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Sample records for assay package insert

  1. 21 CFR 310.515 - Patient package inserts for estrogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Patient package inserts for estrogens. 310.515... package inserts for estrogens. (a) Requirement for a patient package insert. FDA concludes that the safe and effective use of drug products containing estrogens requires that patients be fully informed of...

  2. [Drug package inserts and the adequacy of patient's drug information].

    PubMed

    da Silva, T; Dal-Pizzol, F; Bello, C M; Mengue, S S; Schenkel, E P

    2000-04-01

    To investigate the adequacy of the content and format of the patient information section in package inserts of commonly prescribed drugs at the internal medicine service of a school hospital. Forty eight package inserts were collected from six pharmacies of the city of Porto Alegre in June 1998. The presence of mandatory notification and other information required by Brazilian laws that regulate inserts content was examined. No one package inserts contained all the notification required by law. Warnings about medication storage and expiration date were the most frequently information found in package inserts analyzed. Important information for the drug user was not presented in package inserts analyzed, limiting the purpose of inserts as an instrument for patient education.

  3. Towards Quality Control in Pharmaceutical Packaging: Screening Folded Boxes for Package Inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkmann, S.; Vieweg, N.; Gärtner, G.; Plew, P.; Deninger, A.

    2017-03-01

    We applied a recently developed, ultrafast terahertz measurement technique to screen folded cardboard boxes for package inserts. The presence or absence of an enclosed leaflet could be detected unambiguously in samples moving at velocities up to 21 m/s and, depending on the sample, up to an area overlap of 50-60%. The simple, robust measurement setup may pave the way to new applications of terahertz technology for quality control in pharmaceutical packaging.

  4. Reliability Technology to Achieve Insertion of Advanced Packaging (RELTECH) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fayette, Daniel F.; Speicher, Patricia; Stoklosa, Mark J.; Evans, Jillian V.; Evans, John W.; Gentile, Mike; Pagel, Chuck A.; Hakim, Edward

    1993-01-01

    A joint military-commercial effort to evaluate multichip module (MCM) structures is discussed. The program, Reliability Technology to Achieve Insertion of Advanced Packaging (RELTECH), has been designed to identify the failure mechanisms that are possible in MCM structures. The RELTECH test vehicles, technical assessment task, product evaluation plan, reliability modeling task, accelerated and environmental testing, and post-test physical analysis and failure analysis are described. The information obtained through RELTECH can be used to address standardization issues, through development of cost effective qualification and appropriate screening criteria, for inclusion into a commercial specification and the MIL-H-38534 general specification for hybrid microcircuits.

  5. [The development and operation of a package inserts service system for electronic medical records].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hidetoshi; Nishimura, Sachiho; Shimamori, Yoshimitsu; Sato, Seiji; Hayase, Yukitoshi

    2003-03-01

    To promote the appropriate use of pharmaceuticals and to prevent side effects, physicians need package inserts on medicinal drugs as soon as possible. A medicinal drug information service system was established for electronic medical records to speed up and increase the efficiency of package insert communications within a medical institution. Development of this system facilitates access to package inserts by, for example, physicians. The time required to maintain files of package inserts was shortened, and the efficiency of the drug information service increased. As a source of package inserts for this system, package inserts using a standard generalized markup language (SGML) form were used, which are accessible to the public on the homepage of the Organization for Pharmaceutical Safety and Research (OPSR). This study found that a delay occurred in communicating revised package inserts from pharmaceutical companies to the OPSR. Therefore a pharmaceutical department page was set up as part of the homepage of the medical institution for electronic medical records to shorten the delay in the revision of package inserts posted on the medicinal drug information service homepage of the OPSR. The usefulness of this package insert service system for electronic medical records is clear. For more effective use of this system based on the OPSR homepage pharmaceutical companies have been requested to provide quicker updating of package inserts.

  6. Prescription drugs; revocation of final guideline patient package inserts and withdrawal of draft guideline patient package inserts--Food and Drug Administration. Notice.

    PubMed

    1982-09-07

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is revoking the final guideline patient package inserts for 5 classes of drugs and is withdrawing the draft guideline patient package inserts for 5 other classes of drugs. Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, the agency is revoking the regulations that established general requirements for the preparation and distribution of patient package inserts for prescription drug products. Those regulations had established a pilot program that would have been applied to 10 classes of drugs for 3 years. This notice revokes the draft and final guidelines which described how manufactures might comply with the regulations with respect to affected classes of drug.

  7. Controlled language and information on vaccines: application to package inserts.

    PubMed

    Renahy, Julie; Vuitton, Dominique A; Rath, Barbara; Thomas, Izabella; de Grivel, Valerie; Cardey, Sylviane

    2015-01-01

    Any ambiguity in texts used in the communication about vaccines can not only interfere with comprehension, but also generate safety and liability issues. Within a survey on the quality of written protocols for at-risk interventional procedures and sanitary crises, we analyzed documents relating to vaccination, and among them, the "package-leaflet" of an anti-H1N1 influenza vaccine, widely disseminated to the public in 2009-2010. Among the most common mistakes, we observed that 1) language was not always adjusted to the non-specialist's level of knowledge; 2) chronology, logic, consistency, and homogeneity were often missing; 3) crucial pieces of information were disseminated all over the text, 4) use of the passive voice did not distinguish between instructions and information; 5) use of synonyms could be misleading and impair translation. We propose the use of "Controlled language" (CL) to improve the situation. By constraining lexicon, grammar and syntax, CL is a way to write documents that are clear, accurate and devoid of ambiguity. However, the set of rules necessary to write in CL is difficult to memorize. We thus developed authoring software (Rédacticiel Prolipsia) to make the creation of a CL by linguists and its use by health professionals easy and adapted to any domain. It may considerably improve the writing of vaccine package inserts/leaflets. It could be used to write information documents about vaccines and their safety, and operating procedures for professionals to prepare, store, and administer vaccines, decide upon proper indication of vaccines, and follow patients after vaccine injection.

  8. Estrogen patient package insert: medication acceptance despite negative attitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Weintraub, M.; Glickstein, S.; Lasagna, L.

    1981-08-01

    We surveyed 100 women receiving short courses of estrogen post partum to suppress lactation. Thirty six had significant apprehension about estrogens, but took them. These women were significantly older and better educated and 92% of them were married. In contrast, only one third of the ''nonapprehensive'' women were married and they had significantly lower family incomes. More of the apprehensive women read the estrogen patient package insert (PPI) and almost 30% developed negative attitudes toward estrogens. The major concerns of these women reflected information in the PPI about cancer and thromboembolism. The reasons given for taking estrogens despite apprehension included the lower risk of short courses, assurance from physicians, nurses, or family members, and the desired therapeutic effect. These women should not be given the current estrogen PPI, which was designed to warn women of the risks of long-term estrogen use; a PPI should be written specifically for patients receiving short courses. Similar problems will arise with the PPIs for other medications that have different risks for different therapeutic indications.

  9. Readability assessment of package inserts of biological medicinal products from the European medicines agency website.

    PubMed

    Piñero-López, Ma Ángeles; Modamio, Pilar; Lastra, Cecilia F; Mariño, Eduardo L

    2014-07-01

    Package inserts that accompany medicines are a common source of information aimed at patients and should match patient abilities in terms of readability. Our objective was to determine the degree of readability of the package inserts for biological medicinal products commercially available in 2007 and compare them with the readability of the same package inserts in 2010. A total of 33 package inserts were selected and classified into five groups according to the type of medicine: monoclonal antibody-based products, cytokines, therapeutic enzymes, recombinant blood factors and other blood-related products, and recombinant hormones. The package inserts were downloaded from the European Medicines Agency website in 2007 and 2010. Readability was evaluated for the entire text of five of the six sections of the package inserts and for the 'Annex' when there was one. Three readability formulas were used: SMOG (Simple Measure of Gobbledygook) grade, Flesh-Kincaid grade level, and Szigriszt's perspicuity index. No significant differences were found between the readability results for the 2007 package inserts and those from 2010 according to any of the three readability indices studied (p>0.05). However, there were significant differences (p<0.05) between the readability scores of the sections of the package inserts in both 2007 and 2010. The readability of the package inserts was above the recommended sixth grade reading level (ages 11-12) and may lead to difficulties of understanding for people with limited literacy. All the sections should be easy to read and, therefore, the readability of the medicine package inserts studied should be improved.

  10. 21 CFR 357.152 - Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the pinworm. (c) A commentary on the life cycle of the pinworm. (d) A commentary on the ways in which... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE MISCELLANEOUS INTERNAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN...

  11. Comparative analysis of patient package inserts of local and imported anti-infective agents in palestine.

    PubMed

    Sawalha, Af; Sweileh, Wm; Zyoud, Sh; Jabi, Sw

    2008-12-01

    The patient package insert is an important source of drug information. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the PPI of the anti-infective agents manufactured in Palestine with the imported equivalents. The selection criteria generated 15 different anti-infective agents available as 36 locally manufactured products and 15 imported equivalents. The design of the patient package insert was evaluated in terms of the number of words used in eight main headings and the presence or absence of certain information regarding nine statements. Inserts of locally manufactured products have significantly fewer words than those of imported products with respect to warnings, dosage and administration, and side effects. The most significant difference was found in the warnings. Moreover, differences were found between inserts of local and imported products in terms of the presence of the nine informative statements. Locally manufactured products did not mention inactive ingredients, clinical pharmacology or date of last revision, but all of them provided information on the use of the drug during pregnancy and lactation and on the duration of therapy. However, in general they provided less information than the imported equivalents. Palestinian authorities and local manufacturers should implement appropriate measures to regulate the quality and quantity of information in the patient package insert of locally produced anti-infective agents. PPI improvement will better direct health practices to the benefit of the patients.

  12. The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program: Insertion of New Electronics Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program's new electronics technology trends. The topics include: 1) The Changing World of Radiation Testing of Memories; 2) Even Application-Specific Tests are Costly!; 3) Hypothetical New Technology Part Qualification Cost; 4) Where we are; 5) Approaching FPGAs as a More Than a "Part" for Reliability; 6) FPGAs Beget Novel Radiation Test Setups; 7) Understanding the Complex Radiation Data; 8) Tracking Packaging Complexity and Reliability for FPGAs; 9) Devices Supporting the FPGA Need to be Considered; 10) Summary of the New Electronic Technologies and Insertion into Flight Programs Workshop; and 11) Highlights of Panel Notes and Comments

  13. MassToMI-A Mathematica package for an automatic Mass Insertion expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosiek, Janusz

    2016-04-01

    We present a Mathematica package designed to automatize the expansion of transition amplitudes calculated in the mass eigenstates basis (i.e. expressed in terms of physical masses and mixing matrices) into series of ;mass insertions;, defined as off-diagonal entries of mass matrices in Lagrangian before diagonalization and identification of the physical states. The algorithm implemented in this package is based on the general ;Flavor Expansion Theorem; proven in Dedes et al. (2015). The supplied routines are able to automatically analyze the structure of the amplitude, identify the parts which could be expanded and expand them to any required order. They are capable of dealing with amplitudes depending on both scalar or vector (Hermitian) and Dirac or Majorana fermion (complex) mass matrices. The package can be downloaded from the address www.fuw.edu.pl/masstomi.

  14. Bacteriophage P1 pac sites inserted into the chromosome greatly increase packaging and transduction of Escherichia coli genomic DNA.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haomin; Masters, Millicent

    2014-11-01

    The Escherichia coli bacteriophage P1 packages host chromosome separately from phage DNA, and transfers it to recipient cells at low frequency in a process called generalized transduction. Phage genomes are packaged from concatemers beginning at a specific site, pac. To increase transduction rate, we have inserted pac into the chromosome at up to five equally spaced positions; at least this many are fully tolerated in the absence of P1 infection. A single chromosomal pac greatly increases transduction of downstream markers without decreasing phage yields; 3.5 × as much total chromosomal DNA is packaged. Additional insertions decrease phage yield by > 90% and also decrease phage DNA synthesis, although less dramatically. Packaging of chromosomal markers near to and downstream of each inserted pac site is, at the same time, increased by greater than 10 fold. Transduction of markers near an inserted pac site can be increased by over 1000-fold, potentially allowing identification of such transductants by screening.

  15. Membrane insertion for the detection of lipopolysaccharides: Exploring the dynamics of amphiphile-in-lipid assays

    SciTech Connect

    Stromberg, Loreen R.; Hengartner, Nicolas W.; Swingle, Kirstie L.; Moxley, Rodney A.; Graves, Steven W.; Montano, Gabriel A.; Mukundan, Harshini; Gasset, Maria

    2016-05-26

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli is an important cause of foodborne illness, with cases attributable to beef, fresh produce and other sources. Many serotypes of the pathogen cause disease, and differentiating one serotype from another requires specific identification of the O antigen located on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecule. The amphiphilic structure of LPS poses a challenge when using classical detection methods, which do not take into account its lipoglycan biochemistry. Typically, detection of LPS requires heat or chemical treatment of samples and relies on bioactivity assays for the conserved lipid A portion of the molecule. Our goal was to develop assays to facilitate the direct and discriminative detection of the entire LPS molecule and its O antigen in complex matrices using minimal sample processing. To perform serogroup identification of LPS, we used a method called membrane insertion on a waveguide biosensor, and tested three serogroups of LPS. The membrane insertion technique allows for the hydrophobic association of LPS with a lipid bilayer, where the exposed O antigen can be targeted for specific detection. Samples of beef lysate were spiked with LPS to perform O antigen specific detection of LPS from E. coli O157. To validate assay performance, we evaluated the biophysical interactions of LPS with lipid bilayers both in- and outside of a flow cell using fluorescence microscopy and fluorescently doped lipids. Our results indicate that membrane insertion allows for the qualitative and reliable identification of amphiphilic LPS in complex samples like beef homogenates. In addition, we also demonstrated that LPS-induced hole formation does not occur under the conditions of the membrane insertion assays. Together, these findings describe for the first time the serogroup-specific detection of amphiphilic LPS in complex samples using a membrane insertion assay, and highlight the importance of LPS molecular conformations in detection

  16. Membrane Insertion for the Detection of Lipopolysaccharides: Exploring the Dynamics of Amphiphile-in-Lipid Assays

    PubMed Central

    Hengartner, Nicolas W.; Swingle, Kirstie L.; Moxley, Rodney A.; Graves, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli is an important cause of foodborne illness, with cases attributable to beef, fresh produce and other sources. Many serotypes of the pathogen cause disease, and differentiating one serotype from another requires specific identification of the O antigen located on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecule. The amphiphilic structure of LPS poses a challenge when using classical detection methods, which do not take into account its lipoglycan biochemistry. Typically, detection of LPS requires heat or chemical treatment of samples and relies on bioactivity assays for the conserved lipid A portion of the molecule. Our goal was to develop assays to facilitate the direct and discriminative detection of the entire LPS molecule and its O antigen in complex matrices using minimal sample processing. To perform serogroup identification of LPS, we used a method called membrane insertion on a waveguide biosensor, and tested three serogroups of LPS. The membrane insertion technique allows for the hydrophobic association of LPS with a lipid bilayer, where the exposed O antigen can be targeted for specific detection. Samples of beef lysate were spiked with LPS to perform O antigen specific detection of LPS from E. coli O157. To validate assay performance, we evaluated the biophysical interactions of LPS with lipid bilayers both in- and outside of a flow cell using fluorescence microscopy and fluorescently doped lipids. Our results indicate that membrane insertion allows for the qualitative and reliable identification of amphiphilic LPS in complex samples like beef homogenates. We also demonstrated that LPS-induced hole formation does not occur under the conditions of the membrane insertion assays. Together, these findings describe for the first time the serogroup-specific detection of amphiphilic LPS in complex samples using a membrane insertion assay, and highlight the importance of LPS molecular conformations in detection architectures. PMID

  17. The Use of Cigarette Package Inserts to Supplement Pictorial Health Warnings: An Evaluation of the Canadian Policy

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Amira; Abad-Vivero, Erika N.; Hammond, David; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Cummings, K. Michael; Hardin, James W.; Moodie, Crawford

    2015-01-01

    Background: Canada is the first country in the world to require cigarette manufacturers to enclose package inserts to supplement the exterior pictorial health warning label (HWL). In June 2012, Canada implemented new HWL package inserts that include cessation tips accompanied by a pictorial image. This study aims to assess the extent to which adult smokers report reading the newly mandated HWL inserts and to see whether reading them is associated with making a quit attempt. Methods: Data were analyzed from an online consumer panel of Canadian adult smokers, aged 18–64 years. Five waves of data were collected between September 2012 and January 2014, separated by 4-months intervals (n = 1,000 at each wave). Logistic generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were estimated to assess correlates of reading inserts and whether doing so is associated with making a quit attempt by the subsequent wave. Results: At each wave, between 26% and 31% of the sample reported having read HWL package inserts at least once in the prior month. Smokers who read them were more likely to be younger, female, have higher income, intend to quit, have recently tried to quit, and thought more frequently about health risks because of warning labels. In models that adjusted for these and other potential confounders, smokers who read the inserts a few times or more in the past month were more likely to make a quit attempt at the subsequent wave compared to smokers who did not read the inserts. Conclusions: HWL package inserts with cessation-related tips and messages appear to increase quit attempts made by smokers. PMID:25480931

  18. The Use of Cigarette Package Inserts to Supplement Pictorial Health Warnings: An Evaluation of the Canadian Policy.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, James F; Osman, Amira; Abad-Vivero, Erika N; Hammond, David; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Cummings, K Michael; Hardin, James W; Moodie, Crawford

    2015-07-01

    Canada is the first country in the world to require cigarette manufacturers to enclose package inserts to supplement the exterior pictorial health warning label (HWL). In June 2012, Canada implemented new HWL package inserts that include cessation tips accompanied by a pictorial image. This study aims to assess the extent to which adult smokers report reading the newly mandated HWL inserts and to see whether reading them is associated with making a quit attempt. Data were analyzed from an online consumer panel of Canadian adult smokers, aged 18-64 years. Five waves of data were collected between September 2012 and January 2014, separated by 4-months intervals (n = 1,000 at each wave). Logistic generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were estimated to assess correlates of reading inserts and whether doing so is associated with making a quit attempt by the subsequent wave. At each wave, between 26% and 31% of the sample reported having read HWL package inserts at least once in the prior month. Smokers who read them were more likely to be younger, female, have higher income, intend to quit, have recently tried to quit, and thought more frequently about health risks because of warning labels. In models that adjusted for these and other potential confounders, smokers who read the inserts a few times or more in the past month were more likely to make a quit attempt at the subsequent wave compared to smokers who did not read the inserts. HWL package inserts with cessation-related tips and messages appear to increase quit attempts made by smokers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Membrane insertion for the detection of lipopolysaccharides: Exploring the dynamics of amphiphile-in-lipid assays

    DOE PAGES

    Stromberg, Loreen R.; Hengartner, Nicolas W.; Swingle, Kirstie L.; ...

    2016-05-26

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli is an important cause of foodborne illness, with cases attributable to beef, fresh produce and other sources. Many serotypes of the pathogen cause disease, and differentiating one serotype from another requires specific identification of the O antigen located on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecule. The amphiphilic structure of LPS poses a challenge when using classical detection methods, which do not take into account its lipoglycan biochemistry. Typically, detection of LPS requires heat or chemical treatment of samples and relies on bioactivity assays for the conserved lipid A portion of the molecule. Our goal was to develop assaysmore » to facilitate the direct and discriminative detection of the entire LPS molecule and its O antigen in complex matrices using minimal sample processing. To perform serogroup identification of LPS, we used a method called membrane insertion on a waveguide biosensor, and tested three serogroups of LPS. The membrane insertion technique allows for the hydrophobic association of LPS with a lipid bilayer, where the exposed O antigen can be targeted for specific detection. Samples of beef lysate were spiked with LPS to perform O antigen specific detection of LPS from E. coli O157. To validate assay performance, we evaluated the biophysical interactions of LPS with lipid bilayers both in- and outside of a flow cell using fluorescence microscopy and fluorescently doped lipids. Our results indicate that membrane insertion allows for the qualitative and reliable identification of amphiphilic LPS in complex samples like beef homogenates. In addition, we also demonstrated that LPS-induced hole formation does not occur under the conditions of the membrane insertion assays. Together, these findings describe for the first time the serogroup-specific detection of amphiphilic LPS in complex samples using a membrane insertion assay, and highlight the importance of LPS molecular conformations in detection

  20. The package insert: who writes it and why, what are its implications, and how well does medical school explain it?

    PubMed

    McMahon, David; Preskorn, Sheldon H

    2014-07-01

    The package insert, which is jointly authored by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the manufacturer of the drug, is a summary of all of the preclinical and clinical data accumulated during the successful development of a new drug. Despite the role of the package insert in the safe practice of medicine, prescribers often minimize, overlook, or misunderstand its importance, suggesting a gap in their training. An anonymous, three-question survey was administered to third year medical students (N=34) from two medical schools to assess how well they had been educated about the evidence-based origin, purpose, and implications of the package insert. The results indicate a deficiency in their medical education, and the authors contrast the student responses with the facts. These results underscore the need to revise medical school curricula to provide future prescribers with more education about the importance of the package insert and the relationship between pharmaceutical companies, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and prescribers.

  1. Comparative assay of antioxidant packages for dimer of estolide esters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A series of 26 different antioxidants and commercial antioxidant packages, containing both natural and synthetic-based materials, were evaluated with dimeric coconut-oleic estolide 2-ethylhexyl ester. The different antioxidants were broken down into different classes of materials: phenolic, aminic, ...

  2. Graphical content of medicinal package inserts: an exploratory study to evaluate potential legibility issues.

    PubMed

    Pires, Carla; Vigário, Marina; Cavaco, Afonso

    2016-06-01

    The graphical content of the Medicines Package Inserts (MPIs), such as illustrations and typographic features should be legible and appropriate, as required by international pharmaceutical regulations. To study: (1) the frequency and type of MPIs' key graphic elements, (2) their compliance with regulations and (3) how educated people understand them. Descriptive study: characterisation of the graphical content of 651 MPIs. Usability study: illustrations and tables (purposively selected) were evaluated with questionnaires in three groups of humanities undergraduates (illustrations only, illustrations plus text and text only). Descriptive study: illustrations and tables were respectively identified in 6.3% and 11.8% of the MPIs. The illustrations were mainly related to how to take/use the medicine. Non-recommended graphical representations were found (e.g. italic or underline). Usability test: legibility issues were identified, especially for the group of isolated illustrations. The scarce use of illustrations and tables possibly affected the legibility of the MPIs. Compulsory legibility tests are needed to guarantee the MPIs' proper use, thus contributing to a safe use of medicines. Overall, this study highlighted the need to carefully revise/assess the MPIs' design and probably increase health information experts' awareness on this issue. © 2015 Health Libraries Group.

  3. Factors influencing subjects' comprehension of a set of medicine package inserts.

    PubMed

    Pires, Carla; Vigário, Marina; Cavaco, Afonso

    2016-08-01

    Background Package inserts (PIs) should promote the safe and effective use of medicines. The comprehension of PIs is related to socio-demographic features, such as education. Objectives To evaluate the participants' comprehension of a sample of PIs and to build an explanatory model of subjects' understanding of the content of these documents. Setting The data were collected from municipalities, city halls, firefighters, the military, schools and charities from two Portuguese regions. Methods Cross-sectional descriptive survey: 503 participants, homogeneously distributed by education and gender. The self-administered tool comprised questions on socio-demographic data, literacy tasks and comprehension evaluation of 12 purposively selected PIs. A logistic regression analysis was used. Main outcome measures Scores of numeracy tasks and comprehension. Results The average comprehension score for the PIs was 63 % (±32 %), with 48 % (n = 239) of the participants scoring <75 %. The most important predictors in explaining a comprehension score ≥75 % were having >12 years of education and correctly performing a numeracy task [respectively, OR 49.6 (CI 95 %: 22.8-108) and OR 2.48 (CI 95 %: 1.5-4.2)]. Conclusion An explanatory model of subjects' knowledge about the content of the tested PIs was built. Given that a high level of education and literacy were found to be the most relevant predictors for acceptable comprehension rates, PIs should be clearly written to assure that they are understood by all potential users, including the less educated. The evaluated PIs may thus need to be simplified.

  4. Comparative analysis of package inserts of local and imported antihypertensive medications in Palestine.

    PubMed

    Qatmosh, Sandra A; Koni, Amer A; Qeeno, Baraa G; Arandy, Dina A; Abu-Hashia, Maysa W; Al-Hroub, Bahaa M; Zyoud, Sa'ed H

    2017-09-25

    Package inserts (PIs) as a reliable reference for patients and health care providers should provide accurate, complete and up-to-date information. The purpose of the current study is to assess and compare the PIs of antihypertensive agents locally produced in Palestine and their imported counterparts. Thirty-five PIs were assessed for the presence of 31 information statements using a scoring method. Word counting of 20 headings and subheadings was used to evaluate and compare local and imported PIs for information quantity. None of the analysed PIs fulfilled the criteria. All of them included the brand name, active ingredients, indications, directions for use, adverse drug reactions, drug-drug interactions, pregnancy and lactation considerations, and storage. Whereas none of them, either local or imported PIs, included the shelf life and instructions to convert tablets or capsules into liquid forms. Additionally, only one (5%) imported and no (0%) local PIs mentioned the duration of therapy. Moreover, 93.4% of local PIs were deficient in areas regarding the inactive ingredients and date of last revision, and 86.7% did not mention the drug dose and possibility of tablet splitting. Furthermore, the maximum dose was not indicated in 90% of imported and 86.7% of local PIs. In general, imported PIs contained more detailed information than their local counterparts, where the range of differences in medians between the local and imported PIs was from 1.5-fold for pregnancy considerations to >42.00-fold for the effect on the ability to drive and use machines. The findings of this study revealed the superiority of imported over local PIs in both quality and quantity of information provided. This emphasises the need for appropriate measures to be taken by the Ministry of Health and local manufacturers to ensure efficiency of local PIs in providing accurate, complete and up-to-date information.

  5. Evaluation of strategies to communicate harmful and potentially harmful constituent (HPHC) information through cigarette package inserts: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Louviere, Jordan J; Getz, Kayla R; Islam, Farahnaz; Anshari, Dien; Cho, Yoojin; O'Connor, Richard J; Hammond, David; Thrasher, James F

    2017-07-13

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has regulatory authority to use inserts to communicate with consumers about harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) in tobacco products; however, little is known about the most effective manner for presenting HPHC information. In a discrete choice experiment, participants evaluated eight choice sets, each of which showed two cigarette packages from four different brands and tar levels (high vs low), accompanied by an insert that included between-subject manipulations (ie, listing of HPHCs vs grouping by disease outcome and numeric values ascribed to HPHCs vs no numbers) and within-subject manipulations (ie, 1 of 4 warning topics; statement linking an HPHC with disease vs statement with no HPHC link). For each choice set, participants were asked: (1) which package is more harmful and (2) which motivates them to not smoke; each with a 'no difference' option. Alternative-specific logit models regressed choice on attribute levels. 1212 participants were recruited from an online consumer panel (725 18-29-year-old smokers and susceptible non-smokers and 487 30-64-year-old smokers). Participants were more likely to endorse high-tar products as more harmful than low-tar products, with a greater effect when numeric HPHC information was present. Compared with a simple warning statement, the statement linking HPHCs with disease encouraged quit motivation. Numeric HPHC information on inserts appears to produce misunderstandings that some cigarettes are less harmful than others. Furthermore, brief narratives that link HPHCs to smoking-related disease may promote cessation versus communications that do not explicitly link HPHCs to disease. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Packaging of RVFV pseudoviruses and establishment of a neutralization assay method.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuetao; Zhao, Yongkun; Wang, Cuiling; Zheng, Xuexing; Wang, Hualei; Gai, Weiwei; Jin, Hongli; Yan, Feihu; Qiu, Boning; Gao, Yuwei; Li, Nan; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2017-07-10

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an acute, febrile zoonotic disease that is caused by the RVF virus (RVFV). RVF is mainly prevalent on the Arabian Peninsula, the African continent, and several islands in the Indian Ocean near southeast Africa. RVFV has been classified by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) as a category A pathogen. To avoid the biological safety concerns associated with use of the pathogen in RVFV neutralization assays, the present study explored and established an RVFV pseudovirus-based neutralization assay. This study specifically used the HIV lentiviral packaging system and RVFV structural proteins to successfully construct RVFV pseudoviruses. Electron microscopy observation and western blotting indicated that the size, structure, and shape of the packaged pseudoviruses were highly similar to those of HIV lentiviral vectors. Infection inhibition assay results showed that an antibody against RVFV inhibited the infective ability of the RVFV pseudoviruses, and an antibody neutralization assay for RVFV detection was then established. Therefore, this study successfully established a neutralization assay based on RVFV pseudoviruses and demonstrated that this method can be used to effectively evaluate antibody neutralization.

  7. Source strength assay of iodine-125 seeds sealed within sterile packaging.

    PubMed

    Otani, Yuki; Yamada, Takahiro; Kato, Shingo; Shikama, Naoto; Funakoshi, Kazuto; Kuroda, Isao; Numasaki, Hodaka; Nose, Takayuki; Dokiya, Takushi; Oguchi, Masahiko

    2013-03-04

    Early-stage prostate cancer is widely treated by iodine-125 (I-125) seed implantation. While quality assurance methods are in place to assure consistency in I-125 seed source strength, current methods involve the breaking of the sterilization package, raising issues concerning sterility and time limitations. The purpose of this study was to develop a method of characterizing the total source strength of I-125 seeds within a cartridge that has been sealed within a sterilization package and to evaluate the probability of detecting an out-of-calibration seed (aberrant seed). We defined a protocol to determine the ability of a well-type ionization chamber to detect aberrant I-125 seeds within a cartridge sealed in the sterilization package. A novel jig for a well-type ionization chamber was designed to accommodate the sterilization package. One seed was chosen randomly from two cartridges containing five or 15 seeds (0.544 U source strength) and was exchanged with aberrant seeds of six different source strengths. The source strength was measured at each position within the cartridge. The results indicated that the response of the well chamber was sensitive to changes in the aberrant seed position within the cartridge and the source strength of the aberrant seed. The correlation coefficient between single seed and batch assay results was high (0.998). A novel jig and a measurement method using a well ionization chamber were developed, which allowed for a batch assay characterization of the total source strength of I-125 seeds within a cartridge sealed within sterilization package. This method is simple, time-saving, and offers greater practical application.

  8. QuantWorm: a comprehensive software package for Caenorhabditis elegans phenotypic assays.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sang-Kyu; Aleman-Meza, Boanerges; Riepe, Celeste; Zhong, Weiwei

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic assays are crucial in genetics; however, traditional methods that rely on human observation are unsuitable for quantitative, large-scale experiments. Furthermore, there is an increasing need for comprehensive analyses of multiple phenotypes to provide multidimensional information. Here we developed an automated, high-throughput computer imaging system for quantifying multiple Caenorhabditis elegans phenotypes. Our imaging system is composed of a microscope equipped with a digital camera and a motorized stage connected to a computer running the QuantWorm software package. Currently, the software package contains one data acquisition module and four image analysis programs: WormLifespan, WormLocomotion, WormLength, and WormEgg. The data acquisition module collects images and videos. The WormLifespan software counts the number of moving worms by using two time-lapse images; the WormLocomotion software computes the velocity of moving worms; the WormLength software measures worm body size; and the WormEgg software counts the number of eggs. To evaluate the performance of our software, we compared the results of our software with manual measurements. We then demonstrated the application of the QuantWorm software in a drug assay and a genetic assay. Overall, the QuantWorm software provided accurate measurements at a high speed. Software source code, executable programs, and sample images are available at www.quantworm.org. Our software package has several advantages over current imaging systems for C. elegans. It is an all-in-one package for quantifying multiple phenotypes. The QuantWorm software is written in Java and its source code is freely available, so it does not require use of commercial software or libraries. It can be run on multiple platforms and easily customized to cope with new methods and requirements.

  9. QuantWorm: A Comprehensive Software Package for Caenorhabditis elegans Phenotypic Assays

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sang-Kyu; Aleman-Meza, Boanerges; Riepe, Celeste; Zhong, Weiwei

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic assays are crucial in genetics; however, traditional methods that rely on human observation are unsuitable for quantitative, large-scale experiments. Furthermore, there is an increasing need for comprehensive analyses of multiple phenotypes to provide multidimensional information. Here we developed an automated, high-throughput computer imaging system for quantifying multiple Caenorhabditis elegans phenotypes. Our imaging system is composed of a microscope equipped with a digital camera and a motorized stage connected to a computer running the QuantWorm software package. Currently, the software package contains one data acquisition module and four image analysis programs: WormLifespan, WormLocomotion, WormLength, and WormEgg. The data acquisition module collects images and videos. The WormLifespan software counts the number of moving worms by using two time-lapse images; the WormLocomotion software computes the velocity of moving worms; the WormLength software measures worm body size; and the WormEgg software counts the number of eggs. To evaluate the performance of our software, we compared the results of our software with manual measurements. We then demonstrated the application of the QuantWorm software in a drug assay and a genetic assay. Overall, the QuantWorm software provided accurate measurements at a high speed. Software source code, executable programs, and sample images are available at www.quantworm.org. Our software package has several advantages over current imaging systems for C. elegans. It is an all-in-one package for quantifying multiple phenotypes. The QuantWorm software is written in Java and its source code is freely available, so it does not require use of commercial software or libraries. It can be run on multiple platforms and easily customized to cope with new methods and requirements. PMID:24416295

  10. QUAD: a computer package for the analysis of QUantal Assay Data.

    PubMed

    Morgan, B J; Pack, S E; Smith, D M

    1989-12-01

    The computer package QUAD has been developed at the University of Kent, U.K. It is menu driven and written in Advanced BASIC. It runs on IBM PC compatible machines equipped with a suitable graphics facility such as CGA or simulated CGA. QUAD is available on a floppy disk, for a small handling charge. QUAD has four main functions: it performs a logit analysis of quantal assay data; it provides a flexible way of analysing the data, allowing dose transformations and providing alternative confidence intervals for EDp values; it produces a range of diagnostics for assessing the fit of models to data; it provides and fits two families of extended models, each containing the logit as a special case. The package makes use of the latest statistical research, and fitted models are displayed by means of the good graphics facilities available on microcomputers. This document describes the facilities available in detail, and provides and discusses, illustrations of the package at work. QUAD has been designed as a pilot package. Further additions and developments are planned and described later.

  11. Instrumentation and assay procedures for verification of the radionuclide content of low-level waste packages

    SciTech Connect

    Brodzinski, R.L.

    1983-09-01

    The preferred embodiment of waste package assay instrumentation for verification of the radionuclide content is a high resolution germanium diode gamma-ray spectrometer incorporated in a segmented gamma scanner and a passive neutron interrogation system for measurement of the neutrons emitted spontaneously from a waste package. The selection criteria and rationale for this choice are discussed. Assembly and operation procedures for the instrumentation are recommended, and methods for data acquisition and reduction are given. The choice of radioisotopes for fabrication of calibration standards is /sup 60/Co at approx. 10 mCi/m/sup 3/, /sup 90/Sr at approx. 10 mCi/m/sup 3/, /sup 134/Cs at approx. 14 mCi/m/sup 3/, /sup 137/Cs at approx. 15 mCi/m/sup 3/, and transuranic alpha activity at approx. 10 nCi/g. Suggested matrix materials are given.

  12. Giving back to donor families: the "thank you letter" package insert project.

    PubMed

    Colarusso, Cynthia

    2006-03-01

    Family members of organ donors receive anonymous information about the transplant recipients. Also, they often receive written communication from the recipients themselves and or the recipient's family members, expressing gratitude for the generous gifts they donated. The feedback received by donor families serves to affirm that their altruistic decision to donate life-saving and life-enhancing gifts has saved or dramatically improved the lives of the recipients. Feedback allows donor families to assign meaning to the donation itself and make some sense of otherwise tragic circumstances. In contrast, family members of bone and soft tissue donors historically have not received the same level of feedback provided to the family members of organ donors. The tissue banking community, as an extension of the procurement community that provides care to tissue donor families, is in a unique position to facilitate meaningful feedback between bone and soft tissue donor families and their recipients. This article explores the use of tissue packaging as a communication portal to solicit and facilitate the needed feedback loop between bone and soft tissue donor families and their recipients.

  13. SLDAssay: A software package and web tool for analyzing limiting dilution assays.

    PubMed

    Trumble, Ilana M; Allmon, Andrew G; Archin, Nancie M; Rigdon, Joseph; Francis, Owen; Baldoni, Pedro L; Hudgens, Michael G

    2017-11-01

    Serial limiting dilution (SLD) assays are used in many areas of infectious disease related research. This paper presents SLDAssay, a free and publicly available R software package and web tool for analyzing data from SLD assays. SLDAssay computes the maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) for the concentration of target cells, with corresponding exact and asymptotic confidence intervals. Exact and asymptotic goodness of fit p-values, and a bias-corrected (BC) MLE are also provided. No other publicly available software currently implements the BC MLE or the exact methods. For validation of SLDAssay, results from Myers et al. (1994) are replicated. Simulations demonstrate the BC MLE is less biased than the MLE. Additionally, simulations demonstrate that exact methods tend to give better confidence interval coverage and goodness-of-fit tests with lower type I error than the asymptotic methods. Additional advantages of using exact methods are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Feline leukemia virus integrase and capsid packaging functions do not change the insertion profile of standard Moloney retroviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Métais, J-Y; Topp, S; Doty, R T; Borate, B; Nguyen, A-D; Wolfsberg, T G; Abkowitz, J L; Dunbar, C E

    2010-06-01

    Adverse events linked to perturbations of cellular genes by vector insertion reported in gene therapy trials and animal models have prompted attempts to better understand the mechanisms directing viral vector integration. The integration profiles of vectors based on MLV, ASLV, SIV and HIV have all been shown to be non-random, and novel vectors with a safer integration pattern have been sought. Recently, we developed a producer cell line called CatPac that packages standard MoMLV vectors with feline leukemia virus (FeLV) gag, pol and env gene products. We now report the integration profile of this vector, asking if the FeLV integrase and capsid proteins could modify the MoMLV integration profile, potentially resulting in a less genotoxic pattern. We transduced rhesus macaque CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells with CatPac or standard MoMLV vectors, and determined their integration profile by LAM-PCR. We obtained 184 and 175 unique integration sites (ISs) respectively for CatPac and standard MoMLV vectors, and these were compared with 10 000 in silico-generated random IS. The integration profile for CatPac vector was similar to MoMLV and equally non-random, with a propensity for integration near transcription start sites and in highly dense gene regions. We found an IS for CatPac vector localized 715 nucleotides upstream of LMO-2, the gene involved in the acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed by X-SCID patients treated by gene therapy using MoMLV vectors. In conclusion, we found that replacement of MoMLV env, gag and pol gene products with FeLV did not alter the basic integration profile. Thus, there appears to be no safety advantage for this packaging system. However, considering the stability and efficacy of CatPac vectors, further development is warranted, using potentially safer vector backbones, for instance those with a SIN configuration.

  15. Exploring the perspectives of potential consumers and healthcare professionals on the readability of a package insert: a case study of an over-the-counter medicine.

    PubMed

    Pires, Carla M; Cavaco, Afonso M

    2014-05-01

    To explore and compare the opinions of physicians, pharmacists and potential users on the readability of a package insert of an over-the-counter medicine. Exploratory study based on the administration of a semi-open questionnaire. This instrument was developed according to the readability guideline of the European Medicine Agency (EMA) and used to evaluate participants' accessibility to, and comprehensibility of, the package insert for diclofenac 12.5 mg tablets. Sixty-three participants were recruited from the Lisbon region and enrolled in three groups: physicians (Dg), pharmacists (Pg) and potential consumers (PCg), with a minimum of 20 participants each. Almost all (85 %) of the 20 PCg participants were educated above the 9th grade, although the majority of them (95 %) referred to, at least, one package insert interpretation issue, mainly related to the comprehension of technical terms. Amongst other differences between the groups, the Pg participants (n = 22) obtained a significantly less favourable opinion regarding the layout of the titles. Furthermore, the Pg and Dg (n = 21) participants proposed technical enhancements, such as the use of a table to explain the posology, precautions in case of renal failure, or the recommendation to take the tablets with meals. Differences in the way of using the diclofenac tablets are expected, considering the comprehension dissimilarities between health professionals and potential consumers. The package insert of diclofenac 12.5 mg could be enhanced for safer use. Regarding the readability assessment of this package insert, the method proposed in the EMA guidelines might not be as effective as expected. Future research is advisable.

  16. Lexis in Chinese-English Translation of Drug Package Inserts: Corpus-based Error Analysis and Its Translation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Ying, Lin; Yumei, Zhou

    2010-12-01

    Error analysis (EA) has been broadly applied to the researches of writing, speaking, second language acquisition (SLA) and translation. This study was carried out based on Carl James' error taxonomy to investigate the distribution of lexical errors in Chinese-English (C-E) translation of drug package inserts (DPIs)(1), explore the underlying causes and propose some translation strategies for correction and reduction of lexical errors in DPIs. A translation corpus consisting of 25 DPIs translated from Chinese into English was established. Lexical errors in the corpus and the error causes were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Some examples were used to analyze the lexical errors and their causes, and some strategies for translating vocabulary in DPIs were proposed according to Eugene Nida's translation theory. This study will not only help translators and medical workers reduce errors in C-E translation of vocabulary in DPIs and other types of medical texts but also shed light on the learning and teaching of C-E translation of medical texts.

  17. Cigarette package inserts can promote efficacy beliefs and sustained smoking cessation attempts: A longitudinal assessment of an innovative policy in Canada.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, James F; Swayampakala, Kamala; Cummings, K Michael; Hammond, David; Anshari, Dien; Krugman, Dean M; Hardin, James W

    2016-07-01

    In June 2012, Canada implemented new pictorial warnings on cigarette packages, along with package inserts with messages to promote response efficacy (i.e., perceived quitting benefits) and self-efficacy (i.e., confidence to quit). This study assessed smokers' attention toward warnings and inserts and its relationship with efficacy beliefs, risk perceptions and cessation at follow-up. Data were analyzed in 2015 from a prospective online consumer panel of adult Canadian smokers surveyed every four months between September 2012 and September 2014. Generalized Estimating Equation models were estimated to assess associations between reading inserts, reading warnings and efficacy beliefs (self-efficacy, response efficacy), risk perceptions, quit attempts of any length, and sustained quit attempts (i.e., 30days or more) at follow-up. Models adjusted for socio-demographics, smoking-related variables, and time-in-sample effects. Over the study period, reading warnings significantly decreased (p<0.0001) while reading inserts increased (p=0.004). More frequent reading of warnings was associated independently with stronger response efficacy (Boften/very often vs never=0.28, 95% CI: 0.11-0.46) and risk perceptions at follow-up (Boften/very often vs never=0.31, 95% CI: 0.06-0.56). More frequent reading of inserts was associated independently with stronger self-efficacy to quit at follow-up (Btwice or more vs none=0.30, 95% CI: 0.14-0.47), quit attempts (ORtwice or more vs none=1.68, 95% CI: 1.28-2.19), and sustained quit attempts (ORtwice or more vs none=1.48, 95% CI: 1.01-2.17). More frequent reading of inserts was associated with self-efficacy to quit, quit attempts, and sustained quitting at follow-up, suggesting that inserts complement pictorial HWLs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Cigarette package inserts can promote efficacy beliefs and sustained smoking cessation attempts: A longitudinal assessment of an innovative policy in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F.; Swayampakala, Kamala; Cummings, K. Michael; Hammond, David; Anshari, Dien; Krugman, Dean M.; Hardin, James W.

    2016-01-01

    Background In June 2012, Canada implemented new pictorial warnings on cigarette packages, along with package inserts with messages to promote response efficacy (i.e., perceived quitting benefits) and self-efficacy (i.e., confidence to quit). This study assessed smokers’ attention towards warnings and inserts and its relationship with efficacy beliefs, risk perceptions and cessation at follow-up. Methods Data were analysed in 2015 from a prospective online consumer panel of adult Canadian smokers surveyed every four months between September 2012 and September 2014. Generalized Estimating Equation models assessed associations between reading inserts, reading warnings and efficacy beliefs (self-efficacy, response efficacy), risk perceptions, quit attempts of any length, and sustained quit attempts (i.e., 30 days or more) at follow-up. Models adjusted for socio-demographics, smoking-related variables, and time-in-sample effects. Results Over the study period, reading warnings significantly decreased (p<0.0001) while reading inserts increased (p=0.004). More frequent reading of warnings was associated independently with stronger response efficacy (Boften/very often vs never=0.28, 95% CI: 0.11–0.46) and risk perceptions at follow-up (Boften/very often vs never=0.31, 95% CI: 0.06–0.56). More frequent reading of inserts was associated independently with stronger self-efficacy to quit at follow-up (Btwice or more vs none=0.30, 95% CI: 0.14–0.47), quit attempts (ORtwice or more vs none= 1.68, 95% CI: 1.28–2.19), and quit attempts lasting 30 days or longer (ORtwice or more vs none=1.48, 95% CI: 1.01 – 2.17). Conclusions More frequent reading of inserts was associated with self-efficacy to quit, quit attempts, and sustained quitting at follow-up, suggesting that inserts complement pictorial HWLs. PMID:26970037

  19. Role of amino acid insertions on intermolecular forces between arginine peptide condensed DNA helices: implications for protamine-DNA packaging in sperm.

