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Sample records for assay elisa-like fluorescence

  1. Molecular mass dependence of hyaluronan detection by sandwich ELISA-like assay and membrane blotting using biotinylated hyaluronan binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Han; Tank, Mihir; Alsofyani, Abeer; Shah, Naman; Talati, Nishant; LoBello, Jaclyn C; Kim, Jin Ryoun; Oonuki, Yoji; de la Motte, Carol A; Cowman, Mary K

    2013-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is widely detected in biological samples and its concentration is most commonly determined by the use of a labeled specific HA binding protein (aggrecan G1-IGD-G2, HABP), employing membrane blotting and sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-like methods. However, the detected signal intensity or the quantified value obtained by using these surface-based methods is related to the molecular mass (M) of HA, especially for HA in the low M range below ∼150 kDa. At the same mass or mass concentration, higher M HA gives a higher signal than lower M HA. We have experimentally determined the quantitative relationship between the M of HA (in the range 20–150 kDa) and the relative signal intensity in comparison with a standard HA, in a sandwich ELISA-like assay. An M-dependent signal correction factor (SCF) was calculated and used to correct the signal intensity, so that the corrected concentration value would more accurately reflect the true HA concentration in solution. The SCF for polydisperse low M HA was also calculated and compared with experimental results. When the molecular mass distribution of an HA sample is determined by a method such as gel electrophoresis, then its appropriately averaged SCF can be calculated and used to correct the signal in sandwich ELISA to obtain a more accurate concentration estimation. The correction method works for HA with M between ∼150 and 20 kDa, but lower M HA is too poorly detected for useful analysis. The physical basis of the M-dependent detection is proposed to be the increase in detector-accessible fraction of each surface-bound molecule as M increases. PMID:23964097

  2. Naked-eye sensitive ELISA-like assay based on gold-enhanced peroxidase-like immunogold activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shasha; Chen, Zhaopeng; Choo, Jaebum; Chen, Lingxin

    2016-02-01

    A naked-eye sensitive ELISA-like assay was developed based on gold-enhanced peroxidase-like activity of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Using human IgG (H-IgG) as an analytical model, goat anti-human IgG antibody (anti-IgG) adsorbed on microtiter plate and AuNPs-labeled anti-IgG acted as capture antibody and detection antibody, respectively. Because the surfaces of AuNPs were blocked by protein molecules, the peroxidase-like activity of AuNPs was almost inhibited, evaluated by the catalytic oxidation of peroxidase enzyme substrate 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), which could produce a bright blue color in the presence of H2O2. Fortunately, the catalytic ability of AuNPs was dramatically increased by the deposition of gold due to the formation of a new gold shell on immunogold. Under optimal reaction conditions, the colorimetric immunoassay presented a good linear relationship in the range of 0.7-100 ng/mL and the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.3 ng/mL calculated by 3σ/S for UV-vis detection, and obtained LOD of 5 ng/mL for naked-eye detection. The obtained results were competitive with conventional sandwich ELISA with the LOD of 1.6 ng/mL. Furthermore, this developed colorimetric immunoassay was successfully applied to diluted human serum and fetal bovine serum samples, and predicted a broad prospect for the use of peroxidase-like activity involving nanomaterials in bioassay and diagnostics.

  3. Continuous Fluorescence Assay for Peptidoglycan Glycosyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Egan, Alexander J F; Vollmer, Waldemar

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan is synthesized from its precursor lipid II by two enzymatic reactions. First, glycosyltransferases polymerize the glycan strands and second, DD-transpeptidases form cross-links between peptides of neighboring strands. Most bacteria possess bifunctional peptidoglycan synthesis enzymes capable of catalyzing both reactions. Here, we describe a continuous fluorescence glycosyltransferase assay using Dansyl-labeled lipid II as substrate. Progression of the reaction is monitored by the reduction in fluorescence over time. The assay is suitable to investigate the effect of protein interaction partners on the glycan strand synthesis activity of peptidoglycan polymerases.

  4. Detection of immobilized amplicons by ELISA-like techniques.

    PubMed

    Oroskar, A A; Rasmussen, S E; Rasmussen, H N; Rasmussen, S R; Sullivan, B M; Johansson, A

    1996-09-01

    The NucleoLink surface is a physically modified, thermostable, optically clear resin. It allows the covalent binding of 5'-phosphorylated oligonucleotides. Target DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is accomplished by asymmetric amplification on the covalently immobilized primer that develops into immobilized amplicons. A DNA fragment of bovine leukemia virus is used as a model system for the detection of immobilized amplicons by ELISA-like techniques. Covalently bound oligonucleotides are also utilized as capture probe in the hybridization-based signal amplification for detection of an infectious organism.

  5. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Materials Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Quiter, Brian J.; Ludewigt, Bernhard; Mozin, Vladimir; Prussin, Stanley

    2009-06-29

    This paper discusses the use of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) techniques for the isotopic and quantitative assaying of radioactive material. Potential applications include age-dating of an unknown radioactive source, pre- and post-detonation nuclear forensics, and safeguards for nuclear fuel cycles Examples of age-dating a strong radioactive source and assaying a spent fuel pin are discussed. The modeling work has ben performed with the Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code MCNPX, and the capability to simulate NRF has bee added to the code. Discussed are the limitations in MCNPX?s photon transport physics for accurately describing photon scattering processes that are important contributions to the background and impact the applicability of the NRF assay technique.

  6. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Materials Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Quiter, Brian; Ludewigt, Bernhard; Mozin, Vladimir; Prussin, Stanley

    2009-06-05

    This paper discusses the use of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) techniques for the isotopic and quantitative assaying of radioactive material. Potential applications include age-dating of an unknown radioactive source, pre- and post-detonation nuclear forensics, and safeguards for nuclear fuel cycles Examples of age-dating a strong radioactive source and assaying a spent fuel pin are discussed. The modeling work has ben performed with the Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code MCNPX, and the capability to simulate NRF has bee added to the code. Discussed are the limitations in MCNPX's photon transport physics for accurately describing photon scattering processes that are important contributions to the background and impact the applicability of the NRF assay technique.

  7. Universal SNP genotyping assay with fluorescence polarization detection.

    PubMed

    Hsu, T M; Chen, X; Duan, S; Miller, R D; Kwok, P Y

    2001-09-01

    The degree of fluorescence polarization (FP) of a fluorescent molecule is a reflection of its molecular weight (Mr). FP is therefore a useful detection methodfor homogeneous assays in which the starting reagents and products differ significantly in Mr. We have previously shown that FP is a good detection method for the single-base extension and the 5'-nuclease assays. In this report, we describe a universal, optimized single-base extension assay for genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This assay, which we named the template-directed dye-terminator incorporation assay with fluorescence polarization detection (FP-TDI), uses four spectrally distinct dye terminators to achieve universal assay conditions. Even without optimization, approximately 70% of all SNP markers tested yielded robust assays. The addition of an E. coli ssDNA-binding protein just before the FP reading significantly increased FP values of the products and brought the success rate of FP-TDI assays up to 90%. Increasing the amount of dye terminators and reducing the number of thermal cycles in the single-base extension step of the assay increased the separation of the FP values benveen the products corresponding to different genotypes and improved the success rate of the assay to 100%. In this study the genomic DNA samples of 90 individuals were typed for a total of 38 FP-TDI assays (using both the sense and antisense TDI primers for 19 SNP markers). With the previously described modifications, the FP-TDI assay gave unambiguous genotyping data for all the samples tested in the 38 FP-TDI assays. When the genotypes determined by the FP-TDI and 5'-nuclease assays were compared, they were in 100% concordance for all experiments (a total of 3420 genotypes). The four-dye-terminator master mixture described here can be used for assaying any SNP marker and greatly simplifies the SNP genotyping assay design.

  8. Avoiding Fluorescence Assay Interference-The Case for Diaphorase.

    PubMed

    Hall, Matthew D; Simeonov, Anton; Davis, Mindy I

    2016-04-01

    Fluorescence is utilized as the output for a range of assay formats used in high-throughput screening (HTS). Interference with these assays from the compounds in libraries utilized in HTS is a well-recognized phenomenon, particularly for assays relying on UV excitation such as for direct detection of the oxidoreductase cofactors NADH or NADPH. In this study, we discuss these interference challenges and highlight the specific case of the diaphorase/resazurin system that can be coupled to enzymes utilizing NADH or NADPH. We review the utilization of this assay system in the literature and argue that the diaphorase/resazurin system is underutilized in assay development. It is the authors' hope that this Perspective and the accompanying Technical Brief in this issue will stimulate interest in a robust and sensitive coupling system to avoid assay fluorescence interference.

  9. Protein subcellular localization assays using split fluorescent proteins

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2009-09-08

    The invention provides protein subcellular localization assays using split fluorescent protein systems. The assays are conducted in living cells, do not require fixation and washing steps inherent in existing immunostaining and related techniques, and permit rapid, non-invasive, direct visualization of protein localization in living cells. The split fluorescent protein systems used in the practice of the invention generally comprise two or more self-complementing fragments of a fluorescent protein, such as GFP, wherein one or more of the fragments correspond to one or more beta-strand microdomains and are used to "tag" proteins of interest, and a complementary "assay" fragment of the fluorescent protein. Either or both of the fragments may be functionalized with a subcellular targeting sequence enabling it to be expressed in or directed to a particular subcellular compartment (i.e., the nucleus).

  10. Development of fluorescent methods for DNA methyltransferase assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yueying; Zou, Xiaoran; Ma, Fei; Tang, Bo; Zhang, Chun-yang

    2017-03-01

    DNA methylation modified by DNA methyltransferase (MTase) plays an important role in regulating gene transcription, cell growth and proliferation. The aberrant DNA MTase activity may lead to a variety of human diseases including cancers. Therefore, accurate and sensitive detection of DNA MTase activity is crucial to biomedical research, clinical diagnostics and therapy. However, conventional DNA MTase assays often suffer from labor-intensive operations and time-consuming procedures. Alternatively, fluorescent methods have significant advantages of simplicity and high sensitivity, and have been widely applied for DNA MTase assay. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the development of fluorescent methods for DNA MTase assay. These emerging methods include amplification-free and the amplification-assisted assays. Moreover, we discuss the challenges and future directions of this area.

  11. Fluorescence Assay for Evaluating Microbicidal Activity of Hand Antiseptics

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Gigosos, Rosa M.; Mariscal-Lopez, Eloisa; Gutierrez-Bedmar, Mario; Fernandez, Joaquin

    2015-01-01

    We developed a fluorescent β-d-glucuronidase activity (BGA)-based assay for detecting and quantifying Escherichia coli in samples to assess the biocide efficacy of hand antiseptics. The fluorescence level is proportional to the number of viable E. coli organisms present. We compared our assay results to those of the E. coli plate count method specified by the European standard for testing hygienic hand rub disinfectant products (EN1500). The plate count method requires excessive handling and materials and is not valid if the number of organisms per plate is too low or high for counting in many of the samples. We optimized the fluorescent assay based on the cleavage of 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-d-glucuronide by adding 4-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucuronide, a nonfluorogenic BGA substrate, to induce glucuronidase activity and reduce assay time. Furthermore, our method can be automated and eliminates the need for multiple dilutions. Fluorescence was temporally monitored, and the time required to reach a specific value of fluorescence was correlated with the initial number of viable E. coli organisms on the samples. There was a positive correlation (P < 0.05) with a high correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.82) between the E. coli counts by plate count and fluorescence methods. Reported effects in fluorescent BGA were compared to the EN1500 plate count method with five hand disinfectants. We found our method more advantageous, because it was as sensitive as the EN1500 method, requires less time to complete, and is less expensive and less laborious than conventional plating techniques. PMID:26276114

  12. Photon upconversion in homogeneous fluorescence-based bioanalytical assays.

    PubMed

    Soukka, Tero; Rantanen, Terhi; Kuningas, Katri

    2008-01-01

    Upconverting phosphors (UCPs) are very attractive reporters for fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based bioanalytical assays. The large anti-Stokes shift and capability to convert near-infrared to visible light via sequential absorption of multiple photons enable complete elimination of autofluorescence, which commonly impairs the performance of fluorescence-based assays. UCPs are ideal donors for FRET, because their very narrow-banded emission allows measurement of the sensitized acceptor emission, in principle, without any crosstalk from the donor emission at a wavelength just tens of nanometers from the emission peak of the donor. In addition, acceptor dyes emitting at visible wavelengths are essentially not excited by near-infrared, which further emphasizes the unique potential of upconversion FRET (UC-FRET). These characteristics result in favorable assay performance using detection instrumentation based on epifluorometer configuration and laser diode excitation. Although UC-FRET is a recently emerged technology, it has already been applied in both immunoassays and nucleic acid hybridization assays. The technology is also compatible with optically difficult biological samples, such as whole blood. Significant advances in assay performance are expected using upconverting lanthanide-doped nanocrystals, which are currently under extensive research. UC-FRET, similarly to other fluorescence techniques based on resonance energy transfer, is strongly distance dependent and may have limited applicability, for example in sandwich-type assays for large biomolecules, such as viruses. In this article, we summarize the essentials of UC-FRET, describe its current applications, and outline the expectations for its future potential.

  13. A Rapid Fluorescence-based Assay for Soluble Methane Monooxgyenase

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Amber Reese; Keener, William Kelvin; Roberto, Francisco Figueroa; Watwood, Maribeth E.

    2002-01-01

    A fluorescence-based assay was developed to estimate soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) activity in solution. Whole cells of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b expressing sMMO were used to oxidize various compounds to screen for fluorescent products. Of the 12 compounds tested, only coumarin yielded a fluorescent product. The UV absorbance spectrum of the product matches that of 7-hydroxycoumarin, and this identification was confirmed by 13C-NMR spectroscopy. The dependence of the fluorescent reaction on sMMO activity was investigated by pre-incubation with acetylene, a known inhibitor of sMMO activity. Apparent kinetic parameters for whole cells were determined to be Km(app)=262 µM and Vmax(app)=821 nmol 7-hydroxycoumarin min–1 mg protein–1. The rate of coumarin oxidation by sMMO correlates well with those of trichloroethylene degradation and naphthalene oxidation. Advantages of the fluorescence-based coumarin oxidation assay over the naphthalene oxidation assay include a more stable product, direct detection of the product without additional reagents, and greater speed and convenience.

  14. Acquisition of accurate data from intramolecular quenched fluorescence protease assays.

    PubMed

    Arachea, Buenafe T; Wiener, Michael C

    2017-04-01

    The Intramolecular Quenched Fluorescence (IQF) protease assay utilizes peptide substrates containing donor-quencher pairs that flank the scissile bond. Following protease cleavage, the dequenched donor emission of the product is subsequently measured. Inspection of the IQF literature indicates that rigorous treatment of systematic errors in observed fluorescence arising from inner-filter absorbance (IF) and non-specific intermolecular quenching (NSQ) is incompletely performed. As substrate and product concentrations vary during the time-course of enzyme activity, iterative solution of the kinetic rate equations is, generally, required to obtain the proper time-dependent correction to the initial velocity fluorescence data. Here, we demonstrate that, if the IQF assay is performed under conditions where IF and NSQ are approximately constant during the measurement of initial velocity for a given initial substrate concentration, then a simple correction as a function of initial substrate concentration can be derived and utilized to obtain accurate initial velocity data for analysis.

  15. A modified fluorescent intercalator displacement assay for RNA ligand discovery

    PubMed Central

    Asare-Okai, Papa Nii; Chow, Christine S.

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescent intercalator displacement (FID) is a convenient and practical tool for identifying new nucleic-acid-binding ligands. The success of FID is based on the fact that it can be fashioned into a versatile screening assay for assessing the relative binding affinities of compounds to nucleic acids. FID is a tagless approach; the target RNAs and the ligands or small molecules under investigation do not have to be modified in order to be examined. In this study, a modified FID assay for screening RNA-binding ligands was established using 3-methyl-2-((1-(3-(trimethylammonio)propyl)-4-quinolinylidene)methyl)benzothiazolium (TO-PRO) as the fluorescent indicator. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) results provide direct evidence that correlates the reduction in fluorescence intensity observed in the FID assay with displacement of the dye molecule from RNA. The assay was successfully applied to screen a variety of RNA-binding ligands with a set of small hairpin RNAs. Ligands that bind with moderate affinity to the chosen RNA constructs (A-site, TAR, h31, and H69) were identified. PMID:20863807

  16. A modified fluorescent intercalator displacement assay for RNA ligand discovery.

    PubMed

    Asare-Okai, Papa Nii; Chow, Christine S

    2011-01-15

    Fluorescent intercalator displacement (FID) is a convenient and practical tool for identifying new nucleic acid-binding ligands. The success of FID is based on the fact that it can be fashioned into a versatile screening assay for assessing the relative binding affinities of compounds to nucleic acids. FID is a tagless approach; the target RNAs and the ligands or small molecules under investigation do not need to be modified in order to be examined. In this study, a modified FID assay for screening RNA-binding ligands was established using 3-methyl-2-((1-(3-(trimethylammonio)propyl)-4-quinolinylidene)methyl)benzothiazolium (TO-PRO) as the fluorescent indicator. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) results provide direct evidence that correlates the reduction in fluorescence intensity observed in the FID assay with displacement of the dye molecule from RNA. The assay was successfully applied to screen a variety of RNA-binding ligands with a set of small hairpin RNAs. Ligands that bind with moderate affinity to the chosen RNA constructs (A-site, TAR [transactivation response element], h31 [helix 31], and H69 [helix 69] were identified. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fluorescent and Lanthanide Labeling for Ligand Screens, Assays, and Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Josan, Jatinder S.; De Silva, Channa R.; Yoo, Byunghee; Lynch, Ronald M.; Pagel, Mark D.; Vagner, Josef; Hruby, Victor J.

    2012-01-01

    The use of fluorescent (or luminescent) and metal contrast agents in high-throughput screens, in vitro assays, and molecular imaging procedures has rapidly expanded in recent years. Here we describe the development and utility of high-affinity ligands for cancer theranostics and other in vitro screening studies. In this context, we also illustrate the syntheses and use of heteromultivalent ligands as targeted imaging agents. PMID:21318902

  18. Antigen detection based on background fluorescence quenching immunochromatographic assay.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangjun; Xu, Yangyang; Yu, Jinsheng; Li, Jiutong; Zhou, Xuelei; Wu, Chuanyong; Ji, Qiuliang; Ren, Yuan; Wang, Liqun; Huang, Zhengyi; Zhuang, Hanling; Piao, Long; Head, Richard; Wang, Yajie; Lou, Jiatao

    2014-09-02

    Gold immunochromatographic assay (GICA) has been around for quite a while, but it is qualitative in the vast majority of applications. A fast, simple and quantitative GICA is in call for better medicine. In the current study, we have established a novel, quantitative GICA based on fluorescence quenching and nitrocellulose membrane background signals, called background fluorescence quenching immunochromatographic assay (bFQICA). Using model analyte alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), the present study assessed the performance of bFQICA in numerous assay aspects. With serial dilutions of the international AFP standard, standard curves for the calculation of AFP concentration were successfully established. At 10 and 100ngmL(-1) of the international AFP standard, the assay variability was defined with a coefficient of variance at 10.4% and 15.2%, respectively. For samples with extended range of AFP levels, bFQICA was able to detect AFP at as low as 1ngmL(-1). Fluorescence in bFQICA strips stayed constant over months. A good correlation between the results from bFQICA and from a well-established Roche electrochemiluminescence immunoassay was observed in 27 serum samples (r=0.98, p<0.001). In conclusion, our study has demonstrated distinctive features of bFQICA over conventional GICA, including utilization of a unique fluorescence ratio between nitrocellulose membrane background and specific signals (F1/F2) to ensure accurate measurements, combined qualitative and quantitative capabilities, and exceptionally high sensitivity for detection of very low levels of antigens. All of these features could make bFQICA attractive as a model for antigen-antibody complex based GICA, and could promote bFQICA to a broad range of applications for investigation of a variety of diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A fluorescent plate reader assay for ceramide kinase.

    PubMed

    Don, Anthony S; Rosen, Hugh

    2008-04-15

    Ceramide kinase and its product ceramide 1-phosphate have been implicated in cellular proliferation and survival, activation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2), mast cell degranulation, and phagocytosis. Current assays for ceramide kinase activity employ [(32)P]ATP, with separation of labeled product from excess ATP by organic extraction and thin-layer chromatography. We have developed a fluorescent plate reader assay for ceramide kinase that uses commercially available C6-NBD ceramide (N-{6-[(7-nitro-2-1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl)amino]hexanoyl}-D-erythro-sphingosine). Our assay is based on the differential partitioning of substrate and product following a single chloroform/methanol extraction. The product, which partitions into the aqueous phase at physiological pH, is quantitated directly in a plate reader. The substrate may be delivered using either fatty acid-free albumin or detergent/lipid mixed micelles, and we have found that the use of albumin rather than detergent micelles allows one to detect lipid interactions with the enzyme that might otherwise go unnoticed. Our method is useful for assaying ceramide kinase activity both in vitro and in cultured cells, and it offers several advantages over the conventional assay, including greater speed, the ability to run a larger number of assay replicates at one time, and the elimination of environmental and safety issues associated with the use of radioactive materials.

  20. A label-free, fluorescence based assay for microarray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Sanjun

    DNA chip technology has drawn tremendous attention since it emerged in the mid 90's as a method that expedites gene sequencing by over 100-fold. DNA chip, also called DNA microarray, is a combinatorial technology in which different single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecules of known sequences are immobilized at specific spots. The immobilized ssDNA strands are called probes. In application, the chip is exposed to a solution containing ssDNA of unknown sequence, called targets, which are labeled with fluorescent dyes. Due to specific molecular recognition among the base pairs in the DNA, the binding or hybridization occurs only when the probe and target sequences are complementary. The nucleotide sequence of the target is determined by imaging the fluorescence from the spots. The uncertainty of background in signal detection and statistical error in data analysis, primarily due to the error in the DNA amplification process and statistical distribution of the tags in the target DNA, have become the fundamental barriers in bringing the technology into application for clinical diagnostics. Furthermore, the dye and tagging process are expensive, making the cost of DNA chips inhibitive for clinical testing. These limitations and challenges make it difficult to implement DNA chip methods as a diagnostic tool in a pathology laboratory. The objective of this dissertation research is to provide an alternative approach that will address the above challenges. In this research, a label-free assay is designed and studied. Polystyrene (PS), a commonly used polymeric material, serves as the fluorescence agent. Probe ssDNA is covalently immobilized on polystyrene thin film that is supported by a reflecting substrate. When this chip is exposed to excitation light, fluorescence light intensity from PS is detected as the signal. Since the optical constants and conformations of ssDNA and dsDNA (double stranded DNA) are different, the measured fluorescence from PS changes for the same

  1. Hybridization assay based on evanescent fluorescence excitation and collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumner, James J.; Mmerole, Robert U.; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N.; Yi, Hyunmin; Bentley, William E.; Gillespie, James B.

    2003-08-01

    There is a great need for high throughput and sensitive sensors for genetic analysis. These sensors can be used for varied purposes from monitoring gene expression in organims to speciation of possible pathogens. Consequently, an instrument capable of these tasks would be a great benefit for food and water safety, medical diagnostics and defense of military and civilian populations from biological threats. This work examines the development of a hybridization-based biosensor using a novel tapered fiber optic rpobe. The immobilization of single-stranded, synthetic ologinucleotides utilizing aminoproplytriethoxysilane and glutaraldehyde was implemented on the fiber optic sensor. Hybridization takes place with a complementary analyte sequence followed by a fluorescent, labeled signaling probe to form a sandwich assay. Following hybridization, the fiber is interrogated with a diode laser source and the resulting fluorescence signal is detected using a miniature spectrometer.

  2. Fluorescent Receptor Binding Assay for Detecting Ciguatoxins in Fish.

    PubMed

    Hardison, D Ransom; Holland, William C; McCall, Jennifer R; Bourdelais, Andrea J; Baden, Daniel G; Darius, H Taiana; Chinain, Mireille; Tester, Patricia A; Shea, Damian; Quintana, Harold A Flores; Morris, James A; Litaker, R Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is an illness suffered by > 50,000 people yearly after consumption of fish containing ciguatoxins (CTXs). One of the current methodologies to detect ciguatoxins in fish is a radiolabeled receptor binding assay (RBA(R)). However, the license requirements and regulations pertaining to radioisotope utilization can limit the applicability of the RBA(R) in certain labs. A fluorescence based receptor binding assay (RBA(F)) was developed to provide an alternative method of screening fish samples for CTXs in facilities not certified to use radioisotopes. The new assay is based on competition binding between CTXs and fluorescently labeled brevetoxin-2 (BODIPY®-PbTx-2) for voltage-gated sodium channel receptors at site 5 instead of a radiolabeled brevetoxin. Responses were linear in fish tissues spiked from 0.1 to 1.0 ppb with Pacific ciguatoxin-3C (P-CTX-3C) with a detection limit of 0.075 ppb. Carribean ciguatoxins were confirmed in Caribbean fish by LC-MS/MS analysis of the regional biomarker (C-CTX-1). Fish (N = 61) of six different species were screened using the RBA(F). Results for corresponding samples analyzed using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay (CBA-N2a) correlated well (R2 = 0.71) with those of the RBA(F), given the low levels of CTX present in positive fish. Data analyses also showed the resulting toxicity levels of P-CTX-3C equivalents determined by CBA-N2a were consistently lower than the RBA(F) affinities expressed as % binding equivalents, indicating that a given amount of toxin bound to the site 5 receptors translates into corresponding lower cytotoxicity. Consequently, the RBA(F), which takes approximately two hours to perform, provides a generous estimate relative to the widely used CBA-N2a which requires 2.5 days to complete. Other RBA(F) advantages include the long-term (> 5 years) stability of the BODIPY®-PbTx-2 and having similar results as the commonly used RBA(R). The RBA(F) is cost-effective, allows high sample

  3. Fluorescent Receptor Binding Assay for Detecting Ciguatoxins in Fish

    PubMed Central

    Hardison, D. Ransom; Holland, William C.; McCall, Jennifer R.; Bourdelais, Andrea J.; Baden, Daniel G.; Darius, H. Taiana; Chinain, Mireille; Tester, Patricia A.; Shea, Damian; Flores Quintana, Harold A.; Morris, James A.; Litaker, R. Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is an illness suffered by > 50,000 people yearly after consumption of fish containing ciguatoxins (CTXs). One of the current methodologies to detect ciguatoxins in fish is a radiolabeled receptor binding assay (RBA(R)). However, the license requirements and regulations pertaining to radioisotope utilization can limit the applicability of the RBA(R) in certain labs. A fluorescence based receptor binding assay (RBA(F)) was developed to provide an alternative method of screening fish samples for CTXs in facilities not certified to use radioisotopes. The new assay is based on competition binding between CTXs and fluorescently labeled brevetoxin-2 (BODIPY®- PbTx-2) for voltage-gated sodium channel receptors at site 5 instead of a radiolabeled brevetoxin. Responses were linear in fish tissues spiked from 0.1 to 1.0 ppb with Pacific ciguatoxin-3C (P-CTX-3C) with a detection limit of 0.075 ppb. Carribean ciguatoxins were confirmed in Caribbean fish by LC-MS/MS analysis of the regional biomarker (C-CTX-1). Fish (N = 61) of six different species were screened using the RBA(F). Results for corresponding samples analyzed using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay (CBA-N2a) correlated well (R2 = 0.71) with those of the RBA(F), given the low levels of CTX present in positive fish. Data analyses also showed the resulting toxicity levels of P-CTX-3C equivalents determined by CBA-N2a were consistently lower than the RBA(F) affinities expressed as % binding equivalents, indicating that a given amount of toxin bound to the site 5 receptors translates into corresponding lower cytotoxicity. Consequently, the RBA(F), which takes approximately two hours to perform, provides a generous estimate relative to the widely used CBA-N2a which requires 2.5 days to complete. Other RBA(F) advantages include the long-term (> 5 years) stability of the BODIPY®- PbTx-2 and having similar results as the commonly used RBA(R). The RBA(F) is cost-effective, allows high sample

  4. A fluorescence based non-radioactive electrophoretic mobility shift assay.

    PubMed

    Ruscher, K; Reuter, M; Kupper, D; Trendelenburg, G; Dirnagl, U; Meisel, A

    2000-03-10

    Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) or gel shift assay is one of the most powerful methods for studying protein-DNA interactions. Typically, 32P-labeled DNA probes containing the sequence bound by the protein of interest are used in EMSA (rEMSA). Although rEMSA is sensitive and practicable, it relies on the handling of hazardous radioisotopes, and does not easily allow quantification. We developed a non-radioactive procedure using fluorescence (Cyano dye Cy5) labeled oligodeoxynucleotide duplexes as specific probes (fEMSA) and an automatic DNA sequencer for analysis. Testing different DNA-binding proteins (restriction endonuclease EcoRII, transcription factor NFkappaB and it's subunit p50) the results in fEMSA and rEMSA are similar in regard to quality, reproducibility, and sensitivity. fEMSA allows a semiquantitative screening of large amounts of samples for specific DNA binding activities and is, therefore, a high throughput technology for semiquantitative analysis of DNA-protein interaction.

  5. AFBI assay – Aptamer Fluorescence Binding and Internalization assay for cultured adherent cells

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, William H.; Giangrande, Paloma H.

    2016-01-01

    The SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) process allows for the enrichment of DNA or RNA aptamers from a complex nucleic acid library that are specific for a target molecule. The SELEX process has been adapted from identifying aptamers in vitro using recombinant target protein to cell-based methodologies (Cell-SELEX), where the targets are expressed on the surface of cells. One major advantage of Cell-SELEX is that the target molecules are maintained in a native confirmation. Additionally, Cell-SELEX may be used to discover novel therapeutic biomarkers by performing selections on diseased versus healthy cells. However, a caveat to Cell-SELEX is that testing of single aptamers identified in the selection is laborious, time-consuming, and expensive. The most frequently used methods to screen for aptamer binding and internalization on cells are flow cytometry and quantitative PCR (qPCR). While flow cytometry can directly assess binding of a fluorescently-labeled aptamer to a target, it requires significant starting material and is not easily scalable. qPCR-based approaches are highly sensitive but have non-negligible experiment-to-experiment variability due to the number of sample processing steps. Herein we describe a cell-based aptamer fluorescence binding and internalization (AFBI) assay. This assay requires minimal reagents and has few experimental steps/manipulations, thereby allowing for rapid screening of many aptamers and conditions simultaneously and direct quantitation of aptamer binding and internalization. PMID:26972784

  6. Development and characterization of the NanoOrange protein quantitation assay: a fluorescence-based assay of proteins in solution.

    PubMed

    Jones, Laurie J; Haugland, Richard P; Singer, Victoria L

    2003-04-01

    We developed a sensitive fluorescence assay for the quantitation of proteins in solution using the NanoOrange reagent, a merocyanine dye that produces a large increase in fluorescence quantum yield upon interaction with detergent-coated proteins. The NanoOrange assay allowed for the detection of 10 ng/mL to 10 micrograms/mL protein with a standard fluorometer, offering a broad, dynamic quantitation range and improved sensitivity relative to absorption-based protein solution assays. The protein-to-protein variability of the NanoOrange assay was comparable to those of standard assays, including Lowry, bicinchoninic acid, and Bradford procedures. We also found that the NanoOrange assay is useful for detecting relatively small proteins or large peptides, such as aprotinin and insulin. The assay was somewhat sensitive to the presence of several common contaminants found in protein preparations such as salts and detergents; however, it was insensitive to the presence of reducing agents, nucleic acids, and free amino acids. The simple assay protocol is suitable for automation. Samples are briefly heated in the presence of dye in a detergent-containing diluent, allowed to cool to room temperature, and fluorescence is measured using 485-nm excitation and 590-nm emission wavelengths. Therefore, the NanoOrange assay is well suited for use with standard fluorescence microplate readers, fluorometers, and some laser scanners.

  7. HPLC-fluorescence assay for acyclovir in children.

    PubMed

    Zeng, L; Nath, C E; Shaw, P J; Earl, J W; McLachlan, A J

    2008-08-01

    A simple, accurate, reliable and sensitive HPLC method was developed and validated for quantitating acyclovir in human plasma. Sample (100 microL) preparation involved addition of guanosine (internal standard) and protein precipitation with 7% perchloric acid and centrifugation. Supernatant (20 microL) was injected onto a C18 HPLC column with a mobile phase of 0.05 m sodium phosphate buffer-acetonitrile (pH 2.35, 992:8, v/v) with 25 microL of 0.4 m tetrabutylammonium hydroxide titrant and fluorescence detection (excitation, 260 nm; emission, 375 nm). Analyte recovery was 101% and the assay response was linear over the acyclovir concentration range of 0.1-20 mg/L. Intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision were less than 7%. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.033 and 0.1 mg/L, respectively. In five paediatric oncology patients administered intravenous acyclovir, concentrations ranged from 0.24 to 43.65 mg/L. This method can be used to measure acyclovir concentrations in paediatric patients.

  8. Novel assay for direct fluorescent imaging of sialidase activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomin, A.; Shkandina, T.; Bilyy, R.

    2011-07-01

    Here we describe a novel approach to sialidase activity estimation. Sialidases (EC 3.2.1.18, exo-α-sialidases), also known as neuraminidases, are the group of enzymes, which hydrolyze the glycoside bound between terminal sialic acid and subsequent carbohydrate residue in glycoproteins and glycolipids. Sialic acids are the group of monosaccharides with acidic properties, since they are acetylated or glycolylated derivates of neuraminic acid. Flu and some other viruses use neuraminidase activity to infect host cells. The level of sialylation was shown to be tightly connected with tumor cell invasiveness and metastatic potential, sialylation level also determines the clearance of aged or virus-infected cells. Thus, detection of sialidase activity is of primary importance for clinical diagnostics as well as life science research. The authors developed the assay for both visualization and estimation of sialidase activity in living cells. Previously known methods for sialidase activity detection required destruction of cellular material, or were low-sensitive, or provided no information on the activity localization in certain intracellular compartment. To overcome these problems, a fluorogenic neuraminidase substrate, 4-MUNA was utilized, and the method for detection of neuraminidase activity using fluorescent microscopy was proposed, it provided a high signal level and information on cellular localization of the studied enzyme. By using this approach the increase of sialidase activity on apoptotic cells was demonstrated in comparison to viable and primary necrotic cells.

  9. Calcofluor fluorescence assay for wort beta-glucan in a microplate format

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The widely-used fluorescent (Calcofluor) flow injection analysis method for determining the concentrations of beta-glucans in Congress worts from barley malts is adapted to microplate format. Adaptation of the Calcofluor assay to use widely available fluorescent microplate readers makes the assay m...

  10. Highly sensitive detection of target molecules using a new fluorescence-based bead assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffler, Silvia; Strauß, Denis; Sauer, Markus

    2007-07-01

    Development of immunoassays with improved sensitivity, specificity and reliability are of major interest in modern bioanalytical research. We describe the development of a new immunomagnetic fluorescence detection (IM-FD) assay based on specific antigen/antibody interactions and on accumulation of the fluorescence signal on superparamagnetic PE beads in combination with the use of extrinsic fluorescent labels. IM-FD can be easily modified by varying the order of coatings and assay conditions. Depending on the target molecule, antibodies (ABs), entire proteins, or small protein epitopes can be used as capture molecules. The presence of target molecules is detected by fluorescence microscopy using fluorescently labeled secondary or detection antibodies. Here, we demonstrate the potential of the new assay detecting the two tumor markers IGF-I and p53 antibodies in the clinically relevant concentration range. Our data show that the fluorescence-based bead assay exhibits a large dynamic range and a high sensitivity down to the subpicomolar level.

  11. Development of a quantitative fluorescence-based ligand-binding assay

    PubMed Central

    Breen, Conor J.; Raverdeau, Mathilde; Voorheis, H. Paul

    2016-01-01

    A major goal of biology is to develop a quantitative ligand-binding assay that does not involve the use of radioactivity. Existing fluorescence-based assays have a serious drawback due to fluorescence quenching that accompanies the binding of fluorescently-labeled ligands to their receptors. This limitation of existing fluorescence-based assays prevents the number of cellular receptors under investigation from being accurately measured. We have developed a method where FITC-labeled proteins bound to a cell surface are proteolyzed extensively to eliminate fluorescence quenching and then the fluorescence of the resulting sample is compared to that of a known concentration of the proteolyzed FITC-protein employed. This step enables the number of cellular receptors to be measured quantitatively. We expect that this method will provide researchers with a viable alternative to the use of radioactivity in ligand binding assays. PMID:27161290

  12. A fluorescence-based assay for indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Matin, Azadeh; Streete, Isla M; Jamie, Ian M; Truscott, Roger J W; Jamie, Joanne F

    2006-02-01

    A rapid and sensitive fluorescence-based bioassay for determination of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity has been developed. This assay relies on the quantification of the amount of kynurenine produced in the assay medium by fluorescence and complements the standard absorbance and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay methods. The fluorescence method has limits of detection similar to those of the standard assay methods. Measured activities of IDO, including in the presence of tryptophan-based inhibitors, were in statistical agreement with the absorbance and HPLC assay methods. The fluorescence-based assay was also suitable for assessment of IDO inhibition by compounds that are incompatible with the absorbance method.

  13. A FLUORESCENCE BASED ASSAY FOR DNA DAMAGE: INDUCED BY RADIATION, CHEMICALS AND ENZYMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple and rapid assay to detect DNA damage is reported. This assay is based on the ability of certain dyes to fluoresce upon intercalation with dsDNA. Damage caused by ultraviolet (UV) radiation, chemicals or restriction enzymes is detected using this assay. UV radiation at...

  14. A FLUORESCENCE BASED ASSAY FOR DNA DAMAGE: INDUCED BY RADIATION, CHEMICALS AND ENZYMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple and rapid assay to detect DNA damage is reported. This assay is based on the ability of certain dyes to fluoresce upon intercalation with dsDNA. Damage caused by ultraviolet (UV) radiation, chemicals or restriction enzymes is detected using this assay. UV radiation at...

  15. Overcoming compound fluorescence in the FLiK screening assay with red-shifted fluorophores.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Ralf; Gohla, Anne; Simard, Jeffrey R; Yadav, Dharmendra B; Fang, Zhizhou; van Otterlo, Willem A L; Rauh, Daniel

    2013-06-05

    In the attempt to discover novel chemical scaffolds that can modulate the activity of disease-associated enzymes, such as kinases, biochemical assays are usually deployed in high-throughput screenings. First-line assays, such as activity-based assays, often rely on fluorescent molecules by measuring a change in the total emission intensity, polarization state, or energy transfer to another fluorescent molecule. However, under certain conditions, intrinsic compound fluorescence can lead to difficult data analysis and to false-positive, as well as false-negative, hits. We have reported previously on a powerful direct binding assay called fluorescent labels in kinases ('FLiK'), which enables a sensitive measurement of conformational changes in kinases upon ligand binding. In this assay system, changes in the emission spectrum of the fluorophore acrylodan, induced by the binding of a ligand, are translated into a robust assay readout. However, under the excitation conditions of acrylodan, intrinsic compound fluorescence derived from highly conjugated compounds complicates data analysis. We therefore optimized this method by identifying novel fluorophores that excite in the far red, thereby avoiding compound fluorescence. With this advancement, even rigid compounds with multiple π-conjugated ring systems can now be measured reliably. This study was performed on three different kinase constructs with three different labeling sites, each undergoing distinct conformational changes upon ligand binding. It may therefore serve as a guideline for the establishment of novel fluorescence-based detection assays.

  16. A fluorescent analogue of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine: application for FRET assay of peptidoglycan translocase II (MurG).

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Jun; Bugg, Timothy D H

    2004-01-21

    A direct continuous fluorescence assay for translocase II MurG based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) has been developed using a 6-substituted fluorescent analogue of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine.

  17. An assay to measure the affinity of proteins for microtubules by quantitative fluorescent microscopy.

    PubMed

    Graczyk, Beth; Davis, Trisha N

    2011-03-15

    We report a fluorescence-based assay for measuring the affinity of microtubule binding proteins for microtubules. The affinity of any fluorescently tagged protein for taxol-stabilized microtubules can be measured with this assay. We describe the assay and provide a detailed protocol. Using this assay, we found that the affinity of the Dam1 complex for microtubules is decreased by the presence of free unpolymerized tubulin and is sensitive to the salt concentration in the binding buffer. These effects may account for the previous differences in binding affinities reported. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Fluorescent Assay for Plant Caffeic Acid O-methyltransferases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have developed a facile, sensitive and continuous assay to measure the activities of plant COMTs using s-adenosyl homocysteine hydrolase as a coupling enzyme and and adeonsine a thiol-specific fluor, Thioglo1, as the detecting reagent. This assay was validated using recombinant sorghum COMT (BMR-...

  19. High-throughput screening assay of hepatitis C virus helicase inhibitors using fluorescence-quenching phenomenon

    SciTech Connect

    Tani, Hidenori; Akimitsu, Nobuyoshi; Fujita, Osamu; Matsuda, Yasuyoshi; Miyata, Ryo; Tsuneda, Satoshi; Igarashi, Masayuki; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Noda, Naohiro

    2009-02-20

    We have developed a novel high-throughput screening assay of hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) helicase inhibitors using the fluorescence-quenching phenomenon via photoinduced electron transfer between fluorescent dyes and guanine bases. We prepared double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) with a 5'-fluorescent-dye (BODIPY FL)-labeled strand hybridized with a complementary strand, the 3'-end of which has guanine bases. When dsDNA is unwound by helicase, the dye emits fluorescence owing to its release from the guanine bases. Our results demonstrate that this assay is suitable for quantitative assay of HCV NS3 helicase activity and useful for high-throughput screening for inhibitors. Furthermore, we applied this assay to the screening for NS3 helicase inhibitors from cell extracts of microorganisms, and found several cell extracts containing potential inhibitors.

  20. Limitations of a fluorescence assay for studies on tetracycline transport into Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M C; Chopra, I

    1983-01-01

    Transport of tetracycline into Escherichia coli was studied by two methods, one involving an absolute determination of accumulated drug and the other a fluorescence assay. Tetracycline uptake was nonsaturable when assayed by the absolute method, but fluorescence enhancement was maximal at an initial external tetracycline concentration of about 200 microM. The two transport assays also gave different results for the pH optimum of tetracycline transport. The absolute method indicated a pH optimum of 7.0 to 8.0, whereas the fluorescence method gave a value of 5.5 to 6.0. These data indicate that the fluorescence assay is of limited value in certain situations. PMID:6338818

  1. Phytoplankton photosynthetic characteristics from fluorescence induction assays of individual cells

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.J.; Chekalyuk, A.M.; Sosik, H.M.

    1996-09-01

    Saturating-flash fluorescence techniques, which can provide information about the physiological state of phytoplankton, at present measure bulk water samples and so provide {open_quotes}averaged{close_quotes} values for all the fluorescent particles present. In analyzing natural samples, however, more detailed information about the distribution of photosynthetic characteristics among different cell types and(or) individual cells is desirable. Therefore we developed two methods for applying a {open_quotes}pump-during-probe{close_quotes} technique on a cell-by-cell basis. We used either an epifluorescence microscope or a flow cytometer to make time-resolved measurements of the increase in chlorophyll fluorescence induced by a rectangular excitation pulse of 100-{mu}s duration. We used a biophysical model of fluorescence induction to obtain information about the quantum yield of photochemistry in photosystem 2 (PS2) and the functional absorption cross-section for PS2. For several species (including the smallest phytoplankton, Prochlorococcus, which are 0.7 {mu}m in diameter), the maximum quantum yield of photochemistry in PS2 obtained by averaging data from many individual cells agreed well with estimates derived from bulk measurements of DCMU enhancement of Chl fluorescence. 40 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Fluorescent high-performance liquid chromatography assay for lipophilic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Thomas J

    2011-12-01

    A new ultrasensitive fluorescent derivatization procedure for chromatographic analysis of primary, secondary, and nonpolar tertiary alcohols is described. The procedure uses Bodipy FL in basic dichloromethane solution with Mukaiyama's reagent (2-chloro-1-methylpyridinium iodide) to form highly fluorescent ester derivatives that can be separated by silica normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Rhodamine WT and Oregon green 488 were also useful derivatization reagents. The detection limit for detection of cholesterol and bryostatin by Bodipy FL was less than 1fmol. The reaction conditions are gentle enough that low concentrations of unstable alcohols such as bryostatin 1 can be measured. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Microwave-accelerated metal-enhanced fluorescence: platform technology for ultrafast and ultrabright assays.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Kadir; Geddes, Chris D

    2005-12-15

    We describe an exciting assay platform technology that promises to fundamentally address two underlying physical constraints of modern assays and immunoassays, namely, assay sensitivity and rapidity. By combining the use of metal-enhanced fluorescence with low-power microwave heating, we can indeed significantly increase the sensitivity of surface assays as well as >95 % kinetically complete the assay within a few seconds. Subsequently, this new technology promises to fundamentally change the way we currently employ immunoassays in clinical medicine. This new model platform system can be potentially applied to many other important assays, such as to the clinical assessment of myoglobin, where both assay speed and sensitivity is paramount for the assessment and treatment of acute myocardial infarction. To demonstrate the utility of microwave-accelerated metal-enhanced fluorescence (MAMEF), we show that a simple protein-based assay system can be optically amplified approximately 10-fold by using silver nanostructures, while being kinetically complete in less than 20 s. This new platform approach is subsequently over 10-fold more sensitive and approximately 90 times faster than a control assay that operates both at room temperature and without the use of metal-enhanced fluorescence. Finally, we show that low-power heating by microwaves in our model system does not denature proteins, as evidenced by no protein structural changes, probed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

  4. An efficient target-intermediate recycling amplification strategy for ultrasensitive fluorescence assay of intracellular lead ions.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhi-Bin; Liang, Wen-Bin; Zhuo, Ying; Xiong, Cheng-Yi; Zheng, Ying-Ning; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Ya-Qin

    2017-07-04

    An ultrasensitive fluorescence assay for intracellular Pb(2+) determination was proposed through target-intermediate recycling amplification based on metal-assisted DNAzyme catalysis and strand displacement reactions. Compared with only target recycling-based fluorescence assay with an M amplification ratio, the proposed assay could achieve an M × N amplification ratio to obtain an improved sensitivity by more than 10 times, in which M and N are the amplification ratios of target recycling and intermediate recycling, respectively. Remarkably, this proposed ultrasensitive fluorescence assay could be applied to the determination of various analytes with the well-designed detection probe, especially in intracellular assay, providing a promising tool for clinical diagnosis and biomedical detection.

  5. A dual-readout F2 assay that combines fluorescence resonance energy transfer and fluorescence polarization for monitoring bimolecular interactions.

    PubMed

    Du, Yuhong; Nikolovska-Coleska, Zaneta; Qui, Min; Li, Lian; Lewis, Iestyn; Dingledine, Raymond; Stuckey, Jeanne A; Krajewski, Krzysztof; Roller, Peter P; Wang, Shaomeng; Fu, Haian

    2011-08-01

    Förster (fluorescence) resonance energy transfer (FRET) and fluorescence polarization (FP) are widely used technologies for monitoring bimolecular interactions and have been extensively used in high-throughput screening (HTS) for probe and drug discovery. Despite their popularity in HTS, it has been recognized that different assay technologies may generate different hit lists for the same biochemical interaction. Due to the high cost of large-scale HTS campaigns, one has to make a critical choice to employee one assay platform for a particular HTS. Here we report the design and development of a dual-readout HTS assay that combines two assay technologies into one system using the Mcl-1 and Noxa BH3 peptide interaction as a model system. In this system, both FP and FRET signals were simultaneously monitored from one reaction, which is termed "Dual-Readout F(2) assay" with F(2) for FP and FRET. This dual-readout technology has been optimized in a 1,536-well ultra-HTS format for the discovery of Mcl-1 protein inhibitors and achieved a robust performance. This F(2) assay was further validated by screening a library of 102,255 compounds. As two assay platforms are utilized for the same target simultaneously, hit information is enriched without increasing the screening cost. This strategy can be generally extended to other FP-based assays and is expected to enrich primary HTS information and enhance the hit quality of HTS campaigns.

  6. pFe(3+) determination of multidentate ligands by a fluorescence assay.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yongmin; Zhou, Tao; Hider, Robert C

    2015-05-21

    The fluorescence intensity of the iron-CP691 complex in the presence of a competing multidentate ligand is associated with pFe(3+) of the competing ligand and the relative fluorescence has a linear correlation with the pFe(3+) values. A correlation was also found to exist between the relative fluorescence and the ratio of a competing ligand to the probe CP691. Based on this assay, the pFe(3+) value of a range of hexadentate ligands, dendrimers and polymers can be determined when they fall in the range 24.5-30.5. Only small quantities of chelators are required for this assay.

  7. A fluorescence anisotropy assay for the muscarinic M1 G-protein-coupled receptor.

    PubMed

    Huwiler, Kristin G; De Rosier, Therese; Hanson, Bonnie; Vogel, Kurt W

    2010-06-01

    In the search for new chemical entities that interact with G-proteincoupled receptors (GPCRs), assays that quantify efficacy and affinity are employed. Traditional methods for measuring affinity involve radiolabeled ligands. To address the need for homogeneous biochemical fluorescent assays to characterize orthosteric ligand affinity and dissociation rates, we have developed a fluorescence anisotropy (FA) assay for the muscarinic M1 receptor that can be conducted in a 384-well plate. We used membranes from a muscarinic M1 cell line optimized for high-throughput functional assays and the previously characterized fluorescent antagonist BODIPY FL pirenzepine. The affinities of reference compounds were determined in the competitive FA assay and compared with those obtained with a competitive filter-based radioligand-binding assay using [(3)H] N-methylscopolamine. The IC(50) values produced from the FA assay were well-correlated with the radioligand-binding K(i) values (R(2) = 0.98). The dissociation of the BODIPY FL pirenzepine was readily monitored in real time using the FA assay and was sensitive to the presence of the allosteric modulator gallamine. This M1 FA assay offers advantages over traditional radioligandbinding assays as it eliminates radioactivity while allowing investigation of orthosteric or allosteric muscarinic M1 ligands in a homogeneous format.

  8. A FLUORESCENCE BASED ASSAY FOR DNA DAMAGE INDUCED BY STYRENE OXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid and simple assay to detect DNA damage to calf thymus DNA caused by styrene oxide (SO) is reported. This assay is based on changes observed in the melting and annealing behavior of the damaged DNA. The melting annealing process was monitored using a fluorescence indicat...

  9. A FLUORESCENCE BASED ASSAY FOR DNA DAMAGE INDUCED BY RADIATION, CHEMICAL MUTAGENS AND ENZYMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple and rapid assay to detect DNA damage is reported. This novel assay is based on changes in melting/annealing behavior and facilitated using certain dyes that increase their fluorescence upon association with double stranded (ds)DNA. Damage caused by ultraviolet (UV) ra...

  10. A FLUORESCENCE BASED ASSAY FOR DNA DAMAGE INDUCED BY STYRENE OXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid and simple assay to detect DNA damage to calf thymus DNA caused by styrene oxide (SO) is reported. This assay is based on changes observed in the melting and annealing behavior of the damaged DNA. The melting annealing process was monitored using a fluorescence indicat...

  11. A FLUORESCENCE BASED ASSAY FOR DNA DAMAGE INDUCED BY RADIATION, CHEMICAL MUTAGENS AND ENZYMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple and rapid assay to detect DNA damage is reported. This novel assay is based on changes in melting/annealing behavior and facilitated using certain dyes that increase their fluorescence upon association with double stranded (ds)DNA. Damage caused by ultraviolet (UV) ra...

  12. A fluorescence enhancement assay for cellular DNA damage. [X Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kanter, P.M.; Schwartz, H.S.

    1982-07-01

    A fluorescence procedure is described for quantitative measurement of DNA damage in mammalian cells. The technique is based upon the time-dependent partial alkaline unwinding of cellular DNA followed by determination of duplex:total DNA ratios with bisbenzamide, which has a differential molar fluorescence with single-stranded and duplex DNA. The method is rapid, does not require radioactive labeling of DNA, and is sufficiently sensitive to detect damage induced with 100 rads of X-irradiation. This method is standardized with respect to the alkaline unwinding unit, Mn0, and the unwinding constant, beta. Results obtained with this new technique and with hydroxylapatite chromatography for physical separation of single- and double-stranded DNA were confirmatory. The utility of the technique was demonstrated by detection of dose-related damage with X-irradiation and a variety of antineoplastic agents in unlabeled murine leukemia cells.

  13. Assay of Flippase Activity in Proteoliposomes Using Fluorescent Lipid Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Marek, Magdalena; Günther-Pomorski, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Specific membrane proteins, termed lipid flippases, play a central role in facilitating the movement of lipids across cellular membranes. In this protocol, we describe the reconstitution of ATP-driven lipid flippases in liposomes and the analysis of their in vitro flippase activity based on the use of fluorescent lipid derivatives. Working with purified and reconstituted systems provides a well-defined experimental setup and allows to directly characterize these membrane proteins at the molecular level.

  14. A Dual-Readout F2 Assay That Combines Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer and Fluorescence Polarization for Monitoring Bimolecular Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yuhong; Qui, Min; Li, Lian; Lewis, Iestyn; Dingledine, Raymond; Stuckey, Jeanne A.; Krajewski, Krzysztof; Roller, Peter P.; Wang, Shaomeng

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Förster (fluorescence) resonance energy transfer (FRET) and fluorescence polarization (FP) are widely used technologies for monitoring bimolecular interactions and have been extensively used in high-throughput screening (HTS) for probe and drug discovery. Despite their popularity in HTS, it has been recognized that different assay technologies may generate different hit lists for the same biochemical interaction. Due to the high cost of large-scale HTS campaigns, one has to make a critical choice to employee one assay platform for a particular HTS. Here we report the design and development of a dual-readout HTS assay that combines two assay technologies into one system using the Mcl-1 and Noxa BH3 peptide interaction as a model system. In this system, both FP and FRET signals were simultaneously monitored from one reaction, which is termed “Dual-Readout F2 assay” with F2 for FP and FRET. This dual-readout technology has been optimized in a 1,536-well ultra-HTS format for the discovery of Mcl-1 protein inhibitors and achieved a robust performance. This F2 assay was further validated by screening a library of 102,255 compounds. As two assay platforms are utilized for the same target simultaneously, hit information is enriched without increasing the screening cost. This strategy can be generally extended to other FP-based assays and is expected to enrich primary HTS information and enhance the hit quality of HTS campaigns. PMID:21395401

  15. Fluorescence assay based on aptamer-quantum dot binding to Bacillus thuringiensis spores.

    PubMed

    Ikanovic, Milada; Rudzinski, Walter E; Bruno, John G; Allman, Amity; Carrillo, Maria P; Dwarakanath, Sulatha; Bhahdigadi, Suneetha; Rao, Poornima; Kiel, Johnathan L; Andrews, Carrie J

    2007-03-01

    A novel assay was developed for the detection of Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) spores. The assay is based on the fluorescence observed after binding an aptamer-quantum dot conjugate to BT spores. The in vitro selection and amplification technique called SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment) was used in order to identify the DNA aptamer sequence specific for BT. The 60 base aptamer was then coupled to fluorescent zinc sulfide-capped, cadmium selenide quantum dots (QD). The assay is semi-quantitative, specific and can detect BT at concentrations of about 1,000 colony forming units/ml.

  16. Putting the pieces together: contribution of fluorescence polarization assays to small-molecule lead optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, Susan M.; Marsters, Jim; Beresini, Maureen; Ladner, Carmen; Zioncheck, Kim; Clark, Kevin; Arellano, Fred; Bodary, Sarah

    2000-04-01

    Fluorescence polarization assays with both purified receptor and intact cells have been developed to assess potency and selectivity of antagonists of the interaction of the lymphocyte receptor, LFA-1, and its endothelial ligand, ICAM-1. Fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated small molecule probes were optimized for use in binding assay with LFA-1 and a closely related receptor, MAC-1. In the assays, the antagonists compete with the fluorescent probe for binding to the receptor. This enables the determination of IC50 and consequently Ki values of the antagonists for each of the receptors. Routine use of polarization assay with tranfected cells, in addition to purified receptors, has become feasible with the availability of sensitive plate readers that are able to detect 1 nM fluorescent probe in 15 (mu) l sample volumes with good signal to noise. These measurements aid in the iterative synthesis of more potent and selective compounds.

  17. Homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence quenching assay (LANCE) for caspase-3.

    PubMed

    Karvinen, Jarkko; Hurskainen, Pertti; Gopalakrishnan, Sujatha; Burns, David; Warrior, Usha; Hemmilä, Ilkka

    2002-06-01

    In addition to kinases and G protein-coupled receptors, proteases are one of the main targets in modern drug discovery. Caspases and viral proteases, for instance, are potential targets for new drugs. To satisfy the current need for fast and sensitive high-throughput screening for inhibitors, new homogeneous protease assays are needed. We used a caspase-3 assay as a model to develop a homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence quenching assay technology. The assay utilizes a peptide labeled with both a luminescent europium chelate and a quencher. Cleavage of the peptide by caspase-3 separates the quencher from the chelate and thus recovers europium fluorescence. The sensitivity of the assay was 1 pg/microl for active caspase-3 and 200 pM for the substrate. We evaluated the assay for high-throughput usage by screening 9600 small-molecule compounds. We also evaluated this format for absorption/distribution/metabolism/excretion assays with cell lysates. Additionally, the assay was compared to a commercial fluorescence caspase-3 assay.

  18. Comparison of different fluorescence fluctuation methods for their use in FRET assays: monitoring a protease reaction.

    PubMed

    Eggeling, C; Jäger, S; Winkler, D; Kask, Peet

    2005-10-01

    We compare the accuracy of a variety of Fluorescence Fluctuation Spectroscopy (FFS) methods for the study of Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) assays. As an example, the cleavage of a doubly labeled, FRET-active peptide substrate by the protease Trypsin is monitored and analyzed using methods based on fluorescence intensity, Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) and Fluorescence Intensity Distribution Analysis (FIDA). The presented fluorescence data are compared to High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) data obtained from the same assay. The HPLC analysis discloses general disadvantages of the FRET approach, such as incomplete labeling and the need for aliquots. However, the simultaneous use of two photon detectors monitoring the fluorescence signal of both labels significantly improves the analysis. In particular, the two global analysis tools Two-Dimensional Fluorescence Intensity Distribution Analysis (2D-FIDA) and Two-Color Global Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (2CG-FCS) highlight the potential of a combination of FFS and FRET. While conventional FIDA and FCS auto- or cross-correlation analysis leaves the user with drawbacks inherent in two-color and FRET applications, these effects are overcome by the global analysis on the molecular level. Furthermore, it is advantageous to analyze the unnormalized as opposed to the normalized correlation data when combining any fluorescence correlation method with FRET, since the analysis of the unnormalized data introduces more accuracy and is less sensitive to the experimental drawbacks.

  19. Highly sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) assay using metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Keegan, Gemma L.; Stranik, Ondrej; Brennan-Fournet, Margaret E.; McDonagh, Colette

    2015-07-01

    Fluorescence has been extensively employed in the area of diagnostic immunoassays. A significant enhancement of fluorescence can be achieved when noble metal nanoparticles are placed in close proximity to fluorophores. This effect, referred to as metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF), has the potential to produce immunoassays with a high sensitivity and a low limit of detection (LOD). In this study, we investigate the fluorescence enhancement effect of two different nanoparticle systems, large spherical silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold edge-coated triangular silver nanoplates, and both systems were evaluated for MEF. The extinction properties and electric field enhancement of both systems were modeled, and the optimum system, spherical AgNPs, was used in a sandwich immunoassay for human C-reactive protein with a red fluorescent dye label. A significant enhancement in the fluorescence was observed, which corresponded to an LOD improvement of 19-fold compared to a control assay without AgNPs.

  20. DNA detection assay based on fluorescence quenching of rhodamine B by gold nanoparticles: The optical mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pylaev, T. E.; Volkova, E. K.; Kochubey, V. I.; Bogatyrev, V. A.; Khlebtsov, N. G.

    2013-12-01

    The different ability of single- and double-stranded oligonucleotides to stabilize gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in solution has recently been used to design several label-free hybridization assays on the basis of optical changes associated with GNP aggregation. DNA hybridization can be detected through changes in dye fluorescence quenching by GNPs. Here we examine the mechanisms behind a fluorescent DNA assay for model systems containing DNA oligonucleotides, 15-nm GNPs, and Rhodamine B (RB). There was a direct correlation between complete disappearance of fluorescence and complete adsorption of all RB molecules on nonaggregated GNPs, as revealed by an analysis of the colloids' supernatant liquids. We show that both the inner filter effect and the quenching of the dye owing to its adsorption on GNPs contribute to the observed changes in fluorescence intensity. Therefore, both factors should be properly adjusted to optimize the assay sensitivity. In particular, the low detection limit of the fluorescent DNA assay lies in the range 30-100 pM, which is close to the data reported previously for colorimetric and dynamic light scattering DNA assays.

  1. Conjugated polyelectrolyte-based real-time fluorescence assay for alkaline phosphatase with pyrophosphate as substrate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Schanze, Kirk S

    2008-11-15

    The fluorescence of the anionic, carboxylate-substituted poly(phenylene ethynylene) polymer PPECO2 is quenched very efficiently via the addition of 1 equiv of Cu(2+). Addition of pyrophosphate (PPi) into the weakly fluorescent solution of PPECO2 and Cu(2+) induces recovery of the polymer's fluorescence; the recovery occurs because PPi complexes with Cu(2+), effectively sequestering the ion so it cannot bind to the carboxylate groups of the polymer. A calibration curve was developed that relates the extent of fluorescence recovery to [PPi], making the PPECO2-Cu(2+) system a sensitive and selective turn-on sensor for PPi. Using the PPECO2-Cu(2+) system as the signal transducer, a real-time fluorescence turn-off assay for the enzyme alkaline phosphatase (ALP) using PPi as the substrate is developed. The assay operates with [PPi] in the micromolar range, and it offers a straightforward and rapid detection of ALP activity with the enzyme present in the nanomolar concentration range, operating either in an end point or real-time format. Kinetic and product inhibition parameters are derived by converting time-dependent fluorescence intensity into PPi (substrate) concentration, thus allowing calculation of the initial reaction rates (v(o)). Weak, nonspecific fluorescence responses are observed concomitant to addition of other proteins to the assay solution; however, the signal response to ALP is demonstrated to arise from the ALP catalyzed hydrolysis of PPi to phosphate (Pi).

  2. A Morphological identification cell cytotoxicity assay using cytoplasm-localized fluorescent probe (CLFP) to distinguish living and dead cells.

    PubMed

    Lai, Fangfang; Shen, Zhengwei; Wen, Hui; Chen, Jialing; Zhang, Xiang; Lin, Ping; Yin, Dali; Cui, Huaqing; Chen, Xiaoguang

    2017-01-08

    Cell cytotoxicity assays include cell activity assays and morphological identification assays. Currently, all frequently used cytotoxicity assays belong to cell activity assays but suffer from detection limitations. Morphological identification of cell death remains as the gold standard, although the method is difficult to scale up. At present there is no generally accepted morphological identification based cell cytotoxicity assay. In this study, we applied previous developed cell cytoplasm-localized fluorescent probe (CLFP) to display cell morphologies. Under fluorescence microscopy, the fluorescence morphology and intensity of living cells are distinct from dead cells. Based on these characters we extracted the images of living cells from series of samples via computational analysis. Thus, a novel cell morphological identification cytotoxicity assay (CLFP assay) is developed. The performance of the CLFP assay was similar to cell activity assay (MTT assay), but the accuracy of the CLFP assay was superior when measuring the cytotoxicity of active compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A fluorescence-based assay for measuring the redox potential of 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangchul; Park, Youngsam; Kim, Junghwan; Han, Sung-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The activities and side effects of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) inhibitors can be predicted by identifying their redox mechanisms. In this study, we developed a fluorescence-based method to measure the redox potential of 5-LO inhibitors and compared it to the conventional, absorbance-based method. After the pseudo-peroxidase reaction, the amount of remaining lipid peroxide was quantified using the H2DCFDA (2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate) fluorescence dye. Our method showed large signal windows and provided comparable redox potential values. Importantly, the redox mechanisms of known inhibitors were accurately measured with the fluorescence assay, whereas the conventional, absorbance-based method showed contradictory results. Our findings suggest that our developed method is a better alternative for classifying the redox potential of 5-LO inhibitors, and the fluorescence assay can be effectively used to study the mechanisms of action that are related to redox cycling.

  4. Four-part leukocyte differential count based on sheathless microflow cytometer and fluorescent dye assay.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wendian; Guo, Luke; Kasdan, Harvey; Tai, Yu-Chong

    2013-04-07

    Leukocyte differential count is one of the most frequently ordered clinical tests in hospitals. This paper reports a point-of-care test for the leukocyte count by using a microflow cytometer and a fluorescent dye assay. The dye assay relied on fluorescent detection alone to count leukocytes in blood and to identify leukocyte subtypes. By combining the fluorescent assay with a sheathless microflow design, the proposed method achieved a minimal sample volume by eliminating excessive dilution and sheath flow. In this paper, a four-part leukocyte differential count including lymphocyte, monocyte, neutrophil and eosinophil was demonstrated, and the whole test consumed only a small amount of blood (5 μL) and reagents (68 μL in total). The merits of minimal sample volume, long reagent shelf life and portable instrument made this method optimal for point-of-care applications.

  5. Fluorescence Assay Based on Aptamer-Quantum Dot Binding to Bacillus thuringiensis Spores

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    fluorescent zinc sulfide - capped, cadmium selenide quantum dots (QD). The assay is semi-quantitative, specific and can detect BT at concentra- tions of about...detection of a Bacillus, the zinc - sulfide capped, cadmium selenide QD which fluoresce at 655 nm have an advantage over organic fluorophores in the range of... zinc sulfide capped, cadmium selenide quantum dots (QD) which fluo- resce at 655 nm was purchased from Invitrogen (Carlsbad, CA). Briefly, to

  6. Rapid fluorescence-based assay for radiosensitivity and chemosensitivity testing in mammalian cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Begg, A.C.; Mooren, E.

    1989-02-01

    An efficient and rapid cytotoxicity assay has been developed, particularly for radiobiological studies, utilizing 96-well microtiter plates. Several days after treatment, cell numbers per well were measured by fluorescent intensity using an automatic reader after staining with the DNA specific dye Hoechst 33258. For radiobiological applications, a microtiter plate irradiation box was designed and built which allowed a variable number of wells (minimum 4, maximum 16) to be irradiated at one time. In this manner, complete dose-response curves could be obtained from one plate. The assay depends on the growth of surviving and untreated cells, and by appropriate choice of conditions (cell numbers plated, time of assay), cell survival curves for this quick fluorescence assay were in reasonable agreement with those from a clonogenic assay for cisplatin and X-ray-induced cell killing. The assay can span 1.5-2 decades of cell survival and is suitable for any cell line which grows as a monolayer. Radiobiological applications were tested using agents or conditions which modified radiation damage. Firstly, sublethal damage repair could be demonstrated in RIF1 mouse tumor cells by comparing the survival curve for a single X-ray dose with that for two fractions separated by 4 h. Secondly, incorporation of 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine into cellular DNA was shown to radiosensitize Chinese Hamster cells, with similar enhancement ratios obtained from the fluorescence and clonogenic assays. Thirdly, radiosensitization by cisplatin and radioprotection by cysteamine could be readily measured using the quick fluorescence assay. The ability to have multiple dose groups per plate makes it an efficient assay for both radiosensitivity and chemosensitivity testing.

  7. Fluorescence polarization assays in high-throughput screening and drug discovery: a review

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Matthew D; Yasgar, Adam; Peryea, Tyler; Braisted, John C; Jadhav, Ajit; Simeonov, Anton; Coussens, Nathan P

    2017-01-01

    The sensitivity of Fluorescence Polarization (FP) and Fluorescence Anisotropy (FA) to molecular weight changes has enabled the interrogation of diverse biological mechanisms, ranging from molecular interactions to enzymatic activity. Assays based on FP/FA technology have been widely utilized in high-throughput screening (HTS) and drug discovery due to the homogenous format, robust performance and relative insensitivity to some types of interferences, such as inner filter effects. Advancements in assay design, fluorescent probes, and technology have enabled the application of FP assays to increasingly complex biological processes. Herein we discuss different types of FP/FA assays developed for HTS, with examples to emphasize the diversity of applicable targets. Furthermore, trends in target and fluorophore selection, as well as assay type and format, are examined using annotated HTS assays within the PubChem database. Finally, practical considerations for the successful development and implementation of FP/FA assays for HTS are provided based on experience at our center and examples from the literature, including strategies for flagging interference compounds among a list of hits. PMID:28809163

  8. Fluorescence polarization assays in high-throughput screening and drug discovery: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Matthew D.; Yasgar, Adam; Peryea, Tyler; Braisted, John C.; Jadhav, Ajit; Simeonov, Anton; Coussens, Nathan P.

    2016-06-01

    The sensitivity of fluorescence polarization (FP) and fluorescence anisotropy (FA) to molecular weight changes has enabled the interrogation of diverse biological mechanisms, ranging from molecular interactions to enzymatic activity. Assays based on FP/FA technology have been widely utilized in high-throughput screening (HTS) and drug discovery due to the homogenous format, robust performance and relative insensitivity to some types of interferences, such as inner filter effects. Advancements in assay design, fluorescent probes, and technology have enabled the application of FP assays to increasingly complex biological processes. Herein we discuss different types of FP/FA assays developed for HTS, with examples to emphasize the diversity of applicable targets. Furthermore, trends in target and fluorophore selection, as well as assay type and format, are examined using annotated HTS assays within the PubChem database. Finally, practical considerations for the successful development and implementation of FP/FA assays for HTS are provided based on experience at our center and examples from the literature, including strategies for flagging interference compounds among a list of hits.

  9. Real-time fluorescence assays of alkaline phosphatase and ATP sulfurylase activities based on a novel PPi fluorescent probe.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Zhiyang; Ma, Xiaoyan; Wen, Jinghan; Geng, Zhirong; Wang, Zhilin

    2015-05-01

    An anthracene-armed tetraaza macrocyclic fluorescent probe 3-(9-anthrylmethyl)-3,6,9,15-tetraazabicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca-1(15),11,13-triene(l) for detecting Zn(2+) in aqueous medium was synthesized. L-Zn(2+) complex, showed selectivity toward pyrophosphate ion (PPi) by quenching the fluorescence in aqueous HEPES buffer (pH 7.4). Furthermore, L-Zn(2+) was also used to set up a real-time fluorescence assay for monitoring enzyme activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and adenosine triphosphate sulfurylase (ATPS). In the presence of ALP inhibitor Na3VO4 and ATPS inhibitor chlorate, two enzymes activities decreased obviously, respectively.

  10. Real-time fluorescence assays to monitor duplex unwinding and ATPase activities of helicases.

    PubMed

    Özeş, Ali R; Feoktistova, Kateryna; Avanzino, Brian C; Baldwin, Enoch P; Fraser, Christopher S

    2014-07-01

    Many physiological functions of helicases are dependent on their ability to unwind nucleic acid duplexes in an ATP-dependent fashion. Determining the kinetic frameworks of these processes is crucial to understanding how these proteins function. We recently developed a fluorescence assay to monitor RNA duplex unwinding by DEAD-box helicases in real time. In this assay, two fluorescently modified short reporter oligonucleotides are annealed to an unmodified RNA loading strand of any length so that the fluorescent moieties of the two reporters find themselves in close proximity to each other and fluorescence is quenched. One reporter is modified with cyanine 3 (Cy3), whereas the other is modified with a spectrally paired black-hole quencher (BHQ). As the helicase unwinds the loading strand, the enzyme displaces the Cy3-modified reporter, which will bind to a capture or competitor DNA strand, permanently separating it from the BHQ-modified reporter. Complete separation of the Cy3-modified reporter strand is thus detected as an increase in total fluorescence. This assay is compatible with reagentless biosensors to monitor ATPase activity so that the coupling between ATP hydrolysis and duplex unwinding can be determined. With the protocol described, obtaining data and analyzing results of unwinding and ATPase assays takes ∼4 h.

