As FoccCSP is from a different order of insect than other known CSPs, the GenBank FoccCSP homolog showed only 31-50% sequence identity with them. A neighbor-joining tree was constructed and revealed that FoccCSP is in a group with CSPs from Homopteran insects (e.g., AgosCSP4, AgosCSP10, ApisCSP, and NlugCSP9), suggesting that these genes likely developed from a common ancestral gene. The FoccCSP gene expression profile of different tissues and development stages was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. The results of this analysis revealed this gene is predominantly expressed in the antennae and also highly expressed in the first instar nymph, suggesting a function for FoccCSP in olfactory reception and in particular life activities during the first instar nymph stage. We expressed recombinant FoccCSP protein in a prokaryotic expression system and purified FoccCSP protein by affinity chromatography using a Ni-NTA-Sepharose column. Using N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (1-NPN) as a fluorescent probe in fluorescence-based competitive binding assay, we determined the binding affinities of 19 volatile substances for FoccCSP protein. This analysis revealed that anisic aldehyde, geraniol and methyl salicylate have high binding affinities for FoccCSP, with KD values of 10.50, 15.35 and 35.24 μM, respectively. Thus, our study indicates that FoccCSP may play an important role in regulating the

  14. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) and Proximity Ligation Assays Reveal Functionally Relevant Homo- and Heteromeric Complexes among Hyaluronan Synthases HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3*

    PubMed Central

    Bart, Geneviève; Vico, Nuria Ortega; Hassinen, Antti; Pujol, Francois M.; Deen, Ashik Jawahar; Ruusala, Aino; Tammi, Raija H.; Squire, Anthony; Heldin, Paraskevi; Kellokumpu, Sakari; Tammi, Markku I.

    2015-01-01

    In vertebrates, hyaluronan is produced in the plasma membrane from cytosolic UDP-sugar substrates by hyaluronan synthase 1–3 (HAS1–3) isoenzymes that transfer N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and glucuronic acid (GlcUA) in alternative positions in the growing polysaccharide chain during its simultaneous extrusion into the extracellular space. It has been shown that HAS2 immunoprecipitates contain functional HAS2 homomers and also heteromers with HAS3 (Karousou, E., Kamiryo, M., Skandalis, S. S., Ruusala, A., Asteriou, T., Passi, A., Yamashita, H., Hellman, U., Heldin, C. H., and Heldin, P. (2010) The activity of hyaluronan synthase 2 is regulated by dimerization and ubiquitination. J. Biol. Chem. 285, 23647–23654). Here we have systematically screened in live cells, potential interactions among the HAS isoenzymes using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and flow cytometric quantification. We show that all HAS isoenzymes form homomeric and also heteromeric complexes with each other. The same complexes were detected both in Golgi apparatus and plasma membrane by using FRET microscopy and the acceptor photobleaching method. Proximity ligation assays with HAS antibodies confirmed the presence of HAS1-HAS2, HAS2-HAS2, and HAS2-HAS3 complexes between endogenously expressed HASs. C-terminal deletions revealed that the enzymes interact mainly via uncharacterized N-terminal 86-amino acid domain(s), but additional binding site(s) probably exist in their C-terminal parts. Of all the homomeric complexes HAS1 had the lowest and HAS3 the highest synthetic activity. Interestingly, HAS1 transfection reduced the synthesis of hyaluronan obtained by HAS2 and HAS3, suggesting functional cooperation between the isoenzymes. These data indicate a general tendency of HAS isoenzymes to form both homomeric and heteromeric complexes with potentially important functional consequences on hyaluronan synthesis. PMID:25795779

  15. The potency determination of human varicella-zoster immunoglobulin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, complement-fixation test and indirect fluorescent antibody tests.

    PubMed

    Winsnes, R; Wiger, D

    1986-10-01

    Traditionally, plasma for the production of the human varicella-zoster immunoglobulin (VZIG) has been selected on the basis of the complement-fixing antibody (CFA) titre. Since immune individuals may lack CFA to varicella-zoster virus (VZV), non-CFA may be of importance in protection. In a search for a simple and reliable method for potency determination, 24 VZIG preparations were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the complement-fixation test (CFT), the indirect fluorescent antibody test to acetone-fixed (IF) and viable (FAMA) VZV-infected cells, respectively. The antibody titres obtained by the various methods were compared. Arranged in order of decreasing agreement, the correlation coefficients (r) of the regression equations between the variables were 0.62 for CFT and FAMA, 0.50 for CFT and ELISA and 0.26 for CFT and IF in a log2 plot. There was complete agreement between the titres obtained by the commercially available Enzygnost Varicella/Zoster kits (Behring Institute, Marburg, F.R. Germany) and the ELISA microtitre plates produced at our institute (r = 1). The regression equation lines for ELISA/CFT and FAMA/CFT titres tended to be parallel to each other, while the line for IF/CFT titres had a less steep slope. Similar titration curves were obtained for VZIGs fractionated by two different methods. Furthermore, the titration curves of serum pools from varicella and zoster convalescents, respectively, had a similar shape below delta OD = 0.4. Generally, a steeper slope was observed above delta OD = 0.4. As antibody detectable by ELISA seems to correlate with protection and the method is sensitive, specific, reproduceable, simple to carry out and easily automated, it may be suitable for the potency determination of VZIGs.

  16. Detection of anatoxin-a and three analogs in Anabaena spp. cultures: new fluorescence polarization assay and toxin profile by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Jon A; Otero, Paz; Alfonso, Amparo; Ramos, Vitor; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Aráoz, Romulo; Molgó, Jordi; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Botana, Luis M

    2014-01-24

    Anatoxin-a (ATX) is a potent neurotoxin produced by several species of Anabaena spp. Cyanobacteria blooms around the world have been increasing in recent years; therefore, it is urgent to develop sensitive techniques that unequivocally confirm the presence of these toxins in fresh water and cyanobacterial samples. In addition, the identification of different ATX analogues is essential to later determine its toxicity. In this paper we designed a fluorescent polarization (FP) method to detect ATXs in water samples. A nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) labeled with a fluorescein derivative was used to develop this assay. Data showed a direct relationship between the amount of toxin in a sample and the changes in the polarization degree of the emitted light by the labeled nAChR, indicating an interaction between the two molecules. This method was used to measure the amount of ATX in three Anabaena spp. cultures. Results indicate that it is a good method to show ATXs presence in algal samples. In order to check the toxin profile of Anabaena cultures a LC-MS/MS method was also developed. Within this new method, ATX-a, retention time (RT) 5 min, and three other molecules with a mass m/z 180.1 eluting at 4.14 min, 5.90 min and 7.14 min with MS/MS spectra characteristic of ATX toxin group not previously identified were detected in the Anabaena spp. cultures. These ATX analogues may have an important role in the toxicity of the sample.

  17. Detection of cross infections by Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma spp. in dogs using indirect immunoenzyme assay, indirect fluorescent antibody test and polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Viol, M A; Lima, V M F; Aquino, M C C; Gallo, G; Alves, I P; Generoso, D; Perri, S H V; Lucheis, S B; Langoni, H; Nunes, C M; Bresciani, K D S

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to detect cross infections by Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma spp. using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Thus, 408 blood samples were collected from dogs domiciled in Araçatuba Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil; the dogs were of both sexes, of several breeds and aged 6 months. For Leishmania spp., 14.95% (61 out of 408) of dogs were reactive using IFAT. Positivity was 20.10% (82 out of 408) using ELISA and 29.66% (121 out of 408) using PCR, with significant differences for the sex and age of these animals (p < 0.05). For Trypanosoma spp., antibody occurrence using ELISA was 10.54% (43 out of 408), while PCR indicated 2.45% (10 out of 408) positive dogs. Using IFAT, 10.29% (42 out of 408) of animals were considered positive and only sex showed a significant difference (p < 0.05). In this study, 10.54% (43 out of 408) of animals were seropositive according to ELISA for Trypanosoma spp., of which 79.07% (34 out of 43) showed positive results in the molecular diagnosis for Leishmania spp., while of the 10.29% (42 out of 408) positive dogs according to IFAT, 95.24 % (40 out of 42) had confirmed infection by this parasite. The obtained results demonstrate evidence of cross infections by both protozoa in the animals analysed in this study. PMID:22847278

  18. Construction of a Turn Off-On-Off Fluorescent System Based on Competitive Coordination of Cu2+ between 6,7-Dihydroxycoumarin and Pyrophosphate Ion for Sensitive Assay of Pyrophosphatase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liu; Miao, Yanqing; Liu, Chunye; Zhang, Chenxiao

    2016-01-01

    The detection of pyrophosphatase (PPase) activity is of great significance in diagnosing diseases and understanding the function of PPase-related biological events. This study constructed a turn off-on-off fluorescent system for PPase activity assay based on PPase-regulated competitive coordination of Cu2+ between a water-soluble fluorescent probe 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin (DHC) and pyrophosphate (PPi). The probe DHC can coordinate with Cu2+ and consequently display on-off type fluorescence response. Furthermore, the in situ formed nonfluorescent Cu2+-DHC complex can act as an effective off-on type fluorescent probe for sensing PPi due to the higher coordination reactivity between Cu2+ and PPi than that between Cu2+ and DHC. The subsequent addition of PPase to the mixture containing Cu2+, DHC, and PPi leads to the fluorescence requenching of the system again (an off state) because PPase catalyzes the hydrolysis of PPi into orthophosphate in the reaction system. Under the optimum conditions, the decrease of the fluorescence intensity of DHC-Cu2+-PPi system was linear with the increase of the PPase activity in the range from 0.1 to 0.3 U. The detection limit was down to 0.028 U PPase (S/N = 3). Moreover, the as-established system was also applied to evaluate PPase inhibitor. This study offers a simple yet effective method for the detection of PPase activity. PMID:27766179

  19. Highly specific and rapid immuno-fluorescent visualization and detection of E. coli O104:H4 with protein-A coated magnetic beads based LST-MUG assay.

    PubMed

    Barizuddin, Syed; Balakrishnan, Baskar; Stringer, R Cody; Dweik, Majed

    2015-08-01

    A method combining immunomagnetic separation and fluorescent sensing was developed to detect Escherichia coli (E. coli) O104:H4. The antibody specific to E. coli O104:H4 was immobilized on protein A-coated magnetic beads. This protein-A-anti E. coli O104:H4 complex was used to bind Fluorescein IsoThioCyanate (FITC) labeled E. coli O104:H4 antigen (whole cell) on it. The goal was to achieve a fluorescently detectable protein-A-anti E. coli O104:H4-E. coli O104:H4 complex on the magnetic beads. Fluorescent microscopy was used to image the magnetic beads. The resulting fluorescence on the beads was due to the FITC labeled antigen binding on the protein-A-anti E. coli O104:H4 immobilized magnetic beads. This visually proves the antigen-antibody binding. The fluorescent imaging results were obtained in 2 h if the minimum available bacteria in the sample were at least 10(5) CFU/ml. If no fluorescence was observed on the magnetic beads during fluorescent imaging, it indicates the bacterial concentration in the sample to be too low for it to have bound to the magnetic beads and hence no detection was possible. To detect bacterial concentration less than 10(5) CFU/ml in the sample, an additional step was required for detection. The magnetic bead complex was added to the LST-MUG (lauryl sulfate tryptose-4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-glucuronide), a signaling reporter. The E. coli O104:H4 grows in LST-MUG and releases β-glucuronidase enzyme. This enzyme cleaves the MUG substrate that produces 4-methylumbelliferone, a highly fluorescent species. This fluorescence was detected using a spectrofluorometer. The emission peak in the fluorescent spectrum was found to be at 450 nm. The lower and upper detection range for this LST-MUG assay was found to be 2.05×10(5)-4.09×10(8) CFU/ml. The results for the LST-MUG assay for concentrations below 10(5) CFU/ml were ascertained in 8h. The advantages of this technique include the specific detection of bacteria without an enrichment step and

  20. Comparison of Dissociation-Enhanced Lanthanide Fluorescent Immunoassays to Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B, Yersinia pestis-Specific F1 Antigen, and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Darci R.; Rossi, Cynthia A.; Kijek, Todd M.; Henchal, Erik A.; Ludwig, George V.

    2001-01-01

    The dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescent immunoassays (DELFIA) were developed for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin B, Yersinia pestis-specific F1 antigen, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. These assays were compared to previously developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) by determining the sensitivity or limit of detection (LOD), the dynamic range, and the reproducibility of each assay in a number of different sample matrices. The sensitivity and specificity of each assay were then determined by using a small panel of blinded spiked and nonspiked samples. All three DELFIAs demonstrated at least 1 log greater sensitivity than corresponding ELISAs utilizing the same reagents and showed an increase in dynamic range of at least 2 log10 concentrations. This increased LOD resulted in higher sensitivity rates for the DELFIA. The specificity of all of the assays evaluated was 100%, and no sample matrix effects were observed in either format. However, the reproducibility of the DELFIA was poor due to randomly distributed wells exhibiting excessive background signal (hot wells), which occurred throughout the evaluation. As this technology matures, the reproducibility of these assays should improve, as will the ability to identify hot wells. Despite its sensitivity, the logistical burden associated with the DELFIA and the technical expertise required to complete assays and interpret the data limit the application of this technology to reference or large clinical laboratories. PMID:11687442

  1. Surface plasmon resonance-enhanced fluorescence implementation of a single-step competition assay: demonstration of fatty acid measurement using an anti-fatty acid monoclonal antibody and a Cy5-labeled fatty acid.

    PubMed

    Vareiro, Margarida M L M; Tranchant, Isabelle; Maplin, Sandra; Zak, Kris; Gani, M M; Slevin, Christopher J; Hailes, Helen C; Tabor, Alethea B; Cameron, Petra J; Jenkins, A Toby A; Williams, David E

    2008-06-15

    The development of a single-step, separation-free method for measurement of low concentrations of fatty acid using a surface plasmon resonance-enhanced fluorescence competition assay with a surface-bound antibody is described. The assay behavior was unexpectedly complex. A nonlinear coverage-dependent self-quenching of emission from surface-bound fluorescent label was deduced from the response kinetics and attributed to a surface plasmon-mediated energy transfer between adsorbed fluorophores, modified by the effects of plasmon interference. Principles of assay design to avoid complications from such effects are discussed. An anti-fatty acid mouse monoclonal antibody reacting to the alkyl chain was prepared and supported on a gold chip at a spacing appropriate for surface-plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy (SPEFS), by applying successively a self-assembled biotinylated monolayer, then streptavidin, then biotinylated protein A, and then the antibody, which was crosslinked to the protein A. Synthesis of a fluorescently (Cy5) tagged C-11 fatty acid is reported. SPEFS was used to follow the kinetics of the binding of the labeled fatty acid to the antibody, and to implement a competition assay with free fatty acid (undecanoic acid), sensitive at the 1 microM scale, a sensitivity limit caused by the low affinity of antibodies for free fatty acids, rather than the SPEFS technique itself. Free fatty acid concentration in human serum is in the range 0.1-1mM, suggesting that this measurement approach could be applied in a clinical diagnostic context. Finally, a predictive, theoretical model of fatty acid binding was developed that accounted for the observed "overshoot" kinetics.