    PubMed

    DeRouchey, Jason E; Rau, Donald C

    2011-12-09

    In spermatogenesis, chromatin histones are replaced by arginine-rich protamines to densely compact DNA in sperm heads. Tight packaging is considered necessary to protect the DNA from damage. To better understand the nature of the forces condensing protamine-DNA assemblies and their dependence on amino acid content, the effect of neutral and negatively charged amino acids on DNA-DNA intermolecular forces was studied using model peptides containing six arginines. We have previously observed that the neutral amino acids in salmon protamine decrease the net attraction between protamine-DNA helices compared with the equivalent homo-arginine peptide. Using osmotic stress coupled with x-ray scattering, we have investigated the component attractive and repulsive forces that determine the net attraction and equilibrium interhelical distance as a function of the chemistry, position, and number of the amino acid inserted. Neutral amino acids inserted into hexa-arginine increase the short range repulsion while only slightly affecting longer range attraction. The amino acid content alone of salmon protamine is enough to rationalize the forces that package DNA in sperm heads. Inserting a negatively charged amino acid into hexa-arginine dramatically weakens the net attraction. Both of these observations have biological implications for protamine-DNA packaging in sperm heads.

  20. Post-approval appending of CSARs to drug package inserts: an analysis of the types of adverse reactions and time to addition.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Norio; Ishiguro, Chieko; Matsuda, Tsutomu

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively analyze clinically significant adverse reactions (CSARs) added to drug package inserts after approval and to investigate the time to these post-approval additions as an indicator of safety-related regulatory actions. Drugs containing new active ingredients that had been approved in Japan from April 2001 to December 2010 were analyzed. We examined CSARs that had been reported in the first version of the package inserts and subsequent additions through notifications from Japan's Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare until the end of 2011. Relative risks (RRs) for post-approval addition of CSARs were calculated for various categories of disorders. The median lengths of time to post-approval addition of CSARs were compared. A total of 238 drugs were examined. Of the 2487 CSARs associated with these drugs, 737 had been added after approval. The analysis revealed a higher likelihood for post-approval addition of CSARs for "Hepatobiliary disorders" (RR: 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-1.68), "Gastrointestinal disorders" (RR: 1.35; 95%CI: 1.10-1.66), and "Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders" (RR: 1.52; 95%CI: 1.11-2.07). In contrast, "Cardiac disorders" showed reduced likelihood in comparison with other disorders. For the time until post-approval addition of CSARs, "Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders" showed the longest durations, with a median of 3020 days. Our quantitative analysis suggests that some CSARs were added more frequently to package inserts after approval and that time to post-approval additions of CSARs varied with the types of adverse drug reactions. These results can support the coherent implementation of pharmacovigilance activities. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Real-life versus package insert: a post-marketing study on adverse-event rates of the virosomal hepatitis A vaccine Epaxal® in healthy travellers.

    PubMed

    Hatz, Christoph; Beck, Bernhard; Steffen, Robert; Genton, Blaise; d'Acremont, Valérie; Loutan, Louis; Hartmann, Katharina; Herzog, Christian

    2011-07-12

    There are various methods to collect adverse events (AEs) in clinical trials. The methods how AEs are collected in vaccine trials is of special interest: solicited reporting can lead to over-reporting events that have little or no biological relationship to the vaccine. We assessed the rate of AEs listed in the package insert for the virosomal hepatitis A vaccine Epaxal(®), comparing data collected by solicited or unsolicited self-reporting. In an open, multi-centre post-marketing study, 2675 healthy travellers received single doses of vaccine administered intramuscularly. AEs were recorded based on solicited and unsolicited questioning during a four-day period after vaccination. A total of 2541 questionnaires could be evaluated (95.0% return rate). Solicited self-reporting resulted in significantly higher (p<0.0001) rates of subjects with AEs than unsolicited reporting, both at baseline (18.9% solicited versus 2.1% unsolicited systemic AEs) and following immunization (29.6% versus 19.3% local AEs; 33.8% versus 18.2% systemic AEs). This could indicate that actual reporting rates of AEs with Epaxal(®) may be substantially lower than described in the package insert. The distribution of AEs differed significantly between the applied methods of collecting AEs. The most common AEs listed in the package insert were reported almost exclusively with solicited questioning. The reporting of local AEs was more likely than that of systemic AEs to be influenced by subjects' sex, age and study centre. Women reported higher rates of AEs than men. The results highlight the need for detailing the methods how vaccine tolerability was reported and assessed.

  2. Malaria rapid diagnostic kits: quality of packaging, design and labelling of boxes and components and readability and accuracy of information inserts

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The present study assessed malaria RDT kits for adequate and correct packaging, design and labelling of boxes and components. Information inserts were studied for readability and accuracy of information. Methods Criteria for packaging, design, labelling and information were compiled from Directive 98/79 of the European Community (EC), relevant World Health Organization (WHO) documents and studies on end-users' performance of RDTs. Typography and readability level (Flesch-Kincaid grade level) were assessed. Results Forty-two RDT kits from 22 manufacturers were assessed, 35 of which had evidence of good manufacturing practice according to available information (i.e. CE-label affixed or inclusion in the WHO list of ISO13485:2003 certified manufacturers). Shortcomings in devices were (i) insufficient place for writing sample identification (n = 40) and (ii) ambiguous labelling of the reading window (n = 6). Buffer vial labels were lacking essential information (n = 24) or were of poor quality (n = 16). Information inserts had elevated readability levels (median Flesch Kincaid grade 8.9, range 7.1 - 12.9) and user-unfriendly typography (median font size 8, range 5 - 10). Inadequacies included (i) no referral to biosafety (n = 18), (ii) critical differences between depicted and real devices (n = 8), (iii) figures with unrealistic colours (n = 4), (iv) incomplete information about RDT line interpretations (n = 31) and no data on test characteristics (n = 8). Other problems included (i) kit names that referred to Plasmodium vivax although targeting a pan-species Plasmodium antigen (n = 4), (ii) not stating the identity of the pan-species antigen (n = 2) and (iii) slight but numerous differences in names displayed on boxes, device packages and information inserts. Three CE labelled RDT kits produced outside the EC had no authorized representative affixed and the shape and relative dimensions of the CE symbol affixed did not comply with the Directive 98/79/EC

  3. Malaria rapid diagnostic kits: quality of packaging, design and labelling of boxes and components and readability and accuracy of information inserts.

    PubMed

    Gillet, Philippe; Maltha, Jessica; Hermans, Veerle; Ravinetto, Raffaella; Bruggeman, Cathrien; Jacobs, Jan

    2011-02-13

    The present study assessed malaria RDT kits for adequate and correct packaging, design and labelling of boxes and components. Information inserts were studied for readability and accuracy of information. Criteria for packaging, design, labelling and information were compiled from Directive 98/79 of the European Community (EC), relevant World Health Organization (WHO) documents and studies on end-users' performance of RDTs. Typography and readability level (Flesch-Kincaid grade level) were assessed. Forty-two RDT kits from 22 manufacturers were assessed, 35 of which had evidence of good manufacturing practice according to available information (i.e. CE-label affixed or inclusion in the WHO list of ISO13485:2003 certified manufacturers). Shortcomings in devices were (i) insufficient place for writing sample identification (n=40) and (ii) ambiguous labelling of the reading window (n=6). Buffer vial labels were lacking essential information (n=24) or were of poor quality (n=16). Information inserts had elevated readability levels (median Flesch Kincaid grade 8.9, range 7.1-12.9) and user-unfriendly typography (median font size 8, range 5-10). Inadequacies included (i) no referral to biosafety (n=18), (ii) critical differences between depicted and real devices (n=8), (iii) figures with unrealistic colours (n=4), (iv) incomplete information about RDT line interpretations (n=31) and no data on test characteristics (n=8). Other problems included (i) kit names that referred to Plasmodium vivax although targeting a pan-species Plasmodium antigen (n=4), (ii) not stating the identity of the pan-species antigen (n=2) and (iii) slight but numerous differences in names displayed on boxes, device packages and information inserts. Three CE labelled RDT kits produced outside the EC had no authorized representative affixed and the shape and relative dimensions of the CE symbol affixed did not comply with the Directive 98/79/EC. Overall, RDTs with evidence of GMP scored better

  4. Consumer and health literacy: The need to better design tobacco-cessation product packaging, labels, and inserts.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Stephanie M; Smith-Simone, Stephanie Y

    2010-03-01

    Tobacco-cessation product packaging and instruction materials may not be appropriate for some smokers and may contribute to the underuse and misuse of evidence-based treatments. The dual goals of this project are to analyze literacy levels of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved and non-approved tobacco-cessation product packaging, directions, and claims, and to identify and categorize claims found on product packaging. The Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids (CTFK) maintains the Quitting and Reducing Tobacco Use Inventory of Products (QuiTIP) database, which catalogs products marketed and sold to consumers to reduce or quit use of tobacco products. It also includes all medications approved by the FDA for tobacco cessation as well as a sample of non-approved products such as homeopathic, herbal, nutritional, or dietary supplements commonly marketed as either cessation aids or alternative tobacco/nicotine products. This paper assesses the reading levels required to understand product packaging, labeling, and instructions using the Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) and identifies claims on the product package labels using standard qualitative methods. Key findings show that the average reading levels needed to understand instructions for both FDA-approved and non-approved cessation products are above the reading levels recommended to ensure maximum comprehension. Improving the packaging and directions of evidence-based tobacco-cessation products so that they are preferably at or below a fifth-grade reading level, along with using consumer-based design principles to develop packaging, may help smokers take advantage of and correctly use products that will greatly increase their chances of successful quitting.

  5. Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty: effect of inserting forceps on DSAEK donor tissue viability by using an in vitro delivery model and vital dye assay.

    PubMed

    Ide, Takeshi; Yoo, Sonia H; Goldman, James M; Perez, Victor; O'Brien, Terrence P

    2007-10-01

    To qualitatively assess the extent and pattern of endothelial trauma on corneal donor Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) buttons resulting from DSAEK insertion forceps. An in vitro model was used with corneoscleral rims, DSAEK quality corneal donor tissue, and DSAEK insertion forceps. After insertion of the donor button through the corneoscleral rim, a vital dye assay was used to identify devitalized and necrotic endothelial cells (with alizarin red S and typan blue). Corneal buttons evaluated with the forceps delivery model showed that, for each arm of the forceps, there were 2 parallel bands of purple/red staining. In addition, orthogonal wrinkles of scattered blue devitalized nuclei were seen in a parallel arrangement. The DSAEK insertion forceps resulted in a reproducible pattern of endothelial damage. A thorough understanding of iatrogenic endothelial trauma could result in improved forceps design and perhaps help mitigate the high rate of donor dislocation and graft failure in the future.

  6. Development of a functional cell-based assay that probes the specific interaction between influenza A virus NP and its packaging signal sequence RNA.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jiwon; Yu, Kyung Lee; Lee, Sun Hee; You, Ji Chang

    2015-02-06

    Although cis-acting packaging signal RNA sequences for the influenza virus NP encoding vRNA have been identified recently though genetic studies, little is known about the interaction between NP and the vRNA packaging signals either in vivo or in vitro. Here, we provide evidence that NP is able to interact specifically with the vRNA packaging sequence RNA within living cells and that the specific RNA binding activity of NP in vivo requires both the N-terminal and central region of the protein. This assay established would be a valuable tool for further detailed studies of the NP-packaging signal RNA interaction in living cells.

  7. Determination of the Loss of Function Complement C4 Exon 29 CT Insertion Using a Novel Paralog-Specific Assay in Healthy UK and Spanish Populations

    PubMed Central

    Boteva, Lora; Wu, Yee Ling; Cortes-Hernández, Josefina; Martin, Javier; Vyse, Timothy J.; Fernando, Michelle M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic variants resulting in non-expression of complement C4A and C4B genes are common in healthy European populations and have shown association with a number of diseases, most notably the autoimmune disease, systemic lupus erythematosus. The most frequent cause of a C4 “null” allele, following that of C4 gene copy number variation (CNV), is a non-sense mutation arising from a 2 bp CT insertion into codon 1232 of exon 29. Previous attempts to accurately genotype this polymorphism have not been amenable to high-throughput typing, and have been confounded by failure to account for CNV at this locus, as well as by inability to distinguish between paralogs. We have developed a novel, high-throughput, paralog-specific assay to detect the presence and copy number of this polymorphism. We have genotyped healthy cohorts from the United Kingdom (UK) and Spain. Overall, 30/719 (4.17%) individuals from the UK cohort and 8/449 (1.78%) individuals from the Spanish cohort harboured the CT insertion in a C4A gene. A single Spanish individual possessed a C4B CT insertion. There is weak correlation between the C4 CT insertion and flanking MHC polymorphism. Therefore it is important to note that, as with C4 gene CNV, disease-association due to this variant will be missed by current SNP-based genome-wide association strategies. PMID:21857912

  8. Determination of the loss of function complement C4 exon 29 CT insertion using a novel paralog-specific assay in healthy UK and Spanish populations.

    PubMed

    Boteva, Lora; Wu, Yee Ling; Cortes-Hernández, Josefina; Martin, Javier; Vyse, Timothy J; Fernando, Michelle M A

    2011-01-01

    Genetic variants resulting in non-expression of complement C4A and C4B genes are common in healthy European populations and have shown association with a number of diseases, most notably the autoimmune disease, systemic lupus erythematosus. The most frequent cause of a C4 "null" allele, following that of C4 gene copy number variation (CNV), is a non-sense mutation arising from a 2 bp CT insertion into codon 1232 of exon 29. Previous attempts to accurately genotype this polymorphism have not been amenable to high-throughput typing, and have been confounded by failure to account for CNV at this locus, as well as by inability to distinguish between paralogs. We have developed a novel, high-throughput, paralog-specific assay to detect the presence and copy number of this polymorphism. We have genotyped healthy cohorts from the United Kingdom (UK) and Spain. Overall, 30/719 (4.17%) individuals from the UK cohort and 8/449 (1.78%) individuals from the Spanish cohort harboured the CT insertion in a C4A gene. A single Spanish individual possessed a C4B CT insertion. There is weak correlation between the C4 CT insertion and flanking MHC polymorphism. Therefore it is important to note that, as with C4 gene CNV, disease-association due to this variant will be missed by current SNP-based genome-wide association strategies.

  9. Use of the Dye Stain Assay and Ultraviolet Light Test for Assessing Vaginal Insertion of Placebo-filled Applicators Before and After Sex

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Marla J.; Buckley, Niall; Katzen, Lauren L.; Walsh, Jennifer; Friedland, Barbara; Littlefield, Sarah; Lin, Juan; Xue, Xiaonan; Cornelison, Terri; Herold, Betsy C.; Einstein, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Applicator dye staining and ultraviolet (UV) light have been used in trials to measure adherence, but not in the setting of before and after sex gel dosing (BAT-24). This study was designed to determine if semen or pre-sex gel dosing impacts the sensitivity and specificity of a dye stain assay (DSA) for measuring vaginal insertion of placebo-filled applicators with BAT-24 dosing. Methods Healthy monogamous couples received Microlax®-type applicators filled with hydroxyethylcelluose placebo gel. Women were instructed to vaginally insert one dose of gel before and a second dose after sex and to return applicators within 48 hours after sex. Applicators were stained to detect semen followed by UV then DSA and scored by two readers. Positive and negative controls were randomly included in applicator batches. Results Fifteen couples completed the study. Each female returned at least six applicators over a 30-day period. The sensitivity for insertion of post-sex applicators was higher for UV (97%) compared to DSA (90%) and the specificity was similar (≥96%). For pre-sex applicators, the sensitivity and specificity were higher for DSA (100%) compared to UV testing (87% sensitivity, 96% specificity). Among returned post-sex applicators, 95% tested positive by UV compared to 87% by DSA. Agreement between readers was significantly better on the pre-sex applicators for DSA than for UV and for post-sex readings agreement was less than half that for UV, although the results were not statistically significant. Conclusions Applicator tests are feasible for measuring adherence in trials with gel dosing before and after sex. PMID:24220355

  10. Use of the dye stain assay and ultraviolet light test for assessing vaginal insertion of placebo-filled applicators before and after sex.

    PubMed

    Keller, Marla J; Buckley, Niall; Katzen, Lauren L; Walsh, Jennifer; Friedland, Barbara; Littlefield, Sarah; Lin, Juan; Xue, Xiaonan; Cornelison, Terri; Herold, Betsy C; Einstein, Mark H

    2013-12-01

    Applicator dye staining and ultraviolet (UV) light have been used in trials to measure adherence, but not in the setting of before and after sex gel dosing (BAT-24). This study was designed to determine if semen or presex gel dosing impacts the sensitivity and specificity of a dye stain assay (DSA) for measuring vaginal insertion of placebo-filled applicators with BAT-24 dosing. Healthy monogamous couples received Microlax-type applicators (Tectubes, Åstorp, Sweden) filled with hydroxyethylcelluose placebo gel. Women were instructed to vaginally insert 1 dose of gel before and a second dose after sex and to return applicators within 48 hours after sex. Applicators were stained to detect semen, followed by UV then DSA, and scored by 2 readers. Positive and negative controls were randomly included in applicator batches. Fifteen couples completed the study. Each woman returned at least 6 applicators over a 30-day period. The sensitivity for insertion of postsex applicators was higher for UV (97%) compared with DSA (90%), and the specificity was similar (≥96%). For presex applicators, the sensitivity and specificity were higher for DSA (100%) compared with UV testing (87% sensitivity, 96% specificity). Among returned postsex applicators, 95% tested positive by UV compared with 87% by DSA. Agreement between readers was significantly better on the presex applicators for DSA than for UV, and for postsex readings, agreement was less than half that for UV, although the results were not statistically significant. Applicator tests are feasible for measuring adherence in trials with gel dosing before and after sex.

  11. Genotoxicity of a thiosulfonate compound derived from Allium sp. intended to be used in active food packaging: In vivo comet assay and micronucleus test.

    PubMed

    Mellado-García, Pilar; Puerto, María; Prieto, Ana I; Pichardo, Silvia; Martín-Cameán, Ana; Moyano, Rosario; Blanco, Alfonso; Cameán, Ana M

    2016-04-01

    Components of Allium species have antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. A commercial Allium sp. extract (Proallium AP(®)), of which the main constituent is propyl thiosulphinate oxide (PTSO), is being used in the development of active food packaging. In previous in vitro genotoxicity studies, PTSO, in the presence of metabolic activation, increased the appearance of micronuclei (MN). We assessed the genotoxicity PTSO in rats following oral administration (doses: 5.5, 17.4, and 55mg/kg). The comet assay in liver and stomach (OECD 489) and the MN assay in bone marrow (OECD 474) were carried out. After necropsy, histopathological examinations of the liver and the stomach were performed. The results revealed no in vivo genotoxicity and the histopathological analysis showed only slight modifications, such as increased glycogen storage in the liver and a degenerative process in stomach, with vacuolization of cell membranes, only at the highest dose. Therefore, the present work confirms that this compound is not genotoxic and could be considered as a natural alternative to synthetic preservatives used in the food packaging industry.

  12. TaqMan 5'-nuclease human immunodeficiency virus type 1 PCR assay with phage-packaged competitive internal control for high-throughput blood donor screening.

    PubMed

    Drosten, C; Seifried, E; Roth, W K

    2001-12-01

    Screening of blood donors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection by PCR permits the earlier diagnosis of HIV-1 infection compared with that by serologic assays. We have established a high-throughput reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay based on 5'-nuclease PCR. By in-tube detection of HIV-1 RNA with a fluorogenic probe, the 5'-nuclease PCR technology (TaqMan PCR) eliminates the risk of carryover contamination, a major problem in PCR testing. We outline the development and evaluation of the PCR assay from a technical point of view. A one-step RT-PCR that targets the gag genes of all known HIV-1 group M isolates was developed. An internal control RNA detectable with a heterologous 5'-nuclease probe was derived from the viral target cDNA and was packaged into MS2 coliphages (Armored RNA). Because the RNA was protected against digestion with RNase, it could be spiked into patient plasma to control the complete sample preparation and amplification process. The assay detected 831 HIV-1 type B genome equivalents per ml of native plasma (95% confidence interval [CI], 759 to 936 HIV-1 B genome equivalents per ml) with a >or=95% probability of a positive result, as determined by probit regression analysis. A detection limit of 1,195 genome equivalents per ml of (individual) donor plasma (95% CI, 1,014 to 1,470 genome equivalents per ml of plasma pooled from individuals) was achieved when 96 samples were pooled and enriched by centrifugation. Up to 4,000 plasma samples per PCR run were tested in a 3-month trial period. Although data from the present pilot feasibility study will have to be complemented by a large clinical validation study, the assay is a promising approach to the high-throughput screening of blood donors and is the first noncommercial test for high-throughput screening for HIV-1.

  13. Analysis of HIV-2 Vpx by modeling and insertional mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mahnke, Lisa A. . E-mail: lmahnke@im.wustl.edu; Belshan, Michael; Ratner, Lee . E-mail: lratner@im.wustl.edu

    2006-04-25

    Vpx facilitates HIV-2 nuclear localization by a poorly understood mechanism. We have compared Vpx to an NMR structure HIV-1 Vpr in a central helical domain and probed regions of Vpx by insertional mutagenesis. A predicted loop between helices two and three appears to be unique, overlapping with a known novel nuclear localization signal. Overall, Vpx was found to be surprisingly flexible, tolerating a series of large insertions. We found that insertion within the polyproline-containing C-terminus destabilizes nuclear localization, whereas mutating a second helix in the central domain disrupts viral packaging. Other insertional mutants in the predicted loop and in a linker region between the central domain and the C-terminus may be useful as sites of intramolecular tags as they could be packaged adequately and retained preintegration complex associated integration activity in a serum starvation assay. An unexpected result was found within a previously defined nuclear localization motif near aa 71. This mutant retained robust nuclear localization in a GFP fusion assay and was competent for preintegration complex associated nuclear import. In summary, we have modeled helical content in Vpx and assessed potential sites of intramolecular tags which may prove useful for protein-protein interactions studies.

  14. Package of NDV-pseudotyped HIV-Luc virus and its application in the neutralization assay for NDV infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Wang, Bin; Liu, Peixin; Li, Tao; Si, Wei; Xiu, Jinsheng; Liu, Henggui

    2014-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a member of the Paramyxovirinae subfamily and can infect most species of birds. It has been a great threat for the poultry industry all around the world. In this report, we successfully produced infectious pseudotyped pNL4-3-Luc-R(-)E(-) (HIV-Luc) viruses with the HN and F envelope proteins of NDV. Further investigation revealed the cytoplasmic domains of HN and F, especially HN, plays a significant role in the infection efficiency of these pseudotyped HIV-Luc viruses. Replacement of, or direct fusion to the cytoplasmic domain of the HN protein by that of vesicular stomatitis virus G (VSV-G) could greatly enhance or destroy the infective potential of HN and F-pseudotyped (NDV-pseudotyped) HIV-Luc virus. We further established a novel neutralization assay to evaluate neutralizing antibodies against NDV with the NDV-pseudotyped HIV-Luc viruses. Comparative neutralization data indicate that the results determined by using the NDV-pseudotyped HIV-Luc viruses are as reliable as those by the conventional virus-neutralization assay (VN test) with native NDV. Moreover, the results show that the novel neutralization assay is more sensitive than the VN test.

  15. Assaying multiple 125I seeds with the well-ionization chamber SourceCheck4π 33005 and a new insert

    PubMed Central

    Ballester, Facundo; Perez-Calatayud, Jose; Vijande, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To provide a practical solution that can be adopted in clinical routine to fulfill the AAPM-ESTRO recommendations regarding quality assurance of seeds used in prostate permanent brachytherapy. The aim is to design a new insert for the well-ionization chamber SourceCheck4π 33005 (PTW, Germany) that allows evaluating the mean air-kerma strength of up to ten 125I seeds with one single measurement instead of measuring each seed individually. Material and methods The material required is: a) the SourceCheck4π 33005 well-ionization chamber provided with a PTW insert to measure the air-kerma strength S K of one single seed at a time; b) a newly designed insert that accommodates ten seeds in one column, which allows measuring the mean S K of the ten seeds in one single measurement; and c) a container with ten seeds from the same batch and class of the seeds used for the patient implant, and a set of nine non-radioactive seeds. The new insert is characterized by determining its calibration coefficient, used to convert the reading of the well-chamber when ten seeds are measured to their mean S K. The proposed method is validated by comparing the mean S K of the ten seeds obtained from the new insert with the individual measurement of S K of each seed, evaluated with the PTW insert. Results The ratio between the calibration coefficient of the new insert and the calibration coefficient of the PTW insert for the SourceCheck4π 33005 is 1.135 ± 0.007 (k = 1). The mean S K of a set of ten seeds evaluated with this new system is in agreement with the mean value obtained from measuring independently the S K of each seed. Conclusions The new insert and procedure allow evaluating the mean S K of ten seeds prior to the implant in a single measurement. The method is faster and more efficient from radiation protection point of view than measuring the individual S K of each seed. PMID:26816507

  16. Development of a new "GFP hop-on assay" system for insertion sequence transposition in Bacillus subtilis 168 using IS4Bsu1 from B. subtilis (natto).

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kiwamu; Chibazakura, Taku; Sekine, Yasuhiko; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi

    2007-04-06

    While most studies involving transposition have focused on analyzing the detailed mechanisms of transposition, the cellular conditions under which transposition occurs remain to be elucidated. In Escherichia coli, papillation assay is a powerful tool for transpositional analysis and the isolation of mutants affecting transposition. On the other hand, while our assay system based on the E. coli papillation assay can detect transpositional events in Bacillus subtilis 168, it is not suitable for quantitating transposition frequency because blue papillae on the transposant colonies of B. subtilis are not countable. We succeeded in developing a new "GFP hop-on assay" system that facilitates quantitative detection of the transposition of the FACS-optimized GFP mutant gene. Our assay system is a step forward in understanding the cellular conditions under which transposition occurs.

  17. Development of a duplex real-time RT-qPCR assay to monitor genome replication, gene expression and gene insert stability during in vivo replication of a prototype live attenuated canine distemper virus vector encoding SIV gag.

    PubMed

    Coleman, John W; Wright, Kevin J; Wallace, Olivia L; Sharma, Palka; Arendt, Heather; Martinez, Jennifer; DeStefano, Joanne; Zamb, Timothy P; Zhang, Xinsheng; Parks, Christopher L

    2015-03-01

    Advancement of new vaccines based on live viral vectors requires sensitive assays to analyze in vivo replication, gene expression and genetic stability. In this study, attenuated canine distemper virus (CDV) was used as a vaccine delivery vector and duplex 2-step quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) assays specific for genomic RNA (gRNA) or mRNA have been developed that concurrently quantify coding sequences for the CDV nucleocapsid protein (N) and a foreign vaccine antigen (SIV Gag). These amplicons, which had detection limits of about 10 copies per PCR reaction, were used to show that abdominal cavity lymphoid tissues were a primary site of CDV vector replication in infected ferrets, and importantly, CDV gRNA or mRNA was undetectable in brain tissue. In addition, the gRNA duplex assay was adapted for monitoring foreign gene insert genetic stability during in vivo replication by analyzing the ratio of CDV N and SIV gag genomic RNA copies over the course of vector infection. This measurement was found to be a sensitive probe for assessing the in vivo genetic stability of the foreign gene insert.

  18. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube insertion; G-tube insertion; PEG tube insertion; Stomach tube insertion; Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube insertion ... and down the esophagus, which leads to the stomach. After the endoscopy tube is inserted, the skin ...

  19. Astrocytes are crucial for survival and maturation of embryonic hippocampal neurons in a neuron-glia cell-insert coculture assay.

    PubMed

    Pyka, Martin; Busse, Claudia; Seidenbecher, Constanze; Gundelfinger, Eckart D; Faissner, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Synapses represent specialized cell-cell contact sites between nerve cells. These structures mediate the rapid and efficient transmission of signals between neurons and are surrounded by glial cells. Previous investigations have shown that astrocytes are important for the formation, maintenance, and function of CNS synapses. To study effects of glial-derived molecules on synaptogenesis, we have established an in vitro cell-insert coculture system for E18 rat hippocampal neurons and various glial cell types. Neurons were cultured without direct contact with glial cells for distinct time periods. First, it was confirmed that astrocytes are essential to promote survival of E18 hippocampal neurons. Beginning with 10 days in culture, the concurrent expression of pre- and postsynaptic proteins was observed. Moreover, the colocalization of the presynaptic marker Bassoon and the postsynaptic protein ProSAP1/Shank2 indicated the formation of synapses. A technique was developed that permits the semiautomated quantitative determination of the number of synaptic puncta per neuron. The culture system was used to assess effects of pharmacological treatments on synapse formation by applying blockers and activators of small GTPases. In particular, treatment with lysophosphatidic acid enhanced synaptogenesis in the coculture system.

  20. Characterization of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec insertion site in 108 isolates lacking the mecA gene and identified as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by the Xpert MRSA assay.

    PubMed

    Stojanov, M; Blanc, D S

    2014-11-01

    During a 3-year period, 848 patients were detected as carriers of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by the Xpert MRSA assay (Cepheid). Among them, 108 patients (12.7 %) were colonized with strains showing methicillin-susceptible phenotypes and absence of the mecA gene, despite being positive with the rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. DNA sequences of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) insertion site of these "false-positive" strains was determined by direct sequencing of the genomic DNA. More than half (53.7 %) of the strains had DNA sequences unrelated to either SCC or SCCmec and one-third had DNA sequences related to non-mec SCC. Only 10.2 % of the strains carried sequences related to SCCmec, suggesting that a sequence containing the mecA gene was lost from an SCCmec. These findings differ from the general idea that all methicillin-susceptible S. aureus having positive Xpert MRSA assay results are essentially MRSA that lost the mecA gene.

  1. Development of a high-resolution melting genotyping assay for the angiotensin I converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism and establishment of genotype-specific reference intervals in a Danish population.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Peter H; Campbell, Nina Buntzen; Højskov, Carsten S; Fløe, Andreas; Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen; Hilberg, Ole; Ladefoged, Søren A; Møller, Holger J

    2015-01-01

    The serum-angiotensin I converting enzyme (s-ACE) activity is influenced by a genetic insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in the ACE gene, and the resulting large interindividual variation in s-ACE limits the use of normal reference intervals in the evaluation of sarcoidosis. In this study, we developed a new method for genotyping the I/D polymorphism in ACE and established genotype-specific reference intervals in order to improve the diagnostic accuracy and the value for treatment of sarcoidosis. The new genotyping assay is based on high-resolution melting (HRM) using LCGreen + and was used to genotype 400 healthy Danish individuals. The assay was compared to a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay in a validation set of 86 samples. Enzyme activity in serum was measured using the Infinity™ ACE Liquid Stable Reagent from Thermo adapted for the ABX Pentra analyzer. There was full concordance between genotyping assays. The three genotypes II, ID and DD were present with a frequency of 0.23, 0.51 and 0.26. The distribution of s-ACE values in the total population was non-Gaussian (non-parametric 95% reference interval 12.0-60.0 U/L). The median activities of the genotypes differed significantly (P<0.0001). Ninety-five per cent non-parametric reference intervals for the subpopulations were determined to 6.3-38.5, 14.0-56.0 and 23.3-71.2 U/L for II, ID and DD, respectively. We have developed a simple and robust method for ACE genotyping and determined genotype-specific reference intervals for s-ACE concentrations in the Danish population. The new reference intervals may increase the value of s-ACE measurements. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. Insertion Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Mahillon, Jacques; Chandler, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Insertion sequences (ISs) constitute an important component of most bacterial genomes. Over 500 individual ISs have been described in the literature to date, and many more are being discovered in the ongoing prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome-sequencing projects. The last 10 years have also seen some striking advances in our understanding of the transposition process itself. Not least of these has been the development of various in vitro transposition systems for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic elements and, for several of these, a detailed understanding of the transposition process at the chemical level. This review presents a general overview of the organization and function of insertion sequences of eubacterial, archaebacterial, and eukaryotic origins with particular emphasis on bacterial elements and on different aspects of the transposition mechanism. It also attempts to provide a framework for classification of these elements by assigning them to various families or groups. A total of 443 members of the collection have been grouped in 17 families based on combinations of the following criteria: (i) similarities in genetic organization (arrangement of open reading frames); (ii) marked identities or similarities in the enzymes which mediate the transposition reactions, the recombinases/transposases (Tpases); (iii) similar features of their ends (terminal IRs); and (iv) fate of the nucleotide sequence of their target sites (generation of a direct target duplication of determined length). A brief description of the mechanism(s) involved in the mobility of individual ISs in each family and of the structure-function relationships of the individual Tpases is included where available. PMID:9729608

  3. Chest tube insertion

    MedlinePlus

    Chest drainage tube insertion; Insertion of tube into chest; Tube thoracostomy; Pericardial drain ... When your chest tube is inserted, you will lie on your side or sit partly upright, with one arm over your head. Sometimes, ...

  4. Dihalocarbene Insertion Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, S. H.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the insertion reaction using the insertion of carbenes into carbon-hydrogen bonds as an example. Outlines an experiment that will illustrate dihalocarbene insertions into diisopropyl ether. (GS)

  5. Watermarking spot colors in packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Alastair; Filler, TomáÅ.¡; Falkenstern, Kristyn; Bai, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In January 2014, Digimarc announced Digimarc® Barcode for the packaging industry to improve the check-out efficiency and customer experience for retailers. Digimarc Barcode is a machine readable code that carries the same information as a traditional Universal Product Code (UPC) and is introduced by adding a robust digital watermark to the package design. It is imperceptible to the human eye but can be read by a modern barcode scanner at the Point of Sale (POS) station. Compared to a traditional linear barcode, Digimarc Barcode covers the whole package with minimal impact on the graphic design. This significantly improves the Items per Minute (IPM) metric, which retailers use to track the checkout efficiency since it closely relates to their profitability. Increasing IPM by a few percent could lead to potential savings of millions of dollars for retailers, giving them a strong incentive to add the Digimarc Barcode to their packages. Testing performed by Digimarc showed increases in IPM of at least 33% using the Digimarc Barcode, compared to using a traditional barcode. A method of watermarking print ready image data used in the commercial packaging industry is described. A significant proportion of packages are printed using spot colors, therefore spot colors needs to be supported by an embedder for Digimarc Barcode. Digimarc Barcode supports the PANTONE spot color system, which is commonly used in the packaging industry. The Digimarc Barcode embedder allows a user to insert the UPC code in an image while minimizing perceptibility to the Human Visual System (HVS). The Digimarc Barcode is inserted in the printing ink domain, using an Adobe Photoshop plug-in as the last step before printing. Since Photoshop is an industry standard widely used by pre-press shops in the packaging industry, a Digimarc Barcode can be easily inserted and proofed.

  6. Scoring Package

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Scoring Package (PC database for purchase)   The NIST Scoring Package (Special Database 1) is a reference implementation of the draft Standard Method for Evaluating the Performance of Systems Intended to Recognize Hand-printed Characters from Image Data Scanned from Forms.

  7. Characterization of a Novel Type of HIV-1 Particle Assembly Inhibitor Using a Quantitative Luciferase-Vpr Packaging-Based Assay

    PubMed Central

    Errazuriz, Elisabeth; Coric, Pascale; Souquet, Florence; Turcaud, Serge; Boulanger, Pierre; Bouaziz, Serge; Hong, Saw See

    2011-01-01

    The HIV-1 auxiliary protein Vpr and Vpr-fusion proteins can be copackaged with Gag precursor (Pr55Gag) into virions or membrane-enveloped virus-like particles (VLP). Taking advantage of this property, we developed a simple and sensitive method to evaluate potential inhibitors of HIV-1 assembly in a living cell system. Two proteins were coexpressed in recombinant baculovirus-infected Sf9 cells, Pr55Gag, which formed the VLP backbone, and luciferase fused to the N-terminus of Vpr (LucVpr). VLP-encapsidated LucVpr retained the enzymatic activity of free luciferase. The levels of luciferase activity present in the pelletable fraction recovered from the culture medium correlated with the amounts of extracellular VLP released by Sf9 cells assayed by conventional immunological methods. Our luciferase-based assay was then applied to the characterization of betulinic acid (BA) derivatives that differed from the leader compound PA-457 (or DSB) by their substituant on carbon-28. The beta-alanine-conjugated and lysine-conjugated DSB could not be evaluated for their antiviral potentials due to their high cytotoxicity, whereas two other compounds with a lesser cytotoxicity, glycine-conjugated and ε-NH-Boc-lysine-conjugated DSB, exerted a dose-dependent negative effect on VLP assembly and budding. A fifth compound with a low cytotoxicity, EP-39 (ethylene diamine-conjugated DSB), showed a novel type of antiviral effect. EP-39 provoked an aberrant assembly of VLP, resulting in nonenveloped, morula-like particles of 100-nm in diameter. Each morula was composed of nanoparticle subunits of 20-nm in diameter, which possibly mimicked transient intermediates of the HIV-1 Gag assembly process. Chemical cross-linking in situ suggested that EP-39 favored the formation or/and persistence of Pr55Gag trimers over other oligomeric species. EP-39 showed a novel type of negative effect on HIV-1 assembly, targeting the Pr55Gag oligomerisation. The biological effect of EP-39 underlined the

  8. Chair Inserts for Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Eva; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The article provides detailed procedures (with diagrams) for constructing cardboard chair inserts to meet the needs of preschool children with minimal to severe physical limitations. The inserts offer reduced expense and increased flexibility allowing a customized fit. (DB)

  9. 48 CFR 852.214-73 - Alternate packaging and packing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternate packaging and....214-73 Alternate packaging and packing. As prescribed in 814.201-6(b)(3), insert the following provision: Alternate Packaging and Packing (JAN 2008) The bidder's offer must clearly indicate the...

  10. 48 CFR 1852.211-70 - Packaging, handling, and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Packaging, handling, and... and Clauses 1852.211-70 Packaging, handling, and transportation. As prescribed in 1811.404-70, insert the following clause: Packaging, Handling, and Transportation (SEPT 2005) (a) The Contractor...

  11. 48 CFR 552.211-75 - Preservation, Packaging and Packing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preservation, Packaging....211-75 Preservation, Packaging and Packing. As prescribed in 511.204(b)(2), insert the following clause: Preservation, Packaging, and Packing (FEB 1996) Unless otherwise specified, all items shall...

  12. Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System

    SciTech Connect

    Herschel Smartt; Arthur Watkins; David Pace; Rodney Bitsoi; Eric Larsen; Timothy McJunkin; Charles Tolle

    2006-04-01

    The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

  13. Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System

    SciTech Connect

    shelton-davis; Colleen Shelton-Davis; Greg Housley

    2005-10-01

    The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

  14. Optimized production and concentration of lentiviral vectors containing large inserts.

    PubMed

    al Yacoub, Nadya; Romanowska, Malgorzata; Haritonova, Natalie; Foerster, John

    2007-07-01

    Generation of high titer lentiviral stocks and efficient virus concentration are central to maximize the utility of lentiviral technology. Here we evaluate published protocols for lentivirus production on a range of transfer vectors differing in size (7.5-13.2 kb). We present a modified virus production protocol robustly yielding useful titers (up to 10(7)/ml) for a range of different transfer vectors containing packaging inserts up to 7.5 kb. Moreover, we find that virus recovery after concentration by ultracentrifugation depends on the size of the packaged inserts, heavily decreasing for large packaged inserts. We describe a fast (4 h) centrifugation protocol at reduced speed allowing high virus recovery even for large and fragile lentivirus vectors. The protocols outlined in the current report should be useful for many labs interested in producing and concentrating high titer lentiviral stocks.

  15. Seafood Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center worked with a New Orleans seafood packaging company to develop a container to improve the shipping longevity of seafood, primarily frozen and fresh fish, while preserving the taste. A NASA engineer developed metalized heat resistant polybags with thermal foam liners using an enhanced version of the metalized mylar commonly known as 'space blanket material,' which was produced during the Apollo era.

  16. Seafood Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center worked with a New Orleans seafood packaging company to develop a container to improve the shipping longevity of seafood, primarily frozen and fresh fish, while preserving the taste. A NASA engineer developed metalized heat resistant polybags with thermal foam liners using an enhanced version of the metalized mylar commonly known as 'space blanket material,' which was produced during the Apollo era.

  17. Packaged Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    After studies found that many elderly persons don't eat adequately because they can't afford to, they have limited mobility, or they just don't bother, Innovated Foods, Inc. and JSC developed shelf-stable foods processed and packaged for home preparation with minimum effort. Various food-processing techniques and delivery systems are under study and freeze dried foods originally used for space flight are being marketed. (See 77N76140)

  18. Grommet Having Metal Insert

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-28

    axially with respect to the body. The 1 means for releasably securing a tool to the insert comprises 2 female threads formed on an inner surface of the...below 10 the flange 32. These surfaces 34, 36 are threaded ( female 11 threads) so that the end of a tool 38 having male threads can 12 engage the...further includes a rigid insert secured to the body in the 12 centrally located aperture. The insert has female threads formed 13 therein for releasably

  19. MMIC Package for Millimeter Wave Frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bharj, Sarjit Singh; Yuan, Steve

    1997-01-01

    Princeton Microwave Technology has successfully demonstrated the transfer of technology for the MMIC package. During this contract the package design was licensed from Hughes Aircraft Company for manufacture within the U.S. A major effort was directed towards characterization of the ceramic material for its dielectric constant and loss tangent properties. After selection of a ceramic tape, the high temperature co-fired ceramic package was manufactured in the U.S. by Microcircuit Packaging of America, Inc. Microwave measurements of the MMIC package were conducted by an intercontinental microwave test fixture. The package demonstrated a typical insertion loss of 0.5 dB per transition up to 32 Ghz and a return loss of better than 15 db. The performance of the package has been demonstrated from 2 to 30 Ghz by assembling three different MMIC amplifiers. Two of the MMIC amplifiers were designed for the 26 Ghz to 30 Ghz operation while the third MMIC was a distributed amplifier from 2 to 26.5 Ghz. The measured gain of the amplifier is consistent with the device data. The package costs are substantially lower than comparable packages available commercially. Typically the price difference is greater than a factor of three. The package cost is well under $5.00 for a quantity of 10,000 pieces.

  20. Plastic pipe insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Diskin, J.

    1987-05-01

    In March 1987 KPL changed all that when the utility inserted 1,000 ft of 16-in. SDR 15.5 Phillips Driscopipe 8000 pipe with a wall thickness of 1.032-in., into an abandoned 24-in. cast-iron line in downtown Kansas City. This is believed to be the largest diameter insert removal job ever done for gas distribution in the U.S. For KPL it was a natural progression from the smaller sizes used earlier. The procedure is the same, and the operation was quick and comparatively simple. Lower construction costs were the bottom line because with insert renewal there is no need to cut up the streets, a major expense in any urban pipeline work. There are other significant costs savings as well because the insert renewal construction process is faster than other techniques.

  1. Ear tube insertion - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100045.htm Ear tube insertion - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... 4 Overview The eardrum (tympanic membrane) separates the ear canal from the middle ear. Review Date 8/ ...

  2. 21 CFR 310.515 - Patient package inserts for estrogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Requirements for Specific New Drugs or Devices § 310.515 Patient...) Exemptions. This section does not apply to estrogen-progestogen oral contraceptives. Labeling requirements...

  3. Reflective Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  4. A new avian leukosis virus-based packaging cell line that uses two separate transcomplementing helper genomes.