  11. Testing the utility of fluorescent proteins in Mimulus lewisii by an Agrobacterium-mediated transient assay.

    PubMed

    Ding, Baoqing; Yuan, Yao-Wu

    2016-04-01

    The Agrobacterium -mediated transient expression assay by leaf infiltration in Mimulus lewisii is robust. Fluorescent proteins EGFP, EYFP and DsRed give bright fluorescence signals in the infiltrated tissue. Mimulus lewisii is an emerging developmental genetic model system. Recently developed genomic and genetic resources and a stable transformation protocol have greatly facilitated the identification and functional characterization of genes controlling the development of ecologically important floral traits using this species. To further expedite gene and protein function analyses in M. lewisii, we adopted and simplified the Agrobacterium-mediated transient gene expression method routinely used in tobacco plants. With the validated transient assay, we examined the performance of fluorescent proteins EGFP, EYFP and DsRed in M. lewisii. All three proteins gave bright fluorescence signals when transiently expressed in agroinfiltrated leaves. Furthermore, we demonstrated the utility of fluorescent proteins in M. lewisii by showing the nuclear localization of Reduced Carotenoid Pigmentation 1 (RCP1), a recently discovered R2R3-MYB transcription factor that regulates carotenoid pigmentation during flower development. Both the transient assay and the fluorescent proteins are valuable additions to the M. lewisii toolbox, making this emerging genetic and developmental model system even more powerful.

  12. Combined thioflavin T-Congo red fluorescence assay for amyloid fibril detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girych, Mykhailo; Gorbenko, Galyna; Maliyov, Ivan; Trusova, Valeriya; Mizuguchi, Chiharu; Saito, Hiroyuki; Kinnunen, Paavo

    2016-09-01

    Fluorescence represents one of the most powerful tools for the detection and structural characterization of the pathogenic protein aggregates, amyloid fibrils. The traditional approaches to the identification and quantification of amyloid fibrils are based on monitoring the fluorescence changes of the benzothiazole dye thioflavin T (ThT) and absorbance changes of the azo dye Congo red (CR). In routine screening it is usually sufficient to perform only the ThT and CR assays, but both of them, when used separately, could give false results. Moreover, fibrillization kinetics can be measured only by ThT fluorescence, while the characteristic absorption spectra and birefringence of CR represent more rigid criteria for the presence of amyloid fibrils. Therefore, it seemed reasonable to use both these dyes simultaneously, combining the advantages of each technique. To this end, we undertook a detailed analysis of the fluorescence spectral behavior of these unique amyloid tracers upon their binding to amyloid fibrils from lysozyme, insulin and an N-terminal fragment of apolipoprotein A-I with Iowa mutation. The fluorescence measurements revealed several criteria for distinguishing between fibrillar and monomeric protein states: (i) a common drastic increase in ThT fluorescence intensity; (ii) a sharp decrease in ThT fluorescence upon addition of CR; (iii) an appearance of the maximum at 535-540 nm in the CR excitation spectra; (iv) increase in CR fluorescence intensity at 610 nm. Based on these findings we designed a novel combined ThT-CR fluorescence assay for amyloid identification. Such an approach not only strengthens the reliability of the ThT assay, but also provides new opportunities for structural characterization of amyloid fibrils.

  13. High-throughput fluorescence assay of cytochrome P450 3A4

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Qian; Sohl, Christal D; Guengerich, F Peter

    2013-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenases (P450s) are the principal enzymes involved in the oxidative metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics. In this protocol, we describe a fluorescence-based, high-throughput assay for measuring the activity of P450 3A4, one of the key enzymes involved in drug metabolism. The assay involves the oxidative debenzylation of a substituted coumarin, yielding an increase in fluorescence on reaction. The entire procedure can be accomplished in 1 h or less. PMID:19661996

  14. Assessment of Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Spent Nuclear Fuel Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Quiter, Brian; Ludewigt, Bernhard; Ambers, Scott

    2011-06-30

    In nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) measurements, resonances are excited by an external photon beam leading to the emission of gamma rays with specific energies that are characteristic of the emitting isotope. NRF promises the unique capability of directly quantifying a specific isotope without the need for unfolding the combined responses of several fissile isotopes as is required in other measurement techniques. We have analyzed the potential of NRF as a non-destructive analysis technique for quantitative measurements of Pu isotopes in spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Given the low concentrations of 239Pu in SNF and its small integrated NRF cross sections, the main challenge in achieving precise and accurate measurements lies in accruing sufficient counting statistics in a reasonable measurement time. Using analytical modeling, and simulations with the radiation transport code MCNPX that has been experimentally tested recently, the backscatter and transmission methods were quantitatively studied for differing photon sources and radiation detector types. Resonant photon count rates and measurement times were estimated for a range of photon source and detection parameters, which were used to determine photon source and gamma-ray detector requirements. The results indicate that systems based on a bremsstrahlung source and present detector technology are not practical for high-precision measurements of 239Pu in SNF. Measurements that achieve the desired uncertainties within hour-long measurements will either require stronger resonances, which may be expressed by other Pu isotopes, or require quasi-monoenergetic photon sources with intensities that are approximately two orders of magnitude higher than those currently being designed or proposed.This work is part of a larger effort sponsored by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative to develop an integrated instrument, comprised of individual NDA techniques with complementary features, that is fully capable of

  15. The polarized total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (polTIRFM) twirling filament assay.

    PubMed

    Beausang, John F; Sun, Yujie; Quinlan, Margot E; Forkey, Joseph N; Goldman, Yale E

    2012-06-01

    Polarized total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (polTIRFM) can be used to detect the spatial orientation and rotational dynamics of single molecules. polTIRFM determines the three-dimensional angular orientation and the extent of wobble of a fluorescent probe bound to the macromolecule of interest. This protocol describes the twirling filament assay, so named because actin sometimes twirls about its own axis as it is translocated by myosin. A gliding filament assay is constructed in which a sparsely labeled actin filament (0.3% of the actin monomers contain 6'- iodoacetamidotetramethylrhodamine [IATR]) is translocated by a field of unlabeled myosin V fixed to the surface. The polTIRFM twirling assay differs from a standard gliding filament assay in that full filaments are not visible, but rather individual fluorophores are spaced along each filament. The goal is to investigate possible rotational motions of the actin filament about its axis (i.e., twirling) by measuring the spatial angle of the fluorescent probe as a function of time. Successful assays contain microscopic fields of approximately 50 isolated points of fluorescence that move across the field in the presence of ATP. Actin is usually translocated by more than one myosin molecule, depending on the filament length and the myosin surface density. Sparsely labeled filaments are required because the orientation of only one probe can be resolved at a time.

  16. Development and use of chlorotetracycline fluorescence as a measurement assay of chloroplast envelope-bound mg.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A S; Berkowitz, G A

    1989-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to develop chlorotetracycline (CTC) fluorescence as an assay of Mg(2+) bound to the envelope of the intact chloroplast. This assay technique has been widely used to measure envelope associated divalent cations in animal cell and subcellular systems, but has not been used with chloroplasts. Chloroplast envelope-associated Mg(2+) was altered by pretreatment with Mg(2+) and divalent cation chelating agents and by additions of Mg(2+) to the CTC assay medium. Results indicated that for a given chloroplast preparation, relative changes in envelope-associated Mg(2+) can be effectively monitored with CTC fluorescence. It was concluded that the limitations of this assay system are: (a) chlorophyll strongly quenches CTC fluorescence signal, so a constant chlorophyll concentration must be maintained, (b) measurements must be made quickly, and (c) use of the technique to compare different chloroplast preparations may not be valid. Studies with (28)Mg(2+) confirmed our interpretation of the fluorescence results, and also suggested that the chloroplast envelope is fairly impermeable to Mg(2+). It was concluded that changes in Mg(2+) associated with the chloroplast due to incubation of plastids in solutions containing up to 5 millimolar Mg(2+) may be exclusively due to increased envelope-associated Mg(2+). The CTC assay was used in experiments to demonstrate that increases in chloroplast envelope-associated Mg(2+) inhibit photosynthetic capacity. This inhibition can be partially overcome by the presence of K(+) in the photosynthetic reaction media.

  17. Addressing membrane protein topology using the fluorescence protease protection (FPP) assay.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Holger; Hailey, Dale W; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Determining a protein's correct topological distribution within the cell is essential for understanding the proper functioning of many proteins. Here, we describe a fluorescence-based technique, termed FPP for fluorescence protease protection, to determine protein topology in living cells. The FPP assay uses the restricted proteolytic digestibility of green fluorescent protein-tagged membrane proteins to reveal their intramembrane orientation. Membrane protein topology can be assessed using this technique for proteins residing in organelles as diverse as the Golgi apparatus, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), peroxisomes, mitochondria, and autophagosomes. To illustrate the technique, we describe its use for deciphering the topology of a membrane protein in the ER.

  18. Towards sensitive, high-throughput, biomolecular assays based on fluorescence lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioanna Skilitsi, Anastasia; Turko, Timothé; Cianfarani, Damien; Barre, Sophie; Uhring, Wilfried; Hassiepen, Ulrich; Léonard, Jérémie

    2017-09-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence detection for robust sensing of biomolecular interactions is developed by implementing time-correlated single photon counting in high-throughput conditions. Droplet microfluidics is used as a promising platform for the very fast handling of low-volume samples. We illustrate the potential of this very sensitive and cost-effective technology in the context of an enzymatic activity assay based on fluorescently-labeled biomolecules. Fluorescence lifetime detection by time-correlated single photon counting is shown to enable reliable discrimination between positive and negative control samples at a throughput as high as several hundred samples per second.

  19. Long term response of a Concanavalin-A based fluorescence glucose sensing assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locke, Andrea K.; Cummins, Brian M.; Abraham, Alexander A.; Coté, Gerard L.

    2015-03-01

    Competitive binding assays comprised of the protein Concanavalin A (ConA) have shown potential for use in continuous glucose monitoring devices. However, its time-dependent, thermal instability can impact the lifetime of these ConA based assays. In an attempt to design sensors with longer in vivo lifetimes, different groups have immobilized the protein to various surfaces. For example, Ballerstadt et al. have shown that immobilizing ConA onto the interior of a micro-dialysis membrane and allowing dextran to be freely suspended within solution allowed for successful in vivo glucose sensing up to 16 days. This work explores the glucose response of an assay comprised of modified ConA and a single fluorescently labeled competing ligand in free solution to increase the in vivo sensing lifetime without immobilization,. The behavior of this assay in the presence of varying glucose concentrations is monitored via fluorescence anisotropy over a 30 day period.

  20. Microinjection and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Assay for Studying mRNA Export in Mammalian Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Shi, Min; Cheng, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Microinjection and Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) assay is a useful method for mRNA export studies, which can overcome the problems of traditional transfection in cells. Here, we describe the method of microinjection and FISH assay applied in investigation of mRNA export. By this method we can estimate the mRNA export kinetics, examining mRNA export in cells with low transfection efficiencies, and observing nuclear export of aberrant RNAs.

  1. Development of fluorescent Plasmodium falciparum for in vitro growth inhibition assays.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Danny W; Crabb, Brendan S; Beeson, James G

    2010-06-03

    Plasmodium falciparum in vitro growth inhibition assays are widely used to evaluate and quantify the functional activity of acquired and vaccine-induced antibodies and the anti-malarial activity of known drugs and novel compounds. However, several constraints have limited the use of these assays in large-scale population studies, vaccine trials and compound screening for drug discovery and development. The D10 P. falciparum line was transfected to express green fluorescent protein (GFP). In vitro growth inhibition assays were performed over one or two cycles of P. falciparum asexual replication using inhibitory polyclonal antibodies raised in rabbits, an inhibitory monoclonal antibody, human serum samples, and anti-malarials. Parasitaemia was evaluated by microscopy and flow cytometry. Transfected parasites expressed GFP throughout all asexual stages and were clearly detectable by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Measurement of parasite growth inhibition was the same when determined by detection of GFP fluorescence or staining with ethidium bromide. There was no difference in the inhibitory activity of samples when tested against the transfected parasites compared to the parental line. The level of fluorescence of GFP-expressing parasites increased throughout the course of asexual development. Among ring-stages, GFP-fluorescent parasites were readily separated from uninfected erythrocytes by flow cytometry, whereas this was less clear using ethidium bromide staining. Inhibition by serum and antibody samples was consistently higher when tested over two cycles of growth compared to one, and when using a 1 in 10 sample dilution compared to 1 in 20, but there was no difference detected when using a different starting parasitaemia to set-up growth assays. Flow cytometry based measurements of parasitaemia proved more reproducible than microscopy counts. Flow cytometry based assays using GFP-fluorescent parasites proved sensitive and highly reproducible for

  2. Development of fluorescent Plasmodium falciparum for in vitro growth inhibition assays

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plasmodium falciparum in vitro growth inhibition assays are widely used to evaluate and quantify the functional activity of acquired and vaccine-induced antibodies and the anti-malarial activity of known drugs and novel compounds. However, several constraints have limited the use of these assays in large-scale population studies, vaccine trials and compound screening for drug discovery and development. Methods The D10 P. falciparum line was transfected to express green fluorescent protein (GFP). In vitro growth inhibition assays were performed over one or two cycles of P. falciparum asexual replication using inhibitory polyclonal antibodies raised in rabbits, an inhibitory monoclonal antibody, human serum samples, and anti-malarials. Parasitaemia was evaluated by microscopy and flow cytometry. Results Transfected parasites expressed GFP throughout all asexual stages and were clearly detectable by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Measurement of parasite growth inhibition was the same when determined by detection of GFP fluorescence or staining with ethidium bromide. There was no difference in the inhibitory activity of samples when tested against the transfected parasites compared to the parental line. The level of fluorescence of GFP-expressing parasites increased throughout the course of asexual development. Among ring-stages, GFP-fluorescent parasites were readily separated from uninfected erythrocytes by flow cytometry, whereas this was less clear using ethidium bromide staining. Inhibition by serum and antibody samples was consistently higher when tested over two cycles of growth compared to one, and when using a 1 in 10 sample dilution compared to 1 in 20, but there was no difference detected when using a different starting parasitaemia to set-up growth assays. Flow cytometry based measurements of parasitaemia proved more reproducible than microscopy counts. Conclusions Flow cytometry based assays using GFP-fluorescent parasites proved

  3. Evaluation of a fluorescent DNA hybridization assay for the detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Cano, R J; Palomares, J C; Torres, M J; Klem, R E

    1992-07-01

    This study evaluates a four-hour fluorescent DNA hybridization assay using both known bacterial isolates and clinical specimens. A biotinylated oligonucleotide probe from a sequence of the plasmid-encoded gene cppB was used. Hybrids were detected by addition of a streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase conjugate, followed by incubation for 30 min in a fluorescent substrate for alkaline phosphatase. The level of detection of the fluorescent assay was 0.1 pg of cryptic plasmid DNA or 200 cfu of the plasmid-containing strain NG 34/85 of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. A total of 119 reference strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and other related bacteria were tested for reactivity with the probe. All Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains, including eight plasmid-free strains, hybridized with the probe. Fluorescence ratios were 2.67 for plasmid-free strains and 3.85 for plasmid-containing strains. Of the heterologous microorganisms tested, only one of six strains of Neisseria cinerea gave a fluorescence ratio above the 2.0 cut-off value for positivity with the probe at a cell density of 1 x 10(4) cfu. The probe was also evaluated using clinical specimens from 100 patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases. The sensitivity of the assay was 100% while the specificity was 97.5%. Positive and negative predictive values were 91.2% and 100%, respectively. The fluorescent DNA hybridization assay for the detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae described here thus appears to be a highly specific and sensitive assay.

  4. Depolarization of Surface-Enhanced Fluorescence: An Approach to Fluorescence Polarization Assays

    PubMed Central

    Szmacinski, Henryk; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2009-01-01

    Localized surface plasmons of metallic particles of sub-wavelength sizes strongly modify the spectral properties of nearby fluorophores. The enhanced radiative decay rate leads to high fluorescence efficiencies and decreased fluorescence lifetimes. In this report we show that metal-enhanced fluorescence generated by the presence of the silver islands on the glass substrate displays high depolarization. Intensities, lifetimes, and emission anisotropies of several fluorophore protein conjugates have been studied in the absence and presence of metallic nanostructures. Despite highly decreased lifetimes of about 10-fold and immobilization of conjugates on the solid substrate, the observed emission anisotropies for all fluorophores on the metal-enhanced substrate decreased 300–500% compared to that in solution. This observation implies a new generation of fluorescence polarization immunoassays with broad applications because of no restrictions to the lifetime of the probe and the size of labeled biomolecules. The changes in polarization are due to binding that occur on the bioactive surface localized near the metal particles. PMID:18627176

  5. A direct, continuous, sensitive assay for protein disulphide-isomerase based on fluorescence self-quenching.

    PubMed

    Raturi, Arun; Vacratsis, Panayiotis O; Seslija, Dana; Lee, Lana; Mutus, Bulent

    2005-10-15

    PDI (protein disulphide-isomerase) activity is generally monitored by insulin turbidity assay or scrambled RNase assay, both of which are performed by UV-visible spectroscopy. In this paper, we present a sensitive fluorimetric assay for continuous determination of disulphide reduction activity of PDI. This assay utilizes the pseudo-substrate diabz-GSSG [where diabz stands for di-(o-aminobenzoyl)], which is formed by the reaction of isatoic anhydride with the two free N-terminal amino groups of GSSG. The proximity of two benzoyl groups leads to quenching of the diabz-GSSG fluorescence by approx. 50% in comparison with its non-disulphide-linked form, abz-GSH (where abz stands for o-aminobenzoyl). Therefore the PDI-dependent disulphide reduction can be monitored by the increase in fluorescence accompanying the loss of proximity-quenching upon conversion of diabz-GSSG into abz-GSH. The apparent K(m) of PDI for diabz-GSSG was estimated to be approx. 15 muM. Unlike the insulin turbidity assay and scrambled RNase assay, the diabz-GSSG-based assay was shown to be effective in determining a single turnover of enzyme in the absence of reducing agents with no appreciable blank rates. The assay is simple to perform and very sensitive, with an estimated detection limit of approx. 2.5 nM PDI, enabling its use for the determination of platelet surface PDI activity in crude sample preparations.

  6. Medically Relevant Assays with a Simple Smartphone and Tablet Based Fluorescence Detection System

    PubMed Central

    Wargocki, Piotr; Deng, Wei; Anwer, Ayad G.; Goldys, Ewa M.

    2015-01-01

    Cell phones and smart phones can be reconfigured as biomedical sensor devices but this requires specialized add-ons. In this paper we present a simple cell phone-based portable bioassay platform, which can be used with fluorescent assays in solution. The system consists of a tablet, a polarizer, a smart phone (camera) and a box that provides dark readout conditions. The assay in a well plate is placed on the tablet screen acting as an excitation source. A polarizer on top of the well plate separates excitation light from assay fluorescence emission enabling assay readout with a smartphone camera. The assay result is obtained by analysing the intensity of image pixels in an appropriate colour channel. With this device we carried out two assays, for collagenase and trypsin using fluorescein as the detected fluorophore. The results of collagenase assay with the lowest measured concentration of 3.75 µg/mL and 0.938 µg in total in the sample were comparable to those obtained by a microplate reader. The lowest measured amount of trypsin was 930 pg, which is comparable to the low detection limit of 400 pg for this assay obtained in a microplate reader. The device is sensitive enough to be used in point-of-care medical diagnostics of clinically relevant conditions, including arthritis, cystic fibrosis and acute pancreatitis. PMID:26007723

  7. Immuno-fluorescence Assay of Leptospiral Surface-exposed Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pinne, Marija; Haake, David

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial surface proteins are involved in direct contact with host cells and in uptake of nutrients from the environment 1. For this reason, cellular localization can provide insights into the functional role of bacterial proteins. Surface localization of bacterial proteins is a key step towards identification of virulence factors involved in mechanisms of pathogenicity. Methods for fractionating leptospiral membranes 2-5 may be selective for a certain class of outer-membrane proteins (OMPs), such as lipoproteins vs. transmembrane OMPs, and therefore lead to misclassification. This likely is due to structural differences and how they are associated to the outer membrane. Lipoproteins are associated with membranes via a hydrophobic interaction between the N-terminal lipid moiety (three fatty acids) and the lipid bilayer phospholipids 6, 7. In contrast, transmembrane OMPs are typically integrated into the lipid bilayer by amphipathic β-sheets arranged in a barrel-like structure 8, 9. In addition, presence of a protein in the outer-membrane does not necessarily guarantee that the protein or its domains are exposed on the surface. Spirochetal outer membranes are known to be fragile and therefore necessitate methods involving gentle manipulation of cells and inclusion of sub-surface protein controls to assess the integrity of the outer membrane. Here, we present an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) method to directly assess surface exposure of proteins on intact leptospires. This method is based on recognition of leptospiral surface proteins by antigen-specific antibodies. Herein, antibodies specific for OmpL5410 are detetcted aftero binding to native, surface exposed epitopes. Comparison of antibody reactivity to intact versus permeabilized cells enables evaluation of cellular distribution and whether or not a protein is selectively present on leptospiral surface. The integrity of outer membrane should be assessed using antibody to one or more subsurface proteins

  8. Osteoconductivity of Complex Biomaterials Assayed by Fluorescent-Engineered Osteoblast-like Cells.

    PubMed

    Manfrini, Marco; Mazzoni, Elisa; Barbanti-Brodano, Giovanni; Nocini, Pierfrancesco; D'agostino, Antonio; Trombelli, Leonardo; Tognon, Mauro

    2015-04-01

    Biomaterials employed for the bone regeneration can be assayed for specific features such as osteoconductivity and gene expression. In this study, the composite HA/collagen/chondroitin-sulfate biomaterial was investigated using an engineered human cell line, named Saos-eGFP. This cell line, a green fluorescent engineered human osteoblast-like cell, was employed as a cellular model for the in vitro study of biomaterial characteristics. The cytotoxicity was indirectly evaluated by fluorescence detection, osteoconductivity was assayed both by fluorescence and electron microscope analysis as well as cell morphology, whereas the RT-PCR technique was employed to assay gene expression. Saos-eGFP cells viability detection after 24 and 96 h of incubation showed that biomaterial enables the adhesion and proliferation of seeded cells as well as that of the plastic surface, the control. Fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses indicated that Saos-eGFP cells were homogeneously distributed on the HA granule surfaces, exhibiting cytoplasmic bridges, and were localized on the collagen-chondroitin sulfate extra-cellular matrix. An expression analysis of specific genes encoding for differentiation markers, showed that biomaterial assayed did not alter the osteogenic pathway of the Saos-eGFP cell line. Our assays confirm the cytocompatibility of this biomaterial, suggesting an osteoconductive capacity mediated by its chemical contents. We showed that the Saos-eGFP cellular model is suitable for in vitro biomaterial assays, and more specifically for assessing osteoconductivity. This result suggests that the cytocompatibility and osteoconductive features of the biomaterial assayed as bone substitute, could have a positive downstream effect on implant osteo-integration.

  9. DETECTION OF LOW DOSE RADIATION INDUCED DNA DAMAGE USING TEMPERATURE DIFFERENTIAL FLUORESCENCE ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid and sensitive fluorescence assay for radiation-induced DNA damage is reported. Changes in temperature-induced strand separation in both calf thymus DNA and plasmid DNA (puc 19 plasmid from Escherichia coli) were measured after exposure to low doses of radiation. Exposur...

  10. DETECTION OF LOW DOSE RADIATION INDUCED DNA DAMAGE USING TEMPERATURE DIFFERENTIAL FLUORESCENCE ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid and sensitive fluorescence assay for radiation-induced DNA damage is reported. Changes in temperature-induced strand separation in both calf thymus DNA and plasmid DNA (puc 19 plasmid from Escherichia coli) were measured after exposure to low doses of radiation. Exposur...

  11. Detection of Viruses By Counting Single Fluorescent Genetically Biotinylated Reporter Immunophage Using a Lateral Flow Assay

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinsu; Adhikari, Meena; Dhamane, Sagar; Hagström, Anna E. V.; Kourentzi, Katerina; Strych, Ulrich; Willson, Richard C.; Conrad, Jacinta C.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated a lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) for detection of viruses using fluorescently-labeled M13 bacteriophage as reporters and single-reporter counting as the readout. AviTag-biotinylated M13 phage were functionalized with antibodies using avidin-biotin conjugation and fluorescently labeled with AlexaFluor 555. Individual phage bound to target viruses (here MS2 as a model) captured on an LFA membrane strip were imaged using epi-fluorescence microscopy. Using automated image processing, we counted the number of bound phage in micrographs as a function of target concentration. The resultant assay was more sensitive than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and traditional colloidal-gold nanoparticle LFAs for direct detection of viruses. PMID:25581289

  12. The inhibition of fluorescence resonance energy transfer between quantum dots for glucose assay.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo; Zhang, Li-Pei; Chen, Mei-Ling; Chen, Ming-Li; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2012-02-15

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between two quantum dots of different sizes causes fluorescence quenching. Hereby a binding site pre-blocking approach is proposed to avoid this effect. Pre-binding of glucose on the donor occupies the binding sites and thus blocks resonance energy transfer between the two quantum dots, protecting the fluorescence from being quenched. A glucose assay is developed based on this approach. The glucose content is correlated with the fluorescence difference in the absence and in the presence of glucose. In practice, Green QDs-Con A conjugates are used as donors and Red QDs-NH(2)-glu conjugates as acceptors to form FRET system. The inhibition of fluorescence quenching is then measured in the presence of glucose. A linear calibration graph is achieved within 0.1-2.0 mmolL(-1), along with a detection limit of 0.03 mmolL(-1) and a RSD of 2.1% (1.0 mmolL(-1)). 91-105% of glucose in serum and urine samples is recovered. It is worth mentioning that the present glucose assay approach also generates a fluorescence chromatic difference imaging, and the color display clearly identifies the glucose contents by visual detection with a distinguishing ability of ca. 0.5 mmolL(-1). The present approach can potentially be used for the clinical determination of glucose in biological samples which can be further developed into a glucose sensor.

  13. A chimera of green fluorescent protein with single chain variable fragment antibody against ginsenosides for fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Seiichi; Tanizaki, Yusuke; Pongkitwitoon, Benyakan; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi

    2011-05-01

    A chimera of green fluorescent protein extracted from Aequorea coerulescens (AcGFP), a mutant that has been codon optimized for mammalian expression, with single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody against ginsenoside Re (GRe-scFv), named fluobody, has been successfully expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) to develop simple, speedy, and sensitive fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (FLISA). Two chimera proteins were constructed to contain GRe-scFv at the C-terminus of AcGFP (C-fluobody) and at the N-terminus of AcGFP (N-fluobody). These fluobodies were then purified by ion metal affinity chromatography and refolded by stepwise dialysis. The characterization of both fluobodies revealed that C-fluobody was found to be appropriate probe for FLISA as compare with N-fluobody. Furthermore, improvement of limit of detection (LOD) was observed in FLISA using C-fluobody (10 ng/mL) due to its strong fluorescence intensity of AcGFP compared with conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using parental monoclonal antibody against ginsenoside Re (G-Re), MAb-4G10 (100 ng/mL). Since some steps required in ELISA can be avoided in this present FLISA, speedy and sensitive immunoassay also could be performed using fluobody instead of monoclonal antibody and scFv.

  14. Fluorescence-based assays for in vitro analysis of cell adhesion and migration.

    PubMed

    Spessotto, Paola; Lacrima, Katia; Nicolosi, Pier Andrea; Pivetta, Eliana; Scapolan, Martina; Perris, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Cell adhesion and cell migration are two primary cellular phenomena for which in vitro approaches may be exploited to effectively dissect the individual events and underlying molecular mechanisms. The use of assays dedicated to the analysis of cell adhesion and migration in vitro also afford an efficient way of conducting larger basic and applied research screenings on the factors affecting these processes and are potentially exploitable in the context of routine diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive tests in the biological and medical fields. Therefore, there is a longstanding continuum in the interest in devising more rationale such assays and major contributions in this direction have been provided by the advent of procedures based on fluorescence cell tagging, the design of instruments capable of detecting fluorescent signals with high sensitivity, and informatic tools allowing sophisticated elaboration of data generated through these instruments. In this report, we describe three representative fluorescence-based model assays for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of cell adhesion and cell locomotion in static and dynamic conditions. The assays are easily performed, accurate and reproducible, and can be automated for high-to-medium throughput screenings of cell behavior in vitro. Performance of the assays involves the use of certain dedicated disposable accessories, which are commercially available, and a few instruments that, due to their versatility, can be regarded as constituents of a more generic laboratory setup.

  15. Homogeneous plate based antibody internalization assay using pH sensor fluorescent dye.

    PubMed

    Nath, Nidhi; Godat, Becky; Zimprich, Chad; Dwight, Stephen J; Corona, Cesear; McDougall, Mark; Urh, Marjeta

    2016-04-01

    Receptor-mediated antibody internalization is a key mechanism underlying several anti-cancer antibody therapeutics. Delivering highly toxic drugs to cancer cells, as in the case of antibody drug conjugates (ADCs), efficient removal of surface receptors from cancer cells and changing the pharmacokinetics profile of the antibody drugs are some of key ways that internalization impacts the therapeutic efficacy of the antibodies. Over the years, several techniques have been used to study antibody internalization including radiolabels, fluorescent microscopy, flow cytometry and cellular toxicity assays. While these methods allow analysis of internalization, they have limitations including a multistep process and limited throughput and are generally endpoint assays. Here, we present a new homogeneous method that enables time and concentration dependent measurements of antibody internalization. The method uses a new hydrophilic and bright pH sensor dye (pHAb dye), which is not fluorescent at neutral pH but becomes highly fluorescent at acidic pH. For receptor mediated antibody internalization studies, antibodies against receptors are conjugated with the pHAb dye and incubated with the cells expressing the receptors. Upon binding to the receptor, the dyes conjugated to the antibody are not fluorescent because of the neutral pH of the media, but upon internalization and trafficking into endosomal and lysosomal vesicles the pH drops and dyes become fluorescent. The enabling attributes of the pHAb dyes are the hydrophilic nature to minimize antibody aggregation and bright fluorescence at acidic pH which allows development of simple plate based assays using a fluorescent reader. Using two different therapeutic antibodies--Trastuzumab (anti-HER2) and Cetuximab (anti-EGFR)--we show labeling with pHAb dye using amine and thiol chemistries and impact of chemistry and dye to antibody ration on internalization. We finally present two new approaches using the pHAb dye, which will be

  16. A continuous fluorescence displacement assay for BioA: An enzyme involved in biotin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Daniel J.; Shi, Ce; Duckworth, Benjamin P.; Muretta, Joseph M.; Manjunatha, Ujjini; Sham, Yuk Y.; Thomas, David D.; Aldrich, Courtney C.

    2011-01-01

    Cofactor biosynthetic pathways represent a rich source of potential antibiotic targets. The second step in biotin biosynthesis is performed by BioA, a pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP) dependent enzyme. This enzyme has been confirmed as a candidate target in Mycobacterium tuberculosis; however, the current bioassay used to measure BioA activity is cumbersome and low-throughput. Here we describe the design, development and optimization of a continuous coupled fluorescence displacement assay to measure BioA activity. In this coupled assay, BioD converts the product of the BioA–catalyzed reaction into dethiobiotin, which is subsequently detected by displacement of a fluorescently labeled dethiobiotin probe from streptavidin. The assay was further adapted to a high-throughput screening format and validated against the LOPAC library. PMID:21621502

  17. Fluorescence detection-based functional assay for high-throughput screening for MraY.

    PubMed

    Stachyra, Thérèse; Dini, Christophe; Ferrari, Paul; Bouhss, Ahmed; van Heijenoort, Jean; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Blanot, Didier; Biton, Jacques; Le Beller, Dominique

    2004-03-01

    We have developed a novel assay specific to MraY, which catalyzes the first membrane step in the biosynthesis of bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan. This was accomplished by using UDP-MurNAc-N(epsilon)-dansylpentapeptide, a fluorescent derivative of the MraY nucleotide substrate, and a partially purified preparation of MraY solubilized from membranes of an Escherichia coli overproducing strain. Two versions of the assay were developed, one consisting of the high-pressure liquid chromatography separation of the substrate and product (dansylated lipid I) and the other, without separation and adapted to the high-throughput format, taking advantage of the different fluorescence properties of the nucleotide and lipid I in the reaction medium. The latter assay was validated with a set of natural and synthetic MraY inhibitors.

  18. Fluorescence Detection-Based Functional Assay for High-Throughput Screening for MraY

    PubMed Central

    Stachyra, Thérèse; Dini, Christophe; Ferrari, Paul; Bouhss, Ahmed; van Heijenoort, Jean; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Blanot, Didier; Biton, Jacques; Le Beller, Dominique

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a novel assay specific to MraY, which catalyzes the first membrane step in the biosynthesis of bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan. This was accomplished by using UDP-MurNAc-Nɛ-dansylpentapeptide, a fluorescent derivative of the MraY nucleotide substrate, and a partially purified preparation of MraY solubilized from membranes of an Escherichia coli overproducing strain. Two versions of the assay were developed, one consisting of the high-pressure liquid chromatography separation of the substrate and product (dansylated lipid I) and the other, without separation and adapted to the high-throughput format, taking advantage of the different fluorescence properties of the nucleotide and lipid I in the reaction medium. The latter assay was validated with a set of natural and synthetic MraY inhibitors. PMID:14982781

  19. A simple and highly sensitive fluorescence assay for microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei; Yeo, Kiat Huei; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2015-03-21

    Herein, we have reported a simple and highly sensitive fluorescence assay for the detection of microRNAs (miRNAs). The assay uses a duplex-specific nuclease (DSN) to amplify the fluorescence signal and magnetic beads (MBs) to completely remove the unreacted DNA detection probes. Briefly, fluorescein-capped DNA detection probes were first conjugated to the MBs. The use of the MBs produced a very low background signal since all the unreacted DNA probes can be conveniently removed from the solution by using a permanent magnet. During the assaying process, target miRNA strands hybridized with the DNA capture probes to form miRNA-DNA heteroduplexes. The DSN then selectively cleaved the DNA probes in the miRNA-DNA duplexes and release the target miRNA strands back into the solution, thereby establishing a target recycling amplification mechanism - a cumulative signal amplification process. A much-amplified fluorescence signal was obtained in the presence of traces of the target miRNA. In addition, a negligible background signal was conveniently attained by the complete removal of the unreacted DNA detection probes so that minute change in the fluorescence signal can be unambiguously detected. The negligible background signal in association with the accumulative signal amplification significantly lowered the detection limit and broadened the dynamic range of the assay. Moreover, the high specificity of the DSN to perfectly matched duplexes endowed this assay with good selectivity when analyzing target miRNAs with high sequence similarities. Successful attempts were made in applying the proposed assay to detect let-7a in total RNA extracted from cultured cells.

  20. A high-throughput fluorescence-based assay for Plasmodium dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitor screening.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Iván; Lafuente, María José; Gamo, Francisco-Javier; Cid, Concepción

    2016-08-01

    Plasmodium dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) is a mitochondrial membrane-associated flavoenzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis. DHODH is a validated target for malaria, and DSM265, a potent inhibitor, is currently in clinical trials. The enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of dihydroorotate to orotate using flavin mononucleotide (FMN) as cofactor in the first half of the reaction. Reoxidation of FMN to regenerate the active enzyme is mediated by ubiquinone (CoQD), which is the physiological final electron acceptor and second substrate of the reaction. We have developed a fluorescence-based high-throughput enzymatic assay to find DHODH inhibitors. In this assay, the CoQD has been replaced by a redox-sensitive fluorogenic dye, resazurin, which changes to a fluorescent state on reduction to resorufin. Remarkably, the assay sensitivity to find competitive inhibitors of the second substrate is higher than that reported for the standard colorimetric assay. It is amenable to 1536-well plates with Z' values close to 0.8. The fact that the human enzyme can also be assayed in the same format opens additional applications of this assay to the discovery of inhibitors to treat cancer, transplant rejection, autoimmune diseases, and other diseases mediated by rapid cellular growth.

  1. Highly adaptable and sensitive protease assay based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Zauner, Thomas; Berger-Hoffmann, Renate; Müller, Katrin; Hoffmann, Ralf; Zuchner, Thole

    2011-10-01

    Proteases are widely used in analytical sciences and play a central role in several widespread diseases. Thus, there is an immense need for highly adaptable and sensitive assays for the detection and monitoring of various proteolytic enzymes. We established a simple protease fluorescence resonance energy transfer (pro-FRET) assay for the determination of protease activities, which could in principle be adapted for the detection of all proteases. As proof of principle, we demonstrated the potential of our method using trypsin and enteropeptidase in complex biological mixtures. Briefly, the assay is based on the cleavage of a FRET peptide substrate, which results in a dramatic increase of the donor fluorescence. The assay was highly sensitive and fast for both proteases. The detection limits for trypsin and enteropeptidase in Escherichia coli lysate were 100 and 10 amol, respectively. The improved sensitivity for enteropeptidase was due to the application of an enzyme cascade, which leads to signal amplification. The pro-FRET assay is highly specific as even high concentrations of other proteases did not result in significant background signals. In conclusion, this sensitive and simple assay can be performed in complex biological mixtures and can be easily adapted to act as a versatile tool for the sensitive detection of proteases.

  2. Azadioxatriangulenium: a long fluorescence lifetime fluorophore for large biomolecule binding assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Just Sørensen, Thomas; Thyrhaug, Erling; Szabelski, Mariusz; Luchowski, Rafal; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Laursen, Bo W.

    2013-06-01

    Of the many optical bioassays available, sensing by fluorescence anisotropy has great advantages as it provides a sensitive, instrumentally simple, ratiometric method of detection. However, it is hampered by a severe limitation, as the emission lifetime of the label needs to be comparable to the correlation lifetime (tumbling time) of the biomolecule which is labelled. For proteins of moderate size this is on the order of 20-200 ns, which due to practical issues currently limits the choice of labels to the dansyl-type dyes and certain aromatic dyes. These have the significant drawback of UV/blue absorption and emission as well as an often significant solvent sensitivity. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of a new fluorescent label for high molecular weight biomolecule assay based on the azadioxatriangulenium motif. The NHS ester of the long fluorescence lifetime, red-emitting fluorophore: azadioxatriangulenium (ADOTA-NHS) was conjugated to anti-rabbit Immunoglobulin G (antiIgG). The long fluorescence lifetime was exploited to determine the correlation time of the high molecular weight antibody and its complex with rabbit Immunoglobulin G (IgG) with steady-state fluorescence anisotropy and time-resolved methods: solution phase immuno-assay was performed following either steady-state or time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy. By performing a variable temperature experiment it was determined that the binding of the ligand resulted in an increase in correlation time of more than 75%, and an increase in the steady-state anisotropy of 18%. The results show that the triangulenium class of dyes can be used in anisotropy assay to detect binding events involving biomolecules of far larger size than what is possible with most other red-emitting organic dyes.

  3. Fluorescence-based assay as a new screening tool for toxic chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Moczko, Ewa; Mirkes, Evgeny M.; Cáceres, César; Gorban, Alexander N.; Piletsky, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Our study involves development of fluorescent cell-based diagnostic assay as a new approach in high-throughput screening method. This highly sensitive optical assay operates similarly to e-noses and e-tongues which combine semi-specific sensors and multivariate data analysis for monitoring biochemical processes. The optical assay consists of a mixture of environmental-sensitive fluorescent dyes and human skin cells that generate fluorescence spectra patterns distinctive for particular physico-chemical and physiological conditions. Using chemometric techniques the optical signal is processed providing qualitative information about analytical characteristics of the samples. This integrated approach has been successfully applied (with sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 97%) in assessing whether particular chemical agents are irritating or not for human skin. It has several advantages compared with traditional biochemical or biological assays and can impact the new way of high-throughput screening and understanding cell activity. It also can provide reliable and reproducible method for assessing a risk of exposing people to different harmful substances, identification active compounds in toxicity screening and safety assessment of drugs, cosmetic or their specific ingredients. PMID:27653274

  4. Fluorescence-based assay as a new screening tool for toxic chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moczko, Ewa; Mirkes, Evgeny M.; Cáceres, César; Gorban, Alexander N.; Piletsky, Sergey

    2016-09-01

    Our study involves development of fluorescent cell-based diagnostic assay as a new approach in high-throughput screening method. This highly sensitive optical assay operates similarly to e-noses and e-tongues which combine semi-specific sensors and multivariate data analysis for monitoring biochemical processes. The optical assay consists of a mixture of environmental-sensitive fluorescent dyes and human skin cells that generate fluorescence spectra patterns distinctive for particular physico-chemical and physiological conditions. Using chemometric techniques the optical signal is processed providing qualitative information about analytical characteristics of the samples. This integrated approach has been successfully applied (with sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 97%) in assessing whether particular chemical agents are irritating or not for human skin. It has several advantages compared with traditional biochemical or biological assays and can impact the new way of high-throughput screening and understanding cell activity. It also can provide reliable and reproducible method for assessing a risk of exposing people to different harmful substances, identification active compounds in toxicity screening and safety assessment of drugs, cosmetic or their specific ingredients.

  5. Fluorescence-based assay as a new screening tool for toxic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Moczko, Ewa; Mirkes, Evgeny M; Cáceres, César; Gorban, Alexander N; Piletsky, Sergey

    2016-09-22

    Our study involves development of fluorescent cell-based diagnostic assay as a new approach in high-throughput screening method. This highly sensitive optical assay operates similarly to e-noses and e-tongues which combine semi-specific sensors and multivariate data analysis for monitoring biochemical processes. The optical assay consists of a mixture of environmental-sensitive fluorescent dyes and human skin cells that generate fluorescence spectra patterns distinctive for particular physico-chemical and physiological conditions. Using chemometric techniques the optical signal is processed providing qualitative information about analytical characteristics of the samples. This integrated approach has been successfully applied (with sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 97%) in assessing whether particular chemical agents are irritating or not for human skin. It has several advantages compared with traditional biochemical or biological assays and can impact the new way of high-throughput screening and understanding cell activity. It also can provide reliable and reproducible method for assessing a risk of exposing people to different harmful substances, identification active compounds in toxicity screening and safety assessment of drugs, cosmetic or their specific ingredients.

  6. Quantification of folate in fruits and vegetables: A fluorescence-based homogeneous assay.

    PubMed

    Martin, Harry; Comeskey, Daniel; Simpson, Robert M; Laing, William A; McGhie, Tony K

    2010-07-15

    A high-throughput, homogeneous, fluorescence polarization, and fluorescence intensity assay has been developed for the measurement of folate in fruits and vegetables. This assay is based on the competitive displacement of the fluorescent folate ligands Alexa Fluor (Alexa) 594-folate and Alexa 660-folate from bovine milk folate-binding protein by folates in fruit and vegetable extracts. These fluorescent ligands are employed because their excitation and emission maxima are in regions of the spectrum with minimal autofluorescence in many extracts. Folate-binding protein and Alexa-folate were typically used at concentrations of 0.5 microg/ml and 5nM, respectively, in 20-microl volumes in 384-well microplates. The assay is complete within 100 min. The folate estimate is unaffected by the heterogeneity of polyglutamyl residues that complicates the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based methods of quantification. In this assay, folic acid had an apparent affinity 2.5-fold greater than 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5MTHF); therefore, it cannot be used to quantify folate when both natural and synthetic folate are present. 5MTHF-equivalent values were measured in broccoli (240 microg/100g), strawberry (113 microg/100g), white grape (32 microg/100g), orange (44 microg/100g), tomato (12 microg/100g), raspberry (31 microg/100g), banana (29 microg/g), and kiwifruit (36 microg/100g). These data are similar to published values. However, the assay will not detect 5-formyltetrahydrofolate which is a significant constituent of the total folate in lettuce, spinach, carrot, and peppers. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of conventional lateral-flow assays and a new fluorescent immunoassay to detect influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Gary P; Wilson, Adele M; Zuretti, Alejandro R

    2013-05-01

    Sofia, a novel, fluorescent lateral-flow immunoassay was compared with two conventional colorimetric assays, Quickvue Influenza A+B and Directigen FLU A+B, to identify influenza viral antigen from patient nasopharyngeal specimens. A total of 118 frozen original influenza-positive specimens and 57 prospective specimens were examined. Using rt-PCR as a referee assay, sensitivity values (%) for influenza A/B of 80.0/74.8, 73.3/59.3 and 73.3/40.7 were obtained using the Sofia, Quickvue and Directigen assays, respectively. All assays demonstrated reduced sensitivity for influenza B as compared with influenza A virus. With respect to the Sofia assay, the sensitivity of influenza B for the Directigen assay was significantly diminished. False positive results were not observed in the Sofia and Directigen assays. The Quickvue assay produced 3 false-positive results (2 influenza A and 1 influenza B) resulting in a specificity (%) of 96 and 98 for influenza A and B, respectively. Cross-reactivity to other respiratory viruses was not observed among immunoassays. A sensitivity rank (highest to low) of rt-PCR>culture>Sofia>Quickvue>Directigen was established using dilutions of influenza A and B. Sofia provides enhanced sensitivity and objective result interpretation over conventional colorimetric immunoassays.

  8. The fluorescence protease protection (FPP) assay to determine protein localization and membrane topology.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Holger; Hailey, Dale W; Wunder, Christian; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Correct localization and topology are crucial for the cellular function of a protein. To determine the topology of membrane proteins, a new technique, called the fluorescence protease protection (FPP) assay, can be applied. This assay uses the restricted proteolytic digestibility of GFP-tagged transmembrane proteins to indicate their intramembrane orientation. The sole requirements for FPP are the expression of GFP fusion proteins and the selective permeabilization of the plasma membrane, which permits a wide range of cell types and organelles to be investigated. The FPP assay can be carried out in a straightforward manner to obtain reliable results within minutes. Here we provide a step-by-step protocol for the assay. As an example, we use FPP to determine which terminus of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) transmembrane protein is lumenal and which one is facing the cytosol.

  9. A fluorescence-based quantitative real-time PCR assay for accurate Pocillopora damicornis species identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Luke; Stat, Michael; Evans, Richard D.; Kennington, W. Jason

    2016-09-01

    Pocillopora damicornis is one of the most extensively studied coral species globally, but high levels of phenotypic plasticity within the genus make species identification based on morphology alone unreliable. As a result, there is a compelling need to develop cheap and time-effective molecular techniques capable of accurately distinguishing P. damicornis from other congeneric species. Here, we develop a fluorescence-based quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay to genotype a single nucleotide polymorphism that accurately distinguishes P. damicornis from other morphologically similar Pocillopora species. We trial the assay across colonies representing multiple Pocillopora species and then apply the assay to screen samples of Pocillopora spp. collected at regional scales along the coastline of Western Australia. This assay offers a cheap and time-effective alternative to Sanger sequencing and has broad applications including studies on gene flow, dispersal, recruitment and physiological thresholds of P. damicornis.

  10. Real-time assays with molecular beacons and other fluorescent nucleic acid hybridization probes.

    PubMed

    Marras, Salvatore A E; Tyagi, Sanjay; Kramer, Fred Russell

    2006-01-01

    A number of formats for nucleic acid hybridization have been developed to identify DNA and RNA sequences that are involved in cellular processes and that aid in the diagnosis of genetic and infectious diseases. The introduction of hybridization probes with interactive fluorophore pairs has enabled the development of homogeneous hybridization assays for the direct identification of nucleic acids. A change in the fluorescence of these probes indicates the presence of a target nucleic acid, and there is no need to separate unbound probes from hybridized probes. The advantages of homogeneous hybridization assays are their speed and simplicity. In addition, homogeneous assays can be combined with nucleic acid amplification, enabling the detection of rare target nucleic acids. These assays can be followed in real time, providing quantitative determination of target nucleic acids over a broad range of concentrations.

  11. An accurate assay for HCV based on real-time fluorescence detection of isothermal RNA amplification.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuping; Wang, Jianfang; Song, Jinyun; Li, Jiayan; Yang, Yongfeng

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the common reasons of liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Early, rapid and accurate HCV RNA detection is important to prevent and control liver disease. A simultaneous amplification and testing (SAT) assay, which is based on isothermal amplification of RNA and real-time fluorescence detection, was designed to optimize routine HCV RNA detection. In this study, HCV RNA and an internal control (IC) were amplified and analyzed simultaneously by SAT assay and detection of fluorescence using routine real-time PCR equipment. The assay detected as few as 10 copies of HCV RNA transcripts. We tested 705 serum samples with SAT, among which 96.4% (680/705) showed consistent results compared with routine real-time PCR. About 92% (23/25) discordant samples were confirmed to be same results as SAT-HCV by using a second real-time PCR. The sensitivity and specificity of SAT-HCV assay were 99.6% (461/463) and 100% (242/242), respectively. In conclusion, the SAT assay is an accurate test with a high specificity and sensitivity which may increase the detection rate of HCV. It is therefore a promising tool to diagnose HCV infection.

  12. Pharmacological characterization of a fluorescent uptake assay for the noradrenaline transporter.

    PubMed

    Haunsø, Anders; Buchanan, Dawn

    2007-04-01

    The noradrenaline transporter (NET) is a Na(+)/Cl(-) dependent monoamine transporter that mediates rapid clearance of noradrenaline from the synaptic cleft, thereby terminating neuronal signaling. NET is an important target for drug development and is known to be modulated by many psychoactive compounds, including psychostimulants and antidepressants. Here, the authors describe the development and pharmacological characterization of a nonhomogeneous fluorescent NET uptake assay using the compound 4-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-N-methylpyridinium (ASP(+)). Data presented show that the pharmacology of both the classic radiolabeled (3)H-noradrenaline- and ASP(+)-based uptake assays are comparable, with an excellent correlation between potency obtained for known modulators of NET (r = 0.95, p < 0.0001). Furthermore, the fluorescent uptake assay is highly reproducible and has sufficiently large Z' values to be amenable for high-throughput screening (HTS). The advantage of this assay is compatibility with both 96- and 384-well formats and lack of radioactivity usage. Thus, the authors conclude that the assay is an inexpensive, viable approach for the identification and pharmacological profiling of small-molecule modulators of the monoamine transporter NET and may be amenable for HTS.

  13. The substrate specificities of four different lysophospholipases as determined by a novel fluorescence assay.

    PubMed Central

    She, H S; Garsetti, D E; Steiner, M R; Egan, R W; Clark, M A

    1994-01-01

    A novel fluorescence assay for quantifying lysophospholipase activity is described which utilizes a commercially available acrylodated intestinal fatty-acid-binding protein (ADIFAB) and non-radiolabelled substrate. Quantification of enzyme activity is based on the decrease in ADIFAB fluorescence at 432 nm in the presence of nanomolar concentrations of non-esterified ('free') fatty acids. Lysophospholipase activity measured by the ADIFAB assay and a conventional radiometric assay yield comparable results and have comparable levels of sensitivity (approximately 10 pmol/min per ml). The ADIFAB assay has the advantageous features of continuous monitoring of enzyme activity and the availability of a broad range of potential substrates, because non-radiolabelled lysophospholipids can be employed in the assay. The hydrolytic activities of four lysophospholipases were determined, including a bacterial secreted phospholipase A2/lysophospholipase, the human-eosinophil-secreted lysophospholipase, a human intracellular lysophospholipase (peak 3) isolated from HL-60 cells and a high-molecular-mass cytosolic phospholipase A2/lysophospholipase from a mouse mammary carcinoma. Each of these enzymes was found to have a distinctive hydrolytic profile as determined by an array of lysophospholipids differing in their polar headgroups and sn-1 fatty-acyl substituents. PMID:8129724

  14. A human CXCL13-induced actin polymerization assay measured by fluorescence plate reader.

    PubMed

    Alley, Jennifer; Bloom, Laird; Kasaian, Marion; Gao, Huilan; Berstein, Gabriel; Clark, James D; Miao, Wenyan

    2010-02-01

    The chemokine receptor CXCR5 is predominantly expressed on mature B cells and follicular T-helper cells. CXCR5 and its ligand CXCL13 participate in ectopic germinal center formation at the inflammatory sites of multiple immune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and Sjogren's syndrome. Therefore, disrupting CXCL13-induced chemotaxis may be a fruitful approach for developing therapeutics in treating these diseases. Cells undergo cytoskeletal rearrangement prior to chemotaxis, and therefore actin polymerization can be used as a surrogate readout more proximal to chemokine receptor activation than chemotaxis. Conventionally, actin polymerization is measured by fluorescence microscopy or flow cytometry, which are either of low throughput or in need of special instruments. We developed a 96-well actin polymerization assay that can process 1,000 to 1,500 samples a day. This assay uses a standard laboratory fluorescence microplate reader as the detection instrument and was optimized for various experimental conditions such as cell density, actin filament staining reagent, staining buffer, and cell culture conditions. We demonstrate that this actin polymerization assay in 96-well format exhibits the expected pharmacology for human CXCR5 and is suitable as a primary functional assay to screen neutralizing scFv in crude bacterial peri-preps and a secondary assay for small compound collections.

  15. A Simple Fluorescence Assay for Quantification of Canine Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Release.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Unity; Gray, Robert D; LeVine, Dana N

    2016-11-21

    Neutrophil extracellular traps are networks of DNA, histones and neutrophil proteins released in response to infectious and inflammatory stimuli. Although a component of the innate immune response, NETs are implicated in a range of disease processes including autoimmunity and thrombosis. This protocol describes a simple method for canine neutrophil isolation and quantification of NETs using a microplate fluorescence assay. Blood is collected using conventional venipuncture techniques. Neutrophils are isolated using dextran sedimentation and a density gradient using conditions optimized for dog blood. After allowing time for attachment to the wells of a 96 well plate, neutrophils are treated with NET-inducing agonists such as phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate or platelet activating factor. DNA release is measured by the fluorescence of a cell-impermeable nucleic acid dye. This assay is a simple, inexpensive method for quantifying NET release, but NET formation rather than other causes of cell death must be confirmed with alternative methods.

  16. Development of time resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based assay for FXR antagonist discovery.

    PubMed

    Yu, Donna D; Lin, Wenwei; Chen, Taosheng; Forman, Barry M

    2013-07-15

    FXR (farnesoid X receptor, NRIH4), a nuclear receptor, plays a major role in the control of cholesterol metabolism. FXR ligands have been investigated in preclinical studies for targeted therapy against metabolic diseases, but have shown limitations. Therefore, there is a need for new agonist or antagonist ligands of FXR, both for potential clinical applications, as well as to further elucidate its biological functions. Here we describe the use of the X-ray crystal structure of FXR complexed with the potent small molecule agonist GW4064 to design and synthesize a novel fluorescent, high-affinity probe (DY246) for time resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) assays. We then used the TR-FRET assay for high throughput screening of a library of over 5000 bioactive compounds. From this library, we identified 13 compounds that act as putative FXR transcriptional antagonists.

  17. Development of Time Resolved Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer-based Assay for FXR Antagonist Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Donna D.; Lin, Wenwei; Chen, Taosheng; Forman, Barry M.

    2013-01-01

    FXR (farnesoid X receptor, NRIH4), a nuclear receptor, plays a major role in the control of cholesterol metabolism. FXR ligands have been investigated in preclinical studies for targeted therapy against metabolic diseases, but have shown limitations. Therefore, there is a need for new agonist or antagonist ligands of FXR, both for potential clinical applications, as well as to further elucidate its biological functions. Here we describe the use of the X-ray crystal structure of FXR complexed with the potent small molecule agonist GW4064 to design and synthesize a novel fluorescent, high-affinity probe (DY246) for time resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) assays. We then used the TR-FRET assay for high throughput screening of a library of over 5,000 bioactive compounds. From this library, we identified 13 compounds that act as putative FXR transcriptional antagonists. PMID:23688559

  18. The use of fluorescence polarization assays for the detection of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Jolley, Michael E; Nasir, Mohammad S

    2003-05-01

    Fluorescence Polarization Assays (FPAs) have been shown to have great utility in the detection of infectious diseases. Examples are presented of the use of O-polysaccharides (OPSs) for the detection of antibodies in serum, whole milk and whole blood to gram negative organisms (Brucella spp., Salmonella spp.). The use of proteins and peptides are also described for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis and Equine Infectious Anemia Virus. Fluorescence Polarization Inhibition Assays (FPIAs) are discussed for the specific and sensitive detection and quantitation of Salmonella spp. cells from culture. An example of the detection of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHECS) by Strand Displacement Amplification (SDA), coupled with FP, down to the single cell level, within thirty minutes, is described.

  19. Preparation of filamentous actin for polarized total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (polTIRFM) motility assays.

    PubMed

    Beausang, John F; Sun, Yujie; Quinlan, Margot E; Forkey, Joseph N; Goldman, Yale E

    2012-05-01

    Polarized total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (polTIRFM) can be used to detect the spatial orientation and rotational dynamics of single molecules. polTIRFM determines the three-dimensional angular orientation and the extent of wobble of a fluorescent probe bound to the macromolecule of interest. In this protocol, filamentous actin (F-actin) is polymerized from purified, monomeric actin (G-actin) for use in polTIRFM motility assays in which actin interacts with myosin. The procedures include (1) the preparation of unlabeled F-actin from G-actin; (2) the preparation of F-actin that is sparsely labeled with 6'-IATR (6'-iodoacetamidotetramethylrhodamine); and (3) the preparation of F-actin with a combination of unlabeled, biotinylated, and rhodamine-labeled monomers. Rhodamine-phalloidin actin, also used in polTIRFM assays, can be prepared using a procedure similar to the one for unlabeled actin.

  20. Fluorescence-based lateral flow assays for rapid oral fluid roadside detection of cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Plouffe, Brian D; Murthy, Shashi K

    2017-02-01

    With the recent worldwide changes in the legalization of marijuana, there is a significant need for rapid, roadside screening test for driving under the influence of drugs. A robust, sensitive, lateral flow assay has been developed to detect recent use via oral-fluid testing for Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). This proof-of-concept assay uses a fluorescent-based immunoassay detection of polymeric beads, conjugated to antibodies against native THC. The fluorescent technique allows for significantly lower limits of detection and higher precision determination of recent marijuana use without the use of urine or blood sampling-thus allowing for roadside identification. Detection levels of 0.01 ng/mL were distinguished from background and the lower limit of quantification was determined to approach 1 ng/mL. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Engineering a ribozyme cleavage-induced split fluorescent aptamer complementation assay

    PubMed Central

    Ausländer, Simon; Fuchs, David; Hürlemann, Samuel; Ausländer, David; Fussenegger, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Hammerhead ribozymes are self-cleaving RNA molecules capable of regulating gene expression in living cells. Their cleavage performance is strongly influenced by intra-molecular loop–loop interactions, a feature not readily accessible through modern prediction algorithms. Ribozyme engineering and efficient implementation of ribozyme-based genetic switches requires detailed knowledge of individual self-cleavage performances. By rational design, we devised fluorescent aptamer-ribozyme RNA architectures that allow for the real-time measurement of ribozyme self-cleavage activity in vitro. The engineered nucleic acid molecules implement a split Spinach aptamer sequence that is made accessible for strand displacement upon ribozyme self-cleavage, thereby complementing the fluorescent Spinach aptamer. This fully RNA-based ribozyme performance assay correlates ribozyme cleavage activity with Spinach fluorescence to provide a rapid and straightforward technology for the validation of loop–loop interactions in hammerhead ribozymes. PMID:26939886

  2. A Microfluidic Microbeads Fluorescence Assay with Quantum Dots-Bead-DNA Probe.

    PubMed

    Ankireddy, S R; Kim, Jongsung

    2016-03-01

    A microfluidic bead-based nucleic acid sensor for the detection of tumor causing N-Ras genes using quantum dots has been developed. Presently, quantum dots-bead-DNA probe based hybridization detection methods are often called as 'bead based assays' and their success is substantially influenced by the dispensing and manipulation capability of the microfluidic technology. This study reports the detection of N-Ras cancer gene by fluorescence quenching of quantum dots immobilized on the surface of polystyrene beads. A microfluidic chip was constructed in which the quantum dots-bead-DNA probes were packed in the channel. The target DNA flowed across the beads and hybridized with immobilized probe sequences. The target DNA can be detected by the fluorescence quenching of the quantum dots due to their transfer of emission energy to intercalation dye after DNA hybridization. The mutated gene also induces fluorescence quenching but with less degree than the perfectly complementary target DNA.

  3. Paper-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay for directly detecting nucleic acids and proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Fang, Xueen; Cao, Hongmei; Kong, Jilie

    2016-06-15

    Paper-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay (FRET) is gaining great interest in detecting macro-biological molecule. It is difficult to achieve conveniently and fast detection for macro-biological molecule. Herein, a graphene oxide (GO)-based paper chip (glass fiber) integrated with fluorescence labeled single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) for fast, inexpensive and direct detection of biological macromolecules (proteins and nucleic acids) has been developed. In this paper, we employed the Cy3/FAM-labeled ssDNA as the reporter and the GO as quencher and the original glass fiber paper as data acquisition substrates. The chip which was designed and fabricated by a cutting machine is a miniature biosensor that monitors fluorescence recovery from resonance energy transfer. The hybridization assays and fluorescence detection were all simplified, and the surface of the chip did not require immobilization or washing. A Nikon Eclipse was employed as excited resource and a commercial digital camera was employed for capturing digital images. This paper-based microfluidics chip has been applied in the detection of proteins and nucleic acids. The biosensing capability meets many potential requirements for disease diagnosis and biological analysis.

  4. Novel fluorescent trimethine cyanine dye 7519 for amyloid fibril inhibition assay.

    PubMed

    Volkova, K D; Kovalska, V B; Inshin, D; Slominskii, Y L; Tolmachev, O I; Yarmoluk, S M

    2011-06-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to study the ability of dye 7519 to follow the transition of monomeric insulin into fibrils and applicability of the dye to the insulin aggregation inhibition assay. The commercially available classic amyloid stain, thioflavin T, was used as the reference dye. For selecting potential inhibitors, the QSAR approach was applied. Dye 7519 appeared to be suitable for monitoring insulin aggregation into fibrils in vitro. The properties of the dye allowed us to test it as a potential probe in the screening assay of potential inhibitors of insulin fibrillization. One hundred forty-four flavonoids were tested as potential inhibitors of amyloid fibril formation using the quantitative structure activity relationship approach. Among them, 10 candidates with high indexes of inhibition were selected for tests in vitro using dye 7519 and the reference amyloid dye thioflavine T. Using dye 7519 fluorescence, we found that two compounds had inhibitory effects on insulin amyloid formation. These results agree with inhibition data using the thioflavine T assay. Our studies demonstrated that the fluorescent cyanine dye 7519 is a sensitive probe for quantitative detection of insulin amyloid formation and can be applied to screen agents capable of affecting aggregation of amyloid proteins.

  5. Comparison of the PRNT and an immune fluorescence assay in yellow fever vaccinees receiving immunosuppressive medication.

    PubMed

    Wieten, Rosanne W; Jonker, Emile F F; Pieren, Daan K J; Hodiamont, Caspar J; van Thiel, Pieter P A M; van Gorp, Eric C M; de Visser, Adriëtte W; Grobusch, Martin P; Visser, Leo G; Goorhuis, Abraham

    2016-03-04

    The 17D-yellow fever (YF) vaccination is considered contraindicated in immune-compromised patients; however, accidental vaccination occurs. In this population, measuring the immune response is useful in clinical practice. In this study we compare two antibody tests (the Immune Fluorescence Assay and the Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test) in a group of Dutch immune-compromised travellers with a median of 33 days (IQR [28-49]) after primary YF vaccination. We collected samples of 15 immune-compromised vaccinees vaccinated with the 17D yellow fever vaccine between 2004 and 2012. All samples measured in the plaque reduction neutralization test yielded positive results (>80% virus neutralization with a 1:10 serum dilution). Immune Fluorescence Assay sensitivity was 28% (95% CI [0.12-0.49]). No adverse events were reported. All immune-compromised patients mounted an adequate response with protective levels of virus neutralizing antibodies to the 17-D YF vaccine. No adverse effects were reported. Compared to the plaque reduction neutralization test, the sensitivity of the Immune Fluorescence Assay test was low. Further research is needed to ascertain that 17D vaccination in immune-compromised patients is safe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Two-color fluorescent cytosine extension assay for the determination of global DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gu; Parfett, Craig; Cummings-Lorbetskie, Cathy; Xiao, Gong-Hua; Desaulniers, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Here, we present a DNA restriction enzyme-based, fluorescent cytosine extension assay (CEA) to improve normalization and technical variation among sample-to-sample measurements. The assay includes end-labeling of parallel methylation-sensitive and methylation-insensitive DNA restriction enzyme digests along with co-purification and subsequent co-measurement of incorporated fluorescence. This non-radioactive, two-color fluorescent CEA (TCF-CEA) was shown to be a relatively rapid and accurate, with 3-fold greater precision than the one-color CEA. In addition, TCF-CEA provided an index of global DNA methylation that was sensitive to differences >5%. TCF-CEA results were highly correlated with LUminometric Methylation Assay (LUMA) results using human liver cell lines (HepG2, HepaRG, HC-04) as well as a human liver primary cell culture. Hypomethylation was observed in cells treated with the de-methylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. These results demonstrate that TCF-CEA provides a simple method for measuring relative degrees of global DNA methylation that could potentially be scaled up to higher-throughput formats.

  7. Selectively assaying CEA based on a creative strategy of gold nanoparticles enhancing silver nanoclusters' fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoming; Zhuo, Yan; Zhu, Shanshan; Luo, Yawen; Feng, Yuanjiao; Xu, Yan

    2015-02-15

    Herein, we have successfully built up connections between nanoparticles and nanoclusters, and further constructed a surface-enhanced fluorescence (SEF) strategy based on the two types of nanomaterials for selectively assaying carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Specifically, silver nanoclusters provided the original fluorescence signal, while gold nanoparticles modified with DNA served as the fluorescence enhancer simultaneously. On the basis of this proposed nano-system, the two nanomaterials were linked by CEA-aptamer, thus facilitating SEF occurring. Nevertheless, more competitive interactions between CEA and CEA-aptamer emerged once CEA added, leading to SEF failed and their fluorescence decreased. Significantly, this creative method was further applied to detect CEA, and showed the linear relationship between the fluorescence intensity and CEA concentrations in the range of 0.01-1 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 3 pg mL(-1) at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, demonstrating its sensitivity and promising towards multiple applications. On the whole, this approach we established may broaden potential ways of combining nanoparticles and nanoclusters for detecting trace targets in bioanalytical fields. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fluorescence Assay of the Interaction between Hemoglobin and the Cytoplasmic Domain of Erythrocyte Membrane Band3

    PubMed Central

    Sega, Martiana F.; Chu, Haiyan; Christian, John; Low, Philip S.

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen tension has emerged as a potent regulator of multiple erythrocyte properties, including glucose metabolism, cell volume, ATP release, and cytoskeletal organization. Because hemoglobin (Hb)1 binds to the cytoplasmic domain of band 3 (cdb3) in an oxygen dependent manner, with deoxyHb exhibiting significantly greater affinity for cdb3 than oxyHb, the deoxyHb-cdb3 interaction has been hypothesized to constitute the molecular switch for all O2-controlled erythrocyte processes. In this study, we describe a rapid and accurate method for quantitating the interaction of deoxyHb binding to cdb3. For this purpose, enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) is fused to the COOH-terminus of cdb3, and the binding of Hb to the NH2-terminus of cdb3-eGFP is quantitated by Hb-mediated quenching of cdb3-eGFP fluorescence. As expected, the intensity of cdb3-eGFP fluorescence decreases only slightly following addition of oxyHb. However, upon deoxygenation of the same Hb-cdb3 solution, the fluorescence decreases dramatically (i.e. confirming that deoxyHb exhibits much greater affinity for cdb3 than oxyHb). Using this fluorescence quenching method, we not only confirm previously established characteristics of the Hb-cdb3 interaction, but also establish an assay that can be exploited to screen for inhibitors of the sickle Hb-cdb3 interaction that accelerates sickle Hb polymerization. PMID:26227857

  9. Fluorescence assay of the interaction between hemoglobin and the cytoplasmic domain of erythrocyte membrane band 3.

    PubMed

    Sega, Martiana F; Chu, Haiyan; Christian, John A; Low, Philip S

    2015-10-01

    Oxygen tension has emerged as a potent regulator of multiple erythrocyte properties, including glucose metabolism, cell volume, ATP release, and cytoskeletal organization. Because hemoglobin (Hb)(1) binds to the cytoplasmic domain of band 3 (cdb3) in an oxygen dependent manner, with deoxyHb exhibiting significantly greater affinity for cdb3 than oxyHb, the deoxyHb-cdb3 interaction has been hypothesized to constitute the molecular switch for all O2-controlled erythrocyte processes. In this study, we describe a rapid and accurate method for quantitating the interaction of deoxyHb binding to cdb3. For this purpose, enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) is fused to the COOH-terminus of cdb3, and the binding of Hb to the NH2-terminus of cdb3-eGFP is quantitated by Hb-mediated quenching of cdb3-eGFP fluorescence. As expected, the intensity of cdb3-eGFP fluorescence decreases only slightly following addition of oxyHb. However, upon deoxygenation of the same Hb-cdb3 solution, the fluorescence decreases dramatically (i.e. confirming that deoxyHb exhibits much greater affinity for cdb3 than oxyHb). Using this fluorescence quenching method, we not only confirm previously established characteristics of the Hb-cdb3 interaction, but also establish an assay that can be exploited to screen for inhibitors of the sickle Hb-cdb3 interaction that accelerates sickle Hb polymerization.

  10. Development of Tyrosinase Promoter-Based Fluorescent Assay for Screening of Anti-melanogenic Agents.

    PubMed

    Lee, JaeHo; Lee, SeungJun; Lee, ByungMan; Roh, KyungBaeg; Park, DeokHoon; Jung, EunSun

    2015-01-01

    For screening of skin-whitening ingredients that modulate inhibition of melanogenesis, tyrosinase promoter-based assay using a three-dimensional (3D) spheroid culture technique is a beneficial tool to improve the accuracy of raw material screening in cosmetics through mimicking of the in vivo microenvironment. Although the advantages of high-throughput screening (HTS) are widely known, there has been little focus on specific cell-based promoter assays for HTS in identifying skin-whitening ingredients that inhibit accumulation of melanin. The aim of this study was therefore to develop a large-scale compatible assay through pTyr-EGFP, an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-based tyrosinase-specific promoter, to seek potential melanogenesis inhibitors for cosmetic use. Herein, a stably transfected human melanoma cell line expressing EGFP under the control of a 2.2-kb fragment derived from the tyrosinase gene was generated. Spontaneous induction of the tyrosinase promoter by 3D spheroid culture resulted in increased expression of EGFP, providing a significant correlation with the tyrosinase mRNA level, and subsequent inhibition of tyrosinase activity. Importantly, the pTyr-EGFP system provided successful tracking of the changes in the live image and real-time monitoring. Thus tyrosinase promoter-based fluorescent assay using a 3D spheroid culture can be useful as a screening system for exploring the efficiency of anti-melanogenesis ingredients.

  11. Quantitative determination of triglyceride by photoactivated CdSe/ZnS quantum dots through fluorescence assay.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chin-Ping; Li, Yaw-Kuen; Chen, Teng-Ming

    2008-07-01

    The quantitative detection of triglycerides is an important issue for health inspection of metabolic disorders and for food and oil-refining industries. Many methods have been designed to approach this target, in which multiple reactions catalyzed by enzymes are normally coupled consecutively. In this study, we demonstrated a simple assay system containing lipase and photoactivated luminescent CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) for the quantitative detection of triglycerides. Photoactivated CdSe/ZnS QDs function as a sensitive "indicator" to reveal the minute acidity change of the assay system resulting from the enzymatic hydrolysis of triglycerides. By controlling the initial buffer condition of the assay system at 5, 10, or 20 mM phosphate buffer at pH 8.0, respectively, the quenching ratio of the QDs fluorescence intensity monitored at the maximum photoluminescence showed a linear correlation with the concentration of the examined triglyceride in the range of 0.02-6, 0.2-10, or 2-20 mM, respectively. The assay system also provides a convenient way to estimate triglyceride concentration by visualizing the color change of the QDs fluorescence. As compared to most of the existing methods, the system reported herein possessed many advantages, including simplicity, low cost, high flexibility, and high sensitivity. Furthermore, no complicated chemical modification or enzyme immobilization is needed.