  2. Label-free fluorescent enzymatic assay of citrate synthase by CoA-Au(I) co-ordination polymer and its application in a multi-enzyme logic gate cascade.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Wang, Huixia; Dai, Futao; Li, Pei; Jin, Xin; Huang, Yan; Nie, Zhou; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2016-12-15

    Citrate synthase (CS) is one of the key metabolic enzymes in the Krebs tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. It regulates energy generation in mitochondrial respiration by catalysing the reaction between oxaloacetic acid (OAA) and acetyl coenzyme A (Ac-CoA) to generate citrate and coenzyme A (CoA). CS has been shown to be a biomarker of neurological diseases and various kinds of cancers. Here, a label-free fluorescent assay has been developed for homogeneously detecting CS and its inhibitor based on the in situ generation of CoA-Au(I) co-ordination polymer (CP) and the fluorescence signal-on by SYBR Green II-stained CoA-Au(I) CP. Because of the unique property of the CoA-Au(I) CP, this CS activity assay method could achieve excellent selectivity and sensitivity, with a linear range from 0.0033 U/μL to 0.264 U/μL and a limit of detection to be 0.00165 U/μL. Meanwhile, this assay method has advantages of being facile and cost effective with quick detection. Moreover, based on this method, a biomimetic logic system was established by rationally exploiting the cascade enzymatic interactions in TCA cycle for chemical information processing. In the TCA cycle-derived logic system, an AND-AND-AND-cascaded gate was rigorously operated step by step in one pot, and is outputted by a label-free fluorescent signal with visualized readout. PMID:27501341

  3. Detection of Babesia canis vogeli and Hepatozoon canis in canine blood by a single-tube real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer polymerase chain reaction assay and melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Kongklieng, Amornmas; Intapan, Pewpan M; Boonmars, Thidarut; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Janwan, Penchom; Sanpool, Oranuch; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2015-03-01

    A real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer polymerase chain reaction (qFRET PCR) coupled with melting curve analysis was developed for detection of Babesia canis vogeli and Hepatozoon canis infections in canine blood samples in a single tube assay. The target of the assay was a region within the 18S ribosomal RNA gene amplified in either species by a single pair of primers. Following amplification from the DNA of infected dog blood, a fluorescence melting curve analysis was done. The 2 species, B. canis vogeli and H. canis, could be detected and differentiated in infected dog blood samples (n = 37) with high sensitivity (100%). The detection limit for B. canis vogeli was 15 copies of a positive control plasmid, and for H. canis, it was 150 copies of a positive control plasmid. The assay could simultaneously distinguish the DNA of both parasites from the DNA of controls. Blood samples from 5 noninfected dogs were negative, indicating high specificity. Several samples can be run at the same time. The assay can reduce misdiagnosis and the time associated with microscopic examination, and is not prone to the carryover contamination associated with the agarose gel electrophoresis step of conventional PCR. In addition, this qFRET PCR method would be useful to accurately determine the range of endemic areas or to discover those areas where the 2 parasites co-circulate. PMID:25776544

  4. Comparison of peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization assays with culture-based matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry for the identification of bacteria and yeasts from blood cultures and cerebrospinal fluid cultures.

    PubMed

    Calderaro, A; Martinelli, M; Motta, F; Larini, S; Arcangeletti, M C; Medici, M C; Chezzi, C; De Conto, F

    2014-08-01

    Peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) is a molecular diagnostic tool for the rapid detection of pathogens directly from liquid media. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate PNA FISH assays in comparison with culture-based matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identification, as a reference method, for both blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures, during a 1-year investigation. On the basis of the Gram stain microscopy results, four different PNA FISH commercially available assays were used ('Staphylococcus aureus/CNS', 'Enterococcus faecalis/OE', 'GNR Traffic Light' and 'Yeasts Traffic Light' PNA FISH assays, AdvanDx). The four PNA FISH assays were applied to 956 positive blood cultures (921 for bacteria and 35 for yeasts) and 11 CSF cultures. Among the 921 blood samples positive for bacteria, PNA FISH gave concordant results with MALDI-TOF MS in 908/921 (98.64%) samples, showing an agreement of 99.4% in the case of monomicrobial infections. As regards yeasts, the PNA FISH assay showed a 100% agreement with the result obtained by MALDI-TOF MS. When PNA FISH assays were tested on the 11 CSF cultures, the results agreed with the reference method in all cases (100%). PNA FISH assays provided species identification at least one work-day before the MALDI-TOF MS culture-based identification. PNA FISH assays showed an excellent efficacy in the prompt identification of main pathogens, yielding a significant reduction in reporting time and leading to more appropriate patient management and therapy in cases of sepsis and severe infections.

  5. Complexation induced fluorescence and acid-base properties of dapoxyl dye with γ-cyclodextrin: a drug-binding application using displacement assays.

    PubMed

    Pal, Kaushik; Mallick, Suman; Koner, Apurba L

    2015-06-28

    Host-guest complexation of dapoxyl sodium sulphonate (DSS), an intramolecular charge transfer dye with water-soluble and non-toxic macrocycle γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD), has been investigated in a wide pH range. Steady-state absorption, fluorescence and time-resolved fluorescence measurements confirm the positioning of DSS into the hydrophobic cavity of γ-CD. A large fluorescence enhancement ca. 30 times, due to 1 : 2 complex formation and host-assisted guest-protonation have been utilised for developing a method for the utilisation of CD based drug-delivery applications. A simple fluorescence-displacement based approach is implemented at physiological pH for the assessment of binding strength of pharmaceutically useful small drug molecules (ibuprofen, paracetamol, methyl salicylate, salicylic acid, aspirin, and piroxicam) and six important antibiotic drugs (resazurin, thiamphenicol, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, kanamycin, and sorbic acid) with γ-CD. PMID:26028009

  6. Development of a Real-Time Fluorescence Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Rapid and Quantitative Detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Tropical Race 4 In Soil

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Jinji; Qi, Yanxiang; Yu, Qunfang; Xie, Yixian; Peng, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), the causal agent of Fusarium wilt (Panama disease), is one of the most devastating diseases of banana (Musa spp.). The Foc tropical race 4 (TR4) is currently known as a major concern in global banana production. No effective resistance is known in Musa to Foc, and no effective measures for controlling Foc once banana plants have been infected in place. Early and accurate detection of Foc TR4 is essential to protect banana industry and guide banana planting. A real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (RealAmp) was developed for the rapid and quantitative detection of Foc TR4 in soil. The detection limit of the RealAmp assay was approximately 0.4 pg/µl plasmid DNA when mixed with extracted soil DNA or 103 spores/g of artificial infested soil, and no cross-reaction with other relative pathogens were observed. The RealAmp assay for quantifying genomic DNA of TR4 was confirmed by testing both artificially and naturally infested samples. Quantification of the soil-borne pathogen DNA of Foc TR4 in naturally infested samples was no significant difference compared to classic real-time PCR (P>0.05). Additionally, RealAmp assay was visual with an improved closed-tube visual detection system by adding SYBR Green I fluorescent dye to the inside of the lid prior to amplification, which avoided the inhibitory effects of the stain on DNA amplification and makes the assay more convenient in the field and could thus become a simple, rapid and effective technique that has potential as an alternative tool for the detection and monitoring of Foc TR4 in field, which would be a routine DNA-based testing service for the soil-borne pathogen in South China. PMID:24376590

  7. Development of a real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid and quantitative detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 in soil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Zhang, He; Pu, Jinji; Qi, Yanxiang; Yu, Qunfang; Xie, Yixian; Peng, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), the causal agent of Fusarium wilt (Panama disease), is one of the most devastating diseases of banana (Musa spp.). The Foc tropical race 4 (TR4) is currently known as a major concern in global banana production. No effective resistance is known in Musa to Foc, and no effective measures for controlling Foc once banana plants have been infected in place. Early and accurate detection of Foc TR4 is essential to protect banana industry and guide banana planting. A real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (RealAmp) was developed for the rapid and quantitative detection of Foc TR4 in soil. The detection limit of the RealAmp assay was approximately 0.4 pg/µl plasmid DNA when mixed with extracted soil DNA or 10(3) spores/g of artificial infested soil, and no cross-reaction with other relative pathogens were observed. The RealAmp assay for quantifying genomic DNA of TR4 was confirmed by testing both artificially and naturally infested samples. Quantification of the soil-borne pathogen DNA of Foc TR4 in naturally infested samples was no significant difference compared to classic real-time PCR (P>0.05). Additionally, RealAmp assay was visual with an improved closed-tube visual detection system by adding SYBR Green I fluorescent dye to the inside of the lid prior to amplification, which avoided the inhibitory effects of the stain on DNA amplification and makes the assay more convenient in the field and could thus become a simple, rapid and effective technique that has potential as an alternative tool for the detection and monitoring of Foc TR4 in field, which would be a routine DNA-based testing service for the soil-borne pathogen in South China.

  8. Development of a microfluidic confocal fluorescence detection system for the hyphenation of nano-LC to on-line biochemical assays.

    PubMed

    Heus, Ferry; Giera, Martin; de Kloe, Gerdien E; van Iperen, Dick; Buijs, Joost; Nahar, Tariq T; Smit, August B; Lingeman, Henk; de Esch, Iwan J P; Niessen, Wilfried M A; Irth, Hubertus; Kool, Jeroen

    2010-12-01

    One way to profile complex mixtures for receptor affinity is to couple liquid chromatography (LC) on-line to biochemical detection (BCD). A drawback of this hyphenated screening approach is the relatively high consumption of sample, receptor protein and (fluorescently labeled) tracer ligand. Here, we worked toward minimization of sample and reagent consumption, by coupling nano-LC on-line to a light-emitting diode (LED) based capillary confocal fluorescence detection system capable of on-line BCD with low-flow rates. In this fluorescence detection system, a capillary with an extended light path (bubble cell) was used as a detection cell in order to enhance sensitivity. The technology was applied to a fluorescent enhancement bioassay for the acetylcholine binding protein, a structural analog of the extracellular ligand-binding domain of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In the miniaturized setup, the sensitive and low void volume LED-induced confocal fluorescence detection system operated in flow injection analysis mode allowing the measurement of IC(50) values, which were comparable with those measured by a conventional plate reader bioassay. The current setup uses 50 nL as injection volume with a carrier flow rate of 400 nL/min. Finally, coupling of the detection system to gradient reversed-phase nano-LC allowed analysis of mixtures in order to identify the bioactive compounds present by injecting 10 nL of each mixture.

  9. An ultra-sensitive monoclonal antibody-based fluorescent microsphere immunochromatographic test strip assay for detecting aflatoxin M1 in milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid lateral flow fluorescent microspheres immunochromatography test strip (FMs-ICTS) has been developed for the detection of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) residues in milk. For this purpose, an ultra-sensitive anti-AFM1 monoclonal antibody (MAb) 1D3 was prepared and identified. The IC50 value of the MA...

  10. Rapid and Quantitative Detection of Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli in Sugarcane Stalk Juice Using a Real-Time Fluorescent (TaqMan) PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Hua-Ying; Sun, Sheng-Ren; Wang, Jin-Da; Ahmad, Kashif; Wang, Heng-Bo; Chen, Ru-Kai

    2016-01-01

    Ratoon stunting disease (RSD) of sugarcane, one of the most important diseases seriously affecting the productivity of sugarcane crops, was caused by the bacterial agent Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx). A TaqMan probe-based real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was established in this study for the quantification of Lxx detection in sugarcane stalk juice. A pair of PCR primers (Pat1-QF/Pat1-QR) and a fluorogenic probe (Pat1-QP) targeting the Part1 gene of Lxx were used for the qPCR assay. The assay had a detection limit of 100 copies of plasmid DNA and 100 fg of Lxx genomic DNA, which was 100-fold more sensitive than the conventional PCR. Fifty (28.7%) of 174 stalk juice samples from two field trials were tested to be positive by qPCR assay, whereas, by conventional PCR, only 12.1% (21/174) were tested to be positive with a published primer pair CxxITSf#5/CxxITSr#5 and 15.5% (27/174) were tested to be positive with a newly designed primer pair Pat1-F2/Pat1-R2. The new qPCR assay can be used as an alternative to current diagnostic methods for Lxx, especially when dealing with certificating a large number of healthy cane seedlings and determining disease incidence accurately in commercial fields. PMID:27725937

  11. Direct comparison of the histidine-rich protein-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and malaria SYBR green I fluorescence (MSF) drug sensitivity tests in Plasmodium falciparum reference clones and fresh ex vivo field isolates from Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Performance of the histidine-rich protein-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and malaria SYBR Green I fluorescence (MSF) drug sensitivity tests were directly compared using Plasmodium falciparum reference strains and fresh ex vivo isolates from Cambodia against a panel of standard anti-malarials. The objective was to determine which of these two common assays is more appropriate for studying drug susceptibility of “immediate ex vivo” (IEV) isolates, analysed without culture adaption, in a region of relatively low malaria transmission. Methods Using the HRP-2 and MSF methods, the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values against a panel of malaria drugs were determined for P. falciparum reference clones (W2, D6, 3D7 and K1) and 41 IEV clinical isolates from an area of multidrug resistance in Cambodia. Comparison of the IC50 values from the two methods was made using Wilcoxon matched pair tests and Pearson’s correlation. The lower limit of parasitaemia detection for both methods was determined for reference clones and IEV isolates. Since human white blood cell (WBC) DNA in clinical samples is known to reduce MSF assay sensitivity, SYBR Green I fluorescence linearity of P. falciparum samples spiked with WBCs was evaluated to assess the relative degree to which MSF sensitivity is reduced in clinical samples. Results IC50 values correlated well between the HRP-2 and MSF methods when testing either P. falciparum reference clones or IEV isolates against 4-aminoquinolines (chloroquine, piperaquine and quinine) and the quinoline methanol mefloquine (Pearson r = 0.85-0.99 for reference clones and 0.56-0.84 for IEV isolates), whereas a weaker IC50 value correlation between methods was noted when testing artemisinins against reference clones and lack of correlation when testing IEV isolates. The HRP-2 ELISA produced a higher overall success rate (90% for producing IC50 best-fit sigmoidal curves), relative to only a 40% success rate for the

  12. Development of a fluorescent monoclonal antibody-based assay to measure the allosteric effects of synthetic peptides on self-oligomerization of AGR2 protein.

    PubMed

    Gray, Terry A; Murray, Euan; Nowicki, Matthew W; Remnant, Lucy; Scherl, Alexander; Muller, Petr; Vojtesek, Borek; Hupp, Ted R

    2013-09-01

    Many regulatory proteins are homo-oligomeric and designing assays that measure self-assembly will provide novel approaches to study protein allostery and screen for novel small molecule modulators of protein interactions. We present an assay to begin to define the biochemical determinants that regulate dimerization of the cancer-associated oncoprotein AGR2. A two site-sandwich microtiter assay ((2S) MTA) was designed using a DyLight800-labeled monoclonal antibody that binds to an epitope in AGR2 to screen for synthetic self-peptides that might regulate dimer stability. Peptides derived from the intrinsically disordered N-terminal region of AGR2 increase in trans oligomer stability as defined using the (2S) MTA assay. A DSS-crosslinking assay that traps the AGR2 dimer through K95-K95 adducts confirmed that Δ45-AGR2 was a more stable dimer using denaturing gel electrophoresis. A titration of wt-AGR2, Δ45-AGR2 (more stable dimer), and monomeric AGR2(E60A) revealed that Δ45-AGR2 was more active in binding to Reptin than either wt-AGR2 or the AGR2(E60A) mutant. Our data have defined a functional role for the AGR2 dimer in the binding to its most well characterized interacting protein, Reptin. The ability to regulate AGR2 oligomerization in trans opens the possibility for developing small molecules that regulate its' biochemical activity as potential cancer therapeutics. The data also highlight the utility of this oligomerization assay to screen chemical libraries for ligands that could regulate AGR2 dimer stability and its' oncogenic potential.

  13. A sensitive fluorescent assay for measuring the cysteine protease activity of Der p 1, a major allergen from the dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, O; Sewell, H F; Shakib, F

    1998-01-01

    The potent allergenicity of Der p 1, a major allergen of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, is thought to be related to its cysteine protease activity. Therefore, there is considerable interest in developing a sensitive assay for measuring Der p 1 activity to screen for specific inhibitors. This study demonstrates for the first time that the activity of Der p 1 can be measured conveniently in a continuous rate assay with the fluorogenic substrate Boc-Gln-Ala-Arg-AMC (K(m) = 280 microM and kcat/K(m) = 4.6 x 10(3)/M/s). PMID:9893750

  14. SDS-binding assay based on tyrosine fluorescence as a tool to determine binding properties of human serum albumin in blood plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanova, Nadezda; Shirshin, Evgeny; Fadeev, Victor; Priezzhev, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Among all plasma proteins human serum albumin (HSA) is the most studied one as it is the main transport protein and can bind a wide variety of ligands especially fatty acids (FAs). The concentration of FAs bound to HSA in human blood plasma differs by three times under abnormal conditions (fasting, physical exercises or in case of social important diseases). In the present study a surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used to simulate FAs binding to HSA. It was shown that the increase of Tyr fluorescence of human blood plasma due to SDS addition can be completely explained by HSA-SDS complex formation. Binding parameters of SDS-HSA complex (average number of sites and apparent constant of complex formation) were determined from titration curves based on tyrosine (Tyr) fluorescence.