    PubMed

    Cosset, F L; Legras, C; Chebloune, Y; Savatier, P; Thoraval, P; Thomas, J L; Samarut, J; Nigon, V M; Verdier, G

    1990-03-01

    An avian leukosis virus-based packaging cell line was constructed from the genome of the Rous-associated virus type 1. The gag, pol, and env genes were separated on two different plasmids; the packaging signal and the 3' long terminal repeat were removed. On a plasmid expressing the gag and pol genes, the env gene was replaced by the hygromycin resistance gene. The phleomycin resistance gene was inserted in the place of the gag-pol genes on a plasmid expressing the env gene. The plasmid containing the gag, pol, and Hygror genes was transfected into QT6 cells. Clones that produced high levels of p27gag were transfected with the plasmid containing the Phleor and env genes. Clones that produced high levels of env protein (as measured by an interference assay) were tested for their ability to package NeoR-expressing replication-defective vectors (TXN3'). One of the clones (Isolde) was able to transfer the Neo+ phenotype to recipient cells at a titer of 10(5) resistance focus-forming units per ml. Titers of supernatants of cells infected with Rous-associated virus type 1 prior to transfection by Neor vectors were similar. Tests for recombination events that might result in intact helper virus showed no evidence for the generation of replication-competent virus. The use of selectable genes inserted next to the viral genes to generate high-producer packaging cell lines is discussed.

  5. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    SciTech Connect

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2013-04-16

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  6. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2008-06-24

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  7. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2013-02-12

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  8. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2011-06-14

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  9. Mars Observer Orbit Insertion Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Steve Wall is the host of this video entitled, "Return to the Red Planet". Live animation of the Mars Observer orbiting Mars is presented. Steve Wall explains the spacecraft insertion maneuver and also explains the purpose for the Mars Observer launch. Live coverage of the Cape Canaveral launch of the Mars Observer is also presented. Suzanne Dodd, Chief of the Mission Planning team describes the burn start and how the spacecraft will be captured by Mars' gravity. Glenn Cunningham, Mars Observer Project Manager, gives background information on the Mars Observer and describes the organizations behind the Mars Observer Spacecraft, such as the Deep Space Network, the Mission Operation Support Office, Science Investigators, the Flight Engineering Office, Operations Office, and the Ground Data System Office. Dr. William Piotrowski, Acting Director, Solar System Exploration Division, NASA, talks about the purpose of the Mars Pathfinder which is to develop the technology and systems for landing small science packages on Mars. Mr. Roger Gibbs, Former Mars Observer Spacecraft Systems Engineer, tells us how the Mars Observer was built and describes the structural elements on the Mars Observer. The 11-month cruise period for the spacecraft is given by Joseph Beerer, Manager of the Engineering office. The thrust for the Mars Orbit Insertion is described by Ronald Klemetson, Technical Manager, Propulsion Subsystem Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). George Chen, Lead Engineer Attitude and Articulation Subsystem Spacecraft Team, explains the importance of the attitude control engines on the Spacecraft. Marvin Traxler, Manager of Tracking and Data Acquisition, describes how searching for a signal from the Mars Observer works. See NONP-NASA-VT-2000081555 for a continuation of this discussion with Marvin Traxler.

  10. 48 CFR 1852.211-70 - Packaging, handling, and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... transportation. 1852.211-70 Section 1852.211-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND... and Clauses 1852.211-70 Packaging, handling, and transportation. As prescribed in 1811.404-70, insert the following clause: Packaging, Handling, and Transportation (SEP 2005) (a) The Contractor shall...

  11. 48 CFR 1852.211-70 - Packaging, handling, and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... transportation. 1852.211-70 Section 1852.211-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND... and Clauses 1852.211-70 Packaging, handling, and transportation. As prescribed in 1811.404-70, insert the following clause: Packaging, Handling, and Transportation (SEP 2005) (a) The Contractor shall...

  12. 48 CFR 1852.211-70 - Packaging, handling, and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... transportation. 1852.211-70 Section 1852.211-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND... and Clauses 1852.211-70 Packaging, handling, and transportation. As prescribed in 1811.404-70, insert the following clause: Packaging, Handling, and Transportation (SEP 2005) (a) The Contractor shall...

  13. ALS insertion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyer, E.; Chin, J.; Halbach, K.; Hassenzahl, W. V.; Humphries, D.; Kincaid, B.; Lancaster, H.; Plate, D.

    1991-08-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), the first US third generation synchrotron radiation source, is currently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The low-emittance, 1.5 GeV electron storage ring and the insertion devices are specifically designed to produce high brightness beams in the UV to soft X-Ray range. The planned initial complement of insertion devices includes four 4.6 m long undulators, with period lengths of 3.9 cm, 5.0 cm (2) and 8.0 cm, and a 2.9 m long wiggler of 16 cm period length. Undulator design is well advanced and fabrication has begun on the 5.0 cm and 8.0 cm period length undulators. This paper discusses ALS insertion device requirements; general design philosophy; and design of the magnetic structure, support structure/drive systems, control system and vacuum system.

  14. Corneal epithelial cell biocompatibility to silicone hydrogel and conventional hydrogel contact lens packaging solutions

    PubMed Central

    Tanti, N.C.; Jones, L.; Sheardown, H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Although all contact lenses (CLs) are applied initially to the eye directly from a packaging solution, little is known about the effects of these solutions on human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs). Due to the porous nature of CL materials, they have the potential to sorb components of the packaging solution during storage, which could then be subsequently released upon insertion of the CL on the eye. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of various packaging solutions on HCECs, using an in vitro model. Methods An in vitro assay was developed whereby various silicone hydrogels and conventional, poly-2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate  (polyHEMA)-based lens materials were removed directly from their packaging and then incubated for up to 24 h with HCECs. The effect of the retained and released packaging solution components on HCECs was assessed by measuring cell viability, adhesion phenotype, and apoptosis. Results Incubation of HCECs with CLs stored in borate-buffered packaging solutions resulted in a significant reduction in cell viability. Adherent cells incubated with these CLs also exhibited reduced levels of β1 and α3 integrin. Soaking borate-buffered packaged CLs in PBS before cell incubation resolved viability and integrin expression in all cases, with the exception of galyfilcon A and balafilcon A, from which a 20% reduction in cell viability was still observed. In comparison, CLs stored in phosphate-buffered packaging solutions had cellular viability and expression of integrins similar to control cells (cells incubated in the absence of a lens). When incubated with cells at a 10% concentration in serum-free medium, borate-buffered packaging solutions and borate-containing saline (Unisol 4) significantly reduced cell viability and integrin expression. Neither caspase activation nor annexin V binding was observed on cells following exposure to borate buffer solution. However, a significant decrease in reactive oxygen species was observed

  15. Corneal epithelial cell biocompatibility to silicone hydrogel and conventional hydrogel contact lens packaging solutions.

    PubMed

    Gorbet, M B; Tanti, N C; Jones, L; Sheardown, H

    2010-02-19

    Although all contact lenses (CLs) are applied initially to the eye directly from a packaging solution, little is known about the effects of these solutions on human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs). Due to the porous nature of CL materials, they have the potential to sorb components of the packaging solution during storage, which could then be subsequently released upon insertion of the CL on the eye. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of various packaging solutions on HCECs, using an in vitro model. An in vitro assay was developed whereby various silicone hydrogels and conventional, poly-2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (polyHEMA)-based lens materials were removed directly from their packaging and then incubated for up to 24 h with HCECs. The effect of the retained and released packaging solution components on HCECs was assessed by measuring cell viability, adhesion phenotype, and apoptosis. Incubation of HCECs with CLs stored in borate-buffered packaging solutions resulted in a significant reduction in cell viability. Adherent cells incubated with these CLs also exhibited reduced levels of beta(1) and alpha(3) integrin. Soaking borate-buffered packaged CLs in PBS before cell incubation resolved viability and integrin expression in all cases, with the exception of galyfilcon A and balafilcon A, from which a 20% reduction in cell viability was still observed. In comparison, CLs stored in phosphate-buffered packaging solutions had cellular viability and expression of integrins similar to control cells (cells incubated in the absence of a lens). When incubated with cells at a 10% concentration in serum-free medium, borate-buffered packaging solutions and borate-containing saline (Unisol 4) significantly reduced cell viability and integrin expression. Neither caspase activation nor annexin V binding was observed on cells following exposure to borate buffer solution. However, a significant decrease in reactive oxygen species was observed at 24 h. These

  16. Technical Note: Computer-Manufactured Inserts for Prosthetic Sockets

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Joan E.; McLean, Jake B.; Cagle, John C.; Gardner, David W.; Allyn, Katheryn J.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to use computer-aided design software and a tabletop 3-D additive manufacturing system to design and fabricate custom plastic inserts for trans-tibial prosthesis users. Shape quality of inserts was tested right after they were inserted into participant’s test sockets and again after four weeks of wear. Inserts remained properly positioned and intact throughout testing. Right after insertion the inserts caused the socket to be slightly under-sized, by a mean of 0.11 mm, approximately 55% of the thickness of a nylon sheath. After four weeks of wear the under-sizing was less, averaging 0.03 mm, approximately 15% of the thickness of a nylon sheath. Thus the inserts settled into the sockets over time. If existing prosthetic design software packages were enhanced to conduct insert design and to automatically generate fabrication files for manufacturing, then computer manufactured inserts may offer advantages over traditional methods in terms of speed of fabrication, ease of design, modification, and record keeping. PMID:27212209

  17. Packaging Your Training Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espeland, Pamela

    1977-01-01

    The types of packaging and packaging materials to use for training materials should be determined during the planning of the training programs, according to the packaging market. Five steps to follow in shopping for packaging are presented, along with a list of packaging manufacturers. (MF)

  18. Packaging Your Training Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espeland, Pamela

    1977-01-01

    The types of packaging and packaging materials to use for training materials should be determined during the planning of the training programs, according to the packaging market. Five steps to follow in shopping for packaging are presented, along with a list of packaging manufacturers. (MF)

  19. Evaluation of LINE-1 mobility in neuroblastoma cells by in vitro retrotransposition reporter assay: FACS analysis can detect only the tip of the iceberg of the inserted L1 elements

    SciTech Connect

    Del Re, Brunella; Marcantonio, Pamela; Capri, Miriam; Giorgi, Gianfranco

    2010-12-10

    Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements (L1) are retroelements generally repressed in most differentiated somatic cells. Their activity has been observed in some undifferentiated and tumour cells and could be involved in tumour onset and progression. Growing evidences show that the L1 activation can occur in neuronal precursor cells during differentiation process. Neuroblastoma is a tumour originating from neuronal precursor cells, and, although the molecular basis of its progression is still poorly understood, the implication of L1 activation has not yet been investigated. In this study L1 mobility in neuroblastoma BE(2)C cells was assessed using the in vitro retrotransposition assay consisting in an episomal EGFP-tagged L1{sub RP} element, whose mobility can be evaluated by cytofluorimetric analysis (FACS) of EGFP expression. FACS results have shown a low retrotransposition activity. To detect L1{sub RP} integrated in transcriptionally repressed genomic sites, both a cell treatment with a stimulator of reporter gene promoter, and a quantitative Real-Time PCR analysis were performed. A retrotransposition activity ten and one thousand times that of FACS was found, respectively. These results point out that the real rate of L1 retrotransposition events in tumour cells might be considerably higher than that reported so far by evaluating only the reporter gene expression.

  20. Evaluation of LINE-1 mobility in neuroblastoma cells by in vitro retrotransposition reporter assay: FACS analysis can detect only the tip of the iceberg of the inserted L1 elements.

    PubMed

    Del Re, Brunella; Marcantonio, Pamela; Capri, Miriam; Giorgi, Gianfranco

    2010-12-10

    Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements (L1) are retroelements generally repressed in most differentiated somatic cells. Their activity has been observed in some undifferentiated and tumour cells and could be involved in tumour onset and progression. Growing evidences show that the L1 activation can occur in neuronal precursor cells during differentiation process. Neuroblastoma is a tumour originating from neuronal precursor cells, and, although the molecular basis of its progression is still poorly understood, the implication of L1 activation has not yet been investigated. In this study L1 mobility in neuroblastoma BE(2)C cells was assessed using the in vitro retrotransposition assay consisting in an episomal EGFP-tagged L1(RP) element, whose mobility can be evaluated by cytofluorimetric analysis (FACS) of EGFP expression. FACS results have shown a low retrotransposition activity. To detect L1(RP) integrated in transcriptionally repressed genomic sites, both a cell treatment with a stimulator of reporter gene promoter, and a quantitative Real-Time PCR analysis were performed. A retrotransposition activity ten and one thousand times that of FACS was found, respectively. These results point out that the real rate of L1 retrotransposition events in tumour cells might be considerably higher than that reported so far by evaluating only the reporter gene expression.

  1. Insertion in Persian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambuziya, Aliyeh Kord-e Zafaranlu; Dehghan, Masoud

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates epenthesis process in Persian to catch some results in relating to vowel and consonant insertion in Persian lexicon. This survey has a close relationship to the description of epenthetic consonants and the conditions in which these consonants are used. Since no word in Persian may begin with a vowel, so that hiatus can't be…

  2. MELFI Sample Insertion

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-06-28

    ISS024-E-006699 (28 June 2010) --- NASA astronaut Doug Wheelock, Expedition 24 flight engineer, prepares to insert biological samples into trays in the Minus Eighty Laboratory Freezer for ISS-2 (MELFI-2) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  3. MELFI Sample Insertion

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-02

    ISS024-E-007346 (2 July 2010) --- NASA astronauts Tracy Caldwell Dyson (background) and Shannon Walker, both Expedition 24 flight engineers, prepare to insert biological samples in a dewar tray in the Minus Eighty Laboratory Freezer for ISS (MELFI-1) in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station.

  4. MELFI Sample Insertion

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-06-28

    ISS024-E-006697 (28 June 2010) --- NASA astronaut Doug Wheelock, Expedition 24 flight engineer, prepares to insert biological samples into trays in the Minus Eighty Laboratory Freezer for ISS-2 (MELFI-2) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  5. Science packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-01-01

    Primary science teachers in Scotland have a new updating method at their disposal with the launch of a package of CDi (Compact Discs Interactive) materials developed by the BBC and the Scottish Office. These were a response to the claim that many primary teachers felt they had been inadequately trained in science and lacked the confidence to teach it properly. Consequently they felt the need for more in-service training to equip them with the personal understanding required. The pack contains five disks and a printed user's guide divided up as follows: disk 1 Investigations; disk 2 Developing understanding; disks 3,4,5 Primary Science staff development videos. It was produced by the Scottish Interactive Technology Centre (Moray House Institute) and is available from BBC Education at £149.99 including VAT. Free Internet distribution of science education materials has also begun as part of the Global Schoolhouse (GSH) scheme. The US National Science Teachers' Association (NSTA) and Microsoft Corporation are making available field-tested comprehensive curriculum material including 'Micro-units' on more than 80 topics in biology, chemistry, earth and space science and physics. The latter are the work of the Scope, Sequence and Coordination of High School Science project, which can be found at http://www.gsh.org/NSTA_SSandC/. More information on NSTA can be obtained from its Web site at http://www.nsta.org.

  6. Microelectronic packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodgett, A. J., Jr.

    1983-07-01

    Microelectronic packaging design problems for high-speed digital computers are discussed. The dense packing requirements of the task necessitate account be taken of proper cooling for the chips, minimization of distortion of signals, and efficient placement of the chips and terminals. The increase in the numbers of circuits in a chip has permitted manufacturing of multichip boards and elimination of some previously needed cards in the mainframe hierarchy. Electrical signals travel at about 15 cm/nsec through conductors on a board, a speed affected by the inductance and capacitance of the line, as well as its geometry. Signals in one line need to be prevented from jumping into another line passing close by. Any discontinuities can cause signal reflection, i.e., noise. Array formatting reduces the space necessary for chip connections and mounting. Interconnections between vertically stacked boards, vias, can be made into the grids. Air and water cooling systems are used for cooling the boards to temperatures which allow continued high-speed operation.

  7. 48 CFR 852.246-73 - Noncompliance with packaging, packing, and/or marking requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... packaging, packing, and/or marking requirements. 852.246-73 Section 852.246-73 Federal Acquisition... CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 852.246-73 Noncompliance with packaging, packing, and/or marking requirements. As prescribed in 846.302-73, insert the following clause: Noncompliance With Packaging,...

  8. 48 CFR 846.302-73 - Noncompliance with packaging, packing and/or marking requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... packaging, packing and/or marking requirements. 846.302-73 Section 846.302-73 Federal Acquisition....302-73 Noncompliance with packaging, packing and/or marking requirements. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-73, Noncompliance with packaging, packing, and/or...

  9. High Speed Video Insertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janess, Don C.

    1984-11-01

    This paper describes a means of inserting alphanumeric characters and graphics into a high speed video signal and locking that signal to an IRIG B time code. A model V-91 IRIG processor, developed by Instrumentation Technology Systems under contract to Instrumentation Marketing Corporation has been designed to operate in conjunction with the NAC model FHS-200 High Speed Video Camera which operates at 200 fields per second. The system provides for synchronizing the vertical and horizontal drive signals such that the vertical sync precisely coincides with five millisecond transitions in the IRIG time code. Additionally, the unit allows for the insertion of an IRIG time message as well as other data and symbols.

  10. Thought Insertion Clarified

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliffe, Matthew; Wilkinson, Sam

    2016-01-01

    ‘Thought insertion’ in schizophrenia involves somehow experiencing one’s own thoughts as someone else’s. Some philosophers try to make sense of this by distinguishing between ownership and agency: one still experiences oneself as the owner of an inserted thought but attributes it to another agency. In this paper, we propose that thought insertion involves experiencing thought contents as alien, rather than episodes of thinking. To make our case, we compare thought insertion to certain experiences of ‘verbal hallucination’ and show that they amount to different descriptions of the same phenomenon: a quasi-perceptual experience of thought content. We add that the agency/ownership distinction is unhelpful here. What requires explanation is not why a person experiences a type of intentional state without the usual sense of agency, but why she experiences herself as the agent of one type of intentional state rather than another. We conclude by sketching an account of how this might happen. PMID:28123340

  11. Chip Scale Vacuum Packaging for Uncooled IRFPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Munehisa; Hata, Hisatoshi; Nakaki, Yoshiyuki; Kosasayama, Yasuhiro; Kimata, Masafumi

    We have developed chip scale vacuum packaging for an uncooled IRFPA and successfully obtained excellent IR images less than 60 mK in NETD. This package consists of a device chip and a silicon lid. A 160×120 SOI diode uncooled IRFPA with a 25 μm pixel pitch is used as the device chip in this study. The size of the package is 14.5 (L)×13.5 (W)×1.2 (H) mm. The gap between the device chip and the lid is controlled by the thickness of the vacuum sealing material (solder), which is mounted by our original molten solder ejection method. Patterned thin-film getter is formed on the lid wafer. Due to the use of patterned thin-film getter, there is no need to form a cavity on the lid to allow installation of getter or to insert a spacer between the device chip and the lid. The measured pressure of the package is less than 0.5 Pa, which is sufficient for obtaining high thermal isolation. The package also passed 1000 heat cycle tests from -40 to 125°C. In this technique, only the good dies in a wafer are simultaneously packaged in chip scale. Thus, size and cost reduction of the package has been achieved.

  12. Timing of the IUD insertion.

    PubMed

    Edelman, D A; Zipper, J; Rivera, M; Medel, M

    1979-05-01

    The relationship between the time in the menstrual cycle when a TCu-200 or Cu-7-200 is inserted and subsequent IUD-related events was evaluated. For women who had either TCus or Cu-7s inserted, the pregnancy, expulsion and medical removal rates were similar for insertions performed at any time of the menstrual cycle.

  13. MEMS packaging efforts at Sandia National Laboratories.

    SciTech Connect

    Custer, Jonathan Sloane

    2003-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has programs covering a broad range of MEMS technologies from LIGA to bulk to surface micromachining. These MEMS technologies are being considered for an equally broad range of applications, including sensors, actuators, optics, and microfluidics. As these technologies have moved from the research to the prototype product stage, packaging has been required to develop new capabilities to integrated MEMS and other technologies into functional microsystems. This paper discusses several of Sandia's MEMS packaging efforts, focusing mainly on inserting Sandia's SUMMIT V (5-level polysilicon) surface micromachining technology into fieldable microsystems.

  14. Estimation of Gene Insertion/Deletion Rates with Missing Data.

    PubMed

    Dang, Utkarsh J; Devault, Alison M; Mortimer, Tatum D; Pepperell, Caitlin S; Poinar, Hendrik N; Golding, G Brian

    2016-10-01

    Lateral gene transfer is an important mechanism for evolution among bacteria. Here, genome-wide gene insertion and deletion rates are modeled in a maximum-likelihood framework with the additional flexibility of modeling potential missing data. The performance of the models is illustrated using simulations and a data set on gene family phyletic patterns from Gardnerella vaginalis that includes an ancient taxon. A novel application involving pseudogenization/genome reduction magnitudes is also illustrated, using gene family data from Mycobacterium spp. Finally, an R package called indelmiss is available from the Comprehensive R Archive Network at https://cran.r-project.org/package=indelmiss, with support documentation and examples.

  15. Metal and cofactor insertion.

    PubMed

    Mendel, Ralf R; Smith, Alison G; Marquet, Andree; Warren, Martin J

    2007-10-01

    Cells require metal ions as cofactors for the assembly of metalloproteins. Principally one has to distinguish between metal ions that are directly incorporated into their cognate sites on proteins and those metal ions that have to become part of prosthetic groups, cofactors or complexes prior to insertion of theses moieties into target proteins. Molybdenum is only active as part of the molybdenum cofactor, iron can be part of diverse Fe-S clusters or of the heme group, while copper ions are directly delivered to their targets. We will focus in greater detail on molybdenum metabolism because molybdenum metabolism is a good example for demonstrating the role and the network of metals in metabolism: each of the three steps in the pathway of molybdenum cofactor formation depends on a different metal (iron, copper, molybdenum) and also the enzymes finally harbouring the molybdenum cofactor need additional metal-containing groups to function (iron sulfur-clusters, heme-iron).

  16. Packaging of MEMS microphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feiertag, Gregor; Winter, Matthias; Leidl, Anton

    2009-05-01

    To miniaturize MEMS microphones we have developed a microphone package using flip chip technology instead of chip and wire bonding. In this new packaging technology MEMS and ASIC are flip chip bonded on a ceramic substrate. The package is sealed by a laminated polymer foil and by a metal layer. The sound port is on the bottom side in the ceramic substrate. In this paper the packaging technology is explained in detail and results of electro-acoustic characterization and reliability testing are presented. We will also explain the way which has led us from the packaging of Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) components to the packaging of MEMS microphones.

  17. Packaging for Food Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stilwell, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the key areas of concern in packaging the three principle food forms for the space station were covered. It can be generally concluded that there are no significant voids in packaging materials availability or in current packaging technology. However, it must also be concluded that the process by which packaging decisions are made for the space station feeding program will be very synergistic. Packaging selection will depend heavily on the preparation mechanics, the preferred presentation and the achievable disposal systems. It will be important that packaging be considered as an integral part of each decision as these systems are developed.

  18. Packaging for Food Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stilwell, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the key areas of concern in packaging the three principle food forms for the space station were covered. It can be generally concluded that there are no significant voids in packaging materials availability or in current packaging technology. However, it must also be concluded that the process by which packaging decisions are made for the space station feeding program will be very synergistic. Packaging selection will depend heavily on the preparation mechanics, the preferred presentation and the achievable disposal systems. It will be important that packaging be considered as an integral part of each decision as these systems are developed.

  19. Facility target insert shielding assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mocko, Michal

    2015-10-06

    Main objective of this report is to assess the basic shielding requirements for the vertical target insert and retrieval port. We used the baseline design for the vertical target insert in our calculations. The insert sits in the 12”-diameter cylindrical shaft extending from the service alley in the top floor of the facility all the way down to the target location. The target retrieval mechanism is a long rod with the target assembly attached and running the entire length of the vertical shaft. The insert also houses the helium cooling supply and return lines each with 2” diameter. In the present study we focused on calculating the neutron and photon dose rate fields on top of the target insert/retrieval mechanism in the service alley. Additionally, we studied a few prototypical configurations of the shielding layers in the vertical insert as well as on the top.

  20. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-06-13

    This procedure provides instructions for assembling the CH Packaging Drum payload assembly, Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly, Abnormal Operations and ICV and OCV Preshipment Leakage Rate Tests on the packaging seals, using a nondestructive Helium (He) Leak Test.

  1. Creative Thinking Package

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Clive

    1972-01-01

    A look at the latest package from a British managment training organization, which explains and demonstrates creative thinking techniques, including brainstorming. The package, designed for groups of twelve or more, consists of tapes, visuals, and associated exercises. (Editor/JB)

  2. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Antonini, David

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a comparative packaging study for use on long duration space missions. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Deliverables; 3) Food Sample Selection; 4) Experimental Design Matrix; 5) Permeation Rate Comparison; and 6) Packaging Material Information.

  3. Impedance calculation for ferrite inserts

    SciTech Connect

    Breitzmann, S.C.; Lee, S.Y.; Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    Passive ferrite inserts were used to compensate the space charge impedance in high intensity space charge dominated accelerators. They study the narrowband longitudinal impedance of these ferrite inserts. they find that the shunt impedance and the quality factor for ferrite inserts are inversely proportional to the imaginary part of the permeability of ferrite materials. They also provide a recipe for attaining a truly passive space charge impedance compensation and avoiding narrowband microwave instabilities.

  4. MEMS performance challenges: packaging and shock tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jiyoung; Yang, Chen; Zhang, Bin; Lin, Liwei

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes recent advances in the MEMS performance challenges with emphases on packaging and shock tests. In the packaging area, metal to metal bonding processes have been developed to overcome limitations of the glass frit bonding by means of two specific methods: (1) pre-reflow of solder for enhanced bonding adhesion, and (2) the insertion of thin metal layer between parent metal bonding materials. In the shock test area, multiscale analysis for a MEMS package system has been developed with experimental verifications to investigate dynamic responses under drop-shock tests. Structural deformation and stress distribution data are extracted and predicted for device fracture and in-operation stiction analyses for micro mechanical components in various MEMS sensors, including accelerometers and gyroscopes.

  5. ADVANCED ELECTRONIC PACKAGING TECHNIQUES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    MICROMINIATURIZATION (ELECTRONICS), *PACKAGED CIRCUITS, CIRCUITS, EXPERIMENTAL DATA, MANUFACTURING, NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING, RESISTANCE (ELECTRICAL), SEMICONDUCTORS, TESTS, THIN FILMS (STORAGE DEVICES), WELDING.

  6. Mechanisms for Complex Chromosomal Insertions

    PubMed Central

    Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Akdemir, Zeynep Coban; Yuan, Bo; Cooper, Mitchell L.; Magriñá, Maria A.; Bacino, Carlos A.; Lalani, Seema R.; Patel, Ankita; Song, Rodger H.; Bi, Weimin; Cheung, Sau Wai; Carvalho, Claudia M. B.; Lupski, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal insertions are genomic rearrangements with a chromosome segment inserted into a non-homologous chromosome or a non-adjacent locus on the same chromosome or the other homologue, constituting ~2% of nonrecurrent copy-number gains. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of their formation. We identified 16 individuals with complex insertions among 56,000 individuals tested at Baylor Genetics using clinical array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Custom high-density aCGH was performed on 10 individuals with available DNA, and breakpoint junctions were fine-mapped at nucleotide resolution by long-range PCR and DNA sequencing in 6 individuals to glean insights into potential mechanisms of formation. We observed microhomologies and templated insertions at the breakpoint junctions, resembling the breakpoint junction signatures found in complex genomic rearrangements generated by replication-based mechanism(s) with iterative template switches. In addition, we analyzed 5 families with apparently balanced insertion in one parent detected by FISH analysis and found that 3 parents had additional small copy-number variants (CNVs) at one or both sides of the inserting fragments as well as at the inserted sites. We propose that replicative repair can result in interchromosomal complex insertions generated through chromothripsis-like chromoanasynthesis involving two or three chromosomes, and cause a significant fraction of apparently balanced insertions harboring small flanking CNVs. PMID:27880765

  7. Mechanisms for Complex Chromosomal Insertions.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shen; Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Akdemir, Zeynep Coban; Yuan, Bo; Cooper, Mitchell L; Magriñá, Maria A; Bacino, Carlos A; Lalani, Seema R; Breman, Amy M; Smith, Janice L; Patel, Ankita; Song, Rodger H; Bi, Weimin; Cheung, Sau Wai; Carvalho, Claudia M B; Stankiewicz, Paweł; Lupski, James R

    2016-11-01

    Chromosomal insertions are genomic rearrangements with a chromosome segment inserted into a non-homologous chromosome or a non-adjacent locus on the same chromosome or the other homologue, constituting ~2% of nonrecurrent copy-number gains. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of their formation. We identified 16 individuals with complex insertions among 56,000 individuals tested at Baylor Genetics using clinical array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Custom high-density aCGH was performed on 10 individuals with available DNA, and breakpoint junctions were fine-mapped at nucleotide resolution by long-range PCR and DNA sequencing in 6 individuals to glean insights into potential mechanisms of formation. We observed microhomologies and templated insertions at the breakpoint junctions, resembling the breakpoint junction signatures found in complex genomic rearrangements generated by replication-based mechanism(s) with iterative template switches. In addition, we analyzed 5 families with apparently balanced insertion in one parent detected by FISH analysis and found that 3 parents had additional small copy-number variants (CNVs) at one or both sides of the inserting fragments as well as at the inserted sites. We propose that replicative repair can result in interchromosomal complex insertions generated through chromothripsis-like chromoanasynthesis involving two or three chromosomes, and cause a significant fraction of apparently balanced insertions harboring small flanking CNVs.

  8. Trends in Food Packaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Dana B.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses developments in food packaging, processing, and preservation techniques in terms of packaging materials, technologies, consumer benefits, and current and potential food product applications. Covers implications due to consumer life-style changes, cost-effectiveness of packaging materials, and the ecological impact of…

  9. Insertion device and method for accurate and repeatable target insertion

    DOEpatents

    Gubeli, III, Joseph F.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Bevins, Michael E.; Dillon-Townes, Lawrence; Neil, George R.

    2017-07-04

    The present invention discloses a device and a method for inserting and positioning a target within a free electron laser, particle accelerator, or other such device that generates or utilizes a beam of energy or particles. The system includes a three-point registration mechanism that insures angular and translational accuracy and repeatability of positioning upon multiple insertions within the same structure.

  10. Comparison of intramenstrual IUD insertion with insertion following menstrual regulation.

    PubMed

    Otolorin, E O; Ladipo, O A

    1985-03-01

    To evaluate the use-effectiveness and safety of IUD insertion immediately after menstrual regulation (MR) for delayed menses, a Lippes Loop D (LLD) intrauterine device was inserted in each of 100 consecutive clients at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, immediately after menstrual regulation. Pertinent event rates after 12 months of use were compared with those of 100 consecutive women who had the LLD inserted during menstruation. The cumulative net expulsion rate after 12 months of use was 8% for the study group and 4% for the controls. The overall rate of removals was 15% for the study group and 16% for the control group. None of the observed differences was statistically significant. The continuation rates at 12 months were comparable for both groups (78% and 80%, respectively). There were no accidental pregnancies during the study period. The authors suggest that IUD insertion immediately after menstrual regulation is as effective and safe as intramenstrual insertion, provided prophylactic antibiotics are given.

  11. Characterization of the pleiotropic effects of the genotype G-specific 36-nucleotide insertion in the context of other hepatitis B virus genotypes.

    PubMed

    Gutelius, Danielle; Li, Jisu; Wands, Jack; Tong, Shuping

    2011-12-01

    The pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) serves as the messenger for both core and P proteins, with the downstream P gene translated by ribosomal leaky scanning. HBV replication begins with packaging of the pgRNA and P protein into core protein particles, followed by conversion of RNA into DNA. Genotype G has a low replication capacity due to a low pgRNA level. It has a 36-nucleotide (nt) insertion in the 5' end of the core gene, adding 12 residues to the core protein. The insertion is needed to maintain efficient core protein expression and genome replication but causes inefficient virion secretion yet high maturity of virion DNA. In the present study, we confirmed that the 36-nt insertion had similar effects on core protein expression and virion secretion when it was introduced into genotype A and D clones but no impact on virion genome maturity. Surprisingly, the insertion impaired genome replication in both genotypes. Transcomplementation assays suggest that increased efficiency of core protein translation diminishes ribosomal scanning toward the downstream P gene. Indeed, mutating the core gene Kozak sequence restored core protein to lower levels but increased replication of the insertion mutant. Similar mutations impaired replication in genotype G. On the other hand, replacement of the core promoter sequence of genotype G with genotype A sequence increased pgRNA transcription and genome replication, implicating this region in the low replication capacity of genotype G. Why the 36-nt insertion is present in genotype G but absent in other genotypes is discussed.

  12. Extended precision software packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, E. J.

    1972-01-01

    A description of three extended precision packages is presented along with three small conversion subroutines which can be used in conjunction with the extended precision packages. These extended packages represent software packages written in FORTRAN 4. They contain normalized or unnormalized floating point arithmetic with symmetric rounding and arbitrary mantissa lengths, and normalized floating point interval arithmetic with appropriate rounding. The purpose of an extended precision package is to enable the user to use and manipulate numbers with large decimal places as well as those with small decimal places where precision beyond double precision is required.

  13. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Modelling of a DNA packaging motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Jun; Xie, Ping; Xue, Xiao-Guang; Wang, Peng-Ye

    2009-11-01

    During the assembly of many viruses, a powerful molecular motor packages the genome into a preassembled capsid. The Bacillus subtilis phage phi29 is an excellent model system to investigate the DNA packaging mechanism because of its highly efficient in vitro DNA packaging activity and the development of a single-molecule packaging assay. Here we make use of structural and biochemical experimental data to build a physical model of DNA packaging by the phi29 DNA packaging motor. Based on the model, various dynamic behaviours such as the packaging rate, pause frequency and slip frequency under different ATP concentrations, ADP concentrations, external loads as well as capsid fillings are studied by using Monte Carlo simulation. Good agreement is obtained between the simulated and available experimental results. Moreover, we make testable predictions that should guide future experiments related to motor function.

  14. Advancements in meat packaging.

    PubMed

    McMillin, Kenneth W

    2017-10-01

    Packaging of meat provides the same or similar benefits for raw chilled and processed meats as other types of food packaging. Although air-permeable packaging is most prevalent for raw chilled red meat, vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging offer longer shelf life. The major advancements in meat packaging have been in the widely used plastic polymers while biobased materials and their integration into composite packaging are receiving much attention for functionality and sustainability. At this time, active and intelligent packaging are not widely used for antioxidant, antimicrobial, and other functions to stabilize and enhance meat properties although many options are being developed and investigated. The advances being made in nanotechnology will be incorporated into food packaging and presumably into meat packaging when appropriate and useful. Intelligent packaging using sensors for transmission of desired information and prompting of subsequent changes in packaging materials, environments or the products to maintain safety and quality are still in developmental stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sink Inserts for Flood Prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Fraser F.; Bodnar, Daniel J.; Hardesty, David L.

    2004-09-01

    A simple, inexpensive insert is described for preventing flooding in lab sinks. The insert is essentially a tube with slots cut into the side that fits snugly into the drain outlet, preventing water buildup and providing additional drainage sites to avoid constriction by small lab items and paper towels.

  16. Edible packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications.

  17. Topoisomerase Assays

    PubMed Central

    Nitiss, John L.; Soans, Eroica; Rogojina, Anna; Seth, Aman; Mishina, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Topoisomerases are nuclear enzymes that play essential roles in DNA replication, transcription, chromosome segregation, and recombination. All cells have two major forms of topoisomerases: type I, which makes single-stranded cuts in DNA, and type II enzymes, which cut and pass double-stranded DNA. DNA topoisomerases are important targets of approved and experimental anti-cancer agents. The protocols described in this unit are of assays used to assess new chemical entities for their ability to inhibit both forms of DNA topoisomerase. Included are an in vitro assay for topoisomerase I activity based on relaxation of supercoiled DNA and an assay for topoisomerase II based on the decatenation of double-stranded DNA. The preparation of mammalian cell extracts for assaying topoisomerase activity is described, along with a protocol for an ICE assay for examining topoisomerase covalent complexes in vivo and an assay for measuring DNA cleavage in vitro. PMID:22684721

  18. Packaging of microwave integrated circuits operating beyond 100 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samoska, L.; Daniel, E.; Sokolov, V.; Sommerfeldt, S.; Bublitz, J.; Olson, K.; Gilbert, B.; Chow, D.

    2002-01-01

    Several methods of packaging high speed (75-330 GHz) InP HEMT MMIC devices are discussed. Coplanar wirebonding is presented with measured insertion loss of less than 0.5dB and return loss better than -17 dB from DC to 110 GHz. A motherboard/daughterboard packaging scheme is presented which supports minimum loss chains of MMICs using this coplanar wirebonding method. Split waveguide block packaging approaches are presented in G-band (140-220 GHz) with two types of MMIC-waveguide transitions: E-plane probe andantipodal finline.

  19. The influence of sterilization method on articular surface damage of retrieved cruciate-retaining tibial inserts.

    PubMed

    Greulich, Matthew T; Roy, Marcel E; Whiteside, Leo A

    2012-06-01

    This observational study was designed to determine the importance of sterilization method and insert thickness as predictors of articular damage of cruciate-retaining polyethylene components used in total knee arthroplasty. Ninety-nine explanted tibial inserts were evaluated for surface damage. Severe damage modes were observed in 36 of 52 of γ-irradiated inserts but none of those sterilized by ethylene oxide. Articular damage significantly correlated to time in vivo but not to insert thickness. Inserts sterilized by ethylene oxide gas in gas-permeable packaging exhibited a significantly lower damage accumulation rate compared with inserts sterilized by γ radiation and stored in air or an inert environment. γ irradiation and storage in argon instead of air reduced the frequency of severe damage such as delamination but not the overall damage rate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 21 CFR 864.7525 - Heparin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Heparin assay. 864.7525 Section 864.7525 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7525 Heparin assay. (a) Identification. A...

  1. 21 CFR 864.7525 - Heparin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Heparin assay. 864.7525 Section 864.7525 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7525 Heparin assay. (a) Identification. A...

  2. 21 CFR 864.7525 - Heparin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Heparin assay. 864.7525 Section 864.7525 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7525 Heparin assay. (a) Identification. A...

  3. 21 CFR 864.7525 - Heparin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Heparin assay. 864.7525 Section 864.7525 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7525 Heparin assay. (a) Identification. A...

  4. Packaged die heater

    DOEpatents

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  5. Smart packaging for photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.; Carson, R.F.; Sullivan, C.T.; McClellan, G.; Palmer, D.W.

    1997-09-01

    Unlike silicon microelectronics, photonics packaging has proven to be low yield and expensive. One approach to make photonics packaging practical for low cost applications is the use of {open_quotes}smart{close_quotes} packages. {open_quotes}Smart{close_quotes} in this context means the ability of the package to actuate a mechanical change based on either a measurement taken by the package itself or by an input signal based on an external measurement. One avenue of smart photonics packaging, the use of polysilicon micromechanical devices integrated with photonic waveguides, was investigated in this research (LDRD 3505.340). The integration of optical components with polysilicon surface micromechanical actuation mechanisms shows significant promise for signal switching, fiber alignment, and optical sensing applications. The optical and stress properties of the oxides and nitrides considered for optical waveguides and how they are integrated with micromechanical devices were investigated.

  6. 48 CFR 552.211-89 - Non-manufactured wood packaging material for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Non-manufactured wood... and Clauses 552.211-89 Non-manufactured wood packaging material for export. As prescribed in 511.204(b)(4), insert the following clause: Non-Manufactured Wood Packaging Material for Export (JAN 2010)...

  7. 48 CFR 552.211-89 - Non-manufactured wood packaging material for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Non-manufactured wood... and Clauses 552.211-89 Non-manufactured wood packaging material for export. As prescribed in 511.204(b)(4), insert the following clause: Non-Manufactured Wood Packaging Material for Export (JAN 2010)...

  8. 48 CFR 552.211-89 - Non-manufactured wood packaging material for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Non-manufactured wood... and Clauses 552.211-89 Non-manufactured wood packaging material for export. As prescribed in 511.204(b)(4), insert the following clause: Non-Manufactured Wood Packaging Material for Export (JAN 2010)...

  9. 48 CFR 552.211-89 - Non-manufactured wood packaging material for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Non-manufactured wood... and Clauses 552.211-89 Non-manufactured wood packaging material for export. As prescribed in 511.204(b)(4), insert the following clause: Non-Manufactured Wood Packaging Material for Export (JAN 2010)...

  10. 48 CFR 552.211-76 - Charges for packaging, packing, and marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., packing, and marking. 552.211-76 Section 552.211-76 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL... and Clauses 552.211-76 Charges for packaging, packing, and marking. As prescribed in 511.204(b)(3), insert a clause substantially as follows: Charges for Packaging, Packing, and Marking (JAN 2010)...

  11. 48 CFR 552.211-89 - Non-manufactured wood packaging material for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-manufactured wood... and Clauses 552.211-89 Non-manufactured wood packaging material for export. As prescribed in 511.204(b)(4), insert the following clause: Non-Manufactured Wood Packaging Material for Export (JAN 2010)...

  12. GENERAL PURPOSE ADA PACKAGES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Ten families of subprograms are bundled together for the General-Purpose Ada Packages. The families bring to Ada many features from HAL/S, PL/I, FORTRAN, and other languages. These families are: string subprograms (INDEX, TRIM, LOAD, etc.); scalar subprograms (MAX, MIN, REM, etc.); array subprograms (MAX, MIN, PROD, SUM, GET, and PUT); numerical subprograms (EXP, CUBIC, etc.); service subprograms (DATE_TIME function, etc.); Linear Algebra II; Runge-Kutta integrators; and three text I/O families of packages. In two cases, a family consists of a single non-generic package. In all other cases, a family comprises a generic package and its instances for a selected group of scalar types. All generic packages are designed to be easily instantiated for the types declared in the user facility. The linear algebra package is LINRAG2. This package includes subprograms supplementing those in NPO-17985, An Ada Linear Algebra Package Modeled After HAL/S (LINRAG). Please note that LINRAG2 cannot be compiled without LINRAG. Most packages have widespread applicability, although some are oriented for avionics applications. All are designed to facilitate writing new software in Ada. Several of the packages use conventions introduced by other programming languages. A package of string subprograms is based on HAL/S (a language designed for the avionics software in the Space Shuttle) and PL/I. Packages of scalar and array subprograms are taken from HAL/S or generalized current Ada subprograms. A package of Runge-Kutta integrators is patterned after a built-in MAC (MIT Algebraic Compiler) integrator. Those packages modeled after HAL/S make it easy to translate existing HAL/S software to Ada. The General-Purpose Ada Packages program source code is available on two 360K 5.25" MS-DOS format diskettes. The software was developed using VAX Ada v1.5 under DEC VMS v4.5. It should be portable to any validated Ada compiler and it should execute either interactively or in batch. The largest package

  13. Paperless Work Package Application

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgore, Jr., William R.; Morrell, Jr., Otto K.; Morrison, Dan; Ferrell, Jerrod; Connelley, Sherry; Hall, Tommy; Carzoli, Mary; Hott, Ken; Zylka, Sandy; Wong, Roger; Dang, Ling; Kalyani, Nik; Pearson, Terry; Rogers, Mark; Mannis, Nathan; Bakke, Dave; Shoner, Bruce; Vogel, Loring; Davis, Pat; Hitselberger, Charlie

    2014-07-31

    Paperless Work Package (PWP) System is a computer program process that takes information from Asset Suite, provides a platform for other electronic inputs, Processes the inputs into an electronic package that can be downloaded onto an electronic work tablet or laptop computer, provides a platform for electronic inputs into the work tablet, and then transposes those inputs back into Asset Suite and to permanent SRS records. The PWP System will basically eliminate paper requirements from the maintenance work control system. The program electronically relays the instructions given by the planner to work on a piece of equipment which is currently relayed via a printed work package. The program does not control/approve what is done. The planner will continue to plan the work package, the package will continue to be routed, approved, and scheduled. The supervisor reviews and approves the work to be performed and assigns work to individuals or to a work group. (The supervisor conducts pre job briefings with the workers involved in the job) The Operations Manager (Work Controlling Entity) approves the work package electronically for the work that will be done in his facility prior to work starting. The PWP System will provide the package in an electronic form. All the reviews, approvals, and safety measures taken by people outside the electronic package does not change from the paper driven work packages.