  12. Development of a Fluorescence Polarization-Based Diagnostic Assay for Equine Infectious Anemia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Tencza, Sarah Burroughs; Islam, Kazi R.; Kalia, Vandana; Nasir, Mohammad S.; Jolley, Michael E.; Montelaro, Ronald C.

    2000-01-01

    The control of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infections of horses has been over the past 20 years based primarily on the identification and elimination of seropositive horses, predominantly by a standardized agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) assay in centralized reference laboratories. This screening for EIAV-seropositive horses has been to date hindered by the lack of a rapid diagnostic format that can be easily employed in the field. We describe here the development of a rapid solution-phase assay for the presence of serum antibodies to EIAV based on fluorescence polarization (FP) (patent pending). Peptides derived from antigenic regions of EIAV core and envelope proteins were initially screened for their utility as probes in an FP assay to select the best peptide antigen candidates. The FP assay was optimized to detect the presence of EIAV-specific antibodies by a change in the FP of a fluorescein-labeled immunoreactive peptide diagnostic antigen. The most sensitive and specific peptide probe was a peptide corresponding to the immunodominant region of the EIAV transmembrane protein, gp45. This probe was tested for its reactivity in the optimized FP assay with 151 AGID-positive horse sera and 106 AGID-negative serum samples. The results of these studies demonstrated that the FP assay reactivity correlated with reported AGID results in 106 of 106 negative serum samples (100% specificity) and in 135 of 151 positive serum samples (89.4% sensitivity). The FP assay was also found to have a very low background reactivity and to readily detect antibodies produced early in infection (≤3 weeks postinfection). The developed EIAV FP assay is rapid (5 to 20 min) and simple to perform and is equally suitable for use both in the field and in the diagnostic laboratory, thus providing the basis of an improved commercial diagnostic assay for EIAV infection of horses. PMID:10790112

  13. Development of a fluorescence polarization-based diagnostic assay for equine infectious anemia virus.

    PubMed

    Tencza, S B; Islam, K R; Kalia, V; Nasir, M S; Jolley, M E; Montelaro, R C

    2000-05-01

    The control of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infections of horses has been over the past 20 years based primarily on the identification and elimination of seropositive horses, predominantly by a standardized agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) assay in centralized reference laboratories. This screening for EIAV-seropositive horses has been to date hindered by the lack of a rapid diagnostic format that can be easily employed in the field. We describe here the development of a rapid solution-phase assay for the presence of serum antibodies to EIAV based on fluorescence polarization (FP) (patent pending). Peptides derived from antigenic regions of EIAV core and envelope proteins were initially screened for their utility as probes in an FP assay to select the best peptide antigen candidates. The FP assay was optimized to detect the presence of EIAV-specific antibodies by a change in the FP of a fluorescein-labeled immunoreactive peptide diagnostic antigen. The most sensitive and specific peptide probe was a peptide corresponding to the immunodominant region of the EIAV transmembrane protein, gp45. This probe was tested for its reactivity in the optimized FP assay with 151 AGID-positive horse sera and 106 AGID-negative serum samples. The results of these studies demonstrated that the FP assay reactivity correlated with reported AGID results in 106 of 106 negative serum samples (100% specificity) and in 135 of 151 positive serum samples (89.4% sensitivity). The FP assay was also found to have a very low background reactivity and to readily detect antibodies produced early in infection (assay is rapid (5 to 20 min) and simple to perform and is equally suitable for use both in the field and in the diagnostic laboratory, thus providing the basis of an improved commercial diagnostic assay for EIAV infection of horses.

  14. Development of a Rapid Insulin Assay by Homogenous Time-Resolved Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Vallaghe, Julie; Gregor, Nathalie; Donthamsetti, Prashant; Harris, Paul E.; Pierre, Nicolas; Freyberg, Robin; Charrier-Savournin, Fabienne; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Freyberg, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Direct measurement of insulin is critical for basic and clinical studies of insulin secretion. However, current methods are expensive and time-consuming. We developed an insulin assay based on homogenous time-resolved fluorescence that is significantly more rapid and cost-effective than current commonly used approaches. This assay was applied effectively to an insulin secreting cell line, INS-1E cells, as well as pancreatic islets, allowing us to validate the assay by elucidating mechanisms by which dopamine regulates insulin release. We found that dopamine functioned as a significant negative modulator of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Further, we showed that bromocriptine, a known dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist and newly approved drug used for treatment of type II diabetes mellitus, also decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in islets to levels comparable to those caused by dopamine treatment. PMID:26849707

  15. Androgen receptor transactivation assay using green fluorescent protein as a reporter.

    PubMed

    Beck, Verena; Reiter, Evelyne; Jungbauer, Alois

    2008-02-15

    For screening of a large number of samples for androgenic activity, a robust system with minimal handling is required. The coding sequence for human androgen receptor (AR) was inserted into expression plasmid YEpBUbi-FLAG1, resulting in the plasmid YEpBUbiFLAG-AR, and the estrogen response element (ERE) on the reporter vector YRpE2 was replaced by an androgen response element (ARE), resulting in the plasmid YRpE2-ARE. Thus, a fully functional transactivation assay system with beta-galactosidase as a reporter gene could be created. Furthermore, green fluorescent protein (GFP) was introduced as an alternative reporter gene that resulted in a simplification of the whole assay procedure. For evaluation of both reporter systems, seven steroidal compounds with known AR agonistic properties (5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, androstenedione, 17 alpha-methyltestosterone, progesterone, epitestosterone, and d-norgestrel) were tested, and their potencies obtained in the different assays were compared. Furthermore, potencies from the transactivation assays were compared with IC(50) values obtained in radioligand binding assays. The newly developed androgen receptor transactivation assay is a useful tool for characterizing compounds with androgenic activity.

  16. A microtiter-based fluorescence assay for (1,3)-beta-glucan synthases.

    PubMed

    Shedletzky, E; Unger, C; Delmer, D P

    1997-06-15

    A high-throughput assay for UDP-Glc:(1,3)-beta-glucan synthase(EC 2.4.1.34, UDP-glucose:1,3-beta-D-glucan, 3-beta-glucosyltransferase) from fungi and higher plants is described. The assay is performed in microtiter plates and is extremely inexpensive compared to other standard assays for these enzymes. The reduction in price is achieved by replacing the conventional substrate UDP-[14C]Glc with its nonradioactive counterpart, and the nonradioactive glucan produced is quantified as a fluorescent complex following specific interaction with the fluorochrome present in commercial aniline blue. In addition to a > 100-fold reduction in cost, the assay is highly reproducible and nearly as sensitive as radioactive assays and has the additional advantages of increased safety and avoidance of the need for filtration and washing steps to collect the glucan product. As such, the assay is highly suitable for high-throughput screening for inhibitors of these enzymes.

  17. Five-Antigen Fluorescent Bead-Based Assay for Diagnosis of Lyme Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hasenkampf, Nicole R.; Barnes, Mary B.; Didier, Elizabeth S.; Philipp, Mario T.; Tardo, Amanda C.

    2016-01-01

    The systematically difficult task of diagnosing Lyme disease can be simplified by sensitive and specific laboratory tests. The currently recommended two-tier test for serology is highly specific but falls short in sensitivity, especially in the early acute phase. We previously examined serially collected serum samples from Borrelia burgdorferi-infected rhesus macaques and defined a combination of antigens that could be utilized for detection of infection at all phases of disease in humans. The five B. burgdorferi antigens, consisting of OspC, OspA, DbpA, OppA2, and the C6 peptide, were combined into a fluorescent cytometric bead-based assay for the detection of B. burgdorferi antigen-specific IgG antibodies. Samples from Lyme disease patients and controls were used to determine the diagnostic value of this assay. Using this sample set, we found that our five-antigen multiplex IgG assay exhibited higher sensitivity (79.5%) than the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (76.1%), the two-tier test (61.4%), and the C6 peptide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (77.2%) while maintaining specificity over 90%. When detection of IgM was added to the bead-based assay, the sensitivity improved to 91%, but at a cost of reduced specificity (78%). These results indicate that the rational combination of antigens in our multiplex assay may offer an improved serodiagnostic test for Lyme disease. PMID:26843487

  18. A kinetic fluorescence assay reveals unusual features of Ca++ uptake in Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To facilitate development within erythrocytes, malaria parasites increase their host cell uptake of diverse solutes including Ca++. The mechanism and molecular basis of increased Ca++ permeability remains less well studied than that of other solutes. Methods Based on an appropriate Ca++ affinity and its greater brightness than related fluorophores, Fluo-8 was selected and used to develop a robust fluorescence-based assay for Ca++ uptake by human erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum. Results Both uninfected and infected cells exhibited a large Ca++-dependent fluorescence signal after loading with the Fluo-8 dye. Probenecid, an inhibitor of erythrocyte organic anion transporters, abolished the fluorescence signal in uninfected cells; in infected cells, this agent increased fluorescence via mechanisms that depend on parasite genotype. Kinetic fluorescence measurements in 384-well microplates revealed that the infected cell Ca++ uptake is not mediated by the plasmodial surface anion channel (PSAC), a parasite nutrient channel at the host membrane; it also appears to be distinct from mammalian Ca++ channels. Imaging studies confirmed a low intracellular Ca++ in uninfected cells and higher levels in both the host and parasite compartments of infected cells. Parasite growth inhibition studies revealed a conserved requirement for extracellular Ca++. Conclusions Nondestructive loading of Fluo-8 into human erythrocytes permits measurement of Ca++ uptake kinetics. The greater Ca++ permeability of cells infected with malaria parasites is apparent when probenecid is used to inhibit Fluo-8 efflux at the host membrane. This permeability is mediated by a distinct pathway and may be essential for intracellular parasite development. The miniaturized assay presented here should help clarify the precise transport mechanism and may identify inhibitors suitable for antimalarial drug development. PMID:24885754

  19. A novel fluorescent assay for oxytetracycline hydrochloride based on fluorescence quenching of water-soluble CdTe nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chao; Liu, Zhen; Chen, Jianqiu; Yan, Zhengyu

    2013-01-01

    A novel assay for oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC) based on fluorescence quenching was developed from the interaction between functionalized cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) and OTC. Optimum conditions for the detection of OTC were found after investigating all factors. Under optimum conditions, luminescence of CdTe nanocrystals (λ ex = 365 nm, λ em = 562 nm) was quenched by OTC in a concentration-dependent manner best described by a modified Stern-Volmer type equation. Good linearity was obtained with a regression coefficient of 0.9999 in the range of 1.34 ~ 13.4 x 10(-5) mol/L and a limit of detection of 3.08 x 10(-7) mol/L. In addition, the quenching mechanism was also established. The results imply that the close proximity of OTC-CdTe was driven by electrostatic attraction and the resulting effective electron transfer from OTC to QDs could be responsible for fluorescence quenching of CdTe-QDs. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Adaptation and optimization of a fluorescence-based assay for in vivo antimalarial drug screening.

    PubMed

    Arias, Maria H; Deharo, Eric; Valentin, Alexis; Garavito, Giovanny

    2017-07-01

    The in vivo efficacy of potential antimalarials is usually evaluated by direct microscopic determination of the parasitaemia of Plasmodium-infected mice on Giemsa-stained blood smears. This process is time-consuming, requires experienced technicians and is not automatable. Therefore, we optimized a SYBR Green I (SYBRG I) fluorescence-based assay to fluorometers commonly available in many research laboratories. This technique was originally developed to assess parasitaemia in humans by cytometry. We defined optimal conditions with Plasmodium berghei-infected mice, standard lysis buffer (Tris, EDTA, saponin and Triton), whole blood cells and 2 h staining incubation with SYBRG I 2X. The fluorescence background generated by uninfected whole blood cells was low (around 4.6%), and the linearity high (r (2) = 0.96), with parasitaemia ranging from 1.4 to 60%. The Bland-Altman plot showed a strong correlation between SYBRG I and Giemsa gold standard method; Z'-factor was >0.5. These findings suggest that our fluorescence-based assay is suitable for in vivo antimalarial drug assessment in a malaria murine model. It can help to overcome the human bias found with microscopic techniques.

  1. A fluorescent assay to quantitatively measure in vitro acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    McFie, Pamela J; Stone, Scot J

    2011-09-01

    Triacylglycerols (TG) are the major storage form of energy in eukaryotic organisms and are synthesized primarily by acyl CoA:1,2-diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzymes. In vitro DGAT activity has previously been quantified by measuring the incorporation of either radiolabeled fatty acyl CoA or diacylglycerol (DG) into TG. We developed a modified acyltransferase assay using a fluorescent fatty acyl CoA substrate to accurately quantify in vitro DGAT activity. In the modified assay, radioactive fatty acyl CoA is replaced with fluorescent NBD-palmitoyl CoA, which is used as a substrate by DGAT with DG to produce NBD-TG. After extraction with organic solvents and separation by thin layer chromatography, NBD-TG formation can be detected and accurately quantified using a fluorescent imaging system. We demonstrate that this method can be adapted to detect other acyltransferase activities. Because NBD-palmitoyl CoA is commercially available at a much lower cost compared with radioactive acyl CoA substrates, it is a more economical alternative to radioactive tracers. In addition, the exposure of laboratory personnel to radioactivity is greatly reduced.

  2. Fluorescence-based assay for reactive oxygen species: A protective role for creatinine

    SciTech Connect

    Glazer, A.N. )

    1988-06-01

    Attack by reactive oxygen species leads to a decay in phycoerythrin fluorescence emission. This phenomenon provides a versatile new assay for small molecules and macromolecules that can function as protective compounds. With 1-2 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} M phycoerythrin, under conditions where peroxyl radical generation is rate-limiting, the fluorescence decay follows apparent zero-order kinetics. On reaction with HO{center dot}, generated with the ascorbate-Cu{sup 2+} system, the fluorescence decays with apparent first-order kinetics. Examination of the major components of human urine in this assay confirms that at physiological concentrations, urate protects against both types of oxygen radicals. A novel finding is that creatinine protects efficiently by a chelation mechanism against radical damage in the ascorbate-Cu{sup 2+} system at creatinine, ascorbate, and Cu{sup 2+} concentrations comparable to those in normal urine. Urate and creatinine provide complementary modes of protection against reactive oxygen species in the urinary tract.

  3. μPAD Fluorescence Scattering Immunoagglutination Assay for Cancer Biomarkers from Blood and Serum.

    PubMed

    Baynes, Cayla; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2017-09-01

    A microfluidic paper analytical device (μPAD) was created for the sensitive quantification of cancer antigens, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9), from human whole blood and serum, toward diagnosis and prognosis of colorectal cancer. Anti-CEA and anti-CA 19-9 antibodies were covalently linked to submicron, fluorescent polystyrene particles, loaded, and then dried in the center of the μPAD channel. CEA- or CA 19-9-spiked blood or serum samples were loaded to the inlet of μPAD, and subsequent immunoagglutination changed the fluorescent scatter signals upon ultraviolet (UV) excitation. The total assay time was about 1 min. Detection limits were 1 pg/mL for CEA and 0.1 U/mL for CA 19-9 from both 10% diluted blood and undiluted serum. The use of UV excitation and subsequent fluorescence scattering enabled much higher double-normalized intensities (up to 1.28-3.51, compared with 1.067 with the elastic Mie scatter detection), successful detection in the presence of blood or serum, and distinct multiplex assays with minimum cross-reaction of antibodies. The results with undiluted serum showed the larger dynamic range and smaller standard errors, which can be attributed to the presence of serum proteins, functioning as a stabilizer or a passivating protein for the particles within paper fibers.

  4. Human immunodeficiency virus envelope-dependent cell-cell fusion: a quantitative fluorescence cytometric assay.

    PubMed

    Huerta, Leonor; Lamoyi, Edmundo; Báez-Saldaña, Armida; Larralde, Carlos

    2002-02-01

    In vitro fusion of transfected cells expressing the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope proteins gp120/gp41, with target cells expressing CD4, and a suitable chemokine coreceptor is used widely to investigate the mechanisms of molecular recognition and membrane fusion involved in the entry of the HIV genome into cells and in syncytia formation. We developed an assay that uses two different fluorescent lipophilic probes to single label each reacting cell population and flow cytometry to quantify the extent of cellular fusion after coculture. Fused cells are detected as double-fluorescent particles in this assay, therefore permitting measurement of their proportion in the total cell population. The time course and extent of HIV-glycoprotein-related cellular fusion, the optimal cell ratio, the size and cell composition of the fusion products, and the inhibition of fusion caused by soluble CD4 and anti-CXCR4 antibody 12G5 were determined. The assay was applied to measure fusion between gp120/gp41 and CD4-expressing cells growing as monolayers (HeLa/CHO fusion), as well as to suspension lymphocyte cultures (Jurkat/Jurkat fusion). The method's simple technical and minimal cell-invasive procedures, as well as its non-ambiguous automatic numerical quantification should be useful for the study of factors influencing cell-cell fusion. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Fluorescence-based retention assays reveals sustained release of vascular endothelial growth factor from bone grafts.

    PubMed

    Kang, Wonmo; Yun, Ye-Rang; Lee, Dong-Sung; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Joong-Hyun; Kim, Hae-Won; Jang, Jun-Hyeog

    2016-01-01

    The sustained release of growth factors following their implantation in vivo is essential for successful outcomes in bone tissue engineering. In this study, we evaluated the release kinetics and delivery efficacies of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potent angiogenic growth factor, incorporated into calcium phosphate bone grafts (BGs). We evaluated the release profile of VEGF from BGs using a novel fluorescence-based retention assay, which revealed that VEGF loaded on BGs can be released in a sustained manner without an initial burst (near zero-order cumulative release) with a controlled release rate of 13.6% per week for up to 7 weeks. In contrast, an ELISA-based release assay showed VEGF to have an early burst-release profile for the first week. However, the biological activity of VEGF released from the BGs was preserved over the 7-week release period, which is consistent with the sustained-release profile observed in the fluorescence-based retention assay. Furthermore, the in vivo bone-forming action of the VEGF-loaded BGs was well demonstrated in a rat subcutaneous model. Taken together, the sustained release of VEGF loaded onto BGs was effective in stimulating proliferation, angiogenesis and osteogenesis, suggesting the ultimate value of VEGF-engineered BGs for bone tissue engineering.

  6. Development of an immunochromatographic assay kit using fluorescent silica nanoparticles for rapid diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis.

    PubMed

    Toriyama, Koji; Suzuki, Takashi; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Eguchi, Hiroshi; Hoshi, Saichi; Inoue, Yoshitsugu; Aizawa, Hideki; Miyoshi, Kazutomi; Ohkubo, Michio; Hiwatashi, Eiji; Tachibana, Hiroshi; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    We developed an immunochromatographic assay kit that uses fluorescent silica nanoparticles bound to anti-Acanthamoeba antibodies (fluorescent immunochromatographic assay [FICGA]) and evaluated its efficacy for the detection of Acanthamoeba and diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). The sensitivity of the FICGA kit was evaluated using samples of Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts diluted to various concentrations. A conventional immunochromatographic assay kit with latex labels (LICGA) was also evaluated to determine its sensitivity in detecting Acanthamoeba trophozoites. To check for cross-reactivity, the FICGA was performed by using samples of other common causative pathogens of infectious keratitis, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Candida albicans. Corneal scrapings from patients with suspected AK were tested with the FICGA kit to detect the presence of Acanthamoeba, and the results were compared with those of real-time PCR. The FICGA kit detected organisms at concentrations as low as 5 trophozoites or 40 cysts per sample. There were no cross-reactivities with other pathogens. The FICGA was approximately 20 times more sensitive than the LICGA for the detection of Acanthamoeba trophozoites. The FICGA kit yielded positive results for all 10 patients, which corresponded well with the real-time PCR results. The FICGA kit demonstrated high sensitivity for the detection of Acanthamoeba and may be useful for the diagnosis of AK.

  7. A filter microplate assay for quantitative analysis of DNA binding proteins using fluorescent DNA.

    PubMed

    Yang, William C; Swartz, James R

    2011-08-15

    We present a rapid method for quantifying the apparent DNA binding affinity and capacity of recombinant transcription factors (TFs). We capture His6-tagged TFs using nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) agarose and incubate the immobilized TFs with fluorescently labeled cognate DNA probes. After washing, the strength of the fluorescence signal indicates the extent of DNA binding. The assay was validated using two pluripotency-regulating TFs: SOX2 and NANOG. Using competitive binding analysis with nonlabeled competitor DNA, we show that SOX2 and NANOG specifically bind to their consensus sequences. We also determined the apparent affinity of SOX2 and NANOG for their consensus sequences to be 54.2±9 and 44.0±6nM, respectively, in approximate agreement with literature values. Our assay does not require radioactivity, but radioactively labeling the TFs enables the measurement of absolute amounts of immobilized SOX2 and NANOG and, hence, a DNA-to-protein binding ratio. SOX2 possesses a 0.95 DNA-to-protein binding ratio, whereas NANOG possesses a 0.44 ratio, suggesting that most of the SOX2 and approximately half of the NANOG are competent for DNA binding. Alternatively, the NANOG dimer may be capable of binding only one DNA target. This flexible DNA binding assay enables the analysis of crude or purified samples with or without radioactivity.

  8. A high throughput fluorescent assay for measuring the activity of fatty acid amide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Kage, Karen L; Richardson, Paul L; Traphagen, Linda; Severin, Jean; Pereda-Lopez, Ana; Lubben, Thomas; Davis-Taber, Rachel; Vos, Melissa H; Bartley, Diane; Walter, Karl; Harlan, John; Solomon, Larry; Warrior, Usha; Holzman, Thomas F; Faltynek, Connie; Surowy, Carol S; Scott, Victoria E

    2007-03-30

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is the enzyme responsible for the rapid degradation of fatty acid amides such as the endocannabinoid anandamide. Inhibition of FAAH activity has been suggested as a therapeutic approach for the treatment of chronic pain, depression and anxiety, through local activation of the cannabinoid receptor CB1. We have developed a high throughput screening assay for identification of FAAH inhibitors using a novel substrate, decanoyl 7-amino-4-methyl coumarin (D-AMC) that is cleaved by FAAH to release decanoic acid and the highly fluorescent molecule 7-amino-4-methyl coumarin (AMC). This assay gives an excellent signal window for measuring FAAH activity and, as a continuous assay, inherently offers improved sensitivity and accuracy over previously reported endpoint assays. The assay was validated using a panel of known FAAH inhibitors and purified recombinant human FAAH, then converted to a 384 well format and used to screen a large library of compounds (>600,000 compounds) to identify FAAH inhibitors. This screen identified numerous novel FAAH inhibitors of diverse chemotypes. These hits confirmed using a native FAAH substrate, anandamide, and had very similar rank order potency to that obtained using the D-AMC substrate. Collectively these data demonstrate that D-AMC can be successfully used to rapidly and effectively identify novel FAAH inhibitors for potential therapeutic use.

  9. A High-throughput Fluorescence Polarization Assay for Inhibitors of Gyrase B

    PubMed Central

    GLASER, BRYAN T.; MALERICH, JEREMIAH P.; DUELLMAN, SARAH J.; FONG, JULIE; HUTSON, CHRISTOPHER; FINE, RICHARD M.; KEBLANSKY, BORIS; TANGA, MARY J.; MADRID, PETER B.

    2011-01-01

    DNA gyrase, a type II topoisomerase that introduces negative supercoils into DNA, is a validated antibacterial drug target. The holoenzyme is composed of 2 subunits, gyrase A (GyrA) and gyrase B (GyrB), which form a functional A2B2 heterotetramer required for bacterial viability. A novel fluorescence polarization (FP) assay has been developed and optimized to detect inhibitors that bind to the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding domain of GyrB. Guided by the crystal structure of the natural product novobiocin bound to GyrB, a novel novobiocin–Texas Red probe (Novo-TRX) was designed and synthesized for use in a high-throughput FP assay. The binding kinetics of the interaction of Novo-TRX with GyrB from Francisella tularensis has been characterized, as well as the effect of common buffer additives on the interaction. The assay was developed into a 21-μL, 384-well assay format and has been validated for use in high-throughput screening against a collection of Food and Drug Administration–approved compounds. The assay performed with an average Z′ factor of 0.80 and was able to identify GyrB inhibitors from a screening library. PMID:21245469

  10. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) Assays for Diagnosing Malaria in Endemic Areas

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jyotsna; Mark, Olivia; Weltman, Helena; Barcelo, Nicolas; Lo, Wai; Wronska, Danuta; Kakkilaya, Srinivas; Rao, Aravinda; Bhat, Shalia T.; Sinha, Ruchi; Omar, Sabah; Moro, Manuel; Gilman, Robert H.; Harris, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is a responsible for approximately 600 thousand deaths worldwide every year. Appropriate and timely treatment of malaria can prevent deaths but is dependent on accurate and rapid diagnosis of the infection. Currently, microscopic examination of the Giemsa stained blood smears is the method of choice for diagnosing malaria. Although it has limited sensitivity and specificity in field conditions, it still remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of malaria. Here, we report the development of a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) based method for detecting malaria infection in blood smears and describe the use of an LED light source that makes the method suitable for use in resource-limited malaria endemic countries. The Plasmodium Genus (P-Genus) FISH assay has a Plasmodium genus specific probe that detects all five species of Plasmodium known to cause the disease in humans. The P. falciparum (PF) FISH assay and P. vivax (PV) FISH assay detect and differentiate between P. falciparum and P. vivax respectively from other Plasmodium species. The FISH assays are more sensitive than Giemsa. The sensitivities of P-Genus, PF and PV FISH assays were found to be 98.2%, 94.5% and 98.3%, respectively compared to 89.9%, 83.3% and 87.9% for the detection of Plasmodium, P. falciparum and P. vivax by Giemsa staining respectively. PMID:26333092

  11. Fluorescence in situ hybridization in combination with the comet assay and micronucleus test in genetic toxicology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Comet assay and micronucleus (MN) test are widely applied in genotoxicity testing and biomonitoring. While comet assay permits to measure direct DNA-strand breaking capacity of a tested agent MN test allows estimating the induced amount of chromosome and/or genome mutations. The potential of these two methods can be enhanced by the combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques. FISH plus comet assay allows the recognition of targets of DNA damage and repairing directly. FISH combined with MN test is able to characterize the occurrence of different chromosomes in MN and to identify potential chromosomal targets of mutagenic substances. Thus, combination of FISH with the comet assay or MN test proved to be promising techniques for evaluation of the distribution of DNA and chromosome damage in the entire genome of individual cells. FISH technique also permits to study comet and MN formation, necessary for correct application of these methods. This paper reviews the relevant literature on advantages and limitations of Comet-FISH and MN-FISH assays application in genetic toxicology. PMID:20840797

  12. An enzyme-coupled continuous fluorescence assay for farnesyl diphosphate synthases.

    PubMed

    Dozier, Jonathan K; Distefano, Mark D

    2012-02-01

    Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FDPS) catalyzes the conversion of isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate to farnesyl diphosphate, a crucial metabolic intermediate in the synthesis of cholesterol, ubiquinone, and prenylated proteins; consequently, much effort has gone into developing inhibitors that target FDPS. Currently most FDPS assays either use radiolabeled substrates and are discontinuous or monitor pyrophosphate release and not farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) creation. Here we report the development of a continuous coupled enzyme assay for FDPS activity that involves the subsequent incorporation of the FPP product of that reaction into a peptide via the action of protein farnesyltransferase (PFTase). By using a dansylated peptide whose fluorescence quantum yield increases upon farnesylation, the rate of FDPS-catalyzed FPP production can be measured. We show that this assay is more sensitive than existing coupled assays, that it can be used to conveniently monitor FDPS activity in a 96-well plate format, and that it can reproduce IC(50) values for several previously reported FDPS inhibitors. This new method offers a simple, safe, and continuous method to assay FDPS activity that should greatly facilitate the screening of inhibitors of this important target.

  13. An enzyme-coupled continuous fluorescence assay for farnesyl diphosphate synthases

    PubMed Central

    Dozier, Jonathan K; Distefano, Mark D

    2012-01-01

    Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FDPS) catalyzes the conversion of isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate to farnesyl diphosphate, a crucial metabolic intermediate in the synthesis of cholesterol, ubiquinone and prenylated proteins; consequently, much effort has gone into developing inhibitors that target FDPS. Currently most FDPS assays use either radiolabeled substrates and are discontinuous, or monitor pyrophosphate release and not farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) creation. Here we report the development of a continuous coupled enzyme assay for FDPS activity that involves the subsequent incorporation of the FPP product of that reaction into a peptide via the action of protein farnesyltransferase (PFTase). By using a dansylated peptide whose fluorescence quantum yield increases upon farnesylation, the rate of FDPS-catalyzed FPP production can be measured. We show that this assay is more sensitive than existing coupled assays, that it can be used to conveniently monitor FDPS activity in a 96-well plate format and that it can reproduce IC50 values for several previously reported FDPS inhibitors. This new method offers a simple, safe and continuous method to assay FDPS activity that should greatly facilitate the screening of inhibitors of this important target. PMID:22085443

  14. An automated fluorescence videomicroscopy assay for the detection of mitotic catastrophe

    PubMed Central

    Rello-Varona, S; Kepp, O; Vitale, I; Michaud, M; Senovilla, L; Jemaà, M; Joza, N; Galluzzi, L; Castedo, M; Kroemer, G

    2010-01-01

    Mitotic catastrophe can be defined as a cell death mode that occurs during or shortly after a prolonged/aberrant mitosis, and can show apoptotic or necrotic features. However, conventional procedures for the detection of apoptosis or necrosis, including biochemical bulk assays and cytofluorometric techniques, cannot discriminate among pre-mitotic, mitotic and post-mitotic death, and hence are inappropriate to monitor mitotic catastrophe. To address this issue, we generated isogenic human colon carcinoma cell lines that differ in ploidy and p53 status, yet express similar amounts of fluorescent biosensors that allow for the visualization of chromatin (histone H2B coupled to green fluorescent protein (GFP)) and centrosomes (centrin coupled to the Discosoma striata red fluorescent protein (DsRed)). By combining high-resolution fluorescence videomicroscopy and automated image analysis, we established protocols and settings for the simultaneous assessment of ploidy, mitosis, centrosome number and cell death (which in our model system occurs mainly by apoptosis). Time-lapse videomicroscopy showed that this approach can be used for the high-throughput detection of mitotic catastrophe induced by three mechanistically distinct anti-mitotic agents (dimethylenastron (DIMEN), nocodazole (NDZ) and paclitaxel (PTX)), and – in this context – revealed an important role of p53 in the control of centrosome number. PMID:21364633

  15. New applications of fluorescence polarization for enzyme assays and in genomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiforov, Theo; Coffin, Jill; Jeong, Sang; Simeonov, Anton; Bi, Xiahui

    2001-05-01

    We have developed new, fluorescence polarization-based approaches for performing enzyme assays in homogeneous solutions and for detecting the hybridization of peptide nucleic acids to DNA targets. In the first method, fluorescein-labeled peptides serving as protein kinase sustrates are thiophosphorylated in the presence of the ATP analog ATPγS. A sulfer-reactive biotin derivative is then added to the mixture and allowed to react with the thiophosphorylated peptide. The formation of a fluorescein-labeled, biotinylated product can be detected by measuring the fluorescence polarization signal of fluorescein upon addition of streptavidin. In the second method, fluorescein-labeled peptides are subjected to enzymatic phosphorylation, desphosphorlation, or proteollytic cleavage by protein kinases, phosphatases, and proteases. The differential binding of the enzymatic substrates and products to cationic polymers such as polyaraginine can be conveniently measured by fluorescence polarization. Finally, we have discovered that the process of hybridization of peptide nucleic acid probes (PNAs) to their target DNA molecules can be followed by measuring the fluorescence polarization of a fluorophore attached to the PNA probes. These measurements can be done either in the presence or absence of polylysine in solution. Examples of the application of this method for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing are presented.

  16. An Optimized Protocol for Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay Using Infrared Fluorescent Dye-labeled Oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yi-Wen; Alqadah, Amel; Chuang, Chiou-Fen

    2016-11-29

    Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assays (EMSA) are an instrumental tool to characterize the interactions between proteins and their target DNA sequences. Radioactivity has been the predominant method of DNA labeling in EMSAs. However, recent advances in fluorescent dyes and scanning methods have prompted the use of fluorescent tagging of DNA as an alternative to radioactivity for the advantages of easy handling, saving time, reducing cost, and improving safety. We have recently used fluorescent EMSA (fEMSA) to successfully address an important biological question. Our fEMSA analysis provides mechanistic insight into the effect of a missense mutation, G73E, in the highly conserved HMG transcription factor SOX-2 on olfactory neuron type diversification. We found that mutant SOX-2(G73E) protein alters specific DNA binding activity, thereby causing olfactory neuron identity transformation. Here, we present an optimized and cost-effective step-by-step protocol for fEMSA using infrared fluorescent dye-labeled oligonucleotides containing the LIM-4/SOX-2 adjacent target sites and purified SOX-2 proteins (WT and mutant SOX-2(G73E) proteins) as a biological example.

  17. Characterization of G Protein-coupled Receptors by a Fluorescence-based Calcium Mobilization Assay

    PubMed Central

    Caers, Jelle; Peymen, Katleen; Suetens, Nick; Temmerman, Liesbet; Janssen, Tom; Schoofs, Liliane; Beets, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    For more than 20 years, reverse pharmacology has been the preeminent strategy to discover the activating ligands of orphan G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The onset of a reverse pharmacology assay is the cloning and subsequent transfection of a GPCR of interest in a cellular expression system. The heterologous expressed receptor is then challenged with a compound library of candidate ligands to identify the receptor-activating ligand(s). Receptor activation can be assessed by measuring changes in concentration of second messenger reporter molecules, like calcium or cAMP. The fluorescence-based calcium mobilization assay described here is a frequently used medium-throughput reverse pharmacology assay. The orphan GPCR is transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney 293T (HEK293T) cells and a promiscuous Gα16 construct is co-transfected. Following ligand binding, activation of the Gα16 subunit induces the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum. Prior to ligand screening, the receptor-expressing cells are loaded with a fluorescent calcium indicator, Fluo-4 acetoxymethyl. The fluorescent signal of Fluo-4 is negligible in cells under resting conditions, but can be amplified more than a 100-fold upon the interaction with calcium ions that are released after receptor activation. The described technique does not require the time-consuming establishment of stably transfected cell lines in which the transfected genetic material is integrated into the host cell genome. Instead, a transient transfection, generating temporary expression of the target gene, is sufficient to perform the screening assay. The setup allows medium-throughput screening of hundreds of compounds. Co-transfection of the promiscuous Gα16, which couples to most GPCRs, allows the intracellular signaling pathway to be redirected towards the release of calcium, regardless of the native signaling pathway in endogenous settings. The HEK293T cells are easy to handle and have proven their

  18. PhenDV, a turn-off fluorescent quadruplex DNA probe for improving the sensitivity of drug screening assays.

    PubMed

    Beauvineau, Claire; Guetta, Corinne; Teulade-Fichou, Marie-Paule; Mahuteau-Betzer, Florence

    2017-08-30

    We report a new turn-off fluorescent probe, PhenDV, for the identification of high affinity quadruplex (G4) DNA ligands. This push-pull fluorophore displays a high fluorescence quantum yield in water (ΦF = 0.21) and is a selective and strong quadruplex DNA binder. We describe its use as a fluorescent indicator for the G4 Fluorescent Intercalator Displacement (FID) assay as its fluorescence is strongly quenched when bound to G4 DNA and fully restored when displaced by ligand. This probe improves the sensitivity of the G4-FID assay, as the read out relies on increased fluorescence instead of quenching observed with classical on/off probes.

  19. Selective nonpeptidic fluorescent ligands for oxytocin receptor: design, synthesis, and application to time-resolved FRET binding assay.

    PubMed

    Karpenko, Iuliia A; Margathe, Jean-François; Rodriguez, Thiéric; Pflimlin, Elsa; Dupuis, Elodie; Hibert, Marcel; Durroux, Thierry; Bonnet, Dominique

    2015-03-12

    The design and the synthesis of the first high-affinity fluorescent ligands for oxytocin receptor (OTR) are described. These compounds enabled the development of a TR-FRET based assay for OTR, readily amenable to high throughput screening. The validation of the assay was achieved by competition experiments with both peptide and nonpeptide OTR ligands as competitors. These probes represent the first selective fluorescent ligands for the oxytocin G protein-coupled receptor.

  20. Upconversion nanoparticle-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay for organophosphorus pesticides.

    PubMed

    Long, Qian; Li, Haitao; Zhang, Youyu; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2015-06-15

    This paper reports a novel nanosensor for organophosphorus pesticides based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between NaYF4:Yb,Er upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The detection mechanism is based on the facts that AuNPs quench the fluorescence of UCNPs and organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) inhibit the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) which catalyzes the hydrolysis of acetylthiocholine (ATC) into thiocholine. Under the optimized conditions, the logarithm of the pesticides concentration was proportional to the inhibition efficiency. The detection limits of parathion-methyl, monocrotophos and dimethoate reached 0.67, 23, and 67 ng/L, respectively. Meanwhile, the biosensor shows good sensitivity, stability, and could be successfully applied to detection of OPs in real food samples, suggesting the biosensor has potentially extensive application clinic diagnoses assays.

  1. A Fluorescence-Based Assay for Proteinuria Screening in Larval Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Hanke, Nils; King, Benjamin L; Vaske, Bernhard; Haller, Hermann; Schiffer, Mario

    2015-10-01

    Analysis of genes compromising the glomerular filtration barrier in rodent models using transgenic or knockdown approaches is time- and resource-consuming and often leads to unsatisfactory results. Therefore, it would be beneficial to have a selection tool indicating that your gene of interest is in fact associated with proteinuria. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a rapid screening tool to study effects in glomerular filtration barrier integrity after genetic manipulation. We use either injection of high-molecular-weight dextrans or a transgenic fluorescent fish line [Tg(l-fabp:DBP:EGFP)] expressing a vitamin D-binding protein fused with eGFP for indirect detection of proteinuria. A loss of high-molecular-weight proteins from the circulation of the fish into the urine can be identified by monitoring fluorescence intensity in the zebrafish eye. Paired with an optimized analysis method, this assay provides an effective screening solution to detect filtration barrier damage with proteinuria before moving to a mammalian system.

  2. Evaluation of three-dimensional microchannel glass biochips for multiplexed nucleic acid fluorescence hybridization assays.

    PubMed

    Benoit, V; Steel, A; Torres, M; Yu, Y Y; Yang, H; Cooper, J

    2001-06-01

    Three-dimensional, flow-through microchannel glass substrates have a potential for enhanced performance, including increased sensitivity and dynamic range, over traditional planar substrates used in medium-density microarray platforms. This paper presents a methodology for the implementation of multiplexed nucleic acid hybridization fluorescence assays on microchannel glass substrates. Fluorescence detection was achieved, in a first instance, using conventional low-magnification microscope objective lenses, as imaging optics whose depth-of-field characteristics match the thickness of the microchannel glass chip. The optical properties of microchannel glass were shown, through experimental results and simulations, to be compatible with the quantitative detection of heterogeneous hybridization events taking place along the microchannel sidewalls, with detection limits for oligonucleotide targets in the low-attomole range.

  3. Fluorescence polarization assay and inhibitor design for MDM2/p53 interaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rumin; Mayhood, Todd; Lipari, Philip; Wang, Yaolin; Durkin, James; Syto, Rosalinda; Gesell, Jennifer; McNemar, Charles; Windsor, William

    2004-08-01

    MDM2 is an important negative regulator of the tumor suppressor protein p53 which regulates the expression of many genes including MDM2. The delicate balance of this autoregulatory loop is crucial for the maintenance of the genome and control of the cell cycle and apoptosis. MDM2 hyperactivity, due to amplification/overexpression or mutational inactivation of the ARF locus, inhibits the function of wild-type p53 and can lead to the development of a wide variety of cancers. Thus, the development of anti-MDM2 therapies may restore normal p53 function in tumor cells and induce growth suppression and apoptosis. We report here a novel high-throughput fluorescence polarization binding assay and its application in rank ordering small-molecule inhibitors that block the binding of MDM2 to a p53-derived fluorescent peptide.

  4. A reliable and sensitive bead-based fluorescence assay for identification of nucleic acid sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klamp, Tobias; Yahiatène, Idir; Lampe, André; Schüttpelz, Mark; Sauer, Markus

    2011-03-01

    The sensitive and rapid detection of pathogenic DNA is of tremendous importance in the field of diagnostics. We demonstrate the ability of detecting and quantifying single- and double-stranded pathogenic DNA with picomolar sensitivity in a bead-based fluorescence assay. Selecting appropriate capturing and detection sequences enables rapid (2 h) and reliable DNA quantification. We show that synthetic sequences of S. pneumoniae and M. luteus can be quantified in very small sample volumes (20 μL) across a linear detection range over four orders of magnitude from 1 nM to 1 pM, using a miniaturized wide-field fluorescence microscope without amplification steps. The method offers single molecule detection sensitivity without using complex setups and thus volunteers as simple, robust, and reliable method for the sensitive detection of DNA and RNA sequences.

  5. A Quantitative Fluorescence-Based Assay for Assessing LIM Domain-Peptide Interactions.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Neil O; Shah, Manan; Matthews, Jacqueline M

    2016-10-10

    We have developed Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based experiments for measuring the binding affinity, off-rates, and inferred on-rates for interactions between a family of transcriptional regulators and their intrinsically disordered binding partners. It was difficult to evaluate these interactions previously, as the transcriptional regulators are obligate binding proteins that aggregate in the absence of a binding partner. The assays rely on fusion constructs where binding domains are linked by a flexible tether containing a specific protease site, with fluorescent proteins at either end that display FRET when the complex is formed. Loss of FRET is monitored after cutting the tether followed by dilution or competition with a non-fluorescent peptide. These methods allowed a wide range of binding affinities (10(-9) -10(-5)  m) to be determined. Our data indicate that interactions of closely related proteins can have surprisingly different binding properties.

  6. A Cellular Screening Assay Using Analysis of Metal-Modified Fluorescence Lifetime

    PubMed Central

    Cade, Nicholas I.; Fruhwirth, Gilbert; Archibald, Stephen J.; Ng, Tony; Richards, David

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Current methods for screening cell receptor internalization often require complex image analysis with limited sensitivity. Here we describe a novel bioassay based on detection of changes in global fluorescence lifetime above a gold substrate, with superresolution axial sensitivity and no need for image analysis. We show that the lifetime of enhanced green fluorescent protein expressed in a cellular membrane is greatly reduced in close proximity to the gold, resulting in a distance-dependent lifetime distribution throughout the cell. We demonstrate the application of this phenomenon in a screening assay by comparing the efficacies of two small molecule inhibitors interfering with the internalization process of a G protein-coupled receptor. PMID:20513420

  7. A Rapid Fluorescence Assay for Danofloxacin in Beef Muscle. Effect of Muscle Type on Limit of Quantitation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A simple, rapid fluorescence screening assay was applied to the analysis of beef muscle for danofloxacin at the U.S. tolerance level of 200 ng/g. Muscle samples were homogenized in acetic acid/acetonitrile, the resultant mixture centrifuged, and fluorescence of the supernatants was then measured. ...

  8. Nanoparticle-enhanced fluorescence emission for non-separation assays of carbohydrates using a boronic acid-alizarin complex.

    PubMed

    Li, Qianjin; Kamra, Tripta; Ye, Lei

    2016-03-04

    Addition of crosslinked polymer nanoparticles into a solution of a 3-nitrophenylboronic acid-alizarin complex leads to significant enhancement of fluorescence emission. Using the nanoparticle-enhanced boronic acid-alizarin system has improved greatly the sensitivity and extended the dynamic range of separation-free fluorescence assays for carbohydrates.

  9. Fluorescent target array killing assay: a multiplex cytotoxic T-cell assay to measure detailed T-cell antigen specificity and avidity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Quah, Benjamin J C; Wijesundara, Danushka K; Ranasinghe, Charani; Parish, Christopher R

    2012-08-01

    Here we describe a multiplex, fluorescence-based, in vivo cytotoxic T-cell assay using the three vital dyes carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester, cell trace violet, and cell proliferation dye efluor 670. When used to label cells in combination, these dyes can discriminate >200 different target cell populations in the one animal due to each target population having a unique fluorescence signature based on fluorescence intensity and the different emission wavelengths of the dyes. This allows the simultaneous measurement of the in vivo killing of target cells pulsed with numerous peptides at different concentrations and the inclusion of many replicates. This fluorescent target array killing assay can be used to measure the fine antigen specificity and avidity of polyclonal cytotoxic T-cell responses in vivo, immunological parameters that were previously impossible to monitor.

  10. Fluorescence polarization (FP) assays for the determination of grain mycotoxins (fumonisins, DON vomitoxin and aflatoxins).

    PubMed

    Nasir, Mohammad S; Jolley, Michael E

    2003-05-01

    Successful use of fluorescence polarization assays (FPAs) in human clinical, infectious disease, and drug discovery fields has prompted us to extend its use to the grain mycotoxin field. An antibody specific to a mycotoxin and a mycotoxin-fluorophore conjugate are developed. Free toxin (extracted from the grains with a suitable solvent) competes with the toxin-fluorophore conjugate for the antibody and a change in FP relative to the quantity of free toxin occurs. This change is compared to a standard curve obtained by using known quantities of toxin. The use of FP and toxin-fluorophore conjugates for the quantification of fumonisins, deoxynivalenol and aflatoxins is described. These assays are field portable, simple to perform, rapid and require no washing steps.

  11. Photonic Crystal Surfaces as a General Purpose Platform for Label-Free and Fluorescent Assays.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Brian T

    2010-04-01

    Photonic crystal surfaces can be designed to provide a wide range of functions that are used to perform biochemical and cell-based assays. Detection of the optical resonant reflections from photonic crystal surfaces enables high sensitivity label-free biosensing, while the enhanced electromagnetic fields that occur at resonant wavelengths can be used to enhance the detection sensitivity of any surface-based fluorescence assay. Fabrication of photonic crystals from inexpensive plastic materials over large surface areas enables them to be incorporated into standard formats that include microplates, microarrays, and microfluidic channels. This report reviews the design of photonic crystal biosensors, their associated detection instrumentation, and biological applications. Applications including small molecule high throughput screening, cell membrane integrin activation, gene expression analysis, and protein biomarker detection are highlighted. Recent results in which photonic crystal surfaces are used for enhancing the detection of Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, and the development of high resolution photonic crystal-based laser biosensors are also described.

  12. Development of a fluorescence polarization assay for the determination of aflatoxins in grains.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Mohammad Sarwar; Jolley, Michael E

    2002-05-22

    Aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus are commonly found in human and animal foods including grains, cereals, peanut products, sorghum, and soy seeds. Exposure to aflatoxins has been associated with carcinogenicity. This paper reports a simple, portable, and rapid fluorescence polarization (FP) assay for aflatoxin determination in grains. This immunoassay is field portable, homogeneous, and without any washing and cleaning steps. The assay is based upon the competition between free aflatoxin and an aflatoxin-fluorescein tracer for an aflatoxin-specific monoclonal antibody in solution. A series of naturally contaminated corn, sorghum, peanut butter, and peanut paste samples were analyzed by FP and compared with HPLC results. Similarly, spiked popcorn samples were analyzed by FP. FP results of naturally contaminated samples correlated well with HPLC (r (2) = 0.97). FP analysis of spiked popcorn samples (with a mixture of B(1)/B(2)/G(1)/G(2), 7/1/3/1, w/w) gave a good correlation with spiked values (r (2) = 0.99). However, FP consistently underestimated the aflatoxin contents. This was perhaps due to low cross-reactivity of the antibody used toward B(2), G(1), and G(2) aflatoxins. These results combined with the portability and simplicity of the assay suggest that the assay can be used for screening total aflatoxin in grains.

  13. GFP-based fluorescence assay for CAG repeat instability in cultured human cells.

    PubMed

    Santillan, Beatriz A; Moye, Christopher; Mittelman, David; Wilson, John H

    2014-01-01

    Trinucleotide repeats can be highly unstable, mutating far more frequently than point mutations. Repeats typically mutate by addition or loss of units of the repeat. CAG repeat expansions in humans trigger neurological diseases that include myotonic dystrophy, Huntington disease, and several spinocerebellar ataxias. In human cells, diverse mechanisms promote CAG repeat instability, and in mice, the mechanisms of instability are varied and tissue-dependent. Dissection of mechanistic complexity and discovery of potential therapeutics necessitates quantitative and scalable screens for repeat mutation. We describe a GFP-based assay for screening modifiers of CAG repeat instability in human cells. The assay exploits an engineered intronic CAG repeat tract that interferes with expression of an inducible GFP minigene. Like the phenotypes of many trinucleotide repeat disorders, we find that GFP function is impaired by repeat expansion, in a length-dependent manner. The intensity of fluorescence varies inversely with repeat length, allowing estimates of repeat tract changes in live cells. We validate the assay using transcription through the repeat and engineered CAG-specific nucleases, which have previously been reported to induce CAG repeat instability. The assay is relatively fast and should be adaptable to large-scale screens of chemical and shRNA libraries.

  14. GFP-Based Fluorescence Assay for CAG Repeat Instability in Cultured Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Santillan, Beatriz A.; Moye, Christopher; Mittelman, David; Wilson, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Trinucleotide repeats can be highly unstable, mutating far more frequently than point mutations. Repeats typically mutate by addition or loss of units of the repeat. CAG repeat expansions in humans trigger neurological diseases that include myotonic dystrophy, Huntington disease, and several spinocerebellar ataxias. In human cells, diverse mechanisms promote CAG repeat instability, and in mice, the mechanisms of instability are varied and tissue-dependent. Dissection of mechanistic complexity and discovery of potential therapeutics necessitates quantitative and scalable screens for repeat mutation. We describe a GFP-based assay for screening modifiers of CAG repeat instability in human cells. The assay exploits an engineered intronic CAG repeat tract that interferes with expression of an inducible GFP minigene. Like the phenotypes of many trinucleotide repeat disorders, we find that GFP function is impaired by repeat expansion, in a length-dependent manner. The intensity of fluorescence varies inversely with repeat length, allowing estimates of repeat tract changes in live cells. We validate the assay using transcription through the repeat and engineered CAG-specific nucleases, which have previously been reported to induce CAG repeat instability. The assay is relatively fast and should be adaptable to large-scale screens of chemical and shRNA libraries. PMID:25423602

  15. Use of anchor protein modules in fluorescence polarisation aptamer assay for ochratoxin A determination.

    PubMed

    Samokhvalov, Alexey V; Safenkova, Irina V; Eremin, Sergei A; Zherdev, Anatoly V; Dzantiev, Boris B

    2017-04-15

    A new strategy for sensitive fluorescence polarisation (FP) analysis is proposed which uses aptamer as the receptor and anchor protein modules as the enhancers by including the aptamers in complexes with protein modules. This approach is based on increasing the size differences of bound and unbound fluorophores. The strategy was applied in an ochratoxin A (ОТА) assay with the competitive binding of fluorophore-labelled and free OTA with aptamer-based receptors. We showed that the binding of labelled OTA with aptamer included in complexes with anchors led to higher a FP than binding with free aptamer. This allowed the aptamer concentration to be reduced, thus lowering the limit of detection by a factor of 40, down to 3.6 nM. The assay time was 15 min. To evaluate the applicability of the FP assay with aptamer-anchor complex to real samples, we conducted OTA measurements in spiked white wine. The OTA limit of detection in wine was 2.8 nM (1.1 μg/kg), and the recoveries ranged from 83% to 113%. The study shows that the proposed anchor strategy is efficient for increasing the sensitivity of FP-based aptamer assays.

  16. Dead cell counts during serum cultivation are underestimated by the fluorescent live/dead assay.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shengda; Cui, Zhanfeng; Urban, Jill

    2011-05-01

    The live/dead fluorescent assay provides a quick method for assessing the proportion of live and dead cells in cell culture systems or tissues and is widely used. Dead cells are detected by the fluorescence produced when propidium iodide (PI) binds to DNA; PI and similar molecules are excluded from live cells but can penetrate dead cells because of their loss of membrane integrity. Here we investigated the effect of serum in the culture medium on the reliability of the method. We assessed viability of chondrocytes with/without serum using both a live/dead assay kit and also trypan blue staining. We found that after 2 days of culture, the DNA-binding dye PI could no longer detect dead cells if serum was present but they were readily detected in serum-free medium or if an inhibitor to DNase I was added to the serum-containing medium. Dead cells could be detected by trypan blue staining in all cultures. Hence dead cells are no longer detected as the DNase I present in serum degrades their DNA. DNA-binding dyes may thus not give a reliable estimate of the number of dead cells in systems that have been cultured in the presence of serum for several days.

  17. Fluorescent oligonucleotide probe based on G-quadruplex scaffold for signal-on ultrasensitive protein assay.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zai-Sheng; Hu, Peng; Zhou, Hui; Shen, Guoli; Yu, Ruqin

    2010-03-01

    This work reported the G-quadruplex structure of pyrene-labeled G-rich DNA probe and its application in the immunoglobulin E (IgE) detection, providing plausibly an insight into the biological function of human telomere. Based on the intermolecular G-quadruplex, a terminal-single-pyrene-labeled oligonucleotide signaling probe was developed and a novel protein assay strategy was proposed via combining specific DNA cleavage by S1 nuclease with target-recognizing aptamer. This assay platform not only circumvented the optimization of specific sites for reporter attachment and the pyrene monomer fluorescence quenching by flanking nucleotide bases but also presented a signal-on mechanism. Thus, ultrasensitive homogeneous detection of IgE was successfully conducted. A linear dynamic range of 4.72 x 10(-12) to 7.56 x 10(-9)m, a regression coefficient of 0.9941 and a detection limit of 9.45 x 10(-14)m were given. Additionally, a preliminary concept of the single-pyrene-labeled excimer fluorescence probes associated with G-quadruplex for screening biological markers was described. Importantly, the unexpected structural property of G-quadruplex discovered seems to provide valuable information to allow understanding of the structure and function of human telomere and exploring of useful structure-based anticancer drug.

  18. Fluorescence-based blood coagulation assay device for measuring activated partial thromboplastin time.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Magdalena M; Kent, Nigel; Gustafsson, Kerstin M; Lindahl, Tomas L; Killard, Anthony J

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of blood clotting time is important in a range of clinical applications such as assessing coagulation disorders and controlling the effect of various anticoagulant drug therapies. Clotting time tests essentially measure the onset of clot formation which results from the formation of fibrin fibers in the blood sample. However, such assays are inherently imprecise due to the highly variable nature of the clot formation process and the sample matrix. This work describes a clotting time measurement assay which uses a fluorescent probe to very precisely detect the onset of fibrin clot formation. It uses a microstructured surface which enhances the formation of multiple localized clot loci and which results in the abrupt redistribution of the fluorescent label at the onset of clot formation in both whole blood and plasma. This methodology was applied to the development of an activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) test in a lateral flow microfluidic platform and used to monitor the effect of heparin dosage where it showed linearity from 0 to 2 U/mL in spiked plasma samples (R(2)=0.996, n = 3), correlation against gold standard coagulometry of 0.9986, and correlation against standard hospital aPTT in 32 patient samples of 0.78.

  19. Fluorescence Polarization Binding Assay for Aspergillus fumigatus Virulence Factor UDP-Galactopyranose Mutase

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Jun; Oppenheimer, Michelle; Sobrado, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic human pathogenic fungus responsible for deadly lung infections in immunocompromised individuals. Galactofuranose (Galf) residues are essential components of the cell wall and play an important role in A. fumigatus virulence. The flavoenzyme UDP-galactopyranose mutase (UGM) catalyzes the isomerization of UDP-galactopyranose to UDP-galactofuranose, the biosynthetic precursor of Galf. Thus, inhibitors of UGM that block the biosynthesis of Galf can lead to novel chemotherapeutics for treating A. fumigatus-related diseases. Here, we describe the synthesis of fluorescently labeled UDP analogs and the development of a fluorescence polarization (FP) binding assay for A. fumigatus UGM (AfUGM). High-affinity binding to AfUGM was only obtained with the chromophore TAMRA, linked to UDP by either 2 or 6 carbons with Kd values of 2.6 ± 0.2 μM and 3.0 ± 0.7 μM, respectively. These values were ~6 times lower than when UDP was linked to fluorescein. The FP assay was validated against several known ligands and displayed an excellent Z′ factor (0.79 ± 0.02) and good tolerance to dimethyl sulfoxide. PMID:21876791

  20. Identification of Adiponectin Receptor Agonist Utilizing a Fluorescence Polarization Based High Throughput Assay

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yiyi; Zang, Zhihe; Zhong, Ling; Wu, Min; Su, Qing; Gao, Xiurong; Zan, Wang; Lin, Dong; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Zhonglin

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin, the adipose-derived hormone, plays an important role in the suppression of metabolic disorders that can result in type 2 diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis. It has been shown that up-regulation of adiponectin or adiponectin receptor has a number of therapeutic benefits. Given that it is hard to convert the full size adiponectin protein into a viable drug, adiponectin receptor agonists could be designed or identified using high-throughput screening. Here, we report on the development of a two-step screening process to identify adiponectin agonists. First step, we developed a high throughput screening assay based on fluorescence polarization to identify adiponectin ligands. The fluorescence polarization assay reported here could be adapted to screening against larger small molecular compound libraries. A natural product library containing 10,000 compounds was screened and 9 hits were selected for validation. These compounds have been taken for the second-step in vitro tests to confirm their agonistic activity. The most active adiponectin receptor 1 agonists are matairesinol, arctiin, (-)-arctigenin and gramine. The most active adiponectin receptor 2 agonists are parthenolide, taxifoliol, deoxyschizandrin, and syringin. These compounds may be useful drug candidates for hypoadiponectin related diseases. PMID:23691032

  1. Quantification of equine immunoglobulin A in serum and secretions by a fluorescent bead-based assay.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, Christiane L; Babasyan, Susanna; Freer, Heather; Wagner, Bettina

    2017-06-01

    Only few quantitative reports exist about the concentrations and induction of immunoglobulin A (IgA) in mucosal secretions of horses. Despite this, it is widely assumed that IgA is the predominant immunoglobulin on mucosal surfaces in the horse. Here, two new monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against equine IgA, clones 84-1 and 161-1, were developed and characterized in detail. Both IgA mAbs specifically bound monomeric and dimeric equine IgA in different applications, such as Western blots and fluorescent bead-based assays. Cross-reactivity with other equine immunoglobulin isotypes was not observed. The new IgA mAb 84-1 was used in combination with the previously characterized anti-equine IgA mAb BVS2 for the development and validation of a fluorescent bead-based assay to quantify total IgA in equine serum and various secretions. The IgA assay's linear detection ranged from 64pg/ml to 1000ng/ml. For the quantification of IgA in serum or in secretions an IgA standard was purified from serum or nasal wash fluid (secretory IgA), respectively. The different standards were needed for accurate IgA quantification in the respective samples taking the different signal intensities of monomeric and dimeric IgA on the florescent bead-based assay into account. IgA was quantified by the bead-based assay established here in different equine samples of healthy adult individuals. In serum the median total IgA was 0.45mg/ml for Thoroughbred horses (TB, n=10) and 1.16mg/ml in Icelandic horses (ICH, n=12). In nasopharyngeal secretions of TB (n=7) 0.13mg/ml median total IgA was measured, and 0.25mg/ml for ICH (n=12). Saliva of ICH (n=6) contained a median of 0.15mg/ml, colostrum of Warmbloods (n=8) a median of 1.89mg/ml IgA. Compared to IgG1 and IgG4/7 quantified in the same samples, IgA appeared as the major immunoglobulin isotype in nasopharyngeal secretions and saliva while it is a minor isotype in serum and colostrum. The newly developed monoclonal antibodies against equine IgA and the

  2. Label-free, turn-on fluorescent sensor for trypsin activity assay and inhibitor screening.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lufeng; Qin, Haiyan; Cui, Wanwan; Zhou, Yang; Du, Jianxiu

    2016-12-01

    The development of new detection methods for proteases activity assay is important in clinical diagnostics and drug development. In this work, a simple, label-free, and turn-on fluorescent sensor was fabricated for trypsin, a protease produced in the pancreas. Cytochrome c, a natural substance of trypsin, could be selectively cleaved by trypsin into heme-peptide fragment. The produced heme-peptide fragment exhibited an intensive catalytic role on the H2O2-mediated the oxidation of thiamine to form strong fluorescent thiochrome. The fluorescence intensity was closely dependent on the amount of trypsin presented. The procedure allowed the measurement of trypsin over the range of 0.5-20.0μg/mL with a detection limit of 0.125μg/mL. The sensor showed better precision with a relative standard deviation of 1.6% for the measurement of 1.0μg/mL trypsin solution (n=11). This sensing system was applied to screen the inhibitor of trypsin, the IC50 values were calculated to be 12.71ng/mL for the trypsin inhibitor from soybean and 2.0μg/mL for benzamidine hydrochloride, respectively, demonstrating its potential application in drug development and related diseases treatment.

  3. Development and Application of a High-Throughput Fluorescence Polarization Assay to Target Pim Kinases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seongho; Hong, Victor Sukbong

    2016-01-01

    Pim proteins consisting of three isoforms (Pim-1, Pim-2, and Pim-3) are a family of serine/threonine kinases that regulate fundamental cellular responses such as cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Overexpression of the Pim kinases has been linked to a wide variety of hematological and solid tumors. Thus, all three Pim kinases have been studied as promising targets for anticancer therapy. Here, we report on the development and optimization of an immobilized metal ion affinity partitioning (IMAP) fluorescence polarization (FP) method for Pim kinases. In this homogeneous 384-well assay method, fluorescein-labeled phosphopeptides are captured on cationic nanoparticles through interactions with immobilized trivalent metals, resulting in high polarization values. The apparent Km values for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were determined to be 45 ± 7, 6.4 ± 2, and 29 ± 5 μM for Pim-1, Pim-2, and Pim-3, respectively. The assay yielded robustness with Z'-factors of >0.75 and low day-to-day variability (CV <5%) for all three Pim kinases. The IMAP FP assay was further validated by determining IC50 values for staurosporine and a known Pim inhibitor. We have also used an IMAP FP assay to examine whether compound 1, an ATP mimetic inhibitor designed through structure-based drug design, is indeed an ATP-competitive inhibitor of Pim kinases. Kinetic analysis based on Lineweaver-Burk plots showed that the inhibition mechanism of compound 1 is ATP competitive against all three Pim isoforms. The optimized IMAP assay for Pim kinases not only allows for high-throughput screening but also facilitates the characterization of novel Pim inhibitors for drug development.

  4. Fluorescence assay of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase that may become a cancer biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Sheng; Kabashima, Tsutomu; Zhu, Qinchang; Shibata, Takayuki; Kai, Masaaki

    2017-01-01

    We developed an assay method for measuring dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) activity in cultured HeLa cells and fibroblasts, and in stage III stomach cancer and adjacent normal tissues from the same patient. The assay comprised enzymatic reaction of DHODH with a large amount of dihydroorotic acid substrate, followed by fluorescence (FL) detection specific for orotic acid using the 4-trifluoromethyl-benzamidoxime fluorogenic reagent. The DHODH activities in the biologically complex samples were readily measured by the assay method. Our data indicate significantly higher DHODH activity in HeLa cells (340 ± 25.9 pmol/105 cells/h) than in normal fibroblasts (54.1 ± 7.40 pmol/105 cells/h), and in malignant tumour tissue (1.10 ± 0.19 nmol/mg total proteins/h) than in adjacent normal tissue (0.24 ± 0.11 nmol/mg total proteins/h). This is the first report that DHODH activity may be a diagnostic biomarker for cancer. PMID:28084471

  5. A real-time fluorescence polarization activity assay to screen for inhibitors of bacterial ribonuclease P

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Chen, Yu; Fierke, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    Ribonuclease P (RNase P) is an essential endonuclease that catalyzes the 5′ end maturation of precursor tRNA (pre-tRNA). Bacterial RNase P is an attractive potential antibacterial target because it is essential for cell survival and has a distinct subunit composition compared to the eukaryal counterparts. To accelerate both structure-function studies and discovery of inhibitors of RNase P, we developed the first real-time RNase P activity assay using fluorescence polarization/anisotropy (FP/FA) with a 5′ end fluorescein-labeled pre-tRNAAsp substrate. This FP/FA assay also detects binding of small molecules to pre-tRNA. Neomycin B and kanamycin B bind to pre-tRNAAsp with a Kd value that is comparable to their IC50 value for inhibition of RNase P, suggesting that binding of these antibiotics to the pre-tRNA substrate contributes to the inhibitory activity. This assay was optimized for high-throughput screening (HTS) to identify specific inhibitors of RNase P from a 2880 compound library. A natural product derivative, iriginol hexaacetate, was identified as a new inhibitor of Bacillus subtilis RNase P. The FP/FA methodology and inhibitors reported here will further our understanding of RNase P molecular recognition and facilitate discovery of antibacterial compounds that target RNase P. PMID:25249623

  6. Versatility of homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer assays for biologics drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Rossant, Christine J; Matthews, Carl; Neal, Frances; Colley, Caroline; Gardener, Matthew J; Vaughan, Tristan

    2015-04-01

    Identification of potential lead antibodies in the drug discovery process requires the use of assays that not only measure binding of the antibody to the target molecule but assess a wide range of other characteristics. These include affinity ranking, measurement of their ability to inhibit relevant protein-protein interactions, assessment of their selectivity for the target protein, and determination of their species cross-reactivity profiles to support in vivo studies. Time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer is a technology that offers the flexibility for development of such assays, through the availability of donor and acceptor fluorophore-conjugated reagents for detection of multiple tags or fusion proteins. The time-resolved component of the technology reduces potential assay interference, allowing screening of a range of different crude sample types derived from the bacterial or mammalian cell expression systems often used for antibody discovery projects. Here we describe the successful application of this technology across multiple projects targeting soluble proteins and demonstrate how it has provided key information for the isolation of potential therapeutic antibodies with the desired activity profile.

  7. Fast and sensitive DNA hybridization assays using microwave-accelerated metal-enhanced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Kadir; Malyn, Stuart N; Geddes, Chris D

    2006-09-22

    A new, fast, and sensitive DNA hybridization assay platform based on microwave-accelerated metal-enhanced fluorescence (MAMEF) is presented. Thiolated oligonucleotide anchors were immobilized onto silver nanoparticles on a glass substrate. The hybridization of the complementary fluorescein-labeled DNA target with the surface-bound oligonucleotides was completed within 20 s upon heating with low-power microwaves. In addition, the signal is optically amplified, a consequence of close proximity of the fluorophore to the silvered substrate. In this proof-of-principle methodology, as low as 50 nM of a target DNA was detected, although we envisage far-lower detection limits. Control experiments, where the surface-bound oligonucleotide was omitted, were also performed to determine the extent of non-specific binding. In these studies a significantly reduced non-specific adsorption was found when using microwave heating near to silvered structures as compared to room temperature incubation. These findings suggest that MAMEF could be a most useful alternative to the DNA hybridization assays used today, especially with regard to substantially increasing both the assay rapidity and sensitivity.

  8. Real-time ratiometric fluorescent assay for alkaline phosphatase activity with stimulus responsive infinite coordination polymer nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jingjing; Yu, Ping; Wang, Yuexiang; Mao, Lanqun

    2015-03-03

    This study demonstrates a novel ratiometric fluorescent method for real-time alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay with stimulus responsive infinite coordination polymer (ICP) nanoparticles as the probe. The ICP nanoparticles used in this study are composed of two components; one is the supramolecular ICP network formed with guanine monophosphate (GMP) as the ligand and Tb(3+) as the central metal ion, and the other is a fluorescent dye, i.e., 7-amino-4-methyl coumarin (coumarin) encapsulated into the ICP network. Upon being excited at 315 nm, the ICP network itself emits green fluorescence at 552 nm. Coumarin dye encapsulated in the ICP network emits weak fluorescence at 450 nm upon excitation at the same wavelength (315 nm), and this fluorescence emission becomes strong when the encapsulated dye is released from the network into the solution phase. Hence, we develop a ratiometric fluorescent assay based on the ALP-induced destruction of the supramolecular ICP network and the release of coumarin. This mechanism can be used for real-time ratiometric fluorescent monitoring of ALP activity by continuously measuring the ratio of fluorescent intensity at the wavelength of 552 nm (F552) to that at 450 nm (F450) (F552/F450) in the time-dependent fluorescent spectra of the coumarin@Tb-GMP suspension containing ALP with different activities. Under the experimental conditions employed here, the F552/F450 value is linear with the ALP activity within a range from 0.025 U/mL to 0.2 U/mL. The detection limit is down to 0.010 U/mL (S/N = 3). Moreover, the assay developed here is employed for ALP inhibitor evaluation. This study offers a simple yet sensitive method for real-time ALP activity assay.

  9. A Fluorescence-Based Thermal Shift Assay Identifies Inhibitors of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 4

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Sankar N.; Luan, Chi-Hao; Mishra, Rama K.; Xu, Li; Scheidt, Karl A.; Anderson, Wayne F.; Bergan, Raymond C.

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second highest cause of cancer death in United States males. If the metastatic movement of PCa cells could be inhibited, then mortality from PCa could be greatly reduced. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MAP2K4) has previously been shown to activate pro-invasion signaling pathways in human PCa. Recognizing that MAP2K4 represents a novel and validated therapeutic target, we sought to develop and characterize an efficient process for the identification of small molecules that target MAP2K4. Using a fluorescence-based thermal shift assay (FTS) assay, we first evaluated an 80 compound library of known kinase inhibitors, thereby identifying 8 hits that thermally stabilized MAP2K4 in a concentration dependent manner. We then developed an in vitro MAP2K4 kinase assay employing the biologically relevant downstream substrates, JNK1 and p38 MAPK, to evaluate kinase inhibitory function. In this manner, we validated the performance of our initial FTS screen. We next applied this approach to a 2000 compound chemically diverse library, identified 7 hits, and confirmed them in the in vitro kinase assay. Finally, by coupling our structure-activity relationship data to MAP2K4's crystal structure, we constructed a model for ligand binding. It predicts binding of our identified inhibitory compounds to the ATP binding pocket. Herein we report the creation of a robust inhibitor-screening platform with the ability to inform the discovery and design of new and potent MAP2K4 inhibitors. PMID:24339940

  10. Discovery of novel aromatase inhibitors using a homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence assay

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jin-zi; Lao, Ke-jing; Hu, Jie; Pang, Tao; Jiang, Zhen-zhou; Yuan, Hao-liang; Miao, Jing-shan; Chen, Xin; Ning, Shan-shan; Xiang, Hua; Guo, Yu-meng; Yan, Ming; Zhang, Lu-yong

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Aromatase is an important target for drugs to treat hormone-dependent diseases, including breast cancer. The aim of this study was to develop a homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF) aromatase assay suitable for high-throughput screening (HTS). Methods: A 384-well aromatase HTRF assay was established, and used to screen about 7000 compounds from a compound library. Anti-proliferation activity of the hit was evaluated using alamarBlue(R) assay in a hormone-dependent breast cancer cell line T47D. Molecular docking was conducted to elucidate the binding mode of the hit using the Discovery Studio program. Results: The Z′ value and signal to background (S/B) ratio were 0.74 and 5.4, respectively. Among the 7000 compounds, 4 hits (XHN22, XHN26, XHN27 and triptoquinone A) were found to inhibit aromatase with IC50 values of 1.60±0.07, 2.76±0.24, 0.81±0.08 and 45.8±11.3 μmol /L, respectively. The hits XHN22, XHN26 and XHN27 shared the same chemical scaffold of 4-imidazolyl quinoline. Moreover, the most potent hit XHN27 at 10 and 50 μmol/L inhibited the proliferation of T47D cells by 45.3% and 35.2%, respectively. The docking study revealed that XHN27 docked within the active site of aromatase and might form a hydrogen bond and had a π-cation interaction with amino acid residues of the protein. Conclusion: XHN27, an imidazolyl quinoline derivative of flavonoid, is a potent aromatase inhibitor with anti-proliferation activity against breast cancer in vitro. The established assay can be used in HTS for discovering novel aromatase inhibitor. PMID:25047514

  11. Fluorescence/luminescence-based markers for the assessment of Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula drug assays.

