Science.gov

Sample records for assess energy consumption

  1. Assessment of Housing Energy Consumption in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerel Kandemir, Suheyla; Erdem Çerçevik, Ali; Ankara, Huseyin; Ozgur Yayli, M.

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we analyze housing energy consumption in Turkey. The energy consumption is evaluated by using the multivariate techniques such as cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis. The number of clusters for housing energy consumption was selected as five years. Finally, cluster and MDS analysis results show that the 2009 and 2010 was the most similar consumption years in housing energy consumption. Finally, this paper present that the usefulness of cluster and MDS analysis for assessment in the energy consumption.

  2. Assessing the Energy Consumption of Smartphone Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abousaleh, Mustafa M.

    Mobile devices are increasingly becoming essential in people's lives. The advancement in technology and mobility factor are allowing users to utilize mobile devices for communication, entertainment, financial planning, fitness tracking, etc. As a result, mobile applications are also becoming important factors contributing to user utility. However, battery capacity is the limiting factor impacting the quality of user experience. Hence, it is imperative to understand how much energy impact do mobile apps have on the system relative to other device activities. This thesis presents a systematic studying of the energy impact of mobile apps features. Time-series electrical current measurements are collected from 4 different modern smartphones. Statistical analysis methodologies are used to calculate the energy impact of each app feature by identifying and extracting mobile app-feature events from the overall current signal. In addition, the app overhead energy costs are also computed. Total energy consumption equations for each component is developed and an overall total energy consumption equation is presented. Minutes Lost (ML) of normal phone operations due to the energy consumption of the mobile app functionality is computed for cases where the mobile app is simulated to run on the various devices for 30 minutes. Tutela Technologies Inc. mobile app, NAT, is used for this study. NAT has two main features: QoS and Throughput. The impact of the QoS feature is indistinguishable, i.e. ML is zero, relative to other phone activities. The ML with only the TP feature enabled is on average 2.1 minutes. Enabling the GPS increases the ML on average to 11.5 minutes. Displaying the app GUI interface in addition to running the app features and enabling the GPS results in an average ML of 12.4 minutes. Amongst the various mobile app features and components studied, the GPS consumes the highest amount of energy. It is estimated that the GPS increases the ML by about 448%.

  3. Energy Consumption Series: Assessment of energy use in multibuilding facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This study originally had two primary objectives: (1) to improve EIA`s estimates of district heat consumption for commercial buildings in the CBECS sample that lacked individual metering and (2) to provide a basis for estimating primary fuel consumption by central plants serving commercial buildings. These objectives were expanded to include additional questions relating to these central plants. Background information is provided on the CBECS and on district heating and cooling, which is the most important type of energy-related service provided by multibuilding facilities with central physical plants. Chapters 2 and 3 present data results on multibuilding facilities from the 1989 CBECS and the pilot Facility Survey. Chapter 2 presents the characteristics of multibuilding facilities and the individual buildings located on these facilities. Chapter 3 provides estimates of energy inputs and outputs of multibuilding facilities with central physical plants. Chapter 4 assesses the quality of the pilot Facility Survey and includes recommendations for future work in this area. The appendices provide more detailed information on the Facility Survey itself, in particular the limitations on the use of these results. Appendix B, ``Data Quality``, provides detailed information relating to the limitations of the data and the conclusions presented in this report. As a pilot study, the 1989 Facility Survey has some serious flaws and limitations which are recognized in this report.

  4. Building environment assessment and energy consumption estimation using smart phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiangli; Zhang, Li; Jia, Yingqi; Wang, Zihan; Jin, Xin; Zhao, Xuefeng

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, an APP for building indoor environment evaluation and energy consumption estimation based on Android platform is proposed and established. While using the APP, the smart phone built-in sensors are called for real-time monitoring of the building environmental information such as temperature, humidity and noise, etc. the built-in algorithm is developed to calculate the heat and power consumption, and questionnaires, grading and other methods are used to feed back to the space heating system. In addition, with the application of the technology of big data and cloud technology, the data collected by users will be uploaded to the cloud. After the statistics of the uploaded data, regional difference can be obtained, thus providing a more accurate basis for macro-control and research of energy, thermal comfort, greenhouse effect.

  5. [Life cycle assessment of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of cellulosic ethanol from corn stover].

    PubMed

    Tian, Wang; Liao, Cuiping; Li, Li; Zhao, Daiqing

    2011-03-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is the only standardized tool currently used to assess environmental loads of products and processes. The life cycle analysis, as a part of LCA, is a useful and powerful methodology for studying life cycle energy efficiency and life cycle GHG emission. To quantitatively explain the potential of energy saving and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction of corn stover-based ethanol, we analyzed life cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions of corn stover-based ethanol by the method of life cycle analysis. The processes are dilute acid prehydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis. The functional unit was defined as 1 km distance driven by the vehicle. Results indicated: compared with gasoline, the corn stover-based E100 (100% ethanol) and E10 (a blend of 10% ethanol and 90% gasoline by volume) could reduce life cycle fossil energy consumption by 79.63% and 6.25% respectively, as well as GHG emissions by 53.98% and 6.69%; the fossil energy consumed by biomass stage was 68.3% of total fossil energy input, N-fertilizer and diesel were the main factors which contributed 45.78% and 33.26% to biomass stage; electricity production process contributed 42.06% to the net GHG emissions, the improvement of technology might reduce emissions markedly.

  6. Benchmarking the energy efficiency of Dutch industry: An assessment of the expected effect on energy consumption and CO2 emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Phylipsen, Dian; Blok, Kornelis; Worrell, Ernst; De Beer, Jeroen

    2002-06-01

    As part of its energy and climate policy the Dutch government has reached an agreement with the Dutch energy-intensive industry that is explicitly based on industry's relative energy efficiency performance. The energy efficiency of the Dutch industry is benchmarked against that of comparable industries in countries world-wide. In the agreement, industry is required to belong to the top-of-the-world in terms of energy efficiency. In return, the government refrains from implementing additional climate policies.This article assesses the potential effects of this agreement on energy consumption and CO2 emissions by comparing the current level of energy efficiency of the Dutch industry - including electricity production - to that of the most efficient countries and regions. At the current structure achieving the regional best practice level for the selected energy-intensive industries would result in a 5plus or minus 2 percent lower current primary energy consumption than the actual level. Most of the savings are expected in the petrochemical industry and in electricity generation. Avoided CO2 emissions would amount to 4 Mt CO2. A first estimate of the effect of the benchmarking agreement in 2012 suggests primary energy savings of 50-130 PJ or 5-10 Mt CO2 avoided compared to the estimated Business as Usual development (5-15 percent). This saving is smaller than what a continuation of the existing policies of Long Term Agreements would probably deliver.

  7. Energy Consumption vs. Energy Requirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, L. T.; Zhang, Tengyan; Schlup, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Energy is necessary for any phenomenon to occur or any process to proceed. Nevertheless, energy is never consumed; instead, it is conserved. What is consumed is available energy, or exergy, accompanied by an increase in entropy. Obviously, the terminology, "energy consumption" is indeed a misnomer although it is ubiquitous in the…

  8. Energy Consumption vs. Energy Requirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, L. T.; Zhang, Tengyan; Schlup, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Energy is necessary for any phenomenon to occur or any process to proceed. Nevertheless, energy is never consumed; instead, it is conserved. What is consumed is available energy, or exergy, accompanied by an increase in entropy. Obviously, the terminology, "energy consumption" is indeed a misnomer although it is ubiquitous in the…

  9. Reducing theatre energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Tom; Morris, Gemma; Parker, Beena

    2014-03-01

    As little has been written to describe the electrical energy required to deliver anaesthesia, we undertook to measure the total electrical energy consumption for a day's clinical anaesthesia. Daily energy consumption related to anaesthesia was measured with commercially available 'plug-in' power and energy meters, and additional in-use energy estimates were based on direct observation made in theatre and from measuring the power consumption of anaesthetic gas scavenging system (AGSS) pumps. Total energy use for anaesthesia per day was 28 kWh, and cost the modest sum of around pound 2.24 per day. Disproportionately large amounts of energy were required to run the anaesthetic gas scavenging pumps and the overhead radiant heaters. Energy saving can be safely obtained by switching off AGSS out of hours, and placing radiant heaters on timing or thermostatic controls.

  10. Energy-consumption modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    A highly sophisticated and accurate approach is described to compute on an hourly or daily basis the energy consumption for space heating by individual buildings, urban sectors, and whole cities. The need for models and specifically weather-sensitive models, composite models, and space-heating models are discussed. Development of the Colorado State University Model, based on heat-transfer equations and on a heuristic, adaptive, self-organizing computation learning approach, is described. Results of modeling energy consumption by the city of Minneapolis and Cheyenne are given. Some data on energy consumption in individual buildings are included.

  11. Embodied exergy-based assessment of energy and resource consumption of buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Jing; Li, Zhi; Li, Jiashuo; Shao, Ling; Han, Mengyao; Guo, Shan

    2014-03-01

    As an effective approach to achieve a more unified and scientific assessment, embodied exergy-based analysis is devised to assess the energy and resource consumption of buildings. A systematic accounting of the landmark buildings in E-town, Beijing is performed, on the basis of raw project data in the Bill of Quantities (BOQ) and the most recent embodied exergy intensities for the Chinese economy in 2007 with 135 industrial sectors. The embodied exergy of the engineering structure of the case buildings is quantified as 4.95E + 14 J, corresponding to an intensity of 8.25E + 09 J/m2 floor area. Total exergy of 51.9% and 28.8% are embodied in the steel and concrete inputs, respectively, due to the fact that the case buildings are structured of reinforced-concrete. The fossil fuel source (coal, crude oil, and natural gas) is predominant among four categories of natural resources (fossil fuel, biological, mineral, and environmental), accounting for 89.9% of the embodied exergy, with coal as the dominant energy resource (75.5%). The material accounts for 89.5% of the embodied exergy, in contrast to 9.0%, 1.4%, and 0.1% for manpower, energy, and equipment respectively. This result indicates that great attention should be given to the use of various materials vs. their value of their contribution.

  12. Energy and resource consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The present and projected energy requirements for the United States are discussed. The energy consumption and demand sectors are divided into the categories: residential and commercial, transportation, and industrial and electrical generation (utilities). All sectors except electrical generation use varying amounts of fossile fuel resources for non-energy purposes. The highest percentage of non-energy use by sector is industrial with 71.3 percent. The household and commercial sector uses 28.4 percent, and transportation about 0.3 percent. Graphs are developed to project fossil fuel demands for non-energy purposes and the perdentage of the total fossil fuel used for non-energy needs.

  13. Plant Wide Assessment of Energy Usage Utilizing SitEModelling as a Tool for Optimizing Energy Consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Ralf Janowsky, Ph.D.; Tracey Mole, Ph.D.

    2007-12-31

    The Evonik Degussa Corporation is the global market leader in the specialty chemicals industry. Innovative products and system solutions make an indispensable contribution to our customers' success. We refer to this as "creating essentials". In fiscal 2004, Degussa's 45,000 employees worldwide generated sales of 11.2 billion euros and operating profits (EBIT) of 965 million euros. Evonik Degussa Corporation has performed a plant wide energy usage assessment at the Mapleton, Illinois facility, which consumed 1,182,330 MMBTU in 2003. The purpose of this study was to identify opportunities for improvement regarding the plant’s utility requirements specific to their operation. The production is based mainly on natural gas usage for steam, process heating and hydrogen production. The current high price for natural gas in the US is not very competitive compared to other countries. Therefore, all efforts must be taken to minimize the utility consumption in order to maximize market position and minimize fixed cost increases due to the rising costs of energy. The main objective of this plant wide assessment was to use a methodology called Site Energy Modelling (SitE Modelling) to identify areas of potential improvement for energy savings, either in implementing a single process change or in changing the way different processes interact with each other. The overall goal was to achieve energy savings of more than 10% compared to the 2003 energy figures of the Mapleton site. The final savings breakdown is provided below: - 4.1% savings for steam generation and delivery These savings were accomplished through better control schemes, more constant and optimized loading of the boilers and increased boiler efficiency through an advanced control schemes. - 1.6% savings for plant chemical processing These saving were accomplished through optimized processing heating efficiency and batch recipes, as well as an optimized production schedule to help equalize the boiler load (e

  14. Energy sustainability: consumption, efficiency, and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    One of the critical challenges in achieving sustainability is finding a way to meet the energy consumption needs of a growing population in the face of increasing economic prosperity and finite resources. According to ecological footprint computations, the global resource consumption began exceeding planetary supply in 1977 and by 2030, global energy demand, population, and gross domestic product are projected to greatly increase over 1977 levels. With the aim of finding sustainable energy solutions, we present a simple yet rigorous procedure for assessing and counterbalancing the relationship between energy demand, environmental impact, population, GDP, and energy efficiency. Our analyses indicated that infeasible increases in energy efficiency (over 100 %) would be required by 2030 to return to 1977 environmental impact levels and annual reductions (2 and 3 %) in energy demand resulted in physical, yet impractical requirements; hence, a combination of policy and technology approaches is needed to tackle this critical challenge. This work emphasizes the difficulty in moving toward energy sustainability and helps to frame possible solutions useful for policy and management. Based on projected energy consumption, environmental impact, human population, gross domestic product (GDP), and energy efficiency, for this study, we explore the increase in energy-use efficiency and the decrease in energy use intensity required to achieve sustainable environmental impact le

  15. Assessing the specific energy consumption and physical properties of comminuted Douglas-fir chips for bioconversion

    Treesearch

    Yalan Liu; Jinwu Wang; Michael P. Wolcott

    2016-01-01

    Size reduction homogenizes the bulk biomass and facilitates downstream feedstock handling, transportation, and storage. Effects of feeding rate, mill-type (hammer and knife mill), screen size, and moisture content on comminution energy consumption of commercial Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) pulp chips were quantified. The resulting particles...

  16. Establishment and Assessment of New Formulas for Energy Consumption Estimation in Adult Burn Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Zhang; Hong, Yan; Chao, Wang; Lijuan, Song; Hongyu, Wang; Dan, Wu; Hua, Jiang; Shiliang, Wang

    2014-01-01

    Objective An accurate knowledge of energy consumption in burn patients is a prerequisite for rational nutrition therapy. This study sought to create a formula that accounts for the metabolic characteristics of adult burn patients to accurately estimate energy consumption of patients with different areas and extents of burn and at different times after injury. Methods Resting energy expenditure (REE) data on 66 burn patients, with total body surface area (TBSA) of burns ranging from 4% to 96%, were evaluated at different times after injury. REE values were determined in patients using indirect calorimetry at days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after injury. We then constructed a mathematical model of REE changes post-burn. Next, established two new formulas (one non-linear and the other linear) for energy consumption estimation using model-based analytical solution and regression analysis. The new formulas were compared with measured REE and commonly used formulas including those of Carlson, Xie, Curreri, and Milner to determine accuracy and reliability. Results Comparative analysis showed that the new formulas offered significantly higher accuracy and reliability than the Milner formula, which is considered the most accurate of commonly used burn energy consumption estimate formulas. The accuracy of the new nonlinear formula (94.29%) and that of the linear formula (91.43%) were significantly higher than that of Milner formula (72.86%) when compared to measured REE (χ2  =  11.706, P  =  0.001; χ2  =  8.230, P  =  0.004, respectively). The reliabilities of the new estimation formulas were both 100% and that of Milner formula was 74.24% (χ2  =  19.513, P  =  0.000). Conclusion The new formulas constructed in this study provide reliable simulation of the impact of the degree of burn and post-burn days on energy consumption and offer notably higher accuracy and reliability than other formulas. These formulas will help determine nutritional needs

  17. Energy consumption: Past, present, future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The energy consumption history of the United States and the changes which could occur in consumption characteristics in the next 50 years are presented. The various sources of energy are analyzed to show the limitations involved in development and utilization as a function of time available. Several scenarios were prepared to show the consumption and supply of energy under varying conditions.

  18. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the US economy. These estimates are based on data from the 1991 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). This survey--administered by the Energy End Use and Integrated Statistics Division, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Energy Information Administration (EIA)--is the most comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries.