  14. GENERAL PURPOSE ADA PACKAGES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Ten families of subprograms are bundled together for the General-Purpose Ada Packages. The families bring to Ada many features from HAL/S, PL/I, FORTRAN, and other languages. These families are: string subprograms (INDEX, TRIM, LOAD, etc.); scalar subprograms (MAX, MIN, REM, etc.); array subprograms (MAX, MIN, PROD, SUM, GET, and PUT); numerical subprograms (EXP, CUBIC, etc.); service subprograms (DATE_TIME function, etc.); Linear Algebra II; Runge-Kutta integrators; and three text I/O families of packages. In two cases, a family consists of a single non-generic package. In all other cases, a family comprises a generic package and its instances for a selected group of scalar types. All generic packages are designed to be easily instantiated for the types declared in the user facility. The linear algebra package is LINRAG2. This package includes subprograms supplementing those in NPO-17985, An Ada Linear Algebra Package Modeled After HAL/S (LINRAG). Please note that LINRAG2 cannot be compiled without LINRAG. Most packages have widespread applicability, although some are oriented for avionics applications. All are designed to facilitate writing new software in Ada. Several of the packages use conventions introduced by other programming languages. A package of string subprograms is based on HAL/S (a language designed for the avionics software in the Space Shuttle) and PL/I. Packages of scalar and array subprograms are taken from HAL/S or generalized current Ada subprograms. A package of Runge-Kutta integrators is patterned after a built-in MAC (MIT Algebraic Compiler) integrator. Those packages modeled after HAL/S make it easy to translate existing HAL/S software to Ada. The General-Purpose Ada Packages program source code is available on two 360K 5.25" MS-DOS format diskettes. The software was developed using VAX Ada v1.5 under DEC VMS v4.5. It should be portable to any validated Ada compiler and it should execute either interactively or in batch. The largest package

  15. The ZOOM minimization package

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, Mark S.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

  16. Tool Removes Coil-Spring Thread Inserts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Gerald J., Jr.; Swenson, Gary J.; Mcclellan, J. Scott

    1991-01-01

    Tool removes coil-spring thread inserts from threaded holes. Threads into hole, pries insert loose, grips insert, then pulls insert to thread it out of hole. Effects essentially reverse of insertion process to ease removal and avoid further damage to threaded inner surface of hole.

  17. Non-insertional Achilles tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Christopher J.; Tan, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Non-insertional Achilles tendinopathy is a degenerative condition characterised by pain on activity. Eccentric stretching is the most effective treatment. Surgical treatment is reserved for recalcitrant cases. Minimally-invasive and tendinoscopic treatments are showing promising results. Cite this article: Pearce CJ, Tan A. Non-insertional Achilles tendinopathy. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:383-390. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.160024. PMID:28461917

  18. Method of fabricating a microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2003-01-01

    A method of fabricating a microelectronic device package with an integral window for providing optical access through an aperture in the package. The package is made of a multilayered insulating material, e.g., a low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) or high-temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC). The window is inserted in-between personalized layers of ceramic green tape during stackup and registration. Then, during baking and firing, the integral window is simultaneously bonded to the sintered ceramic layers of the densified package. Next, the microelectronic device is flip-chip bonded to cofired thick-film metallized traces on the package, where the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. Finally, a cover lid is attached to the opposite side of the package. The result is a compact, low-profile package, flip-chip bonded, hermetically-sealed package having an integral window.

  19. Kit-On-A-Lid-Assays for accessible self-contained cell assays.

    PubMed

    Berthier, Erwin; Guckenberger, David J; Cavnar, Peter; Huttenlocher, Anna; Keller, Nancy P; Beebe, David J

    2013-02-07

    Microscale methods for cell-based assays typically rely on macroscopic reagent handling and fluidic loading protocols that are technically challenging and do not scale with the number of assays favorably. Here, we demonstrate a microfluidic platform technology called "Kit-On-A-Lid-Assay" (KOALA), that enables the creation of self-contained microfluidic cell-based assays, integrating all the steps required to perform cell-based assays. The KOALA platform allows the pre-packaging of reagents, cryopreservation of cell suspensions, thawing of cell suspensions, culture of cells, and operation of whole cell-based assays. The operation of the KOALA platform is user-friendly and consists of bringing together a lid containing the microchannels, and a base containing the pre-packaged reagents, thereby causing fluidic exchange in all the channels simultaneously. We demonstrate that the KOALA cell-based assays can be simply operated from start to finish without any external laboratory equipment.

  20. Enzyme assays.

    PubMed

    Reymond, Jean-Louis; Fluxà, Viviana S; Maillard, Noélie

    2009-01-07

    Enzyme assays are analytical tools to visualize enzyme activities. In recent years a large variety of enzyme assays have been developed to assist the discovery and optimization of industrial enzymes, in particular for "white biotechnology" where selective enzymes are used with great success for economically viable, mild and environmentally benign production processes. The present article highlights the aspects of fluorogenic and chromogenic substrates, sensors, and enzyme fingerprinting, which are our particular areas of interest.

  1. Developing Large CAI Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Mary Jac M.; Smith, Lynn H.

    1983-01-01

    When developing large computer-assisted instructional (CAI) courseware packages, it is suggested that there be more attentive planning to the overall package design before actual lesson development is begun. This process has been simplified by modifying the systems approach used to develop single CAI lessons, followed by planning for the…

  2. Project Information Packages: Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RMC Research Corp., Mountain View, CA.

    This brochure describes a new series of Project Information Packages, a U.S. Office of Education response to the need for a systematic approach to disseminating exemplary projects. The packages describe procedures for developing the necessary administrative support and management framework, as well as instructional methods and techniques. The six…

  3. Developing Large CAI Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Mary Jac M.; Smith, Lynn H.

    1983-01-01

    When developing large computer-assisted instructional (CAI) courseware packages, it is suggested that there be more attentive planning to the overall package design before actual lesson development is begun. This process has been simplified by modifying the systems approach used to develop single CAI lessons, followed by planning for the…

  4. Packaging issues: avoiding delamination.

    PubMed

    Hall, R

    2005-10-01

    Manufacturers can minimise delamination occurrence by applying the appropriate packaging design and process features. The end user can minimise the impact of fibre tear and reduce subsequent delamination by careful package opening. The occasional inconvenient delamination is a small price to pay for the high level of sterility assurance that comes with the use of Tyvek.

  5. The LCDROOT Analysis Package

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, Toshinori

    2001-10-18

    The North American Linear Collider Detector group has developed simulation and analysis program packages. LCDROOT is one of the packages, and is based on ROOT and the C++ programing language to maximally benefit from object oriented programming techniques. LCDROOT is constantly improved and now has a new topological vertex finder, ZVTOP3. In this proceeding, the features of the LCDROOT simulation are briefly described.

  6. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  7. RH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-09-17

    This procedure provides operating instructions for the RH-TRU 72-B Road Cask, Waste Shipping Package. In this document, ''Packaging'' refers to the assembly of components necessary to ensure compliance with the packaging requirements (not loaded with a payload). ''Package'' refers to a Type B packaging that, with its radioactive contents, is designed to retain the integrity of its containment and shielding when subject to the normal conditions of transport and hypothetical accident test conditions set forth in 10 CFR Part 71. Loading of the RH 72-B cask can be done two ways, on the RH cask trailer in the vertical position or by removing the cask from the trailer and loading it in a facility designed for remote-handling (RH). Before loading the 72-B cask, loading procedures and changes to the loading procedures for the 72-B cask must be sent to CBFO at sitedocuments@wipp.ws for approval.

  8. Embryonic Lethals and T-DNA Insertional Mutagenesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Errampalli, D; Patton, D; Castle, L; Mickelson, L; Hansen, K; Schnall, J; Feldmann, K; Meinke, D

    1991-01-01

    T-DNA insertional mutagenesis represents a promising approach to the molecular isolation of genes with essential functions during plant embryo development. We describe in this report the isolation and characterization of 18 mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana defective in embryo development following seed transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Random T-DNA insertion was expected to result in a high frequency of recessive embryonic lethals because many target genes are required for embryogenesis. The cointegrate Ti plasmid used in these experiments contained the nopaline synthase and neomycin phosphotransferase gene markers. Nopaline assays and resistance to kanamycin were used to estimate the number of functional inserts present in segregating families. Nine families appeared to contain a T-DNA insert either within or adjacent to the mutant gene. Eight families were clearly not tagged with a functional insert and appeared instead to contain mutations induced during the transformation process. DNA gel blot hybridization with internal and right border probes revealed a variety of rearrangements associated with T-DNA insertion. A general strategy is presented to simplify the identification of tagged embryonic mutants and facilitate the molecular isolation of genes required for plant embryogenesis. PMID:12324593

  9. Cell line fingerprinting using retroelement insertion polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Ustyugova, Svetlana V; Amosova, Anna L; Lebedev, Yuri B; Sverdlov, Eugene D

    2005-04-01

    Human cell lines are an indispensable tool for functional studies of living entities in their numerous manifestations starting with integral complex systems such as signal pathways and networks, regulation of gene ensembles, epigenetic factors, and finishing with pathological changes and impact of artificially introduced elements, such as various transgenes, on the behavior of the cell. Therefore, it is highly desirable to have reliable cell line identification techniques to make sure that the cell lines to be used in experiments are exactly what is expected. To this end, we developed a set of informative markers based on insertion polymorphism of human retroelements (REs). The set includes 47 pairs of PCR primers corresponding to introns of the human genes with dimorphic LINE1 (L1) and Alu insertions. Using locus-specific PCR assays, we have genotyped 10 human cell lines of various origins. For each of these cell lines, characteristic fingerprints were obtained. An estimated probability that two different cell lines possess the same marker genotype is about 10-18. Therefore, the proposed set of markers provides a reliable tool for cell line identification.

  10. Packaging Concerns/Techniques for Large Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews packaging challenges and options for electronic parts. The presentation includes information about non-hermetic packages, space challenges for packaging and complex package variations.

  11. Gene Insertion Patterns and Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vain, Philippe; Thole, Vera

    During the past 25 years, the molecular analysis of transgene insertion patterns and sites in plants has greatly contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying transgene integration, expression, and stability in the nuclear genome. Molecular characterization is also an essential step in the safety assessment of genetically modified crops. This chapter describes the standard experimental procedures used to analyze transgene insertion patterns and loci in cereals and grasses transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens or direct transfer of DNA. Methods and protocols enabling the determination of the number and configuration of transgenic loci via a combination of inheritance studies, polymerase chain reaction, and Southern analyses are presented. The complete characterization of transgenic inserts in plants is, however, a holistic process relying on a wide variety of experimental approaches. In this chapter, these additional approaches are not detailed but references to relevant bibliographic records are provided.

  12. White LED with High Package Extraction Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Yi Zheng; Matthew Stough

    2008-09-30

    generated in the package may cause a deterioration of encapsulant materials, affecting the performance of both the LED die and phosphor, leading to a decrease in the luminous efficacy over lifetime. Recent studies from research groups at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute found that, under the condition to obtain a white light, about 40% of the light is transmitted outward of the phosphor layer and 60% of the light is reflected inward.1,2 It is claimed that using scattered photon extraction (SPE) technique, luminous efficacy is increased by 60%. In this project, a transparent/translucent monolithic phosphor was used to replace the powdered phosphor layer. In the normal pcLED package, the powdered phosphor is mixed with silicone either to be deposited on the top of LED die forming a chip level conversion (CLC) white LED or to be casted in the package forming a volume conversion white LED. In the monolithic phosphors there are no phosphor powder/silicone interfaces so it can reduce the light scattering caused by phosphor particles. Additionally, a multi-layer thin film selectively reflecting filter is inserted in the white LED package between the blue LED die and phosphor layer. It will selectively transmit the blue light from the LED die and reflect the phosphor's yellow inward emission outward. The two technologies try to recover backward light to the outward direction in the pcLED package thereby improving the package extraction efficiency.

  13. 21 CFR 864.7400 - Hemoglobin A 2 assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hemoglobin A 2 assay. 864.7400 Section 864.7400...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7400 Hemoglobin A 2 assay. (a) Identification. A hemoglobin A2 assay is a device used to determine the hemoglobin A2 content...

  14. 21 CFR 864.7455 - Fetal hemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal hemoglobin assay. 864.7455 Section 864.7455...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7455 Fetal hemoglobin assay. (a) Identification. A fetal hemoglobin assay is a device that is used to determine the presence...

  15. 21 CFR 864.7455 - Fetal hemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fetal hemoglobin assay. 864.7455 Section 864.7455...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7455 Fetal hemoglobin assay. (a) Identification. A fetal hemoglobin assay is a device that is used to determine the presence...

  16. 21 CFR 864.7455 - Fetal hemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fetal hemoglobin assay. 864.7455 Section 864.7455...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7455 Fetal hemoglobin assay. (a) Identification. A fetal hemoglobin assay is a device that is used to determine the presence...

  17. 21 CFR 864.7400 - Hemoglobin A2 assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hemoglobin A2 assay. 864.7400 Section 864.7400...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7400 Hemoglobin A2 assay. (a) Identification. A hemoglobin A2 assay is a device used to determine the hemoglobin A2 content...

  18. 21 CFR 864.7455 - Fetal hemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fetal hemoglobin assay. 864.7455 Section 864.7455...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7455 Fetal hemoglobin assay. (a) Identification. A fetal hemoglobin assay is a device that is used to determine the presence...

  19. 21 CFR 864.7400 - Hemoglobin A2 assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hemoglobin A2 assay. 864.7400 Section 864.7400...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7400 Hemoglobin A2 assay. (a) Identification. A hemoglobin A2 assay is a device used to determine the hemoglobin A2 content...

  20. 21 CFR 864.7400 - Hemoglobin A 2 assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hemoglobin A 2 assay. 864.7400 Section 864.7400...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7400 Hemoglobin A 2 assay. (a) Identification. A hemoglobin A2 assay is a device used to determine the hemoglobin A2 content...

  1. 21 CFR 864.7400 - Hemoglobin A2 assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemoglobin A2 assay. 864.7400 Section 864.7400...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7400 Hemoglobin A2 assay. (a) Identification. A hemoglobin A2 assay is a device used to determine the hemoglobin A2 content...

  2. 21 CFR 864.7455 - Fetal hemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fetal hemoglobin assay. 864.7455 Section 864.7455...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7455 Fetal hemoglobin assay. (a) Identification. A fetal hemoglobin assay is a device that is used to determine the presence...

  3. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7100 Red blood cell enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure the activity in...

  4. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7100 Red blood cell enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure the activity in...

  5. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7100 Red blood cell enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure the activity in...

  6. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7100 Red blood cell enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure the activity in...

  7. STRUMPACK -- STRUctured Matrices PACKage

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-01

    STRUMPACK - STRUctured Matrices PACKage - is a package for computations with sparse and dense structured matrix, i.e., matrices that exhibit some kind of low-rank property, in particular Hierarchically Semi Separable structure (HSS). Such matrices appear in many applications, e.g., FEM, BEM, Integral equations. etc. Exploiting this structure using certain compression algorithms allow for fast solution of linear systems and/or fast computation of matrix-vector products, which are the two main building blocks of matrix computations. STRUMPACK has presently two main components: a distributed-memory dense matrix computations package and a shared-memory sparse direct solver.

  8. Packaging for Posterity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sias, Jim

    1990-01-01

    A project in which students designed environmentally responsible food packaging is described. The problem definition; research on topics such as waste paper, plastic, metal, glass, incineration, recycling, and consumer preferences; and the presentation design are provided. (KR)

  9. Packaging for Posterity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sias, Jim

    1990-01-01

    A project in which students designed environmentally responsible food packaging is described. The problem definition; research on topics such as waste paper, plastic, metal, glass, incineration, recycling, and consumer preferences; and the presentation design are provided. (KR)

  10. MELFI Urine Sample First Insertion

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-04-11

    ISS019-E-005715 (11 April 2009) --- Astronaut Michael Barratt, Expedition 19/20 flight engineer, performs an insertion of urine samples into the Minus Eighty Degree Laboratory Freezer for ISS (MELFI) as part of the Nutritional Status Assessment (NUTRITION) study in the Japanese Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station.

  11. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-03-04

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT Shipping Package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event there is a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SAR P charges the WIPP Management and Operation (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize these operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs.

  12. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-04-30

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the WIPP management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document provides the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs.

  13. Electronic Packaging Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A characteristic of aerospace system design is that equipment size and weight must always be kept to a minimum, even in small components such as electronic packages. The dictates of spacecraft design have spawned a number of high-density packaging techniques, among them methods of connecting circuits in printed wiring boards by processes called stitchbond welding and parallel gap welding. These processes help designers compress more components into less space; they also afford weight savings and lower production costs.

  14. Battery packaging - Technology review

    SciTech Connect

    Maiser, Eric

    2014-06-16

    This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows 'lessons learned' in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production.

  15. TEX macro packages

    SciTech Connect

    Poggio, M.E.

    1985-02-26

    This manual is documentation for the macro packages that are available with the TEX82 system distributed by the Computer Systems Research Group, Engineering Research Division, Electronics Engineering Department, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. TEX is a computerized typesetting system created by Professor Donald E. Knuth at Stanford University. Macro packages have been developed to extend the capabilities of TEX and aid the user in generating various types of output (e.g., chapter format, letter format, memo format, and viewgraphs).

  16. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Oziomek, Thomas V.

    2009-01-01

    Future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit will require the food system to remain safe, acceptable and nutritious. Development of high barrier food packaging will enable this requirement by preventing the ingress and egress of gases and moisture. New high barrier food packaging materials have been identified through a trade study. Practical application of this packaging material within a shelf life test will allow for better determination of whether this material will allow the food system to meet given requirements after the package has undergone processing. The reason to conduct shelf life testing, using a variety of packaging materials, stems from the need to preserve food used for mission durations of several years. Chemical reactions that take place during longer durations may decrease food quality to a point where crew physical or psychological well-being is compromised. This can result in a reduction or loss of mission success. The rate of chemical reactions, including oxidative rancidity and staling, can be controlled by limiting the reactants, reducing the amount of energy available to drive the reaction, and minimizing the amount of water available. Water not only acts as a media for microbial growth, but also as a reactant and means by which two reactants may come into contact with each other. The objective of this study is to evaluate three packaging materials for potential use in long duration space exploration missions.

  17. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-11-07

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to

  18. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2008-01-12

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package (also known as the "RH-TRU 72-B cask") and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a

  19. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  20. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-09-11

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the pplication." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  1. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-02-28

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.

  2. Food Packaging Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The photos show a few of the food products packaged in Alure, a metallized plastic material developed and manufactured by St. Regis Paper Company's Flexible Packaging Division, Dallas, Texas. The material incorporates a metallized film originally developed for space applications. Among the suppliers of the film to St. Regis is King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Ma'ssachusetts. Initially used by NASA as a signal-bouncing reflective coating for the Echo 1 communications satellite, the film was developed by a company later absorbed by King-Seeley. The metallized film was also used as insulating material for components of a number of other spacecraft. St. Regis developed Alure to meet a multiple packaging material need: good eye appeal, product protection for long periods and the ability to be used successfully on a wide variety of food packaging equipment. When the cost of aluminum foil skyrocketed, packagers sought substitute metallized materials but experiments with a number of them uncovered problems; some were too expensive, some did not adequately protect the product, some were difficult for the machinery to handle. Alure offers a solution. St. Regis created Alure by sandwiching the metallized film between layers of plastics. The resulting laminated metallized material has the superior eye appeal of foil but is less expensive and more easily machined. Alure effectively blocks out light, moisture and oxygen and therefore gives the packaged food long shelf life. A major packaging firm conducted its own tests of the material and confirmed the advantages of machinability and shelf life, adding that it runs faster on machines than materials used in the past and it decreases product waste; the net effect is increased productivity.

  3. Dual Use of Packaging on the Moon: Logistics-2-Living

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, A. Scott; Howard, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a modular packaging system for logistics that can be reconfigured into internal outfitting for a lunar outpost, including desks, chairs, partitions, cabinets, and radiation shielding. Logistics include clothes, equipment, food, and other consumables needed to sustain the crew for the duration of the mission. A significant mass penalty is required for the packaging and handling of logistics for re-supply of short to long-term space missions that must be brought out of the gravity well on a launch vehicle. Once the supplies have been exhausted, the packaging material is typically of no further use and is discarded. If a scheme can be developed that reuses the logistics packaging, the mass penalty can be reduced. In this research, a modular packaging system has been devised as a kit-of-parts that can be used for both handling logistics supplies, and then reconfigured into desks, chairs, partitions, cabinets, and radiation shielding. The system is derived from a standard International Space Station (ISS)-type Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), using soft, unfoldable box-like containers with stiff metal inserts. The empty hydrogen-impregnated CTBs can be used as-is for cabinets, opened up for use as partitions, or draped over the habitat as layers of radiation shielding. Stiff metal inserts can be reconfigured into desks and other useful outfitting.

  4. Dual Use of Packaging on the Moon: Logistics-2-Living

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, A. Scott; Howard, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a modular packaging system for logistics that can be reconfigured into internal outfitting for a lunar outpost, including desks, chairs, partitions, cabinets, and radiation shielding. Logistics include clothes, equipment, food, and other consumables needed to sustain the crew for the duration of the mission. A significant mass penalty is required for the packaging and handling of logistics for re-supply of short to long-term space missions that must be brought out of the gravity well on a launch vehicle. Once the supplies have been exhausted, the packaging material is typically of no further use and is discarded. If a scheme can be developed that reuses the logistics packaging, the mass penalty can be reduced. In this research, a modular packaging system has been devised as a kit-of-parts that can be used for both handling logistics supplies, and then reconfigured into desks, chairs, partitions, cabinets, and radiation shielding. The system is derived from a standard International Space Station (ISS)-type Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), using soft, unfoldable box-like containers with stiff metal inserts. The empty hydrogen-impregnated CTBs can be used as-is for cabinets, opened up for use as partitions, or draped over the habitat as layers of radiation shielding. Stiff metal inserts can be reconfigured into desks and other useful outfitting.

  5. Food packages for Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fohey, M. F.; Sauer, R. L.; Westover, J. B.; Rockafeller, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews food packaging techniques used in space flight missions and describes the system developed for the Space Shuttle. Attention is directed to bite-size food cubes used in Gemini, Gemini rehydratable food packages, Apollo spoon-bowl rehydratable packages, thermostabilized flex pouch for Apollo, tear-top commercial food cans used in Skylab, polyethylene beverage containers, Skylab rehydratable food package, Space Shuttle food package configuration, duck-bill septum rehydration device, and a drinking/dispensing nozzle for Space Shuttle liquids. Constraints and testing of packaging is considered, a comparison of food package materials is presented, and typical Shuttle foods and beverages are listed.

  6. Detecting small holes in packages

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.; Cadieux, James R.

    1996-01-01

    A package containing a tracer gas, and a method for determining the presence of a hole in the package by sensing the presence of the gas outside the package. The preferred tracer gas, especially for food packaging, is sulfur hexafluoride. A quantity of the gas is added to the package and the package is closed. The concentration of the gas in the atmosphere outside the package is measured and compared to a predetermined value of the concentration of the gas in the absence of the package. A measured concentration greater than the predetermined value indicates the presence of a hole in the package. Measuring may be done in a chamber having a lower pressure than that in the package.

  7. Detecting small holes in packages

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.; Cadieux, J.R.

    1996-03-19

    A package containing a tracer gas, and a method for determining the presence of a hole in the package by sensing the presence of the gas outside the package are disclosed. The preferred tracer gas, especially for food packaging, is sulfur hexafluoride. A quantity of the gas is added to the package and the package is closed. The concentration of the gas in the atmosphere outside the package is measured and compared to a predetermined value of the concentration of the gas in the absence of the package. A measured concentration greater than the predetermined value indicates the presence of a hole in the package. Measuring may be done in a chamber having a lower pressure than that in the package. 3 figs.

  8. Insertion device calculations with mathematica

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, R.; Lidia, S.

    1995-02-01

    The design of accelerator insertion devices such as wigglers and undulators has usually been aided by numerical modeling on digital computers, using code in high level languages like Fortran. In the present era, there are higher level programming environments like IDL{reg_sign}, MatLab{reg_sign}, and Mathematica{reg_sign} in which these calculations may be performed by writing much less code, and in which standard mathematical techniques are very easily used. The authors present a suite of standard insertion device modeling routines in Mathematica to illustrate the new techniques. These routines include a simple way to generate magnetic fields using blocks of CSEM materials, trajectory solutions from the Lorentz force equations for given magnetic fields, Bessel function calculations of radiation for wigglers and undulators and general radiation calculations for undulators.

  9. Ultrasound guided spine needle insertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Elvis C. S.; Mousavi, Parvin; Gill, Sean; Fichtinger, Gabor; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2010-02-01

    An ultrasound (US) guided, CT augmented, spine needle insertion navigational system is introduced. The system consists of an electromagnetic (EM) sensor, an US machine, and a preoperative CT volume of the patient anatomy. Three-dimensional (3D) US volume is reconstructed intraoperatively from a set of two-dimensional (2D) freehand US slices, and is coregistered with the preoperative CT. This allows the preoperative CT volume to be used in the intraoperative clinical coordinate. The spatial relationship between the patient anatomy, surgical tools, and the US transducer are tracked using the EM sensor, and are displayed with respect to the CT volume. The pose of the US transducer is used to interpolate the CT volume, providing the physician with a 2D "x-ray vision" to guide the needle insertion. Many of the system software components are GPU-accelerated, allowing real-time performance of the guidance system in a clinical setting.

  10. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2006-04-25

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package TransporterModel II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant| (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations(CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions ofapproval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  11. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2007-12-13

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  12. Inserting Agility in System Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Agile IT Acquisition, IT Box, Scrum Inserting Agility in System Development Matthew R. Kennedy and Lt Col Dan Ward, USAF With the fast-paced nature...1,700 individuals and 71 countries, found Scrum and eXtreme Programming to be the most widely followed method- ologies (VersionOne, 2007). Other...University http://www.dau.mil 259 Defense ARJ, July 2012, Vol. 19 No. 3 : 249–264 Scrum Scrum is a framework used for project management, which is

  13. MMIC packaging with Waffleline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, R. W.; Ellis, T. T.; Schineller, E. R.

    1990-06-01

    The design principle of Waffleline, a patented MMIC packaging technology, is discussed, and several recent applications are described and illustrated with drawings, diagrams, and photographs. Standard Waffleline is a foil-covered waffle-iron-like grid with dielectric-coated signal and power wires running in the channels and foil-removed holes for mounting prepackaged chips or chip carriers. With spacing of 50 mils between center conductors, this material is applicable at frequencies up to 40 GHz; EHF devices require Waffleline with 25-mil spacing. Applications characterized include a subassembly for a man-transportable SHF satellite-communication terminal, a transmitter driver for a high-power TWT, and a 60-GHz receiver front end (including an integrated monolithic microstrip antenna, a low-noise amplifier, a mixer, and an IF amplifier in a 0.25-inch-thick 1.6-inch-diameter package). The high package density and relatively low cost of Waffleline are emphasized.

  14. Waste package reliability analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pescatore, C.; Sastre, C.

    1983-01-01

    Proof of future performance of a complex system such as a high-level nuclear waste package over a period of hundreds to thousands of years cannot be had in the ordinary sense of the word. The general method of probabilistic reliability analysis could provide an acceptable framework to identify, organize, and convey the information necessary to satisfy the criterion of reasonable assurance of waste package performance according to the regulatory requirements set forth in 10 CFR 60. General principles which may be used to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative reliability of a waste package design are indicated and illustrated with a sample calculation of a repository concept in basalt. 8 references, 1 table.

  15. Large insert environmental genomic library production.

    PubMed

    Taupp, Marcus; Lee, Sangwon; Hawley, Alyse; Yang, Jinshu; Hallam, Steven J

    2009-09-23

    The vast majority of microbes in nature currently remain inaccessible to traditional cultivation methods. Over the past decade, culture-independent environmental genomic (i.e. metagenomic) approaches have emerged, enabling researchers to bridge this cultivation gap by capturing the genetic content of indigenous microbial communities directly from the environment. To this end, genomic DNA libraries are constructed using standard albeit artful laboratory cloning techniques. Here we describe the construction of a large insert environmental genomic fosmid library with DNA derived from the vertical depth continuum of a seasonally hypoxic fjord. This protocol is directly linked to a series of connected protocols including coastal marine water sampling [1], large volume filtration of microbial biomass [2] and a DNA extraction and purification protocol [3]. At the outset, high quality genomic DNA is end-repaired with the creation of 5 -phosphorylated blunt ends. End-repaired DNA is subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for size selection and gel extraction is performed to recover DNA fragments between 30 and 60 thousand base pairs (Kb) in length. Size selected DNA is purified away from the PFGE gel matrix and ligated to the phosphatase-treated blunt-end fosmid CopyControl vector pCC1 (EPICENTRE http://www.epibio.com/item.asp?ID=385). Linear concatemers of pCC1 and insert DNA are subsequently headfull packaged into phage particles by lambda terminase, with subsequent infection of phage-resistant E. coli cells. Successfully transduced clones are recovered on LB agar plates under antibiotic selection and archived in 384-well plate format using an automated colony picking robot (Qpix2, GENETIX). The current protocol draws from various sources including the CopyControl Fosmid Library Production Kit from EPICENTRE and the published works of multiple research groups [4-7]. Each step is presented with best practice in mind. Whenever possible we highlight subtleties

  16. Angiogenesis Assays.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Dhanya K; Kujur, Praveen K; Singh, Rana P

    2016-01-01

    Neoangiogenesis constitutes one of the first steps of tumor progression beyond a critical size of tumor growth, which supplies a dormant mass of cancerous cells with the required nutrient supply and gaseous exchange through blood vessels essentially needed for their sustained and aggressive growth. In order to understand any biological process, it becomes imperative that we use models, which could mimic the actual biological system as closely as possible. Hence, finding the most appropriate model is always a vital part of any experimental design. Angiogenesis research has also been much affected due to lack of simple, reliable, and relevant models which could be easily quantitated. The angiogenesis models have been used extensively for studying the action of various molecules for agonist or antagonistic behaviour and associated mechanisms. Here, we have described two protocols or models which have been popularly utilized for studying angiogenic parameters. Rat aortic ring assay tends to bridge the gap between in vitro and in vivo models. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay is one of the most utilized in vivo model system for angiogenesis-related studies. The CAM is highly vascularized tissue of the avian embryo and serves as a good model to study the effects of various test compounds on neoangiogenesis.

  17. Ada Namelist Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, Allan R.

    1991-01-01

    Ada Namelist Package, developed for Ada programming language, enables calling program to read and write FORTRAN-style namelist files. Features are: handling of any combination of types defined by user; ability to read vectors, matrices, and slices of vectors and matrices; handling of mismatches between variables in namelist file and those in programmed list of namelist variables; and ability to avoid searching entire input file for each variable. Principle benefits derived by user: ability to read and write namelist-readable files, ability to detect most file errors in initialization phase, and organization keeping number of instantiated units to few packages rather than to many subprograms.

  18. SPHINX experimenters information package

    SciTech Connect

    Zarick, T.A.

    1996-08-01

    This information package was prepared for both new and experienced users of the SPHINX (Short Pulse High Intensity Nanosecond X-radiator) flash X-Ray facility. It was compiled to help facilitate experiment design and preparation for both the experimenter(s) and the SPHINX operational staff. The major areas covered include: Recording Systems Capabilities,Recording System Cable Plant, Physical Dimensions of SPHINX and the SPHINX Test cell, SPHINX Operating Parameters and Modes, Dose Rate Map, Experiment Safety Approval Form, and a Feedback Questionnaire. This package will be updated as the SPHINX facilities and capabilities are enhanced.

  19. Future trends in electronic packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elshabini, Aicha; Wang, Gangqiang; Barlow, Fred

    2006-03-01

    Electronic packaging is traditionally defined as the back-end process that transforms bare integrated circuits (IC) into functional products. As the IC feature size decreases and the size of silicon wafer increases, the cost per IC is reduced and the performance is enhanced. The future IC chips will be larger in size, have more input/output terminals (I/Os), and require higher power. In addition to the advancements in IC technology, electronic packaging is also driven by the market requirements for low cost, small size, and multi-functional electronic products. In response to these requirements, packaging related areas such as design, packaging architectures, materials, processes, and manufacturing equipment are all changing rapidly. Wafer-level packaging (WLP) offers the benefits of low cost and smallest size for single chip packages, since the package is done at wafer level other than individual die. After packages reach the horizontal limit of dimensions, 3D stacking solution provides more efficient packages through expanding packages in the vertical dimension. Functional integration is achieved with 3D stacking architectures. System in package (SiP), one of the solutions to system integration, incorporates electronics, non-electronic devices such as optical devices, biological devices, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), etc, and interconnection in a single package, to form smart structures or microsystems. MEMS devices require specialized packaging to serve new market applications. This paper and presentation describe the technology requirements and challenges of these advancing packaging areas. The potential solutions and future trends are presented.

  20. 21 CFR 864.7425 - Carboxyhemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carboxyhemoglobin assay. 864.7425 Section 864.7425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7425...

  1. 21 CFR 864.7490 - Sulfhemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfhemoglobin assay. 864.7490 Section 864.7490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7490...

  2. 21 CFR 864.7250 - Erythropoietin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Erythropoietin assay. 864.7250 Section 864.7250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7250...

  3. 21 CFR 864.7490 - Sulfhemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sulfhemoglobin assay. 864.7490 Section 864.7490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7490 Sulfhemoglobin...

  4. 21 CFR 864.7425 - Carboxyhemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carboxyhemoglobin assay. 864.7425 Section 864.7425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7425 Carboxyhemoglobin...

  5. 21 CFR 864.7490 - Sulfhemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sulfhemoglobin assay. 864.7490 Section 864.7490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7490 Sulfhemoglobin...

  6. 21 CFR 864.7490 - Sulfhemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfhemoglobin assay. 864.7490 Section 864.7490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7490 Sulfhemoglobin...

  7. 21 CFR 864.7490 - Sulfhemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sulfhemoglobin assay. 864.7490 Section 864.7490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7490 Sulfhemoglobin...

  8. 21 CFR 864.7425 - Carboxyhemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carboxyhemoglobin assay. 864.7425 Section 864.7425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7425 Carboxyhemoglobin...

  9. 21 CFR 864.7425 - Carboxyhemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carboxyhemoglobin assay. 864.7425 Section 864.7425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7425 Carboxyhemoglobin...

  10. 21 CFR 864.7425 - Carboxyhemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carboxyhemoglobin assay. 864.7425 Section 864.7425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7425 Carboxyhemoglobin...

  11. AN ADA NAMELIST PACKAGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Ada Namelist Package, developed for the Ada programming language, enables a calling program to read and write FORTRAN-style namelist files. A namelist file consists of any number of assignment statements in any order. Features of the Ada Namelist Package are: the handling of any combination of user-defined types; the ability to read vectors, matrices, and slices of vectors and matrices; the handling of mismatches between variables in the namelist file and those in the programmed list of namelist variables; and the ability to avoid searching the entire input file for each variable. The principle user benefits of this software are the following: the ability to write namelist-readable files, the ability to detect most file errors in the initialization phase, a package organization that reduces the number of instantiated units to a few packages rather than to many subprograms, a reduced number of restrictions, and an increased execution speed. The Ada Namelist reads data from an input file into variables declared within a user program. It then writes data from the user program to an output file, printer, or display. The input file contains a sequence of assignment statements in arbitrary order. The output is in namelist-readable form. There is a one-to-one correspondence between namelist I/O statements executed in the user program and variables read or written. Nevertheless, in the input file, mismatches are allowed between assignment statements in the file and the namelist read procedure statements in the user program. The Ada Namelist Package itself is non-generic. However, it has a group of nested generic packages following the nongeneric opening portion. The opening portion declares a variety of useraccessible constants, variables and subprograms. The subprograms are procedures for initializing namelists for reading, reading and writing strings. The subprograms are also functions for analyzing the content of the current dataset and diagnosing errors. Two nested

  12. AN ADA NAMELIST PACKAGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Ada Namelist Package, developed for the Ada programming language, enables a calling program to read and write FORTRAN-style namelist files. A namelist file consists of any number of assignment statements in any order. Features of the Ada Namelist Package are: the handling of any combination of user-defined types; the ability to read vectors, matrices, and slices of vectors and matrices; the handling of mismatches between variables in the namelist file and those in the programmed list of namelist variables; and the ability to avoid searching the entire input file for each variable. The principle user benefits of this software are the following: the ability to write namelist-readable files, the ability to detect most file errors in the initialization phase, a package organization that reduces the number of instantiated units to a few packages rather than to many subprograms, a reduced number of restrictions, and an increased execution speed. The Ada Namelist reads data from an input file into variables declared within a user program. It then writes data from the user program to an output file, printer, or display. The input file contains a sequence of assignment statements in arbitrary order. The output is in namelist-readable form. There is a one-to-one correspondence between namelist I/O statements executed in the user program and variables read or written. Nevertheless, in the input file, mismatches are allowed between assignment statements in the file and the namelist read procedure statements in the user program. The Ada Namelist Package itself is non-generic. However, it has a group of nested generic packages following the nongeneric opening portion. The opening portion declares a variety of useraccessible constants, variables and subprograms. The subprograms are procedures for initializing namelists for reading, reading and writing strings. The subprograms are also functions for analyzing the content of the current dataset and diagnosing errors. Two nested

  13. Field errors in hybrid insertion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    Hybrid magnet theory as applied to the error analyses used in the design of Advanced Light Source (ALS) insertion devices is reviewed. Sources of field errors in hybrid insertion devices are discussed.

  14. Structural constraints in the packaging of bluetongue virus genomic segments

    PubMed Central

    Burkhardt, Christiane; Sung, Po-Yu; Celma, Cristina C.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism used by bluetongue virus (BTV) to ensure the sorting and packaging of its 10 genomic segments is still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the packaging constraints for two BTV genomic segments from two different serotypes. Segment 4 (S4) of BTV serotype 9 was mutated sequentially and packaging of mutant ssRNAs was investigated by two newly developed RNA packaging assay systems, one in vivo and the other in vitro. Modelling of the mutated ssRNA followed by biochemical data analysis suggested that a conformational motif formed by interaction of the 5′ and 3′ ends of the molecule was necessary and sufficient for packaging. A similar structural signal was also identified in S8 of BTV serotype 1. Furthermore, the same conformational analysis of secondary structures for positive-sense ssRNAs was used to generate a chimeric segment that maintained the putative packaging motif but contained unrelated internal sequences. This chimeric segment was packaged successfully, confirming that the motif identified directs the correct packaging of the segment. PMID:24980574

  15. Insert metering plates for gas turbine nozzles

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven S.; Itzel, Gary; Chopra, Sanjay; Abuaf, Nesim; Correia, Victor H.

    2004-05-11

    The invention comprises a metering plate which is assembled to an impingement insert for use in the nozzle of a gas turbine. The metering plate can have one or more metering holes and is used to balance the cooling flow within the nozzle. A metering plate with multiple holes reduces static pressure variations which result from the cooling airflow through the metering plate. The metering plate can be assembled to the insert before or after the insert is inserted into the nozzle.

  16. Ketamine improves nasogastric tube insertion.

    PubMed

    Nejati, Amir; Golshani, Keihan; Moradi Lakeh, Maziar; Khashayar, Patricia; Moharari, Reza Shariat

    2010-08-01

    Nasogastric (NG) intubation is one of the most common procedures performed in the emergency department (ED) and other hospital settings. The aim of this study was to compare the level of pain during NG tube insertion in groups receiving local ketamine plus water-soluble lubricating gel and water-soluble lubricating gel alone (the latter is the common practice in our hospital). It was hypothesised that ketamine has local anaesthetic effects in reducing the pain of NG tube insertion in the ED. This prospective double-blind randomised clinical trial was performed on alert haemodynamically stable subjects aged >18 years who required NG tube placement for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes in the ED of a teaching hospital during January and June 2008. The subjects were divided into two groups using randomised allocation software. The ketamine group received intranasal ketamine, while an equivalent volume of sterile water was instilled into the nasal cavity in the control group. The same amount of lubricating gel was used in both groups. The pain of NG tube placement was measured using a standard 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS). The physician was asked to evaluate the difficulty of the procedure using a 5-point Likert scale. Seventy-two subjects were enrolled in the study (36 subjects in each group). There was a significant difference between the pain score of the ketamine and control groups (19.03+/-3.56 vs 33.33+/-5.31), while the difficulty score was not statistically different between the two groups (2.39+/-1.25 vs 2.78+/-1.56). Intranasal ketamine is an effective agent in reducing pain during NG tube insertion among patients without serious underlying illness.

  17. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-01-01

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  18. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  19. Metric Education Evaluation Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansky, Bob; And Others

    This document was developed out of a need for a complete, carefully designed set of evaluation instruments and procedures that might be applied in metric inservice programs across the nation. Components of this package were prepared in such a way as to permit local adaptation to the evaluation of a broad spectrum of metric education activities.…

  20. Nutrition Learning Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This book presents nine packages of learning materials for trainers to use in teaching community health workers to carry out the nutrition element of their jobs. Lessons are intended to help health workers acquire skill in presenting to communities the principles and practice of good nutrition. Responding to the most common causes of poor…

  1. Automatic Differentiation Package

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, David M.; Phipps, Eric; Bratlett, Roscoe

    2007-03-01

    Sacado is an automatic differentiation package for C++ codes using operator overloading and C++ templating. Sacado provide forward, reverse, and Taylor polynomial automatic differentiation classes and utilities for incorporating these classes into C++ codes. Users can compute derivatives of computations arising in engineering and scientific applications, including nonlinear equation solving, time integration, sensitivity analysis, stability analysis, optimization and uncertainity quantification.

  2. Learning Activity Package, Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Diane

    A set of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in beginning algebra and nine in intermediate algebra, these units cover sets, properties of operations, number systems, open expressions, solution sets of equations and inequalities in one and two variables, exponents, factoring and polynomials, relations and functions, radicals,…

  3. Radiographic film package

    SciTech Connect

    Muylle, W. E.

    1985-08-27

    A radiographic film package for non-destructive testing, comprising a radiographic film sheet, an intensifying screen with a layer of lead bonded to a paper foil, and a vacuum heat-sealed wrapper with a layer of aluminum and a heat-sealed easy-peelable thermoplastic layer.

  4. YWCA Vocational Readiness Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Jeanne

    This document outlines, in detail, the Vocational Readiness Package for young girls, which is a week-long program utilizing simulation games and role-playing, while employing peer group counseling techniques to dramatize the realities concerning women in marriage and careers today. After three years of using this program, the authors have compiled…

  5. Packaging Materials Properties Data

    SciTech Connect

    Leduc, D.

    1991-10-30

    Several energy absorbing materials are used in nuclear weapons component shipping containers recently designed for the Y-12 Plant Program Management Packaging Group. As a part of the independent review procedure leading to Certificates of Compliance, the U.S. Department of Energy Technical Safety Review Panels requested compression versus deflection . data on these materials. This report is a compilation of that data.

  6. Packaging materials properties data

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Several energy absorbing materials are used in nuclear weapons component shipping containers recently designed for the Y-12 Plant Program Management Packaging Group. As a part of the independent review procedure leading to Certificates of Compliance, the US Department of Energy Technical Safety Review Panels requested compression versus deflection data on these materials. This report is a compilation of that data.

  7. Project Information Packages Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RMC Research Corp., Mountain View, CA.

    Presented are an overview booklet, a project selection guide, and six Project Information Packages (PIPs) for six exemplary projects serving underachieving students in grades k through 9. The overview booklet outlines the PIP projects and includes a chart of major project features. A project selection guide reviews the PIP history, PIP contents,…

  8. Type B drum packages

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, J.C.

    1994-08-01

    The Type B drum packages (TBD) are conceptualized as a family of containers in which a single 208 L or 114 L (55 gal or 30 gal) drum containing Type B quantities of radioactive material (RAM) can be packaged for shipment. The TBD containers are being developed to fill a void in the packaging and transportation capabilities of the U.S. Department of Energy as no container packaging single drums of Type B RAM exists offering double containment. Several multiple-drum containers currently exist, as well as a number of shielded casks, but the size and weight of these containers present many operational challenges for single-drum shipments. As an alternative, the TBD containers will offer up to three shielded versions (light, medium, and heavy) and one unshielded version, each offering single or optional double containment for a single drum. To reduce operational complexity, all versions will share similar design and operational features where possible. The primary users of the TBD containers are envisioned to be any organization desiring to ship single drums of Type B RAM, such as laboratories, waste retrieval activities, emergency response teams, etc. Currently, the TBD conceptual design is being developed with the final design and analysis to be completed in 1995 to 1996. Testing and certification of the unshielded version are planned to be completed in 1996 to 1997 with production to begin in 1997 to 1998.

  9. Packaging, transportation of LLW

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, P.

    1994-12-31

    This presentation is an overview of the regulations and requirements for the packaging and transportation of low-level radioactive wastes. United States Environmental Protection Agency and Department of Transportation regulations governing the classification of wastes and the transport documentation are also described.