    PubMed

    Panic, Gordana; Flores, Dayana; Ingram-Sieber, Katrin; Keiser, Jennifer

    2015-12-08

    Schistosomiasis is responsible for a tremendous public health burden, yet only a single drug, praziquantel, is available. New antischistosomal treatments should therefore be developed. The accuracy, speed and objectivity of in vitro drug screening depend on the assay read-out. Microscopy is still the current gold standard and is in need of updating to an automated format. The aim of the present study was to investigate a panel of fluorescence/luminescence dyes for their applicability as viability markers in drug sensitivity assays for Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula. A search for available viability and cytotoxicity marker assays and dyes was carried out and a short-list of the most interesting candidates was created. The selected kits and dyes were tested on S. mansoni Newly Transformed Schistosomula (NTS), first to assess whether they correlate with parasite viability, with comparatively low background noise, and to optimise assay conditions. Markers fulfilling these criteria were then tested in a dose-response drug assay using standard and experimental drugs and those for which an IC50 value could be accurately and reproducibly calculated were also tested on a subset of a compound library to determine their hit-identification accuracy. Of the 11 markers selected for testing, resazurin, Vybrant® and CellTiter-Glo® correlated best with NTS viability, produced signals ≥ 3-fold stronger than background noise and revealed a significant signal-to-NTS concentration relationship. Of these, CellTiter-Glo® could be used to accurately determine IC50 values for antischistosomals. Use of CellTiter-Glo® in a compound subset screen identified 100% of hits that were identified using standard microscopic evaluation. This study presents a comprehensive overview of the utility of colorimetric markers in drug screening. Our study demonstrates that it is difficult to develop a simple, cheap "just add" colorimetric marker-based drug assay for the larval stage of S

  12. Green fluorescence protein-based content-mixing assay of SNARE-driven membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Heo, Paul; Kong, Byoungjae; Jung, Young-Hun; Park, Joon-Bum; Shin, Jonghyeok; Park, Myungseo; Kweon, Dae-Hyuk

    2017-06-17

    Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins mediate intracellular membrane fusion by forming a ternary SNARE complex. A minimalist approach utilizing proteoliposomes with reconstituted SNARE proteins yielded a wealth of information pinpointing the molecular mechanism of SNARE-mediated fusion and its regulation by accessory proteins. Two important attributes of a membrane fusion are lipid-mixing and the formation of an aqueous passage between apposing membranes. These two attributes are typically observed by using various fluorescent dyes. Currently available in vitro assay systems for observing fusion pore opening have several weaknesses such as cargo-bleeding, incomplete removal of unencapsulated dyes, and inadequate information regarding the size of the fusion pore, limiting measurements of the final stage of membrane fusion. In the present study, we used a biotinylated green fluorescence protein and streptavidin conjugated with Dylight 594 (DyStrp) as a Föster resonance energy transfer (FRET) donor and acceptor, respectively. This FRET pair encapsulated in each v-vesicle containing synaptobrevin and t-vesicle containing a binary acceptor complex of syntaxin 1a and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 revealed the opening of a large fusion pore of more than 5 nm, without the unwanted signals from unencapsulated dyes or leakage. This system enabled determination of the stoichiometry of the merging vesicles because the FRET efficiency of the FRET pair depended on the molar ratio between dyes. Here, we report a robust and informative assay for SNARE-mediated fusion pore opening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. High performance magnesium anode in paper-based microfluidic battery, powering on-chip fluorescence assay

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Youngmi; Sankar, Jagannathan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2014-01-01

    A high power density and long-lasting stable/disposable magnesium battery anode was explored for a paper-based fluidic battery to power on-chip functions of various Point of Care (POC) devices. The single galvanic cell with magnesium foil anode and silver foil cathode in Origami cellulose chip provided open circuit potential, 2.2 V, and power density, 3.0 mW/cm2. A paper-based fluidic galvanic cell was operated with one drop of water (80 μl) and continued to run until it was dry. To prove the concept about powering on-chip POC devices, two-serial galvanic cells are developed and incorporated with a UV-light emitting diode (λ = 365 nm) and fluorescence assay for alkaline phosphatase reaction. Further, detection using smart phones was performed for quantitative measurement of fluorescent density. To conclude, a magnesium-based fluidic battery paper chip was extremely low-cost, required minute sample volumes, was easy to dispose of, light weight, easy to stack, store and transport, easy to fabricate, scalable, and has faster analysis times. PMID:25332741

  14. Fluorescence-based electrophoretic mobility shift assay in the analysis of DNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Sebastian; Pfannschmidt, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Changes in gene expression mediated by DNA-binding protein factors are a crucial part of many signal transduction pathways. Generally, these regulatory proteins are low abundant and thus their purification and characterisation is labour- and time-intensive. Here we describe a workflow for purification, characterisation and identification of DNA-binding proteins. We show the use of a fluorescence-based electrophoretic mobility shift assay (fEMSA) and describe its advantages for a rapid and convenient screening for regulatory cis-elements. This involves a crude enrichment of nucleic acid binding proteins by heparin-Sepharose chromatography and the characterisation of fractions using overlapping fluorescence-labelled DNA probes spanning the promoter region of interest. The determined protein-binding sites can then be used for sequence-specific DNA-affinity chromatography to purify specifically interacting proteins. Finally, the DNA-binding complexes can be characterised and identified using two-dimensional EMSA, UV-cross-linking and mass spectrometry.

  15. High performance magnesium anode in paper-based microfluidic battery, powering on-chip fluorescence assay.

    PubMed

    Koo, Youngmi; Sankar, Jagannathan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2014-09-01

    A high power density and long-lasting stable/disposable magnesium battery anode was explored for a paper-based fluidic battery to power on-chip functions of various Point of Care (POC) devices. The single galvanic cell with magnesium foil anode and silver foil cathode in Origami cellulose chip provided open circuit potential, 2.2 V, and power density, 3.0 mW/cm(2). A paper-based fluidic galvanic cell was operated with one drop of water (80 μl) and continued to run until it was dry. To prove the concept about powering on-chip POC devices, two-serial galvanic cells are developed and incorporated with a UV-light emitting diode (λ = 365 nm) and fluorescence assay for alkaline phosphatase reaction. Further, detection using smart phones was performed for quantitative measurement of fluorescent density. To conclude, a magnesium-based fluidic battery paper chip was extremely low-cost, required minute sample volumes, was easy to dispose of, light weight, easy to stack, store and transport, easy to fabricate, scalable, and has faster analysis times.

  16. Homogeneous competitive hybridization assay based on two-photon excitation fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lingzhi; Dong, Xiaohu; Lian, Wenlong; Peng, Xiaoniu; Liu, Zhihong; He, Zhike; Wang, Ququan

    2010-02-15

    Recently, we have successfully developed a two-photon excitation fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TPE-FRET)-based homogeneous immunoassay using two-photon excitable small organic molecule as the energy donor. In the present work, the newly emerging TPE-FRET technique was extended to the determination of oligonucleotide. A new TPE molecule with favorable two-photon action cross section was synthesized [2-(2,5-bis(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)acetic acid, abbreviated as TP-COOH], with the tagged reactive carboxyl group allowing facile conjugation with streptavidin (SA). Employing the TP-COOH molecule as energy donor and black hole quencher 1 (BHQ-1) as acceptor, a TPE-FRET-based homogeneous competitive hybridization model was constructed via a biotin-streptavidin bridge. Through the hybridization between a biotinylated single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and a BHQ-1-linked ssDNA, and the subsequent capture of the as-formed hybrid by TP-COOH labeled SA, the donor fluorescence was quenched due to the FRET between TP-COOH and BHQ-1. Upon the competition between a target ssDNA and the quencher-linked ssDNA toward the biotinylated oligonucleotide, the donor fluorescence was recovered in a target-dependent manner. Good linearity was obtained with the target oligonucleotide ranging from 0.08 to 1.52 microM. The method was applied to spiked serum and urine samples with satisfying recoveries obtained. The results of this work verified the applicability of TPE-FRET technique in hybridization assay and confirmed the advantages of TPE-FRET in complicated matrix.

  17. A fluorescence microplate assay using yopro-1 to measure apoptosis: application to HL60 cells subjected to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Plantin-Carrenard, E; Bringuier, A; Derappe, C; Pichon, J; Guillot, R; Bernard, M; Foglietti, M J; Feldmann, G; Aubery, M; Braut-Boucher, F

    2003-04-01

    A new one-step labeling procedure using the membrane permeant fluorescent probe yopro-1 in association with fluorescence microtitration for the rapid determination of apoptosis is reported. Programmed cell death was induced by the pro-apoptotic agents etoposide and staurosporine, and measured in nonadherent HL60 cells and adherent phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-treated HL60 cells. Cell viability was controlled by trypan blue exclusion and calcein-AM staining. To confirm results of fluorescence microplate assay, apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry analysis using the same fluorescent probe, and results showed corresponding data between both procedures. Development of apoptosis was confirmed by the presence of PARP (poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and nuclear DAPI (4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining, two well-known methods used to investigate apoptosis. The fluorescence microplate assay was also applied to measure apoptosis in cells exposed to an oxidative stress induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP), and results confirmed the potential of the fluorescence microplate assay in measuring events of apoptosis, especially in adherent, cultured, living cells.

  18. A homogeneous assay for relative affinity of binding proteins using a green fluorescent protein tag and membrane disk.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Takashi; Kazama, Hitoshi; Satoh, Marie; Mizuki, Kazuhiro; Watabe, Hiroyuki

    2005-09-01

    When the association between a ligand immobilized on a membrane disk and a fluorescence-labeled analyte was monitored with a fluorescent microplate reader, the time-dependent increase in fluorescence intensity of the reaction mixture was observed. A novel assay system for the specific interaction based on this phenomenon was designated the homogeneous assay for fluorescence concentrated on membrane (HAFCOM). In this study, streptococcal protein G (SpG) and glycogen-binding subunit R5 of protein phosphatase 1 (PPP1R5) tagged by green fluorescent protein (GFP) were used as the fluorescence-labeled analytes, and the affinity change caused by various amino acid substitutions was measured with HAFCOM. From the site-directed mutagenesis of SpG and PPP1R5, it was clarified that (i) the association rate constant of the Lys454Pro/Glu456Gln mutant of SpG to goat immunoglobulin G was almost equivalent to that of the wild-type but its dissociation rate constant was about 2.7 times that of the wild-type and (ii) the amino acid substitutions of Phe180 in PPP1R5 reduced glycogen-binding by 30-50%. Since HAFCOM using the GFP-tagged analyte requires no special chemicals and instruments, this system can easily and economically assay the specific interaction between target protein and ligand.

  19. Photonic Crystal Surfaces as a General Purpose Platform for Label-Free and Fluorescent Assays

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Brian T.

    2009-01-01

    Photonic crystal surfaces can be designed to provide a wide range of functions that are used to perform biochemical and cell-based assays. Detection of the optical resonant reflections from photonic crystal surfaces enables high sensitivity label-free biosensing, while the enhanced electromagnetic fields that occur at resonant wavelengths can be used to enhance the detection sensitivity of any surface-based fluorescence assay. Fabrication of photonic crystals from inexpensive plastic materials over large surface areas enables them to be incorporated into standard formats that include microplates, microarrays, and microfluidic channels. This report reviews the design of photonic crystal biosensors, their associated detection instrumentation, and biological applications. Applications including small molecule high throughput screening, cell membrane integrin activation, gene expression analysis, and protein biomarker detection are highlighted. Recent results in which photonic crystal surfaces are used for enhancing the detection of Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, and the development of high resolution photonic crystal-based laser biosensors are also described. PMID:20383277

  20. High throughput fluorescence polarization assay to identify inhibitors of Cbl(TKB)-PTK interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Eric A.; Charvet, Casey D.; Lokesh, G. L.; Natarajan, Amarnath

    2011-01-01

    The Casitas-B-lineage Lymphoma (Cbl) proteins play an important role in regulating signal transduction pathways by functioning as E3-ubiquitin ligases. The Cbl proteins contain a conserved tyrosine kinase binding (TKB) domain that bind over a dozen proteins, including protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) in a phosphorylation dependent manner. The cell surface expression levels of the PTKs are regulated by Cbl-mediated ubiquitination, internalization, and degradation. Dysfunction in this signaling cascade has resulted in prolonged activation of the PTKs and therefore implicated in inflammatory diseases and various cancers. Due to this negative regulatory function, Cbl has been largely ignored as a therapeutic target. However recent studies such as the identification of (a) gain of function c-Cbl mutations in subsets of myeloid cancer and (b) c-Cbl as a prostate basal cell marker that correlates with poor clinical outcome, suggests otherwise. Here we report the development of a competitive high throughput fluorescence polarization assay in a 384-well format to identify inhibitors of Cbl(TKB). The high throughput screen (HTS) readiness of the assay was demonstrated by screening the Prestwick chemical library®. PMID:21129358

  1. Toward a hybridization assay using fluorescence resonance energy transfer and quantum dots immobilized in microfluidic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavares, Anthony J.; Petryayeva, Eleonora; Algar, W. Russ; Chen, Lu; Krull, Ulrich J.

    2010-06-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have been widely adopted as integrated components of bioassays and biosensors. In particular, solid phase nucleic acid hybridization assays have been demonstrated to have several advantages and permit the detection of up to four DNA targets simultaneously using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). This work explores the potential for miniaturization of a solid-phase nucleic acid hybridization assay using QDs and FRET on a microfluidics platform. A method was developed for the immobilization of Streptavidin coated QDs and the preparation of QD-probe oligonucleotide conjugates within microfluidic channels using electrokinetic delivery. Proof-of-concept was demonstrated for the selective detection of target DNA using FRET-sensitized emission from a Cy3 acceptor paired with a green emitting QD donor. The microfluidic platform offered the advantages of smaller sample volumes, nearly undetectable non-specific adsorption, and hybridization within minutes. This work is an important first step toward the development of biochips that enable the multiplexed detection of nucleic acid targets.

  2. Fluorescent Arabidopsis tetrads: a visual assay for quickly developing large crossover and crossover interference data sets.

    PubMed

    Berchowitz, Luke E; Copenhaver, Gregory P

    2008-01-01

    In most organisms, one crossover (CO) event inhibits the chances of another nearby event. The term used to describe this phenomenon is 'CO interference'. Here, we describe a protocol for quickly generating large data sets that are amenable to CO interference analysis in the flowering plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. We employ a visual assay that utilizes transgenic marker constructs encoding pollen-expressed fluorescent proteins of three colors in the quartet mutant background. In this genetic background, male meiotic products--the pollen grains--remain physically attached thereby facilitating tetrad analysis. We have developed a library of mapped marker insertions that, when crossed together, create adjacent intervals that can be rapidly and simultaneously screened for COs. This assay system is capable of detecting and differentiating single COs as well as two-, three- and four-strand double COs. We also describe how to analyze the data that are produced by this method. To generate and score a double interval in a wild-type and mutant background using this protocol will take 22-27 weeks.

  3. A high-throughput fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based assay for DNA ligase.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Adam B; Eakin, Ann E; Walkup, Grant K; Rivin, Olga

    2011-06-01

    DNA ligase is the enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the backbone phosphodiester bond between the 5'-PO(4) and 3'-OH of adjacent DNA nucleotides at single-stranded nicks. These nicks occur between Okazaki fragments during replication of the lagging strand of the DNA as well as during DNA repair and recombination. As essential enzymes for DNA replication, the NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligases of pathogenic bacteria are potential targets for the development of antibacterial drugs. For the purposes of drug discovery, a high-throughput assay for DNA ligase activity is invaluable. This article describes a straightforward, fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based DNA ligase assay that is well suited for high-throughput screening for DNA ligase inhibitors as well as for use in enzyme kinetics studies. Its use is demonstrated for measurement of the steady-state kinetic constants of Haemophilus influenzae NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligase and for measurement of the potency of an inhibitor of this enzyme.

  4. Fluorescent assay based on resazurin for detection of activity of disinfectants against bacterial biofilm.

    PubMed

    Mariscal, Alberto; Lopez-Gigosos, Rosa M; Carnero-Varo, Manuel; Fernandez-Crehuet, Joaquin

    2009-03-01

    A new, quick method, using the resazurin dye test as a bacterial respiration indicator, has been developed to assay the antibacterial activity of various substances used as disinfectants against bacterial biofilm growth on clinical devices. Resazurin was used to measure the presence of active biofilm bacteria, after adding disinfectant, in relation to a standard curve generated from inocula in suspension of the same organism used to grow the biofilm. The biofilm was quantified indirectly by measuring the fluorescent, water-soluble resorufin product produced when resazurin is reduced by reactions associated with respiration. Four products used as disinfectants and the biofilm growth of five bacterial species on carriers made of materials commonly found in clinical devices were studied. Under test conditions, chlorhexidine, NaOCl, ethanol, and Perasafe at concentrations of 0.2, 0.01, 350, and 0.16 mg/ml, respectively, all produced 5-log reductions in biofilm cell numbers on the three different carriers. The redox-driven test depends on bacterial catabolism, for which reason resazurin reduction produces an analytic signal of the bacterial activity in whole cells, and therefore could be used for determining disinfectant efficacy in an assay based on the metabolic activity of microorganisms grown as biofilm or in suspension.

  5. A new total antioxidant potential measurements using RP-HPLC assay with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Głód, Bronisław K; Piszcz, Paweł; Czajka, Katarzyna; Zarzycki, Paweł K

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, an improved total antioxidant potential (TAP) estimation using high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay with fluorometric detection has been described. The principle of this method is based on the hydroxyl radicals generated in the Fenton-like reaction and subsequently detected using hydroxyterephthalic acid (HTPA), which is a reaction product of hydroxyl radicals and terephthalic acid (TPA), working as a sensing compound. HTPA quantity in the samples was measured by fluorescence detector working at excitation and emission wavelengths equal to 312 and 428 nm, respectively. A number of key experimental conditions including the influence of the reaction (incubation) time on the surface areas of HTPA peaks, concentration of Fe(II) ions as well as the influence of concentration of TPA on the surface area of the chromatographic peak of HTPA were optimized to the characteristic feature of TAP measurements. The elaborated assay has been used to evaluate TAP values of selected low-molecular mass compounds like pyrogallol, tryptamine, and n-alcohols (methanol, ethanol, and n-propanol) as well as chlorogenic and ascorbic acids and benzoic acid derivatives, which are commonly present in the food samples.

  6. Carbon quantum dots-based recyclable real-time fluorescence assay for alkaline phosphatase with adenosine triphosphate as substrate.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhaosheng; Chai, Lujing; Tang, Cong; Huang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Jianrong; Feng, Hui

    2015-03-03

    A convenient, reliable, and highly sensitive real-time assay for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the continuous and recyclable way is established on the basis of aggregation and disaggregation of carbon quantum dots (CQDs) through the competitive assay approach. CQDs and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were used as the fluorescent indicator and substrate for ALP activity assessment, respectively. Richness of carboxyl groups on the surface of CQDs enables their severe aggregation triggered by cerium ions, which results in effective fluorescence quenching. Under the catalytic hydrolysis of ALP, ATP can be rapidly transformed to phosphate ions. Stronger affinity of phosphate ions to cerium ions than carboxyl groups is taken advantage of to achieve fluorescence recovery induced by redispersion of CQDs in the presence of ALP and ATP. Quantitative evaluation of ALP activity in a broad range from 4.6 to 383.3 U/L with the detection limit of 1.4 U/L can be realized in this way, which endows the assay with high enough sensitivity for practical detection in human serum. The assay can be used in a recyclable way for more than three times since the generated product CePO4 as a precipitate can be easily removed from the standard assay system. This strategy broadens the sensing application of fluorescent CQDs with excellent biocompatibility and provides an example based on disaggregation in optical probe development.

  7. Depolarization after resonance energy transfer (DARET): a sensitive fluorescence-based assay for botulinum neurotoxin protease activity.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Marcella A; Williams, Dudley; Okawa, Yumiko; Holguin, Bret; James, Nicholas G; Ross, Justin A; Roger Aoki, K; Jameson, David M; Steward, Lance E

    2011-06-01

    The DARET (depolarization after resonance energy transfer) assay is a coupled Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-fluorescence polarization assay for botulinum neurotoxin type A or E (BoNT/A or BoNT/E) proteolytic activity that relies on a fully recombinant substrate. The substrate consists of blue fluorescent protein (BFP) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) flanking SNAP-25 (synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa) residues 134-206. In this assay, the substrate is excited with polarized light at 387 nm, which primarily excites the BFP, whereas emission from the GFP is monitored at 509 nm. Energy transfer from the BFP to the GFP in the intact substrate results in a substantial depolarization of the GFP emission. The energy transfer is eliminated when the fluorescent domains separate on cleavage by the endopeptidase, and emission from the directly excited GFP product fragment is then highly polarized, resulting in an overall increase in polarization. This increase in polarization can be monitored to assay the proteolytic activity of BoNT/A and BoNT/E in real time. It allows determination of the turnover rate of the substrate and the kinetic constants (V(max) and k(cat)) based on the concentration of cleaved substrate determined directly from the measurements using the additivity properties of polarization. The assay is amenable to high-throughput applications.

  8. Determination of Aflatoxin M1 and Chloramphenicol in Milk Based on Background Fluorescence Quenching Immunochromatographic Assay

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaoxia; Tian, Xiaofeng; Xu, Lihua; Li, Jiutong

    2017-01-01

    Harsh demanding has been exposed on the concentration of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and chloramphenicol (CAP) in milk. In this study, we developed a new method based on background fluorescence quenching immunochromatographic assay (bFQICA) to detect AFM1 and CAP in milk. The detection limit for AFM1 was 0.0009 ng/mL, while that for the CAP was 0.0008 ng/mL. The assay variability was determined with 3 AFM1 standards (i.e., 0.25 ng/mL, 0.5 ng/mL, and 1.0 ng/mL), and the actual detection value was 0.2497, 0.5329, and 1.0941, respectively. For the assay variability of 3 CAP standards (i.e., 0.10 ng/mL, 0.30 ng/mL, and 0.50 ng/mL), the actual detection value was 0.0996, 0.3096, and 0.4905, respectively. The recovery rate of AFM1 was 99.7%–101.7%, while that for CAP was 95.3%–97.6%. For the test stability, AFM1 and CAP showed satisfactory test stability even at month 5. Compared with the sensitivity of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method, no statistical difference was noticed in results of the bFQICA. Our method is convenient for the detection of AFM1 and CAP in milk with a test duration of about 8 minutes. Additionally, an internal WiFi facility is provided in the system allowing for quick connection and storage in the intelligent cell phone. PMID:28367449

  9. Fluorescence assay for mitochondrial permeability transition in cardiomyocytes cultured in a microtiter plate.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Marie Louise Muff; Braunstein, Thomas Hartig; Treiman, Marek

    2008-07-01

    Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) is a voltage-dependent, large-conductance channel of the inner mitochondrial membrane with an important role in a range of pathophysiological conditions. To facilitate studies of pharmacological pore modulation, we describe an assay in a model using neonatal cardiomyocytes in a 96-well microtiter plate format. In the presence of mitochondrial membrane potential Delta Psi m, accumulation of rhodamine-123 in mitochondria (40,000 cells/well, 2.6 microM rhodamine-123) caused fluorescence signal quenching. Following substitution of dye-free buffer, dequenching occurred on the distribution of rhodamine-123 into the extracellular volume. The addition of a small buffer volume containing digitonin (final concentration 10 microg/ml) and Ca(2+) (final concentrations up to 100 microM free Ca(2+)) caused dequenching (Delta F) due to Delta Psi m dissipation by MPTP, as evidenced by inhibition in the presence of cyclosporin A (0.2-2 microM) and facilitation by pH 6.2. Delta F due to Delta Psi m-dissipating agent carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) or alamethicin (10 microM) was insensitive to either pH or cyclosporin A. Inhibition of Ca(2+)-induced (but not of FCCP- or alamethicin-induced) Delta F by glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3 beta) antagonist SB216763 and adenosine, acting at the level of intracellular signaling and plasma membrane receptors, respectively, is shown to illustrate potential applications of this assay. Limitation of the assay to cells with energized mitochondria is stressed.

  10. Improvement of the Mutation-Discrimination Threshold for Rare Point Mutations by a Separation-Free Ligase Detection Reaction Assay Based on Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer.

    PubMed

    Hagihara, Kenta; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhiko; Nakajima, Chinami; Esaki, Shinsuke; Hashimoto, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    We previously developed a separation-free ligase detection reaction assay based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer from a donor quantum dot to an acceptor fluorescent dye. This assay could successfully detect one cancer mutation among 10 wild-type templates. In the current study, the mutation-discrimination threshold was improved by one order of magnitude by replacing the original acceptor dye (Alexa Fluor 647) with another fluorescent dye (Cyanine 5) that was spectrally similar but more fluorescent.

  11. Time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer as a versatile tool in the development of homogeneous cellular kinase assays.

    PubMed

    Saville, Lisa; Spais, Chrysanthe; Mason, Jennifer L; Albom, Mark S; Murthy, Seetha; Meyer, Sheryl L; Ator, Mark A; Angeles, Thelma S; Husten, Jean

    2012-12-01

    Homogeneous cellular assays can streamline product detection in the drug discovery process. One commercially available assay employing time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) that detects phosphorylated products was used to evaluate inhibitors of the receptor tyrosine kinase AXL in a cell line expressing an AXL-green fluorescent protein fusion protein. This TR-FRET assay was modified to evaluate the phosphorylation state of the AXL family member MER in a cell line expressing MER with a V5 tag by adding a fluorescein-labeled anti-V5 antibody. This homogeneous cellular assay was further modified to evaluate the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in cell lines that expressed an untagged kinase by the inclusion of a commercially available anti-FAK antibody conjugated with an acceptor dye. The methods described here can be further adapted for TR-FRET detection of other cellular kinase activities.

  12. Comparison of an in-house PCR assay, direct fluorescence assay and the Roche AMPLICOR Chlamydia trachomatis kit for detection of C. trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Poonam; Patel, Achchhe Lal; Sachdev, Divya; Ali, Mashook; Mittal, Aruna; Saluja, Daman

    2009-07-01

    To improve the control of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in India, a rapid, specific and cost-effective method is much needed. We developed an in-house PCR assay by targeting a unique genomic sequence encoding a protein from the C. trachomatis phospholipase D endonuclease superfamily that produces an amplified fragment of 368 bp. The specificity of the primers was confirmed using genomic DNA from other sexually transmitted disease-causing and related micro-organisms and from humans. The assay was highly sensitive and could detect as low as 10 fg C. trachomatis DNA. Clinical evaluation of the in-house-developed PCR was carried out using 450 endocervical specimens that were divided in two groups. In group I (n=274), in-house PCR was evaluated against the direct fluorescence assay. The resolved sensitivity of the in-house PCR method was 97.22 % compared with 88 % for the direct fluorescent antibody assay. In group II (n=176), the in-house PCR was compared with the commercial Roche AMPLICOR MWP CT detection kit. The resolved sensitivity of the in-house PCR assay reported here was 93.1 % and the specificity was 97.46 %, making it a cost-effective alternative for routine diagnosis of genital infection by C. trachomatis. The method should facilitate early detection leading to better prevention and treatment of genital infection in India.

  13. Testing a dual-fluorescence assay to monitor the viability of filamentous cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Tylor J; Hildreth, Michael B; Gu, Liping; Zhou, Ruanbao; Gibbons, William R

    2015-06-01

    Filamentous cyanobacteria are currently being engineered to produce long-chain organic compounds, including 3rd generation biofuels. Because of their filamentous morphology, standard methods to quantify viability (e.g., plate counts) are not possible. This study investigated a dual-fluorescence assay based upon the LIVE/DEAD® BacLight™ Bacterial Viability Kit to quantify the percent viability of filamentous cyanobacteria using a microplate reader in a high throughput 96-well plate format. The manufacturer's protocol calls for an optical density normalization step to equalize the numbers of viable and non-viable cells used to generate calibration curves. Unfortunately, the isopropanol treatment used to generate non-viable cells released a blue pigment that altered absorbance readings of the non-viable cell solution, resulting in an inaccurate calibration curve. Thus we omitted this optical density normalization step, and carefully divided cell cultures into two equal fractions before the isopropanol treatment. While the resulting calibration curves had relatively high correlation coefficients, their use in various experiments resulted in viability estimates ranging from below 0% to far above 100%. We traced this to the apparent inaccuracy of the propidium iodide (PI) dye that was to stain only non-viable cells. Through further analysis via microplate reader, as well as confocal and wide-field epi-fluorescence microscopy, we observed non-specific binding of PI in viable filamentous cyanobacteria. While PI will not work for filamentous cyanobacteria, it is possible that other fluorochrome dyes could be used to selectively stain non-viable cells. This will be essential in future studies for screening mutants and optimizing photobioreactor system performance for filamentous cyanobacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Advantages of fluorescent microspheres compared with colloidal gold as a label in immunochromatographic lateral flow assays.

    PubMed

    Xie, Quan-Yuan; Wu, Yan-Hua; Xiong, Qi-Rong; Xu, Heng-Yi; Xiong, Yong-Hua; Liu, Kun; Jin, Yong; Lai, Wei-Hua

    2014-04-15

    Label selection is of vital importance for immunochromatographic assays. In this study, the fluorescent microsphere test strip and colloidal gold immunochromatographic test strip (FM-ICTS and CG-ICTS) were developed for the detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on the basis of the sandwich format. Two types of labels, namely, colloidal gold particles (CG) and carboxyl-modified fluorescent microspheres (FMs), were compared while coupling with anti-E. coli O157:H7 monoclonal antibody (mAb). The FM-ICTS and CG-ICTS were also compared. Results show that the coupling rate between FMs and mAb was higher than that between CG and mAb. Under optimum conditions, the sensitivity of FM-ICTS was eight times higher than that of CG-ICTS. Approximately 0.1 μg of mAb was used in every FM-ICTS, whereas 0.4 μg of mAb was used in every CG-ICTS. The coefficient of variation of FM-ICTS and CG-ICTS was 4.8% and 16.7%, respectively. The FM-ICTS and CG-ICTS can be stored at room temperature for 12 months and specific to five E. coli O157:H7 strains. Milk sample inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 were tested by the FM-ICTS and CG-ICTS. The FM-ICTS sensitivity was 10(4) CFU/ml while the CG-ICTS sensitivity was 10(5) CFU/ml. The sensitivity, consumption of antibodies, and coefficient of variation of FM-ICTS were better than those of CG-ICTS for the detection of E. coli O157:H7. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Photo- and biophysical studies of lectin-conjugated fluorescent nanoparticles: reduced sensitivity in high density assays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaqi; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C; Basu, Amit; Zimmt, Matthew B

    2010-11-18

    Lectin-conjugated, fluorescent silica nanoparticles (fNP) have been developed for carbohydrate-based histopathology evaluations of epithelial tissue biopsies. The fNP platform was selected for its enhanced emissive brightness compared to direct dye labeling. Carbohydrate microarray studies were performed to compare the carbohydrate selectivity of the mannose-recognizing lectin Concanavalin A (ConA) before and after conjugation to fluorescent silica nanoparticles (ConA-fNP). These studies revealed surprisingly low emission intensities upon staining with ConA-fNP compared to those with biotin-ConA/Cy3-streptavidin staining. A series of photophysical and biophysical characterizations of the fNP and ConA-fNP conjugates were performed to probe the low sensitivity from fNP in the microarray assays. Up to 1200 fluorescein (FL) and 80 tetramethylrhodamine (TR) dye molecules were incorporated into 46 nm diameter fNP, yielding emissive brightness values 400 and 35 times larger than the individual dye molecules, respectively. ConA lectin conjugated to carboxylic acid surface-modified nanoparticles covers 15-30% of the fNP surface. The CD spectra and mannose substrate selectivity of ConA conjugated to the fNP differed slightly compared to that of soluble ConA. Although, the high emissive brightness of fNP enhances detection sensitivity for samples with low analyte densities, large fNP diameters limit fNP recruitment and binding to samples with high analyte densities. The high analyte density and nearly two-dimensional target format of carbohydrate microarrays make probe size a critical parameter. In this application, fNP labels afford minimal sensitivity advantage compared to direct dye labeling.

  16. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay for protein-protein interaction in onion cells using the helios gene gun.

    PubMed

    Hollender, Courtney A; Liu, Zhongchi

    2010-06-12

    Investigation of gene function in diverse organisms relies on knowledge of how the gene products interact with each other in their normal cellular environment. The Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) Assay(1) allows researchers to visualize protein-protein interactions in living cells and has become an essential research tool. This assay is based on the facilitated association of two fragments of a fluorescent protein (GFP) that are each fused to a potential interacting protein partner. The interaction of the two protein partners would facilitate the association of the N-terminal and C-terminal fragment of GFP, leading to fluorescence. For plant researchers, onion epidermal cells are an ideal experimental system for conducting the BiFC assay because of the ease in obtaining and preparing onion tissues and the direct visualization of fluorescence with minimal background fluorescence. The Helios Gene Gun (BioRad) is commonly used for bombarding plasmid DNA into onion cells. We demonstrate the use of Helios Gene Gun to introduce plasmid constructs for two interacting Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factors, SEUSS (SEU) and LEUNIG HOMOLOG (LUH)(2) and the visualization of their interactions mediated by BiFC in onion epidermal cells.

  17. Measuring Norfloxacin Binding to Trypsin Using a Fluorescence Quenching Assay in an Upper-Division, Integrated Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Katherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence quenching assays are often used to measure dissociation constants that quantify the binding affinity between small molecules and proteins. In an upper-division undergraduate laboratory course, where students work on projects using a guided inquiry-based approach, a binding titration experiment at physiological pH is performed to…

  18. Large-scale drug screening against Babesia divergens parasite using a fluorescence-based high-throughput screening assay.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Mohamed Abdo; El-Sayed, Shimaa Abd El-Salam; AbouLaila, Mahmoud; Tuvshintulga, Bumduuren; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Igarashi, Ikuo

    2016-08-30

    The validation of a fluorescence-based high-throughput screening (HTS) assay for determining the efficacies of large chemical libraries against Babesia divergens (bovine strain) in in vitro cultures was evaluated in this study. Hematocrits (HCTs) of 2.5%, 5%, and 10% were used for the in vitro culture at 1% parasitemia without daily replacement of the medium. Linearity and HTS assay results revealed that the best HCTs were 5% and 10%. The obtained IC50 values of diminazene aceturate, either by fluorescence-based HTS assay with and without daily replacement of medium or by fluorescence- and microscopy-based methods, did not differ significantly at 5% HCT. Actinonin and chloroquine diphosphate were the most effective drugs against the in vitro growth of B. divergens, followed by pyronaridine tetraphosphate- and luteolin-treated cultures. On contrary, tetracycline hydrochloride and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate from green tea exhibited poor activity as compared with diminazene aceturate (positive control drug). The data indicated that 5% HCT without daily replacement of the culture medium mixed with bovine serum in vitro using a fluorescence-based HTS assay creates the best conditions for large-scale drug screening against B. divergens that infect cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A simple aptamer-based fluorescent assay for the detection of Aflatoxin B1 in infant rice cereal.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lu; Wen, Fang; Li, Ming; Guo, Xiaodong; Li, Songli; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jiaqi

    2017-01-15

    A fluorescent assay for the rapid, sensitive and specific detection of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was developed in this study. Initially, a DNA/DNA duplex was formed between a fluorescein-labeled AFB1 aptamer and its partially complementary DNA strand containing a quencher moiety, resulting in fluorescence quenching due to the close proximity of fluorophore and quencher. Upon the addition of AFB1, an aptamer/AFB1 complex was generated to release the quencher-modified DNA strand, thus recovered the fluorescence of fluorescein and enabled quantitative detection for AFB1 by monitoring fluorescence enhancement. Under optimized conditions, this assay exhibited a linear response to AFB1 in the range of 5-100ng/mL with a detection limit down to 1.6ng/mL. Trials of this assay in infant rice cereal with satisfactory recovery in the range of 93.0%-106.8%, demonstrate that the new assay could be a potential sensing platform for AFB1 determination in food. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Measuring Norfloxacin Binding to Trypsin Using a Fluorescence Quenching Assay in an Upper-Division, Integrated Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Katherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence quenching assays are often used to measure dissociation constants that quantify the binding affinity between small molecules and proteins. In an upper-division undergraduate laboratory course, where students work on projects using a guided inquiry-based approach, a binding titration experiment at physiological pH is performed to…

  1. A fast and indirect fluorescent antibody assay for the vibrio in large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea (Richardson)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Su, Yongquan; Yan, Qingpi

    2003-03-01

    A fast and indirect fluorescent antibody assay for the Vibrio alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus infecting the large yellow croaker has been developed. The specific antisera for the two strains of vibrio were prepared with New Zealand rabbit and the antiserum and cross-reactive efficacy was tested by coagulation in tube. It showed that the goat anti-rabbit IgG had been labeled by fluorescence isothiocyanate (FITC). The results showed that positive reactions were 100% for the large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea with typical symptom of vibrio infection, while the positive reaction to the pathogen in healthy yellow croakers reached 40%, but seemed negative for aquaculture water. The results demonstrated that this fast and indirect fluorescent antibody assay can be used not only to test the vibrio pathogen in diseased yellow croaker but also in infected animals with no symptom.

  2. A Dual Readout Assay Based on Fluorescence Polarization and Time-Resolved Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer to Screen for RSK1 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Eun-mi; Lee, Mi Young; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Byung Ho; Oh, Kwang-Seok

    2016-01-01

    A dual readout assay based on fluorescence polarization (FP) and time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) exhibits many advantages over single assay technology in terms of screening quality and efficiency. In this study, we developed a dual readout assay combining FP and TR-FRET to identify ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (RSK1) inhibitors. This dual readout assay can monitor both FP and TR-FRET signals from a single RSK1 kinase reaction by using the immobilized metal affinity for phosphochemical (IMAP)-based assay. The Z' value and signal to background (S/B) ratio were 0.85 and 4.0 using FP, and 0.79 and 10.6 using TR-FRET, which led to performance of a pilot library screening against the drug repositioning set consisting of 2320 compounds with a reasonable reproducibility. From this screening, we identified 16 compounds showing greater than 50% inhibition against RSK1 for both FP and TR-FRET; 6 compounds with greater than 50% inhibition only for FP; and 4 compounds with greater than 50% inhibition only for TR-FRET. In a cell-based functional assay to validate the hit compounds, 10 compounds identified only in a single assay had little effect on the RSK-mediated phosphorylation of liver kinase B1, whereas 5 compounds showing greater than 80% inhibition for both FP and TR-FRET reduced the phosphorylation of liver kinase B1. These results demonstrate that the dual readout assay can be used to identify hit compounds by subsequently monitoring both FP and TR-FRET signals from one RSK1 reaction.

  3. Monitoring water supplies for weaponized bacteria and bacterial toxins using rapid fluorescence-based viability and affinity assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Tassell, Roger L.; Evans, Mishell

    2004-03-01

    The rapid detection of weaponized bacteria and toxins is a major problem during a biological attack. Although sensitive detection formats exist for many biowarfare agents, they often require advanced training and complex procedures. Luna has developed simple, rapid means for determining the presence of pathogens and bacterial toxins in water supplies using fluorescence-based assays that can be adapted for field use. The batteries of rapid assays are designed for i) determining cell viability and bacterial loads by exploiting metabolic markers (e.g., acid-production, redox potentials, etc) and ii) detecting bacterial toxins using fluorescent, polymerized affinity liposomes (fluorosomes). The viability assays were characterized using E. coli, S. aureus and the anthrax simulant, B. globigii. The viability assays detected bacterial loads of ~ 104 CFU/ml and with simple filtration ~ 100CFU/ml could be detected. The affinity fluorosomes were characterized using cholera toxin (CT). Affinity liposomes displaying GM1 and anti-CT antibodies could detect CT at <μg/ml levels. Stability studies showed that affinity vesicles could be stored for weeks at 4°C or freeze-dried with no significant loss of binding capacity. Using an in-house fiber optic fluorescence system, Luna characterized the binding of affinity fluorosomes to respective targets and determined the responses of bacterial loads in the fluorescent viability assays. Using this two-tiered approach, Luna demonstrated that water susceptible to sabotage could be easily monitored and confirmed for specific agents using simple, general and specific fluorescence-based detection schemes based on metabolism and ligand-target interactions.

  4. Application of biotin-4-fluorescein in homogeneous fluorescence assays for avidin, streptavidin, and biotin or biotin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Andreas; Marek, Markus; Kaiser, Karl; Kada, Gerald; Hahn, Christoph D; Lackner, Bernd; Gruber, Hermann J

    2008-01-01

    Biotin-4-fluorescein (B4F) is a convenient molecular probe for (strept)avidin and for unlabeled biotin in homogeneous fluorescence assays. The primary standard is a 16 microM working solution of d-biotin which is used to titrate an aliquot of a (strept)avidin stock solution while monitoring the tryptophane fluorescence of (strept)avidin. This serves to standardize the (strept)avidin stock solution, an aliquot of which is then titrated with a roughly 16 microM working solution of B4F while monitoring the fluorescence of B4F. Specific binding is accompanied by quenching, but after saturation of all binding sites, the appearance of free ligand causes a sharp rise of intense fluorescence, the beginning of which allows to calculate the effective concentration of B4F in the working solution. Measurement of avidin in a crude sample is exemplified by mixing 8 pmol of B4F with various amounts of diluted egg white in a volume of 1 mL. Hereby, the extent of fluorescence quenching linearly correlates with the concentration of functional avidin. Moreover, a sharp minimum of fluorescence is observed when exactly 2 pmol of avidin is present in the sample. The latter assay has been adapted to measure between 0.5 and 5 pmol of d-biotin in 1 mL of sample by adding 1.9 pmol of avidin and 8 pmol of B4F. This competitive assay correctly measures the small dose of d-biotin in multivitamin tablets (e.g., 150 microg in 5 g of solid) after subtracting the background fluorescence of the colored aqueous solution.

  5. A liposomal fluorescence assay to study permeation kinetics of drug-like weak bases across the lipid bilayer.

    PubMed

    Eyer, Klaus; Paech, Franziska; Schuler, Friedrich; Kuhn, Phillip; Kissner, Reinhard; Belli, Sara; Dittrich, Petra S; Krämer, Stefanie D

    2014-01-10

    Lipid bilayer permeation is considered the major route for in vivo barrier passage of drugs. Despite this fact, no technique is currently available to measure the kinetics of permeation across a single lipid bilayer of structurally unrelated drug-like solutes. We developed a liposomal fluorescence assay capable to determine permeation kinetics of basic drug-like solutes across lipid bilayers. The assay is based on the hypothesis that permeation of a weak base along a concentration gradient results in net proton release at the cis-side and net proton capture at the trans-side of the bilayer. The resulting pH changes were monitored with pH-sensitive fluorophores: Test compounds were incubated with liposomes containing a pH-sensitive fluorophore at the bilayer surfaces or in the aqueous lumen and fluorescence changes were monitored with a stopped-flow apparatus in solution or by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with surface-captured liposomes on a microfluidic platform. Incubation with lipophilic basic drugs resulted in the expected fluorescence changes while incubation with compounds without basic functionality or high polarity did not affect fluorescence. Kinetics of fluorescence changes followed bi-exponential functions. Logarithmic permeation coefficients (logPermapp) determined in solution and by microfluidics technology showed a good correlation (r(2)=0.94, n=7) and logPermapp increased with increasing lipophilicity. Neither diffusion in the aqueous phase nor partitioning into the bilayer was rate-limiting. PEGylation of 2% of the liposomal lipids reduced Permapp by a factor ~300. In conclusion, the presented liposomal fluorescence assay is capable to determine permeation kinetics of weak basic drug-like solutes across lipid bilayers. The method is adaptable to microfluidics technology for high-throughput measurements and can potentially be modified to work for weak acid solutes.

  6. Molecular recognition, fluorescence sensing, and biological assay of phosphate anion derivatives using artificial Zn(II)-Dpa complexes.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Takashi; Ojida, Akio; Hamachi, Itaru

    2009-01-08

    In this Feature Article, we focus on recent advances in our research on molecular recognition and fluorescence sensing of phosphate anion derivatives of biological importance. Because of their significant roles in biological systems, considerable efforts have been devoted to developing detection or determination systems. However, the recognition and sensing of these anion species under aqueous biological conditions using small-molecular chemosensors still remain as a challenging research topic. We have been developing a variety of artificial receptors and fluorescent chemosensors for phosphoproteins and nucleoside polyphosphates in recent years. They consist of a binuclear Zn(II)-dipicolylamine (Dpa) complex as a common binding motif for phosphate anion derivatives. Taking advantage of their strong binding affinities or high sensing abilities, a variety of biological assay systems have also been successfully developed, which includes the enzyme assays such as the kinase, phosphatase and glycosyltransferase reaction, as well as an inhibitor assay for the phosphoprotein-protein surface interaction.

  7. Fluorescence Competition Assay Measurements of Free Energy Changes for RNA Pseudoknots†

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    RNA pseudoknots have important functions, and thermodynamic stability is a key to predicting pseudoknots in RNA sequences and to understanding their functions. Traditional methods, such as UV melting and differential scanning calorimetry, for measuring RNA thermodynamics are restricted to temperature ranges around the melting temperature for a pseudoknot. Here, we report RNA pseudoknot free energy changes at 37 °C measured by fluorescence competition assays. Sequence-dependent studies for the loop 1−stem 2 region reveal (1) the individual nearest-neighbor hydrogen bonding (INN-HB) model provides a reasonable estimate for the free energy change when a Watson−Crick base pair in stem 2 is changed, (2) the loop entropy can be estimated by a statistical polymer model, although some penalty for certain loop sequences is necessary, and (3) tertiary interactions can significantly stabilize pseudoknots and extending the length of stem 2 may alter tertiary interactions such that the INN-HB model does not predict the net effect of adding a base pair. The results can inform writing of algorithms for predicting and/or designing RNA secondary structures. PMID:19921809

  8. "Molecular beacon"-based fluorescent assay for selective detection of glutathione and cysteine.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Hepel, Maria

    2011-02-01

    We report on the development of a fluorescence turn-on "molecular beacon" probe for the detection of glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (Cys). The method is based on a competitive ligation of Hg(2+) ions by GSH/Cys and thymine-thymine (T-T) mismatches in a DNA strand of the self-hybridizing beacon strand. The assay relies on the distance-dependent optical properties of the fluorophore/quencher pair attached to the ends of the molecular beacon DNA strand. In a very selective coordination of Hg(2+) to GSH/Cys, the fluorophore/quencher distance increases concomitantly with the dehybridization and dissociation of the beacon stem T-Hg(2+)-T due to the extraction of Hg(2+) ions. This process results in switching the molecular beacon to the "on" state. The concentration range of the probe is 4-200 nM with the limit of detection (LOD) of 4.1 nM for GSH and 4.2 nM Cys. The probe tested satisfactorily against interference for a range of amino acids including sulfur-containing methionine.

  9. A fluorescence spectroscopy assay for real-time monitoring of enzyme immobilization into mesoporous silica particles.

    PubMed

    Nabavi Zadeh, Pegah S; Mallak, Kassam Abdel; Carlsson, Nils; Åkerman, Björn

    2015-05-01

    Mesoporous silica particles are used as support material for immobilization of enzymes. Here we investigated a fluorescence-based assay for real-time monitoring of the immobilization of lipase, bovine serum albumin, and glucose oxidase into micrometer-sized mesoporous silica particles. The proteins are labeled with the dye epicocconone, and the interaction with the particles is observed as an increase in emission intensity of the protein-dye conjugates that can be quantified if correcting for a comparatively slow photobleaching. The immobilization occurs in tens of minutes to hours depending on particle concentration and type of protein. In the limit of excess particles over proteins, the formation of the particle-protein complexes can be described by a single exponential growth for all three investigated proteins, and the fitted pseudo-first-order rate constant increases linearly with particle concentration for each protein type. The derived second-order rate constant k varies with the protein hydrodynamic radius according to k∼RH(-4.70±0.01), indicating that the rate-limiting step at high particle concentrations is not the diffusional encounter between proteins and particles but rather the entry into the pores, consistent with the hydrodynamic radii of the three proteins being smaller but comparable to the pore radius of the particles.

  10. A label-free fluorescent assay for free chlorine in drinking water based on protein-stabilized gold nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiaoli; Tang, Yan; Zhang, Liangliang; Zhao, Shulin

    2015-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin stabilized Au nanoclusters (BSA-AuNCs) were demonstrated as a novel fluorescence probe for sensitive and selective detection of free chlorine in drinking water. The fluorescence of BSA-AuNCs was found to be quenched effectively by the free chlorine, and the decrease in fluorescence intensity of BSA-AuNCs allowed the sensitive detection of free chlorine in the range of 0.8-800 μM. The detection limit is 0.50 μM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The present fluorescent assay for free chlorine possesses low detection limit, wide linear range and good selectivity. Real tap water samples were analyzed with satisfactory results, which suggested its potential for water quality analysis.

  11. Rapid fluorometric bacteria detection assay and photothermal effect by fluorescent polymer of coated surfaces and aqueous state.

    PubMed

    Islamy Mazrad, Zihnil Adha; In, Insik; Lee, Kang-Dae; Park, Sung Young

    2017-03-15

    A fluorescent dye and a photothermal agent were grafted onto a cationic polymer for rapid and simple bacteria detection in liquid and solid phase based fluorescence on/off. The integrated poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) backbone with catechol and bromoethane moieties possesses unique optical properties due to the presence of boron dipyrromethane (BODIPY) and near infared NIR-responsive IR825 (F-PVP). The cationic segments showed distinct fluorescence quenching patterns after interaction with gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria via polyion complex interactions. Fluorescence quenching depended on direct interaction of the bacterial cell membrane, as confirmed using SEM and confocal imaging. The detection limit was 1mg/mL for the liquid-phase assay and the minimal detectable concentration of bacteria using the solid-phase assay was 10(6)CFU/mL. After bacterial detection in contaminated area, our system can directly kill bacteria via the photothermal conversion ability of the IR825 substituent using NIR exposure by polymer solution and limited in coated PP. Finally, the proposed biosensor is capable as potential material for detection of bacteria in simple liquid and solid phase assay.

  12. Photonic Crystal Enhancement of a Homogeneous Fluorescent Assay using Submicron Fluid Channels Fabricated by E-jet Patterning

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yafang; Sutanto, Erick; Alleyne, Andrew G.; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the enhancement of a liquid-based homogenous fluorescence assay using the resonant electric fields from a photonic crystal (PC) surface. Because evanescent fields are confined to the liquid volume nearest to the photonic crystal, we developed a simple approach for integrating a PC fabricated on a silicon substrate within a fluid channel with submicron height, using electrohydrodynamic jet (e-jet) printing of a light-curable epoxy adhesive to define the fluid channel pattern. The PC is excited by a custom-designed compact instrument that illuminates the PC with collimated light that precisely matches the resonant coupling condition when the PC is covered with aqueous media. Using a molecular beacon nucleic acid fluorescence resonant energy transfer (FRET) probe for a specific miRNA sequence, we demonstrate an 8x enhancement of the fluorescence emission signal, compared to performing the same assay without exciting resonance in the PC detecting a miRNA sequence at a concentration of 62nM from a liquid volume of only ~20 nl. The approach may be utilized for any liquid-based fluorescence assay for applications in point-of-care diagnostics, environmental monitoring, or pathogen detection. PMID:24376013

  13. Photonic crystal enhancement of a homogeneous fluorescent assay using submicron fluid channels fabricated by E-jet patterning.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yafang; Sutanto, Erick; Alleyne, Andrew G; Cunningham, Brian T

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate the enhancement of a liquid-based homogenous fluorescence assay using the resonant electric fields from a photonic crystal (PC) surface. Because evanescent fields are confined to the liquid volume nearest to the photonic crystal, we developed a simple approach for integrating a PC fabricated on a silicon substrate within a fluid channel with submicron height, using electrohydrodynamic jet (e-jet) printing of a light-curable epoxy adhesive to define the fluid channel pattern. The PC is excited by a custom-designed compact instrument that illuminates the PC with collimated light that precisely matches the resonant coupling condition when the PC is covered with aqueous media. Using a molecular beacon nucleic acid fluorescence resonant energy transfer (FRET) probe for a specific miRNA sequence, we demonstrate an 8× enhancement of the fluorescence emission signal, compared to performing the same assay without exciting resonance in the PC detecting a miRNA sequence at a concentration of 62 nM from a liquid volume of only ∼20 nL. The approach may be utilized for any liquid-based fluorescence assay for applications in point-of-care diagnostics, environmental monitoring, or pathogen detection.

  14. Label-free detection of kanamycin based on a G-quadruplex DNA aptamer-based fluorescent intercalator displacement assay.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yun-Peng; Liu, Chun; Zhou, Xiao-Hong; Shi, Han-Chang

    2015-01-30

    This work was the first to report that the kanamycin-binding DNA aptamer (5'-TGG GGG TTG AGG CTA AGC CGA-3') can form stable parallel G-quadruplex DNA (G4-DNA) structures by themselves and that this phenomenon can be verified by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Based on these findings, we developed a novel label-free strategy for kanamycin detection based on the G4-DNA aptamer-based fluorescent intercalator displacement assay with thiazole orange (TO) as the fluorescence probe. In the proposed strategy, TO became strongly fluorescent upon binding to kanamycin-binding G4-DNA. However, the addition of kanamycin caused the displacement of TO from the G4-DNA-TO conjugate, thereby resulting in decreased fluorescent signal, which was inversely related to the kanamycin concentration. The detection limit of the proposed assay decreased to 59 nM with a linear working range of 0.1 μM to 20 μM for kanamycin. The cross-reactivity against six other antibiotics was negligible compared with the response to kanamycin. A satisfactory recovery of kanamycin in milk samples ranged from 80.1% to 98.0%, confirming the potential of this bioassay in the measurement of kanamycin in various applications. Our results also served as a good reference for developing similar fluorescent G4-DNA-based bioassays in the future.

  15. Label-free detection of kanamycin based on a G-quadruplex DNA aptamer-based fluorescent intercalator displacement assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Yun-Peng; Liu, Chun; Zhou, Xiao-Hong; Shi, Han-Chang

    2015-01-01

    This work was the first to report that the kanamycin-binding DNA aptamer (5'-TGG GGG TTG AGG CTA AGC CGA-3') can form stable parallel G-quadruplex DNA (G4-DNA) structures by themselves and that this phenomenon can be verified by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Based on these findings, we developed a novel label-free strategy for kanamycin detection based on the G4-DNA aptamer-based fluorescent intercalator displacement assay with thiazole orange (TO) as the fluorescence probe. In the proposed strategy, TO became strongly fluorescent upon binding to kanamycin-binding G4-DNA. However, the addition of kanamycin caused the displacement of TO from the G4-DNA-TO conjugate, thereby resulting in decreased fluorescent signal, which was inversely related to the kanamycin concentration. The detection limit of the proposed assay decreased to 59 nM with a linear working range of 0.1 μM to 20 μM for kanamycin. The cross-reactivity against six other antibiotics was negligible compared with the response to kanamycin. A satisfactory recovery of kanamycin in milk samples ranged from 80.1% to 98.0%, confirming the potential of this bioassay in the measurement of kanamycin in various applications. Our results also served as a good reference for developing similar fluorescent G4-DNA-based bioassays in the future.

  16. A sensitive "turn-on" fluorescent assay for quantification of ceftriaxone based on L-tryptophan-Pd(II) complex fluorophore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Man; Jiang, Junze; Yang, Jidong; Liu, Shaopu; Liu, Zhongfang; Hu, Xiaoli

    2016-05-01

    Based on L-tryptophan-Pd(II) system, a sensitive and selective fluorimetric assay for the quantification of ceftriaxone (CTRX) had been developed. The experimental results showed that in pH 4.0 Britton-Robinson (BR) buffer medium, the fluorescence of L-tryptophan (L-Trp) (λex/λem = 276 nm/352 nm) could be efficiently quenched by Pd(II). When CTRX was added to the mixed solution of the L-tryptophan and Pd(II), the fluorescence of L-Trp recovered. The reaction mechanism and the reasons for the fluorescence recovery were also discussed. Pd(II) reacted with L-Trp to form a 1:1 chelate complex, and then, after CTRX was added in L-Try-Pd(II) system, the ligand exchange reaction occurred between L-Trp and CTRX, which resulted in the fluorescence recovery. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the recovered fluorescence intensities at 352 nm showed excellent linear relationship with the concentration of CTRX over the range of 6.0 × 10- 8-2.4 × 10-6 mol L- 1 (0.040-1.59 μg mL- 1). The correlation coefficient (R) was 0.9997 and the detection limit was 1.8 × 10-8 mol L- 1 (11.9 ng mL- 1). Furthermore, the assay had been applied to determine trace amount of CTRX human urine samples with satisfactory results.

  17. Single-stranded DNA binding protein-assisted fluorescence polarization aptamer assay for detection of small molecules.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhenyu; Ravelet, Corinne; Perrier, Sandrine; Guieu, Valérie; Fiore, Emmanuelle; Peyrin, Eric

    2012-08-21

    Here, we describe a new fluorescence polarization aptamer assay (FPAA) strategy which is based on the use of the single-stranded DNA binding (SSB) protein from Escherichia coli as a strong FP signal enhancer tool. This approach relied on the unique ability of the SSB protein to bind the nucleic acid aptamer in its free state but not in its target-bound folded one. Such a feature was exploited by using the antiadenosine (Ade)-DNA aptamer (Apt-A) as a model functional nucleic acid. Two fluorophores (fluorescein and Texas Red) were introduced into different sites of Apt-A to design a dozen fluorescent tracers. In the absence of the Ade target, the binding of the labeled aptamers to SSB governed a very high fluorescence anisotropy increase (in the 0.130-0.200 range) as the consequence of (i) the large global diffusion difference between the free and SSB-bound tracers and (ii) the restricted movement of the dye in the SSB-bound state. When the analyte was introduced into the reaction system, the formation of the folded tertiary structure of the Ade-Apt-A complex triggered the release of the labeled nucleic acids from the protein, leading to a strong decrease in the fluorescence anisotropy. The key factors involved in the fluorescence anisotropy change were considered through the development of a competitive displacement model, and the optimal tracer candidate was selected for the Ade assay under buffer and realistic (diluted human serum) conditions. The SSB-assisted principle was found to operate also with another aptamer system, i.e., the antiargininamide DNA aptamer, and a different biosensing configuration, i.e., the sandwich-like design, suggesting the broad usefulness of the present approach. This sensing platform allowed generation of a fluorescence anisotropy signal for aptamer probes which did not operate under the direct format and greatly improved the assay response relative to that of the most previously reported small target FPAA.

  18. Toward a multiplexed solid-phase nucleic acid hybridization assay using quantum dots as donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Algar, W Russ; Krull, Ulrich J

    2009-05-15

    Solid-phase assays using immobilized quantum dots (QDs) as donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) have been developed for the selective detection of nucleic acids. QDs were immobilized on optical fibers and conjugated with probe oligonucleotides. Hybridization with acceptor labeled target oligonucleotides generated FRET-sensitized acceptor fluorescence that was used as the analytical signal. A sandwich assay was also introduced and avoided the need for target labeling. Green and red emitting CdSe/ZnS QDs were used as donors with Cy3 and Alexa Fluor 647 acceptors, respectively. Quantitative measurements were made via spectrofluorimetry or fluorescence microscopy. Detection limits as low as 1 nM were obtained, and the discrimination of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with contrast ratios as high as 31:1 was possible. The assays retained their selectivity and at least 50% of their signal when tested in bovine serum and against a large background of noncomplementary genomic DNA. Mixed films of the two colors of QD and two probe oligonucleotide sequences were prepared for multiplexed solid-phase hybridization assays. It was possible to simultaneously detect two target sequences with retention of selectivity, including SNP discrimination. This research provides an important precedent and framework for the future development of QD-based bioassays and biosensors.

  19. Fluorescence-based Neuraminidase Inhibition Assay to Assess the Susceptibility of Influenza Viruses to The Neuraminidase Inhibitor Class of Antivirals.

    PubMed

    Leang, Sook-Kwan; Hurt, Aeron C

    2017-04-15

    The neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors are the only class of antivirals approved for the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza that are effective against currently circulating strains. In addition to their use in treating seasonal influenza, the NA inhibitors have been stockpiled by a number of countries for use in the event of a pandemic. It is therefore important to monitor the susceptibility of circulating influenza viruses to this class of antivirals. There are different types of assays that can be used to assess the susceptibility of influenza viruses to the NA inhibitors, but the enzyme inhibition assays using either a fluorescent substrate or a chemiluminescent substrate are the most widely used and recommended. This protocol describes the use of a fluorescence-based assay to assess influenza virus susceptibility to NA inhibitors. The assay is based on the NA enzyme cleaving the 2'-(4-Methylumbelliferyl)-α-D-N-acetylneuraminic acid (MUNANA) substrate to release the fluorescent product 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU). Therefore, the inhibitory effect of an NA inhibitor on the influenza virus NA is determined based on the concentration of the NA inhibitor that is required to reduce 50% of the NA activity, given as an IC50 value.

  20. A pre-breeding screening program for transgenic boars based on fluorescence in situ hybridization assay.

    PubMed

    Bou, Gerelchimeg; Sun, Mingju; Lv, Ming; Zhu, Jiang; Li, Hui; Wang, Juan; Li, Lu; Liu, Zhongfeng; Zheng, Zhong; He, Wenteng; Kong, Qingran; Liu, Zhonghua

    2014-08-01

    For efficient transgenic herd expansion, only the transgenic animals that possess the ability to transmit transgene into next generation are considered for breeding. However, for transgenic pig, practically lacking a pre-breeding screening program, time, labor and money is always wasted to maintain non-transgenic pigs, low or null transgenic transmission pigs and the related fruitless gestations. Developing a pre-breeding screening program would make the transgenic herd expansion more economical and efficient. In this technical report, we proposed a three-step pre-breeding screening program for transgenic boars simply through combining the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay with the common pre-breeding screening workflow. In the first step of screening, combined with general transgenic phenotype analysis, FISH is used to identify transgenic boars. In the second step of screening, combined with conventional semen test, FISH is used to detect transgenic sperm, thus to identify the individuals producing high quality semen and transgenic sperm. In the third step of screening, FISH is used to assess the in vitro fertilization embryos, thus finally to identify the individuals with the ability to produce transgenic embryos. By this three-step screening, the non-transgenic boars and boars with no ability to produce transgenic sperm or transgenic embryos would be eliminated; therefore only those boars could produce transgenic offspring are maintained and used for breeding and herd expansion. It is the first time a systematic pre-breeding screening program is proposed for transgenic pigs. This program might also be applied in other transgenic large animals, and provide an economical and efficient strategy for herd expansion.

  1. Toward the identification of viral cap-methyltransferase inhibitors by fluorescence screening assay.

    PubMed

    Aouadi, Wahiba; Eydoux, Cécilia; Coutard, Bruno; Martin, Baptiste; Debart, Françoise; Vasseur, Jean Jacques; Contreras, Jean Marie; Morice, Christophe; Quérat, Gilles; Jung, Marie-Louise; Canard, Bruno; Guillemot, Jean-Claude; Decroly, Etienne

    2017-08-01

    Two highly pathogenic human coronaviruses associated with severe respiratory syndromes emerged since the beginning of the century. The severe acute respiratory syndrome SARS-coronavirus (CoV) spread first in southern China in 2003 with about 8000 infected cases in few months. Then in 2012, the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) emerged from the Arabian Peninsula giving a still on-going epidemic associated to a high fatality rate. CoVs are thus considered a major health threat. This is especially true as no vaccine nor specific therapeutic are available against either SARS- or MERS-CoV. Therefore, new drugs need to be identified in order to develop antiviral treatments limiting CoV replication. In this study, we focus on the nsp14 protein, which plays a key role in virus replication as it methylates the RNA cap structure at the N7 position of the guanine. We developed a high-throughput N7-MTase assay based on Homogenous Time Resolved Fluorescence (HTRF(®)) and screened chemical libraries (2000 compounds) on the SARS-CoV nsp14. 20 compounds inhibiting the SARS-CoV nsp14 were further evaluated by IC50 determination and their specificity was assessed toward flavivirus- and human cap N7-MTases. Our results reveal three classes of compounds: 1) molecules inhibiting several MTases as well as the dengue virus polymerase activity unspecifically, 2) pan MTases inhibitors targeting both viral and cellular MTases, and 3) inhibitors targeting one viral MTase more specifically showing however activity against the human cap N7-MTase. These compounds provide a first basis towards the development of more specific inhibitors of viral methyltransferases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Development of a high-throughput fluorescence polarization DNA cleavage assay for the identification of FEN1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    McWhirter, Claire; Tonge, Michael; Plant, Helen; Hardern, Ian; Nissink, Willem; Durant, Stephen T

    2013-06-01

    Flap endonuclease-1 (FEN1) is a highly conserved metallonuclease and is the main human flap endonuclease involved in the recognition and cleavage of single-stranded 5' overhangs from DNA flap structures. The involvement of FEN1 in multiple DNA metabolism pathways and the identification of FEN1 overexpression in a variety of cancers has led to interest in FEN1 as an oncology target. In this article, we describe the development of a 1536-well high-throughput screening assay based on the change in fluorescence polarization of a FEN1 DNA substrate labeled with Atto495 dye. The assay was subsequently used to screen 850 000 compounds from the AstraZeneca compound collection, with a Z' factor of 0.66 ± 0.06. Hits were followed up by IC50 determination in both a concentration-response assay and a technology artifact assay.

  3. Fluorescence-based liver microsomal assay for screening of pharmaceutical reactive metabolites using a glutathione conjugated 96-well plate.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiang; Chan, Eric Chun Yong

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of our paper is to develop and validate a fluorescence-based mouse liver microsomal (MLM) assay in screening pharmaceutical reactive metabolites (RMs) using a glutathione (GSH)-conjugated 96-well plate. Poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) (pHEMA) polymeric membrane was coated on 96-well plates to provide a functional support for GSH conjugation. Oxidized GSH (GSSG) was conjugated on a cyanogen bromide (CNBr)-activated pHEMA surface. The conjugated GSH was regenerated after the reduction of GSSG using d,l-dithiothreitol (DTT). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Ellman's, and fluorescence assays were applied to validate the chemistry and optimize the processes of GSH conjugation. The performance of the 96-well assay was further cross-validated using N-acetyl-p-benzo-quinone imine (NAPQI), a RM of acetaminophen (APAP), and the in vitro MLM assay of APAP. Finally, the developed method was applied to screen a batch of marketed drugs and chemicals on the formation of RMs. Our results indicated that optimum conditions were obtained for pHEMA loading, CNBr activation of pHEMA, and GSSG coupling and reduction. The detection limit of the assay for NAPQI was 500 nM with good specificity. In vitro MLM assay of APAP demonstrated a positive trapping index (TI) of 19.3%. The subsequent RM screening of a series of marketed drugs and chemical compounds resulted in a range of TI values (1.0-25.7%) that corroborated with their capacity in generating RMs. The differences of TI values are statistically significant between the compounds which are known to produce RMs and those that do not generate reactive intermediates. In conclusion, we successfully developed a fluorescence-based GSH-conjugated 96-well plate platform for the screening of RMs using MLM.

  4. A homogenous fluorescence quenching based assay for specific and sensitive detection of influenza virus A hemagglutinin antigen.

    PubMed

    Chen, Longyan; Neethirajan, Suresh

    2015-04-15

    Influenza pandemics cause millions of deaths worldwide. Effective surveillance is required to prevent their spread and facilitate the development of appropriate vaccines. In this study, we report the fabrication of a homogenous fluorescence-quenching-based assay for specific and sensitive detection of influenza virus surface antigen hemagglutinins (HAs). The core of the assay is composed of two nanoprobes namely the glycan-conjugated highly luminescent quantum dots (Gly-QDs), and the HA-specific antibody-modified gold nanoparticle (Ab-Au NPs). When exposed to strain-specific HA, a binding event between the HA and the two nanoprobes takes place, resulting in the formation of a sandwich complex which subsequently brings the two nanoprobes closer together. This causes a decrease in QDs fluorescence intensity due to a non-radiative energy transfer from QDs to Au NPs. A resulting correlation between the targets HA concentrations and fluorescence changes can be observed. Furthermore, by utilizing the specific interaction between HA and glycan with sialic acid residues, the assay is able to distinguish HAs originated from viral subtypes H1 (human) and H5 (avian). The detection limits in solution are found to be low nanomolar and picomolar level for sensing H1-HA and H5-HA, respectively. Slight increase in assay sensitivity was found in terms of detection limit while exposing the assay in the HA spiked in human sera solution. We believe that the developed assay could serve as a feasible and sensitive diagnostic tool for influenza virus detection and discrimination, with further improvement on the architectures.

  5. A fluorescence-based assay for the measurement of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase activity in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Hudec, Roman; Hamada, Kozo; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

    2013-02-15

    The methylation of DNA, RNA, and proteins plays crucial roles in numerous biological processes, including epigenetic control, virus replication, and cell differentiation. In mammals, the rate-limiting step of the S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methylation process is exclusively controlled by S-adenosylhomocysteine (S-AdoHcy) hydrolase (SAHH). SAHH hydrolyzes S-AdoHcy to adenosine and homocysteine (Hcy) and is therefore a potential therapeutic target for various diseases, including cancer, malaria, and viral diseases. However, a simple and highly sensitive assay for the evaluation of SAHH activity, particularly for drug discovery, had not yet been developed. Here we present the development of a fluorescence-based assay for the measurement of SAHH activity in biological samples. We combined the advantages of the detection of fluorescent thiol groups in Hcy by ThioGlo1 with the S-AdoHcy-driven enzyme-coupled reaction. Our results confirmed the reliability of the proposed assay for the measurement of the SAHH activity of purified SAHH and showed the potential of this assay for the measurement of the SAHH activity of biological samples. Therefore, the proposed SAHH activity assay may be utilized in clinical laboratories and in high-throughput screenings for the identification of new SAHH inhibitors with potentially beneficial effects on numerous pathologies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Spatially selective photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence and application to background reduction for biomolecule detection assays.

    PubMed

    Chaudhery, Vikram; Huang, Cheng-Sheng; Pokhriyal, Anusha; Polans, James; Cunningham, Brian T

    2011-11-07

    By combining photonic crystal label-free biosensor imaging with photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence, it is possible to selectively enhance the fluorescence emission from regions of the PC surface based upon the density of immobilized capture molecules. A label-free image of the capture molecules enables determination of optimal coupling conditions of the laser used for fluorescence imaging of the photonic crystal surface on a pixel-by-pixel basis, allowing maximization of fluorescence enhancement factor from regions incorporating a biomolecule capture spot and minimization of background autofluorescence from areas between capture spots. This capability significantly improves the contrast of enhanced fluorescent images, and when applied to an antibody protein microarray, provides a substantial advantage over conventional fluorescence microscopy. Using the new approach, we demonstrate detection limits as low as 0.97 pg/ml for a representative protein biomarker in buffer.

  7. Growth assays with mixed cultures of cyanobacteria and algae assessed by in vivo fluorescence: One step closer to real ecosystems?

    PubMed

    Gregor, Jakub; Jancula, Daniel; Marsálek, Blahoslav

    2008-02-01

    A growth toxicity assay with mixed cultures of cyanobacteria and algae using in vivo fluorescence is presented. Test organisms (the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the cyanobacterium Aphanothece clathrata) growing alone and in a mixture were exposed to selected chemicals. P. subcapitata featured a higher sensitivity to toxicants in the presence of A. clathrata compared to the single species assay. On the other hand, growth of a cyanobacterium was not affected by the presence or absence of the green alga. The proposed method seems to be suitable for pre-screening studies of toxicants (algistatic agents, herbicides) applied into the aquatic environment and for the assessment of their impact on natural phytoplankton communities.

  8. The use of 3-aminophthalimide as a pro-chemiluminescent label in chemiluminescence and fluorescence-based cellular assays.

    PubMed

    Mavri-Damelin, Demetra; Wilden, Jonathan; Mani, Ali-Reza; Selden, Clare; Hodgson, Humphrey J F; Damelin, Leonard H

    2009-02-01

    We present a labeling system for direct chemiluminescence-based cellular bioassays using the stable pro-chemiluminescent, luminol precursor, 3-aminophthalimide (API). API-coupled reporter molecules are detected chemiluminometrically after treatment with hydrazine, which converts the API label to luminol. API derivatives containing a variety of functional groups are readily synthesized, allowing for ease of coupling via the imide nitrogen to a host of reporter molecules. The fluorescent nature of APIs further allows for dual fluorescence and chemiluminescence studies. To highlight the utility of this label, we show that API-labeled insulin can be successfully utilized in cellular binding and transport assays and that an API-coupled mitochondrial probe (API-triphenylphosphonium(+)) can be used to both fluorescently and chemiluminometrically investigate mitochondrial function. We also assess the use of API as a polysaccharide and nucleic acid label, and we show that API-labeled palmitic acid undergoes cellular transport and lipid metabolism.