  19. Assessment of pattern for consumption and awareness regarding energy drinks among medical students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Energy drink is a type of beverage which contains stimulant drugs chiefly caffeine and marketed as mental and physical stimulator. Coffee, tea, soft drinks and other caffeinated beverages are not considered as energy drinks. Purpose of our study was to evaluate the awareness of medical students regarding energy drinks and their pattern and reason of energy drinks consumption. Methods This was a cross sectional and observational study conducted during the period of January – December 2012 at four Medical Colleges (Dow Medical College, Sindh Medical College, Jinnah Medical College and Liaquat National Medical College) of Karachi, Pakistan. Over all 900 M.B.B.S students were invited to participate after taking written consent but viable questionnaire was submitted by 866 students, estimated response rate of 96%. All data was entered and analyzed through SPSS version 19. Result Out of 866 participants, majority were females 614 (70.9%) and only 252 (28.5%) were males, with a mean age of 21.43 ± 1.51 years. Energy drinks users were 350 (42.89%) and non users were 516 (59.58%). Only 102 (29.3%) users and 159 (30.7%) non users know the correct definition of Energy drinks. Regarding awareness, mostly user and non users thought that usage of energy drinks had been on rise due to its usefulness in reducing sleep hours [users193 (43.9%), nonusers 247 (56.1%) (p < 0.05)], for studying or completing major projects [users184 (45.0%), nonusers 225 (55.0%) (p < 0.05)] and for refreshment purposes [users179 (44.9%), nonusers 220 (55.1%) (p < 0.05)]. Two main reasons of not using energy drinks by non-users were “awareness from its side effects” 247 (47.8%) and “have no specific reason” 265 (51.3%). Most common side effects reported by users were fatigue 111 (31.7%) and weight gain 102 (29.4%). Conclusion In sum, the fact that despite serious side effects of weight gaining and fatigue, practice of consuming energy drinks is highly prevalent among medical

  20. Assessment of pattern for consumption and awareness regarding energy drinks among medical students.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Hafiz Muhammad; Mughal, Anum; Edhi, Muhammad Muzzammil; Saleem, Shafaq; Rao, Masood Hussain; Aftab, Anum; Hanif, Maliha; Ahmed, Alina; Khan, Agha Muhammad Hammad

    2013-01-01

    Energy drink is a type of beverage which contains stimulant drugs chiefly caffeine and marketed as mental and physical stimulator. Coffee, tea, soft drinks and other caffeinated beverages are not considered as energy drinks. Purpose of our study was to evaluate the awareness of medical students regarding energy drinks and their pattern and reason of energy drinks consumption. This was a cross sectional and observational study conducted during the period of January - December 2012 at four Medical Colleges (Dow Medical College, Sindh Medical College, Jinnah Medical College and Liaquat National Medical College) of Karachi, Pakistan. Over all 900 M.B.B.S students were invited to participate after taking written consent but viable questionnaire was submitted by 866 students, estimated response rate of 96%. All data was entered and analyzed through SPSS version 19. Out of 866 participants, majority were females 614 (70.9%) and only 252 (28.5%) were males, with a mean age of 21.43 ± 1.51 years. Energy drinks users were 350 (42.89%) and non users were 516 (59.58%). Only 102 (29.3%) users and 159 (30.7%) non users know the correct definition of Energy drinks. Regarding awareness, mostly user and non users thought that usage of energy drinks had been on rise due to its usefulness in reducing sleep hours [users193 (43.9%), nonusers 247 (56.1%) (p < 0.05)], for studying or completing major projects [users184 (45.0%), nonusers 225 (55.0%) (p < 0.05)] and for refreshment purposes [users179 (44.9%), nonusers 220 (55.1%) (p < 0.05)]. Two main reasons of not using energy drinks by non-users were "awareness from its side effects" 247 (47.8%) and "have no specific reason" 265 (51.3%). Most common side effects reported by users were fatigue 111 (31.7%) and weight gain 102 (29.4%). In sum, the fact that despite serious side effects of weight gaining and fatigue, practice of consuming energy drinks is highly prevalent among medical students, particularly because they are ever

  1. Manufacturing energy consumption survey: Consumption of energy, 1985. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-18

    In recent years, industrial consumption of energy in the United States has been declining despite increasing industrial output. Nevertheless, total net energy consumption by the entire industrial sector was 20.4 quadrillion Btu (quads) in 1985, which was 37 percent of the US total for the residential, commercial, transportation, and industrial sectors. A clearer understanding of how energy is used in the industrial sector can help the Nation anticipate how future expansion of and change in the US industrial base might affect future energy requirements. The Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) is designed to contribute to this understanding. This report, the first of a series based on the 1985 MECS, provides a comprehensive description of energy consumption by manufacturing industries in the United States. The MECS is the first survey conducted by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to collect detailed data on energy use by manufacturing industries. The MECS does not include energy consumption by mining, agriculture, construction, and electric utilities. Energy consumption by manufacturers is approximately 80 percent of the consumption of the entire industrial sector. 55 refs., 7 figs., 31 tabs.

  2. Assessment of Vehicle Sizing, Energy Consumption and Cost Through Large Scale Simulation of Advanced Vehicle Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Moawad, Ayman; Kim, Namdoo; Shidore, Neeraj; Rousseau, Aymeric

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) has been developing more energy-efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies that will enable America to use less petroleum. The long-term aim is to develop "leapfrog" technologies that will provide Americans with greater freedom of mobility and energy security, while lowering costs and reducing impacts on the environment. This report reviews the results of the DOE VTO. It gives an assessment of the fuel and light-duty vehicle technologies that are most likely to be established, developed, and eventually commercialized during the next 30 years (up to 2045). Because of the rapid evolution of component technologies, this study is performed every two years to continuously update the results based on the latest state-of-the-art technologies.

  3. Energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and assessment of sustainability index in corn agroecosystems of Iran.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Mohammad; Damghani, Abdolmajid Mahdavi; Khoramivafa, Mahmud

    2014-09-15

    The objectives of this study were to assess the energy flow, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, global warming potential (GWP) and sustainability of corn production systems in Kermanshah province, western Iran. The data were collected from 70 corn agroecosystems which were selected based on randomly sampled method in the summer of 2011. The results indicated that total input and output energy were 50,485 and 134,946 MJ ha(-1), respectively. The highest share of total input energy in corn production systems was recorded for N fertilizer, electricity power and diesel fuel with 35, 25 and 20%, respectively. Energy use efficiency and energy productivity were 2.67 and 0.18 kg MJ(-1), respectively. Also agrochemical energy ratio was estimated as 40%. Applying chemical inputs produced the following emissions of greenhouse gases: 2994.66 kg CO2, 31.58 kg N2O and 3.82 kg CH4 per hectare. Hence, total GWP was 12,864.84 kg Co2eq ha(-1) in corn production systems. In terms of CO2 equivalents 23% of the GWPs came from CO2, 76% from N2O, and 1% from CH4. In this study input and output C equivalents per total GHG and Biomass production were 3508.59 and 10,696.34 kg Cha(-1). Net carbon and sustainability indexes in corn production systems were 7187.75 kg Cha(-1) and 2.05. Accordingly, efficient use of energy is essential to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impact in corn agroecosystems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. US energy consumption and supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanatta, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    Energy consumption and cost in 1978 and 1979 are discussed with emphasis on the effect of imported oil on the economy of the United States. Some of the international aspects of energy supply are described, and actions to meet the probability of a cutoff of oil imports from the Persian Gulf area are suggested. Short and long range strategies for ensuring energy self sufficiency are discussed. A rationale for major, long range dependence on fission and fusion power is given, and the possible advantages of a nearly all electric energy system are mentioned. Projection of energy consumption and supply to the year 2020 based upon economic and demographic models is discussed.

  5. Energy Beverage Consumption Among Naval Aviation Candidates.

    PubMed

    Sather, Thomas E; Delorey, Donald R

    2016-06-01

    Since the debut of energy beverages, the consumption of energy beverages has been immensely popular with young adults. Research regarding energy beverage consumption has included college students, European Union residents, and U.S. Army military personnel. However, energy beverage consumption among naval aviation candidates in the United States has yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to assess energy beverage consumption patterns (frequency and volume) among naval aviation candidates, including attitudes and perceptions regarding the benefits and safety of energy beverage consumption. A 44-item survey was used to assess energy beverage consumption patterns of 302 students enrolled in the Aviation Preflight Indoctrination Course at Naval Air Station Pensacola, FL. Results indicated that 79% of participants (N = 239) reported consuming energy beverages within the last year. However, of those who reported consuming energy beverages within the last year, only 36% (N = 85) reported consuming energy beverages within the last 30 d. Additionally, 51% (N = 153) of participants reported no regular energy beverages consumption. The majority of participants consumed energy beverages for mental alertness (67%), mental endurance (37%), and physical endurance (12%). The most reported side effects among participants included increased mental alertness (67%), increased heart rate (53%), and restlessness (41%). Naval aviation candidates appear to use energy drinks as frequently as a college student population, but less frequently than expected for an active duty military population. The findings of this study indicate that naval aviation candidates rarely use energy beverages (less than once per month), but when consumed, they use it for fatigue management.

  6. Building Energy Consumption Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-02

    DOE2.1E-121SUNOS is a set of modules for energy analysis in buildings. Modules are included to calculate the heating and cooling loads for each space in a building for each hour of a year (LOADS), to simulate the operation and response of the equipment and systems that control temperature and humidity and distribute heating, cooling and ventilation to the building (SYSTEMS), to model energy conversion equipment that uses fuel or electricity to provide the required heating, cooling and electricity (PLANT), and to compute the cost of energy and building operation based on utility rate schedule and economic parameters (ECONOMICS).

  7. Building Energy Consumption Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    2005-01-24

    DOE2.1E-121 is a set of modules for energy analysis in buildings. Modules are included to calculate the heating and cooling loads for each space in a building for each hour of a year (LOADS), to simulate the operation and response of the equipment and systems that control temperature and humidity and distribute heating, cooling and ventilation to the building (SYSTEMS), to model energy conversion equipment that uses fuel or electricity to provide the required heating, cooling and electricity (PLANT), and to compute the cost of energy and building operation based on utility rate schedule and economic parameters (ECONOMICS). DOE2.1E-121 contains modifications to DOE2.1E which allows 1000 zones to be modeled.

  8. Greenhouse energy consumption

    Treesearch

    Eric van Steenis

    2009-01-01

    Depending on location and luck, natural gas rates have gone from less that CAN$ 3.00 to more than CAN$ 20.00/gigajoule (Gj). Natural gas rates are currently around CAN$ 13.00/Gj, although industry "analysts" predict an increase. A gigajoule is equivalent to the energy released by the combustion of approximately 30 L (8 gal) of gasoline. It is also equivalent...

  9. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy based on data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey. The sample used in this report represented about 250,000 of the largest manufacturing establishments which account for approximately 98 percent of U.S. economic output from manufacturing, and an expected similar proportion of manufacturing energy use. The amount of energy use was collected for all operations of each establishment surveyed. Highlights of the report include profiles for the four major energy-consuming industries (petroleum refining, chemical, paper, and primary metal industries), and an analysis of the effects of changes in the natural gas and electricity markets on the manufacturing sector. Seven appendices are included to provide detailed background information. 10 figs., 51 tabs.

  10. Hypercoagulability after energy drink consumption.

    PubMed

    Pommerening, Matthew J; Cardenas, Jessica C; Radwan, Zayde A; Wade, Charles E; Holcomb, John B; Cotton, Bryan A

    2015-12-01

    Energy drink consumption in the United States has more than doubled over the last decade and has been implicated in cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, and even sudden cardiac death. We hypothesized that energy drink consumption may increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events by increasing platelet aggregation, thereby resulting in a relatively hypercoagulable state and increased risk of thrombosis. Thirty-two healthy volunteers aged 18-40 y were given 16 oz of bottled water or a standardized, sugar-free energy drink on two separate occasions, 1-wk apart. Beverages were consumed after an overnight fast over a 30-min period. Coagulation parameters and platelet function were measured before and 60 min after consumption using thrombelastography and impedance aggregometry. No statistically significant differences in coagulation were detected using kaolin or rapid thrombelastography. In addition, no differences in platelet aggregation were detected using ristocetin, collagen, thrombin receptor-activating peptide, or adenosine diphosphate-induced multiple impedance aggregometry. However, compared to water controls, energy drink consumption resulted in a significant increase in platelet aggregation via arachidonic acid-induced activation (area under the aggregation curve, 72.4 U versus 66.3 U; P = 0.018). Energy drinks are associated with increased platelet activity via arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation within 1 h of consumption. Although larger clinical studies are needed to further address the safety and health concerns of these drinks, the increased platelet response may provide a mechanism by which energy drinks increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Energy consumption in thermomechanical pulping

    SciTech Connect

    Marton, R.; Tsujimoto, N.; Eskelinen, E.

    1981-08-01

    Various components of refining energy were determined experimentally and compared with those calculated on the basis of the dimensions of morphological elements of wood. The experimentally determined fiberization energy of spruce was 6 to 60 times larger than the calculated value and that of birch 3 to 15 times larger. The energy consumed in reducing the Canadian standard freeness of isolated fibers from 500 to 150 ml was found to be approximately 1/3 of the total fiber development energy for both spruce and birch TMP. Chip size affected the refining energy consumption; the total energy dropped by approximately 30% when chip size was reduced from 16 mm to 3 mm in the case of spruce and approximately 40% for birch. 6 refs.

  12. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  13. Controlling Energy Consumption in Single Buildings.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    able to make an accu- rate assessment of the opportunities for reducing the energy consumption of existing buildlings . A cost benefit analysis provides...Energy Conservation with Comfort - published by Honeywell Information on how to obtain these documents is contained in Appendix A, Table A.3. 1. All...intelligence and capabilities to the control field. It is now possible, using these microprocessors, to scan sensors and to gather information such as temper

  14. Minority energy assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Teotia, A.P.S.; Poyer, D.A.; Lampley, L.; Anderson, J.L.

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to project household energy consumption, energy expenditure, and energy expenditure as share of income for five population groups from 1991 to 2009. The approach uses the Minority Energy Assessment Model (MEAM), developed by Argonne National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy's Office of Minority Economic Impact. The MEAM provides a framework that can be used to forecast regional energy consumption and energy expenditure for majority, black, Hispanic, poor, and nonpoor households. The forecasts of key macroeconomic and energy variables used as exogenous variables in the MEAM were obtained from the Data Resources, Inc., Macromodel and Energy Model. Generally, the projections of household energy consumption, expenditure, and energy expenditure as share of income vary across population groups and census regions.

  15. State energy data report 1992: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This is a report of energy consumption by state for the years 1960 to 1992. The report contains summaries of energy consumption for the US and by state, consumption by source, comparisons to other energy use reports, consumption by energy use sector, and describes the estimation methodologies used in the preparation of the report. Some years are not listed specifically although they are included in the summary of data.

  16. Comparing the Life Cycle Energy Consumption, Global ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Managing the water-energy-nutrient nexus for the built environment requires, in part, a full system analysis of energy consumption, global warming and eutrophication potentials of municipal water services. As an example, we evaluated the life cycle energy use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and aqueous nutrient releases of the whole anthropogenic municipal water cycle starting from raw water extraction to wastewater treatment and reuse/discharge for five municipal water and wastewater systems. The assessed options included conventional centralized services and four alternative options following the principles of source-separation and water fit-for-purpose. The comparative life cycle assessment identified that centralized drinking water supply coupled with blackwater energy recovery and on-site greywater treatment and reuse was the most energyand carbon-efficient water service system evaluated, while the conventional (drinking water and sewerage) centralized system ranked as the most energy- and carbon-intensive system. The electricity generated from blackwater and food residuals co-digestion was estimated to offset at least 40% of life cycle energy consumption for water/waste services. The dry composting toilet option demonstrated the lowest life cycle eutrophication potential. The nutrients in wastewater effluent are the dominating contributors for the eutrophication potential for the assessed system configurations. Among the parameters for which variability

  17. Comparing the Life Cycle Energy Consumption, Global ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Managing the water-energy-nutrient nexus for the built environment requires, in part, a full system analysis of energy consumption, global warming and eutrophication potentials of municipal water services. As an example, we evaluated the life cycle energy use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and aqueous nutrient releases of the whole anthropogenic municipal water cycle starting from raw water extraction to wastewater treatment and reuse/discharge for five municipal water and wastewater systems. The assessed options included conventional centralized services and four alternative options following the principles of source-separation and water fit-for-purpose. The comparative life cycle assessment identified that centralized drinking water supply coupled with blackwater energy recovery and on-site greywater treatment and reuse was the most energyand carbon-efficient water service system evaluated, while the conventional (drinking water and sewerage) centralized system ranked as the most energy- and carbon-intensive system. The electricity generated from blackwater and food residuals co-digestion was estimated to offset at least 40% of life cycle energy consumption for water/waste services. The dry composting toilet option demonstrated the lowest life cycle eutrophication potential. The nutrients in wastewater effluent are the dominating contributors for the eutrophication potential for the assessed system configurations. Among the parameters for which variability

  18. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Matthew K.; Chassin, David P.; Dagle, Jeffery E.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael; Winiarski, David W.; Pratt, Robert G.; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie

    2008-09-02

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  19. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Matthew K.; Chassin, David P.; Dagle, Jeffery E.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael; Winiarski, David W.; Pratt, Robert G.; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie

    2006-03-07

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  20. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  1. Household vehicles energy consumption 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-09

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Included are data about: the number and type of vehicles in the residential sector, the characteristics of those vehicles, the total annual Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT), the per household and per vehicle VMT, the vehicle fuel consumption and expenditures, and vehicle fuel efficiencies. The data for this report are based on the household telephone interviews from the 1991 RTECS, conducted during 1991 and early 1992. The 1991 RTECS represents 94.6 million households, of which 84.6 million own or have access to 151.2 million household motor vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  2. A holistic approach for the assessment of the indoor environmental quality, student productivity, and energy consumption in primary schools.