  10. The Superintendent's Compensation Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzke, Eugene R.

    Guidelines are presented to help school boards evaluate superintendents and set up their compensation packages. The author describes informal and formal evaluation procedures and states his preference for the latter, since they promote mutual understanding between the superintendent and the board. A flow chart illustrates a superintendent…

  11. Jpetra Kernel Package

    SciTech Connect

    Heroux, Michael A.

    2004-03-01

    A package of classes for constructing and using distributed sparse and dense matrices, vectors and graphs, written in Java. Jpetra is intended to provide the foundation for basic matrix and vector operations for Java developers. Jpetra provides distributed memory operations via an abstract parallel machine interface. The most common implementation of this interface will be Java sockets.

  12. Electro-Microfluidic Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benavides, G. L.; Galambos, P. C.

    2002-06-01

    There are many examples of electro-microfluidic products that require cost effective packaging solutions. Industry has responded to a demand for products such as drop ejectors, chemical sensors, and biological sensors. Drop ejectors have consumer applications such as ink jet printing and scientific applications such as patterning self-assembled monolayers or ejecting picoliters of expensive analytes/reagents for chemical analysis. Drop ejectors can be used to perform chemical analysis, combinatorial chemistry, drug manufacture, drug discovery, drug delivery, and DNA sequencing. Chemical and biological micro-sensors can sniff the ambient environment for traces of dangerous materials such as explosives, toxins, or pathogens. Other biological sensors can be used to improve world health by providing timely diagnostics and applying corrective measures to the human body. Electro-microfluidic packaging can easily represent over fifty percent of the product cost and, as with Integrated Circuits (IC), the industry should evolve to standard packaging solutions. Standard packaging schemes will minimize cost and bring products to market sooner.

  13. Waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  14. High Efficiency Integrated Package

    SciTech Connect

    Ibbetson, James

    2013-09-15

    Solid-state lighting based on LEDs has emerged as a superior alternative to inefficient conventional lighting, particularly incandescent. LED lighting can lead to 80 percent energy savings; can last 50,000 hours – 2-50 times longer than most bulbs; and contains no toxic lead or mercury. However, to enable mass adoption, particularly at the consumer level, the cost of LED luminaires must be reduced by an order of magnitude while achieving superior efficiency, light quality and lifetime. To become viable, energy-efficient replacement solutions must deliver system efficacies of ≥ 100 lumens per watt (LPW) with excellent color rendering (CRI > 85) at a cost that enables payback cycles of two years or less for commercial applications. This development will enable significant site energy savings as it targets commercial and retail lighting applications that are most sensitive to the lifetime operating costs with their extended operating hours per day. If costs are reduced substantially, dramatic energy savings can be realized by replacing incandescent lighting in the residential market as well. In light of these challenges, Cree proposed to develop a multi-chip integrated LED package with an output of > 1000 lumens of warm white light operating at an efficacy of at least 128 LPW with a CRI > 85. This product will serve as the light engine for replacement lamps and luminaires. At the end of the proposed program, this integrated package was to be used in a proof-of-concept lamp prototype to demonstrate the component’s viability in a common form factor. During this project Cree SBTC developed an efficient, compact warm-white LED package with an integrated remote color down-converter. Via a combination of intensive optical, electrical, and thermal optimization, a package design was obtained that met nearly all project goals. This package emitted 1295 lm under instant-on, room-temperature testing conditions, with an efficacy of 128.4 lm/W at a color temperature of ~2873

  15. JT/LJT connector insert material evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, J.R.F.

    1991-10-01

    Different insert (insulator) materials are undergoing evaluation to replace the Fiberite E-3938 BE96 material currently used. Also being evaluated is the reconfiguration of the insert and metal shell-edge geometries for the purpose of reducing the alleged interference principally responsible for insert damage.

  16. Insert earphone depth and the occlusion effect.

    PubMed

    Dean, M S; Martin, F N

    2000-12-01

    Twenty individuals were tested to determine the occlusion effect caused by supraaural earphones and by insert earphones with shallow and deep insertion of its foam eartip. The bone-conduction oscillator was placed both on the forehead and the mastoid. It was concluded that using deeply inserted earphones is the most practical way in which to carry out clinical bone-conduction measurements.

  17. Developing a training package.

    PubMed

    Minogue, Virginia; Donskoy, Anne-Laure

    2017-06-12

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to outline the development of a training package for service users and carers with an interest in NHS health and social care research. It demonstrates how the developers used their unique experience and expertise as service users and carers to inform their work. Design/methodology/approach Service users and carers, NHS Research and Development Forum working group members, supported by health professionals, identified a need for research training that was tailored to other service user and carer needs. After reviewing existing provision and drawing on their training and support experience, they developed a training package. Sessions from the training package were piloted, which evaluated positively. In trying to achieve programme accreditation and training roll-out beyond the pilots, the group encountered several challenges. Findings The training package development group formed good working relationships and a co-production model that proved sustainable. However, challenges were difficult to overcome owing to external factors and financial constraints. Practical implications Lessons learnt by the team are useful for other service users and carer groups working with health service professionals. Training for service users and carers should be designed to meet their needs; quality and consistency are also important. The relationships between service user and carer groups, and professionals are important to understanding joint working. Recognising and addressing challenges at the outset can help develop strategies to overcome challenges and ensure project success. Originality/value The training package was developed by service users and carers for other service users and carers. Their unique health research experience underpinned the group's values and training development.

  18. Method for assay of radioactivity in waste soil

    SciTech Connect

    Bramlitt, E.T.; Willhoite, S.B.

    1991-11-01

    Contaminated soil is a result of many nuclear operations. During facility decommissioning or site cleanup, it may be packaged for disposal. The waste soil must be assayed for contaminants to follow transport regulations and waste handling facility requirements. Methods used for assay include the following: (1) sampling the ground before excavation and assuming ground data apply to soil when packaged; (2) analyzing samples taken from the soil added to a package; (3) counting radiation at the exterior of the package; and (4) measuring neutron absorption by packaged waste soil. The Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) worked with Eberline Instruments Corporation (EIC) to develop an automated assay method for the waste stream in a plutonium-contaminated soil cleanup at Johnston Atoll in the North Pacific Ocean. The perfected method uses a personal computer, an electronic weighing scale, and a programmable radiation counter. Computer programs get weight and radiation counts at frequent intervals as packages fill, calculate activity in the waste, and produce reports. The automated assay method is an efficient one-person routine that steadfastly collects data and produces a comprehensive record on packaged waste.

  19. Security Package for the VAX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marks, V. J.; Benigue, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    Four programs deal with intruders and resource managment. Package available from COSMIC provides DEC VAX-11/780 with certain "deterent" security features. Although packages is not comprehensive security system, of interest for any VAX installation where security is concern.

  20. Food packaging history and innovations.

    PubMed

    Risch, Sara J

    2009-09-23

    Food packaging has evolved from simply a container to hold food to something today that can play an active role in food quality. Many packages are still simply containers, but they have properties that have been developed to protect the food. These include barriers to oxygen, moisture, and flavors. Active packaging, or that which plays an active role in food quality, includes some microwave packaging as well as packaging that has absorbers built in to remove oxygen from the atmosphere surrounding the product or to provide antimicrobials to the surface of the food. Packaging has allowed access to many foods year-round that otherwise could not be preserved. It is interesting to note that some packages have actually allowed the creation of new categories in the supermarket. Examples include microwave popcorn and fresh-cut produce, which owe their existence to the unique packaging that has been developed.

  1. PAYLOAD PACKAGING DESIGN - ALOUETTE SATELLITE,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A description of satellite packaging design , discussion of factors influencing design, and enumeration of some practical rules found generally useful during the payload packaging of the Alouette spacecraft is presented. (Author)

  2. Packaging legislation. Objectives and consequences.

    PubMed

    Christmann, H

    1995-05-01

    The recently published Directive on packaging and packaging waste makes new demands on the industry. This article highlights the key areas and raises some of the issues that must be confronted in the future.

  3. Analysis of inserts in prokaryote genomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristea, Paul Dan; Tuduce, Rodica Aurora

    2008-02-01

    Nucleotide genomic signals satisfy regularities that reveal restrictions in the distribution of nucleotides and pairs of nucleotides along DNA sequences. Structurally, a chromosome appears to be more than a plain text, by satisfying symmetry constrains that evoke the rhythm and rhyme in poems. These regularities make it easy to identify exogenous inserts in the genomes of prokaryotes, because such inserts obey different regularities than the background sequence. The paper presents instances of inserts found in the genomes of Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other prokaryotes. Inserts of exogenous material are frequently accompanied by complementary inserts tending to restore the original constrains.

  4. Uncooled IRFPA with chip scale vacuum package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Hisatoshi; Nakaki, Yoshiyuki; Inoue, Hiromoto; Kosasayama, Yasuhiro; Ohta, Yasuaki; Fukumoto, Hiroshi; Seto, Toshiki; Kama, Keisuke; Takeda, Munehisa; Kimata, Masafumi

    2006-05-01

    We have developed an uncooled IRFPA with a chip scale vacuum package and succeeded in obtaining excellent IR images of less than 60 mK in NETD. This package consists of a device chip and a silicon lid. The chip in this study is a 160 x 120 SOI diode IRFPA with a 25 μm pixel pitch. The size of the package is 14.5(L) x 13.5(W) x 1.2(H) mm. The gap between the device chip and the lid is controlled by the thickness of the vacuum sealing material. The lid is prepared by a wafer process and diced just before vacuum sealing. We use DLC (diamond like carbon) as the AR coat because of its high IR transmittance and high endurance in the wafer process. DLC films are deposited on both sides of the silicon lid wafer, and then a ring-shaped metal pattern for solder bonding is formed on one side of the lid wafer. Solder is mounted on the metal pattern by a molten solder ejection method. The patterned thin-film getter is formed on the lid wafer. Because of the use of patterned thin-film getter, there is no need to form a cavity on the lid to allow installation of getter or to insert a spacer between the device chip and the lid. Then the lid wafer is diced into individual lids. The device wafer and the lids are set in a vacuum chamber, which has a heater to melt the solder, so as to pair each die and lid. After pumping the chamber, the patterned thin-film getters are activated and then the lids are bonded simultaneously to the device wafer. Finally the device wafer is diced into individual chips. The measured pressure of the package is less than 0.5 Pa which is sufficient for obtaining high thermal isolation. In this technique, only the good dies in a wafer are packaged in chip scale simultaneously. Thus, a reduction in the size and cost of the package has been achieved.

  5. Quench Module Insert (QMI) and the Diffusion Module Insert (DMI) Furnace Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouch, Myscha; Carswell, William; Farmer, Jeff; Rose, Fred; Tidwell, Paul

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents, in viewgraph form, QMI (Quench Module Insert) and DMI (Diffusion Module Insert) furnace development. The topics include: 1) Furnace Module in Rack; 2) Quench Module Insert; 3) QMI in MSL Core; 4) Diffusion Module Insert; 5) QMI; and 6) QMI Development and Testing.

  6. Sustainable Library Development Training Package

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This Sustainable Library Development Training Package supports Peace Corps' Focus In/Train Up strategy, which was implemented following the 2010 Comprehensive Agency Assessment. Sustainable Library Development is a technical training package in Peace Corps programming within the Education sector. The training package addresses the Volunteer…

  7. Characterization of whey cheese packaged under vacuum.

    PubMed

    Pintado, M E; Malcata, F X

    2000-02-01

    Vacuum packaging was assayed at 4 degrees C and was tested in comparison to unpackaged counterparts, in both microbiological and physicochemical terms, in studies pertaining to the preservation of Requeijão, a traditional Portuguese whey cheese. Bacteria were absent (i.e., <10 CFU/g) in whey cheeses on the day of manufacture as a result of thermal processing. After storage, both unpackaged and packaged cheeses exhibited high viable counts of Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacteriaceae, and lactic acid bacteria (especially lactococci). Yeasts, staphylococci, enterococci, and spore-forming clostridia were severely inhibited by the package vacuum combined with the increasing acidification developed therein. Whey cheeses packaged under vacuum underwent substantial acidification, slight depletion of lactose, and no significant variation in moisture content or texture; conversely, unpackaged whey cheeses exhibited substantial loss of water and a concomitant increase in rigidity. Vacuum packaging strongly inhibited lipolysis (even if viable counts of some microbial groups were high); saturated fatty acids (mainly C16:0 and C14:0) accounted for ca. 73% of the total free-fatty acid content, whereas the most concentrated unsaturated fatty acids were C18:1 and C18:2 (ca. 14% each). The conclusions generated in our study are, in general, useful for a wide range of whey cheeses worldwide: i.e., Requéson (Spain), Ricotta (Italy), Broccio (France), and Anthotyro (Greece). In addition, our conclusions are particularly helpful in terms of improving the safety of Requeijão, a widely acclaimed dairy specialty.

  8. Parenteral packaging waste reduction.

    PubMed

    Baetz, B W

    1990-08-01

    The consumption of pharmaceutical products generates waste materials which can cause significant environmental impact when incinerated or landfilled. The purpose of this work is to stimulate discussion among hospital pharmacists and purchasing managers relating to the waste management aspects of their purchasing decisions. As a case study example, a number of commercially available "single use" parenterals are evaluated from a waste reduction perspective, for both the product container and for the packaging of these containers. Glass vials are non-incinerable, and are currently non-recyclable due to the higher melting temperatures required for borosilicate glass. However, plastic vials are potentially both incinerable and recyclable. Packaging quantities are considerably lower for plastic vials on a unit container basis, and also vary to a measurable degree between different manufacturers for a given type of container material. From an environmental perspective, waste reduction potential should become an important criterion in the selection of pharmaceutical products for hospital use.

  9. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions, LLC

    2003-08-25

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. The C of C states: ''...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, ''Operating Procedures,'' of the application.'' It further states: ''...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, ''Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR {section} 71.11, ''Deliberate Misconduct.'' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the RH-TRU 72-B packaging. This Program Guidance standardizes instructions for all users. Users shall follow these instructions. Following these instructions assures that operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARP. This document is available on the Internet at: ttp://www.ws/library/t2omi/t2omi.htm. Users are responsible for ensuring they are using the current revision and change notices. Sites may prepare their own document using the word

  10. TIDEV: Tidal Evolution package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuartas-Restrepo, P.; Melita, M.; Zuluaga, J.; Portilla, B.; Sucerquia, M.; Miloni, O.

    2016-09-01

    TIDEV (Tidal Evolution package) calculates the evolution of rotation for tidally interacting bodies using Efroimsky-Makarov-Williams (EMW) formalism. The package integrates tidal evolution equations and computes the rotational and dynamical evolution of a planet under tidal and triaxial torques. TIDEV accounts for the perturbative effects due to the presence of the other planets in the system, especially the secular variations of the eccentricity. Bulk parameters include the mass and radius of the planet (and those of the other planets involved in the integration), the size and mass of the host star, the Maxwell time and Andrade's parameter. TIDEV also calculates the time scale that a planet takes to be tidally locked as well as the periods of rotation reached at the end of the spin-orbit evolution.

  11. Anticounterfeit packaging technologies

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ruchir Y.; Prajapati, Prajesh N.; Agrawal, Y. K.

    2010-01-01

    Packaging is the coordinated system that encloses and protects the dosage form. Counterfeit drugs are the major cause of morbidity, mortality, and failure of public interest in the healthcare system. High price and well-known brands make the pharma market most vulnerable, which accounts for top priority cardiovascular, obesity, and antihyperlipidemic drugs and drugs like sildenafil. Packaging includes overt and covert technologies like barcodes, holograms, sealing tapes, and radio frequency identification devices to preserve the integrity of the pharmaceutical product. But till date all the available techniques are synthetic and although provide considerable protection against counterfeiting, have certain limitations which can be overcome by the application of natural approaches and utilization of the principles of nanotechnology. PMID:22247875

  12. Fair Package Assignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahaie, Sébastien; Parkes, David C.

    We consider the problem of fair allocation in the package assignment model, where a set of indivisible items, held by single seller, must be efficiently allocated to agents with quasi-linear utilities. A fair assignment is one that is efficient and envy-free. We consider a model where bidders have superadditive valuations, meaning that items are pure complements. Our central result is that core outcomes are fair and even coalition-fair over this domain, while fair distributions may not even exist for general valuations. Of relevance to auction design, we also establish that the core is equivalent to the set of anonymous-price competitive equilibria, and that superadditive valuations are a maximal domain that guarantees the existence of anonymous-price competitive equilibrium. Our results are analogs of core equivalence results for linear prices in the standard assignment model, and for nonlinear, non-anonymous prices in the package assignment model with general valuations.

  13. Aquaculture information package

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

    1998-08-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

  14. Software packager user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.

    1995-01-01

    Software integration is a growing area of concern for many programmers and software managers because the need to build new programs quickly from existing components is greater than ever. This includes building versions of software products for multiple hardware platforms and operating systems, building programs from components written in different languages, and building systems from components that must execute on different machines in a distributed network. The goal of software integration is to make building new programs from existing components more seamless -- programmers should pay minimal attention to the underlying configuration issues involved. Libraries of reusable components and classes are important tools but only partial solutions to software development problems. Even though software components may have compatible interfaces, there may be other reasons, such as differences between execution environments, why they cannot be integrated. Often, components must be adapted or reimplemented to fit into another application because of implementation differences -- they are implemented in different programming languages, dependent on different operating system resources, or must execute on different physical machines. The software packager is a tool that allows programmers to deal with interfaces between software components and ignore complex integration details. The packager takes modular descriptions of the structure of a software system written in the package specification language and produces an integration program in the form of a makefile. If complex integration tools are needed to integrate a set of components, such as remote procedure call stubs, their use is implied by the packager automatically and stub generation tools are invoked in the corresponding makefile. The programmer deals only with the components themselves and not the details of how to build the system on any given platform.

  15. Trilinos Web Interface Package

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jonathan; Phenow, Michael N.; Sala, Marzio; Tuminaro, Ray S.

    2006-09-01

    WebTrilinos is a scientific portal, a web-based environment to use several Trilinos packages through the web. If you are a teaching sparse linear algebra, you can use WebTrilinos to present code snippets and simple scripts, and let the students execute them from their browsers. If you want to test linear algebra solvers, you can use the MatrixPortal module, and you just have to select problems and options, then plot the results in nice graphs.

  16. Student-Designed Enzyme-Linked Metabolite Assay Kits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, D.; Johnston, J.; Dimauro, J.; Denyer, G.

    2004-01-01

    The extensive use of commercial kits in molecular biology and biochemistry has prompted us to design a series of practical sessions to help students become familiar with the uses and limitations of pre-packaged assay systems. To facilitate an understanding of these assay systems and to promote reflection on their appropriate use, students…

  17. Student-Designed Enzyme-Linked Metabolite Assay Kits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, D.; Johnston, J.; Dimauro, J.; Denyer, G.

    2004-01-01

    The extensive use of commercial kits in molecular biology and biochemistry has prompted us to design a series of practical sessions to help students become familiar with the uses and limitations of pre-packaged assay systems. To facilitate an understanding of these assay systems and to promote reflection on their appropriate use, students…

  18. Navy packaging standardization thrusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidwell, J. R.

    1982-11-01

    Standardization is a concept that is basic to our world today. The idea of reducing costs through the economics of mass production is an easy one to grasp. Henry Ford started the process of large scale standardization in this country with the Detroit production lines for his automobiles. In the process additional benefits accrued, such as improved reliability through design maturity, off-the-shelf repair parts, faster repair time, and a resultant lower cost of ownership (lower life-cycle cost). The need to attain standardization benefits with military equipments exists now. Defense budgets, although recently increased, are not going to permit us to continue the tremendous investment required to maintain even the status quo and develop new hardware at the same time. Needed are more reliable, maintainable, testable hardware in the Fleet. It is imperative to recognize the obsolescence problems created by the use of high technology devices in our equipments, and find ways to combat these shortfalls. The Navy has two packaging standardization programs that will be addressed in this paper; the Standard Electronic Modules and the Modular Avionics Packaging programs. Following a brief overview of the salient features of each program, the packaging technology aspects of the program will be addressed, and developmental areas currently being investigated will be identified.

  19. 78 FR 19007 - Certain Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... COMMISSION Certain Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof.... 1337, on behalf of Lamina Packaging Innovations LLC of Longview, Texas. An amended complaint was filed... importation of certain products having laminated packaging, laminated packaging, and components thereof...

  20. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material.

  1. Peripherally Inserted Central Catheters and Hemodialysis Outcomes.

    PubMed

    McGill, Rita L; Ruthazer, Robin; Meyer, Klemens B; Miskulin, Dana C; Weiner, Daniel E

    2016-08-08

    Use of peripherally inserted central catheters has expanded rapidly, but the consequences for patients who eventually require hemodialysis are undefined. Our national, population-based analysis included 33,918 adult Medicare beneficiaries from the US Renal Data System who initiated hemodialysis with central venous catheters as their sole vascular access in 2010 and 2011. We used linked Medicare claims to identify peripherally inserted central catheter exposures and evaluate the associations of peripherally inserted central catheter placement with transition to working arteriovenous fistulas or grafts and patient survival using a Cox model with time-dependent variables. Among 33,918 individuals initiating hemodialysis with a catheter as sole access, 12.6% had received at least one peripherally inserted central catheter. Median follow-up was 404 days (interquartile range, 103-680 days). Among 6487 peripherally inserted central catheters placed, 3435 (53%) were placed within the 2 years before hemodialysis initiation, and 3052 (47%) were placed afterward. Multiple peripherally inserted central catheters were placed in 30% of patients exposed to peripherally inserted central catheters. Recipients of peripherally inserted central catheters were more likely to be women and have comorbid diagnoses and less likely to have received predialysis nephrology care. After adjustment for clinical and demographic factors, peripherally inserted central catheters placed before or after hemodialysis initiation were independently associated with lower likelihoods of transition to any working fistula or graft (hazard ratio for prehemodialysis peripherally inserted central catheter, 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.79 to 0.91; hazard ratio for posthemodialysis peripherally inserted central catheter, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.73 to 0.89). Peripherally inserted central catheter placement was common and associated with adverse vascular access outcomes. Recognition of potential long

  2. Optimal segmentation and packaging process

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Meservey, Richard H.; Landon, Mark D.

    1999-01-01

    A process for improving packaging efficiency uses three dimensional, computer simulated models with various optimization algorithms to determine the optimal segmentation process and packaging configurations based on constraints including container limitations. The present invention is applied to a process for decontaminating, decommissioning (D&D), and remediating a nuclear facility involving the segmentation and packaging of contaminated items in waste containers in order to minimize the number of cuts, maximize packaging density, and reduce worker radiation exposure. A three-dimensional, computer simulated, facility model of the contaminated items are created. The contaminated items are differentiated. The optimal location, orientation and sequence of the segmentation and packaging of the contaminated items is determined using the simulated model, the algorithms, and various constraints including container limitations. The cut locations and orientations are transposed to the simulated model. The contaminated items are actually segmented and packaged. The segmentation and packaging may be simulated beforehand. In addition, the contaminated items may be cataloged and recorded.

  3. Enzymatic functionalization of a nanobody using protein insertion technology.

    PubMed

    Crasson, O; Rhazi, N; Jacquin, O; Freichels, A; Jérôme, C; Ruth, N; Galleni, M; Filée, P; Vandevenne, M

    2015-10-01

    Antibody-based products constitute one of the most attractive biological molecules for diagnostic, medical imagery and therapeutic purposes with very few side effects. Their development has become a major priority of biotech and pharmaceutical industries. Recently, a growing number of modified antibody-based products have emerged including fragments, multi-specific and conjugate antibodies. In this study, using protein engineering, we have functionalized the anti-hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) camelid VHH antibody fragment (cAb-Lys3), by insertion into a solvent-exposed loop of the Bacillus licheniformis β-lactamase BlaP. We showed that the generated hybrid protein conserved its enzymatic activity while the displayed nanobody retains its ability to inhibit HEWL with a nanomolar affinity range. Then, we successfully implemented the functionalized cAb-Lys3 in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, potentiometric biosensor and drug screening assays. The hybrid protein was also expressed on the surface of phage particles and, in this context, was able to interact specifically with HEWL while the β-lactamase activity was used to monitor phage interactions. Finally, using thrombin-cleavage sites surrounding the permissive insertion site in the β-lactamase, we reported an expression system in which the nanobody can be easily separated from its carrier protein. Altogether, our study shows that insertion into the BlaP β-lactamase constitutes a suitable technology to functionalize nanobodies and allows the creation of versatile tools that can be used in innovative biotechnological assays. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Sequential cooling insert for turbine stator vane

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Russel B

    2017-04-04

    A sequential flow cooling insert for a turbine stator vane of a small gas turbine engine, where the impingement cooling insert is formed as a single piece from a metal additive manufacturing process such as 3D metal printing, and where the insert includes a plurality of rows of radial extending impingement cooling air holes alternating with rows of radial extending return air holes on a pressure side wall, and where the insert includes a plurality of rows of chordwise extending second impingement cooling air holes on a suction side wall. The insert includes alternating rows of radial extending cooling air supply channels and return air channels that form a series of impingement cooling on the pressure side followed by the suction side of the insert.

  5. Insertion devices at the advanced photon source

    SciTech Connect

    Moog, E.R.

    1996-07-01

    The insertion devices being installed at the Advanced Photon Source cause the stored particle beam to wiggle, emitting x-rays with each wiggle. These x-rays combine to make an intense beam of radiation. Both wiggler and undulator types of insertion devices are being installed; the characteristics of the radiation produced by these two types of insertion devices are discussed, along with the reasons for those characteristics.

  6. Silicon-on-silicon system packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balseanu, Mihaela

    A novel process for homogeneous integration of commercially available off-the-shelf integrated circuits on a silicon (Si) substrate, utilizing wafer bonding, has been developed. The integration of discrete ICs with different functionality on a silicon substrate is inherently more reliable than traditional packaging because it eliminates wires bonds and discrete packages; allowing for higher density interconnections. This integration assembly also reduces the thermal mismatch between the package components and the associated reliability problems. The process begins with the formation of cavities into a Si substrate to house the Si devices. A Si wafer is patterned, completely etched through and bonded to a Si handle wafer at 1100°C. During this step, a covalent bond is formed at the interface of the two wafers while the sidewalls of the cavities are covered with about a micron of thermal oxide to ensure the electrical isolation of the Si chips from the housing wafer. Afterwards, the devices are bonded via low temperature wafer bonding into the resulted cavities of the housing wafer. After bonding, the trenches formed between the inserted chips and the surrounding silicon body are filled and the module surface is planarized to insure reliable chip-to-chip interconnection. Aluminum is then sputtered and patterned by wet etching to define the metal lines connecting the integrated circuits. Multiple interconnect layers can be implemented by repeating the last two processing steps. The structural and thermal performance of the silicon-on-silicon multichip module was investigated using the finite element analysis package ANSYS. Thermomechanical analysis has been performed on the structure to evaluate its behavior under typical operating conditions as well as to determine the key geometrical parameters that influence the package reliability. Thermal simulations have been performed to ascertain the most suitable cooling solution for the module. The resulting structure

  7. Nozzle insert for mixed mode fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, Keith E.

    2006-11-21

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively, by first and second needle valve members. The homogeneous charged nozzle outlet set is defined by a nozzle insert that is attached to an injector body, which defines the conventional nozzle outlet set. The nozzle insert is a one piece metallic component with a large diameter segment separated from a small diameter segment by an annular engagement surface. One of the needle valve members is guided on an outer surface of the nozzle insert, and the nozzle insert has an interference fit attachment to the injector body.

  8. Properties of a symmetric RHIC insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.

    1991-07-01

    This report evaluates the lattice functions of the symmetric insertion proposed by A.G. Ruggiero for the RHIC insertion. The crossing geometry, Inner and Outer matching sections, and chromatic properties are studied in detail. Some properties of the missing dipole dispersion correction scheme are also discussed. We found that the chromatic properties of the symmetric insertion is not better than the antisymmetric insertion. The problem is that the four family sextupole correction scheme seems not able to improve the chromatic distortion. Analytic understanding of the failure of the four family sextupole correction scheme will be very useful. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Automatic Steering of Manually Inserted Needles

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guofan; Li, Xiao; Lehocky, Craig A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2014-01-01

    Bevel-tipped flexible needles can be robotically steered to reach clinical targets along curvilinear paths in 3D. Manual needle insertion allows the clinician to control the insertion speed, ensuring patient safety. This paper presents a control law for automatic 3D steering of manually inserted flexible needles, enabling path-following control. A look-ahead proportional controller for position and orientation is presented. The look-ahead distance is a linear function of insertion speed. Simulations in a 3D brain-like environment demonstrate the performance of the proposed controller. Experimental results also show the feasibility of this technique in 2D and 3D environments. PMID:24752485

  10. Packaging - Materials review

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-06-16

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  11. Packaging - Materials review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  12. Role of Amino Acid Insertions on Intermolecular Forces between Arginine Peptide Condensed DNA Helices

    PubMed Central

    DeRouchey, Jason E.; Rau, Donald C.

    2011-01-01

    In spermatogenesis, chromatin histones are replaced by arginine-rich protamines to densely compact DNA in sperm heads. Tight packaging is considered necessary to protect the DNA from damage. To better understand the nature of the forces condensing protamine-DNA assemblies and their dependence on amino acid content, the effect of neutral and negatively charged amino acids on DNA-DNA intermolecular forces was studied using model peptides containing six arginines. We have previously observed that the neutral amino acids in salmon protamine decrease the net attraction between protamine-DNA helices compared with the equivalent homo-arginine peptide. Using osmotic stress coupled with x-ray scattering, we have investigated the component attractive and repulsive forces that determine the net attraction and equilibrium interhelical distance as a function of the chemistry, position, and number of the amino acid inserted. Neutral amino acids inserted into hexa-arginine increase the short range repulsion while only slightly affecting longer range attraction. The amino acid content alone of salmon protamine is enough to rationalize the forces that package DNA in sperm heads. Inserting a negatively charged amino acid into hexa-arginine dramatically weakens the net attraction. Both of these observations have biological implications for protamine-DNA packaging in sperm heads. PMID:21994948

  13. Components of Adenovirus Genome Packaging

    PubMed Central

    Ahi, Yadvinder S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (AdVs) are icosahedral viruses with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genomes. Genome packaging in AdV is thought to be similar to that seen in dsDNA containing icosahedral bacteriophages and herpesviruses. Specific recognition of the AdV genome is mediated by a packaging domain located close to the left end of the viral genome and is mediated by the viral packaging machinery. Our understanding of the role of various components of the viral packaging machinery in AdV genome packaging has greatly advanced in recent years. Characterization of empty capsids assembled in the absence of one or more components involved in packaging, identification of the unique vertex, and demonstration of the role of IVa2, the putative packaging ATPase, in genome packaging have provided compelling evidence that AdVs follow a sequential assembly pathway. This review provides a detailed discussion on the functions of the various viral and cellular factors involved in AdV genome packaging. We conclude by briefly discussing the roles of the empty capsids, assembly intermediates, scaffolding proteins, portal vertex and DNA encapsidating enzymes in AdV assembly and packaging. PMID:27721809

  14. New package for CMOS sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diot, Jean-Luc; Loo, Kum Weng; Moscicki, Jean-Pierre; Ng, Hun Shen; Tee, Tong Yan; Teysseyre, Jerome; Yap, Daniel

    2004-02-01

    Cost is the main drawback of existing packages for C-MOS sensors (mainly CLCC family). Alternative packages are thus developed world-wide. And in particular, S.T.Microelectronics has studied a low cost alternative packages based on QFN structure, still with a cavity. Intensive work was done to optimize the over-molding operation forming the cavity onto a metallic lead-frame (metallic lead-frame is a low cost substrate allowing very good mechanical definition of the final package). Material selection (thermo-set resin and glue for glass sealing) was done through standard reliability tests for cavity packages (Moisture Sensitivity Level 3 followed by temperature cycling, humidity storage and high temperature storage). As this package concept is new (without leads protruding the molded cavity), the effect of variation of package dimensions, as well as board lay-out design, are simulated on package life time (during temperature cycling, thermal mismatch between board and package leads to thermal fatigue of solder joints). These simulations are correlated with an experimental temperature cycling test with daisy-chain packages.

  15. The Kull IMC package

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, N A; Keen,N; Rathkopf, J

    1998-10-01

    We describe the Kull IMC package, and Implicit Monte Carlo Program written for use in A and X division radiation hydro codes. The Kull IMC has been extensively tested. Written in C++ and using genericity via the template feature to allow easy integration into different codes, the Kull IMC currently runs coupled radiation hydrodynamic problems in 2 different 3D codes. A stand-alone version also exists, which has been parallelized with mesh replication. This version has been run on up to 384 processors on ASCI Blue Pacific.

  16. Aristos Optimization Package

    SciTech Connect

    Ridzal, Danis

    2007-03-01

    Aristos is a Trilinos package for nonlinear continuous optimization, based on full-space sequential quadratic programming (SQP) methods. Aristos is specifically designed for the solution of large-scale constrained optimization problems in which the linearized constraint equations require iterative (i.e. inexact) linear solver techniques. Aristos' unique feature is an efficient handling of inexactness in linear system solves. Aristos currently supports the solution of equality-constrained convex and nonconvex optimization problems. It has been used successfully in the area of PDE-constrained optimization, for the solution of nonlinear optimal control, optimal design, and inverse problems.

  17. TASC Graphics Software Package.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    RD-I55 861 TSC GRPHICS SOFTWRE PCKRGE(U) NLYTIC SCIENCES i/I RD 𔄀-t CORP RERDING MA M R TANG DEC 82 TR-1946-6U~~cLss AFG L-TR-gi-1388 Fi9629-89-C...extensions were made to allow TGSP to use color graphics. 2.1 INTERACTIVE TGSP NCAR was designed to be a general plot package for use with many different...plotting devices. It is designed to accept high level commands and generate an intermediate set of commands called metacode and to then use device

  18. Pericarditis following permanent pacemaker insertion.

    PubMed

    Levy, Yair; Shovman, Ora; Granit, Chava; Luria, David; Gurevitz, Osnat; Bar-Lev, David; Eldar, Michael; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Glikson, Michael

    2004-10-01

    The appearance of pericarditis following insertion of a permanent pacemaker is not widely acknowledged in the literature. To describe our experience with pericarditis following 395 permanent pacemaker implantations over 2 years. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 395 consecutive patients in whom new pacing systems or pacemaker leads had been implanted over a 2 year period. We searched the records for pericarditis that developed within 1 month after pacemaker implantation according to the ICD-9 code. The incidence, clinical picture, response to treatment, and relationship to lead design and location were studied. Eight cases (2%) of pericarditis following implantation were detected. Clinical manifestations in all patients were similar to those of post-pericardiotomy syndrome and included chest pain (n = 7), friction rub (n = 1), fever (n = 2), fatigue (n = 2), pleural effusion (n = 2), new atrial fibrillation (n = 2), elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (n = 4), and echcardiographic evidence of pericardial effusion (n = 8). All affected patients had undergone active fixation (screw-in) lead implantation in the atrial position. The incidence of pericarditis with screw-in atrial leads was 3% compared to 0% in other cases (P < 0.05). Pericarditis is not uncommon following pacemaker implantation with active fixation atrial leads. Special attention should be paid to identifying pericardial complications following pacemaker implantation, especially when anticoagulant therapy is resumed or initiated. The use of passive fixation leads is likely to reduce the incidence of pericarditis but this issue should be further investigated.

  19. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    SciTech Connect

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-07-13

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A{sub 2}s) and is a type B packaging.

  20. Reliability of PWB Microvias for High Density Package Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2008-01-01

    High density PWB (printed wiring board) with microvia technology is required for implementation of high density and high I/O area array packages (AAP). COTS (commercial off-the-shelf) AAP packaging technologies in high reliability versions with 1.27 mm pitch are now being considered for use in a number of NASA systems including Space Shuttle and Mars Rovers. NASA functional system designs are requiring more and more dense AAP packages and board space, which makes board microvia technology very attractive for effectively routing a large number of package inputs/outputs. However, the reliability of the fine feature microvias including via in pads is unknown for space applications. Understanding process and QA (quality assurance) indicators for reliability are important for low risk insertion of these newly available packages and PWBs. This paper presents literature search as well as test results for a high density board subjected to various thermal cycle and reflow profiles representative of tin-lead and lead-free solder reflow. Microvias sizes ranged from two to six mil with and without filling. Daisy chain microvias monitored during the test and PWBs were cross-sectioned to determine failure and locations. Optical and SEM photographs as well as resistance changes during cycling and Tg/Td (glass transition/decomposition temperature) characterisations are presented.

  1. BOK-Underfill Optimization for FPGA Package/Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2011-01-01

    Commercial-off-the-shelf area array package technologies in high-reliability versions are being considered for NASA electronic systems. These packages are prone to early failure due to the severe mechanical shock and vibration of launch, as well as other less severe conditions, such as mechanical loading during descent, rough terrain mobility, handling, and ground tests. As the density of these packages increases and the size of ball interconnections decrease, susceptibility to mechanical loading and cycling fatigue grows. This report presents a summary of the body of knowledge developed for the evaluation of area array packages and is based on surveys of literature from industry and academia. For high-reliability applications, the limited data that exists will be presented. Most data from industry deals with mechanical fatigue caused by four-point bend tests, as well as from drop tests for hand-held electronics; the most recent data will be presented, along with a brief background of prior literature. Understanding the key design guidelines and failure mechanisms from past tests is critical to developing an approach that will minimize future failures. Additional specific testing enables low-risk insertion of these advanced electronic packages.

  2. Reliability of PWB Microvias for High Density Package Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2008-01-01

    High density PWB (printed wiring board) with microvia technology is required for implementation of high density and high I/O area array packages (AAP). COTS (commercial off-the-shelf) AAP packaging technologies in high reliability versions with 1.27 mm pitch are now being considered for use in a number of NASA systems including Space Shuttle and Mars Rovers. NASA functional system designs are requiring more and more dense AAP packages and board space, which makes board microvia technology very attractive for effectively routing a large number of package inputs/outputs. However, the reliability of the fine feature microvias including via in pads is unknown for space applications. Understanding process and QA (quality assurance) indicators for reliability are important for low risk insertion of these newly available packages and PWBs. This paper presents literature search as well as test results for a high density board subjected to various thermal cycle and reflow profiles representative of tin-lead and lead-free solder reflow. Microvias sizes ranged from two to six mil with and without filling. Daisy chain microvias monitored during the test and PWBs were cross-sectioned to determine failure and locations. Optical and SEM photographs as well as resistance changes during cycling and Tg/Td (glass transition/decomposition temperature) characterisations are presented.

  3. Testing of a Complete Training Model for Chest Tube Insertion in Traumatic Pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Ghazali, Aiham; Breque, Cyril; Léger, Alexandre; Scépi, Michel; Oriot, Denis

    2015-08-01

    Chest tube insertion is a frequent procedure in cases of traumatic pneumothorax, but severe complications can occur if not well performed. Although simulation-based training in chest tube insertion has improved performance, an affordable and realistic model for surgical insertion of a chest tube is lacking. The objective was to design a model for surgical chest tube insertion that would be realistic, affordable, and transportable and that would reflect all extrathoracic and intrathoracic steps of the procedure. The model was a task trainer designed by 4 experts in our simulation laboratory combining plastic, electronic, and biologic material. The cost of supplies needed for construction was evaluated. The model was used and tested over 30 months on 56 participants, of whom 44 were surveyed regarding the realism of the model. The model involved a half chest wall (lamb) on a plastic box, connected to a webcam facilitating assessment of the extrathoracic and intrathoracic steps of the procedure, for a cost of €60. Chest tubes, water seal package, and sterile instruments costed €200. All anatomic structures were represented during surgical insertion of chest tube. The demonstration contributed to teaching small groups of up to 8 participants and was reproducible over 30 months of diversely located courses. Anatomic correlation, realism, and learning experience were highly rated by users. This model for surgical chest tube insertion in traumatic pneumothorax was found to be realistic, affordable, and transportable. Furthermore, it allowed comprehensive assessment of the extrathoracic and intrathoracic procedural steps.

  4. Dynalign II: common secondary structure prediction for RNA homologs with domain insertions

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yinghan; Sharma, Gaurav; Mathews, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Homologous non-coding RNAs frequently exhibit domain insertions, where a branch of secondary structure is inserted in a sequence with respect to its homologs. Dynamic programming algorithms for common secondary structure prediction of multiple RNA homologs, however, do not account for these domain insertions. This paper introduces a novel dynamic programming algorithm methodology that explicitly accounts for the possibility of inserted domains when predicting common RNA secondary structures. The algorithm is implemented as Dynalign II, an update to the Dynalign software package for predicting the common secondary structure of two RNA homologs. This update is accomplished with negligible increase in computational cost. Benchmarks on ncRNA families with domain insertions validate the method. Over base pairs occurring in inserted domains, Dynalign II improves accuracy over Dynalign, attaining 80.8% sensitivity (compared with 14.4% for Dynalign) and 91.4% positive predictive value (PPV) for tRNA; 66.5% sensitivity (compared with 38.9% for Dynalign) and 57.0% PPV for RNase P RNA; and 50.1% sensitivity (compared with 24.3% for Dynalign) and 58.5% PPV for SRP RNA. Compared with Dynalign, Dynalign II also exhibits statistically significant improvements in overall sensitivity and PPV. Dynalign II is available as a component of RNAstructure, which can be downloaded from http://rna.urmc.rochester.edu/RNAstructure.html. PMID:25416799

  5. Multipurpose Transposon-Insertion Libraries in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anuj

    2016-06-01

    Libraries of transposon-insertion alleles constitute powerful and versatile tools for large-scale analysis of yeast gene function. Transposon-insertion libraries are constructed most simply through mutagenesis of a plasmid-based genomic DNA library; modification of the mutagenizing transposon by incorporation of yeast selectable markers, recombination sites, and an epitope tag enables the application of insertion alleles for phenotypic screening and protein localization. In particular, yeast genomic DNA libraries have been mutagenized with modified bacterial transposons carrying the URA3 marker, lox recombination sites, and sequence encoding multiple copies of the hemagglutinin (HA) epitope. Mutagenesis with these transposons has yielded a large resource of insertion alleles affecting nearly 4000 yeast genes in total. Through well-established protocols, these insertion libraries can be introduced into the desired strain backgrounds and the resulting insertional mutants can be screened or systematically analyzed. Relative to alternative methods of UV irradiation or chemical mutagenesis, transposon-insertion alleles can be easily identified by PCR-based approaches or high-throughput sequencing. Transposon-insertion libraries also provide a cost-effective alternative to targeted deletion approaches, although, in contrast to start-codon to stop-codon deletions, insertion alleles might not represent true null-mutants. For protein-localization studies, transposon-insertion alleles can provide encoded epitope tags in-frame with internal codons; in many cases, these transposon-encoded epitope tags can provide a more accurate localization for proteins in which terminal sequences are crucial for intracellular targeting. Thus, overall, transposon-insertion libraries can be used quickly and economically and have a particular utility in screening for desired phenotypes and localization patterns in nonstandard genetic backgrounds. © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  6. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  7. The Ettention software package.

    PubMed

    Dahmen, Tim; Marsalek, Lukas; Marniok, Nico; Turoňová, Beata; Bogachev, Sviatoslav; Trampert, Patrick; Nickels, Stefan; Slusallek, Philipp

    2016-02-01

    We present a novel software package for the problem "reconstruction from projections" in electron microscopy. The Ettention framework consists of a set of modular building-blocks for tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The well-known block iterative reconstruction method based on Kaczmarz algorithm is implemented using these building-blocks, including adaptations specific to electron tomography. Ettention simultaneously features (1) a modular, object-oriented software design, (2) optimized access to high-performance computing (HPC) platforms such as graphic processing units (GPU) or many-core architectures like Xeon Phi, and (3) accessibility to microscopy end-users via integration in the IMOD package and eTomo user interface. We also provide developers with a clean and well-structured application programming interface (API) that allows for extending the software easily and thus makes it an ideal platform for algorithmic research while hiding most of the technical details of high-performance computing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-02-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  9. Signal processor packaging design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarley, Paul L.; Phipps, Mickie A.

    1993-10-01

    The Signal Processor Packaging Design (SPPD) program was a technology development effort to demonstrate that a miniaturized, high throughput programmable processor could be fabricated to meet the stringent environment imposed by high speed kinetic energy guided interceptor and missile applications. This successful program culminated with the delivery of two very small processors, each about the size of a large pin grid array package. Rockwell International's Tactical Systems Division in Anaheim, California developed one of the processors, and the other was developed by Texas Instruments' (TI) Defense Systems and Electronics Group (DSEG) of Dallas, Texas. The SPPD program was sponsored by the Guided Interceptor Technology Branch of the Air Force Wright Laboratory's Armament Directorate (WL/MNSI) at Eglin AFB, Florida and funded by SDIO's Interceptor Technology Directorate (SDIO/TNC). These prototype processors were subjected to rigorous tests of their image processing capabilities, and both successfully demonstrated the ability to process 128 X 128 infrared images at a frame rate of over 100 Hz.