  15. In silico studies and fluorescence binding assays of potential anti-prion compounds reveal an important binding site for prion inhibition from PrP(C) to PrP(Sc).

    PubMed

    Pagadala, Nataraj S; Perez-Pineiro, Rolando; Wishart, David S; Tuszynski, Jack A

    2015-02-16

    To understand the pharmacophore properties of 2-aminothiazoles and design novel inhibitors against the prion protein, a highly predictive 3D quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) has been developed by performing comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative similarity analysis (CoMSIA). Both CoMFA and CoMSIA maps reveal the presence of the oxymethyl groups in meta and para positions on the phenyl ring of compound 17 (N-[4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1,3-thiazol-2-yl]quinolin-2-amine), is necessary for activity while electro-negative nitrogen of quinoline is highly favorable to enhance activity. The blind docking results for these compounds show that the compound with quinoline binds with higher affinity than isoquinoline and naphthalene groups. Out of 150 novel compounds retrieved using finger print analysis by pharmacophoric model predicted based on five test sets of compounds, five compounds with diverse scaffolds were selected for biological evaluation as possible PrP inhibitors. Molecular docking combined with fluorescence quenching studies show that these compounds bind to pocket-D of SHaPrP near Trp145. The new antiprion compounds 3 and 6, which bind with the interaction energies of -12.1 and -13.2 kcal/mol, respectively, show fluorescence quenching with binding constant (Kd) values of 15.5 and 44.14 μM, respectively. Further fluorescence binding assays with compound 5, which is similar to 2-aminothiazole as a positive control, also show that the molecule binds to the pocket-D with the binding constant (Kd) value of 84.7 μM. Finally, both molecular docking and a fluorescence binding assay of noscapine as a negative control reveals the same binding site on the surface of pocket-A near a rigid loop between β2 and α2 interacting with Arg164. This high level of correlation between molecular docking and fluorescence quenching studies confirm that these five compounds are likely to act as inhibitors for prion propagation while

  16. Establishment and Validation of Whole-Cell Based Fluorescence Assays to Identify Anti-Mycobacterial Compounds Using the Acanthamoeba castellanii - Mycobacterium marinum Host-Pathogen System

    PubMed Central

    Kicka, Sébastien; Trofimov, Valentin; Harrison, Christopher; Ouertatani-Sakouhi, Hajer; McKinney, John; Scapozza, Leonardo; Hilbi, Hubert; Cosson, Pierre; Soldati, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is considered to be one of the world’s deadliest disease with 2 million deaths each year. The need for new antitubercular drugs is further exacerbated by the emergence of drug-resistance strains. Despite multiple recent efforts, the majority of the hits discovered by traditional target-based screening showed low efficiency in vivo. Therefore, there is heightened demand for whole-cell based approaches directly using host-pathogen systems. The phenotypic host-pathogen assay described here is based on the monitoring of GFP-expressing Mycobacterium marinum during infection of the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii. The assay showed straight-forward medium-throughput scalability, robustness and ease of manipulation, demonstrating its qualities as an efficient compound screening system. Validation with a series of known antitubercular compounds highlighted the advantages of the assay in comparison to previously published macrophage-Mycobacterium tuberculosis-based screening systems. Combination with secondary growth assays based on either GFP-expressing D. discoideum or M. marinum allowed us to further fine-tune compound characterization by distinguishing and quantifying growth inhibition, cytotoxic properties and antibiotic activities of the compounds. The simple and relatively low cost system described here is most suitable to detect anti-infective compounds, whether they present antibiotic activities or not, in which case they might exert anti-virulence or host defense boosting activities, both of which are largely overlooked by classical screening approaches. PMID:24498207

  17. Dual-component gene detection for H7N9 virus - The combination of optical trapping and bead-based fluorescence assay.

    PubMed

    Cao, Di; Li, Cheng-Yu; Kang, Ya-Feng; Lin, Yi; Cui, Ran; Pang, Dai-Wen; Tang, Hong-Wu

    2016-12-15

    We present a strategy of dual-component gene detection for avian influenza A virus H7N9 by combining optical trapping and bead-based fluorescence bioassays. A low-cost 473nm continuous DPSS laser, polystyrene (PS) beads with two different sizes (3µm and 5µm in diameter) and streptavidin-modified 605nm quantum dots (SA-QDs) were exploited in this platform. The beads were employed to enrich the targets using the classic sandwich mode and tagged with the SA-QDs, then the QDs-tagged beads floating in the suspension were directly trapped and excited by the optical tweezers to give strong and stable fluorescence signal, which was applied to quantify the targets. The distinctive size information from the image of the trapped beads enabled the sorting of the different targets. The results show that tiny laser power 40μW is applicable for both trapping and fluorescence excitation of the beads. Moreover, the limits of detection for hemagglutinin7 (H7) gene and neuraminidase 9 (N9) gene are 1.0-2.0pM with good selectivity for the complex sample, which is two orders of magnitude lower than that of the conventional method. More importantly, this strategy was successfully used to identify the subtype of the avian influenza A virus by simultaneous detection of H7 and N9 gene sequences. The high sensitivity, good selectivity, typing ability and the low cost of the laser make this strategy a promising method for life sciences and clinical applications.

  18. ALA-PpIX variability quantitatively imaged in A431 epidermoid tumors using in vivo ultrasound fluorescence tomography and ex vivo assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DSouza, Alisha V.; Flynn, Brendan P.; Gunn, Jason R.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Anand, Sanjay; Maytin, Edward V.; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2014-03-01

    Treatment monitoring of Aminolevunilic-acid (ALA) - Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) of basal-cell carcinoma (BCC) calls for superficial and subsurface imaging techniques. While superficial imagers exist for this purpose, their ability to assess PpIX levels in thick lesions is poor; additionally few treatment centers have the capability to measure ALA-induced PpIX production. An area of active research is to improve treatments to deeper and nodular BCCs, because treatment is least effective in these. The goal of this work was to understand the logistics and technical capabilities to quantify PpIX at depths over 1mm, using a novel hybrid ultrasound-guided, fiber-based fluorescence molecular spectroscopictomography system. This system utilizes a 633nm excitation laser and detection using filtered spectrometers. Source and detection fibers are collinear so that their imaging plane matches that of ultrasound transducer. Validation with phantoms and tumor-simulating fluorescent inclusions in mice showed sensitivity to fluorophore concentrations as low as 0.025μg/ml at 4mm depth from surface, as presented in previous years. Image-guided quantification of ALA-induced PpIX production was completed in subcutaneous xenograft epidermoid cancer tumor model A431 in nude mice. A total of 32 animals were imaged in-vivo, using several time points, including pre-ALA, 4-hours post-ALA, and 24-hours post-ALA administration. On average, PpIX production in tumors increased by over 10-fold, 4-hours post-ALA. Statistical analysis of PpIX fluorescence showed significant difference among all groups; p<0.05. Results were validated by exvivo imaging of resected tumors. Details of imaging, analysis and results will be presented to illustrate variability and the potential for imaging these values at depth.

  19. Novel fluorescent probe for highly sensitive bioassay using sequential enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-capillary isoelectric focusing (ELISA-cIEF).

    PubMed

    Henares, Terence G; Uenoyama, Yuta; Nogawa, Yuto; Ikegami, Ken; Citterio, Daniel; Suzuki, Koji; Funano, Shun-ichi; Sueyoshi, Kenji; Endo, Tatsuro; Hisamoto, Hideaki

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a novel rhodamine diphosphate molecule that allows highly sensitive detection of proteins by employing sequential enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and capillary isoelectric focusing (ELISA-cIEF). Seven-fold improvement in the immunoassay sensitivity and a 1-2 order of magnitude lower detection limit has been demonstrated by taking advantage of the combination of the enzyme-based signal amplification of ELISA and the concentration of enzyme reaction products by cIEF.

  20. Novel Piperazine Arylideneimidazolones Inhibit the AcrAB-TolC Pump in Escherichia coli and Simultaneously Act as Fluorescent Membrane Probes in a Combined Real-Time Influx and Efflux Assay.

    PubMed

    Bohnert, Jürgen A; Schuster, Sabine; Kern, Winfried V; Karcz, Tadeusz; Olejarz, Agnieszka; Kaczor, Aneta; Handzlik, Jadwiga; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we tested five compounds belonging to a novel series of piperazine arylideneimidazolones for the ability to inhibit the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump. The biphenylmethylene derivative (BM-19) and the fluorenylmethylene derivative (BM-38) were found to possess the strongest efflux pump inhibitor (EPI) activities in the AcrAB-TolC-overproducingEscherichia colistrain 3-AG100, whereas BM-9, BM-27, and BM-36 had no activity at concentrations of up to 50 μM in a Nile red efflux assay. MIC microdilution assays demonstrated that BM-19 at 1/4 MIC (intrinsic MIC, 200 μM) was able to reduce the MICs of levofloxacin, oxacillin, linezolid, and clarithromycin 8-fold. BM-38 at 1/4 MIC (intrinsic MIC, 100 μM) was able to reduce only the MICs of oxacillin and linezolid (2-fold). Both compounds markedly reduced the MIC of rifampin (BM-19, 32-fold; and BM-38, 4-fold), which is suggestive of permeabilization of the outer membrane as an additional mechanism of action. Nitrocefin hydrolysis assays demonstrated that in addition to their EPI activity, both compounds were in fact weak permeabilizers of the outer membrane. Moreover, it was found that BM-19, BM-27, BM-36, and BM-38 acted as near-infrared-emitting fluorescent membrane probes, which allowed for their use in a combined influx and efflux assay and thus for tracking of the transport of an EPI across the outer membrane by an efflux pump in real time. The EPIs BM-38 and BM-19 displayed the most rapid influx of all compounds, whereas BM-27, which did not act as an EPI, showed the slowest influx.

  1. A simple and rapid genotyping assay for simultaneous detection of two ADRB2 allelic variants using fluorescence resonance energy transfer probes and melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Sábato, M Fernanda; Irani, Anne-Marie; Bukaveckas, Bonny L; Schwartz, Lawrence B; Wilkinson, David S; Ferreira-Gonzalez, Andrea

    2008-05-01

    Allelic variants at codons 16 and 27 of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) have shown clinical and pharmacological implications in asthma, hypertension, ischemic heart failure, diabetes, obesity, and cystic fibrosis. We have developed a simultaneous genotyping assay for the c.46A>G and c.79C>G allelic variants using hybridization probes and melting curve analysis. The assay was optimized on a panel of 30 DNA samples of known ADRB2 genotype as determined by sequencing with 100% concordance between the two techniques. Melting temperature (Tm) ranges for the different genotypes were obtained using data from three independent experiments. Single peaks for p.Arg16Arg (Tm = 57.76 degrees C +/- 0.10 degrees C) and p.Gly16Gly (Tm = 66.73 degrees C +/- 0.18 degrees C) and two melting peaks for p.Arg16Gly were obtained. Similarly, single peaks for p.Gln27Gln (Tm = 53.98 degrees C +/- 0.19 degrees C) and p.Glu27Glu (Tm = 64.93 degrees C +/- 0.16 degrees C) and two peaks for p.Gln27Glu were detected. Independent operators easily assigned genotypes in a sample set of 385 asthmatic patients. Haplotype and allele frequencies were in concordance with previously published data: Arg allele frequencies in children/adults were 0.34/0.30 in Caucasians and 0.45/0.52 in African Americans, and Gln allele frequencies were 0.58/0.52 in Caucasians and 0.82/0.84 in African Americans. Thus, the ADRB2 genotyping assay represents a highly reliable and rapid technique for routine clinical use in the simultaneous detection of ADRB2 variants.

  2. A Simple and Rapid Genotyping Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Two ADRB2 Allelic Variants Using Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Probes and Melting Curve Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sábato, M. Fernanda; Irani, Anne-Marie; Bukaveckas, Bonny L.; Schwartz, Lawrence B.; Wilkinson, David S.; Ferreira-Gonzalez, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Allelic variants at codons 16 and 27 of the β2-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) have shown clinical and pharmacological implications in asthma, hypertension, ischemic heart failure, diabetes, obesity, and cystic fibrosis. We have developed a simultaneous genotyping assay for the c.46A>G and c.79C>G allelic variants using hybridization probes and melting curve analysis. The assay was optimized on a panel of 30 DNA samples of known ADRB2 genotype as determined by sequencing with 100% concordance between the two techniques. Melting temperature (Tm) ranges for the different genotypes were obtained using data from three independent experiments. Single peaks for p.Arg16Arg (Tm = 57.76°C ± 0.10°C) and p.Gly16Gly (Tm = 66.73°C ± 0.18°C) and two melting peaks for p.Arg16Gly were obtained. Similarly, single peaks for p.Gln27Gln (Tm = 53.98°C ± 0.19°C) and p.Glu27Glu (Tm = 64.93°C ± 0.16°C) and two peaks for p.Gln27Glu were detected. Independent operators easily assigned genotypes in a sample set of 385 asthmatic patients. Haplotype and allele frequencies were in concordance with previously published data: Arg allele frequencies in children/adults were 0.34/0.30 in Caucasians and 0.45/0.52 in African Americans, and Gln allele frequencies were 0.58/0.52 in Caucasians and 0.82/0.84 in African Americans. Thus, the ADRB2 genotyping assay represents a highly reliable and rapid technique for routine clinical use in the simultaneous detection of ADRB2 variants. PMID:18440968

  3. Smartphone fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hojoeng; Tan, Yafang; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate the first use of smartphone spectrophotometry for readout of fluorescence-based biological assays. We evaluated the smartphone fluorimeter in the context of a fluorescent molecular beacon (MB) assay for detection of a specific nucleic acid sequences in a liquid test sample. The capability of distinguishing a one-point mismatch is also demonstrated by detecting single-base mutation in target nucleic acids. Our approach offers a route towards portable biomolecular assays for viral/bacterial pathogens, disease biomarkers, and toxins.

  4. Smartphone fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hojeong; Tan, Yafang; Cunningham, Brian T

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate the first use of smartphone spectrophotometry for readout of fluorescence-based biological assays. We evaluated the smartphone fluorimeter in the context of a fluorescent molecular beacon (MB) assay for detection of specific nucleic acid sequences in a liquid test sample and compared performance against a conventional laboratory fluorimeter. The capability of distinguishing a one-point mismatch is also demonstrated by detecting single-base mutation in target nucleic acids. Our approach offers a route toward portable biomolecular assays for viral/bacterial pathogens, disease biomarkers, and toxins.

  5. Fluorescence competition assay for the assessment of green leaf volatiles and trans-β-farnesene bound to three odorant-binding proteins in the wheat aphid Sitobion avenae (Fabricius).

    PubMed

    Zhong, Tao; Yin, Jiao; Deng, Sisi; Li, Kebin; Cao, Yazhong

    2012-06-01

    Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are important parts of insect olfactory systems, and sensitive olfaction is vital for phytophagous insects in host foraging. Electrophysiological studies are helpful in understanding olfactory sensing in Sitobion avenae (Hemiptera: Aphididae), but the functions of odorant-binding proteins in this insect are poorly understood. In this study, we used fluorescence competition assays to measure the binding specificities of SaveOBPs. The results showed that both SaveOBP2 and SaveOBP3 were superior to SaveOBP7 in binding green leaf volatiles. It was unexpected that SaveOBP7 bound trans-β-farnesene strongly, which was known as alarm pheromone of this species. Host volatiles were recognized much more easily by SaveOBP2, and the observed binding activity of SaveOBP2 equaled for tested green leaf volatiles. Our results imply that SaveOBP7 might play a more important role in aphid alarm pheromone discrimination.

  6. A streptavidin paramagnetic-particle based competition assay for the evaluation of the optical selectivity of quadruplex nucleic acid fluorescent probes.