    PubMed

    Dorizas, Paraskevi Vivian; Assimakopoulos, Margarita-Niki; Santamouris, Mattheos

    2015-05-01

    The perception of the indoor environmental quality (IEQ) through questionnaires in conjunction with in-field measurements related to the indoor air quality (IAQ), the thermal comfort and the lighting environment were studied in nine naturally ventilated schools of Athens, Greece. Cluster analysis was carried out in order to determine the ranges of indoor air pollutants, temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), and ventilation rates at which the students were satisfied with the indoor environment. It was found that increased levels of particulate matter did not have a negative effect on students' perception while students seemed to link the degradation of IAQ with temperature variations. Statistically significant correlations were further found between measurement results and students' perception of the IEQ. Students' sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms and performance of schoolwork were also investigated as a function of the levels of indoor air pollutants and ventilation, and there were found significant positive correlations between particulate matter (PM) and certain health symptoms. Students' learning performance seemed to be affected by the ventilation rates and carbon dioxide (CO₂) concentrations while certain health effects positively correlated to the levels of PM and CO₂. The energy consumption of schools was rather low compared to other national findings, and both the electricity and oil consumption for heating positively correlated to the levels of indoor air pollutants.

  3. State energy data report 1993: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining SEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. SEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public; and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models.

  4. State energy data report 1994: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This document provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), operated by EIA. SEDS provides State energy consumption estimates to members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public, and provides the historical series needed for EIA`s energy models. Division is made for each energy type and end use sector. Nuclear electric power is included.

  5. State energy data report 1996: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sectors. The estimates are developed in the Combined State Energy Data System (CSEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining CSEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. CSEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models. To the degree possible, energy consumption has been assigned to five sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electric utility sectors. Fuels covered are coal, natural gas, petroleum, nuclear electric power, hydroelectric power, biomass, and other, defined as electric power generated from geothermal, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy. 322 tabs.

  6. MEGASTAR: The meaning of growth. An assessment of systems, technologies, and requirements. [methodology for display and analysis of energy production and consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A methodology for the display and analysis of postulated energy futures for the United States is presented. A systems approach methodology including the methodology of technology assessment is used to examine three energy scenarios--the Westinghouse Nuclear Electric Economy, the Ford Technical Fix Base Case and a MEGASTAR generated Alternate to the Ford Technical Fix Base Case. The three scenarios represent different paths of energy consumption from the present to the year 2000. Associated with these paths are various mixes of fuels, conversion, distribution, conservation and end-use technologies. MEGASTAR presents the estimated times and unit requirements to supply the fuels, conversion and distribution systems for the postulated end uses for the three scenarios and then estimates the aggregate manpower, materials, and capital requirements needed to develop the energy system described by the particular scenario.

  7. Global energy consumption for direct water use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Hejazi, M. I.; Kim, S. H.; Kyle, P.; Davies, E. G.; Miralles, D. G.; Teuling, R.; He, Y.; Niyogi, D.

    2015-12-01

    Despite significant efforts to quantify the mutual inter-dependence of the water and energy sectors, global energy for water (EFW) remains poorly understood, resulting in biases in energy accounting that directly affect water and energy management and policy. We firstly evaluate the global energy consumption for direct water use from 1973 to 2012 with sectoral, regional and process-level details. Over the 40-year period, we detected multiple shifts in EFW by county and region. For example, we find that India, the Middle East and China have surpassed the United States as the three largest consumers of EFW since 2003, mostly because of rapid growth in groundwater-based irrigation, desalination, and industrial and municipal water use, respectively. Globally, EFW accounts for 1-3% of total primary energy consumption in 2010, of which 52% is surface water, 36% is groundwater, and 12% is non-fresh water. The sectoral allocation of EFW includes municipal (45%), industrial (29%), and agricultural use (26%), and process-level contributions are from source/conveyance (41%), water purification (19%), water distribution (13%) and wastewater treatment (22%). Our evaluation suggests that the EFW may increase in importance in the future due to growth in population and income, and depletion of surface and shallow aquifer water resources in water-scarce regions. We are incorporating this element into an integrated assessment model (IAM) and linking it back to energy balance within that IAM. By doing this, we will then explore the impacts of EFW on the global energy market (e.g., changes in the share of groundwater use and desalination), and the uncertainty of future EFW under different shared social pathway (SSP) and representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios, and consequences on the emission of greenhouse gases as well. We expect these EFW induced impacts will be considerable, and will then have significant implications for adaptive management and policy making.

  8. Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Quality Profile

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) is a periodic national survey that provides timely information about energy consumption and expenditures of U.S. households and about energy-related characteristics of housing units. The survey was first conducted in 1978 as the National Interim Energy Consumption Survey (NIECS), and the 1979 survey was called the Household Screener Survey. From 1980 through 1982 RECS was conducted annually. The next RECS was fielded in 1984, and since then, the survey has been undertaken at 3-year intervals. The most recent RECS was conducted in 1993.

  9. Assessing Location and Scale of Urban Nonpotable Water Reuse Systems for Life-Cycle Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

    PubMed

    Kavvada, Olga; Horvath, Arpad; Stokes-Draut, Jennifer R; Hendrickson, Thomas P; Eisenstein, William A; Nelson, Kara L

    2016-12-20

    Nonpotable water reuse (NPR) is one option for conserving valuable freshwater resources. Decentralization can improve distribution system efficiency by locating treatment closer to the consumer; however, small treatment systems may have higher unit energy and greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. This research explored the trade-off between residential NPR systems using a life-cycle approach to analyze the energy use and GHG emissions. Decentralized and centralized NPR options are compared to identify where decentralized systems achieve environmental advantages over centralized reuse alternatives, and vice versa, over a range of scales and spatial and demographic conditions. For high-elevation areas far from the centralized treatment plant, decentralized NPR could lower energy use by 29% and GHG emissions by 28%, but in low-elevation areas close to the centralized treatment plant, decentralized reuse could be higher by up to 85% (energy) and 49% (GHG emissions) for the scales assessed (20-2000 m(3)/day). Direct GHG emissions from the treatment processes were found to be highly uncertain and variable and were not included in the analysis. The framework presented can be used as a planning support tool to reveal the environmental impacts of integrating decentralized NPR with existing centralized wastewater infrastructure and can be adapted to evaluate different treatment technology scales for reuse.

  10. Estimates of US biomass energy consumption 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-06

    This report is the seventh in a series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to quantify the biomass-derived primary energy used by the US economy. It presents estimates of 1991 and 1992 consumption. The objective of this report is to provide updated estimates of biomass energy consumption for use by Congress, Federal and State agencies, biomass producers and end-use sectors, and the public at large.

  11. Adolescent energy drink consumption: An Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Costa, Beth M; Hayley, Alexa; Miller, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Caffeinated Energy Drinks (EDs) are not recommended for consumption by children, yet there is a lack of age-specific recommendations and restrictions on the marketing and sale of EDs. EDs are increasingly popular among adolescents despite growing evidence of their negative health effects. In the current study we examined ED consumption patterns among 399 Australian adolescents aged 12-18 years. Participants completed a self-report survey of consumption patterns, physiological symptoms, and awareness of current ED consumption guidelines. Results indicated that ED consumption was common among the sample; 56% reported lifetime ED consumption, with initial consumption at mean age 10 (SD = 2.97). Twenty-eight percent of the sample consumed EDs at least monthly, 36% had exceeded the recommended two standard EDs/day, and 56% of consumers had experienced negative physiological health effects following ED consumption. The maximum number of EDs/day considered appropriate for children, adolescents, and adults varied, indicating a lack of awareness of current consumption recommendations. These findings add to the growing body of international evidence of adolescent ED consumption, and the detrimental impact of EDs to adolescent health. Enforced regulation and restriction of EDs for children's and adolescents' consumption is urgently needed in addition to greater visibility of ED consumption recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. State energy data report 1995 - consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sectors. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining SEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public, and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models.

  13. Energy: Production, Consumption, and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helm, John L., Ed.

    Energy policy in the United States and much of the analysis behind those policies is largely incomplete according to many. Systems for energy production, distribution, and use have traditionally been analyzed by supply sector, yet such analyses cannot capture the complex interplay of technology, economics, public policy, and environmental concerns…

  14. Energy: Production, Consumption, and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helm, John L., Ed.

    Energy policy in the United States and much of the analysis behind those policies is largely incomplete according to many. Systems for energy production, distribution, and use have traditionally been analyzed by supply sector, yet such analyses cannot capture the complex interplay of technology, economics, public policy, and environmental concerns…

  15. Energy consumption for shortcuts to adiabaticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrontegui, E.; Lizuain, I.; González-Resines, S.; Tobalina, A.; Ruschhaupt, A.; Kosloff, R.; Muga, J. G.

    2017-08-01

    Shortcuts to adiabaticity let a system reach the results of a slow adiabatic process in a shorter time. We propose to quantify the "energy cost" of the shortcut by the energy consumption of the system enlarged by including the control device. A mechanical model where the dynamics of the system and control device can be explicitly described illustrates that a broad range of possible values for the consumption is possible, including zero (above the adiabatic energy increment) when friction is negligible and the energy given away as negative power is stored and reused by perfect regenerative braking.

  16. Energy Consumption of Die Casting Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jerald Brevick; clark Mount-Campbell; Carroll Mobley

    2004-03-15

    Molten metal processing is inherently energy intensive and roughly 25% of the cost of die-cast products can be traced to some form of energy consumption [1]. The obvious major energy requirements are for melting and holding molten alloy in preparation for casting. The proper selection and maintenance of melting and holding equipment are clearly important factors in minimizing energy consumption in die-casting operations [2]. In addition to energy consumption, furnace selection also influences metal loss due to oxidation, metal quality, and maintenance requirements. Other important factors influencing energy consumption in a die-casting facility include geographic location, alloy(s) cast, starting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting machine, related equipment (robots, trim presses), and downstream processing (machining, plating, assembly, etc.). Each of these factors also may influence the casting quality and productivity of a die-casting enterprise. In a die-casting enterprise, decisions regarding these issues are made frequently and are based on a large number of factors. Therefore, it is not surprising that energy consumption can vary significantly from one die-casting enterprise to the next, and within a single enterprise as function of time.

  17. Energy consumption testing of innovative refrigerator-freezers

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, M.T.; Howell, B.T.; Jones, W.R.; Long, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    The high ambient temperature of the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) and the AHAM/DOE Refrigerator-Freezer Energy Consumption Standards is intended to compensate for the lack of door openings and other heat loads. Recently published results by Meier and Jansky (1993) indicate labeled consumption overpredicting typical field consumption by 15%. In-house field studies on conventional models showed labeled consumption overpredicting by about 22%. The Refrigerator-Freezer Technology Assessment (RFTA) test was developed to more accurately predict field consumption. This test has ambient temperature and humidity, door openings, and condensation control set at levels intended to typify Canadian household conditions. It also assesses consumption at exactly defined compartment rating temperatures. Ten conventional and energy-efficient production models were laboratory tested. The RFTA results were about 30% lower than labeled. Similarly, the four innovative refrigerator-freezer models, when field tested, also had an average of 30% lower consumption than labeled. Thus, the results of the limited testing suggest that the RFTA test may be a more accurate predictor of field use. Further testing with a larger sample is recommended. Experimental results also indicated that some innovative models could save up to 50% of the energy consumption compared with similar conventional units. The technologies that contributed to this performance included dual compressors, more efficient compressors and fan motors, off-state refrigerant control valve, fuzzy logic control, and thicker insulation. The larger savings were on limited production models, for which additional production engineering is required for full marketability.

  18. Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey - Office Buildings

    EIA Publications

    2010-01-01

    Provides an in-depth look at this building type as reported in the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey. Office buildings are the most common type of commercial building and they consumed more than 17% of all energy in the commercial buildings sector in 2003. This special report provides characteristics and energy consumption data by type of office building (e.g. administrative office, government office, medical office) and information on some of the types of equipment found in office buildings: heating and cooling equipment, computers, servers, printers, and photocopiers.

  19. Energy Consumption Monitoring System for Large Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorge, André; Guerreiro, João; Pereira, Pedro; Martins, João; Gomes, Luís

    This paper describes the development of an open source system for monitoring and data acquisition of several energy analyzers. The developed system is based on a computer with Internet/Intranet connection by means of RS485 using Modbus RTU as communication protocol. The monitoring/metering system was developed for large building complexes and was validated in the Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia University campus. The system considers two distinct applications. The first one allows the user to verify, in real time, the energy consumption of any department in the complex, produce load diagrams, tables and print, email or save all available data. The second application keeps records of active/reactive energy consumption in order to verify the existence of some anomalous situation, and also monthly charge energy consumption to each corresponding department.

  20. Analysis and Optimization of Building Energy Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuah, Jun Wei

    Energy is one of the most important resources required by modern human society. In 2010, energy expenditures represented 10% of global gross domestic product (GDP). By 2035, global energy consumption is expected to increase by more than 50% from current levels. The increased pace of global energy consumption leads to significant environmental and socioeconomic issues: (i) carbon emissions, from the burning of fossil fuels for energy, contribute to global warming, and (ii) increased energy expenditures lead to reduced standard of living. Efficient use of energy, through energy conservation measures, is an important step toward mitigating these effects. Residential and commercial buildings represent a prime target for energy conservation, comprising 21% of global energy consumption and 40% of the total energy consumption in the United States. This thesis describes techniques for the analysis and optimization of building energy consumption. The thesis focuses on building retrofits and building energy simulation as key areas in building energy optimization and analysis. The thesis first discusses and evaluates building-level renewable energy generation as a solution toward building energy optimization. The thesis next describes a novel heating system, called localized heating. Under localized heating, building occupants are heated individually by directed radiant heaters, resulting in a considerably reduced heated space and significant heating energy savings. To support localized heating, a minimally-intrusive indoor occupant positioning system is described. The thesis then discusses occupant-level sensing (OLS) as the next frontier in building energy optimization. OLS captures the exact environmental conditions faced by each building occupant, using sensors that are carried by all building occupants. The information provided by OLS enables fine-grained optimization for unprecedented levels of energy efficiency and occupant comfort. The thesis also describes a retrofit

  1. Research on Annual Energy Consumption of Air Conditioning Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Naho; Tanaka, Kousuke; Hihara, Eiji

    Energy consumption in almost all sectors is constantly increasing. Air conditioner is one of energy-intensive equipments and it is important to evaluate energy consumption with reasonable accuracy. For evaluation of energy conservation of air conditioners, it is necessary to take into account the variations of outdoor temperature, the heating/cooling load throughout a year and all the operating conditions. But according to the current standard, only a few found values and other estimated values are used to calculate annual energy consumption of air conditioner. It is needed to assess the legitimacy of current standard. Seasonal performance of air conditioners was tested, and an appropriate way of evaluation of energy conservation was investigated.

  2. Revising China's energy consumption and carbon emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    China is the world's largest carbon emitter and takes the lion's share of new increased emission since 2000, China's carbon emissions and mitigation efforts have received global attentions (Liu et al., Nature 500, 143-145)1. Yet China's emission estimates have been approved to be greatly uncertain (Guan et al., Nature Climate Change 2, 672-675)2. Accurate estimation becomes even crucial as China has recently pledged to reach a carbon emission peak by 2030, but no quantitative target has been given, nor is it even possible to assess without a reasonable baseline. Here we produced new estimates of Chinese carbon emissions for 1950-2012 based on a new investigation in energy consumption activities and emission factors using extensively surveyed and experimental data from 4243 mines and 602 coal samples. We reported that the total energy consumption is 10% higher than the nationally published value. The investigated emission factors used in China are significantly (40%) different from the IPCC default values which were used in drawing up several previous emission inventories. The final calculated total carbon emissions from China are 10% different than the amount reported by international data sets. The new estimate provides a revision of 4% of global emissions, which could have important implications for global carbon budgets and burden-sharing of climate change mitigation. 1 Liu, Z. et al. A low-carbon road map for China. Nature 500, 143-145 (2013). 2 Guan, D., Liu, Z., Geng, Y., Lindner, S. & Hubacek, K. The gigatonne gap in China's carbon dioxide inventories. Nature Climate Change, 672-675 (2012).

  3. Low Energy Consumption Hydraulic Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-30

    returned to Parker Bertea where it was determined that the LRV function was impaired due to improper machining of the poppets , resulting in the valves ...concluded, a component inspection was conducted to assess the wear condition. The concepts selected for detail design and test were: o Overlap valve o...ring) poppet /seat seals. Both check valves had a -6 tube size fitting at each end. e. Relief Valves - High pressure relief valves were retained from the

  4. Issues in International Energy Consumption Analysis: Canadian Energy Demand

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The residential sector is one of the main end-use sectors in Canada accounting for 16.7% of total end-use site energy consumption in 2009 (computed from NRCan 2012. pp, 4-5). In this year, the residential sector accounted for 54.5% of buildings total site energy consumption. Between 1990 and 2009, Canadian household energy consumption grew by less than 11%. Nonetheless, households contributed to 14.6% of total energy-related greenhouse gas emissions in Canada in 2009 (computed from NRCan 2012). This is the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s second study to help provide a better understanding of the factors impacting residential energy consumption and intensity in North America (mainly the United States and Canada) by using similar methodology for analyses in both countries.