  10. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-05-27

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing Shielded Container Payload Assembly; 1.7, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.8, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence, except as noted.

  11. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-09-11

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.7, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence.

  12. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  13. Space station power semiconductor package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balodis, Vilnis; Berman, Albert; Devance, Darrell; Ludlow, Gerry; Wagner, Lee

    1987-01-01

    A package of high-power switching semiconductors for the space station have been designed and fabricated. The package includes a high-voltage (600 volts) high current (50 amps) NPN Fast Switching Power Transistor and a high-voltage (1200 volts), high-current (50 amps) Fast Recovery Diode. The package features an isolated collector for the transistors and an isolated anode for the diode. Beryllia is used as the isolation material resulting in a thermal resistance for both devices of .2 degrees per watt. Additional features include a hermetical seal for long life -- greater than 10 years in a space environment. Also, the package design resulted in a low electrical energy loss with the reduction of eddy currents, stray inductances, circuit inductance, and capacitance. The required package design and device parameters have been achieved. Test results for the transistor and diode utilizing the space station package is given.

  14. Toolbox for mobile-element insertion detection on cancer genomes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wan-Ping; Wu, Jiantao; Marth, Gabor T

    2015-01-01

    Mobile elements constitute greater than 45% of the human genome as a result of repeated insertion events during human genome evolution. Although most of mobile elements are fixed within the human population, some elements (including ALU, long interspersed elements (LINE) 1 (L1), and SVA) are still actively duplicating and may result in life-threatening human diseases such as cancer, motivating the need for accurate mobile-element insertion (MEI) detection tools. We developed a software package, TANGRAM, for MEI detection in next-generation sequencing data, currently serving as the primary MEI detection tool in the 1000 Genomes Project. TANGRAM takes advantage of valuable mapping information provided by our own MOSAIK mapper, and until recently required MOSAIK mappings as its input. In this study, we report a new feature that enables TANGRAM to be used on alignments generated by any mainstream short-read mapper, making it accessible for many genomic users. To demonstrate its utility for cancer genome analysis, we have applied TANGRAM to the TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) mutation calling benchmark 4 dataset. TANGRAM is fast, accurate, easy to use, and open source on https://github.com/jiantao/Tangram.

  15. Toolbox for mobile-element insertion detection on cancer genomes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wan-Ping; Wu, Jiantao; Marth, Gabor T

    2014-01-01

    Mobile elements constitute greater than 45% of the human genome as a result of repeated insertion events during human genome evolution. Although most of mobile elements are fixed within the human population, some elements (including ALU, long interspersed elements (LINE) 1 (L1), and SVA) are still actively duplicating and may result in life-threatening human diseases such as cancer, motivating the need for accurate mobile-element insertion (MEI) detection tools. We developed a software package, TANGRAM, for MEI detection in next-generation sequencing data, currently serving as the primary MEI detection tool in the 1000 Genomes Project. TANGRAM takes advantage of valuable mapping information provided by our own MOSAIK mapper, and until recently required MOSAIK mappings as its input. In this study, we report a new feature that enables TANGRAM to be used on alignments generated by any mainstream short-read mapper, making it accessible for many genomic users. To demonstrate its utility for cancer genome analysis, we have applied TANGRAM to the TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) mutation calling benchmark 4 dataset. TANGRAM is fast, accurate, easy to use, and open source on https://github.com/jiantao/Tangram.

  16. Toolbox for Mobile-Element Insertion Detection on Cancer Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wan-Ping; Wu, Jiantao; Marth, Gabor T

    2015-01-01

    Mobile elements constitute greater than 45% of the human genome as a result of repeated insertion events during human genome evolution. Although most of mobile elements are fixed within the human population, some elements (including ALU, long interspersed elements (LINE) 1 (L1), and SVA) are still actively duplicating and may result in life-threatening human diseases such as cancer, motivating the need for accurate mobile-element insertion (MEI) detection tools. We developed a software package, TANGRAM, for MEI detection in next-generation sequencing data, currently serving as the primary MEI detection tool in the 1000 Genomes Project. TANGRAM takes advantage of valuable mapping information provided by our own MOSAIK mapper, and until recently required MOSAIK mappings as its input. In this study, we report a new feature that enables TANGRAM to be used on alignments generated by any mainstream short-read mapper, making it accessible for many genomic users. To demonstrate its utility for cancer genome analysis, we have applied TANGRAM to the TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) mutation calling benchmark 4 dataset. TANGRAM is fast, accurate, easy to use, and open source on https://github.com/jiantao/Tangram. PMID:25931804

  17. Toolbox for Mobile-Element Insertion Detection on Cancer Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wan-Ping; Wu, Jiantao; Marth, Gabor T

    2014-01-01

    Mobile elements constitute greater than 45% of the human genome as a result of repeated insertion events during human genome evolution. Although most of mobile elements are fixed within the human population, some elements (including ALU, long interspersed elements (LINE) 1 (L1), and SVA) are still actively duplicating and may result in life-threatening human diseases such as cancer, motivating the need for accurate mobile-element insertion (MEI) detection tools. We developed a software package, TANGRAM, for MEI detection in next-generation sequencing data, currently serving as the primary MEI detection tool in the 1000 Genomes Project. TANGRAM takes advantage of valuable mapping information provided by our own MOSAIK mapper, and until recently required MOSAIK mappings as its input. In this study, we report a new feature that enables TANGRAM to be used on alignments generated by any mainstream short-read mapper, making it accessible for many genomic users. To demonstrate its utility for cancer genome analysis, we have applied TANGRAM to the TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) mutation calling benchmark 4 dataset. TANGRAM is fast, accurate, easy to use, and open source on https://github.com/jiantao/Tangram. PMID:25452688

  18. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    E. Thomas

    2005-07-14

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H{sub 2}O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package.

  19. Packaging investigation of optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhike, Zhang; Yu, Liu; Jianguo, Liu; Ninghua, Zhu

    2015-10-01

    Compared with microelectronic packaging, optoelectronic packaging as a new packaging type has been developed rapidly and it will play an essential role in optical communication. In this paper, we try to summarize the development history, research status, technology issues and future prospects, and hope to provide a meaningful reference. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Nos. 2013AA014201, 2013AA014203) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61177080, 61335004, 61275031).

  20. Fingerprinting of Peptides with a Large Channel of Bacteriophage Phi29 DNA Packaging Motor.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhouxiang; Wang, Shaoying; Zhao, Zhengyi; Zhou, Zhi; Haque, Farzin; Guo, Peixuan

    2016-09-01

    Nanopore technology has become a highly sensitive and powerful tool for single molecule sensing of chemicals and biopolymers. Protein pores have the advantages of size amenability, channel homogeneity, and fabrication reproducibility. But most well-studied protein pores for sensing are too small for passage of peptide analytes that are typically a few nanometers in dimension. The funnel-shaped channel of bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor has previously been inserted into a lipid membrane to serve as a larger pore with a narrowest N-terminal constriction of 3.6 nm and a wider C-terminal end of 6 nm. Here, the utility of phi29 motor channel for fingerprinting of various peptides using single molecule electrophysiological assays is reported. The translocation of peptides is proved unequivocally by single molecule fluorescence imaging. Current blockage percentage and distinctive current signatures are used to distinguish peptides with high confidence. Each peptide generated one or two distinct current blockage peaks, serving as typical fingerprint for each peptide. The oligomeric states of peptides can also be studied in real time at single molecule level. The results demonstrate the potential for further development of phi29 motor channel for detection of disease-associated peptide biomarkers.

  1. Real-time sensing and discrimination of single chemicals using the channel of phi29 DNA packaging nanomotor.

    PubMed

    Haque, Farzin; Lunn, Jennifer; Fang, Huaming; Smithrud, David; Guo, Peixuan

    2012-04-24

    A highly sensitive and reliable method to sense and identify a single chemical at extremely low concentrations and high contamination is important for environmental surveillance, homeland security, athlete drug monitoring, toxin/drug screening, and earlier disease diagnosis. This article reports a method for precise detection of single chemicals. The hub of the bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor is a connector consisting of 12 protein subunits encircled into a 3.6 nm channel as a path for dsDNA to enter during packaging and to exit during infection. The connector has previously been inserted into a lipid bilayer to serve as a membrane-embedded channel. Herein we report the modification of the phi29 channel to develop a class of sensors to detect single chemicals. The lysine-234 of each protein subunit was mutated to cysteine, generating 12-SH ring lining the channel wall. Chemicals passing through this robust channel and interactions with the SH group generated extremely reliable, precise, and sensitive current signatures as revealed by single channel conductance assays. Ethane (57 Da), thymine (167 Da), and benzene (105 Da) with reactive thioester moieties were clearly discriminated upon interaction with the available set of cysteine residues. The covalent attachment of each analyte induced discrete stepwise blockage in current signature with a corresponding decrease in conductance due to the physical blocking of the channel. Transient binding of the chemicals also produced characteristic fingerprints that were deduced from the unique blockage amplitude and pattern of the signals. This study shows that the phi29 connector can be used to sense chemicals with reactive thioesters or maleimide using single channel conduction assays based on their distinct fingerprints. The results demonstrated that this channel system could be further developed into very sensitive sensing devices.

  2. Pilot Fullerton uses water dispenser kit gun to rehydrate food package

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1982-03-30

    STS003-26-254 (30 March 1982) --- Astronaut Gordon Fullerton, STS-3 pilot, wearing communications kit assembly (ASSY) mini-headset (HDST), inserts the JSC water dispenser kit water gun in rehydratable plastic food (cereal) package to fill it with hot water. Photo credit: NASA

  3. Clinical use of an insert earphone.

    PubMed

    Clemis, J D; Ballad, W J; Killion, M C

    1986-01-01

    There are several applications of and advantages to using an insert earphone. An insert earphone has three parts: a transducer to convert electrical energy to sound, a conduit to deliver the sound into the ear canal, and a coupler connecting the device to the canal. The data from this study indicate that there is a distinct advantage in using insert earphones over TDH-49 phones (standard headphones) in the attenuation of low frequency ambient noise. The use of insert earphones will permit one to test hearing in areas of higher ambient noise than was previously possible. Insert earphones are used to shorten the hearing aid selection process. A technique is described in which only one real ear measurement is required for an accurate hearing aid fitting. Most, but not all, of the masking dilemmas that are encountered with standard headphones are circumvented or eliminated by using insert earphones. In brain stem auditory evoked response testing, the insert earphone reduces the stimulus artifact without influencing the acoustic signal. Finally, the insert earphone solves the collapsing ear canal problem.

  4. Hazardous materials package performance regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, N. A.; Glass, R. E.; McClure, J. D.; Finley, N. C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a hazardous materials Hazmat Packaging Performance Evaluation (HPPE) project being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories for the US Department of Transportation Research Special Programs Administration (DOT-RSPA) to look at the subset of bulk packagings that are larger than 2000 gallons. The objectives of this project are to evaluate current hazmat specification packagings and develop supporting documentation for determining performance requirements for packagings in excess of 2000 gallons that transport hazardous materials that have been classified as extremely toxic by inhalation (METBI).

  5. Naval Waste Package Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    M.M. Lewis

    2004-03-15

    A design methodology for the waste packages and ancillary components, viz., the emplacement pallets and drip shields, has been developed to provide designs that satisfy the safety and operational requirements of the Yucca Mountain Project. This methodology is described in the ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' Mecham 2004 [DIRS 166168]. To demonstrate the practicability of this design methodology, four waste package design configurations have been selected to illustrate the application of the methodology. These four design configurations are the 21-pressurized water reactor (PWR) Absorber Plate waste package, the 44-boiling water reactor (BWR) waste package, the 5-defense high-level waste (DHLW)/United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) Co-disposal Short waste package, and the Naval Canistered SNF Long waste package. Also included in this demonstration is the emplacement pallet and continuous drip shield. The purpose of this report is to document how that design methodology has been applied to the waste package design configurations intended to accommodate naval canistered SNF. This demonstrates that the design methodology can be applied successfully to this waste package design configuration and support the License Application for construction of the repository.

  6. About the ZOOM minimization package

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, M.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

  7. Turbine vane segment and impingement insert configuration for fail-safe impingement insert retention

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian; Kellock, Iain Robertson

    2003-05-13

    An impingement insert sleeve is provided that is adapted to be disposed in a coolant cavity defined through a stator vane. The insert has a generally open inlet end and first and second pairs of diametrically opposed side walls, and at least one fail-safe tab defined at a longitudinal end of the insert for limiting radial displacement of the insert with respect to the stator vane.

  8. Intradermal normal saline solution, self-selected music, and insertion difficulty effects on intravenous insertion pain.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, A F

    1999-01-01

    To examine the effect of listening to self-selected music versus an intradermal injection of normal saline solution on the intensity and distress of intravenous (IV) catheter insertion pain. Prospective, randomized, controlled study. Inpatient and outpatient units in 2 university-affiliated southwestern medical centers. One hundred ten adult inpatients and outpatients undergoing IV therapy. Pain intensity, pain distress, and IV insertion difficulty visual analog scales. Patients were randomly assigned to receive an intradermal injection of normal saline solution, listen with headphones to self-selected music, or be in a control group for IV insertion. A MANOVA revealed no statistically significant multivariate or univariate differences in pain by treatment group, but significantly higher pain distress scores with failed IV insertions. The pain intensity and distress scores were significantly higher in the saline solution group when compared with the music and control groups combined. Insertion difficulty was significantly positively correlated with pain intensity and distress for the entire sample, with weak, nonsignificant correlations in the music group. Intradermal unpreserved saline solution contributes to greater pain intensity and distress, greater insertion difficulty, and a higher failure rate than the use of music or routine IV insertion. Listening to preferred music attenuates the effect of insertion difficulty on IV insertion pain. Intravenous insertion attempts were unsuccessful in more than one third of the subjects, resulting in higher pain distress scores. Further research is needed on interventions to reduce IV insertion pain and on factors contributing to IV insertion failure.

  9. The Packaging Handbook -- A guide to package design

    SciTech Connect

    Shappert, L.B.

    1995-12-31

    The Packaging Handbook is a compilation of 14 technical chapters and five appendices that address the life cycle of a packaging which is intended to transport radioactive material by any transport mode in normal commerce. Although many topics are discussed in depth, this document focuses on the design aspects of a packaging. The Handbook, which is being prepared under the direction of the US Department of Energy, is intended to provide a wealth of technical guidance that will give designers a better understanding of the regulatory approval process, preferences of regulators in specific aspects of packaging design, and the types of analyses that should be seriously considered when developing the packaging design. Even though the Handbook is concerned with all packagings, most of the emphasis is placed on large packagings that are capable of transporting large radioactive sources that are also fissile (e.g., spent fuel). These are the types of packagings that must address the widest range of technical topics in order to meet domestic and international regulations. Most of the chapters in the Handbook have been drafted and submitted to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for editing; the majority of these have been edited. This report summarizes the contents.

  10. Anhydrous Ammonia Training Module. Trainer's Package. Participant's Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudin, Bart; And Others

    This document contains a trainer's and a participant's package for teaching employees on site safe handling procedures for working with anhydrous ammonia, especially on farms. The trainer's package includes the following: a description of the module; a competency; objectives; suggested instructional aids; a training outline (or lesson plan) for…

  11. Package Up Your Troubles--An Introduction to Package Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Colin

    1978-01-01

    Discusses a "package deal" library--a prefabricated building including interior furnishing--in terms of costs, fitness for purpose, and interior design, i.e., shelving, flooring, heating, lighting, and humidity. Advantages and disadvantages of the package library are also considered. (Author/MBR)

  12. Package Up Your Troubles--An Introduction to Package Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Colin

    1978-01-01

    Discusses a "package deal" library--a prefabricated building including interior furnishing--in terms of costs, fitness for purpose, and interior design, i.e., shelving, flooring, heating, lighting, and humidity. Advantages and disadvantages of the package library are also considered. (Author/MBR)

  13. COS-1 cells as packaging host for production of lentiviruses.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Crystal J; Shioda, Toshi

    2011-03-01

    We present a protocol for in vitro production of recombinant lentiviruses using COS-1 African green monkey kidney epithelial cells and HEK293T human embryonic kidney epithelial cells as packaging cells. COS-1 and HEK293T express SV40 large T antigen, amplifying transfected circular plasmids harboring SV40 replication origin. Support protocols for evaluation of transfection efficiency by in situ β-galactosidase enzyme activity assay and titer of infection-capable virions are also provided. Advantages of using COS-1 packaging cells over the standard HEK293T cells for contamination-sensitive applications or automated processing are discussed.

  14. [PTH assay: whole PTH assay (new IRMA assay)].

    PubMed

    Tanno, Yudo; Shigematsu, Takashi

    2003-03-01

    The common intact-PTH assay detects not only PTH (1-84) but also PTH (7-84) fragment. Recently, it is reported that PTH (7-84) fragment is the antagonist to PTH (1-84) biological action. Thus, conventional intact-PTH assay might mislead the overestimation of parathyroid function in uremic patients. Whole PTH assay, which detect only PTH (1-84) fragments may be useful for more precise evaluation of PTH activity in uremic patient.

  15. Membrane Fission Is Promoted by Insertion of Amphipathic Helices and Is Restricted by Crescent BAR Domains

    PubMed Central

    Boucrot, Emmanuel; Pick, Adi; Çamdere, Gamze; Liska, Nicole; Evergren, Emma; McMahon, Harvey T.; Kozlov, Michael M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Shallow hydrophobic insertions and crescent-shaped BAR scaffolds promote membrane curvature. Here, we investigate membrane fission by shallow hydrophobic insertions quantitatively and mechanistically. We provide evidence that membrane insertion of the ENTH domain of epsin leads to liposome vesiculation, and that epsin is required for clathrin-coated vesicle budding in cells. We also show that BAR-domain scaffolds from endophilin, amphiphysin, GRAF, and β2-centaurin limit membrane fission driven by hydrophobic insertions. A quantitative assay for vesiculation reveals an antagonistic relationship between amphipathic helices and scaffolds of N-BAR domains in fission. The extent of vesiculation by these proteins and vesicle size depend on the number and length of amphipathic helices per BAR domain, in accord with theoretical considerations. This fission mechanism gives a new framework for understanding membrane scission in the absence of mechanoenzymes such as dynamin and suggests how Arf and Sar proteins work in vesicle scission. PMID:22464325

  16. Tritium waste package

    DOEpatents

    Rossmassler, R.; Ciebiera, L.; Tulipano, F.J.; Vinson, S.; Walters, R.T.

    1995-11-07

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium oxide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within the outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen and oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB. 1 fig.

  17. Tritium waste package

    DOEpatents

    Rossmassler, Rich; Ciebiera, Lloyd; Tulipano, Francis J.; Vinson, Sylvester; Walters, R. Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium xide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen add oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB.

  18. Balloon gondola diagnostics package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantor, K. M.

    1986-01-01

    In order to define a new gondola structural specification and to quantify the balloon termination environment, NASA developed a balloon gondola diagnostics package (GDP). This addition to the balloon flight train is comprised of a large array of electronic sensors employed to define the forces and accelerations imposed on a gondola during the termination event. These sensors include the following: a load cell, a three-axis accelerometer, two three-axis rate gyros, two magnetometers, and a two axis inclinometer. A transceiver couple allows the data to be telemetered across any in-line rotator to the gondola-mounted memory system. The GDP is commanded 'ON' just prior to parachute deployment in order to record the entire event.

  19. The LISA Technology Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    The LISA Technology Package (LTP) is the payload of the European Space Agency's LISA Pathfinder mission. LISA Pathfinder was instigated to test, in a flight environment, the critical technologies required by LISA; namely, the inertial sensing subsystem and associated control laws and micro-Newton thrusters required to place a macroscopic test mass in pure free-fall. The UP is in the late stages of development -- all subsystems are currently either in the final stages of manufacture or in test. Available flight units are being integrated into the real-time testbeds for system verification tests. This poster will describe the UP and its subsystems, give the current status of the hardware and test campaign, and outline the future milestones leading to the UP delivery.

  20. Balloon gondola diagnostics package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantor, K. M.

    1986-10-01

    In order to define a new gondola structural specification and to quantify the balloon termination environment, NASA developed a balloon gondola diagnostics package (GDP). This addition to the balloon flight train is comprised of a large array of electronic sensors employed to define the forces and accelerations imposed on a gondola during the termination event. These sensors include the following: a load cell, a three-axis accelerometer, two three-axis rate gyros, two magnetometers, and a two axis inclinometer. A transceiver couple allows the data to be telemetered across any in-line rotator to the gondola-mounted memory system. The GDP is commanded 'ON' just prior to parachute deployment in order to record the entire event.

  1. Piecewise Cubic Interpolation Package

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsch, F. N.; LLNL,

    1982-04-23

    PCHIP (Piecewise Cubic Interpolation Package) is a set of subroutines for piecewise cubic Hermite interpolation of data. It features software to produce a monotone and "visually pleasing" interpolant to monotone data. Such an interpolant may be more reasonable than a cubic spline if the data contain both 'steep' and 'flat' sections. Interpolation of cumulative probability distribution functions is another application. In PCHIP, all piecewise cubic functions are represented in cubic Hermite form; that is, f(x) is determined by its values f(i) and derivatives d(i) at the breakpoints x(i), i=1(1)N. PCHIP contains three routines - PCHIM, PCHIC, and PCHSP to determine derivative values, six routines - CHFEV, PCHFE, CHFDV, PCHFD, PCHID, and PCHIA to evaluate, differentiate, or integrate the resulting cubic Hermite function, and one routine to check for monotonicity. A FORTRAN 77 version and SLATEC version of PCHIP are included.

  2. Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N; Smirnov, Alexandre

    2011-09-01

    The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by

  3. Romanian experience on packaging testing

    SciTech Connect

    Vieru, G.

    2007-07-01

    With more than twenty years ago, the Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti (INR), through its Reliability and Testing Laboratory, was licensed by the Romanian Nuclear Regulatory Body- CNCAN and to carry out qualification tests [1] for packages intended to be used for the transport and storage of radioactive materials. Radioactive materials, generated by Romanian nuclear facilities [2] are packaged in accordance with national [3] and the IAEA's Regulations [1,6] for a safe transport to the disposal center. Subjecting these packages to the normal and simulating test conditions accomplish the evaluation and certification in order to prove the package technical performances. The paper describes the qualification tests for type A and B packages used for transport and storage of radioactive materials, during a period of 20 years of experience. Testing is used to substantiate assumption in analytical models and to demonstrate package structural response. The Romanian test facilities [1,3,6] are used to simulate the required qualification tests and have been developed at INR Pitesti, the main supplier of type A packages used for transport and storage of low radioactive wastes in Romania. The testing programme will continue to be a strong option to support future package development, to perform a broad range of verification and certification tests on radioactive material packages or component sections, such as packages used for transport of radioactive sources to be used for industrial or medical purposes [2,8]. The paper describes and contain illustrations showing some of the various tests packages which have been performed during certain periods and how they relate to normal conditions and minor mishaps during transport. Quality assurance and quality controls measures taken in order to meet technical specification provided by the design there are also presented and commented. (authors)

  4. Electro-Microfluidic Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    BENAVIDES, GILBERT L.; GALAMBOS, PAUL C.

    2002-06-01

    Electro-microfluidics is experiencing explosive growth in new product developments. There are many commercial applications for electro-microfluidic devices such as chemical sensors, biological sensors, and drop ejectors for both printing and chemical analysis. The number of silicon surface micromachined electro-microfluidic products is likely to increase. Manufacturing efficiency and integration of microfluidics with electronics will become important. Surface micromachined microfluidic devices are manufactured with the same tools as IC's (integrated circuits) and their fabrication can be incorporated into the IC fabrication process. In order to realize applications for devices must be developed. An Electro-Microfluidic Dual In-line Package (EMDIP{trademark}) was developed surface micromachined electro-microfluidic devices, a practical method for getting fluid into these to be a standard solution that allows for both the electrical and the fluidic connections needed to operate a great variety of electro-microfluidic devices. The EMDIP{trademark} includes a fan-out manifold that, on one side, mates directly with the 200 micron diameter Bosch etched holes found on the device, and, on the other side, mates to lager 1 mm diameter holes. To minimize cost the EMDIP{trademark} can be injection molded in a great variety of thermoplastics which also serve to optimize fluid compatibility. The EMDIP{trademark} plugs directly into a fluidic printed wiring board using a standard dual in-line package pattern for the electrical connections and having a grid of multiple 1 mm diameter fluidic connections to mate to the underside of the EMDIP{trademark}.

  5. Chip packaging technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayaraj, Kumaraswamy (Inventor); Noll, Thomas E. (Inventor); Lockwood, Harry F. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A hermetically sealed package for at least one semiconductor chip is provided which is formed of a substrate having electrical interconnects thereon to which the semiconductor chips are selectively bonded, and a lid which preferably functions as a heat sink, with a hermetic seal being formed around the chips between the substrate and the heat sink. The substrate is either formed of or includes a layer of a thermoplastic material having low moisture permeability which material is preferably a liquid crystal polymer (LCP) and is a multiaxially oriented LCP material for preferred embodiments. Where the lid is a heat sink, the heat sink is formed of a material having high thermal conductivity and preferably a coefficient of thermal expansion which substantially matches that of the chip. A hermetic bond is formed between the side of each chip opposite that connected to the substrate and the heat sink. The thermal bond between the substrate and the lid/heat sink may be a pinched seal or may be provided, for example by an LCP frame which is hermetically bonded or sealed on one side to the substrate and on the other side to the lid/heat sink. The chips may operate in the RF or microwave bands with suitable interconnects on the substrate and the chips may also include optical components with optical fibers being sealed into the substrate and aligned with corresponding optical components to transmit light in at least one direction. A plurality of packages may be physically and electrically connected together in a stack to form a 3D array.

  6. Design and ergonomics of package inserts of drugs in Brazil: a reality in construction.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Charles Ricardo Leite; Soares, Marcelo Marcio

    2012-01-01

    This research deals with the design of leaflets of medicines, evidencing the problems resulting from the lack of Brazilian normalization to promote the use of the graphical representation of instructional texts warnings. It approaches studies related to the effectiveness and efficiency of information systems, highlighting the semiotics and the cultural and informational ergonomics. The analysis of the context uses as method, an analytical study on selected warnings of thirty leaflets of medicines, followed by interviews lead with the public managers involved with the regulation of the pharmaceutical companies, and two experiments with users performed in city of Recife, in State of Pernambuco: one aiming at to identify how they interact with the leaflets of medicines, and the second one testing their understanding concerning standardized illustrations in the United States and the South Africa. The results show the need for improvements in presentation and graphic representation of leaflets of medicines, powering them to the role of communication, to ensure the consumption of medicine safely by its users. The conclusion congregates parameters and recommendations for the graphic representation of warnings in leaflets of medicines in Brazil.

  7. 21 CFR 310.501 - Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... comparing the effectiveness of oral contraceptives to other methods of contraception. (4) A boxed warning... indications in addition to contraception that are identified in the professional labeling for the drug...

  8. 21 CFR 310.501 - Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... comparing the effectiveness of oral contraceptives to other methods of contraception. (4) A boxed warning... indications in addition to contraception that are identified in the professional labeling for the drug...

  9. 21 CFR 310.501 - Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... comparing the effectiveness of oral contraceptives to other methods of contraception. (4) A boxed warning... indications in addition to contraception that are identified in the professional labeling for the drug...

  10. 21 CFR 310.501 - Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... comparing the effectiveness of oral contraceptives to other methods of contraception. (4) A boxed warning... indications in addition to contraception that are identified in the professional labeling for the drug...

  11. 21 CFR 310.501 - Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... comparing the effectiveness of oral contraceptives to other methods of contraception. (4) A boxed warning... indications in addition to contraception that are identified in the professional labeling for the drug...

  12. Assessing the stability of common radiopharmaceuticals compounded and utilized outside package insert guidelines.

    PubMed

    Weatherman, Kara D; Augustine, Samuel; Christoff, Jeffrey; Galbraith, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of radiopharmaceuticals compounded using activities and expiration times in excess of manufacturers' recommendations. Proof of the compounded sterile preparation quality when compounding outside of manufacturers' recommendations has become a key component of maintaining compliance with the guidelines set forth in United States Pharmacopeia General Chapter <797> Pharmaceutical Compounding-Sterile Preparations, originally released in 2008. Seven commercial nuclear pharmacies compounded various radiopharmaceuticals for patient use as part of daily pharmacy protocol. Samples of radiopharmaceuticals were tested using instant thin- layer chromatography testing to determine the radiochemical purity of the final compounded sterile preparation at t = 0, t = 6, t = 12, and t = 24 hours post compounding. Data submitted was summarized and divided into activity ranges allowing for calculation of average radiochemical purity for various activity levels at each of the four time points. Data was presented in graph form showing the average radiochemical purity values versus time with inclusion of error bars to indicate standard deviation data. The stability of each kit at different activity levels and at different time points post compounding showed that many of the radiopharmaceutical kits prepared today may have an unacceptable decrease in radiochemical purity at higher activity levels and at extended times post compounding. The data submitted provides a general guideline for the stability of radiopharmaceuticals compounded outside of manufacturer guidelines and can be used as a tool to support the practices that are being carried out at individual institutions. However, this data should be used in conjunction with in-house data review to assure that the preparations being compounded and dispensed are of the highest quality for administration to the patient.

  13. Solar water heater design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Package describes commercial domestic-hot-water heater with roof or rack mounted solar collectors. System is adjustable to pre-existing gas or electric hot-water house units. Design package includes drawings, description of automatic control logic, evaluation measurements, possible design variations, list of materials and installation tools, and trouble-shooting guide and manual.

  14. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  15. Floriculture. Selected Learning Activity Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This series of learning activity packages is based on a catalog of performance objectives, criterion-referenced measures, and performance guides for gardening/groundskeeping developed by the Vocational Education Consortium of States (V-TECS). Learning activity packages are presented in four areas: (1) preparation of soils and planting media, (2)…

  16. Packaging perspective, 1910-1985

    Treesearch

    John W. Koning; James F. Laundrie

    1985-01-01

    For 75 years the Forest Products Laboratory has been concerned for the wise use of wood. One of the major uses of wood is packaging. This report summarizes the research reports completed in packaging and relates the output in terms of forest management and return on the taxpayer’s investment.

  17. Microelectronics/electronic packaging potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandeau, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    The trend toward smaller and lighter electronic packages was examined. It is suggested that electronic packaging engineers and microelectronic designers closely associate and give full attention to optimization of both disciplines on all product lines. Extensive research and development work underway to explore innovative ideas and make new inroads into the technology base, is expected to satisfy the demands of the 1980's.

  18. Status of PERST-5 package

    SciTech Connect

    Gomin, E. A.; Gurevich, M. I.; Kalugin, M. A.; Lazarenko, A. P.; Pryanichnikov, A. V. Sidorenko, V. D.; Druzhinin, V. E.; Zhirnov, A. P.; Rozhdestvenskiy, I. M.

    2012-12-15

    The methods and algorithms used in the PERST-5 package are described. This package is part of the MCU-5 code and is intended for neutron-physical calculation of the cells and parts of nuclear reactors using a generalized method of first collision probabilities.

  19. Chemical Energy: A Learning Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Ita; Ben-Zvi, Ruth

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive teaching/learning chemical energy package was developed to overcome conceptual/experimental difficulties and time required for calculation of enthalpy changes. The package consists of five types of activities occuring in repeated cycles: group activities, laboratory experiments, inquiry questionnaires, teacher-led class…

  20. Solar water heater design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Package describes commercial domestic-hot-water heater with roof or rack mounted solar collectors. System is adjustable to pre-existing gas or electric hot-water house units. Design package includes drawings, description of automatic control logic, evaluation measurements, possible design variations, list of materials and installation tools, and trouble-shooting guide and manual.

  1. Individualized Learning Package about Etching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauer, Michael J.

    An individualized learning package provides step-by-step instruction in the fundamentals of the etching process. Thirteen specific behavioral objectives are listed. A pretest, consisting of matching 15 etching terms with their definitions, is provided along with an answer key. The remainder of the learning package teaches the 13 steps of the…

  2. Chemical Energy: A Learning Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Ita; Ben-Zvi, Ruth

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive teaching/learning chemical energy package was developed to overcome conceptual/experimental difficulties and time required for calculation of enthalpy changes. The package consists of five types of activities occuring in repeated cycles: group activities, laboratory experiments, inquiry questionnaires, teacher-led class…

  3. The Macro - TIPS Course Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (Scotland). Esmee Fairbairn Economics Research Centre.

    The TIPS (Teaching Information Processing System) Course Package was designed to be used with the Macro-Games Course Package (SO 011 930) in order to train college students to apply the tools of economic analysis to current problems. TIPS is used to provide feedback and individualized assignments to students, as well as information about the…

  4. Negotiating a fair compensation package.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Thomas L

    2005-01-01

    At the end of the day, compensation packages must be fair for both you and your employer. Employers should conduct an economic analysis to determine what they can afford to offer and calculate the economic return that they should rightfully receive. Understanding the employer's side of the equation is equally important in developing a win/win compensation package for yourself.

  5. IUD insertion immediately after incomplete abortion.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, A; Goldberg, R; Eyzaguirre, H; Lizana, L

    1972-04-01

    All women who were admitted to the Felix Bulnes Hospital, Santiaog, Chile, for incomplete abortion between July 1968 and June 1969 were given instruction in family planning and contraceptive services. A total of 584 women chose to have an IUD insertion. Although all the women thought they had received an IUD, 1 group had a Lippes loop D inserted immediately after curettage and the other group had no insertion. The attending doctor had no prior knowledge as to which women were to receive the device nor did the doctor at the follow-up know until after the physical exam had taken place. 30 days after discharge from the hospital, the women returned from check-up and follow-up. At this time the women who had not received an IUD were given an insertion. Differences between the group with insertion and the one without were significant only for the interval between curettage and first menses and for the quantity of flow in relation to previous menstruation. The difference between the 2 groups for duration of menstrual flow was of borderline significance at the .05 significance level. It is concluded from the study that in the absence of psychologi cal bias of the patient to the IUD insertion, and possibly bias in its use by the doctor, there are no serious complications in the first month following immediate postabortal IUD insertion even where the abortion was a septic incomplete one.

  6. Insertion sequence elements in Lactococcus garvieae.

    PubMed

    Eraclio, Giovanni; Ricci, Giovanni; Fortina, Maria Grazia

    2015-01-25

    Insertion sequences are the simplest intracellular Mobile Genetic Elements which can occur in very high numbers in prokaryotic genomes, where they play an important evolutionary role by promoting genome plasticity. As such, the studies on the diversity and distribution of insertion sequences in genomes not yet investigated can contribute to improve the knowledge on a bacterial species and to identify new transposable elements. The present work describes the occurrence of insertion sequences in Lactococcus garvieae, an opportunistic emerging zoonotic and human pathogen, also associated with different food matrices. To date, no insertion elements have been described for L. garvieae in the IS element database. The analysis of the twelve published L. garvieae genomes identified 15 distinct insertion sequences that are members of the IS3, IS982, IS6, IS21 and IS256 families, including five new elements. Most of the insertion sequences in L. garvieae show substantial homology to the Lactococcus lactis elements, suggesting the movement of IS between these two species phylogenetically closely related. ISLL6 elements belonging to IS3 family were most abundant, with several copies distributed in 9 of the 12 genomes analyzed. An alignment analysis of two complete genomes carrying multi-copies of this insertion sequence indicates a possible involvement of ISLL6 in chromosomal rearrangement.

  7. 19 CFR 191.13 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging materials. 191.13 Section 191.13 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.13 Packaging materials. (a) Imported packaging material... packaging material when used to package or repackage merchandise or articles exported or destroyed...

  8. 19 CFR 191.13 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Packaging materials. 191.13 Section 191.13 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.13 Packaging materials. (a) Imported packaging material... packaging material when used to package or repackage merchandise or articles exported or destroyed...

  9. Assessment of heat generation during implant insertion.

    PubMed

    Sumer, Mahmut; Keskiner, Ilker; Mercan, Ugur; Misir, Ferhat; Cankaya, Soner

    2014-09-01

    Many studies have investigated the heat generated during implant preparation, but data are needed to better predict heat generation during implant insertion. The purpose of this study was to measure the heat generated during insertion of an implant at speeds of 30, 50, and 100 rpm, and with manual insertion. Sixty-four uniform fresh bovine femoral cortical bone specimens were used. After the cortical bone was drilled, 3 different implant insertion speeds and the manual insertion of the implant were evaluated for 2 different implant diameters. The temperature was measured with 2 Teflon-insulated, type K thermocouples. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA, and the Tukey honestly significant difference test (α=.05). The highest thermal change for 4.1-mm-diameter implants was found at a speed of 100 rpm (9.81°C ±2.29°C), and the lowest thermal change was 3.69°C ±0.85°C at a speed of 30 rpm. A statistically significant difference was found between 100 rpm and the other 3 insertion procedures. The highest thermal change for a 4.8-mm-diameter implant was found at a speed of 100 rpm (8.79°C ±1.53°C), and the lowest thermal change was 4.48°C ±0.85°C at a speed of 30 rpm. No statistical difference was observed with manual, 30 rpm, and 50 rpm; however, a statistically significant difference was found between 100 rpm and the other 3 insertion procedures. Manual implant insertion and at speeds of 30 rpm and 50 rpm generated lower heat compared with insertion at 100 rpm. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nanocomposite Sensors for Food Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avella, Maurizio; Errico, Maria Emanuela; Gentile, Gennaro; Volpe, Maria Grazia

    Nowadays nanotechnologies applied to the food packaging sector find always more applications due to a wide range of benefits that they can offer, such as improved barrier properties, improved mechanical performance, antimicrobial properties and so on. Recently many researches are addressed to the set up of new food packaging materials, in which polymer nanocomposites incorporate nanosensors, developing the so-called "smart" packaging. Some examples of nanocomposite sensors specifically realised for the food packaging industry are reported. The second part of this work deals with the preparation and characterisation of two new polymer-based nanocomposite systems that can be used as food packaging materials. Particularly the results concerning the following systems are illustrated: isotactic polypropylene (iPP) filled with CaCO3 nanoparticles and polycaprolactone (PCL) filled with SiO2 nanoparticles.

  11. Sequential cooling insert for turbine stator vane

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Russell B; Krueger, Judson J; Plank, William L

    2014-04-01

    A sequential impingement cooling insert for a turbine stator vane that forms a double impingement for the pressure and suction sides of the vane or a triple impingement. The insert is formed from a sheet metal formed in a zigzag shape that forms a series of alternating impingement cooling channels with return air channels, where pressure side and suction side impingement cooling plates are secured over the zigzag shaped main piece. Another embodiment includes the insert formed from one or two blocks of material in which the impingement channels and return air channels are machined into each block.

  12. Sequential cooling insert for turbine stator vane

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Russel B; Krueger, Judson J; Plank, William L

    2014-11-04

    A sequential impingement cooling insert for a turbine stator vane that forms a double impingement for the pressure and suction sides of the vane or a triple impingement. The insert is formed from a sheet metal formed in a zigzag shape that forms a series of alternating impingement cooling channels with return air channels, where pressure side and suction side impingement cooling plates are secured over the zigzag shaped main piece. Another embodiment includes the insert formed from one or two blocks of material in which the impingement channels and return air channels are machined into each block.

  13. Elliptically polarizing adjustable phase insertion device

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Roger

    1995-01-01

    An insertion device for extracting polarized electromagnetic energy from a beam of particles is disclosed. The insertion device includes four linear arrays of magnets which are aligned with the particle beam. The magnetic field strength to which the particles are subjected is adjusted by altering the relative alignment of the arrays in a direction parallel to that of the particle beam. Both the energy and polarization of the extracted energy may be varied by moving the relevant arrays parallel to the beam direction. The present invention requires a substantially simpler and more economical superstructure than insertion devices in which the magnetic field strength is altered by changing the gap between arrays of magnets.

  14. Arthroscopic classification of posterior labrum glenoid insertion.

    PubMed

    Nourissat, G; Radier, C; Aim, F; Lacoste, S

    2014-04-01

    We performed a prospective arthroscopic study to explore the variability of the posterior labrum glenoid insertion. We aimed to classify the insertions and to explore whether these insertions can be identified by pre-operative arthro-CT scan. From January to December 2011, 86 patients were prospectively included in the current study. During arthroscopy, anterior labrum was evaluated and posterior labrum was assessed in 3 different locations: superior, medial, and inferior. For each segment, the labrum was considered normally inserted (directly to the glenoid cartilage), medialized (inserted at the posterior part of the glenoid bone, without direct contact with the cartilage), torn (macroscopic degenerative changes, tears, fragments) or absent (agenesis). Imaging was analyzed segment by segment by an experienced osteoarticular radiologist, using the same classification. Four types of posterior labrum insertions were identified. Type 1, 60% of the cases, corresponded to a posterior labrum totally inserted in the glenoid, with direct contact with the cartilage. Type 2, 20% of the cases, represented medialized insertion of the superior segment. Type 3, 15% of the cases, represented an associated medialization of the superior and medial segment of the posterior labrum. Type 4 is a medialized insertion of the all-posterior labrum. Fifty-six shoulders were used for arthro-CT and arthroscopy correlation: for the superior segment (n=22/56), the sensitivity of arthro-CT to identify an abnormal insertion when the labrum is medialized was 68.18%, specificity 70.59%, positive predictive value (PPV) 60%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 77.42%. For the medial segment (n=16/56), the sensitivity of arthro-CT to identify an abnormal insertion when the labrum is medialized was 81.25%, specificity 57.50%, PPV 43.33% and NPV 88.46%. For the inferior segment (n=5/56), the sensitivity was 100%, specificity 47.60%, PPV 15.63% and NPV 100%. The current study points out the high

  15. Insertion Profiles of 4 Headless Compression Screws

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Adam; Harvey, Edward J.; Lefebvre, Louis-Philippe; Barthelat, Francois; Rabiei, Reza; Martineau, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In practice, the surgeon must rely on screw position (insertion depth) and tactile feedback from the screwdriver (insertion torque) to gauge compression. In this study, we identified the relationship between interfragmentary compression and these 2 factors. Methods The Acutrak Standard, Acutrak Mini, Synthes 3.0, and Herbert-Whipple implants were tested using a polyurethane foam scaphoid model. A specialized testing jig simultaneously measured compression force, insertion torque, and insertion depth at half-screw-turn intervals until failure occurred. Results The peak compression occurs at an insertion depth of −3.1 mm, −2.8 mm, 0.9 mm, and 1.5 mm for the Acutrak Mini, Acutrak Standard, Herbert-Whipple, and Synthes screws respectively (insertion depth is positive when the screw is proud above the bone and negative when buried). The compression and insertion torque at a depth of −2 mm were found to be 113 ± 18 N and 0.348 ± 0.052 Nm for the Acutrak Standard, 104 ± 15 N and 0.175 ± 0.008 Nm for the Acutrak Mini, 78 ± 9 N and 0.245 ± 0.006 Nm for the Herbert-Whipple, and 67 ± 2N, 0.233 ± 0.010 Nm for the Synthes headless compression screws. Conclusions All 4 screws generated a sizable amount of compression (> 60 N) over a wide range of insertion depths. The compression at the commonly recommended insertion depth of −2 mm was not significantly different between screws; thus, implant selection should not be based on compression profile alone. Conically shaped screws (Acutrak) generated their peak compression when they were fully buried in the foam whereas the shanked screws (Synthes and Herbert-Whipple) reached peak compression before they were fully inserted. Because insertion torque correlated poorly with compression, surgeons should avoid using tactile judgment of torque as a proxy for compression. Clinical relevance Knowledge of the insertion profile may improve our understanding of the implants, provide a better basis for comparing screws

  16. Response of antioxidant activity and sensory quality in fresh-cut pear as affected by high O(2) active packaging in comparison with low O(2) packaging.

    PubMed

    Li, W L; Li, X H; Fan, X; Tang, Y; Yun, J

    2012-06-01

    Effects of active modified atmosphere packaging (initial O(2)/CO(2): 5/5; 30/5; and 80/0) and passive packaging [initial O(2)/CO(2): 20.8/0 (air)] on the antioxidant capacity and sensory quality of fresh-cut 'Yaoshan' pear stored at 4 °C for 12 days were investigated. Samples stored in high O(2) (30% and 80%) packages had higher phenolics and anthocyanin contents compared with those in passive and low O(2) packages. After 12 days of storage, phenolics and anthocyanin contents of 80% O(2) samples were 2.5 and 12 times, respectively, higher than those in the passive package and 3 and 2 times higher than those in low O(2) package. High O(2) modified atmosphere packaging was effective in keeping free radical scavenging capacity as measured by the DPPH assay. The sensory evaluation indicated that surface color of cut fruits were stable for at least 12 days in the high O(2) modified atmosphere packaging. The results suggested that high O(2) modified atmosphere packaging could be used to inhibit browning and prolong the shelf life of fresh-cut 'Yaoshan' pears in spite of more than 50% loss in vitamin C content.