  9. Development of a fluorescent probe-based recombinase polymerase amplification assay for rapid detection of Orf virus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Qin, Xiaodong; Wang, Guangxiang; Zhang, Yuen; Shang, Youjun; Zhang, Zhidong

    2015-12-02

    Orf virus (ORFV) is the causative agent of Orf (also known as contagious ecthyma or contagious papular dermatitis), a severe infectious skin disease in goats, sheep and other ruminants. The rapid detection of ORFV is of great importance in disease control and highly needed. A isothermal molecular diagnostic approach, termed recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), is considered as an novel and rapid alternative techonology to PCR assay. In the present study, a novel fluorescent probe based on RPA assay (ORFV exo RPA assay) was developed. The developed ORFV exo RPA assay was capable of as low as 100 copies of ORFV DNA /reaction and was highly specific, with no cross-reaction with closely related viruses (capripox virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus or peste des petits ruminants virus). Further assessment with clinical samples showed that the developed ORFV exo RPA assay has good correlation with qPCR assays for detection of ORFV. These results suggest that the developed ORFV exo RPA assay is suitable for rapid detection of ORFV.

  10. Engineering and exploitation of a fluorescent HIV-1 gp120 for live cell CD4 binding assays

    SciTech Connect

    Costantini, Lindsey M.; Irvin, Susan C.; Kennedy, Steven C.; Guo, Feng; Goldstein, Harris; Herold, Betsy C.; Snapp, Erik L.

    2015-02-15

    The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, gp120, binds the host cell receptor, CD4, in the initial step of HIV viral entry and infection. This process is an appealing target for the development of inhibitory drugs and neutralizing antibodies. To study gp120 binding and intracellular trafficking, we engineered a fluorescent fusion of the humanized gp120 JRFL HIV-1 variant and GFP. Gp120-sfGFP is glycosylated with human sugars, robustly expressed, and secreted from cultured human cells. Protein dynamics, quality control, and trafficking can be visualized in live cells. The fusion protein can be readily modified with different gp120 variants or fluorescent proteins. Finally, secreted gp120-sfGFP enables a sensitive and easy binding assay that can quantitatively screen potential inhibitors of gp120-CD4 binding on live cells via fluorescence imaging or laser scanning cytometry. This adaptable research tool should aid in studies of gp120 cell biology and the development of novel anti-HIV drugs. - Highlights: • Development of fluorescent protein labeled HIV-1 envelope gp120. • Imaging of gp120 dynamics and trafficking in live cells. • Quantitative visual assay of antibody-mediated inhibition of gp120 binding to CD4 on live cells.

  11. Plasmon-enhanced fluorescence imaging with silicon-based silver chips for protein and nucleic acid assay.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Bing; Jiang, Xiangxu; Yao, Chu; Bao, Meimei; Liu, Jiaojiao; Dou, Yujiang; Xu, Yinze; He, Yao; Yang, Kai; Ma, Yuqiang

    2017-02-22

    Metal-enhanced fluorescence shows great potential for improving the sensitivity of fluoroscopy, which has been widely used in protein and nucleic acid detection for biosensor and bioassay applications. In comparison with the traditional glass-supported metal nanoparticles (MNPs), the introduction of a silicon substrate has been shown to provide an increased surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect due to the coupling between the MNPs and the semiconducting silicon substrate. In this work, we further study the fluorescence-enhanced effect of the silicon-supported silver-island (Ag@Si) plasmonic chips. In particular, we investigate their practical application of improving the traditional immunoassay such as the biotin-streptavidin-based protein assay and the protein-/nucleic acid-labeled cell and tissue samples. The protein assay shows a wavelength-dependent enhancement effect of the Ag@Si chip, with an enhancement factor ranging from 1.2 (at 532 nm) to 57.3 (at 800 nm). Moreover, for the protein- and nucleic acid-labeled cell and tissue samples, the Ag@Si chip provides a fluorescence enhancement factor of 3.0-4.1 (at 800 nm) and a significant improvement in the signal/background ratio for the microscopy images. Such a ready accommodation of the fluorescence-enhanced effect for the immunoassay samples with simple manipulations indicates broad potential for applications of the Ag@Si chip not only in biological studies but also in the clinical field.

  12. Rapid and quantitative detection of 4(5)-methylimidazole in caramel colours: A novel fluorescent-based immunochromatographic assay.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xinlan; Huang, Minghui; Yu, Shujuan; Kong, Fansheng

    2016-01-01

    A novel fluorescence-based immunochromatographic assay (ICA) for rapid detecting 4(5)-methylimidazole (4-MI) is presented in this study. In our work, the conjugates of fluorescent microspheres (FMs) and 4-MI monoclonal antibody were used as probe for ICA. Under optimal conditions, a standard curve of ICA-based detection of 4-MI was developed, linear detection ranged from 0.50 to 32.0 mg/L. The cross-reactivities were observed less than 3.93% by detecting 6 selected structural analogues of 4-MI. The recoveries of 4-MI in caramels detection were ranged from 82.85% to 102.31%, with the coefficient of variation (n = 3) below 9.06%. Quantitative comparison of the established fluorescence-based ICA with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA) analysis of real caramel colour samples indicated a good correlation among the methods. Therefore, our developed fluorescence-based ICA method shows great potential for simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective quantitative detection of 4-MI in food safety control.

  13. A rapid fluorescence "switch-on" assay for glutathione detection by using carbon dots-MnO2 nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qi-Yong; Li, Jie; Ge, Jia; Zhang, Lin; Hu, Ya-Lei; Li, Zhao-Hui; Qu, Ling-Bo

    2015-10-15

    Glutathione (GSH) serves many cellular functions and plays crucial roles in human pathologies. Simple and sensitive sensors capable of detecting GSH would be useful tools to understand the mechanism of diseases. In this work, a rapid fluorescence "switch-on" assay was developed to detect trace amount of GSH based on carbon dots-MnO2 nanocomposites, which was fabricated through in situ synthesis of MnO2 nanosheets in carbon dots colloid solution. Due to the formation of carbon dots-MnO2 nanocomposites, fluorescence of carbon dots could be quenched efficiently by MnO2 nanosheeets through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). However, the presence of GSH would reduce MnO2 nanosheets to Mn(2+) ions and subsequently release carbon dots, which resulted in sufficient recovery of fluorescent signal. This proposed assay demonstrated highly selectivity toward GSH with a detection limit of 300nM. Moreover, this method has also shown sensitive responses to GSH in human serum samples, which indicated its great potential to be used in disease diagnosis. As no requirement of any further functionalization of these as-prepared nanomaterials, this sensing system shows remarkable advantages including very fast and simple, cost-effective as well as environmental-friendly, which suggest that this new strategy could serve as an efficient tool for analyzing GSH level in biosamples.

  14. Yellow Fluorescent Protein-Based Assay to Measure GABAA Channel Activation and Allosteric Modulation in CHO-K1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Teres; Norris, Tyrrell; Peilot-Sjögren, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) ion channels are important drug targets for treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Finding GABAA channel subtype selective allosteric modulators could lead to new improved treatments. However, the progress in this area has been obstructed by the challenging task of developing functional assays to support screening efforts and the generation of cells expressing functional GABAA ion channels with the desired subtype composition. To address these challenges, we developed a yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-based assay to be able to study allosteric modulation of the GABAA ion channel using cryopreserved, transiently transfected, assay-ready cells. We show for the first time how the MaxCyte STX electroporation instrument can be used to generate CHO-K1 cells expressing functional GABAA α2β3γ2 along with a halide sensing YFP-H148Q/I152L (YFP-GABAA2 cells). As a basis for a cell-based assay capable of detecting allosteric modulators, experiments with antagonist, ion channel blocker and modulators were used to verify GABAA subunit composition and functionality. We found that the I− concentration used in the YFP assay affected both basal quench of YFP and potency of GABA. For the first time the assay was used to study modulation of GABA with 7 known modulators where statistical analysis showed that the assay can distinguish modulatory pEC50 differences of 0.15. In conclusion, the YFP assay proved to be a robust, reproducible and inexpensive assay. These data provide evidence that the assay is suitable for high throughput screening (HTS) and could be used to discover novel modulators acting on GABAA ion channels. PMID:23516634

  15. Fluorescence polarization assay and SDS-PAGE confirms matrilysin degrades fibronectin and collagen IV whereas gelatinase A degrades collagen IV but not fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Kraft, P J; Haynes-Johnson, D E; Patel, L; Lenhart, J A; Zivin, R A; Palmer, S S

    2001-10-01

    Matrilysin and gelatinase A are hypothesized to have significant roles in uterine and ovarian function. However, proteolytic activity assays for these enzymes are limited. We describe the development of simple and rapid assays for the proteolysis of fluorescein-labeled full-length substrates, collagen IV (Col-IV) and fibronectin (FN), and demonstrate the selectivity of matrilysin (MMP-7) compared to gelatinase A (MMP-2) for fibronectin. Changes in fluorescence intensity (FIU) and fluorescence polarization (mP) resulting from the protease activity of matrilysin and gelatinase A were measured. These studies show that the fluorescently labeled substrates, Col-IV and FN, are as reliable and amenable to rapid in vitro assay as peptide substrates. In addition, they are easier to use than previously described, non-fluorescent methods. The results demonstrate that assays using full-length, biological matrix proteins are more sensitive indicators of MMP-specific substrate activity than peptide based assays.

  16. An electrochemical ELISA-like immunosensor for miRNAs detection based on screen-printed gold electrodes modified with reduced graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Tran, H V; Piro, B; Reisberg, S; Huy Nguyen, L; Dung Nguyen, T; Duc, H T; Pham, M C

    2014-12-15

    We design an electrochemical immunosensor for miRNA detection, based on screen-printed gold electrodes modified with reduced graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes. An original immunological approach is followed, using antibodies directed to DNA.RNA hybrids. An electrochemical ELISA-like amplification strategy was set up using a secondary antibody conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Hydroquinone is oxidized into benzoquinone by the HRP/H2O2 catalytic system. In turn, benzoquinone is electroreduced into hydroquinone at the electrode. The catalytic reduction current is related to HRP amount immobilized on the surface, which itself is related to miRNA.DNA surface density on the electrode. This architecture, compared to classical optical detection, lowers the detection limit down to 10 fM. Two miRNAs were studied: miR-141 (a prostate biomarker) and miR-29b-1 (a lung cancer biomarker). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A fluorescent microsphere-based method for assay of multiple analytes in plasma.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Oliver K; Mathias, Rommel A; Barnes, Thomas W; Simpson, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of multiple analytes can provide increased sensitivity and specificity for the detection and management of disease. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is currently the "gold standard" for protein quantification; however, individual assays for each analyte must be performed, placing demand on sample volume. On the contrary, multiplex assays using microsphere-based technologies allow for multiple analytes to be simultaneously assayed within a single sample. Here, we present a protocol for the preparation and development of a multiple-analyte assay in human plasma using the BioPlex 200 platform (Bio-Rad), which incorporates xMAP technology (Luminex).

  18. Aptamer-based fluorescent screening assay for acetamiprid via inner filter effect of gold nanoparticles on the fluorescence of CdTe quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiajia; Li, Ying; Wang, Luokai; Xu, Jingyue; Huang, Yanjun; Luo, Yeli; Shen, Fei; Sun, Chunyan; Meng, Rizeng

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a novel aptamer-based fluorescent detection method for small molecules represented by acetamiprid based on the specific binding of aptamers with acetamiprid, and the inner filter effect (IFE) of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the fluorescence of CdTe quantum dots (CdTe QDs). When CdTe QDs were mixed with AuNPs, the fluorescence of CdTe QDs was significantly quenched via IFE. The IFE efficiency could be readily modulated by the absorption and the aggregation state of AuNPs. The presence of salt could easily induce the aggregation of AuNPs, resulting in the fluorescence recovery of the quenched QDs. Acetamiprid-binding aptamer (ABA) could adsorb on the negatively charged AuNPs through the coordination interaction to protect AuNPs from salt-induced aggregation, so the fluorescence of CdTe QDs would be quenched by the IFE of AuNPs. However, the specific binding of ABA with acetamiprid could release the ABA from the surfaces of AuNPs and decrease the salt tolerance of AuNPs, so the IFE-decreased fluorescence of CdTe QDs was regained with the presence of acetamiprid, and the fluorescence enhancement efficiency was driven by the concentration of acetamiprid. Based on this principle, the aptamer-based fluorescent method for acetamiprid has been established and optimized. The assay exhibited excellent selectivity towards acetamiprid over its analogues and other pesticides which may coexist with acetamiprid. Under the optimum experiment conditions, the established method could be applied for the determination of acetamiprid with a wide linear range from 0.05 to 1.0 μM, and a low detection limit of 7.29 nM (3σ). Furthermore, this IFE-based method has been successfully utilized to detect acetamiprid in six types of vegetables, and the results were in full agreement with those from HPLC and LC-MS. The proposed method displays remarkable advantages of high sensitivity, rapid analysis, excellent selectivity, and would be suitable for the practical application

  19. A simple fluorescence-based assay for quantification of the Toll-Like Receptor agonist E6020 in vaccine formulations.

    PubMed

    Pollet, Jeroen; Versteeg, Leroy; Rezende, Wanderson; Strych, Ulrich; Gusovsky, Fabian; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2017-03-07

    Despite the generally accepted immunostimulatory effect of Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) agonists and their value as vaccine adjuvants, there remains a demand for fast and easy quantification assays for these TLR4 agonists in order to accelerate and improve vaccine formulation studies. A new medium-throughput method was developed for the quantification of the TLR4 agonist, E6020, independent of the formulation composition. The assay uses a fluorescent hydrazide (DCCH) to label the synthetic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) analog E6020 through its diketone groups. This novel, low-cost, and fluorescence based assay may obviate the need for traditional approaches that primarily rely on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) or mass spectrometry. The experiments were performed in a wide diversity of vaccine formulations containing E6020 to assess method robustness and accuracy. The assay was also expanded to evaluate the loading efficiency of E6020 in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) micro-particles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Screening for IgG antinuclear autoantibodies by HEp-2 indirect fluorescent antibody assays and the need for standardization.

    PubMed

    Copple, Susan S; Giles, S Rashelle; Jaskowski, Troy D; Gardiner, Anna E; Wilson, Andrew M; Hill, Harry R

    2012-05-01

    We evaluated 5 commercially available HEp-2 antinuclear antibody (ANA) indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) assays using patient serum samples from 45 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 50 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 35 with scleroderma, 20 with Sjögren syndrome, 10 with polymyositis, and 100 healthy control subjects. In addition, 12 defined serum samples from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and 100 patient serum samples sent to ARUP Laboratories (Salt Lake City, UT) for ANA IFA testing were also examined (n = 372). Standardization among the HEp-2 IFA assays occurred when they exhibited the same titer ± 1 doubling dilution. Agreement of the 5 assays was 78%. Within the specific groups of serum samples, agreement ranged from 44% in scleroderma serum samples to 93% in healthy control subjects, with 72% agreement in the SLE group. Variations in slide and substrate quality were also noted (ie, clarity, consistency of fluorescence, cell size, number and quality of mitotic cells). Along with subjectivity of interpretation, HEp-2 IFA assays are also vulnerable to standardization issues similar to other methods for ANA screening.

  1. Solid-phase receptor-based assay for the detection of cyclic imines by chemiluminescence, fluorescence, or colorimetry.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Laura P; Vilariño, Natalia; Molgó, Jordi; Aráoz, Rómulo; Antelo, Alvaro; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Botana, Luis M

    2011-08-01

    The spirolides and gymnodimines are marine phycotoxins included in the group of cyclic imines. The toxicity of these compounds to humans is still unknown, although their toxicity by intraperitoneal injection in rodents is very high. A receptor-based method was developed using the competition of the 13-desmethyl spirolide C with biotin-labeled α-bungarotoxin for binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and the immobilization of the α-bungarotoxin-receptor complex on streptavidin-coated surfaces. The quantification of the immobilized receptor can be achieved using a specific antibody. Finally, after the addition of a secondary antibody labeled with horseradish peroxidase, three alternative substrates of this enzyme generate a chemiluminescent, fluorescent, or colorimetric signal. The assay performs well in shellfish extracts and the detection range is 5-150 nM of 13-desmethyl spirolide C in shellfish extracts, which is at least 5 times more sensitive than the existing fluorescence polarization assay. This assay can also detect gymnodimine, although with 10 times lower sensitivity than the spirolide. The detection of cyclic imines with microplate assays would be useful for screening purposes in order to reduce the number of samples to be processed by bioassays or analytical methods.

  2. Fluorescence-based quantitative scratch wound healing assay demonstrating the role of MAPKAPK-2/3 in fibroblast migration.

    PubMed

    Menon, Manoj B; Ronkina, Natalia; Schwermann, Jessica; Kotlyarov, Alexey; Gaestel, Matthias

    2009-12-01

    The scratch wound healing assay is a sensitive method to characterize cell proliferation and migration, but it is difficult to be quantitatively evaluated. Therefore, we developed an infrared fluorescence detection-based real-time assay for sensitive and accurate quantification of cell migration in vitro. The method offers sensitivity, simplicity, and the potential for integration into automated large-scale screening studies. A live cell staining lipophilic tracer-1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethyl indotricarbocyanine iodide (DiR)-is used for accurate imaging of wound closure in a simple 96-well scratch assay. Scratches are made on prestained confluent cell monolayers using a pipette tip and scanned at different time intervals using a fluorescent scanner. Images are analyzed using Image J software and the migration index is calculated. Effect of cell number, time after scratch and software settings are analyzed. The method is validated by showing concentration- and time-dependent effects of cytochalasin-D on fibroblast migration. Using this assay, we quantitatively evaluate the role of the MAPK-activated protein kinases MK2 and MK3 in fibroblast migration. First, the migratory phenotype of MK2-deficient MEFs is analyzed in a retroviral rescue model. In addition, migration of MK2/3-double-deficient cells is determined and the ability of MK3 to rescue cell migration in MK2/3-double-deficient fibroblasts is demonstrated.

  3. High-throughput fluorescence polarization assay for chemical library screening against anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bfl-1.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Dayong; Godoi, Paulo; Sergienko, Eduard; Dahl, Russell; Chan, Xochella; Brown, Brock; Rascon, Justin; Hurder, Andrew; Su, Ying; Chung, Thomas D Y; Jin, Chaofang; Diaz, Paul; Reed, John C

    2012-03-01

    Overexpression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins occurs commonly in human cancers. Bfl-1 is highly expressed in some types of malignant cells, contributing significantly to tumor cell survival and chemoresistance. Therefore, it would be desirable to have chemical antagonists of Bfl-1. To this end, we devised a fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) using Bfl-1 protein and fluorescein-conjugated Bid BH3 peptide, which was employed for high-throughput screening of chemical libraries. Approximately 66 000 compounds were screened for the ability to inhibit BH3 peptide binding to Bfl-1, yielding 14 reproducible hits with ≥50% displacement. After dose-response analysis and confirmation using a secondary assay based on time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET), two groups of Bfl-1-specific inhibitors were identified, including chloromaleimide and sulfonylpyrimidine series compounds. FPAs generated for each of the six anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins demonstrated selective binding of both classes of compounds to Bfl-1. Analogs of the sulfonylpyrimidine series were synthesized and compared with the original hit for Bfl-1 binding by both FPAs and TR-FRET assays. The resulting structure-activity relation analysis led to the chemical probe compound CID-2980973 (ML042). Collectively, these findings demonstrate the feasibility of using the HTS assay for discovery of selective chemical inhibitors of Bfl-1.

  4. Planar Supported Membranes with Mobile SNARE Proteins and Quantitative Fluorescence Microscopy Assays to Study Synaptic Vesicle Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Kiessling, Volker; Liang, Binyong; Kreutzberger, Alex J. B.; Tamm, Lukas K.

    2017-01-01

    Synaptic vesicle membrane fusion, the process by which neurotransmitter gets released at the presynaptic membrane is mediated by a complex interplay between proteins and lipids. The realization that the lipid bilayer is not just a passive environment where other molecular players like SNARE proteins act, but is itself actively involved in the process, makes the development of biochemical and biophysical assays particularly challenging. We summarize in vitro assays that use planar supported membranes and fluorescence microscopy to address some of the open questions regarding the molecular mechanisms of SNARE-mediated membrane fusion. Most of the assays discussed in this mini-review were developed in our lab over the last 15 years. We emphasize the sample requirements that we found are important for the successful application of these methods. PMID:28360838

  5. Advantages of time-resolved fluorescent nanobeads compared with fluorescent submicrospheres, quantum dots, and colloidal gold as label in lateral flow assays for detection of ractopamine.

    PubMed

    Hu, Li-Ming; Luo, Kai; Xia, Jun; Xu, Guo-Mao; Wu, Cheng-Hui; Han, Jiao-Jiao; Zhang, Gang-Gang; Liu, Miao; Lai, Wei-Hua

    2017-05-15

    Label selection is a critical factor for improving the sensitivity of lateral flow assay. Time-resolved fluorescent nanobeads, fluorescent submicrospheres, quantum dots, and colloidal gold-based lateral flow assay (TRFN-LFA, FM-LFA, QD-LFA, and CG-LFA) were first systematically compared for the quantitative detection of ractopamine in swine urine based on competitive format. The limits of detection (LOD) of TRFN-LFA, FM-LFA, QD-LFA, and CG-LFA were 7.2, 14.7, 23.6, and 40.1pg/mL in swine urine samples, respectively. The sensitivity of TRFN-LFA was highest. In the quantitative determination of ractopamine (RAC) in swine urine samples, TRFN-LFA exhibited a wide linear range of 5pg/mL to 2500pg/mL with a reliable coefficient of correlation (R(2)=0.9803). Relatively narrow linear ranges of 10-500pg/mL (FM-LFA) and 25-2500pg/mL (QD-LFA and CG-LFA) were acquired. Approximately 0.005µg of anti-RAC poly antibody (pAb) was used in each TRFN-LFA test strip, whereas 0.02, 0.054, and 0.15µg of pAb were used in each of the FM-LFA, QD-LFA, and CG-LFA test strips, respectively. In addition, TRFN-LFA required the least RAC-BSA antigens and exhibited the shortest detection time compared with the other lateral flow assays. Analysis of the RAC in swine urine samples showed that the result of TRFN-LFA was consistent with that of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit.

  6. New high-performance liquid chromatography assay for glycosyltransferases based on derivatization with anthranilic acid and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Anumula, Kalyan Rao

    2012-07-01

    Assays were developed using the unique labeling chemistry of 2-aminobenzoic acid (2AA; anthranilic acid, AA) for measuring activities of both β1-4 galactosyltransferase (GalT-1) and α2-6 sialyltransferase (ST-6) by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (Anumula KR. 2006. Advances in fluorescence derivatization methods for high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of glycoprotein carbohydrates. Anal Biochem. 350:1-23). N-Acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and N-acetyllactosamine were used as acceptors and uridine diphosphate (UDP)-galactose and cytidine monophosphate (CMP)-N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA) as donors for GalT-1 and ST-6, respectively. Enzymatic products were labeled in situ with AA and were separated from the substrates on TSKgel Amide 80 column using normal-phase conditions. Enzyme units were determined from the peak areas by comparison with the concomitantly derivatized standards Gal-β1-4GlcNAc and NANA-α2-6 Gal-β1-4GlcNAc. Linearity (time and enzyme concentration), precision (intra- and interassay) and reproducibility for the assays were established. The assays were found to be useful in monitoring the enzyme activities during isolation and purification. The assays were highly sensitive and performed equal to or better than the traditional radioactive sugar-based measurements. The assay format can also be used for measuring the activity of other transferases, provided that the carbohydrate acceptors contain a reducing end for labeling. An assay for glycoprotein acceptors was developed using IgG. A short HPLC profiling method was developed for the separation of IgG glycans (biantennary G0, G1, G2, mono- and disialylated), which facilitated the determination of GalT-1 and ST-6 activities in a rapid manner. Furthermore, this profiling method should prove useful for monitoring the changes in IgG glycans in clinical settings.

  7. A high-throughput fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based endothelial cell apoptosis assay and its application for screening vascular disrupting agents

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Xiaoming; Fu, Afu; Luo, Kathy Qian

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An endothelial cell apoptosis assay using FRET-based biosensor was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fluorescence of the cells changed from green to blue during apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This method was developed into a high-throughput assay in 96-well plates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This assay was applied to screen vascular disrupting agents. -- Abstract: In this study, we developed a high-throughput endothelial cell apoptosis assay using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensor. After exposure to apoptotic inducer UV-irradiation or anticancer drugs such as paclitaxel, the fluorescence of the cells changed from green to blue. We developed this method into a high-throughput assay in 96-well plates by measuring the emission ratio of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) to cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) to monitor the activation of a key protease, caspase-3, during apoptosis. The Z Prime factor for this assay was above 0.5 which indicates that this assay is suitable for a high-throughput analysis. Finally, we applied this functional high-throughput assay for screening vascular disrupting agents (VDA) which could induce endothelial cell apoptosis from our in-house compounds library and dioscin was identified as a hit. As this assay allows real time and sensitive detection of cell apoptosis, it will be a useful tool for monitoring endothelial cell apoptosis in living cell situation and for identifying new VDA candidates via a high-throughput screening.

  8. A kinetic fluorescence assay reveals unusual features of Ca⁺⁺ uptake in Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Zipprer, Elizabeth M; Neggers, McKinzie; Kushwaha, Ambuj; Rayavara, Kempaiah; Desai, Sanjay A

    2014-05-18

    To facilitate development within erythrocytes, malaria parasites increase their host cell uptake of diverse solutes including Ca++. The mechanism and molecular basis of increased Ca++ permeability remains less well studied than that of other solutes. Based on an appropriate Ca++ affinity and its greater brightness than related fluorophores, Fluo-8 was selected and used to develop a robust fluorescence-based assay for Ca++ uptake by human erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum. Both uninfected and infected cells exhibited a large Ca++-dependent fluorescence signal after loading with the Fluo-8 dye. Probenecid, an inhibitor of erythrocyte organic anion transporters, abolished the fluorescence signal in uninfected cells; in infected cells, this agent increased fluorescence via mechanisms that depend on parasite genotype. Kinetic fluorescence measurements in 384-well microplates revealed that the infected cell Ca++ uptake is not mediated by the plasmodial surface anion channel (PSAC), a parasite nutrient channel at the host membrane; it also appears to be distinct from mammalian Ca++ channels. Imaging studies confirmed a low intracellular Ca++ in uninfected cells and higher levels in both the host and parasite compartments of infected cells. Parasite growth inhibition studies revealed a conserved requirement for extracellular Ca++. Nondestructive loading of Fluo-8 into human erythrocytes permits measurement of Ca++ uptake kinetics. The greater Ca++ permeability of cells infected with malaria parasites is apparent when probenecid is used to inhibit Fluo-8 efflux at the host membrane. This permeability is mediated by a distinct pathway and may be essential for intracellular parasite development. The miniaturized assay presented here should help clarify the precise transport mechanism and may identify inhibitors suitable for antimalarial drug development.

  9. Sequential bioluminescence resonance energy transfer-fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based ratiometric protease assays with fusion proteins of firefly luciferase and red fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Branchini, Bruce R; Rosenberg, Justin C; Ablamsky, Danielle M; Taylor, Kelsey P; Southworth, Tara L; Linder, Samantha J

    2011-07-15

    We report here the preparation of ratiometric luminescent probes that contain two well-separated emission peaks produced by a sequential bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)-fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) process. The probes are single soluble fusion proteins consisting of a thermostable firefly luciferase variant that catalyze yellow-green (560nm maximum) bioluminescence and a red fluorescent protein covalently labeled with a near-infrared fluorescent dye. The two proteins are connected by a decapeptide containing a protease recognition site specific for factor Xa, thrombin, or caspase 3. The rates of protease cleavage of the fusion protein substrates were monitored by recording emission spectra and plotting the change in peak ratios over time. Detection limits of 0.41nM for caspase 3, 1.0nM for thrombin, and 58nM for factor Xa were realized with a scanning fluorometer. Our results demonstrate for the first time that an efficient sequential BRET-FRET energy transfer process based on firefly luciferase bioluminescence can be employed to assay physiologically important protease activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhanced Sensitivity for Detection of HIV-1 p24 Antigen by a Novel Nuclease-Linked Fluorescence Oligonucleotide Assay

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Peihu; Li, Xiaojun; Su, Weiheng; Kong, Wei; Kong, Xianggui; Wang, Zhenxin; Wang, Youchun; Jiang, Chunlai; Gao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The relatively high detection limit of the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) prevents its application for detection of low concentrations of antigens. To increase the sensitivity for detection of HIV-1 p24 antigen, we developed a highly sensitive nuclease-linked fluorescence oligonucleotide assay (NLFOA). Two major improvements were incorporated in NLFOA to amplify antibody-antigen interaction signals and reduce the signal/noise ratio; a large number of nuclease molecules coupled to the gold nanoparticle/streptavidin complex and fluorescent signals generated from fluorescent-labeled oligonucleotides by the nuclease. The detection limit of p24 by NLFOA was 1 pg/mL, which was 10-fold more sensitive than the conventional ELISA (10 pg/mL). The specificity was 100% and the coefficient of variation (CV) was 7.8% at low p24 concentration (1.5 pg/mL) with various concentrations of spiked p24 in HIV-1 negative sera. Thus, NLFOA is highly sensitive, specific, reproducible and user-friendly. The more sensitive detection of low p24 concentrations in HIV-1-infected individuals by NLFOA could allow detection of HIV-1 infections that are missed by the conventional ELISA at the window period during acute infection to further reduce the risk for HIV-1 infection due to the undetected HIV-1 in the blood products. Moreover, NLFOA can be easily applied to more sensitive detection of other antigens. PMID:25915630

  11. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer from pyrene to perylene labels for nucleic acid hybridization assays under homogeneous solution conditions

    PubMed Central

    Masuko, Masayuki; Ohuchi, Shohkichi; Sode, Koji; Ohtani, Hiroyuki; Shimadzu, Akira

    2000-01-01

    We characterized the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from pyrene (donor) to perylene (acceptor) for nucleic acid assays under homogeneous solution conditions. We used the hybridization between a target 32mer and its complementary two sequential 16mer deoxyribonucleotides whose neighboring terminals were each respectively labeled with a pyrene and a perylene residue. A transfer efficiency of ~100% was attained upon the hybridization when observing perylene fluorescence at 459 nm with 347-nm excitation of a pyrene absorption peak. The Förster distance between two dye residues was 22.3 Å (the orientation factor of 2/3). We could change the distance between the residues by inserting various numbers of nucleotides into the center of the target, thus creating a gap between the dye residues on a hybrid. Assuming that the number of inserted nucleotides is proportional to the distance between the dye residues, the energy transfer efficiency versus number of inserted nucleotides strictly obeyed the Förster theory. The mean inter-nucleotide distance of the single-stranded portion was estimated to be 2.1 Å. Comparison between the fluorescent properties of a pyrene–perylene pair with those of a widely used fluorescein–rhodamine pair showed that the pyrene–perylene FRET is suitable for hybridization assays. PMID:10734211

  12. Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) Assay for Direct Visualization of Protein-Protein Interaction in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hsien-Tsung; Chiang, Cheng-Ming

    Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) assay is a method used to directly visualize protein-protein interaction in vivo using live-cell imaging or fixed cells. This protocol described here is based on our recent paper describing the functional association of human chromatin adaptor and transcription cofactor Brd4 with p53 tumor suppressor protein (Wu et al., 2013). BiFC was first described by Hu et al. (2002) using two non-fluorescent protein fragments of enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP), which is an Aequorea victoria GFP variant protein, fused respectively to a Rel family protein and a bZIP family transcription factor to investigate interactions between these two family members in living cells. The YFP was later improved by introducing mutations to reduce its sensitivity to pH and chloride ions, thus generating a super-enhanced YFP, named Venus fluorescent protein, without showing diminished fluorescence at 37 °C as typically observed with EYFP (Nagai et al., 2006). The fluorescence signal is regenerated by complementation of two non-fluorescent fragments (e.g., the Venus N-terminal 1-158 amino acid residues, called Venus-N, and its C-terminal 159-239 amino acid residues, named Venus-C; see Figure 1A and Gully et al., 2012; Ding et al., 2006; Kerppola, 2006) that are brought together by interaction between their respective fusion partners (e.g., Venus-N to p53, and Venus-C to the PDID domain of human Brd4; see Figure 1B and 1C). The intensity and cellular location of the regenerated fluorescence signals can be detected by fluorescence microscope. The advantages of the proximity-based BiFC assay are: first, it allows a direct visualization of spatial and temporal interaction between two partner proteins in vivo; second, the fluorescence signal provides a sensitive readout for detecting protein-protein interaction even at a low expression level comparable to that of the endogenous proteins; third, the intensity of the fluorescence signal is

  13. A fluorescent-based HPLC assay for quantification of cysteine and cysteamine adducts in Escherichia coli-derived proteins.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Brian D; Tam, Lei-Ting T; Lu, Hsieng S; Valladares, Violeta G

    2012-01-01

    Recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli are often produced as unfolded, inactive forms accumulated in inclusion bodies. Redox-coupled thiols are typically employed in the refolding process in order to catalyze the formation of correct disulfide bonds at maximal folding efficiency. These thiols and the recombinant proteins can form mixed disulfide bonds to generate thiol-protein adducts. In this work, we apply a fluorescent-based assay for the quantification of cysteine and cysteamine adducts as observed in E. coli-derived proteins. The thiols are released by reduction of the adducted protein, collected and labeled with a fluorescent reagent, 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate. The derivatized thiols are separated by reversed-phase HPLC and can be accurately quantified after method optimization. The estimated thiol content represents total amount of adducted forms present in the analyzed samples. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was established; specifically, the lowest amount of quantifiable cysteine adduction is 30 picograms and the lowest amount of quantifiable cysteamine adduction is 60 picograms. The assay is useful for quantification of adducts in final purified products as well as in-process samples from various purification steps. The assay indicates that the purification process accomplishes a decrease in cysteine adduction from 0.19 nmol adduct/nmol protein to 0.03 nmol adduct/nmol protein as well as a decrease in cysteamine adduction from 0.24 nmol adduct/nmol protein to 0.14 nmol adduct/nmol protein.

  14. Kinetic studies of Escherichia coli AlkB using a new fluorescence-based assay for DNA demethylation.

    PubMed

    Roy, Todd W; Bhagwat, A S

    2007-01-01

    The Escherichia coli AlkB protein catalyzes the direct reversal of alkylation damage to DNA; primarily 1-methyladenine (1mA) and 3-methylcytosine (3mC) lesions created by endogenous or environmental alkylating agents. AlkB is a member of the non-heme iron (II) alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase superfamily, which removes the alkyl group through oxidation eliminating a methyl group as formaldehyde. We have developed a fluorescence-based assay for the dealkylation activity of this family of enzymes. It uses formaldehyde dehydrogenase to convert formaldehyde to formic acid and monitors the creation of an NADH analog using fluorescence. This assay is a great improvement over the existing assays for DNA demethylation in that it is continuous, rapid and does not require radioactively labeled material. It may also be used to study other demethylation reactions including demethylation of histones. We used it to determine the kinetic constants for AlkB and found them to be somewhat different than previously reported values. The results show that AlkB demethylates 1mA and 3mC with comparable efficiencies and has only a modest preference for a single-stranded DNA substrate over its double-stranded DNA counterpart.

  15. An improved high-throughput Nile red fluorescence assay for estimating intracellular lipids in a variety of yeast species

    PubMed Central

    Sitepu, I.R.; Ignatia, L.; Franz, A. K.; Wong, D. M.; Faulina, S.A.; Tsui, M.; Kanti, A.; Boundy-Mills, K.

    2012-01-01

    A rapid and inexpensive method for estimating lipid content of yeasts is needed for screening large numbers of yeasts samples. Nile red is a fluorescent lipophilic dye used for detection and quantification of intracellular lipid droplets in various biological system including algae, yeasts and filamentous fungi. However, a published assay for yeast is affected by variable diffusion across the cell membrane, and variation in the time required to reach maximal fluorescence emission. In this study, parameters that may influence the emission were varied to determine optimal assay conditions. An improved assay with a high-throughput capability was developed that includes the addition of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent to improve cell permeability, elimination of the washing step, the reduction of Nile red concentration, kinetic readings rather than single time-point reading, and utilization of a black 96-well microplate. The improved method was validated by comparison to gravimetric determination of lipid content of a broad variety of ascomycete and basidiomycete yeast species. PMID:22985718

  16. A Fluorescence Polarization Assay for Binding to Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and Crystal Structures for Complexes of Two Potent Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Human macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is both a keto–enol tautomerase and a cytokine associated with numerous inflammatory diseases and cancer. Consistent with observed correlations between inhibition of the enzymatic and biological activities, discovery of MIF inhibitors has focused on monitoring the tautomerase activity using l-dopachrome methyl ester or 4-hydroxyphenyl pyruvic acid as substrates. The accuracy of these assays is compromised by several issues including substrate instability, spectral interference, and short linear periods for product formation. In this work, we report the syntheses of fluorescently labeled MIF inhibitors and their use in the first fluorescence polarization-based assay to measure the direct binding of inhibitors to the active site. The assay allows the accurate and efficient identification of competitive, noncompetitive, and covalent inhibitors of MIF in a manner that can be scaled for high-throughput screening. The results for 22 compounds show that the most potent MIF inhibitors bind with Kd values of ca. 50 nM; two are from our laboratory, and the other is a compound from the patent literature. X-ray crystal structures for two of the most potent compounds bound to MIF are also reported here. Striking combinations of protein–ligand hydrogen bonding, aryl–aryl, and cation−π interactions are responsible for the high affinities. A new chemical series was then designed using this knowledge to yield two more strong MIF inhibitors/binders. PMID:27299179

  17. Simultaneous quantification of five bacterial and plant toxins from complex matrices using a multiplexed fluorescent magnetic suspension assay.

    PubMed

    Pauly, Diana; Kirchner, Sebastian; Stoermann, Britta; Schreiber, Tanja; Kaulfuss, Stefan; Schade, Rüdiger; Zbinden, Reto; Avondet, Marc-André; Dorner, Martin B; Dorner, Brigitte G

    2009-10-01

    Proteotoxins such as ricin, abrin, botulinum neurotoxins type A and B (BoNT/A, BoNT/B) and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) are regarded as potential biological warfare agents which could be used for bioterrorism attacks on the food chain. In this study we used a novel immunisation strategy to generate high-affinity monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against native ricin, BoNT/A, and BoNT/B. The antibodies were used along with antibodies against SEB and abrin to establish a highly sensitive magnetic and fluorescent multiplex bead array with excellent sensitivities between 2 ng/L and 546 ng/L from a minimal sample volume of 50 microL. The assay was validated using 20 different related analytes and the assay precision was determined. Advancing the existing bead array technology, the novel magnetic and fluorescent microbeads proved amenable to enrichment procedures, by further increasing sensitivity to 0.3-85 ng/L, starting from a sample volume of 500 microL. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied for the simultaneous identification of the target toxins spiked into complex food matrices like milk, baby food and yoghurt. On the basis of our results, the assay appears to be a good tool for large-scale screening of samples from the food supply chain.

  18. Interference of low-molecular substances with the thioflavin-T fluorescence assay of amyloid fibrils.

    PubMed

    Noormägi, Andra; Primar, Kateryna; Tõugu, Vello; Palumaa, Peep

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal fibrillization of amyloidogenic peptides/proteins has been linked to various neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease as well as with type-II diabetes mellitus. The kinetics of protein fibrillization is commonly studied by using a fluorescent dye Thioflavin T (ThT) that binds to protein fibrils and exerts increased fluorescence intensity in bound state. Recently, it has been demonstrated that several low-molecular weight compounds like Basic Blue 41, Basic Blue 12, Azure C, and Tannic acid interfere with the fluorescence of ThT bound to Alzheimers' amyloid-β fibrils and cause false positive results during the screening of fibrillization inhibitors. In the current study, we demonstrated that the same selected substances also decrease the fluorescence signal of ThT bound to insulin fibrils already at submicromolar or micromolar concentrations. Kinetic experiments show that unlike to true inhibitors, these compounds did neither decrease the fibrillization rate nor increase the lag-period. Absence of soluble insulin in the end of the experiment confirmed that these compounds do not disaggregate the insulin fibrils and, thus, are not fibrillization inhibitors at concentrations studied. Our results show that interference with ThT test is a general phenomenon and more attention has to be paid to interpretation of kinetic results of protein fibrillization obtained by using fluorescent dyes.

  19. Determination of the drug-DNA binding modes using fluorescence-based assays.

    PubMed

    Williams, Alicia K; Dasilva, Sofia Cheliout; Bhatta, Ankit; Rawal, Baibhav; Liu, Melinda; Korobkova, Ekaterina A

    2012-03-15

    Therapeutic drugs and environmental pollutants may exhibit high reactivity toward DNA bases and backbone. Understanding the mechanisms of drug-DNA binding is crucial for predicting their potential genotoxicity. We developed a fluorescence analytical method for the determination of the preferential binding mode for drug-DNA interactions. Two nucleic acid dyes were employed in the method: TO-PRO-3 iodide (TP3) and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). TP3 binds DNA by intercalation, whereas DAPI exhibits minor groove binding. Both dyes exhibit significant fluorescence magnification on binding to DNA. We evaluated the DNA binding constant, K(b), for each dye. We also performed fluorescence quenching experiments with 11 molecules of various structures and measured a C(50) value for each compound. We determined preferential binding modes for the aforementioned molecules and found that they bound to DNA consistently, as indicated by other studies. The values of the likelihood of DNA intercalation were correlated with the partition coefficients of the molecules. In addition, we performed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of the interactions with calf thymus DNA for the three molecules. The results were consistent with the fluorescence method described above. Thus, we conclude that the fluorescence method we developed provides a reliable determination of the likelihoods of the two different DNA binding modes.

  20. Selective turn-on fluorescence assay of 6-thioguanine by using harmine-modified silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Amjadi, Mohammad; Farzampour, Leila

    2014-09-01

    This article reports on a novel fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) system between harmine and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), in which harmine acts as the donor and AgNPs act as the acceptor. As a result of FRET, harmine fluorescence is quenched efficiently with a corresponding Stern-Volmer constant of 3.61 × 10(11)  L/mol. It was found that upon addition of the anticancer drug, 6-thioguanine (6-TG), the fluorescence was recovered due to the competitive adsorption of this compound onto AgNPs. Based on this effect, a selective turn-on fluorescence sensor was developed for the determination of 6-TG. Under optimum conditions, the enhanced fluorescence intensity displays a linear relationship with the concentration of 6-TG in the range 1.5 × 10(-8) -7.5 × 10(-7)  M with a detection limit of 9.7 nM. The developed method was applied to the determination of this drug in a pharmaceutical preparation and human plasma samples. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Effect of lateral mobility of fluorescent probes in lipid mixing assays of cell fusion.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, S K; Cheng, M; Hui, S W

    1990-01-01

    Monolayers of human erythrocytes, immobilized on a cover slip, were induced to fuse by polyethylene glycol (mol wt 8,000). The mobility of fluorescent probes, 1-oleoyl-2-[12-[(7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadizol-4-yl)amino]dodecanoyl] phosphatidyl-choline (C12-NBD-PC), from labeled cells to unlabeled cells was monitored by video-enhanced fluorescence microscopy. A dequenching curve was obtained from the measurement of fluorescence intensities of pairs of fused cells over time. The dequenching curve and the curve obtained from macroscopic measurements of a cell monolayer (described in the preceding article) were compared and discussed. The slow probe transfer rate between a pair of fused cells was explained by a diffusion model based on membrane area conservation and the geometry of the fusion lumen. An equivalent lumen between two fused cells, thought to be the main rate limitation of probe mobility after fusion, was calculated to be approximately 130 nm in diameter. Lumens of 75 nm in diameter were observed by electron microscopy. Thus, the rate of macroscopic fluorescence dequenching depends not only upon the fusion efficiency, but also upon the number of simultaneous fusion partners, the geometry of their contact points, and the lateral mobility of the fluorescent probes through these points. The relative fusion efficiency can be derived only from the saturation dequenching values. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 PMID:2291938

  2. Proteinase assay by capillary electrophoresis employing fluorescence-quenched protein-dye conjugates.

    PubMed

    Welder, Frank; McCorquodale, Elizabeth Moody; Colyer, Christa L

    2002-06-01

    Determination of proteinases--enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of peptide bonds--is often difficult due to the presence of interferences in complex biological media and limited sample size. Capillary electrophoresis (CE), with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) can serve as a useful tool for such determinations. LIF detection offers the advantages of increased sensitivity and increased selectivity. However, direct LIF detection requires the proteinase analyte to be fluorescently derivatized prior to analysis. A viable alternative is offered by the present work, in which protein substrates are first labeled with BODIPY dye, a relatively pH-insensitive, high-fluorescence quantum yield dye. Upon binding of some 4-10 molecules of dye to a single protein, the dye is effectively fluorescence-quenched. Digestion of the BODIPY--labeled and quenched protein by an unlabeled enzyme yields smaller peptide fragments in which the fluorescence of associated BODIPY tags is restored. We will present how the fragmentation pattern of BODIPY-labeled casein changes as a function of incubation time with trypsin, as well as the effect of varying concentrations of trypsin on the BODIPY-casein digest.

  3. Fluorescence assay based on preconcentration by a self-ordered ring using berberine as a model analyte.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Huang, Cheng Zhi; Li, Yuan Fang

    2002-11-01

    A novel assay for trace amounts of fluorescent analytes is proposed based on the assembly of a self-ordered ring (SOR) through capillary flow in a sessile droplet on a glass slide support. After solvent evaporation of the sessile droplet containing a fluorescent analyte on a hydrophobic-treated glass slide, an outward capillary flow of the solvent from the interior of the droplet occurs. The resultant outward capillary flow then carries the analyte to the perimeter of the droplet spot where the analyte deposits and forms a fluorescent SOR. For the model analyte of berberine, SORs with outer diameter less than 1.2 mm and ring belt width less than 19 microm can be obtained depending on the droplet volume of the berberine solution. Data analysis for the digitally imaged SOR by using a CCD camera showed that the berberine molecules across the SOR belt section follow a Gaussian distribution, and the maximum fluorescent intensity (Imax) was found to be proportional to berberine content at the femtomole level. With the proposed technique, the content in tablets and the average excretion rates of berberine through human urine after oral administration could be satisfactorily monitored.

  4. Combination of DNA ligase reaction and gold nanoparticle-quenched fluorescent oligonucleotides: a simple and efficient approach for fluorescent assaying of single-nucleotide polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Li, Jishan; Wang, Yongxiang; Jin, Jiangyu; Yang, Ronghua; Wang, Kemin; Tan, Weihong

    2010-09-15

    A new fluorescent sensing approach for detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is proposed based on the ligase reaction and gold nanoparticle (AuNPs)-quenched fluorescent oligonucleotides. The design exploits the strong fluorescence quenching of AuNPs for organic dyes and the difference in noncovalent interactions of the nanoparticles with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), where ssDNA can be adsorbed onto the surface of AuNPs while dsDNA cannot be. In the assay, two half primer DNA probes, one being labeled with a dye and the other being phosphorylated, were first incubated with a target DNA template. In the presence of DNA ligase, the two captured ssDNAs are linked for the perfectly matched DNA target to form a stable duplex, but the duplex could not be formed by the single-base mismatched DNA template. After addition of AuNPs, the fluorescence of dye-tagged DNA probe will be efficiently quenched unless the perfectly matched DNA target is present. To demonstrate the feasibility of this design, the performance of SNP detection using two different DNA ligases, T4 DNA ligase and Escherichia coli DNA ligase, were investigated. In the case of T4 DNA ligase, the signal enhancement of the dye-tagged DNA for perfectly matched DNA target is 4.6-fold higher than that for the single-base mismatched DNA. While in the presence of E. coli DNA ligase, the value raises to be 30.2, suggesting excellent capability for SNP discrimination.

  5. Evaluation of a novel real-time fluorescent polymerase chain reaction assay for high-risk human papilloma virus DNA genotypes in cytological cervical screening.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jiaoying; Bian, Meilu; Cong, Xiao; Sun, Aiping; Li, Min; Ma, Li; Chen, Ying; Liu, Jun

    2013-03-01

    It has been confirmed that detection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) DNA is useful in cervical cancer (CC) screening. Recently, a new real-time fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to detect HR HPV. This assay can synchronize nucleic acid amplification and testing using specific primers for 13 types of HR HPV genomes, combined with specific TaqMan fluorescent marker probe techniques through the fluorescence automatic PCR instrument. Furthermore, it uses TaqGold™ DNA polymerase, which minimizes the amount of non-specific amplification and increases the sensitivity of the assay. The aim of this study was to evaluate the analytical and clinical performance of the real-time fluorescent PCR assay in CC screening, compared to the Qiagen Hybrid Capture(®) II High-Risk HPV DNA test(®) (HC II). In total, 1,252 cervical specimens were collected from women between 19 and 71 years of age. The specimens were examined with three different assays, real-time fluorescent PCR assay and HC II for HR HPV detection combined with liquid-based cytology. Women with cytological abnormalities or HR HPV-positive results underwent colposcopy and cervical biopsy. This study demonstrated good overall agreement between HC II and real-time fluorescent PCR assay (overall agreement, 92.25%; Cohen's κ=0.814). For the detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) and CC, the sensitivity of HC II and real-time fluorescent PCR was 94.48 and 92.82%, respectively, and the negative predictive value was 98.85 and 98.54%, respectively. High HR HPV infection rate of the high-grade CIN and CC group was detected (P<0.05). In conclusion, real-time fluorescent PCR assay provides similar results compared to the HC II test for HR HPV detection and could be used in CC screening in clinic.

  6. Evaluation of a novel real-time fluorescent polymerase chain reaction assay for high-risk human papilloma virus DNA genotypes in cytological cervical screening

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, JIAOYING; BIAN, MEILU; CONG, XIAO; SUN, AIPING; LI, MIN; MA, LI; CHEN, YING; LIU, JUN

    2013-01-01

    It has been confirmed that detection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) DNA is useful in cervical cancer (CC) screening. Recently, a new real-time fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to detect HR HPV. This assay can synchronize nucleic acid amplification and testing using specific primers for 13 types of HR HPV genomes, combined with specific TaqMan fluorescent marker probe techniques through the fluorescence automatic PCR instrument. Furthermore, it uses TaqGold™ DNA polymerase, which minimizes the amount of non-specific amplification and increases the sensitivity of the assay. The aim of this study was to evaluate the analytical and clinical performance of the real-time fluorescent PCR assay in CC screening, compared to the Qiagen Hybrid Capture® II High-Risk HPV DNA test® (HC II). In total, 1,252 cervical specimens were collected from women between 19 and 71 years of age. The specimens were examined with three different assays, real-time fluorescent PCR assay and HC II for HR HPV detection combined with liquid-based cytology. Women with cytological abnormalities or HR HPV-positive results underwent colposcopy and cervical biopsy. This study demonstrated good overall agreement between HC II and real-time fluorescent PCR assay (overall agreement, 92.25%; Cohen’s κ=0.814). For the detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) and CC, the sensitivity of HC II and real-time fluorescent PCR was 94.48 and 92.82%, respectively, and the negative predictive value was 98.85 and 98.54%, respectively. High HR HPV infection rate of the high-grade CIN and CC group was detected (P<0.05). In conclusion, real-time fluorescent PCR assay provides similar results compared to the HC II test for HR HPV detection and could be used in CC screening in clinic. PMID:24648936

  7. Bisubstrate fluorescent probes and biosensors in binding assays for HTS of protein kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Uri, Asko; Lust, Marje; Vaasa, Angela; Lavogina, Darja; Viht, Kaido; Enkvist, Erki

    2010-03-01

    Conjugates of adenosine mimics and d-arginine-rich peptides (ARCs) are potent inhibitors of protein kinases (PKs) from the AGC group. Labeling ARCs with fluorescent dyes or immobilizing on chip surfaces gives fluorescent probes (ARC-Photo) and biosensors that can be used for high-throughput screening (HTS) of inhibitors of protein kinases. The bisubstrate character (simultaneous association with both binding sites of the kinase) and high affinity of ARCs allow ARC-based probes and sensors to be used for characterization of inhibitors targeted to either binding site of the kinase with affinities in whole nanomolar to micromolar range. The ability to penetrate cell plasma membrane and bind to the target kinase fused with a fluorescent protein leads to the possibility to use ARC-Photo probes for high content screening (HCS) of inhibitors in cellular milieu with detection of intensity of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between two fluorophores.

  8. Aptamer-Based Single-Step Assay by the Fluorescence Enhancement on Electroless Plated Nano Au Substrate.

    PubMed

    Nambi Krishnan, Jegatha; Park, Sang-Hwi; Kim, Sang Kyung

    2017-09-07

    A new single-step aptamer-based surface-enhanced fluorescent optical sensor is built, by combining an aptamer-target interaction for target recognition and a fluorophore interaction for signal enhancement. The developed aptasensor is simple, sensitive, specific and stable for the detection of thrombin. A new nanometallic Au structure in the range of 100 nm was constructed through effective electroless plating method on a Cu thin film. Cu⁺ ions act as sacrificial seeds for the reduction of Au(2+/3+) ions to form Au nanolawns. In order to utilize the structure for a fluorescence-based sensor, aptamer conjugated with Cy3 was immobilized on the nanogold substrate through electrostatic attraction. The Au substrate was coated with chitosan (molecular weight 1000 Da). Thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) was applied as a model system demonstrating the aptamer-based fluorescence assay on nanogold substrates. Thrice-enhanced fluorescence emission was achieved with Cy3-conjugated TBA stably immobilized on the chitosan-coated Au substrate. The intensity change was proportional to the concentration of thrombin from 10 μM to 10 pM, whereas the intensity change was ignorable for other proteins such as human serum albumin (HSA). Aptamer-based assay benefited from simple immobilization of receptors and Au nanostructure contributed in building an effective surface enhancing/positively charged substrate was proved. Such an aptasensor holding high utilities for point-of-care devices by incorporating simplicity, sensitivity and selectivity in detection, low-cost for test, small sample volumes has been developed.

  9. A fluorescence-based hydrolytic enzyme activity assay for quantifying toxic effects of Roundup® to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Ørsted, Michael; Roslev, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Daphnia magna is a widely used model organism for aquatic toxicity testing. In the present study, the authors investigated the hydrolytic enzyme activity of D. magna after exposure to toxicant stress. In vivo enzyme activity was quantified using 15 fluorogenic enzyme probes based on 4-methylumbelliferyl or 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin. Probing D. magna enzyme activity was evaluated using short-term exposure (24-48 h) to the reference chemical K2 Cr2 O7 or the herbicide formulation Roundup®. Toxicant-induced changes in hydrolytic enzyme activity were compared with changes in mobility (International Organization for Standardization standard 6341). The results showed that hydrolytic enzyme activity was quantifiable as a combination of whole body fluorescence of D. magna and the fluorescence of the surrounding water. Exposure of D. magna to lethal and sublethal concentrations of Roundup resulted in loss of whole body enzyme activity and release of cell constituents, including enzymes and DNA. Roundup caused comparable inhibition of mobility and alkaline phosphatase activity with median effective concentration values at 20 °C of 8.7 mg active ingredient (a.i.)/L to 11.7 mg a.i./L. Inhibition of alkaline phosphatase activity by Roundup was lowest at 14 °C and greater at 20 °C and 26 °C. The results suggest that the fluorescence-based hydrolytic enzyme activity assay (FLEA assay) can be used as an index of D. magna stress. Combining enzyme activity with fluorescence measurements may be applied as a simple and quantitative supplement for toxicity testing with D. magna.

  10. A Fluorescence Immunochromatographic Assay Using Europium (III) Chelate Microparticles for Rapid, Quantitative and Sensitive Detection of Creatine Kinase MB.

    PubMed

    Lai, Xiao-Hong; Liang, Rong-Liang; Liu, Tian-Cai; Dong, Zhi-Ning; Wu, Ying-Song; Li, Lin-Hai

    2016-05-01

    The isoenzyme creatine kinase MB is very important for diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Some CK-MB immunoassays are sensitive, accurate and available for clinical application, but they are expensive and time-consuming procedures. Furthermore, conventional fluorescence immunochromatographic assays (FL-ICAs) have suffered from background fluorescence interference and low analytical sensitivity. A rapid and simple FL-ICA with Eu (III) chelate polystyrene microparticles was developed to determine CK-MB in 50uL serum samples using a portable test strip reader by measuring the fluorescence peak heights of the test line (HT) and the control line (HC) in 12 min. The assay was reliable with a good correlation coefficient between HT/HC ratio and CK-MB concentration in samples. A linear range was 0.85-100.29 ng/mL for CK-MB, and the LOD was 0.029 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CV) were both <10 % and the average recoveries were from 90.17 % -112.63 % for CK-MB. The system performed well in interference experiments. Furthermore, a highly significant correlation (r = 0.9794, P < 0.001) between this method and the commercially available bioMérieux mini VIDAS system were attained for measuring 120 CK-MB samples. These results indicated that the Eu (III) chelate microparticles-based FL-ICA is simple, fast, highly sensitive, reliable, and reproducible for point-of-care testing of CK-MB concentrations in serum. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  11. Fluorescent Single-Stranded DNA Binding Protein as a Probe for Sensitive, Real-Time Assays of Helicase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Dillingham, Mark S.; Tibbles, Katherine L.; Hunter, Jackie L.; Bell, Jason C.; Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.; Webb, Martin R.

    2008-01-01

    The formation and maintenance of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) are essential parts of many processes involving DNA. For example, strand separation of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) is catalyzed by helicases, and this exposure of the bases on the DNA allows further processing, such as replication, recombination, or repair. Assays of helicase activity and probes for their mechanism are essential for understanding related biological processes. Here we describe the development and use of a fluorescent probe to measure ssDNA formation specifically and in real time, with high sensitivity and time resolution. The reagentless biosensor is based on the ssDNA binding protein (SSB) from Escherichia coli, labeled at a specific site with a coumarin fluorophore. Its use in the study of DNA manipulations involving ssDNA intermediates is demonstrated in assays for DNA unwinding, catalyzed by DNA helicases. PMID:18599625

  12. Quantification of mucosal mononuclear cells in tissues with a fluorescent bead-based polychromatic flow cytometry assay.

    PubMed

    Reeves, R Keith; Evans, Tristan I; Gillis, Jacqueline; Wong, Fay E; Connole, Michelle; Carville, Angela; Johnson, R Paul

    2011-03-31

    Since the vast majority of infections occur at mucosal surfaces, accurate characterization of mucosal immune cells is critically important for understanding transmission and control of infectious diseases. Standard flow cytometric analysis of cells obtained from mucosal tissues can provide valuable information on the phenotype of mucosal leukocytes and their relative abundance, but does not provide absolute cell counts of mucosal cell populations. We developed a bead-based flow cytometry assay to determine the absolute numbers of multiple mononuclear cell types in colorectal biopsies of rhesus macaques. Using 10-color flow cytometry panels and pan-fluorescent beads, cells were enumerated in biopsy specimens by adding a constant ratio of beads per mg of tissue and then calculating cell numbers/mg of tissue based on cell-to-bead ratios determined at the time of sample acquisition. Testing in duplicate specimens showed the assay to be highly reproducible (Spearman R=0.9476, P<0.0001). Using this assay, we report enumeration of total CD45(+) leukocytes, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, B cells, NK cells, CD14(+) monocytes, and myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells in colorectal biopsies, with cell numbers in normal rhesus macaques varying from medians of 4486 cells/mg (T cells) to 3 cells/mg (plasmacytoid dendritic cells). This assay represents a significant advancement in rapid, accurate quantification of mononuclear cell populations in mucosal tissues and could be applied to provide absolute counts of a variety of different cell populations in diverse tissues.

  13. Microplate fluorescence protease assays test the inhibition of select North American snake venoms' activities with an anti-proteinase library.

    PubMed

    Price, Joseph A

    2015-09-01

    Snake envenomation is a relatively neglected significant world health problem, designated an orphan disease by the WHO. While often effective, antivenins are insufficient. Could another approach greatly aid inhibition of the venom toxins? New fluorescent substrates for measuring protease activity in microplate assays suitable for high throughput screening were tested and found reproducible with snake venom. Representative North American venoms showed relatively strong proteinase and collagenase, but weaker elastase activities. Caseinolytic activity is inhibited by the nonspecific proteinase inhibitor 1,10-phenanthroline and by EDTA, as is collagenase activity, consistent with the action of metalloproteinases. Both general protease and collagenase assays CV average 3%, and Km measured were above normal working conditions. Using a library of anti -proteinase compounds with multiple venoms revealed high inhibitor activity by three agents with known multiple metalloproteinase inhibitor activity (Actinonin, GM6001, and NNGH), which incidentally supports the concept that much of the degradative activity of certain venoms is due to metalloproteinases with collagenase activity. These results together support the use of microplate proteinase assays, particularly this collagenase assay, in future drug repurposing studies leading to the development of new treatments for those envenomations that have a major proteolytic component in their pathophysiology.

  14. Development of a fluorescent microsphere-based multiplexed high-throughput assay system for profiling of transcription factor activation.

    PubMed

    Yaoi, Takuro; Jiang, Xin; Li, Xianqiang

    2006-06-01

    Transcription factors (TFs), which play crucial roles in the regulation of gene expression in the human genome, are highly regulated by a variety of mechanisms. A single extracellular stimulus can trigger multiple signaling pathways, and these in turn can activate multiple TFs to mediate the inducible expression of target genes. Alterations in the activities of TFs are often associated with human diseases, such as altered activating factor 1, estrogen receptor, and p53 function in cancer, nuclear factor kappaB in inflammatory diseases, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in obesity. A systematic assay for profiling the activation of TFs will aid in elucidating the mechanisms of TF activation, reveal altered TFs associated with human diseases, and aid in developing assays for drug discovery. Here, we developed a 24-plex fluorescent microsphere-based TF activation assay system with a 96-well plate format. The assay system enabled high-throughput profiling of the DNA binding activity of TFs in multiple samples with high sensitivity.

  15. Fluorescence polarization binding assay to develop inhibitors of inactive p38alpha mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Lenka; Selig, Roland; Yeung, Yiu To; Peifer, Christian; Hauser, Dominik; Laufer, Stefan

    2010-06-01

    Development of inhibitors that target inactive kinase conformations is becoming a more attractive approach to kinase inhibitor research. The major advantage of this methodology is that targeting the inactive conformation reduces competition with high intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentrations. p38alpha Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling has been identified as the principal mediator of inflammation associated with a spectrum of disorders (e.g., arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, various malignancies). To allow identification and development of p38alpha MAPK inhibitors that preferentially bind to the inactive conformation, a novel fluorescence polarization-based binding assay is presented. The assay is homogeneous, requires low amounts of the kinase and fluoroprobe, and does not rely on radioactivity. It may, therefore, offer an inexpensive alternative to current p38alpha MAPK inhibitor screening methods. The validation of the system with known p38alpha MAPK inhibitors confirmed that the binding assay, rather than the conventional enzyme activity assay, correlates with cellular efficacy. Finally, we show that pyridinyl imidazoles that potently bind to the inactive p38alpha MAPK prevent activation of p38 MAPK in living cells, suggesting that pyridinyl imidazoles other than SB203580 are able to induce the DFG-out conformation that is incompatible with activation (where DFG is a single-letter amino acid code for the aspartate-phenylalanine-glycine sequence at the start of the activation loop). Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Homogeneous time-resolved G protein-coupled receptor-ligand binding assay based on fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Antoine, Thomas; Ott, David; Ebell, Katharina; Hansen, Kerrin; Henry, Luc; Becker, Frank; Hannus, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate many important physiological functions and are considered as one of the most successful therapeutic target classes for a wide spectrum of diseases. Drug discovery projects generally benefit from a broad range of experimental approaches for screening compound libraries and for the characterization of binding modes of drug candidates. Owing to the difficulties in solubilizing and purifying GPCRs, assay formats have been so far mainly limited to cell-based functional assays and radioligand binding assays. In this study, we used fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS) to analyze the interaction of detergent-solubilized receptors to various types of GPCR ligands: endogenous peptides, small molecules, and a large surrogate antagonist represented by a blocking monoclonal antibody. Our work demonstrates the suitability of the homogeneous and time-resolved FCCS assay format for a robust, high-throughput determination of receptor-ligand binding affinities and kinetic rate constants for various therapeutically relevant GPCRs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Detection of p16INK4a promoter methylation status in non-small cell lung cancer by a fluorescence polarization assay.

    PubMed

    Song, Zujun; Zhou, Rongbin; Li, Ding; Chen, Yanan; Liang, Ping; Liu, Wenchao; Zhang, Ju

    2011-09-01

    The detection of the p16INK4a promoter methylation status has a good value for the prognosis, early detection, and individualized management of patients with non-small cell lung cancer. A novel method detecting the p16INK4a promoter methylation status of primary carcinoma tissue samples by a fluorescence polarization assay was developed in this research. A pair of general primers was used to amplify a 305-basepair fragment in the promoter region of p16INK4a. Two probes specific for either methylated p16INK4a or unmethylated p16INK4a DNA labeled with either tetramethyl 6-carboxyrhodamine or 6-carboxy-fluorescein hybridized, respectively, with their target amplicons, and the hybridization increased the fluorescence polarization values. The p16INK4a promoter methylation status was determined by the analysis of the fluorescence polarization values. One hundred and twenty-nine non-small cell lung cancer samples were analyzed in parallel with a fluorescence polarization assay and a gel-based methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. There was no significant difference between the results of the p16INK4a promoter methylation status obtained with the fluorescence polarization assay and the results obtained with the gel-based methylation-specific PCR assay. The minimum detection level of the fluorescence polarization assay was 25 copies/μL. The fluorescence polarization assay allowed the semiautomated detection of the methylated p16INK4a and unmethylated p16INK4a promoters directly in the solution with 1 PCR cycle, and it was much simpler than methylation-specific PCR and methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assays.

  18. Clinical and methodological factors affecting non-transferrin-bound iron values using a novel fluorescent bead assay.

    PubMed

    Garbowski, Maciej W; Ma, Yongmin; Fucharoen, Suthat; Srichairatanakool, Somdet; Hider, Robert; Porter, John B

    2016-11-01

    Nontransferrin-bound iron (NTBI) is a heterogeneously speciated plasma iron, typically detectable when transferrin saturation (TfSat) exceeds 75%. Here, we examine factors affecting NTBI levels by a recently discovered direct chelator-based (CP851) fluorescent bead-linked flow-cytometric assay (bead-NTBI), compared with the established indirect nitrilotriacetate (NTA) assay in 122 iron-overloaded patients, including 64 on recent iron chelation therapy and 13 healthy volunteers. Both methods correlated (r = 0.57, P < 0.0001) but with low agreement, attributable to 2 major factors: (1) the NTA method, unlike the bead method, is highly dependent on TfSat, with NTBI under-estimation at low TfSat and over-estimation once Tf is saturated, (2) the bead method detects <3-fold higher values than the NTA assay in patients on recent deferiprone-containing chelation due to greater detection of chelate complexes but lower values for patients on deferasirox. The optimal timing of sample collection relative to chelation dosing requires further study. Patients with splenectomy, high-storage iron, and increased erythropoiesis had greater discrepancy between assays, consistent with differential access by both methods to the NTBI pools associated with these clinical variables. The bead-NTBI assay has advantages over the NTA assay, being less dependent on TfSat, hence of less tendency for false-negative or false-positive values at low and high TfSat, respectively. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Detection of human enteroviruses with real-time PCR assay using TaqMan fluorescent probe].

    PubMed

    Leś, Katarzyna; Przybylski, Maciej; Dzieciatkowski, Tomasz; Młynarczyk, Grazyna

    2010-01-01

    Infections with human enteroviruses are common worldwide and cause a wide range of signs and symptoms. Nowadays in current diagnostics procedures older virological methods, such virus isolation in a cell cultures and seroneutralisation assay, are replaced with molecular biology tests. The aim of the study was development of real-time PCR assay for detection of human adenoviruses. DNA isolated from MK2 cell line infected with nineteen different enterovirus strains was used for development of a qualitative real-time PCR assay using primers targeting a conserved region of the 5'UTR region and a specific TaqMan probe. The analytical sensitivity of real-time PCR assay was tested using serial dilutions of Coxackie A9 cDNA in range between 10 degrees and 10(-8). For comparison typical end-point detected RT-PCR for enterovirus detection with the same cDNA dilutions was made. The sensitivity of novel method was about ten thousand-fold higher than older one. The conclusion is that real-time PCR is very advisable in diagnostics of diseases caused with enteroviruses. The high level of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and rapidity provided by this assay are favorable for the use in the detection of enteroviral RNA in clinical specimens, especially from neuroinfections.

  20. Development and utilization of a fluorescence-based receptor-binding assay for the site 5 voltage-sensitive sodium channel ligands brevetoxin and ciguatoxin.

    PubMed

    McCall, Jennifer R; Jacocks, Henry M; Niven, Susan C; Poli, Mark A; Baden, Daniel G; Bourdelais, Andrea J

    2014-01-01

    Brevetoxins are a family of ladder-frame polyether toxins produced during blooms of the marine dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. Consumption of fish exposed to K. brevis blooms can lead to the development of neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. The toxic effects of brevetoxins are due to activation of voltage-sensitive sodium channels (VSSCs) in cell membranes. Binding of toxins has historically been measured using a radioligand competition assay that is fraught with difficulty. In this study, we developed a novel fluorescence-based binding assay for the brevetoxin receptor. Several fluorophores were conjugated to polyether brevetoxin-2 and used as the labeled ligand. Brevetoxin analogs were able to compete for binding with the fluorescent ligands. This assay was qualified against the standard radioligand receptor assay for the brevetoxin receptor. Furthermore, the fluorescence-based assay was used to determine relative concentrations of toxins in raw extracts of K. brevis culture, and to determine ciguatoxin affinity to site 5 of VSSCs. The fluorescence-based assay was quicker, safer, and far less expensive. As such, this assay can be used to replace the current radioligand assay and will be a vital tool for future experiments examining the binding affinity of various ligands for site 5 on sodium channels.

  1. Optimization of Fluorescence Assay of Cellular Manganese Status for High Throughput Screening

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kevin K.; Aboud, Asad A.; Patel, Devin K.; Aschner, Michael; Bowman, Aaron B.

    2013-01-01

    The advent of high throughput screening (HTS) technology permits identification of compounds that influence various cellular phenotypes. However, screening for small molecule chemical modifiers of neurotoxicants has been limited by the scalability of existing phenotyping assays. Furthermore, the adaptation of existing cellular assays to HTS format requires substantial modification of experimental parameters and analysis methodology to meet the necessary statistical requirements. Here we describe the successful optimization of the Cellular Fura-2 Manganese Extraction Assay (CFMEA) for HTS. By optimizing cellular density, manganese (Mn) exposure conditions, and extraction parameters, the sensitivity and dynamic range of the fura-2 Mn response was enhanced to permit detection of positive and negative modulators of cellular manganese status. Finally, we quantify and report strategies to control sources of intra-and inter-plate variability by batch level and plate-geometric level analysis. Our goal is to enable HTS with the CFMEA to identify novel modulators of Mn transport. PMID:23169769

  2. Lead discovery for mammalian elongation of long chain fatty acids family 6 using a combination of high-throughput fluorescent-based assay and RapidFire mass spectrometry assay.