  5. Parking, energy consumption and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Höglund, Paul G

    2004-12-01

    This paper examines the impacts of different ways of parking on environmental effects, mainly vehicle emissions and air pollution. Vehicle energy consumption and the urban air quality at street level, related to location and design of parking establishments, need to be assessed and quantified. In addition, the indoor parking environment needs attention. This paper gives a description of a methodological approach when comparing different parking establishments. The paper also briefly describes a Swedish attempt to create methods and models for assessing and quantifying such problem. The models are the macrolevel model BRAHE, for regional traffic exhaust emission, and the micromodel SimPark, a parking search model attempt combined with emission models. Until now, very limited knowledge exists regarding the various aspects of vehicle parking and environmental effects in the technical field as well as in the social and human behaviour aspects. This requires an interdisciplinary approach to this challenging area for research, development and more directly practically implemented surveys and field studies. In order to illustrate the new evaluation methodology, the paper also contains some results from a pilot study in Stockholm. Given certain assumptions, a study of vehicle emissions from parking in an underground garage compared with kerbside parking has given an emission reduction of about 40% in favour of the parking garage. This study has been done using the models mentioned above.

  6. Understanding energy consumption: Beyond technology and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhite, H.; Shove, E.

    1998-07-01

    This paper summarizes two years of efforts among a cross-disciplinary group of senior researchers to bring social and cultural perspectives to modeling of household energy consumption. The work has been organized by the Center for Energy Studies of the University of Geneva. The researchers represent both the physical and social sciences, several institutions and a number of countries. The initiative was based on an acknowledgement of the failure of technical and economic models to explain consumption or more importantly, how consumption patterns change. Technical and economic models most often either ignore social and cultural issues or reduce them to parameters of other variables. An important objective for the Geneva Group has been to engage modelers and social scientists in a dialogue which brings social and cultural context to the fore. The process reveals interesting insights into the frictions of cross-disciplinary interaction and the emergence of new perspectives. Various classical modeling approaches have been discussed and rejected. Gradually, a framework has emerged which says something about the appropriate institutions and actors which contribute to consumption patterns; about how they are related; and finally about how the interinstitutional relationships and the consumption patterns themselves change. A key point of convergence is that a complete understanding of energy end-use will not be possible from an analysis directed at the point of end use alone. The analysis must incorporate what happens inside institutions like manufacturers, retailers, and public policy organizations as well as how those organizations interact with consumers, including media and advertising. Progress towards a better understanding of energy consumption requires a greater engagement of social scientists with these heretofore little explored actors an relationships.

  7. Computer Profile of School Facilities Energy Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswalt, Felix E.

    This document outlines a computerized management tool designed to enable building managers to identify energy consumption as related to types and uses of school facilities for the purpose of evaluating and managing the operation, maintenance, modification, and planning of new facilities. Specifically, it is expected that the statistics generated…

  8. Energy sustainability: consumption, efficiency, and environmental impact

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the critical challenges in achieving sustainability is finding a way to meet the energy consumption needs of a growing population in the face of increasing economic prosperity and finite resources. According to ecological footprint computations, the global resource consump...

  9. Energy sustainability: consumption, efficiency, and environmental impact

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the critical challenges in achieving sustainability is finding a way to meet the energy consumption needs of a growing population in the face of increasing economic prosperity and finite resources. According to ecological footprint computations, the global resource consump...

  10. Efficiency in energy production and consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellogg, Ryan Mayer

    This dissertation deals with economic efficiency in the energy industry and consists of three parts. The first examines how joint experience between pairs of firms working together in oil and gas drilling improves productivity. Part two asks whether oil producers time their drilling optimally by taking real options effects into consideration. Finally, I investigate the efficiency with which energy is consumed, asking whether extending Daylight Saving Time (DST) reduces electricity use. The chapter "Learning by Drilling: Inter-Firm Learning and Relationship Persistence in the Texas Oilpatch" examines how oil production companies and the drilling rigs they hire improve drilling productivity by learning through joint experience. I find that the joint productivity of a lead firm and its drilling contractor is enhanced significantly as they accumulate experience working together. Moreover, this result is robust to other relationship specificities and standard firm-specific learning-by-doing effects. The second chapter, "Drill Now or Drill Later: The Effect of Expected Volatility on Investment," investigates the extent to which firms' drilling behavior accords with a key prescription of real options theory: irreversible investments such as drilling should be deferred when the expected volatility of the investments' payoffs increases. I combine detailed data on oil drilling with expectations of future oil price volatility that I derive from the NYMEX futures options market. Conditioning on expected price levels, I find that oil production companies significantly reduce the number of wells they drill when expected price volatility is high. I conclude with "Daylight Time and Energy: Evidence from an Australian Experiment," co-authored with Hendrik Wolff. This chapter assesses DST's impact on electricity demand using a quasi-experiment in which parts of Australia extended DST in 2000 to facilitate the Sydney Olympics. We show that the extension did not reduce overall

  11. Household Energy Consumption Segmentation Using Hourly Data

    SciTech Connect

    Kwac, J; Flora, J; Rajagopal, R

    2014-01-01

    The increasing US deployment of residential advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) has made hourly energy consumption data widely available. Using CA smart meter data, we investigate a household electricity segmentation methodology that uses an encoding system with a pre-processed load shape dictionary. Structured approaches using features derived from the encoded data drive five sample program and policy relevant energy lifestyle segmentation strategies. We also ensure that the methodologies developed scale to large data sets.

  12. Socio-Demographic Differences in Energy Drink Consumption and Reasons for Consumption among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulos, Natalie S.; Pasch, Keryn E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Energy drink consumption has become increasingly prevalent among US college students, yet little is known about current rates of consumption and reasons for consumption among current energy drink users, particularly differences related to gender and race/ethnicity. Objectives: To better understand energy drink consumption alone and…

  13. Socio-Demographic Differences in Energy Drink Consumption and Reasons for Consumption among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulos, Natalie S.; Pasch, Keryn E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Energy drink consumption has become increasingly prevalent among US college students, yet little is known about current rates of consumption and reasons for consumption among current energy drink users, particularly differences related to gender and race/ethnicity. Objectives: To better understand energy drink consumption alone and…

  14. Machining strategies exploring reduction in energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamun, Abdullah Al

    The main aim of this thesis is to explore machining strategies, analyzing energy consumption using Design of Experiments (DOE) at the material removal rate (MRR), compare to cutting geometrical trajectories according to CNC parameters such as spindle RPM, feed rate, depth of cut per pass and total depth of cut. Spindle RPM, depth of cut per pass, and feed rate are selected as the main three factors and each factor has two levels: low-level (-) and high-level (+). These experiments have been performed at an end-milling machine by using a concept of a constant volume of material removal processes in the circular and linear geometrical slots in pine wood blocks. Standard energy logger equipment has used to measure energy consumption during end-milling operation. Different statistical analysis, such as ANOVA, regression line, and cause & effect diagram have used to show different energy consumption results in the material removal process. At the end the of data analysis, it is found that a significant amount of electricity demand is associated with machining pre-cutting & post-cutting stage and this significant amount of electricity demand is defined as peripheral energy. This peripheral energy is not involved in the actual performance of material removal process in the end-milling process. In the [Figure 11] end-milling process has been involved with pine wood blocks at constant volume of material removal (2.8 cubic inch) process. Results can be varied using of hard material removal process, such as steel & aluminum metals.

  15. A realistic dynamic blower energy consumption model for wastewater applications.

    PubMed

    Amerlinck, Y; De Keyser, W; Urchegui, G; Nopens, I

    2016-10-01

    At wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) aeration is the largest energy consumer. This high energy consumption requires an accurate assessment in view of plant optimization. Despite the ever increasing detail in process models, models for energy production still lack detail to enable a global optimization of WWTPs. A new dynamic model for a more accurate prediction of aeration energy costs in activated sludge systems, equipped with submerged air distributing diffusers (producing coarse or fine bubbles) connected via piping to blowers, has been developed and demonstrated. This paper addresses the model structure, its calibration and application to the WWTP of Mekolalde (Spain). The new model proved to give an accurate prediction of the real energy consumption by the blowers and captures the trends better than the constant average power consumption models currently being used. This enhanced prediction of energy peak demand, which dominates the price setting of energy, illustrates that the dynamic model is preferably used in multi-criteria optimization exercises for minimizing the energy consumption.

  16. Electrical energy consumption control apparatuses and electrical energy consumption control methods

    DOEpatents

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2012-09-04

    Electrical energy consumption control apparatuses and electrical energy consumption control methods are described. According to one aspect, an electrical energy consumption control apparatus includes processing circuitry configured to receive a signal which is indicative of current of electrical energy which is consumed by a plurality of loads at a site, to compare the signal which is indicative of current of electrical energy which is consumed by the plurality of loads at the site with a desired substantially sinusoidal waveform of current of electrical energy which is received at the site from an electrical power system, and to use the comparison to control an amount of the electrical energy which is consumed by at least one of the loads of the site.

  17. Rat splanchnic net oxygen consumption, energy implications.

    PubMed Central

    Casado, J; Fernández-López, J A; Esteve, M; Rafecas, I; Argilés, J M; Alemany, M

    1990-01-01

    1. The blood flow, PO2, pH and PCO2 have been estimated in portal and suprahepatic veins as well as in hepatic artery of fed and overnight starved rats given an oral glucose load. From these data the net intestinal, hepatic and splanchnic balances for oxygen and bicarbonate were calculated. The oxygen consumption of the intact animal has also been measured under comparable conditions. 2. The direct utilization of oxygen balances as energy equivalents when establishing the contribution of energy metabolism of liver and intestine to the overall energy expenses of the rat, has been found to be incorrect, since it incorporates the intrinsic error of interorgan proton transfer through bicarbonate. Liver and intestine produced high net bicarbonate balances in all situations tested, implying the elimination (by means of oxidative pathways, i.e. consuming additional oxygen) of high amounts of H+ generated with bicarbonate. The equivalence in energy output of the oxygen balances was then corrected for bicarbonate production to 11-54% lower values. 3. Intestine and liver consume a high proportion of available oxygen, about one-half in basal (fed or starved) conditions and about one-third after gavage, the intestine consumption being about 15% in all situations tested and the liver decreasing its oxygen consumption with gavage. PMID:2129230

  18. A survey of energy drink consumption patterns among college students.

    PubMed

    Malinauskas, Brenda M; Aeby, Victor G; Overton, Reginald F; Carpenter-Aeby, Tracy; Barber-Heidal, Kimberly

    2007-10-31

    Energy drink consumption has continued to gain in popularity since the 1997 debut of Red Bull, the current leader in the energy drink market. Although energy drinks are targeted to young adult consumers, there has been little research regarding energy drink consumption patterns among college students in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine energy drink consumption patterns among college students, prevalence and frequency of energy drink use for six situations, namely for insufficient sleep, to increase energy (in general), while studying, driving long periods of time, drinking with alcohol while partying, and to treat a hangover, and prevalence of adverse side effects and energy drink use dose effects among college energy drink users. Based on the responses from a 32 member college student focus group and a field test, a 19 item survey was used to assess energy drink consumption patterns of 496 randomly surveyed college students attending a state university in the Central Atlantic region of the United States. Fifty one percent of participants (n = 253) reported consuming greater than one energy drink each month in an average month for the current semester (defined as energy drink user). The majority of users consumed energy drinks for insufficient sleep (67%), to increase energy (65%), and to drink with alcohol while partying (54%). The majority of users consumed one energy drink to treat most situations although using three or more was a common practice to drink with alcohol while partying (49%). Weekly jolt and crash episodes were experienced by 29% of users, 22% reported ever having headaches, and 19% heart palpitations from consuming energy drinks. There was a significant dose effect only for jolt and crash episodes. Using energy drinks is a popular practice among college students for a variety of situations. Although for the majority of situations assessed, users consumed one energy drink with a reported frequency of 1 - 4 days per

  19. A survey of energy drink consumption patterns among college students

    PubMed Central

    Malinauskas, Brenda M; Aeby, Victor G; Overton, Reginald F; Carpenter-Aeby, Tracy; Barber-Heidal, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    Background Energy drink consumption has continued to gain in popularity since the 1997 debut of Red Bull, the current leader in the energy drink market. Although energy drinks are targeted to young adult consumers, there has been little research regarding energy drink consumption patterns among college students in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine energy drink consumption patterns among college students, prevalence and frequency of energy drink use for six situations, namely for insufficient sleep, to increase energy (in general), while studying, driving long periods of time, drinking with alcohol while partying, and to treat a hangover, and prevalence of adverse side effects and energy drink use dose effects among college energy drink users. Methods Based on the responses from a 32 member college student focus group and a field test, a 19 item survey was used to assess energy drink consumption patterns of 496 randomly surveyed college students attending a state university in the Central Atlantic region of the United States. Results Fifty one percent of participants (n = 253) reported consuming greater than one energy drink each month in an average month for the current semester (defined as energy drink user). The majority of users consumed energy drinks for insufficient sleep (67%), to increase energy (65%), and to drink with alcohol while partying (54%). The majority of users consumed one energy drink to treat most situations although using three or more was a common practice to drink with alcohol while partying (49%). Weekly jolt and crash episodes were experienced by 29% of users, 22% reported ever having headaches, and 19% heart palpitations from consuming energy drinks. There was a significant dose effect only for jolt and crash episodes. Conclusion Using energy drinks is a popular practice among college students for a variety of situations. Although for the majority of situations assessed, users consumed one energy drink with a

  20. TROPEC: Transformative Reductions in Operational Energy Consumption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    1 May 2012 1 TROPEC Transformative Reductions in Operational Energy Consumption Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188...Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions...Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports , 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents

  1. Nonresidential Building Energy Consumption Survey (NBECS)

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, D.M.; Tsao, H.J.; Schmoyer, R.L. Jr.; MacDonald, J.M.

    1990-10-01

    Imputation procedures were designed for the 1983 Nonresidential Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (NBECS) of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) using 1979 NBECS data. The study included methodology development, data analysis, regression analyses, empirical evaluations of the regression models, and imputation procedures. Models considered were engineering models, stepwise regression, weighted regression, nonlinear regression, and log transformation regression. A method for determining the appropriateness of the imputation model for a particular set of independent variables is recommended. Although this study was completed in 1985, this final version of the report is being issued due to continuing requests for information. 32 tabs.

  2. Energy Consumption in Rural China: Analysis of Rural Living Energy in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu; Yifang, Liu; Wei, Zhu

    2017-08-01

    Under the pressure of climate change and international carbon reduction targets, long-neglected rural energy consumption needs to be given high priority. China’s rural energy consumption structure is in the transition from non-commercial to commercial sources, and rural energy has become a key determinant to slow down the carbon emission growth. This paper systematically calibrates the current situation of rural energy consumption in Beijing by using the survey data of 1866 households in 13 districts and counties in Beijing based on the trend of energy supply and demand change in China. To this end, the paper combines rural policy measures to assess the pressure on coal-burning and clean energy supply trends, puts forward the rural energy structure adjustment path, with a view to promoting the use of clean energy in rural areas and reduce the environmental consequences of coal-burning.

  3. Using LEDs to reduce energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eweni, Chukwuebuka E.

    The most popularly used light bulb in homes is the incandescent. It is also the least energy efficient. The filament in the bulb is so thin that it causes resistance in the electricity, which in turn causes the electricity's energy to form heat. This causes the incandescent to waste a lot of energy forming heat rather than forming the light. It uses 15 lumens per watt of input power. A recorded MATLAB demonstration showcased LED versatility and how it can be used by an Arduino UNO board. The objective of this thesis is to showcase how LEDs can reduce energy consumption through the use of an Arduino UNO board and MATLAB and to discuss the applications of LED. LED will be the future of lighting homes and will eventually completely incandescent bulbs when companies begin to make the necessary improvements to the LED.

  4. Energy drink consumption and impact on caffeine risk.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Barbara M; Campbell, Donald M; Cressey, Peter; Egan, Ursula; Horn, Beverley

    2014-01-01

    The impact of caffeine from energy drinks occurs against a background exposure from naturally occurring caffeine (coffee, tea, cocoa and foods containing these ingredients) and caffeinated beverages (kola-type soft drinks). Background caffeine exposure, excluding energy drinks, was assessed for six New Zealand population groups aged 15 years and over (n = 4503) by combining concentration data for 53 caffeine-containing foods with consumption information from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey (ANS). Caffeine exposure for those who consumed energy drinks (n = 138) was similarly assessed, with inclusion of energy drinks. Forty-seven energy drink products were identified on the New Zealand market in 2010. Product volumes ranged from 30 to 600 ml per unit, resulting in exposures of 10-300 mg caffeine per retail unit consumed. A small percentage, 3.1%, of New Zealanders reported consuming energy drinks, with most energy drink consumers (110/138) drinking one serving per 24 h. The maximum number of energy drinks consumed per 24 h was 14 (total caffeine of 390 mg). A high degree of brand loyalty was evident. Since only a minor proportion of New Zealanders reported consuming energy drinks, a greater number of New Zealanders exceeded a potentially adverse effect level (AEL) of 3 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for caffeine from caffeine-containing foods than from energy drinks. Energy drink consumption is not a risk at a population level because of the low prevalence of consumption. At an individual level, however, teenagers, adults (20-64 years) and females (16-44 years) were more likely to exceed the AEL by consuming energy drinks in combination with caffeine-containing foods.