  17. CDIAC catalog of numeric data packages and computer model packages

    SciTech Connect

    Boden, T.A.; O`Hara, F.M. Jr.; Stoss, F.W.

    1993-05-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center acquires, quality-assures, and distributes to the scientific community numeric data packages (NDPs) and computer model packages (CMPs) dealing with topics related to atmospheric trace-gas concentrations and global climate change. These packages include data on historic and present atmospheric CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} concentrations, historic and present oceanic CO{sub 2} concentrations, historic weather and climate around the world, sea-level rise, storm occurrences, volcanic dust in the atmosphere, sources of atmospheric CO{sub 2}, plants` response to elevated CO{sub 2} levels, sunspot occurrences, and many other indicators of, contributors to, or components of climate change. This catalog describes the packages presently offered by CDIAC, reviews the processes used by CDIAC to assure the quality of the data contained in these packages, notes the media on which each package is available, describes the documentation that accompanies each package, and provides ordering information. Numeric data are available in the printed NDPs and CMPs, in CD-ROM format, and from an anonymous FTP area via Internet. All CDIAC information products are available at no cost.

  18. Humidity data for 9975 shipping packages with cane fiberboard

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W. L.

    2016-05-01

    The 9975 surveillance program is developing a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in K-Area Complex beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis. Direct measurements of humidity and fiberboard moisture content have been made on two test packages with cane fiberboard and varying internal heat levels from 0 up to 19W. With an internal heat load, a temperature gradient in the fiberboard assembly leads to varying relative humidity in the air around the fiberboard. However, the absolute humidity tends to remain approximately constant throughout the package. The moisture content of fiberboard varies under the influence of several phenomena. Changes in local fiberboard temperature (from an internal heat load) can cause fiberboard moisture changes through absorption or evaporation. Fiberboard degradation at elevated temperature will produce water as a byproduct. And the moisture level within the package is constantly seeking equilibrium with that of the surrounding room air, which varies on a daily and seasonal basis. One indicator of the moisture condition within a 9975 package might be obtained by measuring the relative humidity in the upper air space, by inserting a humidity probe through a caplug hole. However, the data indicate that for the higher internal heat loads (15 and 19 watts), a large variation in internal moisture conditions produces little or no variation in the air space relative humidity. Therefore, this approach does not appear to be sensitive to fiberboard moisture variations at the higher heat loads which are of most interest to maintaining fiberboard integrity.

  19. Readability of medicinal package leaflets: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pires, Carla; Vigário, Marina; Cavaco, Afonso

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review studies on the readability of package leaflets of medicinal products for human use. METHODS We conducted a systematic literature review between 2008 and 2013 using the keywords "Readability and Package Leaflet" and "Readability and Package Insert" in the academic search engine Biblioteca do Conhecimento Online, comprising different bibliographic resources/databases. The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses criteria were applied to prepare the draft of the report. Quantitative and qualitative original studies were included. Opinion or review studies not written in English, Portuguese, Italian, French, or Spanish were excluded. RESULTS We identified 202 studies, of which 180 were excluded and 22 were enrolled [two enrolling healthcare professionals, 10 enrolling other type of participants (including patients), three focused on adverse reactions, and 7 descriptive studies]. The package leaflets presented various readability problems, such as complex and difficult to understand texts, small font size, or few illustrations. The main methods to assess the readability of the package leaflet were usability tests or legibility formulae. Limitations with these methods included reduced number of participants; lack of readability formulas specifically validated for specific languages (e.g., Portuguese); and absence of an assessment on patients literacy, health knowledge, cognitive skills, levels of satisfaction, and opinions. CONCLUSIONS Overall, the package leaflets presented various readability problems. In this review, some methodological limitations were identified, including the participation of a limited number of patients and healthcare professionals, the absence of prior assessments of participant literacy, humor or sense of satisfaction, or the predominance of studies not based on role-plays about the use of medicines. These limitations should be avoided in future studies and be considered when interpreting the results.

  20. Device-packaging method and apparatus for optoelectronic circuits

    DOEpatents

    Zortman, William A.; Henry, Michael David; Jarecki, Jr., Robert L.

    2017-04-25

    An optoelectronic device package and a method for its fabrication are provided. The device package includes a lid die and an active die that is sealed or sealable to the lid die and in which one or more optical waveguides are integrally defined. The active die includes one or more active device regions, i.e. integral optoelectronic devices or etched cavities for placement of discrete optoelectronic devices. Optical waveguides terminate at active device regions so that they can be coupled to them. Slots are defined in peripheral parts of the active dies. At least some of the slots are aligned with the ends of integral optical waveguides so that optical fibers or optoelectronic devices inserted in the slots can optically couple to the waveguides.

  1. MuLV packaging systems as models for estimating/measuring retrovirus recombination frequency.

    PubMed

    Patience, C; Takeuch, Y; Cosset, F L; Weiss, R A

    2001-01-01

    Interaction of retrovirus vectors and endogenous retroviruses present in packaging cell lines and target cells may result in the formation of recombinant viruses. Using sensitive RT-PCR assays, we have investigated human and murine gene therapy packaging cell lines for the incorporation of endogenous retrovirus transcripts into murine leukaemia virus (MLV) vector particles and whether vector genomes are incorporated into human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) particles. VL30 endogenous retrovirus sequences were packaged in particles produced by the murine AM12 packaging system. For every seven MLV-derived -galactosidase beta-Gal vector genomes present in the particles, one copy of VL30 was also packaged. Although human FLY packaging cells expressed HERV transcripts (HERV-K, HuRT, type C, and RTVL-H), none was detectable in the MLV vector particles released from the cells. Non-specific packaging of the MLV gag-pol expression vector transcripts was detected in the FLY virions at a low level (one in 17,000 sequences). In other experiments, gag proteins produced by HERV-K particles present in human teratocarcinoma cells did not appear to package MLV-based vectors that expressed Gal transcripts. These findings indicate that retrovirus vectors interact with human packaging cells to produce retrovirus particles that are far less contaminated by endogenous viral sequences or other types of extraneous particles than murine packaging cells.

  2. Remote handling in the Plutonium Immobilization Project: Puck packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1999-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) will immobilize excess plutonium in the proposed Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP). The PIP scope includes unloading transportation containers, preparing the feed streams, converting the metal feed to an oxide, adding the ceramic precursors, pressing the pucks, inspecting pucks, and sintering pucks. The PIP scope also includes loading the pucks into metal cans, sealing the cans, inspecting the cans, loading the cans into magazines, loading magazines into Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters, and transporting the canisters to the DWPF. The DWPF will fill the canister with a mixture of high-level waste and glass for permanent storage. Because of the radiation, remote equipment will perform PIP operations in a contained environment. The PIP puck packaging includes loading pucks into metal cans, sealing the cans, and inspecting the cans. A magnetically coupled elevator will lower a tray of pucks onto a magnetically coupled transport cart. This cart will carry the tray through an air lock into the can-loading glove box. Inside the glove box, a magnetically coupled tray lifter will raise the tray off the cart. A three-axis Cartesian robot will use a vacuum cup on a long pipe to lift the 67.3-mm (2.65-in.)-diam, 25.4-mm (1.0-in.)-tall pucks from the transfer tray and place 20 pucks in a 76.2-mm (3.0-in.)-diam stainless steel can. The Cartesian robot will place a custom hood on the open metal can, and this hood will remove the air from the can, insert helium, and place a hollow plug in the can. The SRS-developed bagless transfer system will weld the plug to the can wall and cut the can in the weld area. The can stub and the upper plug half above the cut line will remain in the sphincter seal to maintain the glove-box seal. The puck can and the lower plug half below the cut line is lowered into the bagless transfer enclosure. A floor-mounted robot in this enclosure will swipe the can exterior for contamination and place the

  3. Insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece and method

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Daniel O.

    2000-01-01

    A fluid flow passage bridgepiece for insertion into an open-face fluid flow channel of a fluid flow plate is provided. The bridgepiece provides a sealed passage from a columnar fluid flow manifold to the flow channel, thereby preventing undesirable leakage into and out of the columnar fluid flow manifold. When deployed in the various fluid flow plates that are used in a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, bridgepieces of this invention prevent mixing of reactant gases, leakage of coolant or humidification water, and occlusion of the fluid flow channel by gasket material. The invention also provides a fluid flow plate assembly including an insertable bridgepiece, a fluid flow plate adapted for use with an insertable bridgepiece, and a method of manufacturing a fluid flow plate with an insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece.

  4. Utility Bill Insert for Wastewater Services

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Intended for use by wastewater and water supply utilities, one side of the utility bill insert has information for customers that discharge to sanitary sewer systems; the other side is for customers with septic systems.

  5. Bulkhead insert for an internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Maki, Clifford E.; Chottiner, Jeffrey Eliot; Williams, Rick L.; Thibault, Mark W.; Ervin, James Douglas; Boileau, James Maurice; McKeough, Bryan

    2017-08-01

    An engine includes a cylinder block defining at least one main bearing bulkhead adjacent to a cylinder, and a crankshaft rotatably housed within the block by a main bearing. A bulkhead insert has a cap portion, and an insert portion provided within the bulkhead. The insert portion has having first and second end regions connected by first and second straps. Each strap having a flanged beam cross section. The first and second ends of the insert portion are configured to connect a main bearing cap column to a cylinder head column. Each of the first and second end regions define at least one protrusion having a surface substantially normal to engine combustion and reactive loads. The cap portion is configured to mate with the first end region at the main bearing cap column and support the main bearing.

  6. Clinical applicability of insert earphones for audiometry.

    PubMed

    Borton, T E; Nolen, B L; Luks, S B; Meline, N C

    1989-01-01

    Insert transducers for audiometry are available which may offer significant advantages over older 'standard' headphones. Clinicians have remained cautious in using such devices due to the paucity of experimental data demonstrating their comparability with more widely used devices. The purpose of this investigation was to compare and contrast pure-tone audiometric thresholds obtained using insert earphones with those measured utilizing conventional supra-aural transducers in normal and hearing-impaired subjects. A second purpose was to examine the differential effects on the hearing threshold level of two coupling systems for the insert device. There were no clinically significant differences among pure-tone thresholds measured with the three earphone/coupler arrangements for subjects with normal and impaired hearing. Advantages and limitations of insert earphones are discussed.

  7. Method of forming a package for mems-based fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Jankowski, Alan F.

    2004-11-23

    A MEMS-based fuel cell package and method thereof is disclosed. The fuel cell package comprises seven layers: (1) a sub-package fuel reservoir interface layer, (2) an anode manifold support layer, (3) a fuel/anode manifold and resistive heater layer, (4) a Thick Film Microporous Flow Host Structure layer containing a fuel cell, (5) an air manifold layer, (6) a cathode manifold support structure layer, and (7) a cap. Fuel cell packages with more than one fuel cell are formed by positioning stacks of these layers in series and/or parallel. The fuel cell package materials such as a molded plastic or a ceramic green tape material can be patterned, aligned and stacked to form three dimensional microfluidic channels that provide electrical feedthroughs from various layers which are bonded together and mechanically support a MEMOS-based miniature fuel cell. The package incorporates resistive heating elements to control the temperature of the fuel cell stack. The package is fired to form a bond between the layers and one or more microporous flow host structures containing fuel cells are inserted within the Thick Film Microporous Flow Host Structure layer of the package.

  8. Method of forming a package for MEMS-based fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Morse, Jeffrey D; Jankowski, Alan F

    2013-05-21

    A MEMS-based fuel cell package and method thereof is disclosed. The fuel cell package comprises seven layers: (1) a sub-package fuel reservoir interface layer, (2) an anode manifold support layer, (3) a fuel/anode manifold and resistive heater layer, (4) a Thick Film Microporous Flow Host Structure layer containing a fuel cell, (5) an air manifold layer, (6) a cathode manifold support structure layer, and (7) a cap. Fuel cell packages with more than one fuel cell are formed by positioning stacks of these layers in series and/or parallel. The fuel cell package materials such as a molded plastic or a ceramic green tape material can be patterned, aligned and stacked to form three dimensional microfluidic channels that provide electrical feedthroughs from various layers which are bonded together and mechanically support a MEMS-based miniature fuel cell. The package incorporates resistive heating elements to control the temperature of the fuel cell stack. The package is fired to form a bond between the layers and one or more microporous flow host structures containing fuel cells are inserted within the Thick Film Microporous Flow Host Structure layer of the package.

  9. 40 CFR 157.27 - Unit packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Child-Resistant Packaging § 157.27 Unit packaging. Pesticide products... for risk reduction....

  10. 40 CFR 157.27 - Unit packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Child-Resistant Packaging § 157.27 Unit packaging. Pesticide products... for risk reduction....

  11. 40 CFR 157.27 - Unit packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Child-Resistant Packaging § 157.27 Unit packaging. Pesticide products... for risk reduction....

  12. 40 CFR 157.27 - Unit packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Child-Resistant Packaging § 157.27 Unit packaging. Pesticide products... for risk reduction....

  13. 49 CFR 178.602 - Preparation of packagings and packages for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... testing at periodic intervals only (i.e., other than initial design qualification testing), at ambient... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Preparation of packagings and packages for testing...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Testing of Non-bulk Packagings and Packages § 178.602 Preparation of packagings...

  14. Apparatus and Method for Packaging and Integrating Microphotonic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An apparatus is disclosed that includes a carrier structure and an optical coupling arrangement. The carrier structure is made of a silicon material and allows for the packaging and integrating of microphotonic devices onto a single chip. The optical coupling mechanism enables laser light to be coupled into and out of a microphotonic resonant disk integrated on the carrier. The carrier provides first, second and third cavities that are dimensioned so as to accommodate the insertion and snug fitting of the microphotonic resonant disk and first and second prisms that are implemented by the optical coupling arrangement to accommodate the laser coupling.

  15. The effects of insertion method and force on hand clearance envelopes for rubber hose insertion tasks.

    PubMed

    Grieshaber, D Christian; Armstrong, Thomas J; Chaffin, Don B; Keyserling, W Monroe; Ashton-Miller, James

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how hand space for manual insertion of flexible hoses is affected by insertion method and force. Adequate space is needed during assembly tasks in which workers join parts together with their hands. Hose installations are an example of such a task. Hand clearance envelopes for insertion tasks that involve cylindrical objects, such as a hose, are currently unavailable in the literature. Participants inserted a flexible 25-mm rubber hose onto a stationary flange using simulated methods similar to those observed in field studies of automotive assembly tasks. Markers placed on the back of the hand and wrists were used to measure postures during the insertion task. Hand clearance envelopes for high-force insertions were significantly larger across methods by an average of 15% for both male (p < .05) and female (p < .01) participants. Rocking insertions resulted in the largest hand clearance envelopes compared with other insertion methods. Rocking and twisting the hose resulted in mean increases in the cross-sectional area of the hand clearance envelopes of 35% and 24%, respectively, compared with the straight push. Differences were significant (p < .05) for male and female participants for both bead height conditions. Both required insertion force and method affect hand clearance envelopes during simulated insertions. These methods can be used by engineers to determine if there is adequate clearance for the hand to grip selected objects.

  16. Shrink-Fit Solderable Inserts Seal Hermetically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croucher, William C.

    1992-01-01

    Shrink-fit stainless-steel insert in aluminum equipment housing allows electrical connectors to be replaced by soldering, without degrading hermeticity of housing or connector. Welding could destroy electrostatic-sensitive components and harm housing and internal cables. Steel insert avoids problems because connector soldered directly to it rather than welded to housing. Seals between flange and housing, and between connector and flange resistant to leaks, even after mechanical overloading and thermal shocking.

  17. Efficient instruction sequencing with Inline Target Insertion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Wen-Mei W.; Chang, Pohua P.

    1992-01-01

    Inline target insertion, a specific compiler and pipeline implementation method for delayed branches with squashing, is defined. The method is shown to offer two important features not discovered in previous studies. First, branches inserted into branch slots are correctly executed. Second, the execution returns correctly from interrupts or exceptions with only one program counter. These two features result in better performance and less software/hardware complexity than conventional delayed branching mechanisms.

  18. Small Unit Space Transport and Insertion (SUSTAIN)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Small Unit Space Transport and Insertion ( SUSTAIN ) Study prepared for: LTC Paul E. Damphousse, USMC National Security Space Office Chief of...failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 2009 2. REPORT TYPE N/A...3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Small Unit Space Transport and Insertion ( SUSTAIN ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  19. Insert earphones for speech recognition testing.

    PubMed

    Martin, F N; Severance, G K; Thibodeau, L

    1991-01-01

    Performance-intensity functions for PB word lists were run on 19 normal-hearing subjects and 15 subjects with sensorineural hearing losses. Comparisons were made between standard supra-aural earphones (TDH-49P) and insert phones (ER-3A). Results showed that, at least for the higher sensation levels where word recognition tests are usually performed, the phones may be used interchangeably. Using insert earphones for word recognition tests can have several beneficial effects with respect to cross hearing and masking.

  20. Shrink-Fit Solderable Inserts Seal Hermetically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croucher, William C.

    1992-01-01

    Shrink-fit stainless-steel insert in aluminum equipment housing allows electrical connectors to be replaced by soldering, without degrading hermeticity of housing or connector. Welding could destroy electrostatic-sensitive components and harm housing and internal cables. Steel insert avoids problems because connector soldered directly to it rather than welded to housing. Seals between flange and housing, and between connector and flange resistant to leaks, even after mechanical overloading and thermal shocking.

  1. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    E. Thomas

    2004-11-09

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste package has been

  2. Optimal segmentation and packaging process

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Meservey, R.H.; Landon, M.D.

    1999-08-10

    A process for improving packaging efficiency uses three dimensional, computer simulated models with various optimization algorithms to determine the optimal segmentation process and packaging configurations based on constraints including container limitations. The present invention is applied to a process for decontaminating, decommissioning (D and D), and remediating a nuclear facility involving the segmentation and packaging of contaminated items in waste containers in order to minimize the number of cuts, maximize packaging density, and reduce worker radiation exposure. A three-dimensional, computer simulated, facility model of the contaminated items are created. The contaminated items are differentiated. The optimal location, orientation and sequence of the segmentation and packaging of the contaminated items is determined using the simulated model, the algorithms, and various constraints including container limitations. The cut locations and orientations are transposed to the simulated model. The contaminated items are actually segmented and packaged. The segmentation and packaging may be simulated beforehand. In addition, the contaminated items may be cataloged and recorded. 3 figs.

  3. Laser Welding in Electronic Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The laser has proven its worth in numerous high reliability electronic packaging applications ranging from medical to missile electronics. In particular, the pulsed YAG laser is an extremely flexible and versatile too] capable of hermetically sealing microelectronics packages containing sensitive components without damaging them. This paper presents an overview of details that must be considered for successful use of laser welding when addressing electronic package sealing. These include; metallurgical considerations such as alloy and plating selection, weld joint configuration, design of optics, use of protective gases and control of thermal distortions. The primary limitations on use of laser welding electronic for packaging applications are economic ones. The laser itself is a relatively costly device when compared to competing welding equipment. Further, the cost of consumables and repairs can be significant. These facts have relegated laser welding to use only where it presents a distinct quality or reliability advantages over other techniques of electronic package sealing. Because of the unique noncontact and low heat inputs characteristics of laser welding, it is an ideal candidate for sealing electronic packages containing MEMS devices (microelectromechanical systems). This paper addresses how the unique advantages of the pulsed YAG laser can be used to simplify MEMS packaging and deliver a product of improved quality.

  4. Laser Welding in Electronic Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The laser has proven its worth in numerous high reliability electronic packaging applications ranging from medical to missile electronics. In particular, the pulsed YAG laser is an extremely flexible and versatile too] capable of hermetically sealing microelectronics packages containing sensitive components without damaging them. This paper presents an overview of details that must be considered for successful use of laser welding when addressing electronic package sealing. These include; metallurgical considerations such as alloy and plating selection, weld joint configuration, design of optics, use of protective gases and control of thermal distortions. The primary limitations on use of laser welding electronic for packaging applications are economic ones. The laser itself is a relatively costly device when compared to competing welding equipment. Further, the cost of consumables and repairs can be significant. These facts have relegated laser welding to use only where it presents a distinct quality or reliability advantages over other techniques of electronic package sealing. Because of the unique noncontact and low heat inputs characteristics of laser welding, it is an ideal candidate for sealing electronic packages containing MEMS devices (microelectromechanical systems). This paper addresses how the unique advantages of the pulsed YAG laser can be used to simplify MEMS packaging and deliver a product of improved quality.

  5. Naval Waste Package Design Sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    T. Schmitt

    2006-12-13

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to varying inner cavity dimensions when subjected to a comer drop and tip-over from elevated surface. This calculation will also determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to the upper bound of the naval canister masses. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of through-wall stress intensities in the outer corrosion barrier. This calculation is intended for use in support of the preliminary design activities for the license application design of the Naval waste package. It examines the effects of small changes between the naval canister and the inner vessel, and in these dimensions, the Naval Long waste package and Naval Short waste package are similar. Therefore, only the Naval Long waste package is used in this calculation and is based on the proposed potential designs presented by the drawings and sketches in References 2.1.10 to 2.1.17 and 2.1.20. All conclusions are valid for both the Naval Long and Naval Short waste packages.

  6. An assay for measurement of protein adsorption to glass vials.

    PubMed

    Varmette, Elizabeth; Strony, Brianne; Haines, Daniel; Redkar, Rajendra

    2010-01-01

    Protein adsorption to primary packaging is one of the problems faced by biopharmaceutical drug companies. An assay was developed to quantify loss of proteins to glass vial surfaces. The assay involves the labeling of protein with a fluorescent dye, incubation of the labeled protein with the vial surface, elution of the adsorbed protein using a stripping buffer, and determination of fluorescence of the adsorbed protein using a fluorometer. The assay is simple to set up, accurate, sensitive, and flexible. The assay can be modified for indirect measurement of protein adsorption and offers an attractive alternative for researchers to quantify protein adsorption to glass vials and syringes.

  7. Vacuum Packaging for Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    The Vacuum Packaging for MEMS Program focused on the development of an integrated set of packaging technologies which in totality provide a low cost...high volume product-neutral vacuum packaging capability which addresses all MEMS vacuum packaging requirements. The program balanced the need for...near term component and wafer-level vacuum packaging with the development of advanced high density wafer-level packaging solutions. Three vacuum

  8. Strength of inserts in titanium alloy machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, V.; Huang, Z.; Zhang, J.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a stressed state of a non-worn cutting wedge in a machined titanium alloy (Ti6Al2Mo2Cr) is analyzed. The distribution of contact loads on the face of a cutting tool was obtained experimentally with the use of a ‘split cutting tool’. Calculation of internal stresses in the indexable insert made from cemented carbide (WC8Co) was carried out with the help of ANSYS 14.0 software. Investigations showed that a small thickness of the cutting insert leads to extremely high compressive stresses near the cutting edge, stresses that exceed the ultimate compressive strength of cemented carbide. The face and the base of the insert experience high tensile stresses, which approach the ultimate tensile strength of cemented carbide and increase a probability of cutting insert destruction. If the thickness of the cutting insert is bigger than 5 mm, compressive stresses near the cutting edge decrease, and tensile stresses on the face and base decrease to zero. The dependences of the greatest normal and tangential stresses on thickness of the cutting insert were found. Abbreviation and symbols: m/s - meter per second (cutting speed v); mm/r - millimeter per revolution (feed rate f); MPa - mega Pascal (dimension of specific contact loads and stresses); γ - rake angle of the cutting tool [°] α - clearance angle of the sharp cutting tool [°].

  9. Z-2 Threaded Insert Design and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Amy; Rhodes, Richard; Jones, Robert J.; Graziosi, David; Ferl, Jinny; Sweeny, Mitch; Scarborough, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Z-2 prototype space suit contains several components fabricated from an advanced hybrid composite laminate consisting of IM10 carbon fiber and fiber glass. One requirement was to have removable, replaceable helicoil inserts to which other suit components would be fastened. An approach utilizing bonded in inserts with helicoils inside of them was implemented. During initial assembly, cracking sounds were heard followed by the lifting of one of the blind inserts out of its hole when the screws were torqued. A failure investigation was initiated to understand the mechanism of the failure. Ultimately, it was determined that the pre-tension caused by torqueing the fasteners is a much larger force than induced from the pressure loads of the suit which was not considered in the insert design. Bolt tension is determined by dividing the torque on the screw by a k value multiplied by the thread diameter of the bolt. The k value is a factor that accounts for friction in the system. A common value used for k for a non-lubricated screw is 0.2. The k value can go down by as much as 0.1 if the screw is lubricated which means for the same torque, a much larger tension could be placed on the bolt and insert. This paper summarizes the failure investigation that was performed to identify the root cause of the suit failure and details how the insert design was modified to resist a higher pull out tension.

  10. High-Pressure Trocar Insertion Technique

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Harry; Conti Ribeiro, Sergio; Rasmussen, Carsten; Rosenberg, Jay

    1999-01-01

    Background: The majority of laparoscopic complications occur at the time of Veress needle and trocar insertion. Although not very frequent, they increase the morbidity and mortality of both diagnostic and operative laparoscopic procedures. Alternative techniques of trocar insertion have been described but have not completely eliminated the risk of injury. Technique: After Veress needle insertion and establishment of pneumoperitoneum to 25 to 30 mm Hg, insertion of a short trocar is performed in the deepest part of the umbilicus without elevation of the anterior abdominal wall. The result is a parietal peritoneal puncture directly beneath the umbilicus. The high-pressure setting used during initial insertion of the trocar is lowered as soon as safe abdominal entry is documented. Experience: The trocar insertion technique described above was performed in 3041 procedures. No vascular injury occurred. There were two bowel perforations. No complications related to the increased intra-abdominal pressure were observed. Conclusion: The high-pressure abdominal entry technique has the advantage of reducing intra-abdominal trocar-related injuries without requiring additional instrumentation or additional training. PMID:10323169

  11. Rectal suppository: commonsense and mode of insertion.

    PubMed

    Abd-el-Maeboud, K H; el-Naggar, T; el-Hawi, E M; Mahmoud, S A; Abd-el-Hay, S

    1991-09-28

    Rectal suppository is a well-known form of medication and its use is increasing. The commonest shape is one with an apex (pointed end) tapering to a base (blunt end). Because of a general lack of information about mode of insertion, we asked 360 lay subjects (Egyptians and non-Egyptians) and 260 medical personnel (physicians, pharmacists, and nurses) by questionnaire which end they inserted foremost. Apart from 2 individuals, all subjects suggested insertion with the apex foremost. Commonsense was the most frequent basis for this practice (86.9% of lay subjects and 84.6% of medical personnel) followed by information from a relative, a friend, or medical personnel, or from study at medical school. Suppository insertion with the base or apex foremost was compared in 100 subjects (60 adults, 40 infants and children). Retention with the former method was more easily achieved in 98% of the cases, with no need to introduce a finger in the anal canal (1% vs 83%), and lower expulsion rate (0% vs 3%). The designer of the "torpedo-shaped" suppository suggested its insertion with apex foremost. Our data suggest that a suppository is better inserted with the base foremost. Reversed vermicular contractions or pressure gradient of the anal canal might press it inwards.

  12. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) concrete-lined waste packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, T.

    1997-09-25

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed a package to ship Type A, non-transuranic, fissile excepted quantities of liquid or solid radioactive material and radioactive mixed waste to the Central Waste Complex for storage on the Hanford Site.

  13. Reliability of audiometric thresholds obtained with insert earphones when used by certified audiometric technicians.

    PubMed

    Bell-Lehmkuhler, Barbara; Meinke, Deanna K; Sedey, Allison; Tuell, Cassie

    2009-01-01

    Clinical audiologists and audiometric equipment manufacturers have embraced the clinical use of insert earphones; however, their use in audiometric testing in occupational hearing loss prevention programs has been limited. This study was undertaken to research whether certified audiometric technicians without practical hands-on training could reliably use insert earphones when compared to a clinically experienced audiologist. Hearing thresholds were obtained on 60 human ears by six certified audiometric technicians using insert earphones for the first time. Technician-acquired audiometric thresholds were compared to thresholds obtained under the same conditions by a clinical audiologist experienced in the use of the insert earphones. Statistical analyses of audiometric thresholds were performed to investigate the relationships between audiometric threshold values at each frequency obtained by certified technicians vs. the audiologist. These relationships were examined for the group as a whole as well as when ear tip size and earphone insertion depth varied between the audiologist and the technicians. No significant differences (p > .01) were found between mean group thresholds at any of the test frequencies (500-8000 Hz). Mean group thresholds differed by < 1.2 dB. Pearson Product-Moment correlation (PPMC) coefficients suggested that thresholds obtained by the audiometric technician were highly correlated with those obtained by the audiologist. There were no significant threshold differences (p > .01) even when the audiologist and technicians varied in their selection of ear tip size or in the amount of insertion depth achieved. This study suggests that CAOHC-certified audiometric technicians can reliably use insert earphones without practical training when testing in quiet environments by reading the earphone package directions provided by the manufacturer.

  14. A piggyBac insertion disrupts Foxl2 expression that mimics BPES syndrome in mice.

    PubMed

    Shi, Fubiao; Ding, Sheng; Zhao, Shimin; Han, Min; Zhuang, Yuan; Xu, Tian; Wu, Xiaohui

    2014-07-15

    Blepharophimosis, ptosis, epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by small palpebral fissures and other craniofacial malformations, often with (type I) but could also without (type II) premature ovarian failure. While mutations of the forkhead transcription factor FOXL2 are associated with and likely be responsible for many BPES cases, how FOXL2 affects craniofacial development remain to be understood. Through a large-scale piggyBac (PB) insertion mutagenesis, we have identified a mouse mutant carrying a PB insertion ∼160 kb upstream of the transcription start site (TSS) of Foxl2. The insertion reduces, but not eliminates, the expression of Foxl2. This mutant, but not its revertant, displays BPES-like conditions such as midface hypoplasia, eyelid abnormalities and female subfertility. Further analysis indicates that the mutation does not affect mandible, but causes premature fusion of the premaxilla-maxilla suture, smaller premaxilla and malformed maxilla during midface development. We further identified an evolutionarily conserved fragment near the insertion site and observed enhancer activity of this element in tissue culture cells. Analyses using DNase I hypersensitivity assay and chromosome conformation capture assay in developing maxillary and periocular tissues suggest that the DNA region near the insertion site likely interacts with Foxl2 TSS. Therefore, this mutant presents an excellent animal model for mechanistic study of BPES and regulation of Foxl2. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Packaging of solid state devices

    DOEpatents

    Glidden, Steven C.; Sanders, Howard D.

    2006-01-03

    A package for one or more solid state devices in a single module that allows for operation at high voltage, high current, or both high voltage and high current. Low thermal resistance between the solid state devices and an exterior of the package and matched coefficient of thermal expansion between the solid state devices and the materials used in packaging enables high power operation. The solid state devices are soldered between two layers of ceramic with metal traces that interconnect the devices and external contacts. This approach provides a simple method for assembling and encapsulating high power solid state devices.

  16. Microelectronics packaging research directions for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galbraith, L.

    2003-01-01

    The Roadmap begins with an assessment of needs from the microelectronics for aerospace applications viewpoint. Needs Assessment is divided into materials, packaging components, and radiation characterization of packaging.

  17. Large area LED package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goullon, L.; Jordan, R.; Braun, T.; Bauer, J.; Becker, F.; Hutter, M.; Schneider-Ramelow, M.; Lang, K.-D.

    2015-03-01

    Solid state lighting using LED-dies is a rapidly growing market. LED-dies with the needed increasing luminous flux per chip area produce a lot of heat. Therefore an appropriate thermal management is required for general lighting with LEDdies. One way to avoid overheating and shorter lifetime is the use of many small LED-dies on a large area heat sink (down to 70 μm edge length), so that heat can spread into a large area while at the same time light also appears on a larger area. The handling with such small LED-dies is very difficult because they are too small to be picked with common equipment. Therefore a new concept called collective transfer bonding using a temporary carrier chip was developed. A further benefit of this new technology is the high precision assembly as well as the plane parallel assembly of the LED-dies which is necessary for wire bonding. It has been shown that hundred functional LED-dies were transferred and soldered at the same time. After the assembly a cost effective established PCB-technology was applied to produce a large-area light source consisting of many small LED-dies and electrically connected on a PCB-substrate. The top contacts of the LED-dies were realized by laminating an adhesive copper sheet followed by LDI structuring as known from PCB-via-technology. This assembly can be completed by adding converting and light forming optical elements. In summary two technologies based on standard SMD and PCB technology have been developed for panel level LED packaging up to 610x 457 mm2 area size.

  18. Small planar packaging system for high-throughput ATM switching systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, T.; Yasuda, K.; Oka, H.; Kaneko, Y.; Kawauchi, M.

    1995-03-01

    A small planar packaging (SPP) system is described that can be combined with card-on-board (COB) packaging in ATM switching systems with throughputs of over 40 Gbit/s. Using a newly developed quasicoaxial zero-insertion-force connector, point-to-point 311 Mbit/s of 8 bit parallel signal transmission is achieved in an arbitrary location on the SPP system's shelf. Also 5400 I/O connections in the region of the planar packaging system are made, and thus the SPP system eliminates the I/O pin count limitation. Furthermore, the heat flux of the SPP system is five times higher than that of conventional COB packaging because of its air flow control structure.

  19. Spack: the Supercomputing Package Manager

    SciTech Connect

    Gamblin, T.

    2013-11-09

    The HPC software ecosystem is growing larger and more complex, but software distribution mechanisms have not kept up with this trend. Tools, Libraries, and applications need to run on multiple platforms and build with multiple compliers. Increasingly, packages leverage common software components, and building any one component requires building all of its dependencies. In HPC environments, ABI-incompatible interfaces (likeMPI), binary-incompatible compilers, and cross-compiled environments converge to make the build process a combinatoric nightmare. This obstacle deters many users from adopting useful tools, and others waste countless hours building and rebuilding tools. Many package managers exist to solve these problems for typical desktop environments, but none suits the unique needs of supercomputing facilities or users. To address these problems, we have Spack, a package manager that eases the task of managing software for end-users, across multiple platforms, package versions, compilers, and ABI incompatibilities.

  20. High Frequency Electronic Packaging Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, M.; Lowry, L.; Lee, K.; Kolawa, E.; Tulintseff, A.; Shalkhauser, K.; Whitaker, J.; Piket-May, M.

    1994-01-01

    Commercial and government communication, radar, and information systems face the challenge of cost and mass reduction via the application of advanced packaging technology. A majority of both government and industry support has been focused on low frequency digital electronics.

  1. New Packaging for Amplifier Slabs

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, M.; Thorsness, C.; Suratwala, T.; Steele, R.; Rogowski, G.

    2015-03-18

    The following memo provides a discussion and detailed procedure for a new finished amplifier slab shipping and storage container. The new package is designed to maintain an environment of <5% RH to minimize weathering.

  2. High Frequency Electronic Packaging Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, M.; Lowry, L.; Lee, K.; Kolawa, E.; Tulintseff, A.; Shalkhauser, K.; Whitaker, J.; Piket-May, M.

    1994-01-01

    Commercial and government communication, radar, and information systems face the challenge of cost and mass reduction via the application of advanced packaging technology. A majority of both government and industry support has been focused on low frequency digital electronics.

  3. Packaged bulk micromachined triglyceride biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanasundaram, S. V.; Mercy, S.; Harikrishna, P. V.; Rani, Kailash; Bhattacharya, Enakshi; Chadha, Anju

    2010-02-01

    Estimation of triglyceride concentration is important for the health and food industries. Use of solid state biosensors like Electrolyte Insulator Semiconductor Capacitors (EISCAP) ensures ease in operation with good accuracy and sensitivity when compared to conventional sensors. In this paper we report on packaging of miniaturized EISCAP sensors on silicon. The packaging involves glass to silicon bonding using adhesive. Since this kind of packaging is done at room temperature, it cannot damage the thin dielectric layers on the silicon wafer unlike the high temperature anodic bonding technique and can be used for sensors with immobilized enzyme without denaturing the enzyme. The packaging also involves a teflon capping arrangement which helps in easy handling of the bio-analyte solutions. The capping solves two problems. Firstly, it helps in the immobilization process where it ensures the enzyme immobilization happens only on one pit and secondly it helps with easy transport of the bio-analyte into the sensor pit for measurements.

  4. Handling difficult materials: Aseptic packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lieb, K.

    1994-03-01

    Since aseptic packages, or drink boxes, were introduced in the US in the early 1980s, they have been praised for their convenience and berated for their lack of recyclability. As a result, aseptic packaging collection has been linked with that of milk cartons to increase the volume. The intervening years since the introduction of aseptic packaging have seen the drink box industry aggressively trying to create a recycling market for the boxes. Communities and schools have initiated programs, and recycling firms have allocated resources to see whether recycling aseptic packaging can work. Drink boxes are now recycled in 2.3 million homes in 15 states, and in 1,655 schools in 17 states. They are typically collected in school and curbside programs with other polyethylene coated (laminated) paperboard products such a milk cartons, and then baled and shipped to five major paper companies for recycling at eight facilities.

  5. Quality assessment of packaged foods by optical oxygen sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papkovsky, Dmitri B.; O'Mahony, Fiach C.; Kerry, Joe P.; Ogurtsov, Vladimir I.

    2005-11-01

    A phase-fluorometric oxygen sensor system has been developed, which allows non-destructive measurement of residual oxygen levels in sealed containers such as packaged foods. It operates with disposable solid-state sensors incorporated in each pack, and a portable detector which interrogates with the sensors through a (semi)transparent packaging material. The system has been optimized for packaging applications and validated in small and medium scale trials with different types of food, including MAP hams, cheese, convenience foods, smoked fish, bakery. It has demonstrated high efficiency in monitoring package integrity, oxygen profiles in packs, performance of packaging process and many other research and quality control tasks, allowing control of 100% of packs. The low-cost batch-calibrated sensors have demonstrated reliability, safety, stability including direct contact with food, high efficiency in the low oxygen range. Another system, which also employs the fluorescence-based oxygen sensing approach, provides rapid assessment of microbial contamination (total viable counts) in complex samples such as food homogenates, industrial waste, environmental samples, etc. It uses soluble oxygen-sensitive probes, standard microtitter plates and fluorescence measurements on conventional plate reader to monitor growth of aerobic bacteria in small test samples (e.g. food homogenates) via their oxygen respiration. The assay provides high sample through put, miniaturization, speed, and can serve as alternative to the established methods such as agar plate colony counts and turbidimetry.

  6. Packaging Review Guide for Reviewing Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings

    SciTech Connect

    DiSabatino, A; Biswas, D; DeMicco, M; Fisher, L E; Hafner, R; Haslam, J; Mok, G; Patel, C; Russell, E

    2007-04-12

    This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE Order 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his or her review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. This PRG is generally organized at the section level in a format similar to that recommended in Regulatory Guide 7.9 (RG 7.9). One notable exception is the addition of Section 9 (Quality Assurance), which is not included as a separate chapter in RG 7.9. Within each section, this PRG addresses the technical and regulatory bases for the review, the manner in which the review is accomplished, and findings that are generally applicable for a package that meets the approval standards. This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for DOE review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE O 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. The primary objectives of this PRG are to: (1) Summarize the regulatory requirements for package approval; (2) Describe the technical review procedures by which DOE determines that these requirements have been satisfied; (3) Establish and maintain the quality and uniformity of reviews; (4) Define the base from which to evaluate proposed changes in scope

  7. AOP: An R Package For Sufficient Causal Analysis in Pathway ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Summary: How can I quickly find the key events in a pathway that I need to monitor to predict that a/an beneficial/adverse event/outcome will occur? This is a key question when using signaling pathways for drug/chemical screening in pharma-cology, toxicology and risk assessment. By identifying these sufficient causal key events, we have fewer events to monitor for a pathway, thereby decreasing assay costs and time, while maximizing the value of the information. I have developed the “aop” package which uses backdoor analysis of causal net-works to identify these minimal sets of key events that are suf-ficient for making causal predictions. Availability and Implementation: The source and binary are available online through the Bioconductor project (http://www.bioconductor.org/) as an R package titled “aop”. The R/Bioconductor package runs within the R statistical envi-ronment. The package has functions that can take pathways (as directed graphs) formatted as a Cytoscape JSON file as input, or pathways can be represented as directed graphs us-ing the R/Bioconductor “graph” package. The “aop” package has functions that can perform backdoor analysis to identify the minimal set of key events for making causal predictions.Contact: burgoon.lyle@epa.gov This paper describes an R/Bioconductor package that was developed to facilitate the identification of key events within an AOP that are the minimal set of sufficient key events that need to be tested/monit

  8. AOP: An R Package For Sufficient Causal Analysis in Pathway ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Summary: How can I quickly find the key events in a pathway that I need to monitor to predict that a/an beneficial/adverse event/outcome will occur? This is a key question when using signaling pathways for drug/chemical screening in pharma-cology, toxicology and risk assessment. By identifying these sufficient causal key events, we have fewer events to monitor for a pathway, thereby decreasing assay costs and time, while maximizing the value of the information. I have developed the “aop” package which uses backdoor analysis of causal net-works to identify these minimal sets of key events that are suf-ficient for making causal predictions. Availability and Implementation: The source and binary are available online through the Bioconductor project (http://www.bioconductor.org/) as an R package titled “aop”. The R/Bioconductor package runs within the R statistical envi-ronment. The package has functions that can take pathways (as directed graphs) formatted as a Cytoscape JSON file as input, or pathways can be represented as directed graphs us-ing the R/Bioconductor “graph” package. The “aop” package has functions that can perform backdoor analysis to identify the minimal set of key events for making causal predictions.Contact: burgoon.lyle@epa.gov This paper describes an R/Bioconductor package that was developed to facilitate the identification of key events within an AOP that are the minimal set of sufficient key events that need to be tested/monit

  9. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) Bioplastic Packaging Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    FINAL REPORT Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) Bioplastic Packaging Materials SERDP Project WP-1478 MAY 2010 Dr.Chris Schwier Metabolix... Bioplastic Packaging Materials 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER SI 1478 Dr. Chris Schwier 5e. TASK...polymers were produced using blends of branched, long chain-length PHA polymers with linear PHA polymers.      15. SUBJECT TERMS Bioplastic

  10. TRU waste transportation package development

    SciTech Connect

    Eakes, R. G.; Lamoreaux, G. H.; Romesberg, L. E.; Sutherland, S. H.; Duffey, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    Inventories of the transuranic wastes buried or stored at various US DOE sites are tabulated. The leading conceptual design of Type-B packaging for contact-handled transuranic waste is the Transuranic Package Transporter (TRUPACT), a large metal container comprising inner and outer tubular steel frameworks which are separated by rigid polyurethane foam and sheathed with steel plate. Testing of TRUPACT is reported. The schedule for its development is given. 6 figures. (DLC)

  11. Packaging food for radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komolprasert, Vanee

    2016-12-01

    Irradiation can play an important role in reducing pathogens that cause food borne illness. Food processors and food safety experts prefer that food be irradiated after packaging to prevent post-irradiation contamination. Food irradiation has been studied for the last century. However, the implementation of irradiation on prepackaged food still faces challenges on how to assess the suitability and safety of these packaging materials used during irradiation. Irradiation is known to induce chemical changes to the food packaging materials resulting in the formation of breakdown products, so called radiolysis products (RP), which may migrate into foods and affect the safety of the irradiated foods. Therefore, the safety of the food packaging material (both polymers and adjuvants) must be determined to ensure safety of irradiated packaged food. Evaluating the safety of food packaging materials presents technical challenges because of the range of possible chemicals generated by ionizing radiation. These challenges and the U.S. regulations on food irradiation are discussed in this article.