    PubMed

    Largy, Eric; Hamon, Florian; Teulade-Fichou, Marie-Paule

    2012-05-01

    Although quadruplex nucleic acids are thought to be involved in many biological processes, they are massively overwhelmed by duplex DNA in the cell. Small molecules, able to probe quadruplex nucleic acids with high optical selectivity, could possibly achieve the visualization of these processes. The aim of the method described herein is to evaluate quickly the optical selectivity of quadruplex nucleic acid probes, in isothermal conditions, using widely available materials, small quantities of oligonucleotides and virtually any kind and quantity of biological competitor. The assay relies on the use of streptavidin-coated paramagnetic particles and biotinylated quadruplex forming oligonucleotides, allowing a quick and easy separation of the quadruplex target from the competitor. In the present study, two quadruplex nucleic acids (the DNA and RNA human telomeric repeats) have been used as targets while a duplex DNA oligonucleotide, total DNA, total RNA, another quadruplex nucleic acid and a protein have been used as competitors. The optical selectivity of various probes, displaying different photophysical properties and binding selectivities, has been successfully examined, allowing the identification of a best candidate for further cell microscopy experiments. This assay allows a quick and reliable assessment of the labeling properties of a quadruplex binder in cellular environment conditions. It is an interesting alternative to gel electrophoresis experiments since it is performed in solution, has a well-resolved separation system and allows easy quantifications.

  7. Pressure Dependent OH and HO2 Calibration of the Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion (FAGE) Instrument Using the Highly Instrumented Reactor for Atmospheric Chemistry (HIRAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winiberg, F.; Smith, S. C.; Seakins, P.

    2012-12-01

    The hydroxyl (OH) and hydroperoxy (HO2) radical are very important tropospheric radical species. The balance between OH and HO2 (the HOx cycle) can give understanding of localised atmospheric composition. OH and HO2 is measured in both ground and aircraft based campaigns using FAGE. Calibration of this non-absolute fluorescence technique is traditionally achieved by H2O photolysis. Operation of FAGE at varying pressure can affect the instrument sensitivity to HOx due to internal fluorescence cell pressure changes. These are traditionally accounted by varying the inlet pinhole size of the instrument, however this may alter the gas expansion and hence the instrument sensitivity to OH and HO2 (COH and CHO2 respectively). Presented here are the initial results from independent OH and HO2 pressure dependent calibration methods using the stainless steel HIRAC chamber, which can operate at various pressures (0.1 - 1 bar). The OH calibration method uses the loss rate of a well characterised hydrocarbon upon reaction with OH to infer the OH concentration measured by FAGE in the HIRAC chamber. A photolytic OH source ((CH3)3COOH) was used and all reactants were measured using calibrated GC-FID and FTIR. For HO2 calibrations, formaldehyde, HCHO, is photolysed (λ < 300 nm) in the presence of O2 to form 2HO2 to steady state, and the post-photolysis HO2 decay is monitored using FAGE. The decay is a function of the second order HO2 self-reaction, for which the rate is well known. As [HO2] = SHO2 x CHO2 (where SHO2 is the FAGE HO2 signal), the second order rate equation can be rearranged and a plot of 1/SHO2 vs. time yields CHO2. Preliminary experiments for the OH calibration method show discrepancies between traditional and hydrocarbon decay techniques. This is thought to be due to as yet unknown OH loss processes and conditioning of the HIRAC chamber. For the HO2 pressure dependent calibrations were in good agreement with traditional methods validating the widely used

  8. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer between ZnSe ZnS quantum dots and bovine serum albumin in bioaffinity assays of anticancer drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Chang; Ding, Li; Zhong, Wenying

    2014-10-01

    In the current work, using ZnSe ZnS quantum dots (QDs) as representative nanoparticles, the affinities of seven anticancer drugs for bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The FRET efficiency of BSA-QD conjugates can reach as high as 24.87% by electrostatic interaction. The higher binding constant (3.63 × 107 L mol-1) and number of binding sites (1.75) between ZnSe ZnS QDs and BSA demonstrated that the QDs could easily associate to plasma proteins and enhance the transport efficacy of drugs. The magnitude of binding constants (103-106 L mol-1), in the presence of QDs, was between drugs-BSA and drugs-QDs in agreement with common affinities of drugs for serum albumins (104-106 L mol-1) in vivo. ZnSe ZnS QDs significantly increased the affinities for BSA of Vorinostat (SAHA), Docetaxel (DOC), Carmustine (BCNU), Doxorubicin (Dox) and 10-Hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT). However, they slightly reduced the affinities of Vincristine (VCR) and Methotrexate (MTX) for BSA. The recent work will not only provide useful information for appropriately understanding the binding affinity and binding mechanism at the molecular level, but also illustrate the ZnSe ZnS QDs are perfect candidates for nanoscal drug delivery system (DDS).

  9. Fluorescent organic nanoparticles of dihydropyrimidone derivatives for selective recognition of iodide using a displacement assay: application of the sensors in water and biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amanpreet; Raj, Tilak; Kaur, Simanpreet; Singh, Narinder; Kaur, Navneet

    2015-01-28

    Fluorescent organic nanoparticles (FON's) derived from dihydropyrimidone derivatives (1-4) were developed and evaluated for their sensor properties. Nano-aggregates of compound 3 and 4 resulted in sensors. Nano-aggregates of compound 3 showed enhancement in the monomer peaks of the pyrene moiety after the addition of mercury. Nano-aggregates of compound 4 resulted in quenching of intensity upon addition of Hg(2+). On the other hand, no sensor activity was recorded for nano-aggregates of compounds 1 and 2. Further, the complex of nano-aggregates of 3 and mercury (3·Hg(2+)) recognised iodide ions by showing quenching in monomer and excimer emission with a detection limit of 0.2 nM in aqueous medium; however the resultant metal complex 4·Hg(2+) does not show any anion sensing activity. Receptor 3·Hg(2+) has a highly sensitive and selective response toward I(-) ions. Therefore, the iodide content of tap water, urine and blood serum is monitored using this sensor and it is found that the sensor can detect a range of iodide in tap water, urine and blood serum. To the best of our knowledge, the system represents the first example of iodide recognition using FONs.

  10. Determination of the beta-glucosidase activity in different soils by pre capillary enzyme assay using capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Stege, Patricia W; Messina, Germán A; Bianchi, Guillermo; Olsina, Roberto A

    2010-03-01

    Enzyme activities can provide indication for quantitative changes in soil organic matter (SOM). It is known that the activities of most enzymes increase as native SOM content reflecting larger microbial communities and stabilization of enzymes on humic materials. Beta-glucosidase (beta-Glu) activities have been frequently used as indicators of changes in quantity and quality of SOM. In this study we propose a simple and very sensitive method, which has lower limit of detection compared with classic spectrophotometric method with the aim of determinate the beta-Glu activity in soil samples using Fluorescein mono-beta-D-glucopyranoside (FMGlc) as a substrate. The fluorescein released by the enzymatic reaction was quantified by capillary electrophoresis-laser induced fluorescence (CE-LIF) method. The background electrolyte (BGE) consisted in 40 mM phosphate buffer, pH 6. The LOD and LOQ for fluorescein were 1.3 10(-7) mg mL(-1) and 6.4 10(-6) mg mL(-1), respectively. This work deals with the minimization of the mixture for the enzymatic reaction and with the optimization conditions of CE separation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that an enzymatic activity was detected in soil using CE-LIF system.

  11. A novel fluorescence-based assay for measuring A2E removal from human retinal pigment epithelial cells to screen for age-related macular degeneration inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hong Lan; Lee, Sung-Chan; Kwon, Yong Sam; Choung, Se-Young; Jeong, Kwang Won

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common retinal disease that leads to irreversible central vision loss in the elderly population. Recent studies have identified many factors related to the development of dry AMD, such as aging, cigarette smoking, genetic predispositions, and oxidative stress, eventually inducing the accumulation of lipofuscin, which is one of the most critical risk factors. One of the major lipofuscins in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine (also known as A2E), a pyridinium bis-retinoid. Currently there is a lack of effective therapy to prevent or restore vision loss caused by dry AMD. Recent studies have shown that 430 nm blue light induces the oxidation of A2E and the activation of caspase-3 to subsequently cause the death of RPE cells, suggesting that removal of A2E from retinal pigment cells might be critical for preventing AMD. Here, we developed a fluorescence-labeled A2E analog (A2E-BDP) that functions similar to A2E in RPE cells, but is more sensitive to detection than A2E. A2E-BDP-based tracing of intracellular A2E will be helpful, not only for studying the accumulation and removal of A2E in human RPE cells but also for identifying possible inhibitors of AMD. PMID:26604166

  12. Doing more with less: fluorescence in situ hybridization and gene sequencing assays can be reliably performed on archival stained tumor tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Pelosi, Giuseppe; Perrone, Federica; Tamborini, Elena; Fabbri, Alessandra; Testi, Maria Adele; Busico, Adele; Settanni, Giulio; Picciani, Benedetta; Bovio, Enrica; Sonzogni, Angelica; Valeri, Barbara; Garassino, Marina; De Braud, Filippo; Pastorino, Ugo

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about molecular testing on tumor tissue retrieved from stained sections, for which there may be a clinical need. We retrospectively analyzed 112 sections from 56 tumor patients using either fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with different probes (19 sections from 17 patients) or Sanger or targeted next generation sequencing for detection of BRAF, EGFR, KRAS, C-KIT, and TP53 mutations (93 sections from 39 patients). Tumor tissue sections had been stained by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) (42 sections) or by immunohistochemistry for cytoplasmic or nuclear/nuclear-cytoplasmic markers (70 sections) with a peroxidase (P-IHC, with 3,3'-diaminobenzidine as chromogen) or alkaline phosphatase label (AP-IHC, with Warp Red™ as chromogen). For FISH analysis, the concordance rate between the original diagnosis and that obtained on H&E- or P-IHC-stained tissue sections (AP-IHC was not on record for this set of patients) was 95% (18 out of 19 tumor sections). Only one tumor sample, diffusely positive for MLH1, did not yield any nuclear hybridization signal. For sequencing analysis, the concordance rate was 100% on negative P-IHC and positive AP-IHC-stained sections, regardless of the subcellular localization of the reaction product. Mutations were detected in only 52% of cases expressing nuclear/nuclear-cytoplasmic markers, regardless of the sequencing technology used (p = 0.0002). In conclusion, stained sections may be a valuable resource for FISH or sequencing analysis, but on cases expressing nuclear markers sequencing results need to be interpreted cautiously.

  13. Prognostic Significance of Mixed-Lineage Leukemia (MLL) Gene Detected by Real-Time Fluorescence Quantitative PCR Assay in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Sai; Yang, Hua; Li, Yan; Feng, Cong; Gao, Li; Chen, Guo-feng; Gao, Hong-hao; Huang, Zhi; Li, Yong-hui; Yu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Background The overall prognosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) gene-positivity is unfavorable. In this study, we evaluated the expression levels of the MLL gene in AML patients. Material/Methods We enrolled 68 MLL gene-positive patients out of 433 newly diagnosed AML patients, and 216 bone marrow samples were collected. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) was used to precisely detect the expression levels of the MLL gene. Results We divided 41 patients into 2 groups according to the variation of MRD (minimal residual disease) level of the MLL gene. Group 1 (n=22) had a rapid reduction of MRD level to ≤10−4 in all samples collected in the first 3 chemotherapy cycles, while group 2 (n=19) had MRD levels constantly >10−4 in all samples collected in the first 3 chemotherapy cycles. Group 1 had a significantly better overall survival (p=0.001) and event-free survival (p=0.001) compared to group 2. Moreover, the patients with >10−4 MRD level before the start of HSCT (hematopoietic stem cell transplantation) had worse prognosis and higher risk of relapse compared to patients with ≤10−4 before the start of HSCT. Conclusions We found that a rapid reduction of MRD level to ≤10−4 appears to be a prerequisite for better overall survival and event-free survival during the treatment of AML. The MRD levels detected by RQ-PCR were basically in line with the clinical outcome and may be of great importance in guiding early allogeneic HSCT (allo-HSCT) treatment. PMID:27561414

  14. Use of a fluorescent imaging plate reader--based calcium assay to assess pharmacological differences between the human and rat vanilloid receptor.

    PubMed

    Witte, David G; Cassar, Steven C; Masters, Jeffrey N; Esbenshade, Timothy; Hancock, Arthur A

    2002-10-01

    The cloned vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1) is a ligand-gated calcium channel that is believed to be the capsaicin-activated vanilloid receptor found in native tissues, based on similarities regarding molecular mass, tissue distribution, and electrophysiological properties. Using a Fluorescent Imaging Plate Reader (FLIPR), along with Fluo-3 to signal intracellular calcium levels ([Ca(++)](i)), rat VR1 (rVR1) and a human orthologue (hVR1) were pharmacologically characterized with various VR1 ligands. HEK-293 cells, stably expressing rVR1 or hVR1, exhibited dose-dependent increases in [Ca(++)](i) when challenged with capsaicin (EC(50)s congruent with 10 nM). Responses to capsaicin were blocked by the VR1 antagonist capsazepine and were dependent on VR1 expression. Potencies for 10 structurally diverse VR1 agonists revealed rVR1 potencies highly correlated to that of hVR1 (R(2) = 0.973). However, a subset of agonists (tinyatoxin, gingerol, and zingerone) was approximately 10-fold more potent for rVR1 compared to hVR1. Schild analysis for blockade of capsaicin-induced responses by capsazepine was consistent with competitive antagonism, whereas ruthenium red displayed noncompetitive antagonism. Compared to rVR1, hVR1 was more sensitive to blockade by both antagonists. For both rVR1 and hVR1, time-response waveforms elicited by resiniferatoxin increased more gradually compared to other agonists. Tinyatoxin also displayed slow responses with hVR1 but showed rapid responses with rVR1. Thus, FLIPR technology can be used to readily reveal differences between rVR1 and hVR1 pharmacology with respect to potencies, efficacies, and kinetics for several VR1 ligands.

  15. Doing more with less: fluorescence in situ hybridization and gene sequencing assays can be reliably performed on archival stained tumor tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Pelosi, Giuseppe; Perrone, Federica; Tamborini, Elena; Fabbri, Alessandra; Testi, Maria Adele; Busico, Adele; Settanni, Giulio; Picciani, Benedetta; Bovio, Enrica; Sonzogni, Angelica; Valeri, Barbara; Garassino, Marina; De Braud, Filippo; Pastorino, Ugo

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about molecular testing on tumor tissue retrieved from stained sections, for which there may be a clinical need. We retrospectively analyzed 112 sections from 56 tumor patients using either fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with different probes (19 sections from 17 patients) or Sanger or targeted next generation sequencing for detection of BRAF, EGFR, KRAS, C-KIT, and TP53 mutations (93 sections from 39 patients). Tumor tissue sections had been stained by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) (42 sections) or by immunohistochemistry for cytoplasmic or nuclear/nuclear-cytoplasmic markers (70 sections) with a peroxidase (P-IHC, with 3,3'-diaminobenzidine as chromogen) or alkaline phosphatase label (AP-IHC, with Warp Red™ as chromogen). For FISH analysis, the concordance rate between the original diagnosis and that obtained on H&E- or P-IHC-stained tissue sections (AP-IHC was not on record for this set of patients) was 95% (18 out of 19 tumor sections). Only one tumor sample, diffusely positive for MLH1, did not yield any nuclear hybridization signal. For sequencing analysis, the concordance rate was 100% on negative P-IHC and positive AP-IHC-stained sections, regardless of the subcellular localization of the reaction product. Mutations were detected in only 52% of cases expressing nuclear/nuclear-cytoplasmic markers, regardless of the sequencing technology used (p = 0.0002). In conclusion, stained sections may be a valuable resource for FISH or sequencing analysis, but on cases expressing nuclear markers sequencing results need to be interpreted cautiously. PMID:26818831

  16. Expanding Targets of DNAzyme-based Sensors through Deactivation and Activation of DNAzymes by Single Uracil Removal: Sensitive Fluorescent Assay of Uracil-DNA Glycosylase

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Although deoxyribozymes (DNAzymes) have been widely used as biosensors for the detection of their cofactors and the targets of related aptazymes, it is desirable to expand their range of analytes to take advantage of the DNAzyme-based signal amplification for more sensitive detections. In this study, the activity of uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG) was successfully detected and quantified by deoxyuridine-modified DNAzymes that underwent UNG-dependent deactivation or activation. In one design, the indispensable thymidine T2.1 in the 8–17 DNAzyme was replaced with a deoxyuridine, resulting in minimal change of the DNAzyme’s activity. Since UNG is capable of removing uracils from single- or double-stranded DNAs, the modified DNAzyme was deactivated when the uracil at the indispensable thymidine site was eliminated by UNG. In another design, introducing a deoxyuridine to the 3′ position of the deoxycytidine C13 in the catalytic core of the same DNAzyme caused significant decrease of the activity. However, the removal of the interfering deoxyuridine by UNG activated the DNAzyme. By monitoring the activity change of the DNAzymes through the fluorescence enhancement from the DNAzyme-catalyzed cleavage of DNA substrates labeled by a fluorophore and quencher pair, the UNG activity was measured based on UNG-dependent deactivation and activation of the DNAzymes. The method was found to be able to detect UNG activity as low as 0.0034 U/mL. Such a method can be applied to the detection of other nucleotide-modifying enzymes and expand the analyte range of DNAzyme-based biosensors. PMID:23072386

  17. Unravelling the Bacterial Vaginosis-Associated Biofilm: A Multiplex Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Assay Using Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Liselotte; Jespers, Vicky; Dahchour, Nassira; Mwambarangwe, Lambert; Musengamana, Viateur; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Crucitti, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a condition defined by increased vaginal discharge without significant inflammation, is characterized by a change in the bacterial composition of the vagina. Lactobacillus spp., associated with a healthy vaginal microbiome, are outnumbered by BV-associated organisms. These bacteria could form a polymicrobial biofilm which allows them to persist in spite of antibiotic treatment. In this study, we examined the presence of Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae in vaginal biofilms using Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA) probes targeting these bacteria. For this purpose, we developed three new PNA probes for A. vaginae. The most specific A. vaginae probe, AtoITM1, was selected and then used in an assay with two existing probes, Gard162 and BacUni-1, to evaluate multiplex FISH on clinical samples. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) as the gold standard, we demonstrated a sensitivity of 66.7% (95% confidence interval: 54.5% - 77.1%) and a specificity of 89.4% (95% confidence interval: 76.1% - 96%) of the new AtoITM1 probe. FISH enabled us to show the presence of a polymicrobial biofilm in bacterial vaginosis, in which Atopobium vaginae is part of a Gardnerella vaginalis-dominated biofilm. We showed that the presence of this biofilm is associated with high bacterial loads of A. vaginae and G. vaginalis. PMID:26305575

  18. Label-free characterization of carbonic anhydrase-novel inhibitor interactions using surface plasmon resonance, isothermal titration calorimetry and fluorescence-based thermal shift assays.