  5. Public perceptions of energy consumption and savings

    PubMed Central

    Attari, Shahzeen Z.; DeKay, Michael L.; Davidson, Cliff I.; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi

    2010-01-01

    In a national online survey, 505 participants reported their perceptions of energy consumption and savings for a variety of household, transportation, and recycling activities. When asked for the most effective strategy they could implement to conserve energy, most participants mentioned curtailment (e.g., turning off lights, driving less) rather than efficiency improvements (e.g., installing more efficient light bulbs and appliances), in contrast to experts’ recommendations. For a sample of 15 activities, participants underestimated energy use and savings by a factor of 2.8 on average, with small overestimates for low-energy activities and large underestimates for high-energy activities. Additional estimation and ranking tasks also yielded relatively flat functions for perceived energy use and savings. Across several tasks, participants with higher numeracy scores and stronger proenvironmental attitudes had more accurate perceptions. The serious deficiencies highlighted by these results suggest that well-designed efforts to improve the public's understanding of energy use and savings could pay large dividends. PMID:20713724

  6. Optimizing COD removal from greywater by photoelectro-persulfate process using Box-Behnken design: assessment of effluent quality and electrical energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Ghanbari, Farshid

    2016-10-01

    Greywater (GW) is a potential source for water reuse in various applications. However, GW treatment is still a vital issue in water reuse in cases of environmental standards and risk to public health. This study investigates optimization and modeling of a hybrid process for COD removal from GW. Persulfate (PS) was simultaneously activated by electrogenerated ferrous ion (EC) and UV to generate sulfate radical. Photoelectro-persulfate (PEPS) was optimized by Box-Behnken design and the effects of four variables (pH, PS dosage, current density, and electrolysis time) were evaluated on COD removal. The results and several coefficients showed that the obtained model was acceptable for predicting the COD removal. Moreover, under optimum conditions (pH = 6.9, PS = 8.8 mM, current density = 2.0 mA/cm(2), and 49.3 min electrolysis time), BOD5, turbidity, TSS, phosphate, and UV254 were effectively removed and COD and BOD5 values reached to discharge standards. Different configurations of the processes were assessed for COD removal. The order of COD removal efficiency followed: PS < Fe(II) < UV/PS ≤ Fe(II)/PS < Fe(II)/PS/UV < electrocoagulation ≤ electrocoagulation/UV < electro-PS < PEPS. The monitoring PS concentration during 60 min reaction time in the aforesaid processes indicated that PEPS could remarkably activate PS. The solution pH was also monitored and related results revealed that the presence of PS during the 10 min first time decreased pH value while production of hydroxide ion at cathode increased pH significantly. Finally, the contribution of electrochemical process in the electrical energy consumption was far less than that of photolysis process in hybrid PEPS process.

  7. Select Results from the Energy Assessor Experiment in the 2012 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    As part of an effort to make EIA’s energy consumption surveys as accurate and efficient as possible, EIA invited the National Research Council (NRC) to review the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) data-gathering process and make recommendations for improvements. The NRC suggested sending professional energy assessors to some sites and comparing the data obtained from the survey to the data collected by the assessors. Results from the energy assessment data collection have largely confirmed the quality of data gathered by CBECS interviewers.

  8. A method for evaluating transport energy consumption in suburban areas

    SciTech Connect

    Marique, Anne-Francoise Reiter, Sigrid

    2012-02-15

    Urban sprawl is a major issue for sustainable development. It represents a significant contribution to energy consumption of a territory especially due to transportation requirements. However, transport energy consumption is rarely taken into account when the sustainability of suburban structures is studied. In this context, the paper presents a method to estimate transport energy consumption in residential suburban areas. The study aimed, on this basis, at highlighting the most efficient strategies needed to promote awareness and to give practical hints on how to reduce transport energy consumption linked to urban sprawl in existing and future suburban neighborhoods. The method uses data collected by using empirical surveys and GIS. An application of this method is presented concerning the comparison of four suburban districts located in Belgium to demonstrate the advantages of the approach. The influence of several parameters, such as distance to work places and services, use of public transport and performance of the vehicles, are then discussed to allow a range of different development situations to be explored. The results of the case studies highlight that traveled distances, and thus a good mix between activities at the living area scale, are of primordial importance for the energy performance, whereas means of transport used is only of little impact. Improving the performance of the vehicles and favoring home-work give also significant energy savings. The method can be used when planning new areas or retrofitting existing ones, as well as promoting more sustainable lifestyles regarding transport habits. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method allows to assess transport energy consumption in suburban areas and highlight the best strategies to reduce it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Home-to-work travels represent the most important part of calculated transport energy consumption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy savings can be achieved by

  9. Transport energy consumption achievement based on indicator analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jian

    2017-06-01

    In order to evaluate the transport sustainability level for regions, the concept of achievement efficiency in transport energy consumption is initially suggested in this paper. The research object is not only for the energy consumption by transport operation but also the whole life of the transport procedure, which is the thought of life cycle assessment. And then, on the quantitative analysis to calculate the transport energy achievement efficiency of the regions, the indicators that can represent the achievement of transport energy consumption are convincingly found out by indicator theory. Next, concentration is focused on the transport related indicators and proper indicators are picked up from the candidate indicators, which were the affecting factors to this issue. After that, using the selected indicators, we introduce the method of data envelopment analysis to do quantitative analysis, which helps to get the achievement efficiency of transport energy among cities all over the world. The analysis result shows the efficient regions and the inefficient regions respectively. Furthermore, the detailed efficiency value of each region is also laid out clearly. For the improvement, the inadequate output or input variables of the inefficient regions were listed compared with the efficient regions so that corresponding transport policy implications can be resulted for the inefficient regions to reach high level sustainability.

  10. RESULTS FROM THE U.S. DOE 2006 SAVE ENERGY NOW ASSESSMENT INITIATIVE: DOE's Partnership with U.S. Industry to Reduce Energy Consumption, Energy Costs, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Anthony L; Martin, Michaela A; Gemmer, Bob; Scheihing, Paul; Quinn, James

    2007-09-01

    In the wake of Hurricane Katrina and other severe storms in 2005, natural gas supplies were restricted, prices rose, and industry sought ways to reduce its natural gas use and costs. In October 2005, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Secretary Bodman launched his Easy Ways to Save Energy campaign with a promise to provide energy assessments to 200 of the largest U.S. manufacturing plants. A major thrust of the campaign was to ensure that the nation's natural gas supplies would be adequate for all Americans, especially during home heating seasons. In a presentation to the National Press Club on October 3, 2005, Secretary Bodman said: 'America's businesses, factories, and manufacturing facilities use massive amounts of energy. To help them during this period of tightening supply and rising costs, our Department is sending teams of qualified efficiency experts to 200 of the nation's most energy-intensive factories. Our Energy Saving Teams will work with on-site managers on ways to conserve energy and use it more efficiently.' DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) responded to the Secretary's campaign with its Save Energy Now initiative, featuring a new and highly cost-effective form of energy assessments. The approach for these assessments drew heavily on the existing resources of ITP's Technology Delivery component. Over the years, ITP-Technology Delivery had worked with industry partners to assemble a suite of respected software decision tools, proven assessment protocols, training curricula, certified experts, and strong partnerships for deployment. Because of the program's earlier activities and the resources that had been developed, ITP was prepared to respond swiftly and effectively to the sudden need to promote improved industrial energy efficiency. Because of anticipated supply issues in the natural gas sector, the Save Energy Now initiative strategically focused on natural gas savings and targeted the nation's largest manufacturing plants

  11. The water consumption of energy production: an international comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spang, E. S.; Moomaw, W. R.; Gallagher, K. S.; Kirshen, P. H.; Marks, D. H.

    2014-10-01

    Producing energy resources requires significant quantities of fresh water. As an energy sector changes or expands, the mix of technologies deployed to produce fuels and electricity determines the associated burden on regional water resources. Many reports have identified the water consumption of various energy production technologies. This paper synthesizes and expands upon this previous work by exploring the geographic distribution of water use by national energy portfolios. By defining and calculating an indicator to compare the water consumption of energy production for over 150 countries, we estimate that approximately 52 billion cubic meters of fresh water is consumed annually for global energy production. Further, in consolidating the data, it became clear that both the quality of the data and global reporting standards should be improved to track this important variable at the global scale. By introducing a consistent indicator to empirically assess coupled water-energy systems, it is hoped that this research will provide greater visibility into the magnitude of water use for energy production at the national and global scales.

  12. Energy drink consumption and marketing in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Nicholas; van Walbeek, Corné; Maboshe, Mashekwa; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Hofman, Karen

    2017-05-17

    Energy drinks are a fast-growing class of beverage containing high levels of caffeine and sugar. Advertising and marketing have been key to their growth in South Africa. This paper documents trends in energy drink consumption and energy drink advertising, and examines the relationship between exposure to energy drink advertising and consumption. Logistic regressions were estimated of categories of energy drink consumption on individual characteristics, as well as exposure to energy drink advertising. Exposure to advertising is measured by reported viewing of channels high in energy drink advertising. Energy drink consumption in South Africa is higher among younger, wealthier males. Spending on energy drink advertising is mostly focused on television. Targeted channels include youth, sports and general interest channels. Viewers of channels targeted by energy drink advertisers have higher odds of any and moderate levels of energy drinks consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Improved immunization strategy to reduce energy consumption on nodes traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jiazheng; Zhao, Dongyan; Long, Keping; Zheng, Yongrong

    2017-04-01

    The increasing requirement of transmission network sizes would result in huge energy consumption with communication traffic. Green communication technologies are expected to help in reducing energy consumption impact to environment. Therefore, it is important to design energy-efficient strategy that can decrease energy consumption. This paper proposes to use the acquaintance and improved targeted immunization strategies from complex systems to resolve energy consumption issues and uses traffic as measure standard to obtain a stable threshold. The simulation results show that the improved control strategy is better and more effective to save as much energy as possible.

  14. Low energy consumption spintronics using multiferroic heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Trassin, Morgan

    2016-01-27

    We review the recent progress in the field of multiferroic magnetoelectric heterostructures. The lack of single phase multiferroic candidates exhibiting simultaneously strong and coupled magnetic and ferroelectric orders led to an increased effort into the development of artificial multiferroic heterostructures in which these orders are combined by assembling different materials. The magnetoelectric coupling emerging from the created interface between the ferroelectric and ferromagnetic layers can result in electrically tunable magnetic transition temperature, magnetic anisotropy or magnetization reversal. The full potential of low energy consumption magnetic based devices for spintronics lies in our understanding of the magnetoelectric coupling at the scale of the ferroic domains. Although the thin film synthesis progresses resulted into the complete control of ferroic domain ordering using epitaxial strain, the local observation of magnetoelectric coupling remains challenging. The ability to imprint ferroelectric domains into ferromagnets and to manipulate those solely using electric fields suggests new technological advances for spintronics such as magnetoelectric memories or memristors.

  15. Energy Consumption of Actively Beating Flagella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Daniel; Nicastro, Daniela; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2012-02-01

    Motile cilia and flagella are important for propelling cells or driving fluid over tissues. The microtubule-based core in these organelles, the axoneme, has a nearly universal ``9+2'' arrangement of 9 outer doublet microtubules assembled around two singlet microtubules in the center. Thousands of molecular motor proteins are attached to the doublets and walk on neighboring outer doublets. The motors convert the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis into sliding motion between adjacent doublet microtubules, resulting in precisely regulated oscillatory beating. Using demembranated sea urchin sperm flagella as an experimental platform, we simultaneously monitor the axoneme's consumption of ATP and its beating dynamics while key parameters, such as solution viscosity and ATP concentration, are varied. Insights into motor cooperativity during beating and energetic consequences of hydrodynamic interactions will be presented.

  16. Energy consumption for the echo station (DSS 12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiar, C. N.; Schonfeld, D.

    1981-12-01

    Energy consumption for the Echo Station is analyzed. The HVAC equipment including vapor compression refrigeration units, absorption chillers, annd heating units such as boilers and heat pumps is shown to be the largest consumer of electrical energy. The energy consumption for the buildings at the station is itemized and compared to the electrical meter data. The figures for energy consumption as predicted by the ECP computer program are found to agree well with the meter data.

  17. Energy consumption of personal computer workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Szydlowski, R.

    1995-12-01

    An important question for consideration is, {open_quotes}Are office equipment plug loads increasing?{close_quotes} Data taken by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in May 1990 from the Forrestal Building, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) headquarters in Washington, DC, are desegregated by end use including: plug loads, lights, HVAC, large dedicated computers, and elevators. This study was repeated in November 1993, and there was a 3.8%/yr increase in plug loads in a building of approximately 1.75 million sq ft. Subsequent to this measurement, the plug loads were measured continuously by PNL over a 10-month period from November 1993 through September 1994, and the results showed another increase of 3.9%, nearly the same increase as in the previous three years. The energy use of personal computers (PCs) was measured by setting up a mobile outlet module (MOM), a replacement for a strip outlet, with current transformers (CTs) and potential transformers. The MOM was connected to a set of dataloggers, allowing for the monitoring of up to four PCs at a time. The PCs were plugged in through the MOM to a C180 datalogger, the data collected to a laptop, and the individual 24-hour profiles were then reduced to a standard profile. About 200 workstations were studied, including the PC, monitor, printer, modem, external disk drives, and CAD systems with their own peripherals. Also monitored were an additional collection of printers, photocopiers, facsimile machines, and monitor controllers. The end result was a set of profiles for energy use during working hours for five different buildings. There was a wide variation in these profiles from daytime to nighttime, since 16 to 35% of the computers remain on at night. Therefore, the needs for computers left on at night vary, along with the attitudes of people. Another area of energy consumption concern is the type of PC, such as IBM- or Macintosh-compatible, and there are many different kinds of workstations.

  18. Energy consumption of personal computer workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Szydlowski, R.F.; Chvala, W.D. Jr.

    1994-02-01

    The explosive growth of the information age has had a profound effect on the appearance of today`s office. Although the telephone still remains an important part of the information exchange and processing system within an office, other electronic devices are now considered required equipment within this environment. This office automation equipment includes facsimile machines, photocopiers, personal computers, printers, modems, and other peripherals. A recent estimate of the installed base indicated that 42 million personal computers and 7.3 million printers are in place, consuming 18.2 billion kWh/yr-and this installed base is growing (Luhn 1992). From a productivity standpoint, it can be argued that this equipment greatly improves the efficiency of those working in the office. But of primary concern to energy system designers, building managers, and electric utilities is the fact that this equipment requires electric energy. Although the impact of each incremental piece of equipment is small, installation of thousands of devices per building has resulted in office automation equipment becoming the major contributor to electric consumption and demand growth in commercial buildings. Personal computers and associated equipment are the dominant part of office automation equipment. In some cases, this electric demand growth has caused office buildings electric and cooling systems to overload.

  19. Changes in cotton gin energy consumption apportioned by ten functions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The public is concerned about air quality and sustainability. Cotton producers, gin owners and plant managers are concerned about rising energy prices. Both have an interest in cotton gin energy consumption trends. Changes in cotton gins’ energy consumption over the past fifty years, a period of ...

  20. Energy consumption in commerical buildings: a comparison with BEPS budgets

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-22

    Metered energy consumption data have been collected on existing commercial buildings to help establish the proposed Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS). The search has identified 84 buildings whose metered energy consumption is equal to or less than that proposed for their BEPS budgets and another 7 buildings whose metered consumption is less than 20% above their BEPS budgets. The methodology used to identify the buildings and to collect their metered energy consumption data are described. The data are analyzed and summarized and conclusions are drawn.

  1. Energy consumption in commercial buildings: A comparison with BEPS budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    Metered energy consumption data were collected on existing commercial buildings to help establish the proposed building energy performance standards (BEPS). The search has identified 84 buildings whose metered energy consumption is equal to or less than that proposed for their BEPS budgets and another 7 buildings whose metered consumption is less than 20 percent above their BEPS budgets. The methodology used to identify the buildings and to collect their metered energy consumption data are described. The data are analyzed and summarized and conclusions are drawn.

  2. Minority energy assessment report. Fall 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Teotia, A.P.S.; Poyer, D.A.; Lampley, L.; Anderson, J.L.

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to project household energy consumption, energy expenditure, and energy expenditure as share of income for five population groups from 1991 to 2009. The approach uses the Minority Energy Assessment Model (MEAM), developed by Argonne National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy`s Office of Minority Economic Impact. The MEAM provides a framework that can be used to forecast regional energy consumption and energy expenditure for majority, black, Hispanic, poor, and nonpoor households. The forecasts of key macroeconomic and energy variables used as exogenous variables in the MEAM were obtained from the Data Resources, Inc., Macromodel and Energy Model. Generally, the projections of household energy consumption, expenditure, and energy expenditure as share of income vary across population groups and census regions.

  3. Fundamental principles of energy consumption for gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lifang; Yuan, Zhanjiang; Yu, Jianshe; Zhou, Tianshou

    2015-12-01

    How energy is consumed in gene expression is largely unknown mainly due to complexity of non-equilibrium mechanisms affecting expression levels. Here, by analyzing a representative gene model that considers complexity of gene expression, we show that negative feedback increases energy consumption but positive feedback has an opposite effect; promoter leakage always reduces energy consumption; generating more bursts needs to consume more energy; and the speed of promoter switching is at the cost of energy consumption. We also find that the relationship between energy consumption and expression noise is multi-mode, depending on both the type of feedback and the speed of promoter switching. Altogether, these results constitute fundamental principles of energy consumption for gene expression, which lay a foundation for designing biologically reasonable gene modules. In addition, we discuss possible biological implications of these principles by combining experimental facts.