    PubMed

    Takamiya, Mari; Sakurai, Masaaki; Teranishi, Fumie; Ikeda, Tomoko; Kamiyama, Tsutomu; Asai, Akira

    2016-11-25

    A high-throughput RapidFire mass spectrometry assay is described for elongation of very long-chain fatty acids family 6 (Elovl6). Elovl6 is a microsomal enzyme that regulates the elongation of C12-16 saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Elovl6 may be a new therapeutic target for fat metabolism disorders such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. To identify new Elovl6 inhibitors, we developed a high-throughput fluorescence screening assay in 1536-well format. However, a number of false positives caused by fluorescent interference have been identified. To pick up the real active compounds among the primary hits from the fluorescence assay, we developed a RapidFire mass spectrometry assay and a conventional radioisotope assay. These assays have the advantage of detecting the main products directly without using fluorescent-labeled substrates. As a result, 276 compounds (30%) of the primary hits (921 compounds) in a fluorescence ultra-high-throughput screening method were identified as common active compounds in these two assays. It is concluded that both methods are very effective to eliminate false positives. Compared with the radioisotope method using an expensive (14)C-labeled substrate, the RapidFire mass spectrometry method using unlabeled substrates is a high-accuracy, high-throughput method. In addition, some of the hit compounds selected from the screening inhibited cellular fatty acid elongation in HEK293 cells expressing Elovl6 transiently. This result suggests that these compounds may be promising lead candidates for therapeutic drugs. Ultra-high-throughput fluorescence screening followed by a RapidFire mass spectrometry assay was a suitable strategy for lead discovery against Elovl6.

  3. Synthesis and biological assay of GSH functionalized fluorescent quantum dots for staining Hydra vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Tortiglione, Claudia; Quarta, Alessandra; Tino, Angela; Manna, Liberato; Cingolani, Roberto; Pellegrino, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have been used extensively as fluorescent markers in several studies on living cells. Here, we report the synthesis of conjugates based on glutathione (GSH) and QDs (GSH-QDs) and we prove how these functionalized fluorescent probes can be used for staining a freshwater invertebrate called Hydra vulgaris. GSH is known to promote Hydra feeding response by inducing mouth opening. We demonstrate that GSH-QDs as well are able to elicit biological activity in such an animal, which results in the fluorescent staining of Hydra. GSH-QDs, once they reach the gastric region, are internalized by endodermal cells. The efficiency of GSH-QD internalization increases significantly when nanoparticles are coadministrated with free GSH. We also compared the behavior of bare QDs to that of GSH-QDs both in the presence and in the absence of free GSH. The conclusions from these series of experiments point to the presence of GSH binding proteins in the endodermal cell layer and uncover a novel role played by glutathione in this organism.

  4. Fluorescence assay for monitoring Zn-deficient superoxide dismutase in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martyshkin, D. V.; Mirov, S. B.; Zhuang, Y.-X.; Crow, J. P.; Ermilov, V.; Beckman, J. S.

    2003-11-01

    A method has been developed for selective detection of the zinc-deficient form of Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) in vitro. Zinc-deficient SOD1 mutants have been implicated in the death of motor neurons leading in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gerhig's disease). Thus, this method may have applicability for detecting zinc-deficient SOD1 mutants in human ALS patients samples as well as in a transgenic mouse model of ALS and in cultured motor neurons. We determined previously that structural analogs of 1,10 phenanthroline, which react specifically with Cu(I), react with the active Cu(I) of SOD1 when zinc is absent, but not when zinc is also bound, as evidenced by the fact that the reaction is inhibited by pretreatment of the enzyme with zinc. We report herein that bathocuproine, or its water-soluble derivative bathocuproine disulfonate, react with zinc-deficient SOD1 to form a complex which fluoresces at 734 nm when excited at 482 nm. Fluorescent intensity is concentration dependent, thus we propose to use fluorescent confocal microscopy to measure intracellular levels of zinc-deficient SOD1 in situ.

  5. Stably transfected human cell lines as fluorescent screening assay for nuclear factor KB activation dependent gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellweg, Christine E.; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Horneck, Gerda

    2004-06-01

    Activation of the Nuclear Factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathway as a possible antiapoptotic route represents one important cellular stress response. For identifying conditions which are capable to modify this pathway, a screening assay for detection of NF-kappaB-dependent gene activation using the reporter proteins Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP) and its destabilized variant (d2EGFP) has been developed. Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK/293) cells were stably transfected with a vector carrying EGFP or d2EGFP under control of a synthetic promoter containing four copies of the NF-kappaB response element. Treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gave rise to substantial EGFP / d2EGFP expression in up to 90 % of the cells and was therefore used to screen different stably transfected clones for induction of NF-kappaB dependent gene expression. The time course of d2EGFP expression after treatment with TNF-alpha or phorbol ester was measured using flow cytometry. Cellular response to TNF-alpha was faster than to phorbol ester. Treatment of cells with TNF-alpha and DMSO revealed antagonistic interactions of these substances in the activation NF-kappaB dependent gene expression. The detection of d2EGFP expression required FACS analysis or fluorescence microscopy, while EGFP could also be measured in the microplate reader, rendering the assay useful for high-throughput screening.

  6. Detecting Autophagy and Autophagy Flux in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cells Using a Cyto-ID Fluorescence Spectrophotometric Assay.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sujuan; Pridham, Kevin J; Sheng, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a catabolic process whereby cellular components are degraded to fuel cells for longer survival during stress. Hence, autophagy plays a vital role in determining cell fate and is central for homeostasis and pathogenesis of many human diseases including chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). It has been well established that autophagy is important for the leukemogenesis as well as drug resistance in CML. Thus, autophagy is an intriguing therapeutic target. However, current approaches that detect autophagy lack reliability and often fail to provide quantitative measurements. To overcome this hurdle and facilitate the development of autophagy-related therapies, we have recently developed an autophagy assay termed as the Cyto-ID fluorescence spectrophotometric assay. This method uses a cationic fluorescence dye, Cyto-ID, which specifically labels autophagic compartments and is detected by a spectrophotometer to permit a large-scale and quantitative analysis. As such, it allows rapid, reliable, and quantitative detection of autophagy and estimation of autophagy flux. In this chapter, we further provide technical details of this method and step-by-step protocols for measuring autophagy or autophagy flux in CML cell lines as well as primary hematopoietic cells.

  7. Firefly Luciferase-Based Sequential Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET)-Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) Protease Assays.

    PubMed

    Branchini, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    We describe here the preparation of ratiometric luminescent probes that contain two well-separated emission peaks produced by a sequential bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)-fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) process. The probes are single soluble fusion proteins consisting of a thermostable firefly luciferase variant that catalyzes yellow-green (560 nm maximum) bioluminescence and a red fluorescent protein covalently labeled with a near-Infrared fluorescent dye. The two proteins are connected by a decapeptide containing a protease recognition site specific for factor Xa, thrombin, or caspase 3. The rates of protease cleavage of the fusion protein substrates were monitored by recording emission spectra and plotting the change in peak ratios over time. Detection limits of 0.41 nM for caspase 3, 1.0 nM for thrombin, and 58 nM for factor Xa were realized with a scanning fluorometer. This method successfully employs an efficient sequential BRET-FRET energy transfer process based on firefly luciferase bioluminescence to assay physiologically important protease activities and should be generally applicable to the measurement of any endoprotease lacking accessible cysteine residues.

  8. Adaptation of Tri-molecular fluorescence complementation allows assaying of regulatory Csr RNA-protein interactions in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gelderman, Grant; Sivakumar, Anusha; Lipp, Sarah; Contreras, Lydia

    2015-02-01

    sRNAs play a significant role in controlling and regulating cellular metabolism. One of the more interesting aspects of certain sRNAs is their ability to make global changes in the cell by interacting with regulatory proteins. In this work, we demonstrate the use of an in vivo Tri-molecular Fluorescence Complementation assay to detect and visualize the central regulatory sRNA-protein interaction of the Carbon Storage Regulatory system in E. coli. The Carbon Storage Regulator consists primarily of an RNA binding protein, CsrA, that alters the activity of mRNA targets and of an sRNA, CsrB, that modulates the activity of CsrA. We describe the construction of a fluorescence complementation system that detects the interactions between CsrB and CsrA. Additionally, we demonstrate that the intensity of the fluorescence of this system is able to detect changes in the affinity of the CsrB-CsrA interaction, as caused by mutations in the protein sequence of CsrA. While previous methods have adopted this technique to study mRNA or RNA localization, this is the first attempt to use this technique to study the sRNA-protein interaction directly in bacteria. This method presents a potentially powerful tool to study complex bacterial RNA protein interactions in vivo.

  9. A homogeneous europium cryptate-based assay for the diagnosis of mutations by time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Crapez, E.; Bazin, H.; Andre, E.; Noletti, J.; Grenier, J.; Mathis, G.

    2001-01-01

    Oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA) is considered to be a very useful methodology for the detection and characterization of mutations, particularly for clinical purposes. The fluorescence resonance energy transfer between a fluorescent donor and a suitable fluorophore as acceptor has been applied in the past to several scientific fields. This technique is well adapted to nucleic acid analysis such as DNA sequencing, DNA hybridization and polymerase chain reaction. We describe here a homogeneous format based on the use of a rare earth cryptate label as donor: tris-bipyridine-Eu3+. The long-lived fluorescence of this label makes it possible to reach a high sensitivity by using a time-resolved detection mode. A non-radiative energy transfer technology, known as time-resolved amplification of cryptate emission (TRACE®) characterized by a temporal and spectral selectivity has been developed. The TRACE® detection of characterized single nucleotide polymorphism using the OLA for allelic discrimination is proposed. We demonstrate the potentialities of this OLA–TRACE® methodology through the analysis of K-ras oncogene point mutations. PMID:11452039

  10. Development of a multiplex quantitative fluorescent PCR assay for identification of rearrangements in the AZFb and AZFc regions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Li, Pei-qiong; Yu, Qi-hong; Chen, Hua-yun; Li, Juan; He, Yun-shao

    2008-06-01

    The azoospermia factor b (AZFb) and azoospermia factor c (AZFc) regions in the human Y chromosome consist of five palindromes constructed from six distinct families of amplicons and are prone to rearrangement. Partial deletion and duplication in the region can cause azoospermia or oligozoospermia and male infertility. The aim of the study was to establish a quantitative fluorescent PCR (QF-PCR) assay to classify AZFb and AZFc rearrangements. A single pair of fluorescent primers was designed to amplify simultaneously the amplicon in AZFc and the length-variant homologous sequences outside of the region as control. Since the copy number of the control sequences is fixed in the human genome, dosage of the target could be easily obtained through comparing the height of the fluorescent peaks between the target and the control after amplification with limited PCR cycles. Most types of rearrangements in AZFb and AZFc regions could be classified with QF-PCR containing four such primer pairs. Eleven types of rearrangement in AZFb and AZFc regions were well discriminated with QF-PCR. In conclusion, QF-PCR is a simple and reliable method to detect rearrangements in AZFb and AZFc.

  11. Transpiration-Inspired Fabrication of Opal Capillary with Multiple Heterostructures for Multiplex Aptamer-Based Fluorescent Assays.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bingbing; Tang, Litianyi; Zhang, Dagan; Xie, Zhuoying; Su, Enben; Liu, Hong; Gu, Zhongze

    2017-09-27

    In this work we report a method for the fabrication of opal capillary with multiple heterostructures for aptamer-based assays. The method is inspired by plant transpiration. During the fabrication, monodisperse SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) self-assemble in a glass capillary, with the solvent gradually evaporating from the top end of the capillary. By a simple change of the colloid solution that wicks through the capillary, multiple heterostructures can be easily prepared inside the capillary. On the surface of the SiO2 NPs, polydopamine is coated for immobilization of aminomethyl-modified aptamers. The aptamers are used for fluorescent detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and thrombin. Owing to fluorescence enhancement effect of the photonic heterstructures, the fluorescent signal for detection is amplified up to 40-fold. The limit of detection is 32 μM for ATP and 8.1 nM for thrombin. Therefore, we believe this method is promising for the fabrication of analytical capillary devices for point-of-care testing.

  12. Competitive detection of influenza neutralizing antibodies using a novel bivalent fluorescence-based microneutralization assay (BiFMA).

    PubMed

    Baker, Steven F; Nogales, Aitor; Santiago, Felix W; Topham, David J; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis

    2015-07-09

    Avian-derived influenza A zoonoses are closely monitored and may be an indication of virus strains with pandemic potential. Both successful vaccination and convalescence of influenza A virus in humans typically results in the induction of antibodies that can neutralize viral infection. To improve long-standing and new-generation methodologies for detection of neutralizing antibodies, we have employed a novel reporter-based approach that allows for multiple antigenic testing within a single sample. Central to this approach is a single-cycle infectious influenza A virus (sciIAV), where a functional hemagglutinin (HA) gene was changed to encode either the green or the monomeric red fluorescent protein (GFP and mRFP, respectively) and HA is complemented in trans by stable HA-expressing cell lines. By using fluorescent proteins with non-overlapping emission spectra, this novel bivalent fluorescence-based microneutralization assay (BiFMA) can be used to detect neutralizing antibodies against two distinct influenza isolates in a single reaction, doubling the speed of experimentation while halving the amount of sera required. Moreover, this approach can be used for the rapid identification of influenza broadly neutralizing antibodies. Importantly, this novel BiFMA can be used for any given influenza HA-pseudotyped virus under BSL-2 facilities, including highly pathogenic influenza HA isolates.

  13. A FLUORESCENCE BASED ASSAY FOR DNA DAMAGE INDUCED BY TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the reported effects for exposure to many of the toxic industrial chemicals is DNA damage. The present study describes a simple, rapid and innovative assay to detect DNA damage resulting from exposure of surrogate DNA to toxic industrial chemicals (acrolein, allylamine, ch...

  14. A FLUORESCENCE BASED ASSAY FOR DNA DAMAGE INDUCED BY TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the reported effects for exposure to many of the toxic industrial chemicals is DNA damage. The present study describes a simple, rapid and innovative assay to detect DNA damage resulting from exposure of surrogate DNA to toxic industrial chemicals (acrolein, allylamine, ch...

  15. The function of the milk-clotting enzymes bovine and camel chymosin studied by a fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Jacobsen, Jonas; Moss, Marcia L; Rasmussen, Fred; Qvist, Karsten Bruun; Larsen, Sine; van den Brink, Johannes M

    2015-05-01

    Enzymatic coagulation of bovine milk can be divided in 2 steps: an enzymatic step, in which the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein bovine κ-casein is cleaved, and an aggregation step. The aspartic peptidases bovine and camel chymosin (EC 3.4.23.4) are typically used to catalyze the enzymatic step. The most commonly used method to study chymosin activity is the relative milk-clotting activity test that measures the end point of the enzymatic and aggregation step. This method showed that camel chymosin has a 2-fold higher milk-clotting activity toward bovine milk than bovine chymosin. To enable a study of the enzymatic step independent of the aggregation step, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay has been developed using a peptide substrate derived from the 98-108 sequence of bovine κ-casein. This assay and Michaelis-Menten kinetics were employed to determine the enzymatic activity of camel and bovine chymosin under milk clotting-like conditions (pH 6.65, ionic strength 80 mM). The results obtained show that the catalytic efficiency of camel chymosin is 3-fold higher than bovine chymosin. The substrate affinity and catalytic activity of bovine and camel chymosin increase at lower pH (6.00 and 5.50). The glycosylation of bovine and camel chymosin did not affect binding of the fluorescence resonance energy transfer substrate, but doubly glycosylated camel chymosin seems to have slightly higher catalytic efficiency. In the characterization of the enzymes, the developed assay is easier and faster to use than the traditionally used relative milk-clotting activity test method.

  16. Single Cell Assay for Molecular Diagnostics and Medicine: Monitoring Intracellular Concentrations of Macromolecules by Two-photon Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging.

    PubMed

    Pliss, Artem; Peng, Xiao; Liu, Lixin; Kuzmin, Andrey; Wang, Yan; Qu, Junle; Li, Yuee; Prasad, Paras N

    2015-01-01

    Molecular organization of a cell is dynamically transformed along the course of cellular physiological processes, pathologic developments or derived from interactions with drugs. The capability to measure and monitor concentrations of macromolecules in a single cell would greatly enhance studies of cellular processes in heterogeneous populations. In this communication, we introduce and experimentally validate a bio-analytical single-cell assay, wherein the overall concentration of macromolecules is estimated in specific subcellular domains, such as structure-function compartments of the cell nucleus as well as in nucleoplasm. We describe quantitative mapping of local biomolecular concentrations, either intrinsic relating to the functional and physiological state of a cell, or altered by a therapeutic drug action, using two-photon excited fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM). The proposed assay utilizes a correlation between the fluorescence lifetime of fluorophore and the refractive index of its microenvironment varying due to changes in the concentrations of macromolecules, mainly proteins. Two-photon excitation in Near-Infra Red biological transparency window reduced the photo-toxicity in live cells, as compared with a conventional single-photon approach. Using this new assay, we estimated average concentrations of proteins in the compartments of nuclear speckles and in the nucleoplasm at ~150 mg/ml, and in the nucleolus at ~284 mg/ml. Furthermore, we show a profound influence of pharmaceutical inhibitors of RNA synthesis on intracellular protein density. The approach proposed here will significantly advance theranostics, and studies of drug-cell interactions at the single-cell level, aiding development of personal molecular medicine.

  17. Multi-Fluorescence Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection of RIF and INH Resistance of M. tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jingfu; Yu, Xiaoli; Cui, Zhenling; Xue, Wenfei; Luo, Ziyi; Wen, Zilu; Liu, Minghua; Jiang, Danqing; Zheng, Heping; Wu, Hai; Zhang, Shulin; Li, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Background: Failure to early detect multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) results in treatment failure and poor clinical outcomes, and highlights the need to rapidly detect resistance to rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH). Methods: In Multi-Fluorescence quantitative Real-Time PCR (MF-qRT-PCR) assay, 10 probes labeled with four kinds of fluorophores were designed to detect the mutations in regions of rpoB, katG, mabA-inhA, oxyR-ahpC, and rrs. The efficiency of MF-qRT-PCR assay was tested using 261 bacterial isolates and 33 clinical sputum specimens. Among these samples, 227 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were analyzed using drug susceptibility testing (DST), DNA sequencing and MF-qRT-PCR assay. Results: Compared with DST, MF-qRT-PCR sensitivity and specificity for RIF-resistance were 94.6 and 100%, respectively. And the detection sensitivity and specificity for INH-resistance were 85.9 and 95.3%, respectively. Compared with DNA sequencing, the sensitivity and specificity of our assay were 97.2 and 100% for RIF-resistance and 97.9 and 96.4% for INH-resistance. Compared with Phenotypic strain identification, MF-qRT-PCR can distinguish 227 M. tuberculosis complexes (MTC) from 34 Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) isolates with 100% accuracy rate. Conclusions: MF-qRT-PCR assay was an efficient, accurate, reliable, and easy-operated method for detection of RIF and INH-resistance, and distinction of MTC and NTM of clinical isolates. PMID:27199947

  18. Four-color alternating-laser excitation single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy for next-generation biodetection assays.

    PubMed

    Yim, Seok W; Kim, Taiho; Laurence, Ted A; Partono, Steve; Kim, Dongsik; Kim, Younggyu; Weiss, Shimon; Reitmair, Armin

    2012-04-01

    Single-molecule detection (SMD) technologies are well suited for clinical diagnostic applications by offering the prospect of minimizing precious patient sample requirements while maximizing clinical information content. Not yet available, however, is a universal SMD-based platform technology that permits multiplexed detection of both nucleic acid and protein targets and that is suitable for automation and integration into the clinical laboratory work flow. We have used a sensitive, specific, quantitative, and cost-effective homogeneous SMD method that has high single-well multiplexing potential and uses alternating-laser excitation (ALEX) fluorescence-aided molecule sorting extended to 4 colors (4c-ALEX). Recognition molecules are tagged with different-color fluorescence dyes, and coincident confocal detection of ≥2 colors constitutes a positive target-detection event. The virtual exclusion of the majority of sources of background noise eliminates washing steps. Sorting molecules with multidimensional probe stoichiometries (S) and single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer efficiencies (E) allows differentiation of numerous targets simultaneously. We show detection, differentiation, and quantification-in a single well-of (a) 25 different fluorescently labeled DNAs; (b) 8 bacterial genetic markers, including 3 antibiotic drug-resistance determinants found in 11 septicemia-causing Staphylococcus and Enterococcus strains; and (c) 6 tumor markers present in blood. The results demonstrate assay utility for clinical molecular diagnostic applications by means of multiplexed detection of nucleic acids and proteins and suggest potential uses for early diagnosis of cancer and infectious and other diseases, as well as for personalized medicine. Future integration of additional technology components to minimize preanalytical sample manipulation while maximizing throughput should allow development of a user-friendly ("sample in, answer out") point

  19. A method for assaying perchlorate concentration in microbial cultures using the fluorescent dye resazurin.

    PubMed

    Kucharzyk, Katarzyna H; Crawford, Ronald L; Paszczynski, Andrzej J; Hess, Thomas F

    2010-04-01

    Low concentrations (microg/L) of the perchlorate anion, ClO(4)(-), have been measured in surface and ground water supplies in many locations throughout the United States. Perchlorate is known to affect the function of the thyroid gland in mammals and its toxicity primarily results from its inhibition of thyroid hormone output. The major sources of perchlorate contamination in surface and ground waters are defense contractors, military installations, propellant manufacturers and agriculture. The currently accepted method of perchlorate analysis, recommended by the US EPA, is neither fast nor easy to use and requires purchase of an expensive high performance ion chromatograph (IC). The novel method described here uses dye resazurin to measure perchlorate reduction by bacterial cultures and bacterial consortia in a high-throughput, multi-well, culture plate format. The method is based on the observation that perchlorate reduction and the decrease of resazurin fluorescence occur simultaneously in perchlorate degrading cultures. The bioassays were performed in anaerobic serum bottles or 96-well plates with constant shaking, using a minimal ATCC medium with 10 mM acetate as electron donor/carbon source and 200 ppm perchlorate as an electron acceptor. Fluorescence measurements with excitation at 570 nm and emission at 590 nm were taken in 20 min intervals. Changes in perchlorate concentration were confirmed using IC. Based on the experimental data, a simple model showing the correlation between perchlorate concentration in microbial culture and resazurin fluorescence level was proposed. Other dyes including redox indicators, reactive azo dyes and electron shuttle chemicals were also tested for comparison and were found less useful. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Design of peptide substrates for nanosecond time-resolved fluorescence assays of proteases: 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene as a noninvasive fluorophore.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Andreas; Florea, Mara; Roth, Doris; Enderle, Thilo; Nau, Werner M

    2007-01-15

    Fluorescence protease assays were investigated with peptide substrates containing a 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene-labeled asparagine (Dbo) as a fluorescent amino acid. The special characteristic of the fluorophore Dbo is its exceedingly long fluorescence lifetime (ca. 300 ns in water under air), which allows the use of nanosecond time-resolved fluorescence (Nano-TRF) detection to efficiently suppress shorter-lived background emission. In addition, the natural amino acids tryptophan and tyrosine can be employed as intramolecular fluorescence quenchers, which facilitates substrate design. Fourteen synthetic peptide substrates (composed of 2-19 amino acids) and five enzymes (trypsin, pepsin, carboxypeptidase A, leucine aminopeptidase, and chymotrypsin) were investigated and, in all 28 examined combinations, enzymatic activity was detected by monitoring the increase in steady state fluorescence with time and determining the reaction rates as kcat/Km values, which ranged from 0.2 to 80x10(6) M-1 min-1. The results suggest an excellent compatibility of the very small and hydrophilic fluorescent probe Dbo with solid-phase peptide synthesis and the investigated proteases. For all 14 peptides the fluorescence lifetimes before and after enzymatic cleavage were measured and Nano-TRF measurements were performed in 384-well microplates. The fluorescence lifetimes of the different peptides provide the basis for the rational design of Dbo-based fluorescent substrates for protease assays. Measurements in Nano-TRF mode revealed, in addition to efficient suppression of background fluorescence, an increased differentiation between cleaved and uncleaved substrate. The Dbo-based assays can be adapted for high-throughput screening.

  1. Two-Component Direct Fluorescent-Antibody Assay for Rapid Identification of Bacillus Anthracis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    Bacillus spp. (n=56) Five closely related Bacillus species—B. cereus (n=23), B. megaterium (n=11), B. subtilis (n=9), B. thuringiensis (n=12), and B...Rapid Identification of Bacillus anthracis Barun K. De,* Sandra L. Bragg,* Gary N. Sanden,* Kathy E. Wilson,* Lois A. Diem,* Chung K. Marston...antibody (DFA) assay, using fluorescein-labeled monoclonal antibodies specific to the Bacillus anthracis cell wall (CW-DFA) and capsule (CAP-DFA

  2. Development of a Fluorescence Polarization Based High-Throughput Assay to Identify Casitas B-Lineage Lymphoma RING Domain Regulators

    PubMed Central

    Pessetto, Ziyan Yuan; Zhao, Yan; Zang, Zhihe; Zhong, Ling; Wu, Min; Su, Qing; Gao, Xiurong; Zan, Wang; Sun, Yiyi

    2013-01-01

    The E3 ubiquitin protein ligase Casitas B-lineage Lymphoma (Cbl) proteins and their binding partners play an important role in regulating signal transduction pathways. It is important to utilize regulators to study the protein-protein interactions (PPIs) between these proteins. However, finding specific small-molecule regulators of PPIs remains a significant challenge due to the fact that the interfaces involved in PPIs are not well suited for effective small molecule binding. We report the development of a competitive, homogeneous, high-throughput fluorescence polarization (FP) assay to identify small molecule regulators of Cbl (RING) domain. The FP assay was used to measure binding affinities and inhibition constants of UbCH7 peptides and small molecule regulators of Cbl (RING) domains, respectively. In order to rule out promiscuous, aggregation-based inhibition, two assay conditions were developed and compared side by side. Under optimized conditions, we screened a 10,000 natural compound library in detergent-free and detergent-present (0.01% Triton X-100) systems. The results indicate that the detergent-present system is more suitable for high-throughput screens. Three potential compounds, methylprotodioscin, leonuride and catalpol, have been identified that bind to Cbl (RING) domain and interfere with the Cbl (RING)-UbCH7 protein-protein interaction. PMID:24205080

  3. Supramolecular photochemical self-assemblies for fluorescence "turn on" and "turn off" assays for chem-bio-helices.

    PubMed

    Achyuthan, Komandoor E; Lu, Liangde; Lopez, Gabriel P; Whitten, David G

    2006-10-01

    We describe the development of an optical sensing system for the high-throughput screening (HTS) of a broad range of biological molecules, whole cells, organisms and pathogens, and illustrate the technology applications by a hyaluronidase enzyme activity assay as a specific example. At the core of the technology described in this paper, is the exciton concept that is relevant to molecular aggregation. J-aggregates of cyanine dyes have a narrower, red-shifted absorption band compared to monomer. We demonstrate that self-assembly may be driven by the helicogenic nature of the cyanine dye, converting the linear polymers of hyaluronic acid or carboxymethyl cellulose into supramolecular helical assemblies. This self-assembly is accompanied by an intense, sharp, red-shifted J-aggregate fluorescence. We utilized this property to develop an assay for the enzyme hyaluronidase, based upon the concept of "scaffold destruction," whereby the disruption/destruction of the hyaluronic acid polymer by hyaluronidase is accompanied by an attenuation of light emission from the J-aggregate. The extent of light attenuation provides an index of hyaluronidase activity. Other polymers of carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids and chemical polymers (such as the carbon nanotube) might provide a similar scaffold for helicogenic dyes upon which molecular aggregation can occur. A key feature of these assays is that they are label-free.

  4. Development of homogeneous binding assays based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer between quantum dots and Alexa Fluor fluorophores.

    PubMed

    Nikiforov, Theo T; Beechem, Joseph M

    2006-10-01

    We studied the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between quantum dots emitting at 565, 605, and 655 nm as energy donors and Alexa Fluor fluorophores with absorbance maxima at 594, 633, 647, and 680 nm as energy acceptors. As a first step, we prepared covalent conjugates between all three types of quantum dots and each of the Alexa Fluor fluorophores that could act as an energy acceptor. All of these conjugates displayed efficient resonance energy transfer. Then we prepared covalent conjugates of these quantum dots with biotin, fluorescein, and cortisol and established that the binding of these conjugates to suitable Alexa Fluor-labeled antibodies and streptavidin (in the case of biotin) can be efficiently detected by measuring the resonance energy transfer in homogeneous solutions. Finally, based on these observations, competitive binding assays for these three small analytes were developed. The performance of these assays as a function of the degree of labeling of the quantum dots was evaluated. It was found that decreasing the degree of loading of the quantum dots leads to decreases of the limits of detection. The results show the great potential of this FRET system for the development of new homogeneous binding assays.

  5. A Fluorescence Displacement Assay for Antidepressant Drug Discovery Based on Ligand-Conjugated Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Jerry; Tomlinson, Ian; Warnement, Michael; Iwamoto, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (SERT) protein plays a central role in terminating 5-HT neurotransmission and is the most important therapeutic target for the treatment of major depression and anxiety disorders. We report an innovative, versatile, and target-selective quantum dot (QD) labeling approach for SERT in single Xenopus oocytes that can be adopted as a drug-screening platform. Our labeling approach employs a custom-made, QD-tagged indoleamine derivative ligand, IDT318, that is structurally similar to 5-HT and accesses the primary binding site with enhanced human SERT selectivity. Incubating QD-labeled oocytes with paroxetine (Paxil), a high-affinity SERT-specific inhibitor, showed a concentration- and time-dependent decrease in QD fluorescence, demonstrating the utility of our approach for the identification of SERT modulators. Furthermore, with the development of ligands aimed at other pharmacologically relevant targets, our approach may potentially form the basis for a multitarget drug discovery platform.

  6. Impact of a rapid peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization assay on treatment of Candida infections.

    PubMed

    Heil, Emily L; Daniels, Lindsay M; Long, Dustin M; Rodino, Kyle G; Weber, David J; Miller, Melissa B

    2012-11-01

    The impact of a rapid peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) assay with an antimicrobial stewardship intervention on the treatment of Candida infections was studied. The utility of implementing the PNA FISH assay with an antimicrobial stewardship intervention in hospitalized patients with candidemia was evaluated by measuring the median time to Candida species identification, time to targeted therapy, and clinical outcomes, including time to culture clearance, hospital length of stay, and hospital mortality. Secondary objectives included determining the cost-effectiveness of the PNA FISH assay by assessing estimated antifungal drug costs (as average wholesale price) before (June 26, 2009-September 19, 2010) and after (September 20, 2010-June 13, 2011) test implementation and confirming test accuracy. For both groups, laboratory personnel notified the physician of the results of Gram's stain from blood culture. Time to targeted therapy significantly decreased after the implementation of the PNA FISH assay (p = 0.0016). The postimplementation group had a higher rate of culture clearance (p = 0.01). Median time to species identification was 0.2 day with the PNA FISH test versus 4 days with routine methods (p < 0.001). Accounting for the cost of the test itself and the cases in which patients were switched to more-expensive therapy on the basis of the test, we estimated that the PNA FISH test resulted in savings of approximately $415 per patient. Implementing a PNA FISH test to identify Candida species from yeast-positive blood cultures in conjunction with a pharmacy-driven antimicrobial stewardship protocol decreased the time to targeted antifungal therapy and the time to culture clearance.

  7. High-content fluorescent-based assay for screening activators of DNA damage checkpoint pathways.

    PubMed

    Bin Zhang; Xiubin Gu; Uppalapati, Uma; Ashwell, Mark A; Leggett, David S; Li, Chiang J

    2008-07-01

    Activation of DNA damage checkpoint pathways, including Chk2, serves as an anticancer barrier in precancerous lesions. In an effort to identify small-molecule activators of Chk2, the authors developed a quantitative cell-based assay using a high-content analysis (HCA) platform. Induction of phosphorylated Chk2 was evaluated using several different parameters, including fold induction, Kolmogorov-Smirnov score, and percentage of positively stained cells. These measurements were highly correlated and provided an accurate method for compound ranking/binning, structure-activity relationship studies, and lead identification. Screening for Chk2 activators was undertaken with a target-focused library and a diversified library from ArQule chemical space. Several compounds exhibited submicromolar EC( 50) values for phosphorylated Chk2 induction. These compounds were further analyzed for Chk2-dependent cytotoxicity, as assessed through a high-content cell death assay in combination with siRNA silencing of Chk2 expression. Several compounds were identified and showed specific inhibition or lethality in a target-dependent manner. Therefore, identification of DNA damage checkpoint pathway activators by HCA is an attractive approach for discovering the next generation of targeted cancer therapeutics.

  8. Cell-based fluorescence assay for evaluation of new-drugs potential for phospholipidosis in an early stage of drug development.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Hisako; Dekura, Eriha; Kurabe, Michie; Shimazu, Noriko; Koitabashi, Mieko; Toriumi, Wataru

    2007-08-01

    To evaluate new-drugs potential for phospholipidosis (PL), we developed a cell-based fluorescence assay using a fluorescent-labeled phospholipid analogue (NBD-PE). CHL/IU cells derived from newborn hamster lung were exposed to positive reference compounds (amiodarone, imipramine, chloroquine, propranolol, chlorpromazine and amantadine) in the presence of NBD-PE, and the level of PL, as indicated by accumulation of fluorescent inclusions in the cytoplasm, was evaluated using fluorescence microscopy and fluorometry. All positive reference compounds induced accumulation of fluorescent inclusions in a concentration-dependent manner with an increase in fluorescence intensity. Fluorescence microscopically, the positive dose of test compound was determined as the concentration with a grade equivalent to or above that of 3.13 microM of amiodarone. Based on this criterion, 8 of 20 test compounds including PL-positive or -negative compounds were judged positive that were concurrent with the pathological results from rat toxicity studies. Furthermore, a positive criterion for fluorometry was decided as equivalent to or above 25% of maximum intensity induced by 1.56-25.0 microM amiodarone. In comparison of fluorometry methods with fluorescence microscopy method, 19 of 20 compounds were judged same. From these findings, we concluded that the assay developed in this study is a rapid and reliable method to predict new-drugs potential for PL at an early stage of drug development.

  9. Use of Modern Chemical Protein Synthesis and Advanced Fluorescent Assay Techniques to Experimentally Validate the Functional Annotation of Microbial Genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, Stephen

    2012-07-20

    The objective of this research program was to prototype methods for the chemical synthesis of predicted protein molecules in annotated microbial genomes. High throughput chemical methods were to be used to make large numbers of predicted proteins and protein domains, based on microbial genome sequences. Microscale chemical synthesis methods for the parallel preparation of peptide-thioester building blocks were developed; these peptide segments are used for the parallel chemical synthesis of proteins and protein domains. Ultimately, it is envisaged that these synthetic molecules would be ‘printed’ in spatially addressable arrays. The unique ability of total synthesis to precision label protein molecules with dyes and with chemical or biochemical ‘tags’ can be used to facilitate novel assay technologies adapted from state-of-the art single molecule fluorescence detection techniques. In the future, in conjunction with modern laboratory automation this integrated set of techniques will enable high throughput experimental validation of the functional annotation of microbial genomes.

  10. Ligand-transporter interaction in the AcrB multidrug efflux pump determined by fluorescence polarization assay

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chih-Chia; Nikaido, Hiroshi; Yu, Edward W.

    2007-01-01

    The AcrB of Escherichia coli pumps out a wide range of compounds, including most of the currently available antibiotics, and contributes significantly to the serious problem of multi-drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria. Quantitative analysis of drug efflux by this pump requires the measurement of the affinity of ligands. Yet there has been no success in determining these values. We introduce here an approach of steady-state fluorescence polarization to study the interactions between four different ligands and the purified AcrB transporter in a detergent environment. Our assays indicate that the transporter binds these drugs with KD values ranging from 5.5 to 74.1 μM. PMID:17910961

  11. Fluorescence anisotropy microplate assay to investigate the interaction of full-length steroid receptor coactivator-1a with steroid receptors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chen; Nordeen, Steven K.; Shapiro, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Estrogens, acting via estrogen receptor (ER) play key roles in growth, differentiation and gene regulation in the reproductive, central nervous and skeletal systems. ER-mediated gene transcription contributes to the development and spread of breast, uterine, and liver cancer. Steroid receptor coactivator-1a (SRC1a) belongs to the P160 family of coactivators, which is the best known of the many coactivators implicated in ER-mediated transactivation. Binding of full-length P160 coactivators to steroid receptors has been difficult to investigate in vitro. This chapter details how to investigate the interaction of SRC1a with ER using the fluorescence anisotropy/polarization microplate assay (FAMA). PMID:23436375

  12. A fluorescent microplate assay quantifies bacterial efflux and demonstrates two distinct compound binding sites in AcrB.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Ramkumar; Ferrari, Annette; Rijnbrand, R; Erwin, Alice L

    2015-04-01

    A direct assay of efflux by Escherichia coli AcrAB-TolC and related multidrug pumps would have great value in discovery of new Gram-negative antibiotics. The current understanding of how efflux is affected by the chemical structure and physical properties of molecules is extremely limited, derived from antibacterial data for compounds that inhibit growth of wild-type E. coli. We adapted a previously described fluorescent efflux assay to a 96-well microplate format that measured the ability of test compounds to compete for efflux with Nile Red (an environment-sensitive fluor), independent of antibacterial activity. We show that Nile Red and the lipid-sensitive probe DiBAC4-(3) [bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid)-trimethine oxonol] can quantify efflux competition in E. coli. We extend the previous findings that the tetracyclines compete with Nile Red and show that DiBAC4-(3) competes with macrolides. The extent of the competition shows a modest correlation with the effect of the acrB deletion on MICs within the compound sets for both dyes. Crystallographic studies identified at least two substrate binding sites in AcrB, the proximal and distal pockets. High-molecular-mass substrates bound the proximal pocket, while low-mass substrates occupied the distal pocket. As DiBAC4-(3) competes with macrolides but not with Nile Red, we propose that DiBAC4-(3) binds the proximal pocket and Nile Red likely binds the distal site. In conclusion, competition with fluorescent probes can be used to study the efflux process for diverse chemical structures and may provide information as to the site of binding and, in some cases, enable rank-ordering a series of related compounds by efflux.

  13. A Fluorescent Microplate Assay Quantifies Bacterial Efflux and Demonstrates Two Distinct Compound Binding Sites in AcrB

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Annette; Rijnbrand, R.; Erwin, Alice L.

    2015-01-01

    A direct assay of efflux by Escherichia coli AcrAB-TolC and related multidrug pumps would have great value in discovery of new Gram-negative antibiotics. The current understanding of how efflux is affected by the chemical structure and physical properties of molecules is extremely limited, derived from antibacterial data for compounds that inhibit growth of wild-type E. coli. We adapted a previously described fluorescent efflux assay to a 96-well microplate format that measured the ability of test compounds to compete for efflux with Nile Red (an environment-sensitive fluor), independent of antibacterial activity. We show that Nile Red and the lipid-sensitive probe DiBAC4-(3) [bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid)-trimethine oxonol] can quantify efflux competition in E. coli. We extend the previous findings that the tetracyclines compete with Nile Red and show that DiBAC4-(3) competes with macrolides. The extent of the competition shows a modest correlation with the effect of the acrB deletion on MICs within the compound sets for both dyes. Crystallographic studies identified at least two substrate binding sites in AcrB, the proximal and distal pockets. High-molecular-mass substrates bound the proximal pocket, while low-mass substrates occupied the distal pocket. As DiBAC4-(3) competes with macrolides but not with Nile Red, we propose that DiBAC4-(3) binds the proximal pocket and Nile Red likely binds the distal site. In conclusion, competition with fluorescent probes can be used to study the efflux process for diverse chemical structures and may provide information as to the site of binding and, in some cases, enable rank-ordering a series of related compounds by efflux. PMID:25645845

  14. Current methods for fluorescence-based universal sequence-dependent detection of nucleic acids in homogenous assays and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Faltin, Bernd; Zengerle, Roland; von Stetten, Felix

    2013-11-01

    Specific and sensitive nucleic acid (NA) testing in research and clinical diagnostics is usually performed by use of labeled oligonucleotide probes. However, the use of target-specific fluorogenic probes increases the cost of analysis. Therefore, universal sequence-dependent (USD) NA detection methods have been developed to facilitate cost-effective target detection using standardized reagents. We provide a comprehensive review of the current methods for fluorescence-based USD NA detection. Initially, we focus on the emergence of these methods as a means to overcome the shortcomings of common NA detection methods, such as hydrolysis probes and molecular beacons. Thereafter, we provide a critical evaluation of the individual detection methods. These methods include (a) target amplification with bipartite primers introducing a universal detection tag to the amplicon (UniPrimer PCR, universal fluorescence energy transfer probe PCR, attached universal duplex probe PCR, and universal strand displacement amplification) or combined with bipartite probes comprising a universal detection region (mediator probe PCR, universal strand displacement amplification, universal quenching probe PCR) and (b) amplification-independent assays employing either a universal variant of the invader assay or universal NA hybridization sensors. We discuss differences between the methods and review clinical applications. The current methods for USD NA testing are cost-effective and flexible and have concordant analytical performance in comparison with common probe-based techniques. They can detect any target sequence by the simple use of a label-free, low-cost primer or probe combined with a universal fluorogenic reporter. The methods differ in the number of target specificities, capability of multiplexing, and incubation requirements (isothermal/thermocycling). Extensive clinical applications comprise detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms, study of gene expression, in situ PCR, and

  15. Fluorescence intercalator displacement assay for screening G4 ligands towards a variety of G-quadruplex structures.

    PubMed

    Tran, Phong Lan Thao; Largy, Eric; Hamon, Florian; Teulade-Fichou, Marie-Paule; Mergny, Jean-Louis

    2011-08-01

    The potential formation of G-quadruplexes in many regions of the genome makes them an attractive target for drug design. A large number of small molecules synthesized in recent years display an ability to selectively target and stabilize G-quadruplexes. To screen for G4 ligands, we modified a G4-FID (G-quadruplex Fluorescent Intercalator Displacement) assay. This test is based on the displacement of an "on/off" fluorescence probe, Thiazole Orange (TO), from quadruplex or duplex DNA matrices by increasing amounts of a putative ligand. Selectivity measurements can easily be achieved by comparing the ability of the ligand to displace TO from various quadruplex and duplex structures. G4-FID requires neither modified oligonucleotides nor specific equipment and is an isothermal experiment. This test was adapted for high throughput screening onto 96-well plates allowing the comparison of more than twenty different structures. Fifteen different known G4 ligands belonging to different families were tested. Most compounds showed a good G4 vs duplex selectivity but exhibited little, if any, specificity for one quadruplex sequence over the others. The quest for the "perfect" specific G4 ligand is not over yet! Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. High-throughput fluorescence screening assay for the identification and comparison of antimicrobial peptides' activity on various yeast species.

    PubMed

    Kodedová, Marie; Sychrová, Hana

    2016-09-10

    New antifungal compounds that circumvent the resistance of the pathogen by directly damaging yeast cell surface structures are promising agents for the treatment of fungal infections, due to their different mechanism of action from current clinically used antifungal drugs. We present here a rapid and cost-effective fluorescence method suitable for identifying new potent drugs that directly target yeast cell surface structures, causing cell permeabilization and thus bypassing the multidrug resistance mechanisms of pathogens. The fluorescence assay enabled us to detect with high sensitivity damage to the Candida plasma membrane (its hyperpolarization and permeabilization) as a result of short-term exposure to the antifungal compounds. Results can be obtained in 1-2h with minimal effort and consumption of the tested compounds, also 96 samples can be analysed simultaneously. We used this method to study antimicrobial peptides isolated from the venom of bees and their synthetic analogs, compare the potency of the peptides and determine their minimal effective concentrations. The antimicrobial peptides were able to kill yeast cells at low concentrations within a 15-min treatment, the LL-III peptide exhibited a broad spectrum of antifungal activity on various Saccharomyces, pathogenic Candida and osmotolerant yeast species.

  17. Development of a fluorescence-based in vivo phagocytosis assay to measure mononuclear phagocyte system function in the rat.

    PubMed

    Tartaro, Karrie; VanVolkenburg, Maria; Wilkie, Dean; Coskran, Timothy M; Kreeger, John M; Kawabata, Thomas T; Casinghino, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) which provides protection against infection is made up of phagocytic cells that engulf and digest bacteria or other foreign substances. Suppression of the MPS may lead to decreased clearance of pathogenic microbes. Drug delivery systems and immunomodulatory therapeutics that target phagocytes have a potential to inhibit MPS function. Available methods to measure inhibition of MPS function use uptake of radioactively-labeled cells or labor-intensive semi-quantitative histologic techniques. The objective of this work was to develop a non-radioactive quantitative method to measure MPS function in vivo by administering heat-killed E. coli conjugated to a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye (Bioparticles(®)). Fluorescence of the Bioparticles(®) is increased at low pH when they are in phagocytic lysosomes. The amount of Bioparticles(®) phagocytosed by MPS organs in rats was determined by measuring fluorescence intensity in livers and spleens ex vivo using an IVIS(®) Spectrum Pre-clinical In Vivo Imaging System. Phagocytosis of the particles by peripheral blood neutrophils was measured by flow cytometry. To assess method sensitivity, compounds likely to suppress the MPS [clodronate-containing liposomes, carboxylate-modified latex particles, maleic vinyl ether (MVE) polymer] were administered to rats prior to injection of the Bioparticles(®). The E. coli particles consistently co-localized with macrophage markers in the liver but not in the spleen. All of the compounds tested decreased phagocytosis in the liver, but had no consistent effects on phagocytic activity in the spleen. In addition, administration of clodronate liposomes and MVE polymer increased the percentage of peripheral blood neutrophils that phagocytosed the Bioparticles(®). In conclusion, an in vivo rat model was developed that measures phagocytosis of E. coli particles in the liver and may be used to assess the impact of test compounds on MPS function. Still, the

  18. Activity, polypeptide and gene identification of thylakoid Ndh complex in trees: potential physiological relevance of fluorescence assays.

    PubMed

    Serrot, Patricia H; Sabater, Bartolomé; Martín, Mercedes

    2012-09-01

    Three evergreen (Laurus nobilis, Viburnum tinus and Thuja plicata) and two autumnal abscission deciduous trees (Cydonia oblonga and Prunus domestica) have been investigated for the presence (zymogram and immunodetection) and functionality (post-illumination chlorophyll fluorescence) of the thylakoid Ndh complex. The presence of encoding ndh genes has also been investigated in T. plicata. Western assays allowed tentative identification of zymogram NADH dehydrogenase bands corresponding to the Ndh complex after native electrophoresis of solubilized fractions from L. nobilis, V. tinus, C. oblonga and P. domestica leaves, but not in those of T. plicata. However, Ndh subunits were detected after SDS-PAGE of thylakoid solubilized proteins of T. plicata. The leaves of the five plants showed the post-illumination chlorophyll fluorescence increase dependent on the presence of active Ndh complex. The fluorescence increase was higher in autumn in deciduous, but not in evergreen trees, which suggests that the thylakoid Ndh complex could be involved in autumnal leaf senescence. Two ndhB genes were sequenced from T. plicata that differ at the 350 bp 3' end sequence. Comparison with the mRNA revealed that ndhB genes have a 707-bp type II intron between exons 1 (723 bp) and 2 (729 bp) and that the UCA 259th codon is edited to UUA in mRNA. Phylogenetically, the ndhB genes of T. plicata group close to those of Metasequoia, Cryptomeria, Taxodium, Juniperus and Widdringtonia in the cupresaceae branch and are 5' end shortened by 18 codons with respect to that of angiosperms.

  19. Activity, polypeptide and gene identification of thylakoid Ndh complex in trees: potential physiological relevance of fluorescence assays

    PubMed Central

    Serrot, Patricia H; Sabater, Bartolomé; Martín, Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    Three evergreen (Laurus nobilis, Viburnum tinus and Thuja plicata) and two autumnal abscission deciduous trees (Cydonia oblonga and Prunus domestica) have been investigated for the presence (zymogram and immunodetection) and functionality (post-illumination chlorophyll fluorescence) of the thylakoid Ndh complex. The presence of encoding ndh genes has also been investigated in T. plicata. Western assays allowed tentative identification of zymogram NADH dehydrogenase bands corresponding to the Ndh complex after native electrophoresis of solubilized fractions from L. nobilis, V. tinus, C. oblonga and P. domestica leaves, but not in those of T. plicata. However, Ndh subunits were detected after SDS-PAGE of thylakoid solubilized proteins of T. plicata. The leaves of the five plants showed the post-illumination chlorophyll fluorescence increase dependent on the presence of active Ndh complex. The fluorescence increase was higher in autumn in deciduous, but not in evergreen trees, which suggests that the thylakoid Ndh complex could be involved in autumnal leaf senescence. Two ndhB genes were sequenced from T. plicata that differ at the 350 bp 3′ end sequence. Comparison with the mRNA revealed that ndhB genes have a 707-bp type II intron between exons 1 (723 bp) and 2 (729 bp) and that the UCA 259th codon is edited to UUA in mRNA. Phylogenetically, the ndhB genes of T. plicata group close to those of Metasequoia, Cryptomeria, Taxodium, Juniperus and Widdringtonia in the cupresaceae branch and are 5′ end shortened by 18 codons with respect to that of angiosperms. PMID:22324908

  20. Simple non-fluorescent polarity labeling of microtubules for molecular motor assays.

    PubMed

    Soppina, Virupakshi; Rai, Arpan; Mallik, Roop

    2009-06-01

    Transport of intracellular organelles along the microtubule cytoskeleton occurs in a bidirectional manner due to opposing activity of microtubule-associated motor proteins of the kinesin and dynein families. Regulation of this opposing activity and the resultant motion is believed to generate a polarized distribution of many organelles within the cell. The bidirectional motion can be reconstituted on in vitro assembled microtubules using organelles extracted from cells. This provides an opportunity to understand the regulation of intracellular transport through quantitative analysis of the motion of organelles in a controlled environment. Such analysis requires the use of polarity-labeled microtubules to resolve the plus and minus components of bidirectional motion. However, existing methods of in vitro microtubule polarity labeling are unsuitable for high-resolution recording of motion. Here we present a simple and reliable method that uses avidin-coated magnetic beads to prepare microtubules labeled at the minus end. The microtubule polarity can be identified without any need for fluorescence excitation. We demonstrate video-rate high-resolution imaging of single cellular organelles moving along plus and minus directions on labeled microtubules. Quantitative analysis of this motion indicates that these organelles are likely to be driven by multiple dynein motors in vivo.

  1. Ultrasensitive Quantum Dot Fluorescence quenching Assay for Selective Detection of Mercury Ions in Drinking Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Jun; Li, Xinyong; Zhao, Qidong; Hou, Yang; Chen, Junhong

    2014-07-01

    Mercury is one of the most acutely toxic substances at trace level to human health and living thing. Developing a rapid, cheap and water soluble metal sensor for detecting mercury ions at ppb level remains a challenge. Herein, a metal sensor consisting of MPA coated Mn doped ZnSe/ZnS colloidal nanoparticles was utilized to ultrasensitively and selectively detect Hg2+ ions with a low detection limit (0.1 nM) over a dynamic range from 0 to 20 nM. According to strong interaction between thiol(s) and mercury ions, mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) was used as a highly unique acceptor for mercury ions in the as-obtained ultrasensitive sensor. In the presence of mercury ions, colloidal nanoparticles rapidly agglomerated due to changes of surface chemical properties, which results in severe quenching of fluorescent intensity. Meanwhile, we find that the original ligands are separated from the surface of colloidal nanoparticles involving strongly chelation between mercury ion and thiol(s) proved by controlled IR analysis. The result shows that the QD-based metal ions sensor possesses satisfactory precision, high sensitivity and selectivity, and could be applied for the quantification analysis of real samples.

  2. Ultrasensitive Quantum Dot Fluorescence quenching Assay for Selective Detection of Mercury Ions in Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Jun; Li, Xinyong; Zhao, Qidong; Hou, Yang; Chen, Junhong

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is one of the most acutely toxic substances at trace level to human health and living thing. Developing a rapid, cheap and water soluble metal sensor for detecting mercury ions at ppb level remains a challenge. Herein, a metal sensor consisting of MPA coated Mn doped ZnSe/ZnS colloidal nanoparticles was utilized to ultrasensitively and selectively detect Hg2+ ions with a low detection limit (0.1 nM) over a dynamic range from 0 to 20 nM. According to strong interaction between thiol(s) and mercury ions, mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) was used as a highly unique acceptor for mercury ions in the as-obtained ultrasensitive sensor. In the presence of mercury ions, colloidal nanoparticles rapidly agglomerated due to changes of surface chemical properties, which results in severe quenching of fluorescent intensity. Meanwhile, we find that the original ligands are separated from the surface of colloidal nanoparticles involving strongly chelation between mercury ion and thiol(s) proved by controlled IR analysis. The result shows that the QD-based metal ions sensor possesses satisfactory precision, high sensitivity and selectivity, and could be applied for the quantification analysis of real samples. PMID:25005836

  3. Macromolecule Biosynthesis Assay and Fluorescence Spectroscopy Methods to Explore Antimicrobial Peptide Mode(s) of Action.

    PubMed

    Jana, Bimal; Baker, Kristin Renee; Guardabassi, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are viable alternatives to the currently available antimicrobials, and numerous studies have investigated their possible use as therapeutic agents for specific clinical applications. AMPs are a diverse class of antimicrobials that often act upon the bacterial cell membrane but may exhibit additional modes of action. Identification of the multiple modes of action requires a comprehensive study at subinhibitory concentrations and careful data analysis since additional modes of action can be eclipsed by AMP action on the cell membrane.Techniques that measure the biosynthesis rate of macromolecules (e.g., DNA, RNA, protein, and cell wall) and the cytoplasmic membrane proton motive force (PMF) energy can help to unravel the diverse modes of action of AMPs. Here, we present an overview of macromolecule biosynthesis rate measurement and fluorescence spectroscopy methods to identify AMP mode(s) of action. Detailed protocols designed to measure inhibition of DNA, RNA, protein, and cell wall synthesis or membrane de-energization are presented and discussed for optimal application of these two techniques as well as to enable accurate interpretation of the experimental findings.

  4. Organophosphorus pesticides detection using broad-specific single-stranded DNA based fluorescence polarization aptamer assay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cunzheng; Wang, Li; Tu, Zhui; Sun, Xing; He, Qinghua; Lei, Zhaojing; Xu, Chongxin; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Xiao; Yang, Jingyi; Liu, Xianjin; Xu, Yang

    2014-05-15

    An approach is developed to detect the organophosphorus pesticides via competitive binding to a recombinant broad-specificity DNA aptamer with a molecular beacon (MB), the binding of the MB to the aptamer results in the activation of a fluorescent signal, which can be measured for pesticide quantification. Aptamers selected via the Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) were structurally modified and truncated to narrow down the binding region of the target, which indicated that loops of the aptamer contributed different functions for different chemical recognition. Thereafter, a variant fused by two different minimum functional structures, was clarified with broad specificity and increased affinity. Further molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations was conducted to understand the molecular interaction between DNA structure and chemicals. 3D modeling revealed a hot spot area formed by 3 binding sites, forces including hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions appear to play a significant role in enabling and stabilizing the binding of chemicals. Finally, an engineered aptamer based approach for the detection of organophosphorus pesticides was successfully applied in a test using a real sample, the limit of quantification (LOQ) for phorate, profenofos, isocarbophos, and omethoate reached 19.2, 13.4, 17.2, and 23.4 nM (0.005 mg L(-1)), respectively.

  5. A new competitive fluorescence assay for the detection of patulin toxin.

    PubMed

    de Champdoré, Marcella; Bazzicalupo, Paolo; De Napoli, Lorenzo; Montesarchio, Daniela; Di Fabio, Giovanni; Cocozza, Immacolata; Parracino, Antonietta; Rossi, Mose'; D'Auria, Sabato

    2007-01-15

    Patulin is a toxic secondary metabolite of a number of fungal species belonging to the genera Penicillum and Aspergillus. It has been mainly isolated from apples and apple products contaminated with the common storage-rot fungus of apples, Penicillum expansum, but it has also been extracted from rotten fruits, moldy feeds, and stored cheese. Human exposure to patulin can lead to serious health problems, and according to a long-term investigation in rats, the World Health Organization has set a tolerable weekly intake of 7 ppb body weight. The content of patulin in foods has been restricted to 50 ppb in many countries. Conventional analytical detection methods involve chromatographic analyses, such as HPLC, GC, and, more recently, techniques such as LC/MS and GC/MS. However, extensive protocols of sample cleanup are required prior to the analysis, and to accomplish it, expensive analytical instrumentation is necessary. An immunochemical analytical method, based on highly specific antigen-antibody interactions, would be desirable, offering several advantages compared to conventional techniques, i.e., low cost per sample, high selectivity, high sensitivity, and high throughput. In this paper, the synthesis of two new derivatives of patulin is described, along with their conjugation to the bovine serum albumin for the production of polyclonal antibodies. Finally, a fluorescence competitive immunoassay was developed for the on-line detection of patulin.

  6. Ultrasensitive quantum dot fluorescence quenching assay for selective detection of mercury ions in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Ke, Jun; Li, Xinyong; Zhao, Qidong; Hou, Yang; Chen, Junhong

    2014-07-09

    Mercury is one of the most acutely toxic substances at trace level to human health and living thing. Developing a rapid, cheap and water soluble metal sensor for detecting mercury ions at ppb level remains a challenge. Herein, a metal sensor consisting of MPA coated Mn doped ZnSe/ZnS colloidal nanoparticles was utilized to ultrasensitively and selectively detect Hg(2+) ions with a low detection limit (0.1 nM) over a dynamic range from 0 to 20 nM. According to strong interaction between thiol(s) and mercury ions, mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) was used as a highly unique acceptor for mercury ions in the as-obtained ultrasensitive sensor. In the presence of mercury ions, colloidal nanoparticles rapidly agglomerated due to changes of surface chemical properties, which results in severe quenching of fluorescent intensity. Meanwhile, we find that the original ligands are separated from the surface of colloidal nanoparticles involving strongly chelation between mercury ion and thiol(s) proved by controlled IR analysis. The result shows that the QD-based metal ions sensor possesses satisfactory precision, high sensitivity and selectivity, and could be applied for the quantification analysis of real samples.

  7. A label-free near-infrared fluorescent assay for the determination of deoxyribonuclease I activity based on malachite green/G-quadruplexes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shao-Kai; Wang, Bei-Bei; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2013-05-07

    Owing to the biological and clinical significance of deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I), it is highly desirable to develop near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent assays for the determination of DNase I activity. Here we report a label-free NIR fluorescent assay for selective determination of DNase I activity based on malachite green (MG)/G-quadruplexes. In the presence of Na(+) or K(+), single stranded DNA (ssDNA) is able to form a G-quadruplex structure, thus to increase the rigidity of MG structure and result in a remarkable NIR fluorescence. As DNase I is capable of cleaving all types of DNA indiscriminately to release nucleotide products, the G-quadruplexes are cleaved into oligonucleotides in the presence of DNase I. As a result, the rigidity of MG structure is reduced, and the NIR fluorescence of the solution decreases with increase of DNase I activity, providing a useful platform for low-cost, label-free and convenient detection of DNase I activity. Under the optimum conditions, the proposed label-free NIR fluorescent assay gave a detection limit of 1 u mL(-1), and a relative standard deviation of 3.2% for eleven replicate detections of 50 u mL(-1) DNase I. The proposed assay was applied to the determination of DNase I activity in spiked human urine samples with recoveries from 99.1 to 109.0%.

  8. Improving the Assay of 239Pu in Spent and Melted Fuel Using the Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Integral Resonance Transmission Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angell, C. T.; Hayakawa, T.; Shizuma, T.; Hajima, R.; Quiter, B. J.; Ludewigt, B. A.; Karwowski, H.; Rich, G.

    2015-10-01

    Non-destructive assay (NDA) of 239Pu in spent nuclear fuel is possible using the isotope-specific nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) integral resonance transmission (IRT) method. The IRT method measures the absorption of photons from a quasi-monoenergetic γ-ray beam due to all resonances in the energy width of the beam. According to calculations the IRT method could greatly improve assay times for 239Pu in nuclear fuel. To demonstrate and verify the IRT method, the IRT signature was first measured in 181Ta, whose nuclear resonant properties are similar to those of 239Pu, and then measured in 239Pu. These measurements were done using the quasi-monoenergetic beam at the High Intensity γ-ray Source (HIγS) in Durham, NC, USA. The IRT signature was observed as a decrease in scattering strength when the same isotope material was placed upstream of the scattering target. The results confirm the validity of the IRT method in both 181Ta and 239Pu.

  9. A High-Throughput Fluorescence-Based Assay System for Appetite-Regulating Gene and Drug Screening

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Yasuhito; Hirano, Minoru; Nishimura, Yuhei; Tanaka, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    The increasing number of people suffering from metabolic syndrome and obesity is becoming a serious problem not only in developed countries, but also in developing countries. However, there are few agents currently approved for the treatment of obesity. Those that are available are mainly appetite suppressants and gastrointestinal fat blockers. We have developed a simple and rapid method for the measurement of the feeding volume of Danio rerio (zebrafish). This assay can be used to screen appetite suppressants and enhancers. In this study, zebrafish were fed viable paramecia that were fluorescently-labeled, and feeding volume was measured using a 96-well microplate reader. Gene expression analysis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf), knockdown of appetite-regulating genes (neuropeptide Y, preproinsulin, melanocortin 4 receptor, agouti related protein, and cannabinoid receptor 1), and the administration of clinical appetite suppressants (fluoxetine, sibutramine, mazindol, phentermine, and rimonabant) revealed the similarity among mechanisms regulating appetite in zebrafish and mammals. In combination with behavioral analysis, we were able to evaluate adverse effects on locomotor activities from gene knockdown and chemical treatments. In conclusion, we have developed an assay that uses zebrafish, which can be applied to high-throughput screening and target gene discovery for appetite suppressants and enhancers. PMID:23300705

  10. Nucleic acid sandwich hybridization assay with quantum dot-induced fluorescence resonance energy transfer for pathogen detection.

    PubMed

    Chou, Cheng-Chung; Huang, Yi-Han

    2012-12-04

    This paper reports a nucleic acid sandwich hybridization assay with a quantum dot (QD)-induced fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) reporter system. Two label-free hemagglutinin H5 sequences (60-mer DNA and 630-nt cDNA fragment) of avian influenza viruses were used as the targets in this work. Two oligonucleotides (16 mers and 18 mers) that specifically recognize two separate but neighboring regions of the H5 sequences were served as the capturing and reporter probes, respectively. The capturing probe was conjugated to QD655 (donor) in a molar ratio of 10:1 (probe-to-QD), and the reporter probe was labeled with Alexa Fluor 660 dye (acceptor) during synthesis. The sandwich hybridization assay was done in a 20 μL transparent, adhesive frame-confined microchamber on a disposable, temperature-adjustable indium tin oxide (ITO) glass slide. The FRET signal in response to the sandwich hybridization was monitored by a homemade optical sensor comprising a single 400 nm UV light-emitting diode (LED), optical fibers, and a miniature 16-bit spectrophotometer. The target with a concentration ranging from 0.5 nM to 1 μM was successfully correlated with both QD emission decrease at 653 nm and dye emission increase at 690 nm. To sum up, this work is beneficial for developing a portable QD-based nucleic acid sensor for on-site pathogen detection.

  11. A fluorescence-based assay to monitor autopalmitoylation of zDHHC proteins applicable to high-throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Laura D; Deschenes, Robert J; Mitchell, David A

    2014-09-01

    Palmitoylation, the posttranslational thioester-linked modification of a 16-carbon saturated fatty acid onto the cysteine residue of a protein, has garnered considerable attention due to its implication in a multitude of disease states. The signature DHHC motif (Asp-His-His-Cys) identifies a family of protein acyltransferases (PATs) that catalyze the S-palmitoylation of target proteins via a two-step mechanism. In the first step, autopalmitoylation, palmitate is transferred from palmitoyl-CoA to the PAT, creating a palmitoyl:PAT intermediate and releasing reduced CoA. The palmitoyl moiety is then transferred to a protein substrate in the second step of the reaction. We have developed an in vitro, single-well, fluorescence-based enzyme assay that monitors the first step of the PAT reaction by coupling the production of reduced CoA to the reduction of NAD(+) using the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. This assay is suitable for determining PAT kinetic parameters, elucidating lipid donor specificity and measuring PAT inhibition by 2-bromopalmitate. Finally, it can be used for high-throughput screening (HTS) campaigns for modulators of protein palmitoylation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nucleic Acid Sandwich Hybridization Assay with Quantum Dot-Induced Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer for Pathogen Detection

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Cheng-Chung; Huang, Yi-Han

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a nucleic acid sandwich hybridization assay with a quantum dot (QD)-induced fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) reporter system. Two label-free hemagglutinin H5 sequences (60-mer DNA and 630-nt cDNA fragment) of avian influenza viruses were used as the targets in this work. Two oligonucleotides (16 mers and 18 mers) that specifically recognize two separate but neighboring regions of the H5 sequences were served as the capturing and reporter probes, respectively. The capturing probe was conjugated to QD655 (donor) in a molar ratio of 10:1 (probe-to-QD), and the reporter probe was labeled with Alexa Fluor 660 dye (acceptor) during synthesis. The sandwich hybridization assay was done in a 20 μL transparent, adhesive frame-confined microchamber on a disposable, temperature-adjustable indium tin oxide (ITO) glass slide. The FRET signal in response to the sandwich hybridization was monitored by a homemade optical sensor comprising a single 400 nm UV light-emitting diode (LED), optical fibers, and a miniature 16-bit spectrophotometer. The target with a concentration ranging from 0.5 nM to 1 μM was successfully correlated with both QD emission decrease at 653 nm and dye emission increase at 690 nm. To sum up, this work is beneficial for developing a portable QD-based nucleic acid sensor for on-site pathogen detection. PMID:23211753

  13. A high-throughput fluorescence-based assay system for appetite-regulating gene and drug screening.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Yasuhito; Hirano, Minoru; Nishimura, Yuhei; Tanaka, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    The increasing number of people suffering from metabolic syndrome and obesity is becoming a serious problem not only in developed countries, but also in developing countries. However, there are few agents currently approved for the treatment of obesity. Those that are available are mainly appetite suppressants and gastrointestinal fat blockers. We have developed a simple and rapid method for the measurement of the feeding volume of Danio rerio (zebrafish). This assay can be used to screen appetite suppressants and enhancers. In this study, zebrafish were fed viable paramecia that were fluorescently-labeled, and feeding volume was measured using a 96-well microplate reader. Gene expression analysis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf), knockdown of appetite-regulating genes (neuropeptide Y, preproinsulin, melanocortin 4 receptor, agouti related protein, and cannabinoid receptor 1), and the administration of clinical appetite suppressants (fluoxetine, sibutramine, mazindol, phentermine, and rimonabant) revealed the similarity among mechanisms regulating appetite in zebrafish and mammals. In combination with behavioral analysis, we were able to evaluate adverse effects on locomotor activities from gene knockdown and chemical treatments. In conclusion, we have developed an assay that uses zebrafish, which can be applied to high-throughput screening and target gene discovery for appetite suppressants and enhancers.

  14. Sensitive fluorescent assay for copper (II) determination in aqueous solution using copper-specific ssDNA and Sybr Green I.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Shenshan; Xu, Hanchu; Zhang, Weilin; Zhan, Xuejia; Wu, Yuangen; Wang, Lumei; Zhou, Pei

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports a fluorescent turn-off assay for sensitive detection of Cu(2+) in an aqueous solution by using a copper-specific ssDNA Cu100 and Sybr Green I. By monitoring the fluorescence changes arose from different interactions of Sybr Green I with Cu100 and Cu100/Cu(2+) complex, the Cu(2+) could be linearly detected from 5.57 to 250 ppb, with a detection limit of 5.57 ppb. The feasibility of this assay was demonstrated by detecting Cu(2+) in certified reference materials and spiked water samples with satisfactory results.

  15. Chromosome analysis of nuclear power plant workers using fluorescence in situ hybridization and Giemsa assay.

    PubMed

    Hristova, Rositsa; Hadjidekova, Valeria; Grigorova, Mira; Nikolova, Teodora; Bulanova, Minka; Popova, Ljubomira; Staynova, Albena; Benova, Donka

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation in vivo in exposed Bulgarian nuclear power plant workers by using classical cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic analyses of peripheral lymphocytes. Chromosome analysis using fluorescence in situ hybrydization (FISH) and Giemsa techniques was undertaken on 63 workers and 45 administrative staff controls from the Bulgarian Nuclear Power Plant. Using the Giemsa method, the frequencies of cells studied with chromosome aberrations, dicentrics plus rings and chromosome fragments in the radiation workers were significantly higher compared with the control group (P = 0.044, P = 0.014, and P = 0.033, respectively). A significant association between frequencies of dicentrics plus rings and accumulated doses was registered (P < 0.01). In the present study, a FISH cocktail of whole chromosome paints for chromosomes 1, 4 and 11 was used. A significant association between frequency of translocations and accumulated doses was also observed (P < 0.001). Within the control group, a correlation was found between age and the spontaneous frequency of translocations. No correlation was found between smoking status and frequency of translocations. When compared with the control group, workers with accumulated doses up to 100 mSv showed no increase in genome translocation frequency, whereas workers with accumulated doses from 101 to 200 mSv showed a statistically significant doubling of genome translocation frequency (P = 0.009). Thus, in cases of chronic exposure and for purposes of retrospective dosimetry, the genome frequency of translocations is a more useful marker for evaluation of genotoxic effects than dicentric frequency.

  16. Chromosome analysis of nuclear power plant workers using fluorescence in situ hybridization and Giemsa assay

    PubMed Central

    Hristova, Rositsa; Hadjidekova, Valeria; Grigorova, Mira; Nikolova, Teodora; Bulanova, Minka; Popova, Ljubomira; Staynova, Albena; Benova, Donka

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation in vivo in exposed Bulgarian nuclear power plant workers by using classical cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic analyses of peripheral lymphocytes. Chromosome analysis using fluorescence in situ hybrydization (FISH) and Giemsa techniques was undertaken on 63 workers and 45 administrative staff controls from the Bulgarian Nuclear Power Plant. Using the Giemsa method, the frequencies of cells studied with chromosome aberrations, dicentrics plus rings and chromosome fragments in the radiation workers were significantly higher compared with the control group (P = 0.044, P = 0.014, and P = 0.033, respectively). A significant association between frequencies of dicentrics plus rings and accumulated doses was registered (P < 0.01). In the present study, a FISH cocktail of whole chromosome paints for chromosomes 1, 4 and 11 was used. A significant association between frequency of translocations and accumulated doses was also observed (P < 0.001). Within the control group, a correlation was found between age and the spontaneous frequency of translocations. No correlation was found between smoking status and frequency of translocations. When compared with the control group, workers with accumulated doses up to 100 mSv showed no increase in genome translocation frequency, whereas workers with accumulated doses from 101 to 200 mSv showed a statistically significant doubling of genome translocation frequency (P = 0.009). Thus, in cases of chronic exposure and for purposes of retrospective dosimetry, the genome frequency of translocations is a more useful marker for evaluation of genotoxic effects than dicentric frequency. PMID:23536543

  17. Plasmid transfection in bovine cells: Optimization using a realtime monitoring of green fluorescent protein and effect on gene reporter assay.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Johan S; Bionaz, Massimo

    2017-08-30

    Gene reporter technology (GRT) has opened several new avenues for monitoring biological events including the activation of transcription factors, which are central to the study of nutrigenomics. However, this technology relies heavily on the insertion of foreign plasmid DNA into the nuclei of cells (i.e., transfection), which can be very challenging and highly variable among cell types. The objective of this study was to investigate the optimal conditions to generate reliable GRT assay data on bovine immortalized cell lines, Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) and bovine mammary epithelial alveolar (MACT) cells. Results are reported for two experiments. In Experiment 1, using 96 well-plate and a robotic inverted fluorescent microscope, we compared transfection efficiency among commercially available transfection reagents (TR) Lipofectamine® 3000 (Lipo3), Lipofectamine® LTX (LipoLTX), and TransIT-X2® (TransX2), three doses of TR (i.e., 0.15, 0.3, and 0.4μL/well), and three doses of Green Fluorescent Protein plasmid DNA (i.e., 10, 25, and 50ng/well). Transfection efficiency and mortality rate were analyzed using CellProfiler software. Transfection efficiency increased until the end of the experiment (20h post-transfection) at which point MACT had greater transfection than MDBK cells (16.3% vs. 2.2%). It is unclear the reason for the low transfection in MDBK cells. Maximal transfection efficiency was obtained with 0.3μL/well of LipoLTX plus 25ng/well of plasmid DNA (ca. 29.5±1.9%) and 0.15μL/well of LipoLTX plus 25ng/well of plasmid DNA (ca. 4.0±0.4%) for MACT and MDBK cells, respectively. The higher amount of TR and DNA was generally associated with higher cell mortality. Using high, medium, and low transfection efficiency conditions determined in Experiment 1, we performed a GRT assay for peroxisome proliferator-activated response element (PPRE) luciferase in MACT and MDBK cells treated with 10nM or 100nM of synthetic Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor

  18. Establishment of a 10-Plex Quantitative Fluorescent-PCR Assay for rapid diagnosis of sex chromosome aneuploidies.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xingmei; Liang, Qiaoyi

    2014-01-01

    Sex chromosome aneuploidies occur commonly in the general population, with an incidence of 1 in 400 newborns. However, no tests specifically targeting sex chromosomes have been carried out in prenatal diagnosis or newborn screening, resulting in late recognition of these diseases. In this study, a rapid diagnostic method for sex chromosome aneuploidies was established using Quantitative Fluorescent-PCR (QF-PCR). Ten markers were included in one multiplex QF-PCR assay, including two sex determination genes (AMXY and SRY), five X-linked short tandem repeats (STRs; DXS1053, DXS981, DXS6809, DXS1187, and DXS8377), one X/Y-common STR (X22), and two autosomal STRs (D13S305 and D21S11). Retrospective tests of 70 cases with known cytogenetic results indicated that the 10-plex QF-PCR assay could well determine sex chromosome copy numbers by both allelic peak numbers and a sex chromosome dosage calculation with the autosomal STRs as internal controls. Prospective comparison with cytogenetic karyotyping on 534 cases confirmed that the 10-plex QF-PCR assay could be well employed for sex chromosome aneuploidy diagnosis in at least the Chinese Han population. This is the first QF-PCR test for the diagnosis of sex chromosome aneuploidies in the Chinese population. This test is superior to previous designs by including up to 8 sex-linked markers covering different parts of sex chromosomes as well as employing internal controls for copy number dosage calculation in a single PCR reaction. Due to simple technique and data analysis, as well as easy implementation within routine clinical services, this method is of great clinical application value and could be widely applied.