    PubMed

    Rogez-Florent, Tiphaine; Duhamel, Laetitia; Goossens, Laurence; Six, Perrine; Drucbert, Anne-Sophie; Depreux, Patrick; Danzé, Pierre-Marie; Landy, David; Goossens, Jean-François; Foulon, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This work describes the development of biophysical unbiased methods to study the interactions between new designed compounds and carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) enzyme. These methods have to permit both a screening of a series of sulfonamide derivatives and the identification of a lead compound after a thorough study of the most promising molecules. Interactions data were collected using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and thermal shift assay (TSA). In the first step, experiments were performed with bovine CAII isoform and were extended to human CAII. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) experiments were also conducted to obtain thermodynamics parameters necessary for the processing of the TSA data. Results obtained with this reference methodology demonstrate the effectiveness of SPR and TSA. KD values obtained from SPR data were in perfect accordance with ITC. For TSA, despite the fact that the absolute values of KD were quite different, the same affinity scale was obtained for all compounds. The binding affinities of the analytes studied vary by more than 50 orders of magnitude; for example, the KD value determined by SPR were 6 ± 4 and 299 ± 25 nM for compounds 1 and 3, respectively. This paper discusses some of the theoretical and experimental aspects of the affinity-based methods and evaluates the protein consumption to develop methods for the screening of further new compounds. The double interest of SPR, that is, for screening and for the quick thorough study of the interactions parameters (ka , kd , and KD ), leads us to choose this methodology for the study of new potential inhibitors.

  19. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins

    DOEpatents

    Bradbury, Andrew M.; Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Kiss, Csaba

    2011-03-22

    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  20. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins

    DOEpatents

    Bradbury, Andrew M.; Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Kiss, Csaba

    2012-05-01

    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  1. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins

    DOEpatents

    Bradbury, Andrew M.; Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Kiss, Csaba

    2011-11-29

    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  2. A novel quantitative assay of mitophagy: Combining high content fluorescence microscopy and mitochondrial DNA load to quantify mitophagy and identify novel pharmacological tools against pathogenic heteroplasmic mtDNA.

    PubMed

    Diot, Alan; Hinks-Roberts, Alex; Lodge, Tiffany; Liao, Chunyan; Dombi, Eszter; Morten, Karl; Brady, Stefen; Fratter, Carl; Carver, Janet; Muir, Rebecca; Davis, Ryan; Green, Charlotte J; Johnston, Iain; Hilton-Jones, David; Sue, Carolyn; Mortiboys, Heather; Poulton, Joanna

    2015-10-01

    Mitophagy is a cellular mechanism for the recycling of mitochondrial fragments. This process is able to improve mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) quality in heteroplasmic mtDNA disease, in which mutant mtDNA co-exists with normal mtDNA. In disorders where the load of mutant mtDNA determines disease severity it is likely to be an important determinant of disease progression. Measuring mitophagy is technically demanding. We used pharmacological modulators of autophagy to validate two techniques for quantifying mitophagy. First we used the IN Cell 1000 analyzer to quantify mitochondrial co-localisation with LC3-II positive autophagosomes. Unlike conventional fluorescence and electron microscopy, this high-throughput system is sufficiently sensitive to detect transient low frequency autophagosomes. Secondly, because mitophagy preferentially removes pathogenic heteroplasmic mtDNA mutants, we developed a heteroplasmy assay based on loss of m.3243A>G mtDNA, during culture conditions requiring oxidative metabolism ("energetic stress"). The effects of the pharmacological modulators on these two measures were consistent, confirming that the high throughput imaging output (autophagosomes co-localising with mitochondria) reflects mitochondrial quality control. To further validate these methods, we performed a more detailed study using metformin, the most commonly prescribed antidiabetic drug that is still sometimes used in Maternally Inherited Diabetes and Deafness (MIDD). This confirmed our initial findings and revealed that metformin inhibits mitophagy at clinically relevant concentrations, suggesting that it may have novel therapeutic uses. PMID:26196248

  3. Data transformation methods for multiplexed assays

    DOEpatents

    Tammero, Lance F. Bentley; Dzenitis, John M; Hindson, Benjamin J

    2013-07-23

    Methods to improve the performance of an array assay are described. A correlation between fluorescence intensity-related parameters and negative control values of the assay is determined. The parameters are then adjusted as a function of the correlation. As a result, sensitivity of the assay is improved without changes in its specificity.

  4. The differences in short- and long-term varicella-zoster virus (VZV) immunoglobulin G levels following varicella vaccination of healthcare workers measured by VZV fluorescent-antibody-to-membrane-antigen assay (FAMA), VZV time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay and a VZV purified glycoprotein enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Maple, P A C; Haedicke, J; Quinlivan, M; Steinberg, S P; Gershon, A A; Brown, K E; Breuer, J

    2016-08-01

    Healthcare workers (HCWs) reporting no history of varicella frequently receive varicella vaccination (vOka) if they test varicella-zoster virus (VZV) immunoglobulin G (IgG) negative. In this study, the utilities of VZV-IgG time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (VZV-TRFIA) and a commercial VZV-IgG purified glycoprotein enzyme immunoassay (gpEIA) currently used in England for confirming VZV immunity have been compared to the fluorescent-antibody-to-membrane-antigen assay (FAMA). A total of 110 HCWs received two doses of vOka vaccine spaced 6 weeks apart and sera collected pre-vaccination (n = 100), at 6 weeks post-completion of vaccination (n = 86) and at 12-18 months follow-up (n = 73) were analysed. Pre-vaccination, by FAMA, 61·0% sera were VZV IgG negative, and compared to FAMA the sensitivities of VZV-TRFIA and gpEIA were 74·4% [95% confidence interval (CI) 57·9-87·0] and 46·2% (95% CI 30·1-62·8), respectively. Post-completion of vaccination the seroconversion rate by FAMA was 93·7% compared to rates of 95·8% and 70·8% determined by VZV-TRFIA and gpEIA, respectively. At 12-18 months follow-up seropositivity rates by FAMA, VZV-TRFIA and gpEIA were 78·1%, 74·0% and 47·9%, respectively. Compared to FAMA the sensitivities of VZV-TRFIA and gpEIA for measuring VZV IgG following vaccination were 96·4% (95% CI 91·7-98·8) and 74·6% (95% CI 66·5-81·6), respectively. Using both FAMA and VZV-TRFIA to identify healthy adult VZV susceptibles and measure seroconversion showed that vOka vaccination of HCWs is highly immunogenic.

  5. Rough lipopolysaccharide of Brucella abortus RB51 as a common antigen for serological detection of B. ovis, B. canis, and B. abortus RB51 exposure using indirect enzyme immunoassay and fluorescence polarization assay.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, K; Smith, P; Conde, S; Draghi de Benitez, G; Gall, D; Halbert, G; Kenny, K; Massengill, C; Muenks, Q; Rojas, X; Perez, B; Samartino, L; Silva, P; Tollersrud, T; Jolley, M

    2004-01-01

    Rough lipopolysaccharide (RLPS) antigens were prepared from cultures of Brucella abortus RB51, B. ovis, and B. canis. The preparations were standardized by weight and tested with sera from cattle immunized with B. abortus RB51, sheep infected with B. ovis, and dogs infected with B. canis. Populations of unexposed animals of each species were also tested. The tests used were the indirect enzyme immunoassay (IELISA) using RLPS and the fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) using RLPS core fractions, labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate. The IELISA using B. abortus RB51 RLPS antigen resulted in sensitivity and specificity values of 94.8% and 97.3%, respectively, when testing bovine sera, 98.5% and 97.8% when testing ovine sera, and 95.8% and 100% when testing dog sera. The IELISA using B. ovis RLPS antigen gave sensitivity and specificity values of 80.5% and 91.7%, respectively with bovine sera, 98.9% and 93.8% with sheep sera, and 70.8% and 79.8% with dog sera. The IELISA using B. canis RLPS antigen resulted in sensitivity and specificity values of 97.0% and 97.4%, respectively, with bovine sera, 96.2% and 96.3% with sheep sera, and 95.8% and 98.8% with dog sera. Labeling RLPS core from B. ovis and B. canis with fluorescein was not successful. B. abortus RB51 core labeled with fluorescein resulted in sensitivity and specificity values of 93.5% and 99.8%, respectively, with bovine sera and 78.1% and 99.0% with sheep sera. It was not possible to test the dog sera in the FPA.

  6. Development of a new Laser Photofragmentation/Fluorescent Assay by Gas Expansion (LP/FAGE) technique for the quantification of tropospheric nitrous acid (HONO) at low parts-per-trillion mixing ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielke, L. H.; Lew, M.; Bottorff, B.; Berke, A.; Raff, J. D.; Stevens, P. S.; Dusanter, S.

    2013-12-01

    Determining the full oxidative capacity of the atmosphere is vital to understanding the production of secondary pollutants such as ozone and secondary organic aerosols and for regulating the lifetime of pollutants leading to climate change. The hydroxyl radical is the primary oxidant of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the troposphere. Nocturnal nitrous acid (HONO) is an important radical reservoir species and releases OH upon photolysis the next morning. In addition, recent studies have indicated higher than expected mixing ratios of HONO in the daytime. As daytime HONO mixing ratios usually maximize at only a couple hundred part-per-trillion, it is important to have a technique that is accurate, sensitive, and precise. Here we outline an instrumental technique called Laser Photofragmention/Fluorescent Assay by Gas Expansion (LP/FAGE). Ambient air is drawn through an inlet composed of a 1' diameter metal disk with a 0.025' cylindrically bored hole where it undergoes expansion into a cell held at ~3 torr. Fiber coupled laser emission (YILF: 355 nm, 2.2 W) induces photofragmentation of HONO to OH and NO whereby the OH is quantified by the FAGE technique using a fiber coupled 308 nm (6 mW) laser emission. The 355 nm and 308 nm emission are single pass, collinear, and separated only by the time delay of the pulses. To differentiate ambient OH from HONO-generated-OH, a shutter is used to block the 355 nm laser emission for a given period of time. Fluorescence from OH vs. fluorescence from interfering species can be differentiated by scanning on and off a specific rovibronic feature in the OH absorbance spectra. In this presentation we outline the instrumental technique, including its calibration in which effluent from an HCl permeation device is humidified and passed over a bed of sodium nitrate coated glass beads. The calibrator output is varied from 1 to several tens of parts-per-billions (ppb) and is detected using a chemiluminescence NOx analyzer. The

  7. Preliminary Development of a DNA Aptamer-Magnetic Bead Capture Electrochemiluminescence Sandwich Assay for Brain Natriuretic Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, John G.; Richarte, Alicia M.; Phillips, Taylor

    2014-01-01

    Fifty-two candidate DNA aptamer sequences were selected for binding to the cardiovascular biomarker B-type or brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). Candidate aptamers were screened to rank their relative affinities against BNP by an aptamer-based ELISA-like aptamer microplate assay (ELASA). The highest affinity aptamers from ELASA screening were also paired in all possible combinations and screened for electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assay potential in capture aptamer-magnetic bead and ruthenium trisbipyridine (Ru(bpy)32+)-reporter aptamer sandwich formats. The top ECL sandwich combinations utilized the same aptamer pair in either capture or reporting roles with nanogram to low picogram per mL levels of detection even in 50% human serum. ECL assay sensitivity and linearity even in 50% human serum suggest that the aptamer-based assay is at least comparable to other reported immunoassays for BNP. PMID:24764602

  8. Flow cytometer measurement of binding assays

    DOEpatents

    Saunders, George C.

    1987-01-01

    A method of measuring the result of a binding assay that does not require separation of fluorescent smaller particles is disclosed. In a competitive binding assay the smaller fluorescent particles coated with antigen compete with antigen in the sample being analyzed for available binding sites on larger particles. In a sandwich assay, the smaller, fluorescent spheres coated with antibody attach themselves to molecules containing antigen that are attached to larger spheres coated with the same antibody. The separation of unattached, fluorescent smaller particles is made unnecessary by only counting the fluorescent events triggered by the laser of a flow cytometer when the event is caused by a particle with a light scatter measurement within a certain range corresponding to the presence of larger particles.

  9. Cellulase Assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. H. Percival; Hong, Jiong; Ye, Xinhao

    Cellulose is a heterogeneous polysaccharide, and its enzymatic hydrolysis requires endoglucanase, exoglucanase (cellobiohydrolase), and β-glucosidase to work together. We summarize the most commonly used assays for individual enzymes and cellulase mixture.

  10. Integrated Fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuma, Margaret (Inventor); Gruhlke, Russell W. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A detection method is integrated with a filtering method and an enhancement method to create a fluorescence sensor that can be miniaturized. The fluorescence sensor comprises a thin film geometry including a waveguide layer, a metal film layer and sensor layer. The thin film geometry of the fluorescence sensor allows the detection of fluorescent radiation over a narrow wavelength interval. This enables wavelength discrimination and eliminates the detection of unwanted light from unknown or spurious sources.

  11. Multiplex Flow Assays

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Lateral flow or dipstick assays (e.g., home pregnancy tests), where an analyte solution is drawn through a porous membrane and is detected by localization onto a capture probe residing at a specific site on the flow strip, are the most commonly and extensively used type of diagnostic assay. However, after over 30 years of use, these assays are constrained to measuring one or a few analytes at a time. Here, we describe a completely general method, in which any single-plex lateral flow assay is transformed into a multiplex assay capable of measuring an arbitrarily large number of analytes simultaneously. Instead of identifying the analyte by its localization onto a specific geometric location in the flow medium, the analyte-specific capture probe is identified by its association with a specific optically encoded region within the flow medium. The capture probes for nucleic acids, antigens, or antibodies are attached to highly porous agarose beads, which have been encoded using multiple lanthanide emitters to create a unique optical signature for each capture probe. The optically encoded capture probe-derivatized beads are placed in contact with the analyte-containing porous flow medium and the analytes are captured onto the encoded regions as the solution flows through the porous medium. To perform a multiplex diagnostic assay, a solution comprising multiple analytes is passed through the flow medium containing the capture probe-derivatized beads, and the captured analyte is treated with a suitable fluorescent reporter. We demonstrate this multiplex analysis technique by simultaneously measuring DNA samples, antigen–antibody pairs, and mixtures of multiple nucleic acids and antibodies.