  4. Fundamental principles of energy consumption for gene expression.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lifang; Yuan, Zhanjiang; Yu, Jianshe; Zhou, Tianshou

    2015-12-01

    How energy is consumed in gene expression is largely unknown mainly due to complexity of non-equilibrium mechanisms affecting expression levels. Here, by analyzing a representative gene model that considers complexity of gene expression, we show that negative feedback increases energy consumption but positive feedback has an opposite effect; promoter leakage always reduces energy consumption; generating more bursts needs to consume more energy; and the speed of promoter switching is at the cost of energy consumption. We also find that the relationship between energy consumption and expression noise is multi-mode, depending on both the type of feedback and the speed of promoter switching. Altogether, these results constitute fundamental principles of energy consumption for gene expression, which lay a foundation for designing biologically reasonable gene modules. In addition, we discuss possible biological implications of these principles by combining experimental facts.

  5. Analysis of Final Energy Consumption Patterns in 10 Arab Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hinti, I.; Al-Ghandoor, A.

    2009-08-01

    This study presents an analysis of the energy consumption patterns in 10 Arab countries: Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria. Commonalities and variations between these countries are discussed and explained through key economic and energy indicators, and the relationship between the overall final energy consumption per capita and the GDP per capita is examined. The distribution of the final energy consumption across different sectors is also analysed, and the patterns of consumption in the industrial, transportation, and residential sectors are discussed with focus on the types of energy consumed, and the main drivers of this consumption. The findings and the conclusions of this study are believed to be beneficial to the national energy policy planners in identifying possible strengths, weaknesses, and areas of emphasis and improvement in their strategic energy plans.

  6. Home Energy Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Dispenza, Jason

    2010-01-01

    A home energy assessment, also known as a home energy audit, is the first step to assess how much energy your home consumes and to evaluate what measures you can take to make your home more energy efficient. An assessment will show you problems that may, when corrected, save you significant amounts of money over time. This video shows some of the ways that a contractor may test your home during an assessment, and helps you understand how an assessment can help you move toward energy savings. Find out more at: http://www.energysavers.gov/your_home/energy_audits/index.cfm/mytopic=11160

  7. Home Energy Assessments

    ScienceCinema

    Dispenza, Jason

    2016-07-12

    A home energy assessment, also known as a home energy audit, is the first step to assess how much energy your home consumes and to evaluate what measures you can take to make your home more energy efficient. An assessment will show you problems that may, when corrected, save you significant amounts of money over time. This video shows some of the ways that a contractor may test your home during an assessment, and helps you understand how an assessment can help you move toward energy savings. Find out more at: http://www.energysavers.gov/your_home/energy_audits/index.cfm/mytopic=11160

  8. Specific energy consumption of membrane bioreactor (MBR) for sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Krzeminski, Pawel; van der Graaf, Jaap H J M; van Lier, Jules B

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of current electric energy consumption of full-scale municipal MBR installations based on literature review and case studies. Energy requirements of several MBRs were linked to operational parameters and reactor performance. Total and specific energy consumption data were analysed on a long-term basis with special attention given to treated flow, design capacity, membrane area and effluent quality. The specific energy consumption of an MBR system is dependent on many factors, such as system design and layout, volume of treated flow, membrane utilization and operational strategy. Operation at optimal flow conditions results in a low specific energy consumption and energy efficient process. Energy consumption of membrane related modules was in the range of 0.5-0.7 kWh/m(3) and specific energy consumption for membrane aeration in flat sheet (FS) was 33-37% higher than in a hollow fibre (HF) system. Aeration is a major energy consumer, often exceeding 50% share of total energy consumption. In consequence, coarse bubble aeration applied for continuous membrane cleaning remains the main target for energy saving actions. Also, a certain potential for energy optimization without immediate danger of affecting the quality of the produced effluent was observed.

  9. Two-scale evaluation of remediation technologies for a contaminated site by applying economic input-output life cycle assessment: risk-cost, risk-energy consumption and risk-CO2 emission.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yasushi; Katayama, Arata

    2011-09-15

    A two-scale evaluation concept of remediation technologies for a contaminated site was expanded by introducing life cycle costing (LCC) and economic input-output life cycle assessment (EIO-LCA). The expanded evaluation index, the rescue number for soil (RN(SOIL)) with LCC and EIO-LCA, comprises two scales, such as risk-cost, risk-energy consumption or risk-CO(2) emission of a remediation. The effectiveness of RN(SOIL) with LCC and EIO-LCA was examined in a typical contamination and remediation scenario in which dieldrin contaminated an agricultural field. Remediation was simulated using four technologies: disposal, high temperature thermal desorption, biopile and landfarming. Energy consumption and CO(2) emission were determined from a life cycle inventory analysis using monetary-based intensity based on an input-output table. The values of RN(SOIL) based on risk-cost, risk-energy consumption and risk-CO(2) emission were calculated, and then rankings of the candidates were compiled according to RN(SOIL) values. A comparison between three rankings showed the different ranking orders. The existence of differences in ranking order indicates that the scales would not have reciprocal compatibility for two-scale evaluation and that each scale should be used independently. The RN(SOIL) with LCA will be helpful in selecting a technology, provided an appropriate scale is determined. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Detrimental effects of energy drink consumption on platelet and endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Worthley, Matthew I; Prabhu, Anisha; De Sciscio, Paolo; Schultz, Carlee; Sanders, Prashanthan; Willoughby, Scott R

    2010-02-01

    Energy drink consumption has been anecdotally linked with sudden cardiac death and, more recently, myocardial infarction. As myocardial infarction is strongly associated with both platelet and endothelial dysfunction, we tested the hypothesis that energy drink consumption alters platelet and endothelial function. Fifty healthy volunteers (34 male, aged 22+/-2 years) participated in the study. Platelet aggregation and endothelial function were tested before, and 1 hour after, the consumption of 250 mL (1 can) of a sugar-free energy drink. Platelet function was assessed by adenosine diphosphate-induced (1 micromol/L) optical aggregometry in platelet-rich plasma. Endothelial function was assessed via changes in peripheral arterial tonometry and expressed as the reactive hyperemia index (RHI). Compared with baseline values, there was a significant increase in platelet aggregation following energy drink consumption, while no change was observed with control (13.7+/-3.7% vs 0.3+/-0.8% aggregation, respectively, P <.01). Similarly, RHI decreased following energy drink consumption (-0.33+/-0.13 vs 0.07+/-0.12 RHI [control], P <.05). Mean arterial pressure significantly increased following energy drink consumption, compared with control (P <.05). Heart rate was unaffected by energy drink consumption. Energy drink consumption acutely increases platelet aggregation and decreases endothelial function in healthy young adults. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Case of Acute Psychosis Following Energy Drink Consumption.

    PubMed

    Görgülü, Yasemin; Taşdelen, Öznur; Sönmez, Mehmet Bülent; Köse Çinar, Rugül

    2014-03-01

    Interest in energy drinks is increasing every day. Energy drink consumption is increasing proportionally. Users often utilize these drinks in order to enjoy, have fun and to increase performance and attention. However, consumption of the energy drinks sometimes may also cause adverse physical and psychological consequences. Unwanted physical results are in the more foreground, noticeable and visible but the data about psychological problems caused by energy drinks is accumulated over the years in the literature. In this case report, we describe the case of a young man with no psychiatric history who was hospitalized for psychotic symptoms following excessive consumption of energy drinks.

  12. A Case of Acute Psychosis Following Energy Drink Consumption

    PubMed Central

    GÖRGÜLÜ, Yasemin; TAŞDELEN, Öznur; SÖNMEZ, Mehmet Bülent; KÖSE ÇINAR, Rugül

    2014-01-01

    Interest in energy drinks is increasing every day. Energy drink consumption is increasing proportionally. Users often utilize these drinks in order to enjoy, have fun and to increase performance and attention. However, consumption of the energy drinks sometimes may also cause adverse physical and psychological consequences. Unwanted physical results are in the more foreground, noticeable and visible but the data about psychological problems caused by energy drinks is accumulated over the years in the literature. In this case report, we describe the case of a young man with no psychiatric history who was hospitalized for psychotic symptoms following excessive consumption of energy drinks.

  13. Respiration, respiratory metabolism and energy consumption under weightless conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasyan, I. I.; Makarov, G. F.

    1975-01-01

    Changes in the physiological indices of respiration, respiratory metabolism and energy consumption in spacecrews under weightlessness conditions manifest themselves in increased metabolic rates, higher pulmonary ventilation volume, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide elimination, energy consumption levels in proportion to reduction in neuroemotional and psychic stress, adaptation to weightlessness and work-rest cycles, and finally in a relative stabilization of metabolic processes due to hemodynamic shifts.

  14. Estimates of U.S. Biomass Energy Consumption 1992

    EIA Publications

    1994-01-01

    This report is the seventh in a series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to quantify the biomass derived primary energy used by the U.S. economy. It presents estimates of 1991 and 1992 consumption.

  15. Why has energy consumption increased. An energy and society approach to the American case

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    The general intellectual debate over energy issues has not exhausted the possibilities for sociological work. Sociology can improve on such previous work by providing an empirical-analytic moment, attending to meaning adequacy, recognizing process, assessing the materially determinative character of energy, and by being critical. However, if these several dimensions are taken as prescriptive criteria, even the strictly sociological literature on energy and society has numerous errors and omissions. Based on the findings of that critical examination of the sociological energy literature, a simple formal theory is developed to attack a particular substantive problem: Why has energy consumption increased in the United States during the twentieth century. This formalism requires that we begin by regarding energy consumption as completely determined by population, affluence, and technology. The results of the first empirical analysis using that formalism show that rising affluence, rather than deteriorating technology, is the culprit. However, the urge to praise technology is too hasty, since a second analysis shows that there actually have been two trends in energy technology, only one of which tended to hold down energy consumption.

  16. Residential energy consumption: An analysis-of-variance study

    SciTech Connect

    Poyer, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    In this report, tests of statistical significance of five sets of variables with household energy consumption (at the point of end-use) are described. Five models, in sequence, were empirically estimated and tested for statistical significance by using the Residential Energy Consumption Survey of the US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration. Each model incorporated additional information, embodied in a set of variables not previously specified in the energy demand system. The variable sets were generally labeled as economic variables, weather variables, household-structure variables, end-use variables, and housing-type variables. The tests of statistical significance showed each of the variable sets to be highly significant in explaining the overall variance in energy consumption. The findings imply that the contemporaneous interaction of different types of variables, and not just one exclusive set of variables, determines the level of household energy consumption.

  17. Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAllister, Joseph Andrew

    the extent increases are present for some solar adopters, the analysis seeks to determine whether there is a "solar rebound" effect analogous to the "rebound" or "take-back" effect that has been observed and studied within the energy efficiency literature. Similarly, to the extent that electric users may decrease overall consumption after installation of a solar system, the study seeks to explore the possibility that solar adoption is part of a continued effort towards clean energy practices more generally, such as energy efficiency and conservation. In this way, the study seeks to determine whether there is a synergistic effect between solar and decreased consumption, for solar adopters generally or for some subsets therein. The assembled data allowed testing of various hypotheses that could help explain observed changes in consumption in different households. One variable that was carefully examined was the sizing of the solar system. As part of the study, analysis of 4,355 systems was conducted to determine how each residential solar system was sized with respect to pre-installation energy consumption. Other potentially interesting or explanatory variables for which information was available include total and net costs of the solar system; age of the home; the climate zone (inland or coastal) where the home is located; the home's pre-installation energy consumption; home characteristics such as assessed value and square footage; and the identity of the solar installation contractor. Aside from extending the literature on the rebound effect to the context of home-based energy generation, this study links to the innovation diffusion literature by focusing on solar "innovators" to understand more about the characteristics that may drive behavior, or conditions under which they also adopt clean energy technologies and practices. The results have clear policy relevance with regard to the development and coordination of policies to promote integration of solar and energy

  18. Optimal Energy Consumption Analysis of Natural Gas Pipeline

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Enbin; Li, Changjun; Yang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    There are many compressor stations along long-distance natural gas pipelines. Natural gas can be transported using different boot programs and import pressures, combined with temperature control parameters. Moreover, different transport methods have correspondingly different energy consumptions. At present, the operating parameters of many pipelines are determined empirically by dispatchers, resulting in high energy consumption. This practice does not abide by energy reduction policies. Therefore, based on a full understanding of the actual needs of pipeline companies, we introduce production unit consumption indicators to establish an objective function for achieving the goal of lowering energy consumption. By using a dynamic programming method for solving the model and preparing calculation software, we can ensure that the solution process is quick and efficient. Using established optimization methods, we analyzed the energy savings for the XQ gas pipeline. By optimizing the boot program, the import station pressure, and the temperature parameters, we achieved the optimal energy consumption. By comparison with the measured energy consumption, the pipeline now has the potential to reduce energy consumption by 11 to 16 percent. PMID:24955410

  19. Optimal energy consumption analysis of natural gas pipeline.

    PubMed

    Liu, Enbin; Li, Changjun; Yang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    There are many compressor stations along long-distance natural gas pipelines. Natural gas can be transported using different boot programs and import pressures, combined with temperature control parameters. Moreover, different transport methods have correspondingly different energy consumptions. At present, the operating parameters of many pipelines are determined empirically by dispatchers, resulting in high energy consumption. This practice does not abide by energy reduction policies. Therefore, based on a full understanding of the actual needs of pipeline companies, we introduce production unit consumption indicators to establish an objective function for achieving the goal of lowering energy consumption. By using a dynamic programming method for solving the model and preparing calculation software, we can ensure that the solution process is quick and efficient. Using established optimization methods, we analyzed the energy savings for the XQ gas pipeline. By optimizing the boot program, the import station pressure, and the temperature parameters, we achieved the optimal energy consumption. By comparison with the measured energy consumption, the pipeline now has the potential to reduce energy consumption by 11 to 16 percent.

  20. The Reality and Future Scenarios of Commercial Building Energy Consumption in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Lin, Jiang

    2007-08-01

    While China's 11th Five Year Plan called for a reduction of energy intensity by 2010, whether and how the energy consumption trend can be changed in a short time has been hotly debated. This research intends to evaluate the impact of a variety of scenarios of GDP growth, energy elasticity and energy efficiency improvement on energy consumption in commercial buildings in China using a detailed China End-use Energy Model. China's official energy statistics have limited information on energy demand by end use. This is a particularly pertinent issue for building energy consumption. The authors have applied reasoned judgments, based on experience of working on Chinese efficiency standards and energy related programs, to present a realistic interpretation of the current energy data. The bottom-up approach allows detailed consideration of end use intensity, equipment efficiency, etc., thus facilitating assessment of potential impacts of specific policy and technology changes on building energy use. The results suggest that: (1) commercial energy consumption in China's current statistics is underestimated by about 44%, and the fuel mix is misleading; (2) energy efficiency improvements will not be sufficient to offset the strong increase in end-use penetration and intensity in commercial buildings; (3) energy intensity (particularly electricity) in commercial buildings will increase; (4) different GDP growth and elasticity scenarios could lead to a wide range of floor area growth trajectories , and therefore, significantly impact energy consumption in commercial buildings.

  1. Building and occupant characteristics as determinants of residential energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieves, L. A.; Nieves, A. L.

    1981-10-01

    The probable effects of building energy performance standards on energy consumption were studied. Observations of actual residential energy consumption that could affirm or disaffirm consumption estimates of the Department of Energy's 2.0A simulation model were obtained. Home owner's conservation investments and home purchase decisions were investigated. The investigation of determinants of household energy consumption is described. The underlying economic theory and its implications are given as well as a description of the data collection procedures, of the formulation of variables, and then of data analysis and findings. The assumptions and limitations of the energy use projections generated by the DOE 2.0A model are discussed. Actual electricity data for the houses are then compared with results of the simulation.

  2. A USAF Energy Consumption Projection Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-11-01

    almost 4 percent of the total U.S. petrol- eum consumption was used by the DoD, including 53 percent of the total U.S. jet fuel consumption. Of this...PRdGRAM C HINTER TD 7FRn. MPRDr, = o START OF PROGRAM | nnP. REAd PROGRAM MAMF CARO. «0 Rf-AD ( b, SO) (PROG) I ) , I = I , 1R) PRINT...IIn r.ON’TiMHF Reproduced from best available copy. ■ .J ^ -46- C c c c Sf1! PRllGHA^i PLFM^NJT CHllNTftH Td ZF^O. NPLl-M

  3. Energy consumption analysis for the Mars deep space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, N. V.

    1982-01-01

    Results for the energy consumption analysis at the Mars deep space station are presented. It is shown that the major energy consumers are the 64-Meter antenna building and the operations support building. Verification of the antenna's energy consumption is highly dependent on an accurate knowlege of the tracking operations. The importance of a regular maintenance schedule for the watt hour meters installed at the station is indicated.