  19. Discovery of PF-06928215 as a high affinity inhibitor of cGAS enabled by a novel fluorescence polarization assay

    PubMed Central

    Brault, Amy; Vincent, Fabien; Weng, Shawn; Wang, Hong; Dumlao, Darren; Aulabaugh, Ann; Aivazian, Dikran; Castro, Dana; Chen, Ming; Culp, Jeffrey; Dower, Ken; Gardner, Joseph; Hawrylik, Steven; Golenbock, Douglas; Hepworth, David; Horn, Mark; Jones, Lyn; Jones, Peter; Latz, Eicke; Li, Jing; Lin, Lih-Ling; Lin, Wen; Lin, David; Lovering, Frank; Niljanskul, Nootaree; Nistler, Ryan; Pierce, Betsy; Plotnikova, Olga; Schmitt, Daniel; Shanker, Suman; Smith, James; Snyder, William; Subashi, Timothy; Trujillo, John; Tyminski, Edyta; Wang, Guoxing; Wong, Jimson; Lefker, Bruce; Dakin, Leslie; Leach, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) initiates the innate immune system in response to cytosolic dsDNA. After binding and activation from dsDNA, cGAS uses ATP and GTP to synthesize 2′, 3′ -cGAMP (cGAMP), a cyclic dinucleotide second messenger with mixed 2′-5′ and 3′-5′ phosphodiester bonds. Inappropriate stimulation of cGAS has been implicated in autoimmune disease such as systemic lupus erythematosus, thus inhibition of cGAS may be of therapeutic benefit in some diseases; however, the size and polarity of the cGAS active site makes it a challenging target for the development of conventional substrate-competitive inhibitors. We report here the development of a high affinity (KD = 200 nM) inhibitor from a low affinity fragment hit with supporting biochemical and structural data showing these molecules bind to the cGAS active site. We also report a new high throughput cGAS fluorescence polarization (FP)-based assay to enable the rapid identification and optimization of cGAS inhibitors. This FP assay uses Cy5-labelled cGAMP in combination with a novel high affinity monoclonal antibody that specifically recognizes cGAMP with no cross reactivity to cAMP, cGMP, ATP, or GTP. Given its role in the innate immune response, cGAS is a promising therapeutic target for autoinflammatory disease. Our results demonstrate its druggability, provide a high affinity tool compound, and establish a high throughput assay for the identification of next generation cGAS inhibitors. PMID:28934246

  20. Discovery of PF-06928215 as a high affinity inhibitor of cGAS enabled by a novel fluorescence polarization assay.

    PubMed

    Hall, Justin; Brault, Amy; Vincent, Fabien; Weng, Shawn; Wang, Hong; Dumlao, Darren; Aulabaugh, Ann; Aivazian, Dikran; Castro, Dana; Chen, Ming; Culp, Jeffrey; Dower, Ken; Gardner, Joseph; Hawrylik, Steven; Golenbock, Douglas; Hepworth, David; Horn, Mark; Jones, Lyn; Jones, Peter; Latz, Eicke; Li, Jing; Lin, Lih-Ling; Lin, Wen; Lin, David; Lovering, Frank; Niljanskul, Nootaree; Nistler, Ryan; Pierce, Betsy; Plotnikova, Olga; Schmitt, Daniel; Shanker, Suman; Smith, James; Snyder, William; Subashi, Timothy; Trujillo, John; Tyminski, Edyta; Wang, Guoxing; Wong, Jimson; Lefker, Bruce; Dakin, Leslie; Leach, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) initiates the innate immune system in response to cytosolic dsDNA. After binding and activation from dsDNA, cGAS uses ATP and GTP to synthesize 2', 3' -cGAMP (cGAMP), a cyclic dinucleotide second messenger with mixed 2'-5' and 3'-5' phosphodiester bonds. Inappropriate stimulation of cGAS has been implicated in autoimmune disease such as systemic lupus erythematosus, thus inhibition of cGAS may be of therapeutic benefit in some diseases; however, the size and polarity of the cGAS active site makes it a challenging target for the development of conventional substrate-competitive inhibitors. We report here the development of a high affinity (KD = 200 nM) inhibitor from a low affinity fragment hit with supporting biochemical and structural data showing these molecules bind to the cGAS active site. We also report a new high throughput cGAS fluorescence polarization (FP)-based assay to enable the rapid identification and optimization of cGAS inhibitors. This FP assay uses Cy5-labelled cGAMP in combination with a novel high affinity monoclonal antibody that specifically recognizes cGAMP with no cross reactivity to cAMP, cGMP, ATP, or GTP. Given its role in the innate immune response, cGAS is a promising therapeutic target for autoinflammatory disease. Our results demonstrate its druggability, provide a high affinity tool compound, and establish a high throughput assay for the identification of next generation cGAS inhibitors.

  1. Free cortisol in serum assayed by temperature-controlled ultrafiltration before fluorescence polarization immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Lentjes, E G; Romijn, F; Maassen, R J; de Graaf, L; Gautier, P; Moolenaar, A J

    1993-12-01

    A method is described for a temperature-controlled ultrafiltration procedure to measure free cortisol in serum. A special thermometer with a sensor was developed, measuring the temperature directly in the ultrafiltration device. The sensor is screwed on the axis of the centrifuge rotor, and the centrifuge is placed in a temperature-controlled box so that the temperature of the sample is kept at 37 degrees C +/- 0.1 degrees C. The overall CV of the free cortisol assay ranges from 2.2% to 11.4%, of which the ultrafiltration contributes only 2.2-3.6%. Increasing amounts of cortisol-binding protein, as found in women using estrogen-containing oral contraceptives, have minor but significant effects on the free cortisol concentrations in serum. Serum free cortisol concentrations in a reference population (n = 114; central 95 percentiles) were 12-43 nmol/L (4-9.5% of total cortisol); in the group of the oral-contraceptive users (n = 27), the reference interval was 11-53 nmol/L (1.5-4.5%).

  2. Application of the proximity-dependent assay and fluorescence imaging approaches to study viral entry pathways.

    PubMed

    Lipovsky, Alex; Zhang, Wei; Iwasaki, Akiko; DiMaio, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Virus entry into cells is a complex, multistep process that requires the coordinated activities of a large number of cellular factors and multiple membrane compartments. Because viruses can enter cells via one or more of a large number of preexisting pathways, understanding the mechanism of virus entry and transport between various intracellular compartments is a challenging task. The arrival of "omics" technologies such as genome-wide RNA interference screens has greatly advanced our ability to study the molecular intricacies of viral entry. Bioinformatics analyses of high-throughput screen data can identify enriched gene categories and specific individual genes required for infection, which can yield important insights into the cellular compartments that viruses traverse during infection. Although there are a variety of well-established genetic and biochemical approaches to validate genome-wide screen findings, confirmation of phenotypes obtained from RNA interference studies remains an important challenge. Imaging techniques commonly used to visualize virus localization to cellular organelles are often prone to artifacts that result from the necessity of using a high multiplicity of infection. Fortunately, recent advances in microscopy-based methods for studying protein location have improved our ability to accurately pinpoint virus localization within its host cell. Here we describe in detail one such technique-the proximity ligation assay (PLA)-as a tool to validate findings from a genome-wide loss-of-function genetic screen. In addition, we discuss a number of important considerations for the utilization of immunofluorescence microscopy and RNA interference to investigate the molecular mechanisms of virus entry.

  3. A recombinant, infectious human parainfluenza virus type 3 expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein for use in high-throughput antiviral assays

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Jason P.; Li, Joseph K.-K.; Smee, Donald F.; Morrey, John D.; Barnard, Dale L.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to rescue an infectious, recombinant, negative-stranded, RNA virus from a cDNA clone, has led to new opportunities for measuring viral replication from a viral expressed reporter gene. In this study, the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene was inserted into the human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV-3) antigenome and a recombinant, infectious virus was rescued. Maximum EGFP expression levels, measured by fluorescence, were seen at day 3. Comparison of a three-day, viral expressed EGFP fluorescence assay to a seven-day, neutral red assay, based on complete cell destruction in virus infected MA-104 cells, yielded Z′-factor values of 0.83 and 0.70, respectively. A three-day, endpoint EGFP-based antiviral assay and a seven-day, endpoint neutral red based antiviral assay were run in parallel to establish antiviral sensitivity profiles of 23 compounds based on selective index (SI) values. Using an SI threshold of 10, the EGFP-based antiviral assay had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 54%. Thus, the use of an EGFP-based antiviral assay for testing potential antiviral compounds against HPIV-3 in a high-throughput format may be justified. PMID:19189850

  4. Development of filtration-based time-resolved fluorescence assay for the high-throughput screening of urotensin II receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kwang-Seok; Lee, Sunghou; Lee, Byung Ho

    2011-10-01

    The time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) receptor binding assay has many advantages over the traditional radioligand binding assay in terms of sensitivity and reproducibility for the screening of receptor ligands. The TRF-based urotensin receptor (UT) binding assay with an automatic vacuum filtration system was developed and evaluated for the high-throughput screening of UT receptor antagonists. For this assay development, the human recombinant urotensin II (UII) was modified by labeling europium at its N-terminal position (Eu-UII) and used as a fluorescent tracer. The microsomal membrane fraction of UT receptor was prepared from HEK293 cells stably expressing the human UT receptor. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of UII from competition binding assays with Eu-UII were 2.76 nM, which is very similar to that of fluorescence polarization (FP)-based UT receptor binding experiment (2.18 nM). Comparing with the FP-based receptor binding assay for UII (Z' factor, 0.36), the current TRF assay presented improved Z' factor (0.76) with a relatively higher signal-to-background ratio (1.5 and 2.1, respectively). The known high-affinity UT receptor antagonists, palosuran and SB657510, exhibited IC(50) values of 23.6 and 73.4 nM, respectively, which were consistent with the IC(50) values from FP-based receptor binding assay (30.6 and 78.7 nM, respectively). These results suggest that our filtration-based TRF UT receptor binding assay can achieve the desired sensitivity with higher reproducibility to adapt for the high-throughput screening of compound libraries.

  5. Budded baculoviruses as a tool for a homogeneous fluorescence anisotropy-based assay of ligand binding to G protein-coupled receptors: the case of melanocortin 4 receptors.

    PubMed

    Veiksina, Santa; Kopanchuk, Sergei; Rinken, Ago

    2014-01-01

    We present here the implementation of budded baculoviruses that display G protein-coupled receptors on their surfaces for the investigation of ligand-receptor interactions using fluorescence anisotropy (FA). Melanocortin 4 (MC4) receptors and the fluorescent ligand Cy3B-NDP-α-MSH were used as the model system. The real-time monitoring of reactions and the high assay quality allow the application of global data analysis with kinetic mechanistic models that take into account the effect of nonspecific interactions and the depletion of the fluorescent ligand during the reaction. The receptor concentration, affinity and kinetic parameters of fluorescent ligand binding as well as state anisotropies for different fluorescent ligand populations were determined. At low Cy3B-NDP-α-MSH concentrations, a one-site receptor-ligand binding model described the processes, whereas divergence from this model was observed at higher ligand concentrations, which indicated a more complex mechanism of interactions similar to those mechanisms that have been found in experiments with radioactive ligands. The information obtained from our kinetic experiments and the inherent flexibility of FA assays also allowed the estimation of binding parameters for several MC4 receptor-specific unlabelled compounds. In summary, the FA assay that was developed with budded baculoviruses led the experimental data to a level that would solve complex models of receptor-ligand interactions also for other receptor systems and would become as a valuable tool for the screening of pharmacologically active compounds.

  6. STANDARDIZATION OF A FLUORESCENT-BASED QUANTITATIVE ADHESION ASSAY TO STUDY ATTACHMENT OF Taenia solium ONCOSPHERE TO EPITHELIAL CELLS In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Chile, Nancy; Evangelista, Julio; Gilman, Robert H.; Arana, Yanina; Palma, Sandra; Sterling, Charles R; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando; Verastegui, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    To fully understand the preliminary stages of Taenia solium oncosphere attachment in the gut, adequate tools and assays are necessary to observe and quantify this event that leads to infection. A fluorescent-based quantitative adhesion assay, using biotinylated activated-oncospheres and monolayers of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1) or human intestinal monolayer cells (INT-407, HCT-8 or HT-29), was developed to study initial events during the infection of target cells and to rapidly quantify the in vitro adhesion of T. solium oncospheres. Fluorescein streptavidin was used to identify biotinylated activated-oncospheres adhered to cells. This adherence was quantified using an automated fluorescence plate reader, and the results were expressed as fluorescence intensity values. A series of three assays were performed. The first was to identify the optimum number of biotinylated activated-oncospheres to be used in the adhesion assay. The goal of the second assay was to validate this novel method with the established oncosphere-binding system using the immunofluorescent-antibody assay (IFA) method to quantify oncosphere adhesion. A total of 10,000 biotinylated activated-oncospheres were utilized to assess the role of sera and laminin (LM) in oncosphere adherence to a CHO-K1 cell monolayer. The findings that sera and LM increase the adhesion of oncospheres to monolayer cells were similar to results that were previously obtained using the IFA method. The third assay compared the adherence of biotinylated activated-oncospheres to different types of human intestinal monolayer cells. In this case, the fluorescence intensity was greatest when using the INT-407 cell monolayer. We believe this new method of quantification offers the potential for rapid, large-scale screening to study and elucidate specific molecules and mechanisms involved in oncosphere-host cell attachment. PMID:22178422

  7. SPONTANEOUS AND MNNG-INDUCED REVERSION OF AN EGFP CONSTRUCT IN HELA CELLS: AN ASSAY FOR OBSERVING MUTATIONS IN LIVING CELLS BY FLUORESCENT MICROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A HeLa cell line stably expressing the Enhanced Green Fluorescence Protein (EGFP) gene, interrupted by the IVS2-654 intron, was studied without treatment and after treatment with a single standard dose of 15 ?M of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). This assay was done ...

  8. SPONTANEOUS AND MNNG-INDUCED REVERSION OF AN EGFP CONSTRUCT IN HELA CELLS: AN ASSAY FOR OBSERVING MUTATIONS IN LIVING CELLS BY FLUORESCENT MICROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A HeLa cell line stably expressing the Enhanced Green Fluorescence Protein (EGFP) gene, interrupted by the IVS2-654 intron, was studied without treatment and after treatment with a single standard dose of 15 ?M of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). This assay was done ...

  9. A new assay format for NF-kappaB based on a DNA triple helix and a fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Altevogt, Dominik; Hrenn, Andrea; Kern, Claudia; Clima, Lilia; Bannwarth, Willi; Merfort, Irmgard

    2009-10-07

    Herein we report a feasibility study for a new concept to detect DNA binding protein NF-kappaB based on a DNA triple helix formation in combination with a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The new principle avoids expensive antibodies and radioactivity and might have implications for assays of other DNA binding proteins.

  10. [Comparison of direct immune-fluorescent assay and real-time quantitative PCR in detecting the Hantavirus].

    PubMed

    Yu, Peng-bo; Li, Shen; Wei, Jing; Ma, Chang-an; Lu, Xiao-ling; DU, Shui-quan; Guan, Lu-yuan; Zheng, Yuan; Dong, Jian-hua; Ma, Chao-feng; Wang, Jing-jun

    2013-04-01

    To compare the differences between the direct immuno-fluorescent assay (DFA) and real-time quantitative PCR in detecting the Hantavirus (HV) in rat lungs. From April to October in 2012, a total of 479 rats were caught by mouse-trap in residential or wild areas in Huxian, Jingyang, and Meixian of Shaanxi province, where haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) was highly prevalent. The rats were dissected to take the two lungs, one was frozen and applied immuno-fluorescent assay to detect HV antigen while the other one was extracted its RNA and detected HV nucleic acid by real-time quantitative PCR. Then we compared the positive rate of the two methods. Out of the 479 rats, 105 were caught from residential areas and the other 374 were caught from wild areas. Among the 105 rats caught from residential areas, no HV were detected out neither by DFA nor by real-time quantitative PCR. Among the 374 wild rats, 13.1% (49/374) were detected HV positive by DFA and 14.7% (55/374) were detected HV positive by real-time quantitative PCR. The difference showed no statistical significance (χ(2) = 0.402, P = 0.526). When detecting each lung sample, the HV positive rate was 10.2% (49/479) under the detection by DFA while the HV positive rate was 11.5% (55/479) under the detection by real-time quantitative PCR. The difference had no statistical significance (χ(2) = 1.286, P = 0.257) and the consistency coefficient was 68.2% under the paired chi-square test analysis, which showed high consistency (u = 11.759, P < 0.05). The sensitivity of real-time quantitative PCR to detect HV was 77.6% (38/49) comparing with DFA as standard, and the specificity was 96.1% (413/430). Out of the 9 suspected HV positive sample detected by DFA, 6 were confirmed positive by real-time quantitative PCR and 3 were denied. Compared with the DFA, real-time quantitative PCR could also be used to detect the infection of HV in rats, and the result might be more stable.

  11. Assessment of SYBR green I dye-based fluorescence assay for screening antimalarial activity of cationic peptides and DNA intercalating agents.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Rakesh; Gautam, Ankur; Gautam, Shailendra K; Mehta, Divya; Kumar, Vinod; Raghava, Gajendra P S; Varshney, Grish C

    2015-05-01

    The SYBR green I (SG) dye-based fluorescence assay for screening antimalarial compounds is based on direct quantitation of parasite DNA. We show that DNA-interacting cationic cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) and intercalating agents compete with SG dye to bind to DNA. Therefore, readouts of this assay, unlike those of the [(3)H]hypoxanthine incorporation assay, for the antimalarial activity of the above DNA binding agents may be erroneous. In the case of CPPs, false readouts can be improved by the removal of excess peptides.

  12. Assessment of SYBR Green I Dye-Based Fluorescence Assay for Screening Antimalarial Activity of Cationic Peptides and DNA Intercalating Agents

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Rakesh; Gautam, Ankur; Gautam, Shailendra K.; Mehta, Divya; Kumar, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    The SYBR green I (SG) dye-based fluorescence assay for screening antimalarial compounds is based on direct quantitation of parasite DNA. We show that DNA-interacting cationic cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) and intercalating agents compete with SG dye to bind to DNA. Therefore, readouts of this assay, unlike those of the [3H]hypoxanthine incorporation assay, for the antimalarial activity of the above DNA binding agents may be erroneous. In the case of CPPs, false readouts can be improved by the removal of excess peptides. PMID:25691642

  13. A label-free fluorescent assay for deoxyribonuclease I activity based on DNA-templated silver nanocluster/graphene oxide nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Yeol; Park, Ki Soo; Jung, Yun Kyung; Park, Hyun Gyu

    2017-07-15

    A novel label-free system for the sensitive fluorescent detection of deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) activity has been developed by utilizing DNA-templated silver nanocluster/graphene oxide (DNA-AgNC/GO) nanocomposite. AgNC is first synthesized around C-rich template DNA and the resulting DNA-AgNC binds to GO through the interaction between the extension DNA and GO. The resulting DNA-AgNC/GO would show quite reduced fluorescence signal because the fluorescence from DNA-AgNCs is quenched by GO. In the presence of DNase I, however, it degrades the DNA strand within DNA/RNA hybrid duplex probe employed in this study, consequently releasing RNA which is complementary to the extension DNA. The released free RNA then extracts DNA-AgNC from GO by hybridizing with the extension DNA bound to GO. This process would restore the quenched fluorescence, emitting highly enhanced fluorescence signal. By employing this assay principle, DNase I activity was reliably identified with a detection limit of 0.10U/ml which is lower than those from previous fluorescence-based methods. Finally, the practical capability of this assay system was successfully demonstrated by its use to determine DNase I activity in bovine urine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Novel migrating mouse neural crest cell assay system utilizing P0-Cre/EGFP fluorescent time-lapse imaging

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Neural crest cells (NCCs) are embryonic, multipotent stem cells. Their long-range and precision-guided migration is one of their most striking characteristics. We previously reported that P0-Cre/CAG-CAT-lacZ double-transgenic mice showed significant lacZ expression in tissues derived from NCCs. Results In this study, by embedding a P0-Cre/CAG-CAT-EGFP embryo at E9.5 in collagen gel inside a culture glass slide, we were able to keep the embryo developing ex vivo for more than 24 hours; this development was with enough NCC fluorescent signal intensity to enable single-cell resolution analysis, with the accompanying NCC migration potential intact and with the appropriate NCC response to the extracellular signal maintained. By implantation of beads with absorbed platelet-derived growth factor-AA (PDGF-AA), we demonstrated that PDGF-AA acts as an NCC-attractant in embryos. We also performed assays with NCCs isolated from P0-Cre/CAG-CAT-EGFP embryos on culture plates. The neuromediator 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) has been known to regulate NCC migration. We newly demonstrated that dopamine, in addition to 5-HT, stimulated NCC migration in vitro. Two NCC populations, with different axial levels of origins, showed unique distribution patterns regarding migration velocity and different dose-response patterns to both 5-HT and dopamine. Conclusions Although avian species predominated over the other species in the NCC study, our novel system should enable us to use mice to assay many different aspects of NCCs in embryos or on culture plates, such as migration, division, differentiation, and apoptosis. PMID:22070366

  15. A fluorescence microplate screen assay for the detection of neurite outgrowth and neurotoxicity using an antibody against βIII-tubulin.

    PubMed

    Popova, Dina; Jacobsson, Stig O P

    2014-04-01

    The majority of environmental and commercial chemicals have not been evaluated for their potential to cause neurotoxicity. We have investigated if neuron specific anti-βIII-tubulin antibodies are useful in a microplate assay of neurite outgrowth of retinoic acid-induced neurons from mouse P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. By incubating the P19-derived neurons with the primary anti-βIII-tubulin antibody and a secondary Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated antibody, followed by measuring the fluorescence in a microplate reader, a time-dependent increase in anti-βIII-tubulin immunofluorescence was observed. The relative fluorescence units increased by 4.3-fold from 2 to 10 days in culture. The results corresponded well with those obtained by semi-automatic tracing of neurites in fluorescence microscopy images of βIII-tubulin-labeled neurons. The sensitivity of the neurite outgrowth assay using a microplate reader to detect neurotoxicity produced by nocodazole, methyl mercury chloride and okadaic acid was significantly higher than for a cell viability assay measuring intracellular fluorescence of calcein-AM. The microplate-based method to measure toxicity targeting neurites using anti-βIII-tubulin antibodies is however less sensitive than the extracellular lactate dehydrogenase activity assay to detect general cytotoxicity produced by high concentrations of clomipramine, or glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. In conclusion, the fluorescence microplate assay for the detection of neurite outgrowth by measuring changes in βIII-tubulin immunoreactivity is a rapid and sensitive method to assess chemical- or toxin-induced neurite toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A "turn-on" and label-free fluorescent assay for the rapid detection of exonuclease III activity based on Tb(3+)-induced G-quadruplex conjugates.

    PubMed

    Yang, WeiJuan; Ruan, YaJuan; Wu, WeiHua; Chen, PingPing; Xu, LiangJun; Fu, FengFu

    2014-07-01

    A "turn-on" and label-free fluorescent assay for the specific, rapid, and sensitive detection of 3' → 5' exonuclease III activity is reported in this study. The assay is based on the Tb(3+)-promoted G-quadruplex, which lead to the enhancement of Tb(3+) fluorescence due to the energy transfer from guanines. The proposed assay is highly simple, rapid, and cost-effective, and does not require sophisticated experimental techniques such as gel-based equipment or radioactive labels. It can be used for the rapid detection of exonuclease III activity with a detection limit of 0.8 U and a RSD (n = 6) <5 %. Notably, no dye was covalently conjugated to the DNA strands, which offers the advantages of low-cost and being interference-free.

  17. Cell Painting, a high-content image-based assay for morphological profiling using multiplexed fluorescent dyes

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Mark-Anthony; Singh, Shantanu; Han, Han; Davis, Chadwick T.; Borgeson, Blake; Hartland, Cathy; Kost-Alimova, Maria; Gustafsdottir, Sigrun M.; Gibson, Christopher C.; Carpenter, Anne E.

    2016-01-01

    In morphological profiling, quantitative data are extracted from microscopy images of cells to identify biologically relevant similarities and differences among samples based on these profiles. This protocol describes the design and execution of experiments using Cell Painting, a morphological profiling assay multiplexing six fluorescent dyes imaged in five channels, to reveal eight broadly relevant cellular components or organelles. Cells are plated in multi-well plates, perturbed with the treatments to be tested, stained, fixed, and imaged on a high-throughput microscope. Then, automated image analysis software identifies individual cells and measures ~1,500 morphological features (various measures of size, shape, texture, intensity, etc.) to produce a rich profile suitable for detecting subtle phenotypes. Profiles of cell populations treated with different experimental perturbations can be compared to suit many goals, such as identifying the phenotypic impact of chemical or genetic perturbations, grouping compounds and/or genes into functional pathways, and identifying signatures of disease. Cell culture and image acquisition takes two weeks; feature extraction and data analysis take an additional 1-2 weeks. PMID:27560178

  18. A fluorescence-detection size-exclusion chromatography-based thermostability assay to identify membrane protein expression and crystallization conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Motoyuki; Hibbs, Ryan E.; Gouaux, Eric

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Optimization of membrane protein stability under different solution conditions is essential for obtaining crystals that diffract to high resolution. Traditional methods that evaluate protein stability require large amounts of material, and are therefore ill-suited for medium- to high-throughput screening of membrane proteins. Here we present a rapid and efficient fluorescence-detection size-exclusion chromatography-based thermostability assay (FSEC-TS). In this method, the target protein is fused to GFP. Heated protein samples, treated with a panel of additives, are then analyzed by FSEC. FSEC-TS allows one to evaluate the thermostability of nanogram to microgram amounts of the target protein under a variety of conditions without purification. We applied this method to the Danio rerio P2X4 receptor and Caenorhabditis elegans GluCl to screen ligands, ions and lipids, including newly designed cholesterol derivatives. In the case of GluCl, the screening results were used to obtain crystals of the receptor in the presence of lipids. PMID:22884106

  19. Clinical Application of an Innovative Multiplex-Fluorescent-Labeled STRs Assay for Prader-Willi Syndrome and Angelman Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kaihui; Liu, Shu; Feng, Bing; Yang, Yali; Zhang, Haiyan; Dong, Rui; Liu, Yi; Gai, Zhongtao

    2016-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are two clinically distinct neurodevelopmental disorders caused by absence of paternally or maternally expressed imprinted genes on chr15q11.2-q13.3. Three mechanisms are known to be involved in the pathogenesis: microdeletions, uniparental disomy (UPD) and imprinting defects. Both disorders are difficult to be definitely diagnosed at early age if no available molecular cytogenetic tests. In this study, we identified 5 AS patients with the maternal deletion and 26 PWS patients with paternal deletion on chr15q11-q13 by using an innovative multiplex-fluorescent-labeled short tandem repeats (STRs) assay based on linkage analysis, and validated by the methylation-specific PCR and array comparative genomic hybridization techniques. More interesting, one of these PWS patients was confirmed as maternal uniparental isodisomy by the STR linkage analysis. The phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of these individuals were also presented. Our results indicate that the new linkage analysis is much faster and easier for large-scale screening deletion and uniparental disomy, thus providing a valuable method for early diagnosis of PWS/AS patients, which is critical for genetic diagnosis, management and improvement of prognosis.

  20. Development of a high-throughput fluorescence polarization assay for the discovery of EZH2-EED interaction inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mao-Rong; Du, Dao-Hai; Hu, Jun-Chi; Li, Lian-Chun; Liu, Jing-Qiu; Ding, Hong; Kong, Xiang-Qian; Jiang, Hua-Liang; Chen, Kai-Xian; Luo, Cheng

    2017-08-31

    Aberrant activity of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is associated with a wide range of human cancers. The interaction of EZH2 with embryonic ectoderm development (EED) is required for EZH2's catalytic activity. Inhibition of the EZH2-EED complex thus represents a novel strategy for interfering with the oncogenic potentials of EZH2 by targeting both its catalytic and non-catalytic functions. To date, there have been no reported high-throughput screening (HTS) assays for inhibitors acting at the EZH2-EED interface. In this study, we developed a fluorescence polarization (FP)-based HTS system for the discovery of EZH2-EED interaction inhibitors. The tracer peptide sequences, positions of fluorescein labeling, and a variety of physicochemical conditions were optimized. The high Z' factors (>0.9) at a variety of DMSO concentrations suggested that this system is robust and suitable for HTS. The minimal sequence requirement for the EZH2-EED interaction was determined by using this system. A pilot screening of an in-house compound library containing 1600 FDA-approved drugs identified four compounds (apomorphine hydrochloride, oxyphenbutazone, nifedipine and ergonovine maleate) as potential EZH2-EED interaction inhibitors.

  1. Application of green fluorescent protein-labeled assay for the study of subcellular localization of Newcastle disease virus matrix protein.

    PubMed

    Duan, Zhiqiang; Li, Qunhui; He, Liang; Zhao, Guo; Chen, Jian; Hu, Shunlin; Liu, Xiufan

    2013-12-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) used as a powerful marker of gene expression in vivo has so far been applied widely in studying the localizations and functions of protein in living cells. In this study, GFP-labeled assay was used to investigate the subcellular localization of matrix (M) protein of different virulence and genotype Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains. The M protein of ten NDV strains fused with GFP (GFP-M) all showed nuclear-and-nucleolar localization throughout transfection, whereas that of the other two strains were observed in the nucleus and nucleolus early in transfection but in the cytoplasm late in transfection. In addition, mutations to the previously defined nuclear localization signal in the GFP-M fusion protein were studied as well. Single changes at positions 262 and 263 did not affect nuclear localization of M, while changing both of these arginine residues to asparagine caused re-localization of M mainly to the cytoplasm. The GFP-M was validated as a suitable system for studying the subcellular localization of M protein and could be used to assist us in further identifying the signal sequences responsible for the nucleolar localization and cytoplasmic localization of M protein.

  2. Cell Painting, a high-content image-based assay for morphological profiling using multiplexed fluorescent dyes.

    PubMed

    Bray, Mark-Anthony; Singh, Shantanu; Han, Han; Davis, Chadwick T; Borgeson, Blake; Hartland, Cathy; Kost-Alimova, Maria; Gustafsdottir, Sigrun M; Gibson, Christopher C; Carpenter, Anne E

    2016-09-01

    In morphological profiling, quantitative data are extracted from microscopy images of cells to identify biologically relevant similarities and differences among samples based on these profiles. This protocol describes the design and execution of experiments using Cell Painting, which is a morphological profiling assay that multiplexes six fluorescent dyes, imaged in five channels, to reveal eight broadly relevant cellular components or organelles. Cells are plated in multiwell plates, perturbed with the treatments to be tested, stained, fixed, and imaged on a high-throughput microscope. Next, an automated image analysis software identifies individual cells and measures ∼1,500 morphological features (various measures of size, shape, texture, intensity, and so on) to produce a rich profile that is suitable for the detection of subtle phenotypes. Profiles of cell populations treated with different experimental perturbations can be compared to suit many goals, such as identifying the phenotypic impact of chemical or genetic perturbations, grouping compounds and/or genes into functional pathways, and identifying signatures of disease. Cell culture and image acquisition takes 2 weeks; feature extraction and data analysis take an additional 1-2 weeks.

  3. Novel Alexa Fluor-488 labeled antagonist of the A(2A) adenosine receptor: Application to a fluorescence polarization-based receptor binding assay.

    PubMed

    Kecskés, Miklós; Kumar, T Santhosh; Yoo, Lena; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Jacobson, Kenneth A

    2010-08-15

    Fluorescence polarization (FP) assay has many advantages over the traditional radioreceptor binding studies. We developed an A(2A) adenosine receptor (AR) FP assay using a newly synthesized fluorescent antagonist of the A(2A)AR (MRS5346), a pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-5-amine derivative conjugated to the fluorescent dye Alexa Fluor-488. MRS5346 displayed a K(i) value of 111+/-16nM in radioligand binding using [(3)H]CGS21680 and membranes prepared from HEK293 cells stably expressing the human A(2A)AR. In a cyclic AMP functional assay, MRS5346 was shown to be an A(2A)AR antagonist. MRS5346 did not show any effect on A(1) and A(3) ARs in binding or the A(2B)AR in a cyclic AMP assay at 10microM. Its suitability as a fluorescent tracer was indicated in an initial observation of an FP signal following A(2A)AR binding. The FP signal was optimal with 20nM MRS5346 and 150microg protein/mL HEK293 membranes. The association and dissociation kinetic parameters were readily determined using this FP assay. The K(d) value of MRS5346 calculated from kinetic parameters was 16.5+/-4.7nM. In FP competition binding experiments using MRS5346 as a tracer, K(i) values of known AR agonists and antagonists consistently agreed with K(i) values from radioligand binding. Thus, this FP assay, which eliminates using radioisotopes, appears to be appropriate for both routine receptor binding and high-throughput screening with respect to speed of analysis, displaceable signal and precision. The approach used in the present study could be generally applicable to other GPCRs.

  4. Fluorescent nanoparticle adhesion assay: a novel method for surface pKa determination of self-assembled monolayers on silicon surfaces.

    PubMed

    van der Maaden, Koen; Sliedregt, Karen; Kros, Alexander; Jiskoot, Wim; Bouwstra, Joke

    2012-02-21

    Since the computer industry enables us to generate smaller and smaller structures, silicon surface chemistry is becoming increasingly important for (bio-)analytical and biological applications. For controlling the binding of charged biomacromolecules such as DNA and proteins on modified silicon surfaces, the surface pK(a) is an important factor. Here we present a fluorescent nanoparticle adhesion assay as a novel method to determine the surface pK(a) of silicon surfaces modified with weak acids or bases. This method is based upon electrostatic interactions between the modified silicon surface and fluorescent nanoparticles with an opposite charge. Silicon slides were modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and were further derivatized with succinic anhydride. Layer thickness of these surfaces was determined by ellipsometry. After incubating the surfaces with an amine-reactive fluorescent dye, fluorescence microscopy revealed that the silicon surfaces were successfully modified with amine- and carboxyl-groups. Two surface pK(a) values were found for APTES surfaces by the fluorescent nanoparticle adhesion assay. The first surface pK(a) (6.55 ± 0.73) was comparable with the surface pK(a) obtained by contact angle titration (7.3 ± 0.8), and the second surface pK(a) (9.94 ± 0.19) was only found by using the fluorescent nanoparticle adhesion assay. The surface pK(a) of the carboxyl-modified surface by the fluorescent nanoparticle adhesion assay (4.37 ± 0.59) did not significantly differ from that found by contact angle titration (5.7 ± 1.4). In conclusion, we have developed a novel method to determine the surface pK(a) of modified silicon surfaces: the fluorescent nanoparticle adhesion assay. This method may provide a useful tool for designing pH-dependent electrostatic protein and particle binding/release and to design surfaces with a pH-dependent surface charge for (bio-)analytical lab-on-a-chip devices or drug delivery purposes.

  5. Inhibition of dsDNA-templated copper nanoparticles by pyrophosphate as a label-free fluorescent strategy for alkaline phosphatase assay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangliang; Zhao, Jingjin; Duan, Min; Zhang, Hua; Jiang, Jianhui; Yu, Ruqin

    2013-04-16

    On the basis of the inhibition of double strand DNA (dsDNA)-templated fluorescent copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) by pyrophosphate (PPi), a novel label-free turn-on fluorescent strategy to detect alkaline phosphatase (ALP) under physiological conditions has been developed. This method relies on the strong interaction between PPi and Cu(2+), which would hamper the effective formation of fluorescent CuNPs, leading to low fluorescence intensity. The ALP-catalyzed PPi hydrolysis would disable the complexation between Cu(2+) and PPi, facilitating the formation of fluorescent CuNPs through the reduction by ascorbate in the presence of dsDNA templates. Thus, the fluorescence intensity was recovered, and the fluorescence enhancement was related to the concentration of ALP. This method is cost-effective and convenient without any labels or complicated operations. The present strategy exhibits a high sensitivity and the turn-on mode provides a high selectivity for the ALP assay. Additionally, the inhibition effect of phosphate on the ALP activity was also studied. The proposed method using a PPi substrate may hold a potential application in diagnosis of ALP-related diseases or evaluation of ALP functions in biological systems.

  6. Accuracy of the Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting Assay for the Aquaporin-4 Antibody (AQP4-Ab): Comparison with the Commercial AQP4-Ab Assay Kit

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoo-Jin; Cheon, So Young; Kim, Boram; Jung, Kyeong Cheon; Park, Kyung Seok

    2016-01-01

    Background The aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-Ab) is a disease-specific autoantibody to neuromyelitis optica (NMO). We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the FACS assay in detecting the AQP4-Ab compared with the commercial cell-based assay (C-CBA) kit. Methods Human embryonic kidney-293 cells were transfected with human aquaporin-4 (M23) cDNA. The optimal cut off values of FACS assay was tested using 1123 serum samples from patients with clinically definite NMO, those at high risk for NMO, patients with multiple sclerosis, patients with other idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating diseases, and negative controls. The accuracy of FACS assay and C-CBA were compared in consecutive 225 samples that were collected between January 2014 and June 2014. Results With a cut-off value of MFIi of 3.5 and MFIr of 2.0, the receiver operating characteristic curve for the FACS assay showed an area under the curve of 0.876. Among 225 consecutive sera, the FACS assay and C-CBA had a sensitivity of 77.3% and 69.7%, respectively, in differentiating the sera of definite NMO patients from sera of controls without IDD or of MS. Both assay had a good specificity of 100% in it. The overall positivity of the C-CBA among FACS-positive sera was 81.5%; moreover, its positivity was low as 50% among FACS-positive sera with relatively low MFIis. Conclusions Both the FACS assay and C-CBA are sensitive and highly specific assays in detecting AQP4-Ab. However, in some sera with relatively low antibody titer, FACS-assay can be a more sensitive assay option. In real practice, complementary use of FACS assay and C-CBA will benefit the diagnosis of NMO patients, because the former can be more sensitive among low titer sera and the latter are easier to use therefore can be widely used. PMID:27658059

  7. A novel label-free fluorescence assay for one-step sensitive detection of Hg2+ in environmental drinking water samples

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ya; Liu, Nan; Liu, Hui; Wang, Yu; Hao, Yuwei; Ma, Xinhua; Li, Xiaoli; Huo, Yapeng; Lu, Jiahai; Tang, Shuge; Wang, Caiqin; Zhang, Yinhong; Gao, Zhixian

    2017-01-01

    A novel label-free fluorescence assay for detection of Hg2+ was developed based on the Hg2+-binding single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and SYBR Green I (SG I). Differences from other assays, the designed rich-thymine (T) ssDNA probe without fluorescent labelling can be rapidly formed a T-Hg2+-T complex and folded into a stable hairpin structure in the presence of Hg2+ in environmental drinking water samples by facilitating fluorescence increase through intercalating with SG I in one-step. In the assay, the fluorescence signal can be directly obtained without additional incubation within 1 min. The dynamic quantitative working ranges was 5–1000 nM, the determination coefficients were satisfied by optimization of the reaction conditions. The lowest detection limit of Hg2+ was 3 nM which is well below the standard of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This method was highly specific for detecting of Hg2+ without being affected by other possible interfering ions from different background compositions of water samples. The recoveries of Hg2+ spiked in these samples were 95.05–103.51%. The proposed method is more viable, low-costing and simple for operation in field detection than the other methods with great potentials, such as emergency disposal, environmental monitoring, surveillance and supporting of ecological risk assessment and management. PMID:28378768

  8. Incorporation of a fluorescent guanosine analog into oligonucleotides and its application to a real time assay for the HIV-1 integrase 3'-processing reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, M E; Pfleiderer, W; Mazumder, A; Pommier, Y G; Balis, F M

    1995-01-01

    We have synthesized a highly fluorescent (quantum yield 0.88) guanosine analog, (3-methyl-8-(2-deoxy-beta-D-ribofuranosyl) isoxanthopterin (3-Mi) in a dimethoxytrityl, phosphoramidite protected form, which can be site-specifically inserted into oligonucleotides through a 3',5'-phosphodiester linkage using an automated DNA synthesizer. Fluorescence is partially quenched within an oligonucleotide and the degree of quench is a function of the fluorophore's proximity to purines and its position in the oligonucleotide. As an example of the potential utility of this class of fluorophores, we developed a continuous assay for HIV-1 integrase 3'-processing reaction by incorporating 3-MI at the cleavage site in a double-stranded oligonucleotide identical to the U5 terminal sequence of the HIV genome. Integrase cleaves the 3'-terminal dinucleotide containing the fluorophore, resulting in an increase in fluorescence which can be monitored on a spectrofluorometer. Substitution of the fluorophore for guanosine at the cleavage site does not inhibit integrase activity. This assay is specific for the 3'-processing reaction. The change in fluorescence intensity is linear over time and proportional to the rate of the reaction. This assay demonstrates the potential utility of this new class of fluorophore for continuous monitoring of protein/DNA interactions. PMID:7659509

  9. A novel label-free fluorescence assay for one-step sensitive detection of Hg2+ in environmental drinking water samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ya; Liu, Nan; Liu, Hui; Wang, Yu; Hao, Yuwei; Ma, Xinhua; Li, Xiaoli; Huo, Yapeng; Lu, Jiahai; Tang, Shuge; Wang, Caiqin; Zhang, Yinhong; Gao, Zhixian

    2017-04-01

    A novel label-free fluorescence assay for detection of Hg2+ was developed based on the Hg2+-binding single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and SYBR Green I (SG I). Differences from other assays, the designed rich-thymine (T) ssDNA probe without fluorescent labelling can be rapidly formed a T-Hg2+-T complex and folded into a stable hairpin structure in the presence of Hg2+ in environmental drinking water samples by facilitating fluorescence increase through intercalating with SG I in one-step. In the assay, the fluorescence signal can be directly obtained without additional incubation within 1 min. The dynamic quantitative working ranges was 5-1000 nM, the determination coefficients were satisfied by optimization of the reaction conditions. The lowest detection limit of Hg2+ was 3 nM which is well below the standard of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This method was highly specific for detecting of Hg2+ without being affected by other possible interfering ions from different background compositions of water samples. The recoveries of Hg2+ spiked in these samples were 95.05-103.51%. The proposed method is more viable, low-costing and simple for operation in field detection than the other methods with great potentials, such as emergency disposal, environmental monitoring, surveillance and supporting of ecological risk assessment and management.

  10. A novel label-free fluorescence assay for one-step sensitive detection of Hg(2+) in environmental drinking water samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya; Liu, Nan; Liu, Hui; Wang, Yu; Hao, Yuwei; Ma, Xinhua; Li, Xiaoli; Huo, Yapeng; Lu, Jiahai; Tang, Shuge; Wang, Caiqin; Zhang, Yinhong; Gao, Zhixian

    2017-04-05

    A novel label-free fluorescence assay for detection of Hg(2+) was developed based on the Hg(2+)-binding single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and SYBR Green I (SG I). Differences from other assays, the designed rich-thymine (T) ssDNA probe without fluorescent labelling can be rapidly formed a T-Hg(2+)-T complex and folded into a stable hairpin structure in the presence of Hg(2+) in environmental drinking water samples by facilitating fluorescence increase through intercalating with SG I in one-step. In the assay, the fluorescence signal can be directly obtained without additional incubation within 1 min. The dynamic quantitative working ranges was 5-1000 nM, the determination coefficients were satisfied by optimization of the reaction conditions. The lowest detection limit of Hg(2+) was 3 nM which is well below the standard of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This method was highly specific for detecting of Hg(2+) without being affected by other possible interfering ions from different background compositions of water samples. The recoveries of Hg(2+) spiked in these samples were 95.05-103.51%. The proposed method is more viable, low-costing and simple for operation in field detection than the other methods with great potentials, such as emergency disposal, environmental monitoring, surveillance and supporting of ecological risk assessment and management.

  11. Exploring the dynamics of fluorescence staining of bacteria with cyanine dyes for the development of kinetic assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Marlon Sheldon

    Bacterial infections continue to be one of the major health risks in the United States. The common occurrence of such infection is one of the major contributors to the high cost of health care and significant patient mortality. The work presented in this thesis describes spectroscopic studies that will contribute to the development of a fluorescent assay that may allow the rapid identification of bacterial species. Herein, the optical interactions between six bacterial species and a series of thiacyanine dyes are investigated. The interactions between the dyes and the bacterial species are hypothesized to be species-specific. For this thesis, two Gram-negative strains, Escherichia coli (E. coli) TOP10 and Enterobacter aerogenes; two Gram-positive bacterial strains, Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus subtilis; and two Bacillus endospores, B. globigii and B. thuringiensis, were used to test the proposed hypothesis. A series of three thiacyanine dyes---3,3'-diethylthiacyanine iodide (THIA), 3,3'-diethylthiacarbocyanine iodide (THC) and thiazole orange (THO)---were used as fluorescent probes. The basis of our spectroscopic study was to explore the bacterium-induced interactions of the bacterial cells with the individual thiacyanine dyes or with a mixture of the three dyes. Steady-state absorption spectroscopy revealed that the different bacterial species altered the absorption properties of the dyes. Mixed-dye solutions gave unique absorption patterns for each bacteria tested, with competitive binding observed between the bacteria and spectrophotometric probes (thiacyanine dyes). Emission spectroscopy recorded changes in the emission spectra of THIA following the introduction of bacterial cells. Experimental results revealed that the emission enhancement of the dyes resulted from increases in the emission quantum yield of the thiacyanine dyes upon binding to the bacteria cellular components. The recorded emission enhancement data were fitted to an exponential (mono

  12. Applying a high-throughput fluorescence polarization assay for the discovery of chemical probes blocking La:RNA interactions in vitro and in cells.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Gunhild; Fedarovich, Alena; Kota, Venkatesh; Rodriguez, Reycel; Smith, Charles D; Heise, Tilman

    2017-01-01

    The RNA-binding protein La is overexpressed in a number of tumor tissues and is thought to support tumorigenesis by binding to and facilitating the expression of mRNAs encoding tumor-promoting and anti-apoptotic factors. Hence, small molecules able to block the binding of La to specific RNAs could have a therapeutic impact by reducing the expression of tumor-promoting and anti-apoptotic factors. Toward this novel therapeutic strategy, we aimed to develop a high-throughput fluorescence polarization assay to screen small compound libraries for molecules blocking the binding of La to an RNA element derived from cyclin D1 mRNA. Herein, we make use of a robust fluorescence polarization assay and the validation of primary hits by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. We showed recently that La protects cells against cisplatin treatment by stimulating the protein synthesis of the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl2. Here, we show by RNA immunoprecipitation experiments that one small compound specifically impairs the association of La with Bcl2 mRNA in cells and sensitizes cells for cipslatin-induced cell death. In summary, we report the application of a high-throughput fluorescence polarization assay to identify small compounds that impair the binding of La to target RNAs in vitro and in cells.

  13. Applying a high-throughput fluorescence polarization assay for the discovery of chemical probes blocking La:RNA interactions in vitro and in cells

    PubMed Central

    Kota, Venkatesh; Rodriguez, Reycel; Smith, Charles D.

    2017-01-01

    The RNA-binding protein La is overexpressed in a number of tumor tissues and is thought to support tumorigenesis by binding to and facilitating the expression of mRNAs encoding tumor-promoting and anti-apoptotic factors. Hence, small molecules able to block the binding of La to specific RNAs could have a therapeutic impact by reducing the expression of tumor-promoting and anti-apoptotic factors. Toward this novel therapeutic strategy, we aimed to develop a high-throughput fluorescence polarization assay to screen small compound libraries for molecules blocking the binding of La to an RNA element derived from cyclin D1 mRNA. Herein, we make use of a robust fluorescence polarization assay and the validation of primary hits by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. We showed recently that La protects cells against cisplatin treatment by stimulating the protein synthesis of the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl2. Here, we show by RNA immunoprecipitation experiments that one small compound specifically impairs the association of La with Bcl2 mRNA in cells and sensitizes cells for cipslatin-induced cell death. In summary, we report the application of a high-throughput fluorescence polarization assay to identify small compounds that impair the binding of La to target RNAs in vitro and in cells. PMID:28291789

  14. Tandem Mass Spectrometry Has a Larger Analytical Range than Fluorescence Assays of Lysosomal Enzymes: Application to Newborn Screening and Diagnosis of Mucopolysaccharidoses Types II, IVA, and VI.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arun Babu; Masi, Sophia; Ghomashchi, Farideh; Chennamaneni, Naveen Kumar; Ito, Makoto; Scott, C Ronald; Turecek, Frantisek; Gelb, Michael H; Spacil, Zdenek

    2015-11-01

    There is interest in newborn screening and diagnosis of lysosomal storage diseases because of the development of treatment options that improve clinical outcome. Assays of lysosomal enzymes with high analytical range (ratio of assay response from the enzymatic reaction divided by the assay response due to nonenzymatic processes) are desirable because they are predicted to lead to a lower rate of false positives in population screening and to more accurate diagnoses. We designed new tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) assays that give the largest analytical ranges reported to date for the use of dried blood spots (DBS) for detection of mucopolysaccharidoses type II (MPS-II), MPS-IVA, and MPS-VI. For comparison, we carried out fluorometric assays of 6 lysosomal enzymes using 4-methylumbelliferyl (4MU)-substrate conjugates. The MS/MS assays for MPS-II, -IVA, and -VI displayed analytical ranges that are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those for the corresponding fluorometric assays. The relatively small analytical ranges of the 4MU assays are due to the intrinsic fluorescence of the 4MU substrates, which cause high background in the assay response. These highly reproducible MS/MS assays for MPS-II, -IVA, and -VI can support multiplex newborn screening of these lysosomal storage diseases. MS/MS assays of lysosomal enzymes outperform 4MU fluorometric assays in terms of analytical range. Ongoing pilot studies will allow us to gauge the impact of the increased analytical range on newborn screening performance. © 2015 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  15. Pharmacological characterization of human excitatory amino acid transporters EAAT1, EAAT2 and EAAT3 in a fluorescence-based membrane potential assay.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Anders A; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2004-06-01

    We have expressed the human excitatory amino acid transporters EAAT1, EAAT2 and EAAT3 stably in HEK293 cells and characterized the transporters pharmacologically in a conventional [(3) H]-d-aspartate uptake assay and in a fluorescence-based membrane potential assay, the FLIPR Membrane Potential (FMP) assay. The K(m) and K(i) values obtained for 12 standard EAAT ligands at EAAT1, EAAT2 and EAAT3 in the FMP assay correlated well with the K(i) values obtained in the [(3) H]-d-aspartate assay (r(2) values of 0.92, 0.92, and 0.95, respectively). Furthermore, the pharmacological characteristics of the cell lines in the FMP assay were in good agreement with previous findings in electrophysiology studies of the transporters. The FMP assay was capable of distinguishing between substrates and non-substrate inhibitors and to discriminate between "full" and "partial" substrates at the transporters. Taking advantage of the prolific nature of the FMP assay, interactions of the EAATs with substrates and inhibitors were studied in some detail. This is the first report of a high throughput screening assay for EAATs. We propose that the assay will be of great use in future studies of the transporters. Although conventional electrophysiology set-ups might be superior in terms of studying sophisticated kinetic aspects of the uptake process, the FMP assay enables the collection of considerable amounts of highly reproducible data with relatively little labor. Furthermore, considering that the number of EAAT ligands presently available is limited, and that almost all of these are characterized by low potency and a low degree of subtype selectivity, future screening of compound libraries at the EAAT-cell lines in the FMP assay could help identify structurally and pharmacologically novel ligands for the transporters.

  16. Tandem Mass Spectrometry Has a Larger Analytical Range than Fluorescence Assays of Lysosomal Enzymes: Application to Newborn Screening and Diagnosis of Mucopolysaccharidoses Types II, IVA, and VI

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arun Babu; Masi, Sophia; Ghomashchi, Farideh; Chennamaneni, Naveen Kumar; Ito, Makoto; Scott, C. Ronald; Turecek, Frantisek; Gelb, Michael H.; Spacil, Zdenek

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is interest in newborn screening and diagnosis of lysosomal storage diseases because of the development of treatment options that improve clinical outcome. Assays of lysosomal enzymes with high analytical range (ratio of assay response from the enzymatic reaction divided by the assay response due to nonenzymatic processes) are desirable because they are predicted to lead to a lower rate of false positives in population screening and to more accurate diagnoses. METHODS We designed new tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) assays that give the largest analytical ranges reported to date for the use of dried blood spots (DBS) for detection of mucopolysaccharidoses type II (MPS-II), MPS-IVA, and MPS-VI. For comparison, we carried out fluorometric assays of 6 lysosomal enzymes using 4-methylumbelliferyl (4MU)-substrate conjugates. RESULTS The MS/MS assays for MPS-II, -IVA, and -VI displayed analytical ranges that are 1–2 orders of magnitude higher than those for the corresponding fluorometric assays. The relatively small analytical ranges of the 4MU assays are due to the intrinsic fluorescence of the 4MU substrates, which cause high background in the assay response. CONCLUSIONS These highly reproducible MS/MS assays for MPS-II, -IVA, and -VI can support multiplex newborn screening of these lysosomal storage diseases. MS/MS assays of lysosomal enzymes outperform 4MU fluorometric assays in terms of analytical range. Ongoing pilot studies will allow us to gauge the impact of the increased analytical range on newborn screening performance. PMID:26369786

  17. Validation of fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) and comparison with other tests used for diagnosis of B. melitensis infection in sheep.

    PubMed

    Minas, A; Stournara, A; Minas, M; Papaioannou, A; Krikelis, V; Tselepidis, S

    2005-12-20

    Fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) is a new test for the serological diagnosis of Brucella spp. infection in animals. The FPA is validated for the diagnosis of B. melitensis infection in sheep. For this purpose, 166 sera originated from natural infected sheep (verified by culture) and 851 sera originated from healthy animals (reared in areas where B. melitensis was never been isolated) were tested. The optimum cut-off value that offers the highest diagnostic sensitivity (DSn) and diagnostic specificity (DSp) was determined at 87mP with the use of ROC analysis. The DSn and DSp of FPA using this cut-off value are calculated at 97.6 and 98.9% with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 93.9-99.3% and 98.0-99.5%, respectively. The DSn and DSp of FPA have been assessed also using as positive reference (n=587), sera that gave positive results at least in two tests used for diagnosis of B. melitensis in sheep as Rose Bengal Test (RBT), modified Rose Bengal Test (m-RBT), complement fixation test (CFT), indirect Elisa (i-Elisa) and competition Elisa (c-Elisa) originated from animals reared in flocks infected by B. melitensis. The optimum cut-off value using the above panel of positive reference sera was the same offering a DSn of 95.9% with a 95% CI, 94.0-97.4%, since the DSp remains the same. The DSn and DSp as well as performance, accuracy and agreement of FPA's result were compared with those of other tests used. The accuracy of FPA is very high, similar with that of i-Elisa. FPA is a promising assay, which offers a DSn and accuracy better that of those of the tests currently approved for the diagnosis of B. melitensis in sheep and goats. Due to its simplicity, the sort time that results can be obtained and its accuracy it can be used and improve the laboratory testing capacity as well as the efficacy of the eradication program based on test-and-slaughter policy.

  18. Evaluation of an automated enzyme-linked fluorescent assay for thyroxine measurement in cat and dog sera.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Rouven; Mueller, Ralf; Reese, Sven; Wehner, Astrid

    2017-03-01

    Measurement of total thyroxine (T4) is the first testing step in the work-up of thyroid disease in small animals. We evaluated an enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA) as an in-house method to measure T4 in cats and dogs. We compared the T4 concentration in sera of 122 cats and 176 dogs measured by the ELFA with an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to assess the concordance of the 2 methods. Bias of the ELFA in cats was -11.4% and in dogs 1.4%. Using Bland-Altman plots, limits of agreement were -81.5 to 58.7% in cats and -71.4 to 74.4% in dogs. Imprecision was calculated for both methods. Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation (CVs) of the ELFA in feline sera were 0.7 and 3.4% and of the EIA 7.6 and 15.7%, respectively. Intra- and interassay CVs of both ELFA and EIA in canine sera were <9.5%. Reference intervals for the ELFA method were established and were 13.3-49.5 nmol/L for cats and 10.1-42.9 nmol/L for dogs. Accuracy of the EIA and ELFA was scored by assessing if the measured T4 value would identify the expected T4 range (low, normal, or elevated) of patients, based on history, clinical presentation, other diagnostic means, and response to therapy. This was possible for 75 cats and 50 dogs. Both methods yielded acceptable results, but the EIA was more accurate compared to the ELFA (percentage of true-positives in cats and dogs: EIA: 97% and 100%; ELFA: 92% and 94%).

  19. Rapid detection of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by a fluorescent probe-based isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Qin, Xiaodong; Sun, Yingjun; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Zhidong

    2016-12-01

    A novel fluorescent probe-based real-time reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (real-time RT-RPA) assay was developed for rapid detection of highly pathogenic type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV). The sensitivity analysis showed that the detection limit of RPA was 70 copies of HP-PRRSV RNA/reaction. The real-time RT-RPA highly specific amplified HP-PRRSV with no cross-reaction with classic PRRSV, classic swine fever virus, pseudorabies virus, and foot-and-mouth disease virus. Assessment with 125 clinical samples showed that the developed real-time RT-RPA assay was well correlated with real-time RT-qPCR assays for detection of HP-PRRSV. These results suggest that the developed real-time RT-RPA assay is suitable for rapid detection of HP-PRRSV.

  20. Time-Resolved Fluorescent Resonance Energy Transfer Assay for Simple and Rapid Detection of Anti-Brucella Antibodies in Ruminant Serum Samples▿

    PubMed Central

    McGiven, John A.; Thompson, Iain J.; Commander, Nicola J.; Stack, Judy A.

    2009-01-01

    Brucellosis is a globally significant zoonosis, the control of which is difficult and resource intensive. Serological tests form a vital part of a multifactorial approach to control and are often performed in large numbers. The aim of the present study was to develop a new assay to improve the efficiency, ease, and effectiveness of serological testing. An existing competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was adapted to a completely homogeneous time-resolved fluorescent resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) assay. This was achieved by labeling an anti-Brucella monoclonal antibody with a long-lifetime donor fluorophore and Brucella smooth lipopolysaccharide with a compatible acceptor and optimizing the reading conditions. The assay was performed in a 96-well plate with a single 30-min incubation period and no separation (wash) steps and was concluded by a single plate-reading step. The performance of the assay was evaluated with a panel of serum samples from infected (n = 73) and uninfected (n = 480) sources and compared to the performance of the parent cELISA, an indirect ELISA (iELISA), and fluorescence polarization assay (FPA). The performance of the TR-FRET assay matched the performance of the iELISA, which had 100% diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, and surpassed the performance of the cELISA and the FPA. The results also demonstrated that the TR-FRET technique is effective with poor-quality serum samples from the field. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first homogeneous TR-FRET assay to detect antibodies raised against an infectious disease. The technique appears to be sufficiently adaptable to meet the needs of many other similar testing requirements to identify infectious diseases. PMID:19656980

  1. Direct Comparison of the Histidine-rich Protein-2 Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and Malaria SYBR Green I Fluorescence (MSF) Drug Sensitivity Tests in Plasmodium falciparum Reference Clones and Fresh ex vivo Field Isolates from Cambodia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-12

    assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and malaria SYBR Green I fluorescence (MSF) drug sensitivity tests were directly compared using Plasmodium falciparum reference...Southeast Asia. Keywords: Immediate ex vivo Plasmodium falciparum drug susceptibility testing, HRP-2 ELISA, Malaria SYBR green fluorescence assay, Cambodia... malaria drug susceptibility assay using a reference clone to improve comparisons of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates. Malar J 2012, 11:325. 22. Le

  2. Optimization of a Yellow fluorescent protein-based iodide influx high-throughput screening assay for cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulators.

    PubMed

    Sui, Jinliang; Cotard, Shakira; Andersen, Jennifer; Zhu, Ping; Staunton, Jane; Lee, Margaret; Lin, Stephen

    2010-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis is an inherited, life-threatening disease associated with mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. The most common mutation, F508del CFTR, is found in 90% of CF patients. The loss of a single amino acid (phenylalanine at position 508) results in malformed CFTR with defective trafficking to the plasma membrane and impaired channel function. A functional assay with cells expressing F508del CFTR has been previously described by others using genetically engineered halide-sensitive yellow fluorescent protein to screen for CFTR modulators. We adapted this yellow fluorescent protein assay to 384-well plate format with a high-throughput screening plate reader, and optimized the assay in terms of data quality, resolution, and throughput, with target-specific protocols. The optimized assay was validated with reference compounds from cystic fibrosis foundation therapeutics. On the basis of the Z-factor range (≥0.5) and the potential productivity, this assay is well suited for high-throughput screening. It was successfully used to screen for active single agent and synergistic combinations of single agent modulators of F508del CFTR from a library collection of current active pharmaceutical ingredients (supported by Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Therapeutics).

  3. Development of a robust, higher throughput green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) micro-neutralization assay.

    PubMed

    Lin, Rui; Heeke, Darren; Liu, Hui; Rao, Eileen; Marshall, Jason D; Chio, Vera; Cataniag, Floro; Yu, Li; Zuo, Fengrong; McCarthy, Michael P

    2017-09-01

    The goal of most prophylactic vaccines is to elicit robust and effective neutralizing antibodies against the human pathogen target. The titer of neutralizing antibodies to Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is a useful biomarker for evaluating EBV vaccines. Here, the development and optimization of a 96-well micro-neutralization fluorescent imaging assay (FIA) using an EBV virus-encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) to infect adherent EBV recipient cells is reported. The conditions were optimized for generating reproducible EBV-GFP virus, for maintaining viral infectivity for months, and for efficient viral infection of recipient cell culture. The utility of the EBV-GFP FIA neutralization assay was demonstrated in a mouse study of an investigational adjuvanted EBV gp350 subunit vaccine. This assay confirmed the generation of high titers of anti-EBV-neutralizing antibodies which correlated well with the established Raji cell-based flow cytometry-based EBV neutralization assay, as well as with anti-gp350 IgG titers. In naturally infected EBV+ human serum samples, a good correlation between anti-gp350 IgG ELISA titer and EBV-GFP FIA neutralization antibody titer was also observed. Taken together, these results demonstrate the establishment of a scalable high throughput EBV-GFP FIA micro-neutralization assay suitable to measure humoral EBV vaccine response in a large-scale human trial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ultra-fast pg/ml anthrax toxin (protective antigen) detection assay based on microwave-accelerated metal-enhanced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Dragan, Anatoliy I; Albrecht, Mark T; Pavlovic, Radmila; Keane-Myers, Andrea M; Geddes, Chris D

    2012-06-01

    Rapid presymptomatic diagnosis of Bacillus anthracis at early stages of infection plays a crucial role in prompt medical intervention to prevent rapid disease progression and accumulation of lethal levels of toxin. To detect low levels of the anthrax protective antigen (PA) exotoxin in biological fluids, we have developed a metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF)-PA assay using a combination of the MEF effect and microwave-accelerated PA protein surface absorption. The assay is based on a modified version of our "rapid catch and signal" (RCS) technology previously designed for the ultra-fast and sensitive analysis of genomic DNA sequences. Technologically, the proposed MEF-PA assay uses standard 96-well plastic plates modified with silver island films (SiFs) grown within the wells. It is shown that the fluorescent probe, covalently attached to the secondary antibody, plays a crucial role of indicating complex formation (i.e., shows a strong MEF response to the recognition event). Microwave irradiation rapidly accelerates PA deposition onto the surface ("rapid catch"), significantly speeding up the MEF-PA assay and resulting in a total assay run time of less than 40 min with an analytical sensitivity of less than 1 pg/ml PA.

  5. Dual color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium complexes and related pathogens in cultures.

    PubMed

    Shah, Jyotsna; Weltman, Helena; Narciso, Patricia; Murphy, Christina; Poruri, Akhila; Baliga, Shrikala; Sharon, Leesha; York, Mary; Cunningham, Gail; Miller, Steve; Caviedes, Luz; Gilman, Robert; Desmond, Edward; Ramasamy, Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    Two rapid dual color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays were evaluated for detecting M. tuberculosis and related pathogens in cultures. The MN Genus-MTBC FISH assay uses an orange fluorescent probe specific for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and a green fluorescent probe specific for the Mycobacterium and Nocardia genera (MN Genus) to detect and distinguish MTBC from other Mycobacteria and Nocardia. A complementary MTBC-MAC FISH assay uses green and orange fluorescent probes specific for the MTBC and M. avium complex (MAC) respectively to identify and differentiate the two species complexes. The assays are performed on acid-fast staining bacteria from liquid or solid cultures in less than two hours. Forty-three of 44 reference mycobacterial isolates were correctly identified by the MN Genus-specific probe as Mycobacterium species, with six of these correctly identified as MTBC with the MTBC-specific probe and 14 correctly as MAC by the MAC-specific probe. Of the 25 reference isolates of clinically relevant pathogens of other genera tested, only four isolates representing two species of Corynebacterium gave a positive signal with the MN Genus probe. None of these 25 isolates were detected by the MTBC and MAC specific probes. A total of 248 cultures of clinical mycobacterial isolates originating in India, Peru and the USA were also tested by FISH assays. DNA sequence of a part of the 23S ribosomal RNA gene amplified by PCR was obtained from 243 of the 248 clinical isolates. All 243 were confirmed by DNA sequencing as Mycobacterium species, with 157 and 50 of these identified as belonging to the MTBC and the MAC, respectively. The accuracy of the MN Genus-, MTBC-and MAC -specific probes in identifying these 243 cultures in relation to their DNA sequence-based identification was 100%. All ten isolates of Nocardia, (three reference strains and seven clinical isolates) tested were detected by the MN Genus-specific probe but not the MTBC- or

  6. Comparative evaluation of the fluorescent antibody test and microtiter immunoperoxidase assay for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus from bull semen.

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, A; Dulac, G C; Dubuc, C; Howard, T H

    1991-01-01

    An indirect immunoperoxidase staining technique (IP) is described for the detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in bovine semen. The performance of the IP was compared to the reference immunofluorescent staining test in its ability to detect BVDV in 23 coded field semen samples. The IP assay which can be applied with ease to a large number of samples and does not require expensive fluorescence microscope equipment, appears to be an alternative method for BVDV detection. The IP assay can be strongly recommended for certification of BVDV-free bovine semen for artificial insemination and trading purposes and for laboratories which are not equipped for performing the immunofluorescent test. PMID:1653102

  7. Phagocytosis and digestion of pH-sensitive fluorescent dye (Eos-FP) transfected E. coli in whole blood assays from patients with severe sepsis and septic shock.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, Leonhard; Huber-Lang, Markus; Weiss, Manfred E; Hohmann, Harald; Schmolz, Manfred; Schneider, E Marion

    2011-06-01

    The function of phagocytic and antigen presenting cells is of crucial importance to sustain immune competence against infectious agents as well as malignancies. We here describe a reproducible procedure for the quantification of phagocytosis by leukocytes in whole blood. For this, a pH-sensitive green-fluorescent protein- (GFP) like dye (Eos-FP) is transfected into infectious microroganisms. After UV-irradiation, the transfected bacteria emit green (≈5160 nm) and red (≈581 nm) fluorescent light at 490 nm excitation. Since the red fluorescent light is sensitive to acidic pH, the phagocytosed bacteria stop emitting red fluorescent light as soon as the phagosomes fuse with lysosomes. The green fluorescence is maintained in the phagolysosome until pathogen degradation is completed. Fluorescence emission can be followed by flow cytometry with filter settings documenting fluorescence 1 (FL 1, FITC) and fluorescence 2 (FL 2, phycoerythrin, PE). Eos-FP transfected bacteria can also be traced within phagocytes using microscopical techniques. A standardized assay has been developed which is suitable for clinical studies by providing clinicians with syringes pre-filled with fixed and appropriately UV-irradiated Eos-FP E. coli (TruCulture™). After adding blood or body fluids to these containers and starting the incubation at 37°C, phagocytosis by granulocytes proceeds over time. Cultures can be terminated at a given time by lysing red blood cells followed by flow cytometry. A pilot study demonstrated that Eos-FP E. coli phagocytosis and digestion was up-regulated in the majority of patients with either severe sepsis or septic shock as compared to healthy donors (p < 0.0001 after o/n incubation). Following treatment with recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) in selected patients with sepsis, phagolysosome fusion appeared to be accelerated.

  8. The utility of a country-specific Bartonella henselae antigen in an IgM-indirect fluorescent antibody assay for the improved diagnosis of cat scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Tsuneoka, Hidehiro; Yanagihara, Masashi; Tanimoto, Ayano; Tokuda, Nobuko; Otsuyama, Ken-Ichiro; Nojima, Junzo; Ichihara, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Bartonella henselae strains genetically differ among nations. The utility of Japanese-specific YH-01 strain was investigated in developing indirect fluorescence antibody assay (IFA) for IgM in comparison with conventional IFA employing Houston-1 strain by testing 100 Japanese patients suspected of cat scratch disease. The country-specific IFA greatly improved the accuracy of diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimization of a New Cell-Based Fluorescence Assay for U.S. Army Global Malaria Surveillance Efforts in Support of the Warfighter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    hemisulfate salt, and mefloquine hydrochloride were purchased from Sigma Chemical Co., Saint Louis, Missouri. P. falciparum strains D6 (CDC...screening laboratory. The drugs tested included chloroquine, quinine, and mefloquine . Their respective IC50s were determined using the MSF assay... Mefloquine . RFU = relative fluorescence units. CONCLUSIONS The drug resistance profile of D6 and W2 has been well established by our group and

  10. Quantum dot-linked immunosorbent assay (QLISA) using orientation-directed antibodies.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Miho; Udaka, Hikari; Fukuda, Takeshi

    2017-09-05

    An approach similar to the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with the advantage of saving time and effort but exhibiting high performance, was developed using orientation-directed half-part antibodies immobilized on CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. ELISA is a widely accepted assay used to detect the presence of a target substance. However, it takes time to quantify the target with specificity and sensitivity owing to signal amplification. In this study, CdSe/ZnS quantum dots are introduced as bright and photobleaching-tolerant fluorescent materials. Since hydrophilic surface coating of quantum dots rendered biocompatibility and functional groups for chemical reactions, the quantum dots were modified with half-sized antibodies after partial reduction. The half-sized antibody could be bound to a quantum dot through a unique thiol site to properly display the recognition domain for the core process of ELISA, which is an antigen-antibody interaction. The reducing conditions were investigated to generate efficient conjugates of quantum dots and half-sized antibodies. This was applied to IL-6 detection, as the quantification of IL-6 is significant owing to its close relationships with various biomedical phenomena that cause different diseases. An ELISA-like assay with CdSe/ZnS quantum dot institution (QLISA; Quantum dot-linked immunosorbent assay) was developed to detect 0.05ng/mL IL-6, which makes it sufficiently sensitive as an immunosorbent assay. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Uranium in surface soils: an easy-and-quick assay combining X-ray diffraction and fluorescence qualitative data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, M. O.; Silva, T. P.; Batista, M. J.; Leote, J.; Ferreira, M. L.; Limpo, V.