  12. Intrauterine device insertion during the postpartum period: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kapp, Nathalie; Curtis, Kathryn M

    2009-10-01

    Insertion of an intrauterine device (IUD) at different times or by different routes during the postpartum period may increase the risk of complications. We searched Medline, Lilacs and Cochrane Collaboration databases for articles in any language, between database inception until December 2008, which compared outcomes of postpartum IUD insertion time intervals. Search terms included postpartum, puerperium, postcesarean delivery, cesarean section, IUD(s), IUCD(s), intrauterine device(s) and insertion. From 297 articles, we identified 15 for inclusion in this review: all studies examined the outcomes from copper IUD insertions within the postpartum time period compared to other time intervals or compared routes (vaginal or via hysterotomy) of postpartum insertion. No studies of levonorgestrel IUDs were identified. Immediate IUD insertion (within 10 min of placental delivery) was safe when compared with later postpartum time periods and interval insertion. Immediate postpartum IUD insertion demonstrated lower expulsion rates when compared with delayed postpartum insertion but with higher rates than interval insertion. Immediate insertion following cesarean delivery demonstrated lower expulsion rates than immediate insertion following vaginal delivery. Poor to fair quality evidence from 15 articles demonstrated no increase in risk of complications among women who had an IUD inserted during the postpartum period; however, some increase in expulsion rates occurred with delayed postpartum insertion when compared to immediate insertion and with immediate insertion when compared to interval insertion. Postplacental placements during cesarean delivery are associated with lower expulsion rates than postplacental vaginal insertions, without increasing rates of postoperative complications.

  13. Reactivity of methacrylates in insertion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Rünzi, Thomas; Guironnet, Damien; Göttker-Schnetmann, Inigo; Mecking, Stefan

    2010-11-24

    Polymerization of ethylene by complexes [{(P^O)PdMe(L)}] (P^O = κ(2)-(P,O)-2-(2-MeOC(6)H(4))(2)PC(6)H(4)SO(3))) affords homopolyethylene free of any methyl methacrylate (MMA)-derived units, even in the presence of substantial concentrations of MMA. In stoichiometric studies, reactive {(P^O)Pd(Me)L} fragments generated by halide abstraction from [({(P^O)Pd(Me)Cl}μ-Na)(2)] insert MMA in a 1,2- as well as 2,1-mode. The 1,2-insertion product forms a stable five-membered chelate by coordination of the carbonyl group. Thermodynamic parameters for MMA insertion are ΔH(++) = 69.0(3.1) kJ mol(-1) and ΔS(++) = -103(10) J mol(-1) K(-1) (total average for 1,2- and 2,1-insertion), in comparison to ΔH(++) = 48.5(3.0) kJ mol(-1) and ΔS(++) = -138(7) J mol(-1) K(-1) for methyl acrylate (MA) insertion. These data agree with an observed at least 10(2)-fold preference for MA incorporation vs MMA incorporation (not detected) under polymerization conditions. Copolymerization of ethylene with a bifunctional acrylate-methacrylate monomer yields linear polyethylenes with intact methacrylate substituents. Post-polymerization modification of the latter was exemplified by free-radical thiol addition and by cross-metathesis.

  14. Nozzle cavity impingement/area reduction insert

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Yufeng Phillip; Itzel, Gary Michael; Osgood, Sarah Jane

    2002-01-01

    A turbine vane segment is provided that has inner and outer walls spaced from one another, a vane extending between the inner and outer walls and having leading and trailing edges and pressure and suction sides, the vane including discrete leading edge, intermediate, aft and trailing edge cavities between the leading and trailing edges and extending lengthwise of the vane for flowing a cooling medium; and an insert sleeve within at least one of the cavities and spaced from interior wall surfaces thereof. The insert sleeve has an inlet for flowing the cooling medium into the insert sleeve and has impingement holes defined in first and second walls thereof that respectively face the pressure and suction sides of the vane. The impingement holes of at least one of those first and second walls are defined along substantially only a first, upstream portion thereof, whereby the cooling flow is predominantly impingement cooling along a first region of the insert wall corresponding to the first, upstream portion and the cooling flow is predominantly convective cooling along a second region corresponding to a second, downstream portion of the at least one wall of the insert sleeve.

  15. The LORE1 insertion mutant resource.

    PubMed

    Małolepszy, Anna; Mun, Terry; Sandal, Niels; Gupta, Vikas; Dubin, Manu; Urbański, Dorian; Shah, Niraj; Bachmann, Asger; Fukai, Eigo; Hirakawa, Hideki; Tabata, Satoshi; Nadzieja, Marcin; Markmann, Katharina; Su, Junyi; Umehara, Yosuke; Soyano, Takashi; Miyahara, Akira; Sato, Shusei; Hayashi, Makoto; Stougaard, Jens; Andersen, Stig U

    2016-10-01

    Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are closely related to retroviruses, and their activities shape eukaryotic genomes. Here, we present a complete Lotus japonicus insertion mutant collection generated by identification of 640 653 new insertion events following de novo activation of the LTR element Lotus retrotransposon 1 (LORE1) (http://lotus.au.dk). Insertion preferences are critical for effective gene targeting, and we exploit our large dataset to analyse LTR element characteristics in this context. We infer the mechanism that generates the consensus palindromes typical of retroviral and LTR retrotransposon insertion sites, identify a short relaxed insertion site motif, and demonstrate selective integration into CHG-hypomethylated genes. These characteristics result in a steep increase in deleterious mutation rate following activation, and allow LORE1 active gene targeting to approach saturation within a population of 134 682 L. japonicus lines. We suggest that saturation mutagenesis using endogenous LTR retrotransposons with germinal activity can be used as a general and cost-efficient strategy for generation of non-transgenic mutant collections for unrestricted use in plant research.

  16. Peptide partitioning properties from direct insertion studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ulmschneider, Martin; Smith, Jeremy C; Ulmschneider, Jakob

    2010-06-01

    Partitioning properties of polypeptides are at the heart of biological membrane phenomena and their precise quantification is vital for ab-initio structure prediction and the accurate simulation of membrane protein folding and function. Recently the cellular translocon machinery has been employed to determine membrane insertion propensities and transfer energetics for a series of polyleucine segments embedded in a carrier sequence. We show here that the insertion propensity, pathway, and transfer energetics into synthetic POPC bilayers can be fully described by direct atomistic peptide partitioning simulations. The insertion probability as a function of peptide length follows two-state Boltzmann statistics, in agreement with the experiments. The simulations expose a systematic offset between translocon-mediated and direct insertion free energies. Compared to the experiment the insertion threshold is shifted toward shorter peptides by 2 leucine residues. The simulations reveal many hitherto unknown atomic-resolution details about the partitioning process and promise to provide a powerful tool for urgently needed calibration of lipid parameters to match experimentally observed peptide transfer energies.

  17. Rapid Active Sampling Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    A field-deployable, battery-powered Rapid Active Sampling Package (RASP), originally designed for sampling strong materials during lunar and planetary missions, shows strong utility for terrestrial geological use. The technology is proving to be simple and effective for sampling and processing materials of strength. Although this originally was intended for planetary and lunar applications, the RASP is very useful as a powered hand tool for geologists and the mining industry to quickly sample and process rocks in the field on Earth. The RASP allows geologists to surgically acquire samples of rock for later laboratory analysis. This tool, roughly the size of a wrench, allows the user to cut away swaths of weathering rinds, revealing pristine rock surfaces for observation and subsequent sampling with the same tool. RASPing deeper (.3.5 cm) exposes single rock strata in-situ. Where a geologist fs hammer can only expose unweathered layers of rock, the RASP can do the same, and then has the added ability to capture and process samples into powder with particle sizes less than 150 microns, making it easier for XRD/XRF (x-ray diffraction/x-ray fluorescence). The tool uses a rotating rasp bit (or two counter-rotating bits) that resides inside or above the catch container. The container has an open slot to allow the bit to extend outside the container and to allow cuttings to enter and be caught. When the slot and rasp bit are in contact with a substrate, the bit is plunged into it in a matter of seconds to reach pristine rock. A user in the field may sample a rock multiple times at multiple depths in minutes, instead of having to cut out huge, heavy rock samples for transport back to a lab for analysis. Because of the speed and accuracy of the RASP, hundreds of samples can be taken in one day. RASP-acquired samples are small and easily carried. A user can characterize more area in less time than by using conventional methods. The field-deployable RASP used a Ni

  18. Rotor assembly and assay method

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.; Walker, W.A.

    1993-09-07

    A rotor assembly for carrying out an assay includes a rotor body which is rotatable about an axis of rotation, and has a central chamber and first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth chambers which are in communication with and radiate from the central chamber. The rotor assembly further includes a shuttle which is movable through the central chamber and insertable into any of the chambers, the shuttle including a reaction cup carrying an immobilized antigen or an antibody for transport among the chambers. A method for carrying out an assay using the rotor assembly includes moving the reaction cup among the six chambers by passing the cup through the central chamber between centrifugation steps in order to perform the steps of: separating plasma from blood cells, binding plasma antibody or antigen, washing, drying, binding enzyme conjugate, reacting with enzyme substrate and optically comparing the resulting reaction product with unreacted enzyme substrate solution. The movement of the reaction cup can be provided by attaching a magnet to the reaction cup and supplying a moving magnetic field to the rotor. 34 figures.

  19. Rotor assembly and assay method

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, Carl A.; Johnson, Wayne F.; Walker, William A.

    1993-01-01

    A rotor assembly for carrying out an assay includes a rotor body which is rotatable about an axis of rotation, and has a central chamber and first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth chambers which are in communication with and radiate from the central chamber. The rotor assembly further includes a shuttle which is movable through the central chamber and insertable into any of the chambers, the shuttle including a reaction cup carrying an immobilized antigen or an antibody for transport among the chambers. A method for carrying out an assay using the rotor assembly includes moving the reaction cup among the six chambers by passing the cup through the central chamber between centrifugation steps in order to perform the steps of: separating plasma from blood cells, binding plasma antibody or antigen, washing, drying, binding enzyme conjugate, reacting with enzyme substrate and optically comparing the resulting reaction product with unreacted enzyme substrate solution. The movement of the reaction cup can be provided by attaching a magnet to the reaction cup and supplying a moving magnetic field to the rotor.

  20. Evaluation of apicultural characteristics of first-year colonies initiated from packaged honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Strange, James P; Calderone, Nicholas W

    2009-04-01

    We evaluated the performance of six named types of package honey bees, Apis mellifera L (Hymenoptera: Apidae), from four commercial producers. We examined the effects of levels of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, the endoparasitic mite Acarapis woodi (Rennie), the gut parasite Nosema (species not determined) in samples from bees in 48 packages, and levels of adult drones in the same packages on corresponding levels of those same traits in the fall in colonies that developed from those 48 packages. After package installation, we measured the rate of queen failure, the removal of freeze-killed brood (an assay to assess hygienic behavior), varroa-sensitive hygiene, and short-term weight gain in all colonies. We examined the correlations among these traits and the effect of initial package conditions and package-type on the expression of these traits. In general, differences among sources were not significant, except that we did observe significant differences in the proportion of mite infected worker brood in the fall. There was no significant difference in weight gain in colonies established from nosema-infected packages versus those established from noninfected packages. Freeze-killed hygienic behavior and varroa-sensitive hygienic behavior were positively correlated, suggesting that both traits could be selected simultaneously. Neither trait was correlated with colony weight gain, suggesting that both traits could be selected without compromising honey production.

  1. Thermodynamics of membrane insertion and refolding of the diphtheria toxin T-domain

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Uribe, Mauricio; Rodnin, Mykola V.; Öjemalm, Karin; Holgado, Aurora; Kyrychenko, Alexander; Nilsson, IngMarie; Posokhov, Yevgen O.; Makhatadze, George; von Heijne, Gunnar; Ladokhin, Alexey S.

    2014-01-01

    The diphtheria toxin translocation (T) domain inserts into the endosomal membrane in response to the endosomal acidification and enables the delivery of the catalytic domain into the cell. The insertion pathway consists of a series of conformational changes that occur in solution and in the membrane and leads to the conversion of a water-soluble state into a transmembrane state. In this work, we utilize various biophysical techniques to characterize the insertion pathway from the thermodynamic perspective. Thermal and chemical unfolding measured by differential scanning calorimetry, circular dichroism and tryptophan fluorescence reveal that the free energy of unfolding of the T-domain at neutral and mildly acidic pH differ by 3–5 kcal/mol, depending on the experimental conditions. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy measurements show that the free energy change from the membrane-competent state to the interfacial state is approximately −8 kcal/mol and is pH-independent, while that from the membrane-competent state to the transmembrane state ranges between −9.5 to −12 kcal/mol, depending on the membrane lipid composition and pH. Finally, the thermodynamics of transmembrane insertion of individual helices was tested using an in vitro assay that measures the translocon-assisted integration of test sequences into the microsomal membrane. These experiments suggest that even the most hydrophobic helix TH8 has only a small favorable free energy of insertion. The free energy for the insertion of the consensus insertion unit TH8-TH9 is slightly more favorable, yet less favorable than that measured for the entire protein, suggesting a cooperative effect for the membrane insertion of the helices of the T-domain. PMID:25281329

  2. Prevention policies addressing packaging and packaging waste: Some emerging trends.

    PubMed

    Tencati, Antonio; Pogutz, Stefano; Moda, Beatrice; Brambilla, Matteo; Cacia, Claudia

    2016-10-01

    Packaging waste is a major issue in several countries. Representing in industrialized countries around 30-35% of municipal solid waste yearly generated, this waste stream has steadily grown over the years even if, especially in Europe, specific recycling and recovery targets have been fixed. Therefore, an increasing attention starts to be devoted to prevention measures and interventions. Filling a gap in the current literature, this explorative paper is a first attempt to map the increasingly important phenomenon of prevention policies in the packaging sector. Through a theoretical sampling, 11 countries/states (7 in and 4 outside Europe) have been selected and analyzed by gathering and studying primary and secondary data. Results show evidence of three specific trends in packaging waste prevention policies: fostering the adoption of measures directed at improving packaging design and production through an extensive use of the life cycle assessment; raising the awareness of final consumers by increasing the accountability of firms; promoting collaborative efforts along the packaging supply chains.

  3. Viral DNA Packaging: One Step at a Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, Carlos; Moffitt, Jeffrey R.

    During its life-cycle the bacteriophage φ29 actively packages its dsDNA genome into a proteinacious capsid, compressing its genome to near crystalline densities against large electrostatic, elastic, and entropic forces. This remarkable process is accomplished by a nano-scale, molecular DNA pump - a complex assembly of three protein and nucleic acid rings which utilizes the free energy released in ATP hydrolysis to perform the mechanical work necessary to overcome these large energetic barriers. We have developed a single molecule optical tweezers assay which has allowed us to probe the detailed mechanism of this packaging motor. By following the rate of packaging of a single bacteriophage as the capsid is filled with genome and as a function of optically applied load, we find that the compression of the genome results in the build-up of an internal force, on the order of ˜ 55 pN, due to the compressed genome. The ability to work against such large forces makes the packaging motor one of the strongest known molecular motors. By titrating the concentration of ATP, ADP, and inorganic phosphate at different opposing load, we are able to determine features of the mechanochemistry of this motor - the coupling between the mechanical and chemical cycles. We find that force is generated not upon binding of ATP, but rather upon release of hydrolysis products. Finally, by improving the resolution of the optical tweezers assay, we are able to observe the discrete increments of DNA encapsidated each cycle of the packaging motor. We find that DNA is packaged in 10-bp increments preceded by the binding of multiple ATPs. The application of large external forces slows the packaging rate of the motor, revealing that the 10-bp steps are actually composed of four 2.5-bp steps which occur in rapid succession. These data show that the individual subunits of the pentameric ring-ATPase at the core of the packaging motor are highly coordinated, with the binding of ATP and the

  4. Elliptically polarizing adjustable phase insertion device

    DOEpatents

    Carr, R.

    1995-01-17

    An insertion device for extracting polarized electromagnetic energy from a beam of particles is disclosed. The insertion device includes four linear arrays of magnets which are aligned with the particle beam. The magnetic field strength to which the particles are subjected is adjusted by altering the relative alignment of the arrays in a direction parallel to that of the particle beam. Both the energy and polarization of the extracted energy may be varied by moving the relevant arrays parallel to the beam direction. The present invention requires a substantially simpler and more economical superstructure than insertion devices in which the magnetic field strength is altered by changing the gap between arrays of magnets. 3 figures.

  5. Interactive simulation of needle insertion models.

    PubMed

    DiMaio, Simon P; Salcudean, Septimiu E

    2005-07-01

    A novel interactive virtual needle insertion simulation is presented. The simulation models are based on measured planar tissue deformations and needle insertion forces. Since the force-displacement relationship is only of interest along the needle shaft, a condensation technique is shown to reduce the computational complexity of linear simulation models significantly. As the needle penetrates or is withdrawn from the tissue model, the boundary conditions that determine the tissue and needle motion change. Boundary condition and local material coordinate changes are facilitated by fast low-rank matrix updates. A large-strain elastic needle model is coupled to the tissue models to account for needle deflection and bending during simulated insertion. A haptic environment, based on these novel interactive simulation techniques, allows users to manipulate a three-degree-of-freedom virtual needle as it penetrates virtual tissue models, while experiencing steering torques and lateral needle forces through a planar haptic interface.

  6. Rack Insertion End Effector (RIEE) automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malladi, Narasimha

    1993-01-01

    NASA is developing a mechanism to manipulate and insert Racks into the Space Station Logistic modules. The mechanism consists of the following: a base with three motorized degrees of freedom, a 3 section motorized boom that goes from 15 to 44 feet in length, and a Rack Insertion End Effector (RIEE) with 5 hand wheels for precise alignment. The robotics section was tasked with the automation of the RIEE unit. In this report, for the automation of the RIEE unit, application of the Perceptics Vision System was conceptually developed to determine the position and orientation of the RIEE relative to the logistic module, and a MathCad program is written to display the needed displacements for precise alignment and final insertion of the Rack. The uniqueness of this report is that the whole report is in fact a MathCad program including text, derivations, and executable equations with example inputs and outputs.

  7. 9 CFR 381.144 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Packaging materials. 381.144 Section... Packaging materials. (a) Edible products may not be packaged in a container which is composed in whole or in... to health. All packaging materials must be safe for the intended use within the meaning of...

  8. 9 CFR 381.144 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Packaging materials. 381.144 Section... Packaging materials. (a) Edible products may not be packaged in a container which is composed in whole or in... to health. All packaging materials must be safe for the intended use within the meaning of...

  9. 9 CFR 381.144 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Packaging materials. 381.144 Section... Packaging materials. (a) Edible products may not be packaged in a container which is composed in whole or in... to health. All packaging materials must be safe for the intended use within the meaning of...

  10. Think INSIDE the Box: Package Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Mark; Painter, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Most products people purchase, keep in their homes, and often discard, are typically packaged in some way. Packaging is so prevalent in daily lives that many of take it for granted. That is by design-the expectation of good packaging is that it exists for the sake of the product. The primary purposes of any package (to contain, inform, display,…

  11. 7 CFR 58.626 - Packaging equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging equipment. 58.626 Section 58.626 Agriculture....626 Packaging equipment. Packaging equipment designed to mechanically fill and close single service... Standards for Equipment for Packaging Frozen Desserts and Cottage Cheese. Quality Specifications for...

  12. 40 CFR 157.27 - Unit packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unit packaging. 157.27 Section 157.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Child-Resistant Packaging § 157.27 Unit packaging. Pesticide...

  13. 49 CFR 173.29 - Empty packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Empty packagings. 173.29 Section 173.29... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.29 Empty packagings. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in this section, an empty packaging containing only the residue of...

  14. 27 CFR 19.276 - Package scales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Scales used to weigh packages designed to hold 10 wine gallons or less shall indicate weight in ounces or... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Package scales. 19.276... Package scales. Proprietors shall ensure the accuracy of scales used for weighing packages of spirits...

  15. 9 CFR 381.144 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging materials. 381.144 Section... Packaging materials. (a) Edible products may not be packaged in a container which is composed in whole or in... to health. All packaging materials must be safe for the intended use within the meaning of...

  16. Think INSIDE the Box: Package Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Mark; Painter, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Most products people purchase, keep in their homes, and often discard, are typically packaged in some way. Packaging is so prevalent in daily lives that many of take it for granted. That is by design-the expectation of good packaging is that it exists for the sake of the product. The primary purposes of any package (to contain, inform, display,…

  17. Mosaic retroposon insertion patterns in placental mammals

    PubMed Central

    Churakov, Gennady; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Baertsch, Robert; Zemann, Anja; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    One and a half centuries after Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace outlined our current understanding of evolution, a new scientific era is dawning that enables direct observations of genetic variation. However, pure sequence-based molecular attempts to resolve the basal origin of placental mammals have so far resulted only in apparently conflicting hypotheses. By contrast, in the mammalian genomes where they were highly active, the insertion of retroelements and their comparative insertion patterns constitute a neutral, virtually homoplasy-free archive of evolutionary histories. The “presence” of a retroelement at an orthologous genomic position in two species indicates their common ancestry in contrast to its “absence” in more distant species. To resolve the placental origin controversy we extracted ∼2 million potentially phylogenetically informative, retroposon-containing loci from representatives of the major placental mammalian lineages and found highly significant evidence challenging all current single hypotheses of their basal origin. The Exafroplacentalia hypothesis (Afrotheria as the sister group to all remaining placentals) is significantly supported by five retroposon insertions, the Epitheria hypothesis (Xenarthra as the sister group to all remaining placentals) by nine insertion patterns, and the Atlantogenata hypothesis (a monophyletic clade comprising Xenarthra and Afrotheria as the sister group to Boreotheria comprising all remaining placentals) by eight insertion patterns. These findings provide significant support for a “soft” polytomy of the major mammalian clades. Ancestral successive hybridization events and/or incomplete lineage sorting associated with short speciation intervals are viable explanations for the mosaic retroposon insertion patterns of recent placental mammals and for the futile search for a clear root dichotomy. PMID:19261842

  18. True anteroposterior view pedicle screw insertion technique

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jia-yue; Zhang, Wei; An, Ji-long; Sun, Ya-peng; Ding, Wen-yuan; Shen, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background The wide use of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) surgery in the treatment of degenerative disc disease of lumbar spine in spinal surgery highlights the gradual decrease in the use of traditional pedicle screw insertion technology. This study aims to analyze the accuracy of the true anteroposterior view pedicle screw insertion technique in MIS-TLIF surgery, compare it with conventional pedicle screw insertion technology, and discuss its clinical application value. Methods Fifty-two patients undergoing true anteroposterior view (group A) and 87 patients undergoing conventional pedicle screw insertion (group B) were diagnosed with lumbar disc herniation or lumbar spinal stenosis. Time for screw placement, intraoperative irradiation exposure, accuracy rate of pedicle screw insertion, and incidence of neurovascular injury were compared between the two groups. Results The time for screw placement and intraoperative irradiation exposure was significantly less in group A. Penetration rates of the paries lateralis of vertebral pedicle, medial wall of vertebral pedicle, and anterior vertebral wall were 1.44%, 0%, and 2.40%, respectively, all of which were significantly lower than that in group B. No additional serious complications caused by the placement of screw were observed during the follow-up period in patients in group A, but two patients with medial penetration underwent revision for unbearable radicular pain. Conclusion The application of true anteroposterior view pedicle screw insertion technique in MIS-TLIF surgery shortens time for screw placement and reduces the intraoperative irradiation exposure along with a higher accuracy rate of screw placement, which makes it a safe, accurate, and efficient technique. PMID:27418828

  19. Mosaic retroposon insertion patterns in placental mammals.

    PubMed

    Churakov, Gennady; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Baertsch, Robert; Zemann, Anja; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2009-05-01

    One and a half centuries after Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace outlined our current understanding of evolution, a new scientific era is dawning that enables direct observations of genetic variation. However, pure sequence-based molecular attempts to resolve the basal origin of placental mammals have so far resulted only in apparently conflicting hypotheses. By contrast, in the mammalian genomes where they were highly active, the insertion of retroelements and their comparative insertion patterns constitute a neutral, virtually homoplasy-free archive of evolutionary histories. The "presence" of a retroelement at an orthologous genomic position in two species indicates their common ancestry in contrast to its "absence" in more distant species. To resolve the placental origin controversy we extracted approximately 2 million potentially phylogenetically informative, retroposon-containing loci from representatives of the major placental mammalian lineages and found highly significant evidence challenging all current single hypotheses of their basal origin. The Exafroplacentalia hypothesis (Afrotheria as the sister group to all remaining placentals) is significantly supported by five retroposon insertions, the Epitheria hypothesis (Xenarthra as the sister group to all remaining placentals) by nine insertion patterns, and the Atlantogenata hypothesis (a monophyletic clade comprising Xenarthra and Afrotheria as the sister group to Boreotheria comprising all remaining placentals) by eight insertion patterns. These findings provide significant support for a "soft" polytomy of the major mammalian clades. Ancestral successive hybridization events and/or incomplete lineage sorting associated with short speciation intervals are viable explanations for the mosaic retroposon insertion patterns of recent placental mammals and for the futile search for a clear root dichotomy.

  20. RAS - Screens & Assays

    Cancer.gov

    A primary goal of the RAS Initiative is to develop assays for RAS activity, localization, and signaling and adapt those assays so they can be used for finding new drug candidates. Explore the work leading to highly validated screening protocols.

  1. Compact insert design for cryogenic pressure vessels

    DOEpatents

    Aceves, Salvador M.; Ledesma-Orozco, Elias Rigoberto; Espinosa-Loza, Francisco; Petitpas, Guillaume; Switzer, Vernon A.

    2017-06-14

    A pressure vessel apparatus for cryogenic capable storage of hydrogen or other cryogenic gases at high pressure includes an insert with a parallel inlet duct, a perpendicular inlet duct connected to the parallel inlet. The perpendicular inlet duct and the parallel inlet duct connect the interior cavity with the external components. The insert also includes a parallel outlet duct and a perpendicular outlet duct connected to the parallel outlet duct. The perpendicular outlet duct and the parallel outlet duct connect the interior cavity with the external components.

  2. RERTR-12 Insertion 2 Irradiation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Perez; G. S. Chang; D. M. Wachs; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme

    2012-09-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-12 was designed to provide comprehensive information on the performance of uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) based monolithic fuels for research reactor applications.1 RERTR-12 insertion 2 includes the capsules irradiated during the last three irradiation cycles. These capsules include Z, Y1, Y2 and Y3 type capsules. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-12 insertion 2 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

  3. Interaural attenuation using insert earphones: electrocochleographic approach.

    PubMed

    Sobhy, O A; Gould, H J

    1993-03-01

    We measured the interaural attenuation for click stimuli using insert earphones. Electrocochleographic thresholds were determined when clicks were presented both ipsilaterally and contralaterally to the recording ear. The interaural attenuation was calculated as the difference between ipsilateral and contralateral thresholds. Results from normal listeners showed that crossover occurred. Results agree with previous investigators who used a different approach. Results confirm that one may need to mask the nontest ear in clinical evoked potential testing even though insert earphones are used. Several approaches to the question of when to mask are proposed.

  4. Traumatic insertion of eyelashes into corneal stroma.

    PubMed

    Casswell, Edward J; Anikina, Evgenia V; Mearza, Ali A

    2014-10-01

    An unusual case of eyelashes being traumatically inserted into the corneal stroma is presented. A 75-year-old hit her right eye with her own fist, presenting with intra-corneal eyelashes. All remained entirely within the cornea, with no breach of the endothelium. They seemed to have tracked there first through the superior conjunctiva and then the superior limbus. The lashes were surgically removed, with good visual recovery. The authors present a short review of intra-ocular eyelash insertion. Copyright © 2014 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 21 CFR 864.7470 - Glycosylated hemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Glycosylated hemoglobin assay. 864.7470 Section 864.7470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages §...

  6. 21 CFR 864.7040 - Adenosine triphosphate release assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adenosine triphosphate release assay. 864.7040 Section 864.7040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages §...

  7. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864.7100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7100 Red blood...

  8. 21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Glutathione reductase assay. 864.7375 Section 864.7375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375...

  9. 21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glutathione reductase assay. 864.7375 Section 864.7375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375 Glutathione...

  10. 21 CFR 864.7060 - Antithrombin III assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Antithrombin III assay. 864.7060 Section 864.7060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7060 Antithrombin III...

  11. 21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Glutathione reductase assay. 864.7375 Section 864.7375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375 Glutathione...

  12. 21 CFR 864.7040 - Adenosine triphosphate release assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adenosine triphosphate release assay. 864.7040 Section 864.7040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7040...

  13. 21 CFR 864.7060 - Antithrombin III assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Antithrombin III assay. 864.7060 Section 864.7060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7060 Antithrombin III...

  14. 21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glutathione reductase assay. 864.7375 Section 864.7375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375 Glutathione...

  15. 21 CFR 864.7060 - Antithrombin III assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Antithrombin III assay. 864.7060 Section 864.7060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7060 Antithrombin III...

  16. 21 CFR 864.7040 - Adenosine triphosphate release assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adenosine triphosphate release assay. 864.7040 Section 864.7040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7040...

  17. 21 CFR 864.7060 - Antithrombin III assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Antithrombin III assay. 864.7060 Section 864.7060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7060 Antithrombin III...

  18. 21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glutathione reductase assay. 864.7375 Section 864.7375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375 Glutathione...

  19. 21 CFR 864.7040 - Adenosine triphosphate release assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adenosine triphosphate release assay. 864.7040 Section 864.7040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7040...

  20. Green Packaging Management of Logistics Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guirong; Zhao, Zongjian

    From the connotation of green logistics management, we discuss the principles of green packaging, and from the two levels of government and enterprises, we put forward a specific management strategy. The management of green packaging can be directly and indirectly promoted by laws, regulations, taxation, institutional and other measures. The government can also promote new investment to the development of green packaging materials, and establish specialized institutions to identify new packaging materials, standardization of packaging must also be accomplished through the power of the government. Business units of large scale through the packaging and container-based to reduce the use of packaging materials, develop and use green packaging materials and easy recycling packaging materials for proper packaging.

  1. Material efficiency in Dutch packaging policy.

    PubMed

    Worrell, Ernst; van Sluisveld, Mariësse A E

    2013-03-13

    Packaging materials are one of the largest contributors to municipal solid waste generation. In this paper, we evaluate the material impacts of packaging policy in The Netherlands, focusing on the role of material efficiency (or waste prevention). Since 1991, five different policies have been implemented to reduce the environmental impact of packaging. The analysis shows that Dutch packaging policies helped to reduce the total packaging volume until 1999. After 2000, packaging consumption increased more rapidly than the baseline, suggesting that policy measures were not effective. Generally, we see limited attention to material efficiency to reduce packaging material use. For this purpose, we tried to gain more insight in recent activities on material efficiency, by building a database of packaging prevention initiatives. We identified 131 alterations to packaging implemented in the period 2005-2010, of which weight reduction was the predominant approach. More appropriate packaging policy is needed to increase the effectiveness of policies, with special attention to material efficiency.

  2. Assays of Serum Testosterone.

    PubMed

    Herati, Amin S; Cengiz, Cenk; Lamb, Dolores J

    2016-05-01

    The diagnosis of male hypogonadism depends on an assessment of the clinical signs and symptoms of hypogonadism and serum testosterone level. Current clinical laboratory testosterone assay platforms include immunoassays and mass spectrometry. Despite significant advances to improve the accuracy and precision of the currently available assays, limited comparability exists between assays at the lower and upper extremes of the testosterone range. Because of this lack of comparability, there is no current gold standard assay for the assessment of total testosterone levels.

  3. 75 FR 60333 - Hazardous Material; Miscellaneous Packaging Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... Hazardous Material; Miscellaneous Packaging Amendments AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... materials packages may be considered a bulk packaging. The September 1, 2006 NPRM definition for ``bulk... erroneously stated Large Packagings would contain hazardous materials without an intermediate packaging,...

  4. A Pre- and Post-Evaluation of Integrating Sustainability Curriculum by Inserting Okala Modules into an Interior Design Materials and Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneiderman, Deborah; Freihoefer, Kara

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the integration of Okala curriculum into Interior Design coursework. Okala, as a teaching package, is utilized extensively in industrial design education. However, this study examines the expansion and insertion of Okala modules in an existing interior design curriculum. The Okala modules included…

  5. A Pre- and Post-Evaluation of Integrating Sustainability Curriculum by Inserting Okala Modules into an Interior Design Materials and Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneiderman, Deborah; Freihoefer, Kara

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the integration of Okala curriculum into Interior Design coursework. Okala, as a teaching package, is utilized extensively in industrial design education. However, this study examines the expansion and insertion of Okala modules in an existing interior design curriculum. The Okala modules included…

  6. Friction force measurement during cochlear implant insertion: application to a force-controlled insertion tool design.

    PubMed

    Miroir, Mathieu; Nguyen, Yann; Kazmitcheff, Guillaume; Ferrary, Evelyne; Sterkers, Olivier; Grayeli, Alexis Bozorg

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate force profiles during array insertion in human cochlea specimens and to evaluate a mechatronic inserter using a 1-axis force sensor. Today, the surgical challenge in cochlear implantation is the preservation of the anatomic structures and the residual hearing. In routine practice, the electrode array is inserted manually with a limited sensitive feedback. Hifocus 1J electrode arrays were studied. The bench test comprised a mechatronic inserter combined to a 1-axis force sensor between the inserter and the base of the array and a 6-axis force sensor beneath the cochlea model. Influence of insertion tube material, speed (0.15, 0.5, and 1.5 mm/s) and lubricant on frictions forces were studied (no-load). Different models were subsequently evaluated: epoxy scala tympani model and temporal bones. Frictions forces were lower in the plastic tube compared with those in the metal tube (0.09 ± 0.028 versus 0.14 ± 0.034 at 0.5 mm/s, p < 0.001) and with the use of hyaluronic acid gel. Speed did not influence frictions forces in our study. Insertion force profiles provided by the 1- and 6-axis force sensors were similar when friction forces inside the insertion tool (no-load measurements) were subtracted from the 1-axis sensor data in the epoxy and temporal bone models (mean error, 0.01 ± 0.001 N). Using a sensor included in the inserter, we were able to measure array insertion forces. This tool can be potentially used to provide real-time information to the surgeon during the procedure.

  7. Insertional Achilles tendinitis and Haglund's deformity.

    PubMed

    Kang, Steve; Thordarson, David B; Charlton, Timothy P

    2012-06-01

    Haglund's deformity is an enlargement of the posterosuperior prominence of the calcaneus, which is frequently associated with insertional Achilles tendinitis. To our knowledge, no study has been done successfully correlating the characteristics of a Haglund's deformity with insertional Achilles tendinitis. The purpose of our study was to analyze the characteristics of a Haglund's deformity in patients with and without insertional Achilles tendinitis to see if there was a correlation. The study was a retrospective radiographic review of a single surgeon's patients with insertional Achilles tendinitis from 2005 to 2008. Our study population consisted of 44 patients, 48 heels (22 male, 22 female) with insertional Achilles tendinitis, with a mean age of 52 (range, 23 to 79) years. Our control population consisted of 50 patients (25 males, 25 females) and 50 heels without insertional Achilles tendinitis with a mean age of 55.6 (range, 18 to 89) years. We introduced two new measurements of the Haglund's deformity in this study: the Haglund's deformity height and peak angle. A standing lateral foot or ankle radiograph was analyzed for each patient and the following measurements were made: Haglund deformity height and peak angle; Bohler's angle; Fowler-Philip angle; and parallel pitch sign. We also looked for the presence of calcification in the study group and the length and width of the calcification. Unpaired t-test was used to analyze the measurements between the groups. Ten patients' radiographs were re-measured and correlation coefficients were obtained to assess the reliability of the measuring techniques. For the insertional Achilles tendinitis group, the mean Haglund's deformity height was 9.6 (range, 5.3 to 15.3) mm and the mean Haglund's deformity peak angle was 105 (range, 87 to 123) degrees. Calcification was present in 35 of 48 or (73%) of patients with a mean length of 13.3 (range, 3.2 to 41.9) mm and mean width of 4.5 (range, 1.0 to 10.4) mm. In the control

  8. The reduction of packaging waste

    SciTech Connect

    Raney, E.A.; Hogan, J.J.; McCollom, M.L.; Meyer, R.J.

    1994-04-01

    Nationwide, packaging waste comprises approximately one-third of the waste disposed in sanitary landfills. the US Department of Energy (DOE) generated close to 90,000 metric tons of sanitary waste. With roughly one-third of that being packaging waste, approximately 30,000 metric tons are generated per year. The purpose of the Reduction of Packaging Waste project was to investigate opportunities to reduce this packaging waste through source reduction and recycling. The project was divided into three areas: procurement, onsite packaging and distribution, and recycling. Waste minimization opportunities were identified and investigated within each area, several of which were chosen for further study and small-scale testing at the Hanford Site. Test results, were compiled into five ``how-to`` recipes for implementation at other sites. The subject of the recipes are as follows: (1) Vendor Participation Program; (2) Reusable Containers System; (3) Shrink-wrap System -- Plastic and Corrugated Cardboard Waste Reduction; (4) Cardboard Recycling ; and (5) Wood Recycling.

  9. Reference waste package environment report

    SciTech Connect

    Glassley, W.E.

    1986-10-01

    One of three candidate repository sites for high-level radioactive waste packages is located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in rhyolitic tuff 700 to 1400 ft above the static water table. Calculations indicate that the package environment will experience a maximum temperature of {similar_to}230{sup 0}C at 9 years after emplacement. For the next 300 years the rock within 1 m of the waste packages will remain dehydrated. Preliminary results suggest that the waste package radiation field will have very little effect on the mechanical properties of the rock. Radiolysis products will have a negligible effect on the rock even after rehydration. Unfractured specimens of repository rock show no change in hydrologic characteristics during repeated dehydration-rehydration cycles. Fractured samples with initially high permeabilities show a striking permeability decrease during dehydration-rehydration cycling, which may be due to fracture healing via deposition of silica. Rock-water interaction studies demonstrate low and benign levels of anions and most cations. The development of sorptive secondary phases such as zeolites and clays suggests that anticipated rock-water interaction may produce beneficial changes in the package environment.

  10. Capillary-driven automatic packaging.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuzhe; Hong, Lingfei; Nie, Baoqing; Lam, Kit S; Pan, Tingrui

    2011-04-21

    Packaging continues to be one of the most challenging steps in micro-nanofabrication, as many emerging techniques (e.g., soft lithography) are incompatible with the standard high-precision alignment and bonding equipment. In this paper, we present a simple-to-operate, easy-to-adapt packaging strategy, referred to as Capillary-driven Automatic Packaging (CAP), to achieve automatic packaging process, including the desired features of spontaneous alignment and bonding, wide applicability to various materials, potential scalability, and direct incorporation in the layout. Specifically, self-alignment and self-engagement of the CAP process induced by the interfacial capillary interactions between a liquid capillary bridge and the top and bottom substrates have been experimentally characterized and theoretically analyzed with scalable implications. High-precision alignment (of less than 10 µm) and outstanding bonding performance (up to 300 kPa) has been reliably obtained. In addition, a 3D microfluidic network, aligned and bonded by the CAP technique, has been devised to demonstrate the applicability of this facile yet robust packaging technique for emerging microfluidic and bioengineering applications.

  11. Nanocellulose in green food packaging.

    PubMed

    Vilarinho, Fernanda; Sanches Silva, Ana; Vaz, M Fátima; Farinha, José Paulo

    2017-01-26

    The development of packaging materials with new functionalities and lower environmental impact is now an urgent need of our society. On one hand, the shelf-life extension of packaged products can be an answer to the exponential increase of worldwide demand for food. On the other hand, uncertainty of crude oil prices and reserves has imposed the necessity to find raw materials to replace oil-derived polymers. Additionally, consumers' awareness toward environmental issues increasingly pushes industries to look with renewed interest to "green" solutions. In response to these issues, numerous polymers have been exploited to develop biodegradable food packaging materials. Although the use of biopolymers has been limited due to their poor mechanical and barrier properties, these can be enhanced by adding reinforcing nanosized components to form nanocomposites. Cellulose is probably the most used and well-known renewable and sustainable raw material. The mechanical properties, reinforcing capabilities, abundance, low density, and biodegradability of nanosized cellulose make it an ideal candidate for polymer nanocomposites processing. Here we review the potential applications of cellulose based nanocomposites in food packaging materials, highlighting the several types of biopolymers with nanocellulose fillers that have been used to form bio-nanocomposite materials. The trends in nanocellulose packaging applications are also addressed.

  12. Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Its Feasibility for Military Feeding Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    prevent mold growth and is 1 a) b) Skin Tight Gas Atmosphere akingPackagingFood , :,i: Residual Barrier Packaging c) d) Gourmet Food Skintight Packaging...Bardier Brea Packaging ... Barrier packaging incorporates: Oxygen scavenger Moisture absorbent Bread Custom Permeability Slow cooked after packaged...packaging; c) sous vide packaging; d) active packaging. 2 used mainly for starch or bread products at ambient temperatures. An active packaging with a

  13. 21 CFR 886.5420 - Contact lens inserter/remover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Contact lens inserter/remover. 886.5420 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5420 Contact lens inserter/remover. (a) Identification. A contact lens inserter/remover is a handheld device intended to insert or...

  14. 21 CFR 886.5420 - Contact lens inserter/remover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Contact lens inserter/remover. 886.5420 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5420 Contact lens inserter/remover. (a) Identification. A contact lens inserter/remover is a handheld device intended to insert or...

  15. 21 CFR 886.5420 - Contact lens inserter/remover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Contact lens inserter/remover. 886.5420 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5420 Contact lens inserter/remover. (a) Identification. A contact lens inserter/remover is a handheld device intended to insert or...

  16. 21 CFR 886.5420 - Contact lens inserter/remover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contact lens inserter/remover. 886.5420 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5420 Contact lens inserter/remover. (a) Identification. A contact lens inserter/remover is a handheld device intended to insert or...

  17. 21 CFR 886.5420 - Contact lens inserter/remover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Contact lens inserter/remover. 886.5420 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5420 Contact lens inserter/remover. (a) Identification. A contact lens inserter/remover is a handheld device intended to insert or...

  18. Mechanism of Reduction in Titers From Lentivirus Vectors Carrying Large Inserts in the 3′LTR

    PubMed Central

    Urbinati, Fabrizia; Arumugam, Paritha; Higashimoto, Tomoyasu; Perumbeti, Anil; Mitts, Kyle; Xia, Ping; Malik, Punam

    2009-01-01

    Self-inactivating (SIN) lentiviruses flanked by the 1.2-kb chicken hypersensitive site-4 (cHS4) insulator element provide consistent, improved expression of transgenes, but have significantly lower titers. The mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Lengthening the lentiviral (LV) vector transgene cassette by an additional 1.2 kb by an internal cassette caused no further reduction in titers. However, when cHS4 sequences or inert DNA spacers of increasing size were placed in the 3′-long terminal repeat (LTR), infectious titers decreased proportional to the length of the insert. The stage of vector life cycle affected by vectors carrying the large cHS4 3′LTR insert was compared to a control vector: there was no increase in read-through transcription with insertion of the 1.2-kb cHS4 in the 3′LTR. Equal amount of full-length viral mRNA was produced in packaging cells and viral assembly/packaging was unaffected, resulting in comparable amounts of intact vector particles produced by either vectors. However, LV vectors carrying cHS4 in the 3′LTR were inefficiently processed following target-cell entry, with reduced reverse transcription and integration efficiency, and hence lower transduction titers. Therefore, vectors with large insertions in the 3′LTR are transcribed and packaged efficiently, but the LTR insert hinders viral-RNA (vRNA) processing and transduction of target cells. These studies have important implications in design of integrating vectors. PMID:19384292

  19. The Engineered SVA Trans-mobilization Assay.

    PubMed

    Bock, Anja; Schumann, Gerald G

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian genomes harbor autonomous retrotransposons coding for the proteins required for their own mobilization, and nonautonomous retrotransposons, such as the human SVA element, which are transcribed but do not have any coding capacity. Mobilization of nonautonomous retrotransposons depends on the recruitment of the protein machinery encoded by autonomous retrotransposons. Here, we summarize the experimental details of SVA trans-mobilization assays which address multiple questions regarding the biology of both nonautonomous SVA elements and autonomous LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposons. The assay evaluates if and to what extent a noncoding SVA element is mobilized in trans by the L1-encoded protein machinery, the structural organization of the resulting marked de novo insertions, if they mimic endogenous SVA insertions and what the roles of individual domains of the nonautonomous retrotransposon for SVA mobilization are. Furthermore, the highly sensitive trans-mobilization assay can be used to verify the presence of otherwise barely detectable endogenously expressed functional L1 proteins via their marked SVA trans-mobilizing activity.

  20. Embedded Multiprocessor Technology for VHSIC Insertion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Paul J.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on embedded multiprocessor technology for VHSIC insertion are presented. The objective was to develop multiprocessor system technology providing user-selectable fault tolerance, increased throughput, and ease of application representation for concurrent operation. The approach was to develop graph management mapping theory for proper performance, model multiprocessor performance, and demonstrate performance in selected hardware systems.