  4. Energy consumption analysis for the Mars deep space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, N. V.

    1982-01-01

    Results for the energy consumption analysis at the Mars deep space station are presented. It is shown that the major energy consumers are the 64-Meter antenna building and the operations support building. Verification of the antenna's energy consumption is highly dependent on an accurate knowlege of the tracking operations. The importance of a regular maintenance schedule for the watt hour meters installed at the station is indicated.

  5. Factors affecting wood energy consumption by U.S. households

    Treesearch

    Nianfu Song; Francisco X. Aguilar; Stephen R. Shifley; Michael E. Goerndt

    2012-01-01

    About 23% of energy derived from woody sources in the U.S. was consumed by households, of which 70% was used by households in rural areas in 2005. We investigated factors affecting household-level wood energy consumption in the four continental U.S. regions using data from the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey. To account for a large number of zero...

  6. Baseline projections of transportation energy consumption by mode: 1981 update

    SciTech Connect

    Millar, M; Bunch, J; Vyas, A; Kaplan, M; Knorr, R; Mendiratta, V; Saricks, C

    1982-04-01

    A comprehensive set of activity and energy-demand projections for each of the major transportation modes and submodes is presented. Projections are developed for a business-as-usual scenario, which provides a benchmark for assessing the effects of potential conservation strategies. This baseline scenario assumes a continuation of present trends, including fuel-efficiency improvements likely to result from current efforts of vehicle manufacturers. Because of anticipated changes in fuel efficiency, fuel price, modal shifts, and a lower-than-historic rate of economic growth, projected growth rates in transportation activity and energy consumption depart from historic patterns. The text discusses the factors responsible for this departure, documents the assumptions and methodologies used to develop the modal projections, and compares the projections with other efforts.

  7. [Relationships between settlement morphology transition and residents commuting energy consumption].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Xiao, Rong-Bo; Sun, Xiang

    2013-07-01

    Settlement morphology transition is triggered by rapid urbanization and urban expansion, but its relationships with residents commuting energy consumption remains ambiguous. It is of significance to understand the controlling mechanisms of sustainable public management policies on the energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission during the process of urban settlement morphology transition. Taking the Xiamen City of East China as a case, and by using the integrated land use and transportation modeling system TRANUS, a scenario analysis was made to study the effects of urban settlement morphology transition on the urban spatial distribution of population, jobs, and land use, and on the residents commuting energy consumption and greenhouse gasses emission under different scenarios. The results showed that under the Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, the energy consumption of the residents at the morning peak travel time was 54.35 tce, and the CO2 emission was 119.12 t. As compared with those under BAU scenario, both the energy consumption and the CO2 emission under the Transition of Settlement Morphology (TSM) scenario increased by 12%, and, with the implementation of the appropriate policies such as land use, transportation, and economy, the energy consumption and CO2 emission under the Transition of Settlement Morphology with Policies (TSMP) scenario reduced by 7%, indicating that urban public management policies could effectively control the growth of residents commuting energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission during the period of urban settlement morphology transition.

  8. Energy drinks consumption in male construction workers, Chonburi province.

    PubMed

    Pichainarong, Natchaporn; Chaveepojnkamjorn, Wisit; Khobjit, Pattama; Veerachai, Viroj; Sujirarat, Dusit

    2004-12-01

    This unmatched case-control study aimed to determine the relationship among caffeine drinks consumption known as "energy drinks consumption", drug dependence and related factors in male construction workers in Chonburi Province. It was conducted during December 15, 2001 and February 15, 2002. Data were collected using interview questionnaires. The logistic regression was used to control possible confounding factors. The subjects consisted of 186 cases who had consumed energy drinks for more than 3 months and 186 controls who had given up for more than 3 months. They were frequency/group matched by age group. There was statistically significant association among energy drinks consumption and overtime work, motivation from advertisements, positive attitude of energy drinks consumption, alcohol drinks, smoking and ex-taking Kratom behavior. Multivariate analyses revealed that only 5 factors were related to energy drinks consumption: marital status (OR = 1.88, 95%CI: 1.14, 3.11), overtime work (OR = 2.84, 95%CI: 1.73, 4.64), motivation from advertisements (OR = 2.72, 95%CI: 1.67, 4.42), positive attitude of energy drinks consumption (OR = 4.06, 95%CI: 1.65, 10.01) and ex-taking Kratom behavior (OR = 2.77, 95%CI: 1.19, 6.44). As a result, construction workers should be provided with the knowledge of energy drinks consumption, the effect of drug dependence behavior, and the advantages of safe and healthy food that is cheap, readily available, and rich in nutrients.

  9. Comparison of Real World Energy Consumption to Models and Department of Energy Test Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Goetzler, William; Sutherland, Timothy; Kar, Rahul; Foley, Kevin

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the real-world energy performance of appliances and equipment as it compared with models and test procedures. The study looked to determine whether the U.S. Department of Energy and industry test procedures actually replicate real world conditions, whether performance degrades over time, and whether installation patterns and procedures differ from the ideal procedures. The study first identified and prioritized appliances to be evaluated. Then, the study determined whether real world energy consumption differed substantially from predictions and also assessed whether performance degrades over time. Finally, the study recommended test procedure modifications and areas for future research.

  10. Temporal and spatial variations of energy consumption in rural China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L. X.; Yang, Z. F.; Chen, B.; Chen, G. Q.; Zhang, Y. Q.

    2009-11-01

    Presented in this paper is an overview of energy consumption in rural China in view of temporal and spatial variations. Characterized by steadily decreased proportion of biomass use and increased percentage of coal and electricity use, coal and biomass are still the major energy sources in rural areas, accounting for nearly 80% of the total rural energy consumption. Moreover, the energy consumption varies significantly across provinces both in total sum and by fuel types due to diversities of geographic features, economic development levels and local energy source availability. Three statistical groups are clustered associated with quantitative change and structural change, exhibiting evident transition from noncommercial energy pattern to commercial energy pattern. Much more work need to be done to cope with the forthcoming dramatic changes associated with booming rural economy and newly released policy from the points of both energy security and environmental pressure in China.

  11. Biomarker-Calibrated Energy and Protein Consumption and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Among Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Prentice, Ross L.; Huang, Ying; Kuller, Lewis H.; Tinker, Lesley F.; Van Horn, Linda; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Sarto, Gloria; Ockene, Judith; Johnson, Karen C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Nutritional epidemiology cohort studies primarily use food frequency questionnaires (FFQs). In part because FFQs are more reliable for nutrient densities than for absolute nutrient consumption, reports from association studies typically present only nutrient density measures in relation to disease risk. Methods We used objective biomarkers to correct FFQ assessments for measurement error, and examined absolute energy and protein consumption in relation to cardiovascular disease incidence. FFQs and subsequent physician-adjudicated cardiovascular disease incidence were assessed for 80,370 postmenopausal women in the age range 50–79 years at enrollment in the comparison group of the Dietary Modification Trial or the prospective Observational Study in the Women’s Health Initiative. Urinary recovery biomarkers of energy and protein were obtained from a subsample of 544 women, with concurrent FFQ information. Results Following biomarker correction, energy consumption was positively associated with coronary heart disease incidence (hazard ratio = 1.18 [95% confidence interval = 1.04–1.33], for 20% consumption increment) and protein density was inversely associated (0.85 [0.75–0.97]). The positive energy association appeared to be mediated by body fat accumulation. Ischemic stroke incidence was inversely associated with energy and protein consumption, but not with protein density. Conclusions A positive association between energy and coronary heart disease risk can be attributed to body mass accumulation. Ischemic stroke risk is inversely associated with energy and protein consumption, possibly due to correlations between consumption and physical activity. PMID:21206366

  12. Predictors of changes in adolescents' consumption of fruits, vegetables and energy-dense snacks.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Natalie; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the predictors of developmental changes in adolescent eating behaviours is important for the design of nutrition interventions. The present study examined associations between individual, social and physical environmental factors and changes in adolescent eating behaviours over 2 years. Consumption of fruits, vegetables and energy-dense snacks was assessed using a Web-based survey completed by 1850 adolescents from years 7 and 9 of secondary schools in Victoria, Australia, at baseline and 2 years later. Perceived value of healthy eating, self-efficacy for healthy eating, social modelling and support, and home availability and accessibility of foods were assessed at baseline. Self-efficacy for increasing fruit consumption was positively associated with the change in fruit and vegetable consumption, while self-efficacy for decreasing junk food consumption was inversely associated with the change in energy-dense snack consumption. Home availability of energy-dense foods was inversely associated with the change in fruit consumption and positively associated with the change in energy-dense snack consumption, while home availability of fruits and vegetables was positively associated with the change in vegetable consumption. Perceived value of healthy eating and modelling of healthy eating by mothers were positively associated with the change in fruit consumption. Support of best friends for healthy eating was positively associated with the change in vegetable consumption. Self-efficacy and home availability of foods appear to be consistent predictors of change in fruit, vegetable and energy-dense snack consumption. Future study should assess the effectiveness of methods to increase self-efficacy for healthy eating and to improve home availability of healthy food options in programmes promoting healthy eating among adolescents.

  13. Regular energy drink consumption is associated with the risk of health and behavioural problems in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2017-02-22

    Consumption of energy drinks has become popular and frequent among adolescents across Europe. Previous research showed that regular consumption of these drinks was associated with several health and behavioural problems. The aim of the present study was to determine the socio-demographic groups at risk for regular energy drink consumption and to explore the association of regular energy drinks consumption with health and behavioural problems and negative school experiences in adolescents. Data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study conducted in 2014 in Slovakia were analysed. We assessed socio-demographic characteristics, energy drink consumption, health and behavioural problems and negative school experiences based on self-reports from 8977 adolescents aged 11-15 years (mean age/standard deviation 13/1.33; 50.0% boys). The prevalence of regular energy drink consumption in the present sample was 20.6% (95%CI: 20%-21%). Regular energy drink consumption was more frequent among boys and older adolescents. Adolescents with a medium-level family affluence were less likely to drink energy drinks regularly. Adolescents who consumed energy drinks regularly had more health and behavioural problems and negative school experiences.

  14. Industrial energy systems and assessment opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barringer, Frank Leonard, III

    Industrial energy assessments are performed primarily to increase energy system efficiency and reduce energy costs in industrial facilities. The most common energy systems are lighting, compressed air, steam, process heating, HVAC, pumping, and fan systems, and these systems are described in this document. ASME has produced energy assessment standards for four energy systems, and these systems include compressed air, steam, process heating, and pumping systems. ASHRAE has produced an energy assessment standard for HVAC systems. Software tools for energy systems were developed for the DOE, and there are software tools for almost all of the most common energy systems. The software tools are AIRMaster+ and LogTool for compressed air systems, SSAT and 3E Plus for steam systems, PHAST and 3E Plus for process heating systems, eQUEST for HVAC systems, PSAT for pumping systems, and FSAT for fan systems. The recommended assessment procedures described in this thesis are used to set up an energy assessment for an industrial facility, collect energy system data, and analyze the energy system data. The assessment recommendations (ARs) are opportunities to increase efficiency and reduce energy consumption for energy systems. A set of recommended assessment procedures and recommended assessment opportunities are presented for each of the most common energy systems. There are many assessment opportunities for industrial facilities, and this thesis describes forty-three ARs for the seven different energy systems. There are seven ARs for lighting systems, ten ARs for compressed air systems, eight ARs for boiler and steam systems, four ARs for process heating systems, six ARs for HVAC systems, and four ARs for both pumping and fan systems. Based on a history of past assessments, average potential energy savings and typical implementation costs are shared in this thesis for most ARs. Implementing these ARs will increase efficiency and reduce energy consumption for energy systems in

  15. Investigating energy consumption of coastal vacation rental homes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Sam

    In 2007, vacation rental properties in the United States accounted for more than 22% of the domestic lodging market. These properties are a unique segment of the lodging industry due to their residential design and commercial use. Coastal vacation rental properties represent the largest supply, demand and value of the nation's vacation rental supply. In the case of North Carolina's Outer Banks, tourism is the area's largest source of income, with vacation real estate agencies being the largest accommodation provider. This study uses a multiple regression analysis to investigate the energy consumption of 30 vacation rental homes on Hatteras Island. Hatteras Island's abundant supply of vacation rental homes provided a diverse sample to study energy consumption with a wide range of houses regarding size, age, and location. Since very little research has been conducted on the energy consumption of vacation rental homes, this study aims to contribute detailed information regarding the energy consumption of unique accommodation sector.

  16. Energy consumption evaluation of fuel bioethanol production from sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Mario Daniel; Guigou, Mairan; Lareo, Claudia

    2013-05-01

    The energy consumption for different operative conditions and configurations of the bioethanol production industrial process from an experimental variety of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) K 9807.1 was evaluated. A process simulation model was developed using SuperPro Designer® software. The model was based on experimental data gathered from our laboratory experiments and technology and equipment suppliers. The effects of the dry matter ratio of sweet potato to water, the fermentation efficiency, and sweet potato sugar content, on the energy consumption (steam and electricity) were respectively evaluated. All factors were significant. The best ratio of dry matter to total water to work with fresh sweet potato was 0.2 kg dry sweet potato/kg water, as for greater ratios was not found a significant reduction in energy consumption. Also, the drying of the sweet potato previous its processing was studied. It presented an energy consumption greater than the energetic content of the bioethanol produced.

  17. 10 CFR 431.134 - Uniform test methods for the measurement of energy consumption and water consumption of automatic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption and water consumption of automatic commercial ice makers. 431.134 Section 431.134 Energy... EQUIPMENT Automatic Commercial Ice Makers Test Procedures § 431.134 Uniform test methods for the measurement of energy consumption and water consumption of automatic commercial ice makers. (a) Scope. This...

  18. 10 CFR 431.134 - Uniform test methods for the measurement of energy consumption and water consumption of automatic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... consumption and water consumption of automatic commercial ice makers. 431.134 Section 431.134 Energy... EQUIPMENT Automatic Commercial Ice Makers Test Procedures § 431.134 Uniform test methods for the measurement of energy consumption and water consumption of automatic commercial ice makers. (a) Scope. This...

  19. On-site energy consumption at softwood sawmills in Montana

    Treesearch

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Todd A. Morgan; Colin B. Sorenson

    2016-01-01

    Total on-site energy requirements for wood product manufacturing are generally not well understood or publicly available, particularly at subregional scales, such as the state level. This article uses a mail survey of softwood sawmills in Montana to develop a profile of all on-site energy consumption. Energy use is delineated by fuel type on a production basis...

  20. Energy drink consumption and associated health behaviors among university students in an urban setting.

    PubMed

    Spierer, David K; Blanding, Nineequa; Santella, Anthony

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study is to describe energy drink consumption and health behaviors among college students attending a predominantly minority university. Undergraduate and graduate students attending a private, minority-serving university were invited to participate in an online survey between September 2009 and August 2010. Out of 2,500 students, 407 participated yielding a response of 16 %. Analysis assessed energy drink consumption as well as participation in sport activities and high-risk behaviors. Energy drink consumption is significantly related with drinking alcohol to inebriation and driving (r = .14, p < .05) and to riding with a drunk driver (r = .15, p < .05). Athletes were more likely to engage in drinking alcohol to inebriation and driving F (1, 186) = 6.12, p < .02. Energy drink consumption is a common practice among racial minority university students. Tailored health promotion strategies and interventions are needed to address misconceptions of energy drink and alcohol mixing.

  1. THE LAWS OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN NUTRITION,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    NUTRITION , THERMAL ANALYSIS), HEAT, BIOMETRY, BODY TEMPERATURE, ENERGY, LABORATORY ANIMALS, HUMANS, FOOD, CALORIMETRY, BIOCHEMISTRY, PROTEINS...DIET, METABOLISM, LOW TEMPERATURE, AGING(PHYSIOLOGY), STARVATION, MIXTURES, CLOTHING , COOLING.

  2. An Analysis of Military Family Housing Energy Consumption.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    ftG? 129 AN ANAYSIS OF MILITARY FAMILY HOUSING ENEM / CONSUMPTION(U) AIR FORCE INST OF TECH MRIOHT-PATTERSON RFI OH SCHOOL OF SYSTEMS AND LOGISTICS...111110 W, IM 111 1- L 4.0 1 2.0- L..25 0 ricFILE CMP voww 00 AN ANALYSIS OF MILITARY FAMILY HOUSING ENERGY CONSUMPTION THESIS/ William L. Jones Captain...University, the United States Air Force, or the Department of Defense. . AFITiGEM/DEM/87S-12 .’ AN ANALYSIS OF MILITARY FAMILY HOUSING ENERGY CONSUMPTION

  3. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost...

  4. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost...

  5. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost...

  6. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost...

  7. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost...

  8. Air transportation energy consumption - Yesterday, today, and tomorrow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascy, A. C.; Williams, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    The energy consumption by aviation is reviewed and projections of its growth are discussed. Forecasts of domestic passenger demand are presented, and the effect of restricted fuel supply and increased fuel prices is considered. The most promising sources for aircraft fuels, their availability and cost, and possible alternative fuels are reviewed. The energy consumption by various air and surface transportation modes is identified and compared on typical portal-to-portal trips. A measure of the indirect energy consumed by ground and air modes is defined. Historical trends in aircraft energy intensities are presented and the potential fuel savings with new technologies are discussed.