  12. Dual fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay between tunable upconversion nanoparticles and controlled gold nanoparticles for the simultaneous detection of Pb²⁺ and Hg²⁺.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shijia; Duan, Nuo; Shi, Zhao; Fang, Congcong; Wang, Zhouping

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we presented a novel dual fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) system for the simultaneous detection of Pb(2+) and Hg(2+). This system employed two color upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) as the donors, and controlled gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as the acceptors. The two donor-acceptor pairs were fabricated by hybridizing the aptamers and their corresponding complementary DNA. Thus, the green and red upconversion fluorescence could be quenched because of a good overlap between the UCNPs fluorescence emission and the AuNPs absorption spectrum. In the presence of Pb(2+) and Hg(2+), the aptamers preferred to bind to their corresponding analytes and formed a G-quadruplexes structure for Pb(2+) and the hairpin-like structure for Hg(2+). As a result, the dual FRET was disrupted, and the green and red upconversion fluorescence was restored. Under optimized experimental conditions, the relative fluorescence intensity increased as the metal ion concentrations were increased, allowing for the quantification of Pb(2+) and Hg(2+). The relationships between the fluorescence intensity and plotting logarithms of ion concentrations were linear in the range from 0.1 to 100 nM for Pb(2+) and 0.5 to 500 nM for Hg(2+), and the detection limits of Pb(2+) and Hg(2+) were 50 pM and 150 pM, respectively. As a practical application, the aptasensor was used to monitor Pb(2+) and Hg(2+) levels in naturally contaminated samples and human serum samples. Ultimately, this type of dual FRET could be used to detect other metal ions or contaminants in food safety analysis and environment monitoring.

  13. Fluorescent complex of pyoverdin with aluminum.

    PubMed

    del Olmo, A; Caramelo, C; SanJose, C

    2003-12-01

    When a pyoverdin (PV), (a siderophore) from Pseudomonas fluorescens, binds aluminum 1:1, its natural fluorescence almost doubles, whereas PV-Fe is non-fluorescent. Complex formation allows [Al] determination down to 1 mug/l. Fe(III) in the sample interferes with [Al] determination, but added after PV, improves the assay's performance. Ascorbic acid does not eliminate Fe(III) interference. PV-Al fluorescence could have analytical and toxicological applications. PMID:14568244

  14. Plaque assay for murine norovirus.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Hernandez, Mariam B; Bragazzi Cunha, Juliana; Wobus, Christiane E

    2012-01-01

    Murine norovirus (MNV) is the only member of the Norovirus genus that efficiently grows in tissue culture. Cell lysis and cytopathic effect (CPE) are observed during MNV-1 infection of murine dendritic cells or macrophages. This property of MNV-1 can be used to quantify the number of infectious particles in a given sample by performing a plaque assay. The plaque assay relies on the ability of MNV-1 to lyse cells and to form holes in a confluent cell monolayer, which are called plaques. Multiple techniques can be used to detect viral infections in tissue culture, harvested tissue, clinical, and environmental samples, but not all measure the number of infectious particles (e.g. qRT-PCR). One way to quantify infectious viral particles is to perform a plaque assay, which will be described in detail below. A variation on the MNV plaque assay is the fluorescent focus assay, where MNV antigen is immunostained in cell monolayers. This assay can be faster, since viral antigen expression precedes plaque formation. It is also useful for titrating viruses unable to form plaques. However, the fluorescent focus assay requires additional resources beyond those of the plaque assay, such as antibodies and a microscope to count focus-forming units. Infectious MNV can also be quantified by determining the 50% Tissue Culture Infective Dose (TCID50). This assay measures the amount of virus required to produce CPE in 50% of inoculated tissue culture cells by endpoint titration. However, its limit of detection is higher compared to a plaque assay. In this article, we describe a plaque assay protocol that can be used to effectively determine the number of infectious MNV particles present in biological or environmental samples. This method is based on the preparation of 10-fold serial dilutions of MNV-containing samples, which are used to inoculate a monolayer of permissive cells (RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells). Virus is allowed to attach to the cell monolayer for a given period of

  15. Fluorescent refrigeration

    DOEpatents

    Epstein, Richard I.; Edwards, Bradley C.; Buchwald, Melvin I.; Gosnell, Timothy R.

    1995-01-01

    Fluorescent refrigeration is based on selective radiative pumping, using substantially monochromatic radiation, of quantum excitations which are then endothermically redistributed to higher energies. Ultimately, the populated energy levels radiatively deexcite emitting, on the average, more radiant energy than was initially absorbed. The material utilized to accomplish the cooling must have dimensions such that the exciting radiation is strongly absorbed, but the fluorescence may exit the material through a significantly smaller optical pathlength. Optical fibers and mirrored glasses and crystals provide this requirement.

  16. Assaying DNA damage in hippocampal neurons using the comet assay.

    PubMed

    Nowsheen, Somaira; Xia, Fen; Yang, Eddy S

    2012-12-19

    A number of drugs target the DNA repair pathways and induce cell kill by creating DNA damage. Thus, processes to directly measure DNA damage have been extensively evaluated. Traditional methods are time consuming, expensive, resource intensive and require replicating cells. In contrast, the comet assay, a single cell gel electrophoresis assay, is a faster, non-invasive, inexpensive, direct and sensitive measure of DNA damage and repair. All forms of DNA damage as well as DNA repair can be visualized at the single cell level using this powerful technique. The principle underlying the comet assay is that intact DNA is highly ordered whereas DNA damage disrupts this organization. The damaged DNA seeps into the agarose matrix and when subjected to an electric field, the negatively charged DNA migrates towards the cathode which is positively charged. The large undamaged DNA strands are not able to migrate far from the nucleus. DNA damage creates smaller DNA fragments which travel farther than the intact DNA. Comet Assay, an image analysis software, measures and compares the overall fluorescent intensity of the DNA in the nucleus with DNA that has migrated out of the nucleus. Fluorescent signal from the migrated DNA is proportional to DNA damage. Longer brighter DNA tail signifies increased DNA damage. Some of the parameters that are measured are tail moment which is a measure of both the amount of DNA and distribution of DNA in the tail, tail length and percentage of DNA in the tail. This assay allows to measure DNA repair as well since resolution of DNA damage signifies repair has taken place. The limit of sensitivity is approximately 50 strand breaks per diploid mammalian cell (1,2). Cells treated with any DNA damaging agents, such as etoposide, may be used as a positive control. Thus the comet assay is a quick and effective procedure to measure DNA damage.

  17. Neuraminidase assays.

    PubMed

    Aymard, M; Ferraris, O; Gerentes, L; Jolly, J; Kessler, N

    2003-01-01

    Anti-neuraminidase (NA) antibodies (Ab) play a role in protection against influenza and in combination with anti-HA Ab they increase the protection in mice. To control the NA content of vaccines, which should improve vaccine standardisation and may benefit vaccine efficacy, a series of questions must be addressed: 1) The antigenic characterization of NA in vaccine strains and seed lots is based on the measurement of the enzymatic (E) activity using fetuin as substrate. The antigenic profile is established by inhibiting the E activity with post infectious ferret antisera. Overnight incubation ensures sensitivity, and fetuin substrate gives specificity by detection of variant specific antibodies. Several difficulties have to be overcome, such as the low level of E activity in MDCK grown viruses, and the lability of N1. 2) The NA protein content of the vaccines (in bulk or final product) can be measured by an ELISA capture test but the lability of the NA proteins at 4 degrees C must be checked. 3) The anti NA Ab response can be measured using a neuraminidase inhibition test. --The steric hindrance by HI antibodies does not exceed a titre of 20 in human sera. --Triton treatment of viruses reduces the steric hindrance in polyclonal sera and monoclonal antibodies but unmasks epitopes. 4) The correlations between neuraminidase inhibition, neutralization and protection, has been established in the mouse model, but remains to be shown in humans. 5) The use of a small fluorescent (MUN) or chemiluminescent (NA-STAR) substrate can be used for the rapid differentiation of N1 from N2 and NB, but not for the titration of protective NI antibodies.

  18. VISUALIZATION OF MOLECULAR INTERACTIONS BY FLUORESCENCE COMPLEMENTATION

    PubMed Central

    Kerppola, Tom K.

    2008-01-01

    The visualization of protein complexes in living cells enables validation of protein interactions in their normal environment and determination of their subcellular localization. The bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay has been used to visualize interactions among multiple proteins in many cell types and organisms. This assay is based on the association between two fluorescent-protein fragments when they are brought together by an interaction between proteins fused to the fragments. Modified forms of this assay have been used to visualize the competition between alternative interaction partners and the covalent modification of proteins by ubiquitin family peptides. PMID:16625152

  19. Fluorescent refrigeration

    DOEpatents

    Epstein, R.I.; Edwards, B.C.; Buchwald, M.I.; Gosnell, T.R.

    1995-09-05

    Fluorescent refrigeration is based on selective radiative pumping, using substantially monochromatic radiation, of quantum excitations which are then endothermically redistributed to higher energies. Ultimately, the populated energy levels radiatively deexcite emitting, on the average, more radiant energy than was initially absorbed. The material utilized to accomplish the cooling must have dimensions such that the exciting radiation is strongly absorbed, but the fluorescence may exit the material through a significantly smaller optical pathlength. Optical fibers and mirrored glasses and crystals provide this requirement. 6 figs.

  20. Application of TaqMan fluorescent probe-based quantitative real-time PCR assay for the environmental survey of Legionella spp. and Legionella pneumophila in drinking water reservoirs in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kao, Po-Min; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Hsu, Tsui-Kang; Ji, Wen-Tsai; Huang, Po-Hsiang; Hsueh, Chih-Jen; Chiang, Chuen-Sheue; Huang, Shih-Wei; Huang, Yu-Li

    2014-08-15

    In this study, TaqMan fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR was performed to quantify Legionella species in reservoirs. Water samples were collected from 19 main reservoirs in Taiwan, and 12 (63.2%) were found to contain Legionella spp. The identified species included uncultured Legionella spp., L. pneumophila, L. jordanis, and L. drancourtii. The concentrations of Legionella spp. and L. pneumophila in the water samples were in the range of 1.8×10(2)-2.6×10(3) and 1.6×10(2)-2.4×10(2) cells/L, respectively. The presence and absence of Legionella spp. in the reservoir differed significantly in pH values. These results highlight the importance that L. pneumophila, L. jordanis, and L. drancourtii are potential pathogens in the reservoirs. The presence of L. pneumophila in reservoirs may be a potential public health concern that must be further examined.

  1. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Katy A; O'Bryan, John P

    2011-01-01

    Defining the subcellular distribution of signaling complexes is imperative to understanding the output from that complex. Conventional methods such as immunoprecipitation do not provide information on the spatial localization of complexes. In contrast, BiFC monitors the interaction and subcellular compartmentalization of protein complexes. In this method, a fluororescent protein is split into amino- and carboxy-terminal non-fluorescent fragments which are then fused to two proteins of interest. Interaction of the proteins results in reconstitution of the fluorophore (Figure 1). A limitation of BiFC is that once the fragmented fluorophore is reconstituted the complex is irreversible. This limitation is advantageous in detecting transient or weak interactions, but precludes a kinetic analysis of complex dynamics. An additional caveat is that the reconstituted flourophore requires 30min to mature and fluoresce, again precluding the observation of real time interactions. BiFC is a specific example of the protein fragment complementation assay (PCA) which employs reporter proteins such as green fluorescent protein variants (BiFC), dihydrofolate reductase, b-lactamase, and luciferase to measure protein:protein interactions. Alternative methods to study protein:protein interactions in cells include fluorescence co-localization and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). For co-localization, two proteins are individually tagged either directly with a fluorophore or by indirect immunofluorescence. However, this approach leads to high background of non-interacting proteins making it difficult to interpret co-localization data. In addition, due to the limits of resolution of confocal microscopy, two proteins may appear co-localized without necessarily interacting. With BiFC, fluorescence is only observed when the two proteins of interest interact. FRET is another excellent method for studying protein:protein interactions, but can be technically challenging. FRET

  2. Non-isotopic dual parameter competition assay suitable for high-throughput screening of histone deacetylases.

    PubMed

    Riester, Daniel; Hildmann, Christian; Haus, Patricia; Galetovic, Antonia; Schober, Andreas; Schwienhorst, Andreas; Meyer-Almes, Franz-Josef

    2009-07-01

    Histone deacetylases reside among the most important and novel target classes in oncology. Selective lead structures are intensively developed to improve efficacy and reduce adverse effects. The common assays used so far to identify new lead structures suffer from many false positive hits due to auto-fluorescence of compounds or triggering undesired signal transduction pathways. These drawbacks are eliminated by the dual parameter competition assay reported in this study. The assay involves a new fluorescent inhibitor probe that shows an increase in both, fluorescence anisotropy and fluorescence lifetime upon binding to the enzyme. The assay is well suited for high-throughput screening.

  3. Further comparison of primary hit identification by different assay technologies and effects of assay measurement variability.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiang; Sills, Matthew A; Zhang, Ji-Hu

    2005-09-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) has grown rapidly in the past decade, with many advances in new assay formats, detection technologies, and laboratory automation. Recently, several studies have shown that the choice of assay technology used for the screening process is particularly important and can yield quite different primary screening outcomes. However, because the screening assays in these previous studies were performed in a single-point determination, it is not clear to what extent the difference observed in the screening results between different assay technologies is attributable to inherent assay variability and day-to-day measurement variation. To address this question, a nuclear receptor coactivator recruitment assay was carried out in 2 different assay formats, namely, AlphaScreen and time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer, which probed the same biochemical binding events but with different detection technologies. For each assay format, 4 independent screening runs in a typical HTS setting were completed to evaluate the run-to-run screening variability. These multiple tests with 2 assay formats allow an unambiguous comparison between the discrepancies of different assay formats and the effects of the variability of assay and screening measurements on the screening outcomes. The results provide further support that the choice of assay format or technology is a critical factor in HTS assay development.

  4. Assay for Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Salvatore F.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a three-hour experiment designed to introduce students to chemistry of the angiotensis-converting enzyme, illustrate design of a quenched fluorescence substrate, and examine considerations necessary in designing a clinical assay. Includes background information on the biochemistry of hypertension, reagents/materials needed, procedures…

  5. Diced electrophoresis gel assay for screening enzymes with specified activities.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Toru; Hanaoka, Kenjiro; Adibekian, Alexander; Yoshioka, Kentaro; Terai, Takuya; Ueno, Tasuku; Kawaguchi, Mitsuyasu; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Nagano, Tetsuo

    2013-04-24

    We have established the diced electrophoresis gel (DEG) assay as a proteome-wide screening tool to identify enzymes with activities of interest using turnover-based fluorescent substrates. The method utilizes the combination of native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) with a multiwell-plate-based fluorometric assay to find protein spots with the specified activity. By developing fluorescent substrates that mimic the structure of neutrophil chemoattractants, we could identify enzymes involved in metabolic inactivation of the chemoattractants.

  6. Quantum Dot-Based Cell Motility Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Weiwei; Pellegrino, Teresa; Parak Wolfgang J; Boudreau,Rosanne; Le Gros, Mark A.; Gerion, Daniele; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2005-06-06

    Because of their favorable physical and photochemical properties, colloidal CdSe/ZnS-semiconductor nanocrystals (commonly known as quantum dots) have enormous potential for use in biological imaging. In this report, we present an assay that uses quantum dots as markers to quantify cell motility. Cells that are seeded onto a homogeneous layer of quantum dots engulf and absorb the nanocrystals and, as a consequence, leave behind a fluorescence-free trail. By subsequently determining the ratio of cell area to fluorescence-free track area, we show that it is possible to differentiate between invasive and noninvasive cancer cells. Because this assay uses simple fluorescence detection, requires no significant data processing, and can be used in live-cell studies, it has the potential to be a powerful new tool for discriminating between invasive and noninvasive cancer cell lines or for studying cell signaling events involved in migration.