    2009-04-01

    Portugal has been a uranium-producer since the beginning of the last century. The uranium-rich area of Alto Alentejo, East-central Portugal, was identified more than fifty years ago [1]. Almost all the uranium-bearing mineralization occurs in schistose rocks of the contact metamorphic aureole produced by intrusion of the Hercynian monzonitic granite of Alto Alentejo into the pre-Ordovitian schist-greywacke complex forming deposits of vein and dissemination type. The Nisa uranium-reservoir, situated at the sharp border of a large and arch shaped granite pluton, was identified in 1957 [2] but its exploitation was considered economically impracticable until recently. However, its existence and the accumulated detritus of these prospect efforts are a concern for local populations [3]. A study of the near-surface soils close to the Nisa reservoir was therefore undertaken to assess the uranium retention by adsorption on clay components under the form of uranyl ions, [UO2]2+ [4-6] and its eventual release into the aquifer groundwater. As an attempt to very quickly appraise the presence of uranium in as-collected near-surface sediment samples a combination of laboratory X-ray techniques was designed: X-ray diffraction (XRD) to identify the mineral phases and roughly estimate its relative proportion plus X-ray fluorescence spectrometry in wavelength dispersive mode (XRF-WDS) to ascertain the presence of uranium and tentatively evaluate its content by comparison with selected chemical components of the soil. A description of the experimental methodology adopted for the implemented easy-and-quick uranium assay is presented. Obtained results compare quite well to the data of certified time-consuming analytical tests of uranium in those soil samples. [1] L. Pilar (1966) Conditions of formation of Nisa uranium deposit (in Portuguese). Comunic. Serv. Geol. Portugal, tomo L, 50-85. [2] C. Gonçalves & J.V. Teixeira Lopes (1971) Uranium deposit of Nisa: geological aspects of its

  12. Clinical application of a rapid, functional assay for multidrug resistance based on accumulation of the fluorescent dye, fluo-3.

    PubMed

    Wall, D M; Sparrow, R; Hu, X F; Nadalin, G; Zalcberg, J R; Marschner, I C; Van der Weyden, M; Parkin, J D

    1993-01-01

    A rapid and simple functional assay for P-glycoprotein (Pgp) using flow cytometry to measure the accumulation of the flurophore fluo-3 has been applied to samples from patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL). Peripheral blood lymphocytes from 37 patients with B-CLL were studied for Pgp. Pgp expression, using MRK-16, a monoclonal antibody recognising an external surface epitope of Pgp, was detected in 92% of patients with B-CLL. The functional assays for Pgp expression were positive in 78 and 59% of patients using the fluo-3 and doxorubicin (dox) assays, respectively. When compared with the MRK-16 assay, the fluo-3 assay had a sensitivity of 82% compared to a sensitivity of 56% for the dox assay (P = 0.004). The specificity of the fluo-3 and dox assays could not be evaluated because of the low number of MRK-16 negative CLL cells.

  13. A highly selective and sensitive fluorescence assay for determination of copper(II) and cobalt(II) ions in environmental water and toner samples.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Yi; Lin, Yang-Wei

    2013-02-21

    In this study, a highly selective and sensitive fluorescence assay has been proposed for the determination of copper(II) and cobalt(II) ions in environmental water and toner samples. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide, copper(II) reacted with a new fluorescence reagent Amplex® UltraRed (AUR), forming a fluorescence product only at pH 7.0, while the fluorescence product of cobalt(II) with AUR formed only at pH 9.0. The fluorescence signal obtained was linear with respect to the copper(II) concentration over the range of 1.6-12.0 μM (R(2) = 0.988) and was linear with respect to the cobalt(II) concentration over the range of 45.0 nM to 1.0 μM (R(2) = 0.992). The limits of detection (at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3) for copper(II) and cobalt(II) were 0.17 μM and 14.0 nM, respectively. Our present approach is simpler, faster, and more cost-effective than other techniques for the detection of copper(II) and cobalt(II) ions in environmental water samples and that of copper(II) ions in toner samples.

  14. A Combination Fluorescence Assay Demonstrates Increased Efflux Pump Activity as a Resistance Mechanism in Azole-Resistant Vaginal Candida albicans Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Somanon; Sobel, Jack D.

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans is a pathogenic fungus causing vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Azole drugs, such as fluconazole, are the most common treatment for these infections. Recently, azole-resistant vaginal C. albicans isolates have been detected in patients with recurring and refractory vaginal infections. However, the mechanisms of resistance in vaginal C. albicans isolates have not been studied in detail. In oral and systemic resistant isolates, overexpression of the ABC transporters Cdr1p and Cdr2p and the major facilitator transporter Mdr1p is associated with resistance. Sixteen fluconazole-susceptible and 22 fluconazole-resistant vaginal C. albicans isolates were obtained, including six matched sets containing a susceptible and a resistant isolate, from individual patients. Using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR), 16 of 22 resistant isolates showed overexpression of at least one efflux pump gene, while only 1 of 16 susceptible isolates showed such overexpression. To evaluate the pump activity associated with overexpression, an assay that combined data from two separate fluorescent assays using rhodamine 6G and alanine β-naphthylamide was developed. The qRT-PCR results and activity assay results were in good agreement. This combination of two fluorescent assays can be used to study efflux pumps as resistance mechanisms in clinical isolates. These results demonstrate that efflux pumps are a significant resistance mechanism in vaginal C. albicans isolates. PMID:27431223

  15. An acetyltransferase assay for CREB-binding protein based on reverse phase-ultra-fast liquid chromatography of fluorescent histone H3 peptides.

    PubMed

    Duval, Romain; Fritsch, Lauriane; Bui, Linh-Chi; Berthelet, Jérémy; Guidez, Fabien; Mathieu, Cécile; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Chomienne, Christine; Ait-Si-Ali, Slimane; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando

    2015-10-01

    CREB-binding protein (CBP) is a lysine acetyltransferase that regulates transcription by acetylating histone and non-histone substrates. Defects in CBP activity are associated with hematologic malignancies, neurodisorders, and congenital malformations. Sensitive and quantitative enzymatic assays are essential to better characterize the pathophysiological features of CBP. We describe a sensitive nonradioactive method to measure purified and immunopurified cellular CBP enzymatic activity through rapid reverse phase-ultra-fast liquid chromatography (RP-UFLC) analysis of fluorescent histone H3 peptide substrates. The applicability and biological relevance of the assay are supported by kinetic, inhibition, and immunoprecipitation studies. More broadly, this approach could be easily adapted to assay other lysine acetyltransferases or methyltransferases.

  16. Miniaturization of a transthyretin binding assay using a fluorescent probe for high throughput screening of thyroid hormone disruption in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Xiyu; Froment, Jean; Leonards, Pim E G; Christensen, Guttorm; Tollefsen, Knut-Erik; de Boer, Jacob; Thomas, Kevin V; Lamoree, Marja H

    2017-03-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) disrupting compounds are potentially important environmental contaminants due to their possible adverse neurological and developmental effects on both humans and wildlife. Currently, the most successful bio-analytical method to detect and evaluate TH disruptors, which target the plasma transport of TH in environmental samples, is the radio-ligand thyroxine-transthyretin (T4-TTR) binding assay. Yet, costly materials and tedious handling procedures prevent the use of this assay in high throughput analysis that is nowadays urgently demanded in environmental quality assessment. For the first time a miniaturized fluorescence T4-TTR binding assay was developed in a 96 well microplate and tested with eight TH disrupting compounds. For most of the compounds, the sensitivity of the newly developed assay was slightly lower than the radio-ligand binding assay, however, throughput was enhanced at least 100-fold, while using much cheaper materials. The TH disrupting potency of 22 herring gull (Larus argentatus) egg extracts, collected from two different locations (Musvær and Reiaren) in Norway, was evaluated to demonstrate the applicability of the assay for environmental samples. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. A fluorescence polarization assay to quantify biotin and biotin-binding proteins in whole plant extracts using Alexa-Fluor 594 biocytin.

    PubMed

    Martin, Harry; Murray, Colleen; Christeller, John; McGhie, Tony

    2008-10-01

    A high-throughput fluorescence polarization assay has been developed for the detection of biotin and biotin-binding proteins in whole leaf extracts. Various groups are investigating the insecticidal properties of avidin and other biotin-binding proteins expressed in leaves of transgenic plants. The methods commonly used to quantify biotin and avidin in leaf extracts are enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting. Here we describe a homogeneous fluorescence polarization (FP) method that quantifies transgenic avidin in whole leaf extract by the simple addition of the fluorescent avidin ligand Alexa-Fluor 594 biocytin (AFB). The FP assay exploits the fact that AFB excites and emits in regions of the spectrum that are relatively free of background fluorescence in leaf extract. Transgenic leaf avidin can be quantified within 1-2 h by the FP method, in comparison with 1-2 days for ELISA and Western blotting. The FP method can also measure the amount of biotin in control leaves, not expressing avidin. Functional avidin levels of 1.54 microM (26.1 microg/g leaf tissue) were detected in tobacco leaves expressing vacuole-targeted avidin. Control leaves had biotin levels of around 0.74 microM (approximately 0.18 microg/g leaf tissue). Reagent costs are minimal: typically AFB is used at concentrations of 1-10 nM, avidin is used at 1-100 nM, and sample volumes are 20 microL in 384-well microplates.

  18. High-Throughput Screening for Small Molecule Inhibitors of LARG-Stimulated RhoA Nucleotide Binding via a Novel Fluorescence Polarization Assay

    PubMed Central

    Evelyn, Chris R.; Ferng, Timothy; Rojas, Rafael J.; Larsen, Martha J.; Sondek, John; Neubig, Richard R.

    2009-01-01

    Guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs) stimulate guanine nucleotide exchange and the subsequent activation of Rho-family proteins in response to extracellular stimuli acting upon cytokine, tyrosine kinase, adhesion, integrin, and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Upon Rho activation, several downstream events occur, such as morphological and cytokskeletal changes, motility, growth, survival, and gene transcription. The RhoGEF Leukemia-Associated RhoGEF (LARG) is a member of the Regulators of G-protein Signaling Homology Domain (RH) family of GEFs originally identified as a result of chromosomal translocation in acute myeloid leukemia. Using a novel fluorescence polarization guanine nucleotide binding assay utilizing BODIPY-Texas Red-GTPγS (BODIPY-TR-GTPγS), we performed a ten-thousand compound high-throughput screen for inhibitors of LARG-stimulated RhoA nucleotide binding. Five compounds identified from the high-throughput screen were confirmed in a non-fluorescent radioactive guanine nucleotide binding assay measuring LARG-stimulated [35S] GTPγS binding to RhoA, thus ruling out non-specific fluorescent effects. All five compounds selectively inhibited LARG-stimulated RhoA [35S] GTPγS binding, but had little to no effect upon RhoA or Gαo [35S] GTPγS binding. Therefore, these five compounds should serve as promising starting points for the development of small molecule inhibitors of LARG-mediated nucleotide exchange as both pharmacological tools and therapeutics. In addition, the fluorescence polarization guanine nucleotide binding assay described here should serve as a useful approach for both high-throughput screening and general biological applications. PMID:19196702

  19. Unexpected complex formation between coralyne and cyclic diadenosine monophosphate providing a simple fluorescent turn-on assay to detect this bacterial second messenger.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Sayre, David A; Zheng, Yue; Szmacinski, Henryk; Sintim, Herman O

    2014-03-04

    Cyclic diadenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) has emerged as an important dinucleotide that is involved in several processes in bacteria, including cell wall remodeling (and therefore resistance to antibiotics that target bacterial cell wall). Small molecules that target c-di-AMP metabolism enzymes have the potential to be used as antibiotics. Coralyne is known to form strong complexes with polyadenine containing eight or more adenine stretches but not with short polyadenine oligonucleotides. Using a panel of techniques (UV, both steady state fluorescence and fluorescence lifetime measurements, circular dichroism (CD), NMR, and Job plots), we demonstrate that c-di-AMP, which contains only two adenine bases is an exception to this rule and that it can form complexes with coralyne, even at low micromolar concentrations. Interestingly, pApA (the linear analog of c-di-AMP that also contains two adenines) or cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP, another nucleotide second messenger in bacteria) did not form any complex with coralyne. Unlike polyadenine, which forms a 2:1 complex with coralyne, c-di-AMP forms a higher order complex with coralyne (≥6:1). Additionally, whereas polyadenine reduces the fluorescence of coralyne when bound, c-di-AMP enhances the fluorescence of coralyne. We use the quenching property of halides to selectively quench the fluorescence of unbound coralyne but not that of coralyne bound to c-di-AMP. Using this simple selective quenching strategy, the assay could be used to monitor the synthesis of c-di-AMP by DisA or the degradation of c-di-AMP by YybT. Apart from the practical utility of this assay for c-di-AMP research, this work also demonstrates that, when administered to cells, intercalators might not only associate with polynucleotides, such as DNA or RNA, but also could associate with cyclic dinucleotides to disrupt or modulate signal transduction processes mediated by these nucleotides.

  20. Highly sensitive and accurate detection of C-reactive protein by CdSe/ZnS quantum dot-based fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yanbing; Wu, Ruili; Feng, Kunrui; Li, Jinjie; Mao, Qing; Yuan, Hang; Shen, Huaibin; Chai, Xiangdong; Li, Lin Song

    2017-05-02

    The conventional and widely used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), due to specificity and high-sensitivity, were suitable in vitro diagnosis. But enzymes are vulnerable to the external conditions, and the complex operation steps limit its application. Semiconductor quantum dots have been successfully used in biological and medical research due to the high photoluminescence and high resistance to photobleaching. In this study, we have developed a novel quantum dot-labeled immunosorbent assay for rapid disease detection of C-reactive protein (CRP). The assay for the detection of CRP can provide a wide analytical range of 1.56-400 ng/mL with the limit of detection (LOD) = 0.46 ng/mL and the limit of quantification = 1.53 ng/mL. The precision of the assay has been confirmed for low coefficient of variation, less than 10% (intra-assay) and less than 15% (inter-assay). The accuracy of assay meets the requirements with the recoveries of 95.4-105.7%. Furthermore, clinical samples have been collected and used for correlation analysis between this FLISA and gold standard Roche immunoturbidimetry. It shows excellent accurate concordance and the correlation coefficient value (R) is as high as 0.989 (n = 34). This in vitro quantum dot-based detection method offers a lower LOD and a wide liner detection range than ELISA. The total reaction time is only 50 min, which is much shorter than the commercialization ELISA (about 120 min). All of the results show that a convenient, sensitive, and accurate fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay method has been well established for the detection of CRP samples. Therefore, this method has immense potential for the development of rapid and cost-effective in vitro diagnostic kits.

  1. A fluorescence-based polymerase chain reaction-linked single-strand conformation polymorphism (F-PCR-SSCP) assay for the identification of Fasciola spp.

    PubMed

    Alasaad, Samer; Soriguer, Ramón C; Abu-Madi, Marawan; El Behairy, Ahmed; Baños, Pablo Díez; Píriz, Ana; Fickel, Joerns; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2011-06-01

    The present study aimed to establish a fluorescence-based polymerase chain reaction-linked single-strand conformation polymorphism (F-PCR-SSCP) assay for the identification of Fasciola spp. Based on the sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA, we designed a set of genus-specific primers for the amplification of Fasciola ITS-2, with an estimated size of 140 bp. These primers were labelled by fluorescence dyes, and the PCR products were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis under non-denaturing conditions (F-PCR-SSCP). Capillary electrophoresis analysis of the fluorescence-labelled DNA fragments displayed three different peak profiles that allowed the accurate identification of Fasciola species: one single peak specific for either Fasciola hepatica or Fasciola gigantica and a doublet peak corresponding to the "intermediate" Fasciola. Validation of our novel method was performed using Fasciola specimens from different host animals from China, Spain, Nigeria, and Egypt. This F-PCR-SSCP assay provides a rapid, simple, and robust tool for the identification and differentiation between Fasciola spp.

  2. Water-soluble gold nanoclusters prepared by protein-ligand interaction as fluorescent probe for real-time assay of pyrophosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hao-Hua; Wang, Fei-Fei; Shi, Xiao-Qiong; Peng, Hua-Ping; Liu, Ai-Lin; Xia, Xing-Hua; Chen, Wei

    2016-09-15

    This paper reports a new and facile method for the synthesis of water-soluble thiolate-protected AuNCs via protein-ligand interaction. Using 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as a model ligand and bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein, water-soluble AuNCs (BSA/MPA-AuNCs) with intense orange-yellow fluorescent emission (quantum yield=16%) are obtained. Results show that AuNCs produced with this method have hydrophobic interactions with BSA. The synthetic strategy is then successfully extended to produce water-soluble AuNCs protected by other thiolates. Moreover, a sensitive and eco-friendly sensing system is established for detection of the activity of inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase), which relies on the selective coordination of Fe(3+)with BSA/MPA-AuNCs, the higher affinity between pyrophosphate (PPi) and Fe(3+), and the hydrolysis of PPi by PPase. A good linearity between the fluorescence intensity and PPase activity within the range from 0.1 to 3U/L is found, with a detection limit down to 0.07U/L. Additionally, the fluorescent assay developed here is utilized to assay the PPase activity in real biological samples and as well as to evaluate PPase inhibitor, illustrating the great potential for biological analysis.

  3. An integrated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system with an organic light-emitting diode and a charge-coupled device for fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Hizuru; Okuma, Yukiko; Morioka, Kazuhiro; Miyake, Mayo; Hemmi, Akihide; Tobita, Tatsuya; Yahiro, Masayuki; Yokoyama, Daisuke; Adachi, Chihaya; Soh, Nobuaki; Nakano, Koji; Xue, Shuhua; Zeng, Hulie; Uchiyama, Katsumi; Imato, Toshihiko

    2011-10-01

    A fluorescence detection system for a microfluidic device using an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) as the excitation light source and a charge-coupled device (CCD) as the photo detector was developed. The OLED was fabricated on a glass plate by photolithography and a vacuum deposition technique. The OLED produced a green luminescence with a peak emission at 512 nm and a half bandwidth of 55 nm. The maximum external quantum efficiency of the OLED was 7.2%. The emission intensity of the OLED at 10 mA/cm(2) was 13 μW (1.7 mW/cm(2)). The fluorescence detection system consisted of the OLED device, two band-pass filters, a five microchannel poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic device and a linear CCD. The fluorescence detection system was successfully used in a flow-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on a PDMS microfluidic device for the rapid determination of immunoglobulin A (IgA), a marker for human stress. The detection limit (S/N=3) for IgA was 16.5 ng/mL, and the sensitivity was sufficient for evaluating stress. Compared with the conventional 96-well microtiter plate assay, the analysis time and the amounts of reagent and sample solutions could all be reduced. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Development and validation of a high-content bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay for small-molecule inhibitors of HIV-1 Nef dimerization.

    PubMed

    Poe, Jerrod A; Vollmer, Laura; Vogt, Andreas; Smithgall, Thomas E

    2014-04-01

    Nef is a human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) accessory factor essential for viral pathogenesis and AIDS progression. Many Nef functions require dimerization, and small molecules that block Nef dimerization may represent antiretroviral drug leads. Here we describe a cell-based assay for Nef dimerization inhibitors based on bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC). Nef was fused to nonfluorescent, complementary fragments of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and coexpressed in the same cell population. Dimerization of Nef resulted in juxtaposition of the YFP fragments and reconstitution of the fluorophore. For automation, the Nef-YFP fusion proteins plus a monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP) reporter were expressed from a single vector, separated by picornavirus "2A" linker peptides to permit equivalent translation of all three proteins. Validation studies revealed a critical role for gating on the mRFP-positive subpopulation of transfected cells, as well as use of the mRFP signal to normalize the Nef-BiFC signal. Nef-BiFC/mRFP ratios resulting from cells expressing wild-type versus dimerization-defective Nef were very clearly separated, with Z factors consistently in the 0.6 to 0.7 range. A fully automated pilot screen of the National Cancer Institute Diversity Set III identified several hit compounds that reproducibly blocked Nef dimerization in the low micromolar range. This BiFC-based assay has the potential to identify cell-active small molecules that directly interfere with Nef dimerization and function.

  5. Highly miniaturized formats for in vitro drug metabolism assays using vivid fluorescent substrates and recombinant human cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Trubetskoy, Olga V; Gibson, Jasmin R; Marks, Bryan D

    2005-02-01

    Highly miniaturized P450 screening assays designed to enable facile analysis of P450 drug interactions in a 1536-well plate format with the principal human cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP3A4, 2D6, 2C9, 2C19, and 1A2) and Vivid fluorogenic substrates were developed. The detailed characterization of the assays included stability, homogeneity, and reproducibility of the recombinant P450 enzymes and the kinetic parameters of their reactions with Vivid fluorogenic substrates, with a focus on the specific characteristics of each component that enable screening in a low-volume 1536-well plate assay format. The screening assays were applied for the assessment of individual cytochrome P450 inhibition profiles with a panel of selected assay modifiers, including isozyme-specific substrates and inhibitors. IC(50) values obtained for the modifiers in 96- and 1536-well plate formats were similar and comparable with values obtained in assays with conventional substrates. An overall examination of the 1536-well assay statistics, such as signal-to-background ratio and Z' factor, demonstrated that these assays are a robust, successful, and reliable tool to screen for cytochrome P450 metabolism and inhibition in an ultra-high-throughput screening format.

  6. CdS/TiO2-fluorescein isothiocyanate nanoparticles as fluorescence resonance energy transfer probe for the determination of trace alkaline phosphatase based on affinity adsorption assay.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia-Ming; Lin, Li-ping; Jiao, Li; Cui, Ma-Lin; Wang, Xin-Xing; Zhang, Li-Hong; Zheng, Zhi-Yong

    2012-08-30

    The CdS/TiO(2)-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) luminescent nanoparticles (CdS/TiO(2)-FITC) with the particle size of 20 nm have been synthesized by sol-gel method. CdS/TiO(2)-FITC could emit the fluorescence of both FITC and CdS/TiO(2). The fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) occurred between the donor CdS/TiO(2) and the acceptor FITC in the CdS/TiO(2)-FITC. Taking advantages of the excellent characteristics of FRET, a new CdS/TiO(2)-FITC FRET labeling reagent and a CdS/TiO(2)-FITC-wheat germ agglutinin (CdS/TiO(2)-FITC-WGA) fluorescent probe have been developed. The FRET occurring between the donor CdS/TiO(2) and the acceptor FITC in the labelled product CdS/TiO(2)-FITC-WGA-AP, formed in the affinity adsorption reaction between the WGA in this CdS/TiO(2)-FITC-WGA fluorescent probe and alkaline phosphatase (AP), sharply enhanced the fluorescence signal of FITC and quench the fluorescence signal of CdS/TiO(2). Moreover, the ΔF (the change of the fluorescence signal) of FITC and CdS/TiO(2) were proportional to the content of AP, respectively. Thus, a new method that CdS/TiO(2)-fluorescein isothiocyanate nanoparticles for the determination of trace AP based on FRET-affinity adsorption assay has been established. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method was 1.3×10(-17) g AP mL(-1) for CdS/TiO(2) and 1.1×10(-17) g AP mL(-1) for FITC, respectively. This sensitive, rapid, high selective and precise method has been applied to the determination of AP in human serum and the prediction of human disease with the results agreed well with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in Zhangzhou Municipal Hospital of Fujian Province. Simultaneously, the reaction mechanism for the determination of AP was also discussed.

  7. Two-photon excitation fluorescence cross-correlation assay for ligand-receptor binding: cell membrane nanopatches containing the human micro-opioid receptor.

    PubMed

    Swift, Jody L; Burger, Melanie C; Massotte, Dominique; Dahms, Tanya E S; Cramb, David T

    2007-09-01

    Current ligand-receptor binding assays for G-protein coupled receptors cannot directly measure the system's dissociation constant, Kd, without purification of the receptor protein. Accurately measured Kd's are essential in the development of a molecular level understanding of ligand-receptor interactions critical in rational drug design. Here we report the introduction of two-photon excitation fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (TPE-FCCS) to the direct analysis of ligand-receptor interactions of the human micro opioid receptor (hMOR) for both agonists and antagonists. We have developed the use of fluorescently distinct, dye-labeled hMOR-containing cell membrane nanopatches ( approximately 100-nm radius) and ligands, respectively, for this assay. We show that the output from TPE-FCCS data sets can be converted to the conventional Hill format, which provides Kd and the number of active receptors per nanopatch. When ligands are labeled with quantum dots, this assay can detect binding with ligand concentrations in the subnanomolar regime. Interestingly, conjugation to a bulky quantum dot did not adversely affect the binding propensity of the hMOR pentapeptide ligand, Leu-enkephalin.

  8. Time-Resolved Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Assay for Discovery of Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Methyl-CpG Binding Domain Protein 2.

    PubMed

    Wyhs, Nicolas; Walker, David; Giovinazzo, Hugh; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Nelson, William G

    2014-08-01

    Methylated DNA binding proteins such as Methyl-CpG Binding Domain Protein 2 (MBD2) can transduce DNA methylation alterations into a repressive signal by recruiting transcriptional co-repressor complexes. Interfering with MBD2 could lead to reactivation of tumor suppressor genes and therefore represents an attractive strategy for epigenetic therapy. We developed and compared fluorescence polarization (FP) and time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET)-based high-throughput screening (HTS) assays to identify small-molecule inhibitors of the interaction between the methyl binding domain of MBD2 (MBD2-MBD) and methylated DNA. Although both assays performed well in 96-well format, the TR-FRET assay (Z' factor = 0.58) emerged as a superior screening strategy compared with FP (Z' factor = 0.08) when evaluated in an HTS 384-well plate format. Using TR-FRET, we screened the Sigma LOPAC library for MBD2-MBD inhibitors and identified four compounds that also validated in a dose-response series. This included two known DNA intercalators (mitoxantrone and idarubicin) among two other inhibitory compounds (NF449 and aurintricarboxylic acid). All four compounds also inhibited the binding of SP-1, a transcription factor with a GC-rich binding sequence, to a methylated oligonucleotide, demonstrating that the activity was nonspecific. Our results provide proof of principle for using TR-FRET-based HTS to identify small-molecule inhibitors of MBD2 and other DNA-protein interactions. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  9. Visualization of cofilin-actin and Ras-Raf interactions by bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays using a new pair of split Venus fragments.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Kazumasa; Kiuchi, Tai; Shoji, Kazuyasu; Sampei, Kaori; Mizuno, Kensaku

    2012-01-01

    The bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay is a method for visualizing protein-protein interactions in living cells. To visualize the cofilin-actin interaction in living cells, a series of combinations of the N- and C-terminal fragments of Venus fused upstream or downstream of cofilin and actin were screened systematically. A new pair of split Venus fragments, Venus (1-210) fused upstream of cofilin and Venus (210-238) fused downstream of actin, was the most effective combination for visualizing the specific interaction between cofilin and actin in living cells. This pair of Venus fragments was also effective for detecting the active Ras-dependent interaction between H-Ras and Raf1 and the Ca(2+)-dependent interaction between calmodulin and its target M13 peptide. In vitro BiFC assays using the pair of purified BiFC probes provided the means to detect the specific interactions between cofilin and actin and between H-Ras and Raf1. In vivo and in vitro BiFC assays using the newly identified pair of Venus fragments will serve as a useful tool for measuring protein-protein interactions with high specificity and low background fluorescence and could be applied to the screening of inhibitors that block protein-protein interactions.

  10. Two-color, 30 second microwave-accelerated Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence DNA assays: a new Rapid Catch and Signal (RCS) technology.

    PubMed

    Dragan, Anatoliy I; Golberg, Karina; Elbaz, Amit; Marks, Robert; Zhang, Yongxia; Geddes, Chris D

    2011-03-07

    For analyses of DNA fragment sequences in solution we introduce a 2-color DNA assay, utilizing a combination of the Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence (MEF) effect and microwave-accelerated DNA hybridization. The assay is based on a new "Catch and Signal" technology, i.e. the simultaneous specific recognition of two target DNA sequences in one well by complementary anchor-ssDNAs, attached to silver island films (SiFs). It is shown that fluorescent labels (Alexa 488 and Alexa 594), covalently attached to ssDNA fragments, play the role of biosensor recognition probes, demonstrating strong response upon DNA hybridization, locating fluorophores in close proximity to silver NPs, which is ideal for MEF. Subsequently the emission dramatically increases, while the excited state lifetime decreases. It is also shown that 30s microwave irradiation of wells, containing DNA molecules, considerably (~1000-fold) speeds up the highly selective hybridization of DNA fragments at ambient temperature. The 2-color "Catch and Signal" DNA assay platform can radically expedite quantitative analysis of genome DNA sequences, creating a simple and fast bio-medical platform for nucleic acid analysis.

  11. Screening of HIV-1 Protease Using a Combination of an Ultra-High-Throughput Fluorescent-Based Assay and RapidFire Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Meng, Juncai; Lai, Ming-Tain; Munshi, Vandna; Grobler, Jay; McCauley, John; Zuck, Paul; Johnson, Eric N; Uebele, Victor N; Hermes, Jeffrey D; Adam, Gregory C

    2015-06-01

    HIV-1 protease (PR) represents one of the primary targets for developing antiviral agents for the treatment of HIV-infected patients. To identify novel PR inhibitors, a label-free, high-throughput mass spectrometry (HTMS) assay was developed using the RapidFire platform and applied as an orthogonal assay to confirm hits identified in a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based primary screen of > 1 million compounds. For substrate selection, a panel of peptide substrates derived from natural processing sites for PR was evaluated on the RapidFire platform. As a result, KVSLNFPIL, a new substrate measured to have a ~ 20- and 60-fold improvement in k cat/K m over the frequently used sequences SQNYPIVQ and SQNYPIV, respectively, was identified for the HTMS screen. About 17% of hits from the FRET-based primary screen were confirmed in the HTMS confirmatory assay including all 304 known PR inhibitors in the set, demonstrating that the HTMS assay is effective at triaging false-positives while capturing true hits. Hence, with a sampling rate of ~7 s per well, the RapidFire HTMS assay enables the high-throughput evaluation of peptide substrates and functions as an efficient tool for hits triage in the discovery of novel PR inhibitors.

  12. DIAGNOSING INFECTION LEVELS OF FOUR HUMAN MALARIA PARASITE SPECIES BY A POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION/LIGASE DETECTION REACTION FLUORESCENT MICROSPHERE-BASED ASSAY

    PubMed Central

    McNAMARA, DAVID T.; KASEHAGEN, LAURIN J.; GRIMBERG, BRIAN T.; COLE-TOBIAN, JENNIFER; COLLINS, WILLIAM E.; ZIMMERMAN, PETER A.

    2013-01-01

    Improving strategies for diagnosing infection by the four human Plasmodium species parasites is important as field-based epidemiologic and clinical studies focused on malaria become more ambitious. Expectations for malaria diagnostic assays include rapid processing with minimal expertise, very high specificity and sensitivity, and quantitative evaluation of parasitemia to be delivered at a very low cost. Toward fulfilling many of these expectations, we have developed a post-polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/ligase detection reaction-fluorescent microsphere assay (LDR-FMA). This assay, which uses Luminex® FlexMAP™ microspheres, provides simultaneous, semi-quantitative detection of infection by all four human malaria parasite species at a sensitivity and specificity equal to other PCR-based assays. In blinded studies using P. falciparum-infected blood from in vitro cultures, we identified infected and uninfected samples with 100% concordance. Additionally, in analyses of P. falciparum in vitro cultures and P. vivax-infected monkeys, comparisons between parasitemia and LDR-FMA signal intensity showed very strong positive correlations (r > 0.95). Application of this multiplex Plasmodium species LDR-FMA diagnostic assay will increase the speed, accuracy, and reliability of diagnosing human Plasmodium species infections in epidemiologic studies of complex malaria-endemic settings. PMID:16525099

  13. Diagnosing infection levels of four human malaria parasite species by a polymerase chain reaction/ligase detection reaction fluorescent microsphere-based assay.

    PubMed

    McNamara, David T; Kasehagen, Laurin J; Grimberg, Brian T; Cole-Tobian, Jennifer; Collins, William E; Zimmerman, Peter A

    2006-03-01

    Improving strategies for diagnosing infection by the four human Plasmodium species parasites is important as field-based epidemiologic and clinical studies focused on malaria become more ambitious. Expectations for malaria diagnostic assays include rapid processing with minimal expertise, very high specificity and sensitivity, and quantitative evaluation of parasitemia to be delivered at a very low cost. Toward fulfilling many of these expectations, we have developed a post-polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/ligase detection reaction-fluorescent microsphere assay (LDR-FMA). This assay, which uses Luminex FlexMAP microspheres, provides simultaneous, semi-quantitative detection of infection by all four human malaria parasite species at a sensitivity and specificity equal to other PCR-based assays. In blinded studies using P. falciparum-infected blood from in vitro cultures, we identified infected and uninfected samples with 100% concordance. Additionally, in analyses of P. falciparum in vitro cultures and P. vivax-infected monkeys, comparisons between parasitemia and LDR-FMA signal intensity showed very strong positive correlations (r > 0.95). Application of this multiplex Plasmodium species LDR-FMA diagnostic assay will increase the speed, accuracy, and reliability of diagnosing human Plasmodium species infections in epidemiologic studies of complex malaria-endemic settings.

  14. Dual Functional Core-Shell Fluorescent Ag2S@Carbon Nanostructure for Selective Assay of E. coli O157:H7 and Bactericidal Treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Wei, Xing; Zheng, An-Qi; Yang, Ting; Chen, Ming-Li; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2017-03-24

    A dual functional fluorescent core-shell Ag2S@Carbon nanostructure is prepared by a hydrothermally assisted multi-amino synthesis approach with folic acid (FA), polyethylenimine (PEI), and mannoses (Mans) as carbon and nitrogen sources (FA-PEI-Mans-Ag2S nanocomposite shortly as Ag2S@C). The nanostructure exhibits strong fluorescent emission at λex/λem = 340/450 nm with a quantum yield of 12.57 ± 0.52%. Ag2S@C is bound to E. coli O157:H7 via strong interaction with the Mans moiety in Ag2S@C with FimH proteins on the fimbriae tip in E. coli O157:H7. Fluorescence emission from Ag2S@C/E. coli conjugate is closely related to the content of E. coli O157:H7. Thus, a novel procedure for fluorescence assay of E. coli O157:H7 is developed, offering a detection limit of 330 cfu mL(-1). Meanwhile, the Ag2S@C nanostructure exhibits excellent antibacterial performance against E. coli O157:H7. A 99.9% sterilization rate can be readily achieved for E. coli O157:H7 at a concentration of 10(6)-10(7) cfu mL(-1) with 3.3 or 10 μg mL(-1) of Ag2S@C with an interaction time of 5 or 0.5 min, respectively.

  15. Quantification of OH and HO2 radicals during the low-temperature oxidation of hydrocarbons by Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion technique

    PubMed Central

    Blocquet, Marion; Schoemaecker, Coralie; Amedro, Damien; Herbinet, Olivier; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique; Fittschen, Christa

    2013-01-01

    •OH and •HO2 radicals are known to be the key species in the development of ignition. A direct measurement of these radicals under low-temperature oxidation conditions (T = 550–1,000 K) has been achieved by coupling a technique named fluorescence assay by gas expansion, an experimental technique designed for the quantification of these radicals in the free atmosphere, to a jet-stirred reactor, an experimental device designed for the study of low-temperature combustion chemistry. Calibration allows conversion of relative fluorescence signals to absolute mole fractions. Such radical mole fraction profiles will serve as a benchmark for testing chemical models developed to improve the understanding of combustion processes. PMID:24277836

  16. Quantification of OH and HO2 radicals during the low-temperature oxidation of hydrocarbons by Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion technique.

    PubMed

    Blocquet, Marion; Schoemaecker, Coralie; Amedro, Damien; Herbinet, Olivier; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique; Fittschen, Christa

    2013-12-10

    •OH and •HO2 radicals are known to be the key species in the development of ignition. A direct measurement of these radicals under low-temperature oxidation conditions (T = 550-1,000 K) has been achieved by coupling a technique named fluorescence assay by gas expansion, an experimental technique designed for the quantification of these radicals in the free atmosphere, to a jet-stirred reactor, an experimental device designed for the study of low-temperature combustion chemistry. Calibration allows conversion of relative fluorescence signals to absolute mole fractions. Such radical mole fraction profiles will serve as a benchmark for testing chemical models developed to improve the understanding of combustion processes.

  17. FRET-based binding assay between a fluorescent cAMP analogue and a cyclic nucleotide-binding domain tagged with a CFP.

    PubMed

    Romero, Francisco; Santana-Calvo, Carmen; Sánchez-Guevara, Yoloxochitl; Nishigaki, Takuya

    2017-07-22

    The cyclic nucleotide-binding domain (CNBD) functions as a regulatory domain of many proteins involved in cyclic nucleotide signalling. We developed a straightforward and reliable binding assay based on intermolecular fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between an adenosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate analogue labelled with fluorescein and a recombinant CNBD of human EPAC1 tagged with a cyan fluorescence protein (CFP). The high FRET efficiency of this method (~ 80%) allowed us to perform several types of binding experiments with nanomolar range of sample using conventional equipment. In addition, the CFP tag on the CNBD enabled us to perform a specific binding experiment using an unpurified protein. Considering these advantages, this technique is useful to study poorly characterized CNBDs. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  18. Performance of Three Enzyme Immunoassays and Two Direct Fluorescence Assays for Detection of Giardia lamblia in Stool Specimens Preserved in ECOFIX

    PubMed Central

    Fedorko, Daniel P.; Williams, Esther C.; Nelson, Nancy A.; Calhoun, Leslie B.; Yan, Sizhuang S.

    2000-01-01

    ECOFIX is a single-vial stool preservative that is both formalin- and mercury-free. We evaluated the abilities of three commercial Giardia lamblia-specific enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) (ProSpecT Giardia Microplate Assay [Alexon-Trend Inc.], Giardia Test [Techlab], and Premier Giardia lamblia [Meridian Diagnostics, Inc.]) and two commercial direct fluorescent-antibody (FA) assays for G. lamblia (Crypto/Giardia IF Test [Techlab] and Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia [Meridian Diagnostics, Inc.]) to detect G. lamblia in 34 G. lamblia-positive and 44 G. lamblia-negative stool specimens (determined by traditional examination for ova and parasites) preserved in ECOFIX compared to their abilities to detect G. lamblia in the same specimens preserved in formalin as the “gold standard” for each assay. Of the 34 formalin-fixed positive specimens, the number detected by each assay was as follows:, Alexon EIA, 34; Meridian EIA, 27; Techlab EIA, 29; Meridian FA assay, 31; and Techlab FA assay, 28. Both FA tests and the Alexon EIA performed well with ECOFIX, but the other two EIAs detected fewer positive specimens (the difference was statistically significant with the Techlab EIA) when ECOFIX was the preservative. Use of G. lamblia cyst antigen from cultured organisms preserved in formalin and ECOFIX demonstrated that the Alexon EIA could detect smaller amounts of antigen in ECOFIX than the other two EIAs could and suggested that cyst antigen is more stable in formalin. We recommend that laboratories use an FA assay or the Alexon EIA if they plan to use ECOFIX as their stool preservative. PMID:10878088

  19. Performance of three enzyme immunoassays and two direct fluorescence assays for detection of Giardia lamblia in stool specimens preserved in ECOFIX.

    PubMed

    Fedorko, D P; Williams, E C; Nelson, N A; Calhoun, L B; Yan, S S

    2000-07-01

    ECOFIX is a single-vial stool preservative that is both formalin- and mercury-free. We evaluated the abilities of three commercial Giardia lamblia-specific enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) (ProSpecT Giardia Microplate Assay [Alexon-Trend Inc.], Giardia Test [Techlab], and Premier Giardia lamblia [Meridian Diagnostics, Inc.]) and two commercial direct fluorescent-antibody (FA) assays for G. lamblia (Crypto/Giardia IF Test [Techlab] and Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia [Meridian Diagnostics, Inc.]) to detect G. lamblia in 34 G. lamblia-positive and 44 G. lamblia-negative stool specimens (determined by traditional examination for ova and parasites) preserved in ECOFIX compared to their abilities to detect G. lamblia in the same specimens preserved in formalin as the "gold standard" for each assay. Of the 34 formalin-fixed positive specimens, the number detected by each assay was as follows:, Alexon EIA, 34; Meridian EIA, 27; Techlab EIA, 29; Meridian FA assay, 31; and Techlab FA assay, 28. Both FA tests and the Alexon EIA performed well with ECOFIX, but the other two EIAs detected fewer positive specimens (the difference was statistically significant with the Techlab EIA) when ECOFIX was the preservative. Use of G. lamblia cyst antigen from cultured organisms preserved in formalin and ECOFIX demonstrated that the Alexon EIA could detect smaller amounts of antigen in ECOFIX than the other two EIAs could and suggested that cyst antigen is more stable in formalin. We recommend that laboratories use an FA assay or the Alexon EIA if they plan to use ECOFIX as their stool preservative.

  20. Paper-based solid-phase nucleic acid hybridization assay using immobilized quantum dots as donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Noor, M Omair; Shahmuradyan, Anna; Krull, Ulrich J

    2013-02-05

    A paper-based solid-phase assay is presented for transduction of nucleic acid hybridization using immobilized quantum dots (QDs) as donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The surface of paper was modified with imidazole groups to immobilize QD-probe oligonucleotide conjugates that were assembled in solution. Green-emitting QDs (gQDs) were FRET-paired with Cy3 acceptor. Hybridization of Cy3-labeled oligonucleotide targets provided the proximity required for FRET-sensitized emission from Cy3, which served as an analytical signal. The assay exhibited rapid transduction of nucleic acid hybridization within minutes. Without any amplification steps, the limit of detection of the assay was found to be 300 fmol with the upper limit of the dynamic range at 5 pmol. The implementation of glutathione-coated QDs for the development of nucleic acid hybridization assay integrated on a paper-based platform exhibited excellent resistance to nonspecific adsorption of oligonucleotides and showed no reduction in the performance of the assay in the presence of large quantities of noncomplementary DNA. The selectivity of nucleic acid hybridization was demonstrated by single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection at a contrast ratio of 19 to 1. The reuse of paper over multiple cycles of hybridization and dehybridization was possible, with less than 20% reduction in the performance of the assay in five cycles. This work provides an important framework for the development of paper-based solid-phase QD-FRET nucleic acid hybridization assays that make use of a ratiometric approach for detection and analysis.

  1. Preliminary Study of the Efficacy of Using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence with Quasi-Monoenergetic Gamma-Ray Sources for Nuclear Safeguards Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M S; McNabb, D P; Hall, J M; Gonzalez, J J

    2011-02-17

    We have studied the efficacy of using nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF)-based techniques to assay spent nuclear fuel for Pu content using quasi-monoenergetic sources. We have developed two techniques to precisely determine the Pu content in a fuel rod/pin. One of our approaches is virtually free of systematic uncertainties. Using analytical models, we have determined the amount of time required to measure the Pu content in spent nuclear fuel rods and spent fuel assemblies to within 1% precision. We note that Pu content can be determined in a fuel assembly about as fast as in a single fuel pin. The performance of NRF-based assay techniques with improved photon sources, which are currently under development, will also estimated. For follow-on research we propose to: (1) Construct research prototype detection systems for both of the NRF-based assay systems proposed in this paper and measure their calibration curves; (2) Determine the systematic errors associated with both assay methods, explore ways to reduce the errors and fold the results into future performance calculations; (3) Develop an algorithm to assay a fuel assembly; (4) Perform validation measurements using a single pin and scaled assemblies; (5) Research and develop current-mode detection and/or threshold detection techniques to improve assay times; (6) Characterize the flux of newly constructed sources and fold the results into the calculations presented here to determine the feasibility of a variety of proposed sources; and (7) Collaborate with others in the safeguards community to build a prototype system and perform an NRF-based assay demonstration on spent fuel.

  2. Ag@SiO2-entrapped hydrogel microarray: a new platform for a metal-enhanced fluorescence-based protein assay.

    PubMed

    Jang, Eunji; Kim, Minsu; Koh, Won-Gun

    2015-05-21

    We developed a novel protein-based bioassay platform utilizing metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF), which is a hydrogel microarray entrapping silica-coated silver nanoparticles (Ag@SiO2). As a model system, different concentrations of glucose were detected using a fluorescence method by sequential bienzymatic reaction of hydrogel-entrapped glucose oxidase (GOX) and peroxidase (POD) inside a hydrogel microarray. Microarrays based on poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG) hydrogels were prepared by photopatterning a solution containing PEG diacrylate (PEG-DA), photoinitiator, enzymes, and Ag@SiO2. The resulting hydrogel microarrays were able to entrap both enzymes and Ag@SiO2 without leaching and deactivation problems. The presence of Ag@SiO2 within the hydrogel microarray enhanced the fluorescence signal, and the extent of the enhancement was dependent on the thickness of silica shells and the amount of Ag@SiO2. Optimal MEF effects were achieved when the thickness of the silica shell was 17.5 nm, and 0.5 mg mL(-1) of Ag@SiO2 was incorporated into the assay systems. Compared with the standard hydrogel microarray-based assay performed without Ag@SiO2, more than a 4-fold fluorescence enhancement was observed in a glucose concentration range between 10(-3) mM and 10.0 mM using hydrogel microarray entrapping Ag@SiO2, which led to significant improvements in the sensitivity and the limit of detection (LOD). The hydrogel microarray system presented in this study could be successfully combined with a microfluidic device as an initial step to create an MEF-based micro-total-analysis-system (μ-TAS).

  3. Hypericin fluorescence kinetics in the presence of low density lipoproteins: study on quail CAM assay for topical delivery.

    PubMed

    Buríková, Monika; Bilčík, Boris; Máčajová, Mariana; Výboh, Pavel; Bizik, Jozef; Mateašík, Anton; Miškovský, Pavol; Čavarga, Ivan

    2016-10-01

    There has been increasing interest in fluorescence-based imaging techniques in clinical practice, with the aim to detect and visualize the tumour configuration and the border with healthy tissue. Strong photodynamic activity of hypericin (Hyp) can be improved by various molecular transport systems (e.g. LDL). Our aim was to examine pharmacokinetics of Hyp in the presence of LDL particles on ex ovo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of Japanese quail with implanted TE1 tumour spheroids (human squamocellular carcinoma). Spheroids were implanted on CAM surface on embryonal day 7 and after 24 hours formulations of free Hyp and Hyp:LDL 100:1 and 200:1 were topically applied. All experimental formulations in the fluorescent image very well visualized the tumour spheroid position, with gradual increase of fluorescence intensity in 6-h observation period. LDL transportation system exhibited clear superiority in fluorescence pharmacokinetics than free Hyp formulation by increasing tumour-normal difference. Our experimental results confirm that Hyp and Hyp:LDL complex is potent fluorophore for photodynamic diagnosis of squamocellular carcinoma.

  4. A novel aggregation-induced emission based fluorescent probe for an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) assay and inhibitor screening.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibo; Huang, Yi; Zhao, Xiaoping; Gong, Wan; Wang, Yi; Cheng, Yiyu

    2014-12-11

    A 'turn-on' fluorescent probe based on aggregation-induced emission (AIE) has been developed. It exhibits excellent selectivity and sensitivity for monitoring angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity both in solutions and in living cells as well as for screening ACE inhibitors in vitro.

  5. Development of a microsphere-based fluorescence immunochromatographic assay for monitoring lincomycin in milk, honey, beef, and swine urine.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Zhu, Kui; Xu, Fei; Wang, Wenjun; Jiang, Haiyang; Wang, Zhanhui; Ding, Shuangyang

    2014-12-10

    The residue of lincomycin (LIN) in edible animal foodstuffs caused by the widespread use of veterinary drugs is in need of rapid, simple, and sensitive detection methods. The present work introduces a fluorescent microsphere immunoassay (FMIA) for detecting LIN in different samples based on the competitive immunoreaction on the chromatography test strip. The residues of LIN in different samples compete with bovine serum albumin (BSA) labeled LIN conjugates on the T-line to bind to the anti-LIN monoclonal antibody labeled fluorescent microspheres (FM-mAbs). Captured FM-mAbs on the T-line represent the fluorescent intensity, which is detected under UV light and quantified by a fluorescent reader. Under optimized conditions, the dynamic range is from 1.35 to 3.57 ng/mL, and the 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) is 2.20 ng/mL. This method has 4.4% cross-reactivity with clindamycin and negligible cross-reactivity (<0.1%) with other analogues. To reduce the matrix effects, a dilution method is used to pretreat the samples, and the recoveries range from 73.92 to 120.50% with coefficient of variations <21.76%. In comparison with the results of ELISA and colloidal gold immunoassay, FMIA has obvious advantages such as easy operation, time savings, high sensitivity and specificity, and broader prospect.

  6. A high-throughput, homogeneous, fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based assay for phospho-N-acetylmuramoyl-pentapeptide translocase (MraY).

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Adam B; Jahić, Haris; Gao, Ning; Hajec, Laurel; Rivin, Olga

    2012-06-01

    Peptidoglycan biosynthesis is an essential process in bacteria and is therefore a suitable target for the discovery of new antibacterial drugs. One of the last cytoplasmic steps of peptidoglycan biosynthesis is catalyzed by the integral membrane protein MraY, which attaches soluble UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-pentapeptide to the membrane-bound acceptor undecaprenyl phosphate. Although several natural product-derived inhibitors of MraY are known, none have the properties necessary to be of clinical use as antibacterial drugs. Here we describe a novel, homogeneous, fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based MraY assay that is suitable for high-throughput screening for novel MraY inhibitors. The assay allows for continuous measurement, or it can be quenched prior to measurement.

  7. Identification of Small Molecule Inhibitors of the Mitotic Kinase Haspin by High Throughput Screening using a Homogeneous Time-Resolved Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Assay

    PubMed Central

    Patnaik, Debasis; Xian, Jun; Glicksman, Marcie A.; Cuny, Gregory D.; Stein, Ross L.; Higgins, Jonathan M.G.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Haspin/Gsg2 is a kinase that phosphorylates Histone H3 at Thr-3 (H3T3ph) during mitosis. Its depletion by RNA interference results in failure of chromosome alignment and a block in mitosis. Haspin therefore is a novel target for development of anti-mitotic agents. We report the development of a high throughput time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) kinase assay for Haspin. Histone H3 peptide was used as a substrate, and a Europium-labeled H3T3ph phosphospecific monoclonal antibody was used to detect phosphorylation. A library of 137632 small molecules was screened at Km concentrations of ATP and peptide to allow identification of diverse inhibitor types. Reconfirmation of hits and IC50 determinations were carried out with the TR-FRET assay and by a radiometric assay using recombinant Histone H3 as the substrate. A preliminary assessment of specificity was made by testing inhibition of two unrelated kinases. EC50 values in cells were determined using a cell-based ELISA assay of H3T3ph. Five compounds were selected as leads based on potency and chemical structure considerations. These leads form the basis for the development of specific inhibitors of Haspin that will have clear utility in basic research and possible use as starting points for development of anti-mitotic anticancer therapeutics. PMID:18978305

  8. Midori-ishi Cyan/monomeric Kusabira-Orange-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay for characterization of various E3 ligases.

    PubMed

    Otsubo, Ryota; Kim, Minsoo; Lee, Jihye; Sasakawa, Chihiro

    2016-06-01

    Many bacterial pathogens hijack the host ubiquitin system for their own benefit by delivering effectors with ubiquitin ligase (E3) into host cells via the type III secretion system. Therefore, screening for small compounds that selectively inhibit bacterial but not mammalian E3 ligases is a promising strategy for identifying molecules that could substitute for antibiotics. To facilitate high-throughput screening for bacterial E3 ligase inhibitors, we developed a MiCy/mKO (Midori-ishi Cyan/monomeric Kusabira-Orange)-based FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) assay and validated it on Shigella IpaH E3 ligase effectors. We showed the feasibility of using the MiCy/mKO-based FRET assay to identify the most appropriate ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) and determine the lysine specificity of a given E3, both hallmarks of E3 activity. Furthermore, we showed the usefulness of the FRET assay in characterizing mammalian E3 ligases, such as TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and mouse double minute 2 homologue (MDM2). In addition, we confirmed the feasibility of determining the efficiency of inhibition of E3 ligase activity using inhibitors of E1 ubiquitin-activating enzymes, such as UBE1-41, by measuring the IC50 . Based on these results, we concluded that the MiCy/mKO-based FRET assay is useful for characterizing E3 enzyme activity, as well as for high-throughput E3 inhibitor screening.

  9. On-chip multiplexed solid-phase nucleic acid hybridization assay using spatial profiles of immobilized quantum dots and fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Noor, M Omair; Tavares, Anthony J; Krull, Ulrich J

    2013-07-25

    A microfluidic based solid-phase assay for the multiplexed detection of nucleic acid hybridization using quantum dot (QD) mediated fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is described herein. The glass surface of hybrid glass-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channels was chemically modified to assemble the biorecognition interface. Multiplexing was demonstrated using a detection system that was comprised of two colors of immobilized semi-conductor QDs and two different oligonucleotide probe sequences. Green-emitting and red-emitting QDs were paired with Cy3 and Alexa Fluor 647 (A647) labeled oligonucleotides, respectively. The QDs served as energy donors for the transduction of dye labeled oligonucleotide targets. The in-channel assembly of the biorecognition interface and the subsequent introduction of oligonucleotide targets was accomplished within minutes using a combination of electroosmotic flow and electrophoretic force. The concurrent quantification of femtomole quantities of two target sequences was possible by measuring the spatial coverage of FRET sensitized emission along the length of the channel. In previous reports, multiplexed QD-FRET hybridization assays that employed a ratiometric method for quantification had challenges associated with lower analytical sensitivity arising from both donor and acceptor dilution that resulted in reduced energy transfer pathways as compared to single-color hybridization assays. Herein, a spatial method for quantification that is based on in-channel QD-FRET profiles provided higher analytical sensitivity in the multiplexed assay format as compared to single-color hybridization assays. The selectivity of the multiplexed hybridization assays was demonstrated by discrimination between a fully-complementary sequence and a 3 base pair sequence at a contrast ratio of 8 to 1.

  10. Paper-based solid-phase multiplexed nucleic acid hybridization assay with tunable dynamic range using immobilized quantum dots as donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Noor, M Omair; Krull, Ulrich J

    2013-08-06

    A multiplexed solid-phase nucleic acid hybridization assay on a paper-based platform is presented using multicolor immobilized quantum dots (QDs) as donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The surface of paper was modified with imidazole groups to immobilize two types of QD-probe oligonucleotide conjugates that were assembled in solution. Green-emitting QDs (gQDs) and red-emitting QDs (rQDs) served as donors with Cy3 and Alexa Fluor 647 (A647) acceptors. The gQD/Cy3 FRET pair served as an internal standard, while the rQD/A647 FRET pair served as a detection channel, combining the control and analytical test zones in one physical location. Hybridization of dye-labeled oligonucleotide targets provided the proximity for FRET sensitized emission from the acceptor dyes, which served as an analytical signal. Hybridization assays in the multicolor format provided a limit of detection of 90 fmol and an upper limit of dynamic range of 3.5 pmol. The use of an array of detection zones was designed to provide improved analytical figures of merit compared to that which could be achieved on one type of array design in terms of relative concentration of multicolor QDs. The hybridization assays showed excellent resistance to nonspecific adsorption of oligonucleotides. Selectivity of the two-plex hybridization assay was demonstrated by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection at a contrast ratio of 50:1. Additionally, it is shown that the use of preformed QD-probe oligonucleotide conjugates and consideration of the relative number density of the two types of QD-probe conjugates in the two-color assay format is advantageous to maximize assay sensitivity and the upper limit of dynamic range.

  11. Graphene and graphene-like two-denominational materials based fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assays for biological applications.

    PubMed

    Tian, Feng; Lyu, Jing; Shi, Jingyu; Yang, Mo

    2017-03-15

    In the past decades, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) has been applied in many biological applications to reveal the biological information at the nanoscale. Recently, graphene and graphene-like two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials started to be used in FRET assays as donors or acceptors including graphene oxide (GO), graphene quantum dot (GQD), graphitic-carbon nitride nanosheets (g-C3N4) and transition metal dichalcogenides (e.g. MoS2, MnO2, and WS2). Due to the remarkable properties such as large surface to volume ratio, tunable energy band, photoluminescence and excellent biocompatibility, these 2D nanomaterials based FRET assays have shown great potential in various biological applications. This review summarizes the recent development of graphene and graphene-like 2D nanomaterials based FRET assays in applications of biosensing, bioimaging, and drug delivery monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Competitive fluorescence assay for specific recognition of atrazine by magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer based on Fe3O4-chitosan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangyang; Li, Tengfei; Yang, Xin; She, Yongxin; Wang, Miao; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Min; Wang, Shanshan; Jin, Fen; Jin, Maojun; Shao, Hua; Jiang, Zejun; Yu, Hailong

    2016-02-10

    A novel fluorescence sensing strategy for determination of atrazine in tap water involving direct competition between atrazine and 5-(4,6-dichlorotriazinyl) aminofluorescein (5-DTAF), and which exploits magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (MMIP), has been developed. The MMIP, based on Fe3O4-chitosan nanoparticles, was synthesized to recognize specific binding sites of atrazine. The recognition capability and selectivity of the MMIP for atrazine and other triazine herbicides was investigated. Under optimal conditions, the competitive reaction between 5-DTAF and atrazine was performed to permit quantitation. Fluorescence intensity changes at 515 nm was linearly related to the logarithm of the atrazine concentration for the range 2.32-185.4 μM. The detection limit for atrazine was 0.86μM (S/N=3) and recoveries were 77.6-115% in spiked tap water samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Real-time thermal imaging of microwave accelerated metal-enhanced fluorescence (MAMEF) based assays on sapphire plates.

    PubMed

    Previte, Michael J R; Zhang, Yongxia; Aslan, Kadir; Geddes, Chris D

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, we describe an optical geometry that facilitates our further characterization of the temperature changes above silver island films (SiFs) on sapphire plates, when exposed to microwave radiation. Since sapphire transmits IR, we designed an optical scheme to capture real-time temperature images of a thin water film on sapphire plates with and without SiFs during the application of a short microwave pulse. Using this optical scheme, we can accurately determine the temperature profile of solvents in proximity to metal structures when exposed to microwave irradiation. We believe that this optical scheme will provide us with a basis for further studies in designing metal structures to further improve plasmonic-fluorescence clinical sensing applications, such as those used in microwave accelerated metal-enhanced fluorescence (MAMEF).

  14. Identification of ACAT1- and ACAT2-specific inhibitors using a novel, cell-based fluorescence assay: individual ACAT uniqueness.

    PubMed

    Lada, Aaron T; Davis, Matthew; Kent, Carol; Chapman, James; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Omura, Satoshi; Rudel, Lawrence L

    2004-02-01

    Acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) and ACAT2 are enzymes responsible for the formation of cholesteryl esters in tissues. While both ACAT1 and ACAT2 are present in the liver and intestine, the cells containing either enzyme within these tissues are distinct, suggesting that ACAT1 and ACAT2 have separate functions. In this study, NBD-cholesterol was used to screen for specific inhibitors of ACAT1 and ACAT2. Incubation of AC29 cells, which do not contain ACAT activity, with NBD-cholesterol showed weak fluorescence when the compound was localized in the membrane. When AC29 cells stably transfected with either ACAT1 or ACAT2 were incubated with NBD-cholesterol, the fluorescent signal localized to the nonpolar core of cytoplasmic lipid droplets was strongly fluorescent and was correlated with two independent measures of ACAT activity. Several compounds were found to have greater inhibitory activity toward ACAT1 than ACAT2, and one compound was identified that specifically inhibits ACAT2. The demonstration of selective inhibition of ACAT1 and ACAT2 provides evidence for uniqueness in structure and function of these two enzymes. To the extent that ACAT2 is confined to hepatocytes and enterocytes, the only two cell types that secrete lipoproteins, selective inhibition of ACAT2 may prove to be most beneficial in the reduction of plasma lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations.

  15. A Quantitative High-Throughput 96-well plate Fluorescence Assay for Mechanism-Based Inactivators of Cytochromes P450 Exemplified using CYP2B6

    PubMed Central

    Kenaan, Cesar; Zhang, Haoming; Hollenberg, Paul F.

    2010-01-01

    Mechanism-based inactivators such as bergamottin are useful chemical tools for identifying the roles of specific active-site amino acid residues in the reactions catalyzed by the cytochromes P450 (CYPs or P450s) that are responsible for the metabolism of a wide variety of drugs and endogenous substrates. In clinical settings mechanism-based inactivation of P450s involved in xenobiotic metabolism has the potential to lead to adverse drug-drug interactions and assays to identify and characterize drug candidates as P450 inactivators are important in drug discovery and development. Here we present a quantitative high-throughput protocol for investigating cytochrome P450 mechanism-based inactivators using the example of CYP2B6 and bergamottin to illustrate the finer points of this protocol. This protocol details the adaptation of a 7-ethoxytrifluoromethyl coumarin (7-EFC) O-deethylation fluorescence activity assay to a 96-well microtiter plate format and uses a plate-reader to detect the fluorescence of the product. Compared to previous methods, this protocol requires less P450 and takes significantly less time while greatly increasing throughput. The protocol as written takes approximately two hours to complete. The principles and procedures outlined in this protocol can be easily adapted to other inactivators, P450 isoforms, substrates and plate-readers. PMID:20885377

  16. Development of a Novel Green Fluorescent Protein-Based Binding Assay to Study the Association of Plakins with Intermediate Filament Proteins.

    PubMed

    Favre, Bertrand; Begré, Nadja; Bouameur, Jamal-Eddine; Borradori, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are fundamental for most biological processes, such as the formation of cellular structures and enzymatic complexes or in signaling pathways. The identification and characterization of protein-protein interactions are therefore essential for understanding the mechanisms and regulation of biological systems. The organization and dynamics of the cytoskeleton, as well as its anchorage to specific sites in the plasma membrane and organelles, are regulated by the plakins. These structurally related proteins anchor different cytoskeletal networks to each other and/or to other cellular structures. The association of several plakins with intermediate filaments (IFs) is critical for maintenance of the cytoarchitecture. Pathogenic mutations in the genes encoding different plakins can lead to dramatic manifestations, occurring principally in the skin, striated muscle, and/or nervous system, due to cytoskeletal disorganization resulting in abnormal cell fragility. Nevertheless, it is still unclear how plakins bind to IFs, although some general rules are slowly emerging. We here describe in detail a recently developed protein-protein fluorescence binding assay, based on the production of recombinant proteins tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and their use as fluid-phase fluorescent ligands on immobilized IF proteins. Using this method, we have been able to assess the ability of C-terminal regions of GFP-tagged plakin proteins to bind to distinct IF proteins and IF domains. This simple and sensitive technique, which is expected to facilitate further studies in this area, can also be potentially employed for any kind of protein-protein interaction studies.

  17. Label-Free Fluorescence Assay of S1 Nuclease and Hydroxyl Radicals Based on Water-Soluble Conjugated Polymers and WS2 Nanosheets

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junting; Zhao, Qi; Tang, Yanli

    2016-01-01

    We developed a new method for detecting S1 nuclease and hydroxyl radicals based on the use of water-soluble conjugated poly[9,9-bis(6,6-(N,N,N-trimethylammonium)-fluorene)-2,7-ylenevinylene-co-alt-2,5-dicyano-1,4-phenylene)] (PFVCN) and tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanosheets. Cationic PFVCN is used as a signal reporter, and single-layer WS2 is used as a quencher with a negatively charged surface. The ssDNA forms complexes with PFVCN due to much stronger electrostatic interactions between cationic PFVCN and anionic ssDNA, whereas PFVCN emits yellow fluorescence. When ssDNA is hydrolyzed by S1 nuclease or hydroxyl radicals into small fragments, the interactions between the fragmented DNA and PFVCN become weaker, resulting in PFVCN being adsorbed on the surface of WS2 and the fluorescence being quenched through fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The new method based on PFVCN and WS2 can sense S1 nuclease with a low detection limit of 5 × 10−6 U/mL. Additionally, this method is cost-effective by using affordable WS2 as an energy acceptor without the need for dye-labeled ssDNA. Furthermore, the method provides a new platform for the nuclease assay and reactive oxygen species, and provides promising applications for drug screening. PMID:27304956

  18. Fluorescent intercalator displacement replacement (FIDR) assay: determination of relative thermodynamic and kinetic parameters in triplex formation--a case study using triplex-forming LNAs.

    PubMed

    Sau, Sujay P; Kumar, Pawan; Sharma, Pawan K; Hrdlicka, Patrick J

    2012-11-01

    Triplex forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) are the most commonly used approach for site-specific targeting of double stranded DNA (dsDNA). Important parameters describing triplex formation include equilibrium binding constants (K(eq)) and association/dissociation rate constants (k(on) and k(off)). The 'fluorescent intercalator displacement replacement' (FIDR) assay is introduced herein as an operationally simple approach toward determination of these parameters for triplexes involving TC-motif TFOs. Briefly described, relative rate constants are determined from fluorescence intensity changes upon: (i) TFO-mediated displacement of pre-intercalated and fluorescent ethidium from dsDNA targets (triplex association) and (ii) Watson-Crick complement-mediated displacement of the TFO and replacement with ethidium (triplex dissociation). The assay is used to characterize triplexes between purine-rich dsDNA targets and TC-motif TFOs modified with six different locked nucleic acid (LNA) monomers, i.e. conventional and C5-alkynyl-functionalized LNA and α-L-LNA pyrimidine monomers. All of the studied monomers increase triplex stability by decreasing the triplex dissociation rate. LNA-modified TFOs form more stable triplexes than α-L-LNA-modified counterparts owing to slower triplex dissociation. Triplexes modified with C5-(3-aminopropyn-1-yl)-LNA-U monomer Z are particularly stable. The study demonstrates that three affinity-enhancing features can be combined into one high-affinity TFO monomer: conformational restriction of the sugar ring, expansion of the pyrimidine π-stacking surface and introduction of an exocyclic amine.

  19. A homogeneous and "off-on" fluorescence aptamer-based assay for chloramphenicol using vesicle quantum dot-gold colloid composite probes.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yang-Bao; Ren, Hong-Xia; Gan, Ning; Zhou, You; Cao, Yuting; Li, Tianhua; Chen, Yinji

    2016-07-27

    In this work, a novel homogeneous and signal "off-on" aptamer based fluorescence assay was successfully developed to detect chloramphenicol (CAP) residues in food based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The vesicle nanotracer was prepared through labeling single stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) on limposome-CdSe/ZnS quantum dot (SSB/L-QD) complexes. It was worth mentioning that the signal tracer (SSB/L-QD) with vesicle shape, which was fabricated being encapsulated with a number of quantum dots and SSB. The nanotracer has excellent signal amplification effects. The vesicle composite probe was formed by combining aptamer labeled nano-gold (Au-Apt) and SSB/L-QD. Which based on SSB's specific affinity towards aptamer. This probe can't emit fluoresce which is in "off" state because the signal from SSB/L-QD as donor can be quenched by the Au-aptas acceptor. When CAP was added in the composite probe solution, the aptamer on the Au-Apt can be preferentially bounded with CAP then release from the composite probe, which can turn the "off" signal of SSB/L-QD tracer into "on" state. The assay indicates excellent linear response to CAP from 0.001 nM to 10 nM and detection limit down to 0.3 pM. The vesicle probes with size of 88 nm have strong signal amplification. Because a larger number of QDs can be labeled inside the double phosphorus lipid membrane. Besides, it was employed to detect CAP residues in the milk samples with results being agreed well with those from ELISA, verifying its accuracy and reliability.

  20. DETECTION OF LOW DOSE RADIATION-AND CHEMICALLY-INDUCED DNA DAMAGE USING TEMPERATURE DIFFERENTIAL FLUORESCENCE ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rapid, sensitive and simple assays for radiation- and chemically-induced DNA damage can be of significant benefit to a number of fields including radiation biology, clinical research, and environmental monitoring. Although temperature-induced DNA strand separation has been use...

  1. Unique Nanoparticle Optical Properties Confound Fluorescent Based Assays Widely Employed in Their In Vitro Toxicity Screening and Ranking

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are novel materials having at least one dimension less than 100 nm and display unique physicochemical properties due to their nanoscale size. An emphasis has been placed on developing high throughput screening (HTS) assays to characterize and rank the toxiciti...

  2. Unique Nanoparticle Properties Confound Fluorescent Based Assays Widely Employed in Their In Vitro Toxicity Testing and Ranking

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanomaterials are a diverse collection of novel materials that exhibit at least one dimension less than 100 nm and display unique chemical and physical properties due to their nanoscale size. An emphasis has been put on developing high throughput screening (HTS) assays to charac...

  3. DETECTION OF LOW DOSE RADIATION-AND CHEMICALLY-INDUCED DNA DAMAGE USING TEMPERATURE DIFFERENTIAL FLUORESCENCE ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rapid, sensitive and simple assays for radiation- and chemically-induced DNA damage can be of significant benefit to a number of fields including radiation biology, clinical research, and environmental monitoring. Although temperature-induced DNA strand separation has been use...

  4. Unique Nanoparticle Optical Properties Confound Fluorescent Based Assays Widely Employed in Their In Vitro Toxicity Screening and Ranking

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are novel materials having at least one dimension less than 100 nm and display unique physicochemical properties due to their nanoscale size. An emphasis has been placed on developing high throughput screening (HTS) assays to characterize and rank the toxiciti...

  5. Unique Nanoparticle Properties Confound Fluorescent Based Assays Widely Employed in Their In Vitro Toxicity Testing and Ranking

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanomaterials are a diverse collection of novel materials that exhibit at least one dimension less than 100 nm and display unique chemical and physical properties due to their nanoscale size. An emphasis has been put on developing high throughput screening (HTS) assays to charac...

  6. A cell-based time-resolved fluorescence assay for selection of antibody reagents for G protein-coupled receptor immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Su, Jui-Lan; Fornwald, Jim; Rivers, Philip; Goldsworthy, Susan; Looney, Noeleen A; Hanvey, Jeff; Plumpton, Chris; Parham, Janet; Romanos, Michael; Kost, Thomas A; Kull, Frederick C

    2004-08-01

    A cell-based time-resolved fluorescence (celTRF) immunoassay is described for pre-screening antibodies to G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) peptides that predicts suitability for immunohistochemistry (IHC). Rat GPCRs were expressed in Saos-2 human osteosarcoma cells via recombinant baculoviruses designed for mammalian cell expression, i.e., the transduced cells were used as a "screening lawn". The lawn was fixed and permeabilized similarly to IHC tissue. The celTRF, a dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA), employed Eu-labelled goat anti-rabbit IgG. It exhibited a broad dynamic range upon which enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA)-positive affinity-purified anti-peptide antibody reagents were examined for specificity and potency. Over 150 anti-peptide reagents to 27 GPCRs were characterized. All celTRF-positive antibodies were found to be suitable for IHC, whereas ELISA alone did not predict IHC utility. Examples are illustrated with five rabbit anti-neuropeptide FF receptor 1 (NPFF1) antibodies, where a strong correlation between celTRF potency and IHC utility was observed in both applications. In contrast, two high anti-peptide ELISA titer but celTRF-negative antibodies failed to recognize the NPFF1 receptor in IHC. The celTRF assay was performed manua