  7. Selective fluorescence and fluorescence-free detection of single biomolecules on nanobiochips.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungah; Kang, Seong Ho

    2014-10-01

    This topical review provides an overview of selective fluorescence and fluorescence-free detection on nanobiochips fabricated by nanopatterning techniques such as nanolithography and the use of artificial nanostructures (arrays of pillars, holes, and wires). The unique properties of nanostructured surfaces have led to applications in biomedical nanoarrays used for either diagnostic or functional assays on chips. Some targets can be optically detected using not only colorimetry, chemiluminescence or the most developed fluorescence mode, but also more recent non-conventional optical methods. Two main approaches have been used: fluorescence (e.g., epifluorescence and total internal reflection) and fluorescence-free (e.g., surface plasmon resonance, optical resonance, dark-field scattering, atom force microscopy, electrochemical method, etc.) detection. The aim of the present paper is to review the most recent progress in nanobiochips in the development of new selective fluorescence and fluorescence-free detection at the single-molecule level.

  8. Dynamic, Quantitative Assays of Phagosomal Function

    PubMed Central

    Podinovskaia, Maria; VanderVen, Brian C.; Yates, Robin M.; Glennie, Sarah; Fullerton, Duncan; Mwandumba, Henry C.; Russell, David G.

    2013-01-01

    Much of the activity of the macrophage as an effector cell is performed within its phagocytic compartment. This ranges from the degradation of tissue debris as part of its homeostatic function, to the generation of the superoxide burst as part of its microbicidal response to infection. We have developed a range of real-time readouts of phagosomal function that enables these activities to be rigorously quantified. This chapter contains the description of several of these assays assessed by different methods of quantitation; including a Fluorescence Resonance Emission Transfer (FRET) assay for phagosome/lysosome fusion measured by spectrofluorometer, a fluorogenic assay for the superoxide burst measured by flow cytometry, and a fluorogenic assay for bulk proteolysis measure by confocal microscope. These assays illustrate both the range parameters that can be quantified as well as the flexibility of instrumentation that can be exploited for their quantitation. PMID:24510516

  9. Combining fluorescence and bioluminescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Goda, Kazuhito; Hatta-Ohashi, Yoko; Akiyoshi, Ryutaro; Sugiyama, Takashi; Sakai, Ikuko; Takahashi, Takeo; Suzuki, Hirobumi

    2015-08-01

    Bioluminescence microscopy has revealed that gene expression in individual cells can respond differently to the same stimulus. To understand this phenomenon, it is important to sequentially observe the series of events from cellular signal transduction to gene expression regulated by specific transcription factors derived from signaling cascades in individual cells. However, these processes have been separately analyzed with fluorescence and bioluminescence microscopy. Furthermore, in culture medium, the background fluorescence of luciferin-a substrate of luciferase in promoter assays of gene expression in cultured cells-confounds the simultaneous observation of fluorescence and bioluminescence. Therefore, we optimized conditions for optical filter sets based on spectral properties and the luciferin concentration based on cell permeability for fluorescence observation combined with bioluminescence microscopy. An excitation and emission filter set (492-506 nm and 524-578 nm) was suitable for green fluorescent protein and yellow fluorescent protein imaging of cells, and >100 μM luciferin was acceptable in culture medium based on kinetic constants and the estimated intracellular concentration. Using these parameters, we present an example of sequential fluorescence and bioluminescence microscopic observation of signal transduction (translocation of protein kinase C alpha from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane) coupled with activation of gene expression by nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide B in individual cells and show that the gene expression response is not completely concordant with upstream signaling following stimulation with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate. Our technique is a powerful imaging tool for analysis of heterogeneous gene expression together with upstream signaling in live single cells.

  10. Combining fluorescence and bioluminescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Goda, Kazuhito; Hatta-Ohashi, Yoko; Akiyoshi, Ryutaro; Sugiyama, Takashi; Sakai, Ikuko; Takahashi, Takeo; Suzuki, Hirobumi

    2015-08-01

    Bioluminescence microscopy has revealed that gene expression in individual cells can respond differently to the same stimulus. To understand this phenomenon, it is important to sequentially observe the series of events from cellular signal transduction to gene expression regulated by specific transcription factors derived from signaling cascades in individual cells. However, these processes have been separately analyzed with fluorescence and bioluminescence microscopy. Furthermore, in culture medium, the background fluorescence of luciferin-a substrate of luciferase in promoter assays of gene expression in cultured cells-confounds the simultaneous observation of fluorescence and bioluminescence. Therefore, we optimized conditions for optical filter sets based on spectral properties and the luciferin concentration based on cell permeability for fluorescence observation combined with bioluminescence microscopy. An excitation and emission filter set (492-506 nm and 524-578 nm) was suitable for green fluorescent protein and yellow fluorescent protein imaging of cells, and >100 μM luciferin was acceptable in culture medium based on kinetic constants and the estimated intracellular concentration. Using these parameters, we present an example of sequential fluorescence and bioluminescence microscopic observation of signal transduction (translocation of protein kinase C alpha from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane) coupled with activation of gene expression by nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide B in individual cells and show that the gene expression response is not completely concordant with upstream signaling following stimulation with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate. Our technique is a powerful imaging tool for analysis of heterogeneous gene expression together with upstream signaling in live single cells. PMID:26096873

  11. From Antenna to Assay

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Evan G.; Samuel, Amanda P. S.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2009-01-01

    Conspectus Ligand-sensitized, luminescent lanthanide(III) complexes are of considerable importance because their unique photophysical properties (microsecond to millisecond lifetimes, characteristic and narrow emission bands, and large Stokes shifts) make them well suited as labels in fluorescence-based bioassays. The long-lived emission of lanthanide(III) cations can be temporally resolved from scattered light and background fluorescence to vastly enhance measurement sensitivity. One challenge in this field is the design of sensitizing ligands that provide highly emissive complexes with sufficient stability and aqueous solubility for practical applications. In this Account, we give an overview of some of the general properties of the trivalent lanthanides and follow with a summary of advances made in our laboratory in the development of highly luminescent Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes for applications in biotechnology. A focus of our research has been the optimization of these compounds as potential commercial agents for use in Homogeneous Time-Resolved Fluorescence (HTRF) technology. Our approach involves developing high-stability octadentate Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes that rely on all-oxygen donor atoms and using multi-chromophore chelates to increase molar absorptivity; earlier examples utilized a single pendant chromophore (that is, a single “antenna”). Ligands based on 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM) provide exceptionally emissive Tb(III) complexes with quantum yield values up to ∼60% that are stable at the nanomolar concentrations required for commercial assays. Through synthetic modification of the IAM chromophore and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations, we have developed a method to predict absorption and emission properties of these chromophores as a tool to guide ligand design. Additionally, we have investigated chiral IAM ligands that yield Tb(III) complexes possessing both high quantum yield values and strong

  12. Broad base biological assay using liquid based detection assays

    SciTech Connect

    Milanovich, F; Albala, J; Colston, B; Langlois, R; Venkateswaren, K

    2000-10-31

    organization, and DNA replication and repair. Understanding the complexities of these interactions is a fundamental step towards comprehending key aspects of disease biochemistry. This past year, using the LA technology, we were able to confirm the dynamics of a well characterized three protein, bacterial DNA repair mechanism--UvrABC. Next fiscal year we will begin studying the less characterized mammalian homologous recombinational DNA repair pathway examining the protein/protein and protein/DNA interactions of RAD51B/C. In the second thrust, we are looking at a model human disease state to assess the application of the LA in highly parallel and rapid medical diagnostics. In collaboration with researchers at UCSF and the California Department of Public Health we are developing a multiplex assay for the determination of Herpes-8 exposure (a cancer inducing virus) in aids patients. We have successfully demonstrated a 8-plex assay and will extend to 20-plex in the near future. In a parallel effort we will develop an 18-plex assay for detecting antibodies to all vaccine-preventable childhood viral infections. Finally we are developing a concept that would utilize the bead assay in the simplest possible form. After microbead capture of the biomarker sample and a fluorescent reporter in solution, the beads are trapped on an ordered dipstick array. The color of each bead is used to identify the biomarker, while the fluorescent reporter measures its concentration. This concept, MIDS, would enable widespread use of the technology by reducing the capital investment required while greatly simplifying its operation and maintenance.

  13. Fluorescence of dental porcelain.

    PubMed

    Monsénégo, G; Burdairon, G; Clerjaud, B

    1993-01-01

    This study of the fluorescence of natural enamel and of dental ceramics shows the fluorescence of ceramics not containing rare earths decreases when the color saturation increases; the fluorescence of samples of the same shade guide are not homogenous; some guides show a strong green fluorescence; and two shade guides of the same origin can present completely different fluorescence. The cementing medium can affect the fluorescence of a ceramic prosthesis. PMID:8455155

  14. RAS - Screens & Assays

    Cancer.gov

    A primary goal of the RAS Initiative is to develop assays for RAS activity, localization, and signaling and adapt those assays so they can be used for finding new drug candidates. Explore the work leading to highly validated screening protocols.

  15. Using smell to triage samples in point-of-care assays.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Hemakesh; Phillips, Scott T

    2012-10-29

    Smell of success: Reagent 1 provides the dual readouts of odor (ethanethiol) and fluorescence (derivative of 7-hydroxycoumarin) and can be used in down-selection assays based on smell and quantitative fluorescence assays of the samples that give a positive result. An important feature of 1 is the matched sensitivity of the two outputs. This reagent is designed for use in resource-limited settings and is demonstrated in assays that detect enzymes.

  16. Detection of programmed cell death using fluorescence energy transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, X; Gerard, A L; Huang, B C; Anderson, D C; Payan, D G; Luo, Y

    1998-01-01

    Fluorescence energy transfer (FRET) can be generated when green fluorescent protein (GFP) and blue fluorescent protein (BFP) are covalently linked together by a short peptide. Cleavage of this linkage by protease completely eliminates FRET effect. Caspase-3 (CPP32) is an important cellular protease activated during programmed cell death. An 18 amino acid peptide containing CPP32 recognition sequence, DEVD, was used to link GFP and BFP together. CPP32 activation can be monitored by FRET assay during the apoptosis process. PMID:9518501

  17. DNA Methyltransferase Activity Assays: Advances and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Poh, Wan Jun; Wee, Cayden Pang Pee; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    DNA methyltransferases (MTases), a family of enzymes that catalyse the methylation of DNA, have a profound effect on gene regulation. A large body of evidence has indicated that DNA MTase is potentially a predictive biomarker closely associated with genetic disorders and genetic diseases like cancer. Given the attention bestowed onto DNA MTases in molecular biology and medicine, highly sensitive detection of DNA MTase activity is essential in determining gene regulation, epigenetic modification, clinical diagnosis and therapeutics. Conventional techniques such as isotope labelling are effective, but they often require laborious sample preparation, isotope labelling, sophisticated equipment and large amounts of DNA, rendering them unsuitable for uses at point-of-care. Simple, portable, highly sensitive and low-cost assays are urgently needed for DNA MTase activity screening. In most recent technological advances, many alternative DNA MTase activity assays such as fluorescent, electrochemical, colorimetric and chemiluminescent assays have been proposed. In addition, many of them are coupled with nanomaterials and/or enzymes to significantly enhance their sensitivity. Herein we review the progress in the development of DNA MTase activity assays with an emphasis on assay mechanism and performance with some discussion on challenges and perspectives. It is hoped that this article will provide a broad coverage of DNA MTase activity assays and their latest developments and open new perspectives toward the development of DNA MTase activity assays with much improved performance for uses in molecular biology and clinical practice. PMID:26909112

  18. DNA Methyltransferase Activity Assays: Advances and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Poh, Wan Jun; Wee, Cayden Pang Pee; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    DNA methyltransferases (MTases), a family of enzymes that catalyse the methylation of DNA, have a profound effect on gene regulation. A large body of evidence has indicated that DNA MTase is potentially a predictive biomarker closely associated with genetic disorders and genetic diseases like cancer. Given the attention bestowed onto DNA MTases in molecular biology and medicine, highly sensitive detection of DNA MTase activity is essential in determining gene regulation, epigenetic modification, clinical diagnosis and therapeutics. Conventional techniques such as isotope labelling are effective, but they often require laborious sample preparation, isotope labelling, sophisticated equipment and large amounts of DNA, rendering them unsuitable for uses at point-of-care. Simple, portable, highly sensitive and low-cost assays are urgently needed for DNA MTase activity screening. In most recent technological advances, many alternative DNA MTase activity assays such as fluorescent, electrochemical, colorimetric and chemiluminescent assays have been proposed. In addition, many of them are coupled with nanomaterials and/or enzymes to significantly enhance their sensitivity. Herein we review the progress in the development of DNA MTase activity assays with an emphasis on assay mechanism and performance with some discussion on challenges and perspectives. It is hoped that this article will provide a broad coverage of DNA MTase activity assays and their latest developments and open new perspectives toward the development of DNA MTase activity assays with much improved performance for uses in molecular biology and clinical practice.

  19. Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging of Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Annie; Gibbons, Anne E.; Luker, Kathryn E.; Luker, Gary D.

    2015-01-01

    Genetically-encoded fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) reporters are powerful tools to analyze cell signaling and function at single cell resolution in standard two-dimensional cell cultures, but these reporters rarely have been applied to three-dimensional environments. FRET interactions between donor and acceptor molecules typically are determined by changes in relative fluorescence intensities, but wavelength-dependent differences in absorption of light complicate this analysis method in three-dimensional settings. Here we report fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) with phasor analysis, a method that displays fluorescence lifetimes on a pixel-wise basis in real time, to quantify apoptosis in breast cancer cells stably expressing a genetically encoded FRET reporter. This microscopic imaging technology allowed us to identify treatment-induced apoptosis in single breast cancer cells in environments ranging from two-dimensional cell culture, spheroids with cancer and bone marrow stromal cells, and living mice with orthotopic human breast cancer xenografts. Using this imaging strategy, we showed that combined metabolic therapy targeting glycolysis and glutamine pathways significantly reduced overall breast cancer metabolism and induced apoptosis. We also determined that distinct subpopulations of bone marrow stromal cells control resistance of breast cancer cells to chemotherapy, suggesting heterogeneity of treatment responses of malignant cells in different bone marrow niches. Overall, this study establishes FLIM with phasor analysis as an imaging tool for apoptosis in cell-based assays and living mice, enabling real-time, cellular-level assessment of treatment efficacy and heterogeneity. PMID:26771007

  20. Improved flow cytometer measurement of binding assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, G. C.

    1984-05-01

    A method of measuring binding assays is carried out with different size particles wherein the binding assay sample is run through a flow cytometer without separating the sample from the marking agent. The amount of a binding reactant present in a sample is determined by providing particles with a coating of binder and also known quantity of smaller particles with a coating of binder reactant. The smaller particles also contain a fluorescent chemical. The particles are combined with the sample and the binding reaction is allowed to occur for a set length of time followed by combining the smaller particles with the mixture of the particles and the sample produced and allowing the binding reactions to proceed to equilibrium. The fluorescence and light scatter of the combined mixture is then measured as the combined mixture passes through a flow cytometer equipped with a laser to bring about fluorescence, and the number of fluorescent events are compared. A similar method is also provided for determining the amount of antigen present in the sample by providing spheres with an antibody coating and some smaller spheres with an antigen coating.

  1. Improved flow cytometer measurement of binding assays

    DOEpatents

    Saunders, G.C.

    1984-05-30

    The invention relates to a method of measuring binding assays carried out with different size particles wherein the binding assay sample is run through a flow cytometer without separating the sample from the marking agent. The amount of a binding reactant present in a sample is determined by providing particles with a coating of binder and also a known quantity of smaller particles with a coating of binder reactant. The binding reactant is the same as the binding reactant present in the sample. The smaller particles also contain a fluorescent chemical. The particles are combined with the sample and the binding reaction is allowed to occur for a set length of time followed by combining the smaller particles with the mixture of the particles and the sample produced and allowing the binding reactions to proceed to equilibrium. The fluorescence and light scatter of the combined mixture is then measured as the combined mixture passes through a flow cytometer equipped with a laser to bring about fluorescence, and the number and strength of fluorescent events are compared. A similar method is also provided for determining the amount of antigen present in the sample by providing spheres with an antibody coating and some smaller spheres with an antigen coating. (LEW)

  2. Non-separation assay for glycohemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Blincko, S; Edwards, R

    1998-06-01

    The determination of glycohemoglobin [HbA1c, HbA1, or total glycohemoglobin (GHb)] has become an established procedure in the management of diabetes mellitus. Here, we describe the development of a simple, fluorescence, non-separation assay for the percentage of GHb (%GHb). The fluorescence of an eosin-boronic acid derivative when it was mixed with hemolysates of unwashed erythrocytes was quenched in proportion to the percentage of glycohemoglobin. Measurement of the fluorescence intensity gave an estimate of GHb in the sample, and measurement of light absorbance gave an estimate of total hemoglobin. A combination of the two measurements gave the assay response. Comparison with HPLC (Menarini-Arkray HA-8140 fully automated analyzer) for the percentage of HbA1 (%HbA1) gave %GHb(NETRIA) = 1.1(SD +/-0.03)%HbA1 +0.6(SD +/-0.3), S(y/x) = 0.821, r = 0.972, n = 80; comparison for HbA1c gave %GHb(NETRIA) = 1.3(SD +/-0.04)%HbA1c + 1.8(SD +/-0.3), S(y/x) = 0.813, r = 0.973, n = 80. Precision, estimated as the percentage of the CV of the %GHb assay results, was <2% (intraassay, range 5-22% GHb) and <4.2% (interassay, range 4-16% GHb). Dilution of a high-percentage GHb sample lysate showed that the assay was linear, and addition of glucose (60 mmol/L), bilirubin (250 micromol/L), and triglycerides (14 mmol/L) to low, medium, and high %GHb samples showed no clinical interference in assay results. PMID:9625057

  3. Fluorescence imaging of single Kinesin motors on immobilized microtubules.

    PubMed

    Korten, Till; Nitzsche, Bert; Gell, Chris; Ruhnow, Felix; Leduc, Cécile; Diez, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in optical microscopy and nanometer tracking have greatly improved our understanding of cytoskeletal motor proteins. Using fluorescence microscopy, dynamic interactions are now routinely observed in vitro on the level of single molecules mainly using a geometry, where fluorescently labeled motors move on surface-immobilized filaments. In this chapter, we review recent methods related to single-molecule kinesin motility assays. In particular, we aim to provide practical advice on: how to set up the assays, how to acquire high-precision data from fluorescently labeled kinesin motors and attached quantum dots, and how to analyze data by nanometer tracking.

  4. Azadioxatriangulenium: exploring the effect of a 20 ns fluorescence lifetime in fluorescence anisotropy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogh, Sidsel A.; Bora, Ilkay; Rosenberg, Martin; Thyrhaug, Erling; Laursen, Bo W.; Just Sørensen, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Azaoxatriangulenium (ADOTA) has been shown to be highly emissive despite a moderate molar absorption coefficient of the primary electronic transition. As a result, the fluorescence lifetime is ~20 ns, longer than all commonly used red fluorescent organic probes. The electronic transitions in ADOTA are highly polarised (r 0  =  0.38), which in combination with the long fluorescence lifetime extents the size-range of biomolecular weights that can be detected in fluorescence polarisation-based experiments. Here, the rotational dynamics of bovine serum albumin (BSA) are monitored with three different ADOTA derivatives, differing only in constitution of the reactive linker. A detailed study of the degree of labelling, the steady-state anisotropy, and the time-resolved anisotropy of the three different ADOTA-BSA conjugates are reported. The fluorescence quantum yields (ϕ fl) of the free dyes in PBS solution are determined to be ~55%, which is reduced to ~20% in the ADOTA-BSA conjugates. Despite the reduction in ϕ fl, a ~20 ns intensity averaged lifetime is maintained, allowing for the rotational dynamics of BSA to be monitored for up to 100 ns. Thus, ADOTA can be used in fluorescence polarisation assays to fill the gap between commonly used organic dyes and the long luminescence lifetime transition metal complexes. This allows for efficient steady-state fluorescence polarisation assays for detecting binding of analytes with molecular weights of up to 100 kDa.

  5. Homogeneous screening assay for human tankyrase.

    PubMed

    Narwal, Mohit; Fallarero, Adyary; Vuorela, Pia; Lehtiö, Lari

    2012-06-01

    Tankyrase, a member of human PARP protein superfamily, catalyzes a covalent post-translational modification of substrate proteins. This modification, poly(ADP-ribos)ylation, leads to changes in protein interactions and modifies downstream signaling events. Tankyrase 1 is a potential drug target due to its functions in telomere homeostasis and in Wnt signaling. We describe here optimization and application of an activity-based homogenous assay for tankyrase inhibitors in a high-throughput screening format. The method measures the consumption of substrate by the chemical conversion of the remaining NAD(+) into a stable fluorescent condensation product. Conditions were optimized to measure the enzymatic auto-modification of a recombinant catalytic fragment of tankyrase 1. The fluorescence assay is inexpensive, operationally easy and performs well according to the statistical analysis (Z'= 0.7). A validatory screen with a natural product library confirmed suitability of the assay for finding new tankyrase inhibitors. Flavone was the most potent (IC(50)=325 nM) hit from the natural compounds. A flavone derivative, apigenin, and isopropyl gallate showed potency on the micromolar range, but displayed over 30-fold selectivity for tankyrase over the studied isoenzymes PARP1 and PARP2. The assay is robust and will be useful for screening new tankyrase inhibitors. PMID:22357873

  6. Assays for aptamer-based platforms.

    PubMed

    Citartan, Marimuthu; Gopinath, Subash C B; Tominaga, Junji; Tan, Soo-Choon; Tang, Thean-Hock

    2012-04-15

    Aptamers are single stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotides that have high affinity and specificity towards a wide range of target molecules. Aptamers have low molecular weight, amenable to chemical modifications and exhibit stability undeterred by repetitive denaturation and renaturation. Owing to these indispensable advantages, aptamers have been implemented as molecular recognition element as alternative to antibodies in various assays for diagnostics. By amalgamating with a number of methods that can provide information on the aptamer-target complex formation, aptamers have become the elemental tool for numerous biosensor developments. In this review, administration of aptamers in applications involving assays of fluorescence, electrochemistry, nano-label and nano-constructs are discussed. Although detection strategies are different for various aptamer-based assays, the core of the design strategies is similar towards reporting the presence of specific target binding to the corresponding aptamers. It is prognosticated that aptamers will find even broader applications with the development of new methods of transducing aptamer target binding.

  7. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  8. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  9. Multiplexing a high-throughput liability assay to leverage efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Herbst, John; Anthony, Monique; Stewart, Jeremy; Connors, David; Chen, Taosheng; Banks, Martyn; Petrillo, Edward W; Agler, Michele

    2009-06-01

    In order to identify potential cytochrome P-450 3A4 (drug-metabolizing enzyme) inducers at an early stage of the drug discovery process, a cell-based transactivation high-throughput luciferase reporter assay for the human pregnane X receptor (PXR) in HepG2 cells has been implemented and multiplexed with a viability end point for data interpretation, as part of a Lead Profiling portfolio of assays. As a routine part of Lead Profiling operations, assays are periodically evaluated for utility as well as for potential improvements in technology or process. We used a recent evaluation of our PXR-transactivation assay as a model for the application of Lean Thinking-based process analysis to lab-bench assay optimization and automation. This resulted in the development of a 384-well multiplexed homogeneous assay simultaneously detecting PXR transactivation and HepG2 cell cytotoxicity. In order to multiplex fluorescent and luminescent read-outs, modifications to each assay were necessary, which included optimization of multiple assay parameters such as cell density, plate type, and reagent concentrations. Subsequently, a set of compounds including known cytotoxic compounds and PXR inducers were used to validate the multiplexed assay. Results from the multiplexed assay correlate well with those from the singleplexed assay formats measuring PXR transactivation and viability separately. Implementation of the multiplexed assay for routine compound profiling provides improved data quality, sample conservation, cost savings, and resource efficiencies.

  10. FLUORESCENT IN SITU DETECTION OF ENCEPHALITOZOON HELLEM SPORES WITH A 6-CARBOXYFLUORESCEIN-LABELED RNA-TARGETED OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A fluorescent in situ hybridization assay has been developed for the detection of the human-pathogenic microsporidian, Encephalitozoon hellem, in water samples using epifluorescence microscopy. The assay employs a 19-nucleotide species-specific 6-carboxyfluorescein-labeled oligo...

  11. A Fluorescence Lecture Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozzelli, Joseph W.; Kemp, Marwin

    1982-01-01

    Describes fluorescence demonstrations related to several aspects of molecular theory and quantitized energy levels. Demonstrations use fluorescent chemical solutions having luminescence properties spanning the visible spectrum. Also describes a demonstration of spontaneous combustion of familiar substances in chlorine. (JN)

  12. Fluorescent optical position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2005-11-15

    A fluorescent optical position sensor and method of operation. A small excitation source side-pumps a localized region of fluorescence at an unknown position along a fluorescent waveguide. As the fluorescent light travels down the waveguide, the intensity of fluorescent light decreases due to absorption. By measuring with one (or two) photodetectors the attenuated intensity of fluorescent light emitted from one (or both) ends of the waveguide, the position of the excitation source relative to the waveguide can be determined by comparing the measured light intensity to a calibrated response curve or mathematical model. Alternatively, excitation light can be pumped into an end of the waveguide, which generates an exponentially-decaying continuous source of fluorescent light along the length of the waveguide. The position of a photodetector oriented to view the side of the waveguide can be uniquely determined by measuring the intensity of the fluorescent light emitted radially at that location.

  13. Atmospheric Nitrogen Fluorescence Yield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. H., Jr.; Christl, M. J.; Fountain, W. F.; Gregory, J. C.; Martens, K. U.; Sokolsky, Pierre; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Several existing and planned experiments estimate the energies of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from air showers using the atmospheric nitrogen fluorescence. The nitrogen fluorescence yield from air shower electrons depends on the atmospheric composition. We will discuss the uncertainties in the fluorescence yield form electrons in the real atmosphere and describe a concept for a small balloon payload to measure the atmospheric fluorescence yield as a function of attitude.

  14. Safe biodegradable fluorescent particles

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Sue I.; Fergenson, David P.; Srivastava, Abneesh; Bogan, Michael J.; Riot, Vincent J.; Frank, Matthias

    2010-08-24

    A human-safe fluorescence particle that can be used for fluorescence detection instruments or act as a safe simulant for mimicking the fluorescence properties of microorganisms. The particle comprises a non-biological carrier and natural fluorophores encapsulated in the non-biological carrier. By doping biodegradable-polymer drug delivery microspheres with natural or synthetic fluorophores, the desired fluorescence can be attained or biological organisms can be simulated without the associated risks and logistical difficulties of live microorganisms.

  15. Engineering luciferase enzymes and substrates for novel assay capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Keith V.

    2004-06-01

    In the development of HTS as a central paradigm of drug discovery, fluorescent reporter molecules have generally been adopted as the favored signal transducer. Nevertheless, luminescence has maintained a prominent position among certain methodologies, most notably genetic reporters. Recently, there has been growing partiality for luminescent assays across a broader range of applications due to their sensitivity, extensive linearity, and robustness to library compounds and complex biological samples. This trend has been fostered by development several new assay designs for diverse targets such as kinases, cytochrome p450's, proteases, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity. This review addresses recent progress made in the use of bioluminescent assays for drug discovery, highlighting new detection capabilities brought about by engineering luciferase enzymes and substrates. In reporter gene applications, modified luciferases have provided greatly improved expression efficiency in mammalian cells, improved responsiveness to changes of transcriptional rate, and increased the magnitude of the reporter response. Highly stabilized luciferase mutants have enabled new assays strategies for high-throughput screening based on detection of ATP and luciferin. Assays based on ATP support rapid analysis of cell metabolism and enzymatic processes coupled to ATP hydrolysis. Although luciferin is found natively only in luminous beetles, coupled assays have been designed using modified forms of luciferin requiring the action of second enzyme to yield luminescence. Due to the very low inherent background and protection of the photon-emitter afforded by the enzyme, bioluminescent assays often outperform the analogous fluorescent assays for analyses performed in multiwell plates.

  16. Confocal detection of planar homogeneous and heterogeneous immunosorbent assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghafari, Homanaz; Zhou, Yanzhou; Ali, Selman; Hanley, Quentin S.

    2009-11-01

    Optically sectioned detection of fluorescence immunoassays using a confocal microscope enables the creation of both homo- and heterogeneous planar format assays. We report a set assays requiring optically sectioned detection using a model system and analysis procedures for separating signals of a surface layer from an overlying solution. A model sandwich assay with human immunoglobulin G as the target antigen is created on a glass substrate. The prepared surfaces are exposed to antigen and a FITC-labeled secondary antibody. The resulting preparations are either read directly to provide a homogeneous assay or after wash steps, giving a heterogeneous assay. The simplicity of the object shapes arising from the planar format makes the decomposition of analyte signals from the thin film bound to the surface and overlayer straightforward. Measured response functions of the thin film and overlayer fit well to the Cauchy-Lorentz and cumulative Cauchy-Lorentz functions, respectively, enabling the film and overlayer to be separated. Under the conditions used, the detection limits for the homogeneous and heterogeneous forms of the assay are 2.2 and 5.5 ng/ml, respectively. Planar format, confocally read fluorescence assays enable wash-free detection of antigens and should be applicable to a wide range of assays involving surface-bound species.

  17. Confocal detection of planar homogeneous and heterogeneous immunosorbent assays.

    PubMed

    Ghafari, Homanaz; Zhou, Yanzhou; Ali, Selman; Hanley, Quentin S

    2009-01-01

    Optically sectioned detection of fluorescence immunoassays using a confocal microscope enables the creation of both homo- and heterogeneous planar format assays. We report a set assays requiring optically sectioned detection using a model system and analysis procedures for separating signals of a surface layer from an overlying solution. A model sandwich assay with human immunoglobulin G as the target antigen is created on a glass substrate. The prepared surfaces are exposed to antigen and a FITC-labeled secondary antibody. The resulting preparations are either read directly to provide a homogeneous assay or after wash steps, giving a heterogeneous assay. The simplicity of the object shapes arising from the planar format makes the decomposition of analyte signals from the thin film bound to the surface and overlayer straightforward. Measured response functions of the thin film and overlayer fit well to the Cauchy-Lorentz and cumulative Cauchy-Lorentz functions, respectively, enabling the film and overlayer to be separated. Under the conditions used, the detection limits for the homogeneous and heterogeneous forms of the assay are 2.2 and 5.5 ng/ml, respectively. Planar format, confocally read fluorescence assays enable wash-free detection of antigens and should be applicable to a wide range of assays involving surface-bound species.

  18. Fluorescent ligands to investigate GPCR binding properties and oligomerization.

    PubMed

    Cottet, Martin; Faklaris, Orestis; Falco, Amadine; Trinquet, Eric; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Mouillac, Bernard; Durroux, Thierry

    2013-02-01

    Fluorescent ligands for GPCRs (G-protein-coupled receptors) have been synthesized for a long time but their use was usually restricted to receptor localization in the cell by fluorescent imaging microscopy. During the last two decades, the emergence of new fluorescence-based strategies and the concomitant development of fluorescent measurement apparatus have dramatically widened the use of fluorescent ligands. Among the various strategies, TR (time-resolved)-FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) approaches exhibit an interesting potential to study GPCR interactions with various partners. We have derived various sets of ligands that target different GPCRs with fluorophores, which are compatible with TR-FRET strategies. Fluorescent ligands labelled either with a fluorescent donor (such as europium or terbium cryptate) or with a fluorescent acceptor (such as fluorescein, dy647 or Alexa Fluor® 647), for example, kept high affinities for their cognate receptors. These ligands turn out to be interesting tools to develop FRET-based binding assays. We also used these fluorescent ligands to analyse GPCR oligomerization by measuring FRET between ligands bound to receptor dimers. In contrast with FRET strategies, on the basis of receptor labelling, the ligand-based approach we developed is fully compatible with the study of wild-type receptors and therefore with receptors expressed in native tissues. Therefore, by using fluorescent analogues of oxytocin, we demonstrated the existence of oxytocin receptor dimers in the mammary gland of lactating rats.

  19. CPTAC Assay Portal: a repository of targeted proteomic assays

    SciTech Connect