  9. Air transportation energy consumption - Yesterday, today, and tomorrow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascy, A. C.; Williams, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    The energy consumption by aviation is reviewed and projections of its growth are discussed. Forecasts of domestic passenger demand are presented, and the effect of restricted fuel supply and increased fuel prices is considered. The most promising sources for aircraft fuels, their availability and cost, and possible alternative fuels are reviewed. The energy consumption by various air and surface transportation modes is identified and compared on typical portal-to-portal trips. A measure of the indirect energy consumed by ground and air modes is defined. Historical trends in aircraft energy intensities are presented and the potential fuel savings with new technologies are discussed.

  10. 10 CFR 431.134 - Uniform test methods for the measurement of energy consumption and water consumption of automatic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uniform test methods for the measurement of energy consumption and water consumption of automatic commercial ice makers. 431.134 Section 431.134 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Automatic Commercial Ice Makers...

  11. Energy for 500 Million Homes: Drivers and Outlook for Residential Energy Consumption in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; McNeil, Michael A.; Levine, Mark

    2009-06-01

    China's rapid economic expansion has propelled it to the rank of the largest energy consuming nation in the world, with energy demand growth continuing at a pace commensurate with its economic growth. The urban population is expected to grow by 20 million every year, accompanied by construction of 2 billion square meters of buildings every year through 2020. Thus residential energy use is very likely to continue its very rapid growth. Understanding the underlying drivers of this growth helps to identify the key areas to analyze energy efficiency potential, appropriate policies to reduce energy use, as well as to understand future energy in the building sector. This paper provides a detailed, bottom-up analysis of residential building energy consumption in China using data from a wide variety of sources and a modelling effort that relies on a very detailed characterization of China's energy demand. It assesses the current energy situation with consideration of end use, intensity, and efficiency etc, and forecast the future outlook for the critical period extending to 2020, based on assumptions of likely patterns of economic activity, availability of energy services, technology improvement and energy intensities. From this analysis, we can conclude that Chinese residential energy consumption will more than double by 2020, from 6.6 EJ in 2000 to 15.9 EJ in 2020. This increase will be driven primarily by urbanization, in combination with increases in living standards. In the urban and higher income Chinese households of the future, most major appliances will be common, and heated and cooled areas will grow on average. These shifts will offset the relatively modest efficiency gains expected according to current government plans and policies already in place. Therefore, levelling and reduction of growth in residential energy demand in China will require a new set of more aggressive efficiency policies.

  12. Carbon dioxide emissions, output, and energy consumption categories in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Amri, Fethi

    2017-06-01

    This study examines the relation between CO2 emissions, income, non-renewable, and renewable energy consumption in Algeria during the period extending from 1980 to 2011. Our work gives particular attention to the validity of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis. The autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) with break point method outcome demonstrates the positive effect of non-renewable type of energy on CO2 emissions consumption. On the contrary, the results reveal an insignificant effect of renewable energy on environment improvement. Moreover, the results accept the existence of EKC hypothesis but the highest gross domestic product value in logarithm scale of our data is inferior to the estimated turning point. Consequently, policy-makers in Algeria should expand the ratio of renewable energy and should decrease the quota of non-renewable energy consumption.

  13. Wireless network interface energy consumption implications of popular streaming formats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Surendar

    2001-12-01

    With the proliferation of mobile streaming multimedia, available battery capacity constrains the end-user experience. Since streaming applications tend to be long running, wireless network interface card's (WNIC) energy consumption is particularly an acute problem. In this work, we explore the WNIC energy consumption implications of popular multimedia streaming formats from Microsoft (Windows media), Real (Real media) and Apple (Quick Time). We investigate the energy consumption under varying stream bandwidth and network loss rates. We also explore history-based client-side strategies to reduce the energy consumed by transitioning the WNICs to a lower power consuming sleep state. We show that Microsoft media tends to transmit packets at regular intervals; streams optimized for 28.8 Kbps can save over 80% in energy consumption with 2% data loss. A high bandwidth stream (768 Kbps) can still save 57% in energy consumption with less than 0.3% data loss. For high bandwidth streams, Microsoft media exploits network-level packet fragmentation, which can lead to excessive packet loss (and wasted energy) in a lossy network. Real stream packets tend to be sent closer to each other, especially at higher bandwidths. Quicktime packets sometimes arrive in quick succession; most likely an application level fragmentation mechanism. Such packets are harder to predict at the network level without understanding the packet semantics.

  14. Energy consumption and CO2 emissions in Iran, 2025.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Maryam; Bekri, Mahmoud

    2017-04-01

    Climate change and global warming as the key human societies' threats are essentially associated with energy consumption and CO2 emissions. A system dynamic model was developed in this study to model the energy consumption and CO2 emission trends for Iran over 2000-2025. Energy policy factors are considered in analyzing the impact of different energy consumption factors on environmental quality. The simulation results show that the total energy consumption is predicted to reach 2150 by 2025, while that value in 2010 is 1910, which increased by 4.3% yearly. Accordingly, the total CO2 emissions in 2025 will reach 985million tonnes, which shows about 5% increase yearly. Furthermore, we constructed policy scenarios based on energy intensity reduction. The analysis show that CO2 emissions will decrease by 12.14% in 2025 compared to 2010 in the scenario of 5% energy intensity reduction, and 17.8% in the 10% energy intensity reduction scenario. The results obtained in this study provide substantial awareness regarding Irans future energy and CO2 emission outlines.

  15. Mapping water consumption for energy production around the Pacific Rim

    DOE PAGES

    Tidwell, Vincent; Moreland, Barbie

    2016-09-07

    World energy demand is projected to increase by more than a third by 2035 and with it the use of water to extract and process fuels and generate electricity. Management of this energy-water nexus requires a clear understanding of the inter-related demands of these resources as well as their regional distribution. Toward this need the fresh water consumed for energy production was mapped for almost 12 000 watersheds distributed across the 21-economies comprising the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. Fresh water consumption was estimated for ten different sectors including thermoelectric and hydroelectric power; energy extraction including coal, oil, natural gas, uranium andmore » unconventional oil/gas; energy processing including oil and biofuels; and biofuel feedstock irrigation. These measures of water consumption were put in context by drawing comparison with published measures of water risk. In total 791 watersheds (32%) of the 2511 watersheds where energy related water consumption occurred were also characterized by high to extreme water risk, these watersheds were designated as being at energy-water risk. Furthermore, for six economies watersheds at energy-water risk represented half or more of all basins where energy related water consumption occurred, while four additional economies exceeded 30%.« less

  16. Mapping water consumption for energy production around the Pacific Rim

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, Vincent; Moreland, Barbie

    2016-09-07

    World energy demand is projected to increase by more than a third by 2035 and with it the use of water to extract and process fuels and generate electricity. Management of this energy-water nexus requires a clear understanding of the inter-related demands of these resources as well as their regional distribution. Toward this need the fresh water consumed for energy production was mapped for almost 12 000 watersheds distributed across the 21-economies comprising the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. Fresh water consumption was estimated for ten different sectors including thermoelectric and hydroelectric power; energy extraction including coal, oil, natural gas, uranium and unconventional oil/gas; energy processing including oil and biofuels; and biofuel feedstock irrigation. These measures of water consumption were put in context by drawing comparison with published measures of water risk. In total 791 watersheds (32%) of the 2511 watersheds where energy related water consumption occurred were also characterized by high to extreme water risk, these watersheds were designated as being at energy-water risk. Furthermore, for six economies watersheds at energy-water risk represented half or more of all basins where energy related water consumption occurred, while four additional economies exceeded 30%.

  17. Mapping water consumption for energy production around the Pacific Rim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidwell, Vincent; Moreland, Barbie

    2016-09-01

    World energy demand is projected to increase by more than a third by 2035 and with it the use of water to extract and process fuels and generate electricity. Management of this energy-water nexus requires a clear understanding of the inter-related demands of these resources as well as their regional distribution. Toward this need the fresh water consumed for energy production was mapped for almost 12 000 watersheds distributed across the 21-economies comprising the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. Fresh water consumption was estimated for ten different sectors including thermoelectric and hydroelectric power; energy extraction including coal, oil, natural gas, uranium and unconventional oil/gas; energy processing including oil and biofuels; and biofuel feedstock irrigation. These measures of water consumption were put in context by drawing comparison with published measures of water risk. In total 791 watersheds (32%) of the 2511 watersheds where energy related water consumption occurred were also characterized by high to extreme water risk, these watersheds were designated as being at energy-water risk. For six economies watersheds at energy-water risk represented half or more of all basins where energy related water consumption occurred, while four additional economies exceeded 30%.

  18. Circadian rhythm of energy expenditure and oxygen consumption.

    PubMed

    Leuck, Marlene; Levandovski, Rosa; Harb, Ana; Quiles, Caroline; Hidalgo, Maria Paz

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of continuous and intermittent methods of enteral nutrition (EN) administration on circadian rhythm. Thirty-four individuals, aged between 52 and 80 years, were fed through a nasoenteric tube. Fifteen individuals received a continuous infusion for 24 hours/d, and 19 received an intermittent infusion in comparable quantities, every 4 hours from 8:00 to 20:00. In each patient, 4 indirect calorimetric measurements were carried out over 24 hours (A: 7:30, B: 10:30, C: 14:30, and D: 21:30) for 3 days. Energy expenditure and oxygen consumption were significantly higher in the intermittent group than in the continuous group (1782 ± 862 vs 1478 ± 817 kcal/24 hours, P = .05; 257 125 vs 212 117 ml/min, P = .048, respectively). The intermittent group had higher levels of energy expenditure and oxygen consumption at all the measured time points compared with the continuous group. energy expenditure and oxygen consumption in both groups were significantly different throughout the day for 3 days. There is circadian rhythm variation of energy expenditure and oxygen consumption with continuous and intermittent infusion for EN. This suggests that only one indirect daily calorimetric measurement is not able to show the patient's true needs. Energy expenditure is higher at night with both food administration methods. Moreover, energy expenditure and oxygen consumption are higher with the intermittent administration method at all times.

  19. Correlating mechanical work with energy consumption during gait throughout pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Krkeljas, Zarko; Moss, Sarah Johanna

    2015-11-20

    Measures of mechanical work may be useful in evaluating efficiency of walking during pregnancy. Various adaptations in the body during pregnancy lead to altered gait, consequently contributing to the total energy cost of walking. Measures of metabolic energy expenditure may not be reliable for measuring energetic cost of gait during pregnancy as pregnancy results in numerous metabolic changes resulting from foetal development. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine if mechanical work prediction equations correlate with the metabolic energy cost of gait during pregnancy. Thirty-five (35) women (27.5 ± 6.1 years) gave informed consent for participation in the study at different weeks of gestation pregnancy. Gas exchange and gait data were recorded while walking at a fixed self-selected walking speed. External (Wext) work was estimated assuming no energy transfer between segments, while internal work (Wint) assumed energy transfer between segments. Hence total energy of the body (Wtot) was calculated based on the segmental changes relative to the surrounding, and relative to the centre of mass of the whole body. Equations for mechanical work were correlated with net and gross O2 rate, and O2 cost. External, internal and total mechanical energy showed significant positive relationship with gross O2 rate (r = 0.48, r = 0.35; and r = 0.49 respectively), and gross O2 cost (r = 0.42; r = 0.70, and r = 0.62, respectively). In contrast, external, internal and total mechanical energy had no significant relationship with net O2 rate (r = 0.19, r = 0.24, and r = 0.24, respectively). Net O2 cost was significant related Wext (r = 0.49) Wint (r = 0.66) and Wtot (r = 0.62). Energy recovery improved with increase in gait speed. Measures of mechanical work, when adjusted for resting energy expenditure, and walking speed may be useful in comparing metabolic energy consumption between women during pregnancy, or assessment

  20. Consumption of energy drinks among physical education students.

    PubMed

    Ballistreri, Martha Carmen; Corradi-Webster, Clarissa Mendonça

    2008-01-01

    This descriptive and cross-sectional study aimed to characterize the pattern of energy drinks consumption in a sample of physical education students through a self-applied questionnaire (socio-demographic data and characterization of consumption). Variables associated with consumption: gender, marital status, attending gym classes, athletic swim practice, and study in the morning. Consumption pattern (n=137): 2.2% once in their lives, 9.5% at least once in the last 12 months, 38% at least once in the last month, 39.4% six times or more in the last month, 10.9% 20 times or more in the last month. Justification for consumption: 54% to improve the taste of alcoholic drinks, 27.7% to extend their evening leisure periods, 13.9% to improve sports performance, 9.5% for stimulation, 8.8% enjoy the taste, 6.6% for curiosity and 4.4% to study. Of those who consumed energy drinks, 87.6% mixed it with alcohol, and 25.9% of the students reported they consume more alcohol when it is mixed with energy drinks. the consumption of energy drinks is associated to sports and drinking alcohol.

  1. Venetie, Alaska energy assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Richard Pearson; Baca, Michael J.; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Brainard, James Robert

    2013-07-01

    This report summarizes the Energy Assessment performed for Venetie, Alaska using the principals of an Energy Surety Microgrid (ESM) The report covers a brief overview of the principals of ESM, a site characterization of Venetie, a review of the consequence modeling, some preliminary recommendations, and a basic cost analysis.

  2. The energy consumption optimization of the BLAS routines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sojka, Radim; Riha, Lubomir; Horak, David; Kruzik, Jakub; Beseda, Martin; Cermak, Martin

    2017-07-01

    The paper deals with the energy consumption evaluation of selected Sparse and Dense BLAS Level 1, 2 and 3 routines. We have employed AXPY, Sparse Matrix-Vector, Sparse Matrix-Matrix, Dense Matrix-Vector, Dense Matrix-Matrix and Sparse Matrix-Dense Matrix multiplication routines from Intel Math Kernel Library (MKL). The measured characteristics illustrate the different energy consumption of BLAS routines, as some operations are memory-bounded and others are compute-bounded. Based on our recommendations one can explore dynamic frequency switching to achieve significant energy savings up to 23%.

  3. Energy Consumption Information Services for Smart Home Inhabitants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwanzer, Michael; Fensel, Anna

    We investigate services giving users an adequate insight on his or her energy consumption habits in order to optimize it in the long run. The explored energy awareness services are addressed to inhabitants of smart homes, equipped with smart meters, advanced communication facilities, sensors and actuators. To analyze the potential of such services, a game at a social network Facebook has been designed and implemented, and the information about players' responses and interactions within the game environment has been collected and analyzed. The players have had their virtual home energy usage visualized in different ways, and had to optimize the energy consumption basing on their own perceptions of the consumption information. Evaluations reveal, in particular, that users are specifically responsive to information shown as a real-time graph and as costs in Euro, and are able to produce and share with each other policies for managing their smart home environments.

  4. Electricity's "Disappearing Act": Understanding Energy Consumption and Phantom Loads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusk, Bryan; Mahfouz, Tarek; Jones, James

    2011-01-01

    Energy exists in many forms and can be converted from one form to another. However, this conversion is not 100% efficient, and energy is lost in the form of heat during conversion. In addition, approximately 6% of the monthly consumption of the average American household's electricity is neither lost nor used by its residents. These losses are…

  5. Electricity's "Disappearing Act": Understanding Energy Consumption and Phantom Loads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusk, Bryan; Mahfouz, Tarek; Jones, James

    2011-01-01

    Energy exists in many forms and can be converted from one form to another. However, this conversion is not 100% efficient, and energy is lost in the form of heat during conversion. In addition, approximately 6% of the monthly consumption of the average American household's electricity is neither lost nor used by its residents. These losses are…

  6. Modeling of moisture diffusivity, activation energy and energy consumption in fluidized bed drying of rough rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanali, Majid; Banisharif, Alireza; Rafiee, Shahin

    2016-11-01

    The present work was an attempt to assess the effective moisture diffusivity, activation energy, and energy consumption of rough rice in a batch fluidized bed dryer. Drying experiments were conducted at drying air temperatures of 50, 60, and 70 °C, superficial fluidization velocities of 2.3, 2.5, and 2.8 m/s, and solids holdup of 1.32 kg. Drying kinetics showed that the whole fluidized bed drying of rough rice occurred in the falling rate period. The effective moisture diffusivity was described by an Arrhenius equation. The evaluated effective moisture diffusivity increased with drying air temperature and superficial fluidization velocity and was found to vary from 4.78 × 10-11 to 1.364 × 10-10 m2/s with R2 higher than 0.9643. The activation energy and the pre-exponential factor of Arrhenius equation were found to be in the range of 36.59-44.31 kJ/mol and 4.71 × 10-5-7.15 × 10-4 m2/s, respectively. Both maximum values of the specific energy consumption of 74.73 MJ/kg and the total energy need of 12.43 MJ were obtained at 60 °C drying air temperature and 2.8 m/s superficial fluidization velocity. Both minimum values of the specific energy consumption of 29.98 MJ/kg and the total energy need of 4.85 MJ were obtained under drying air temperature of 70 °C and superficial fluidization velocity of 2.3 m/s.

  7. Study on energy consumption evaluation of mountainous highway based on LCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Lunlin; Zhang, Qi; Xie, Yongqing

    2017-06-01

    For the system to understand the road construction energy consumption process, this paper selects a typical mountainous highway in the south, using the theory and method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to quantitatively study the energy consumption of the whole process of highway raw materials production, construction and operation. The results show that the energy consumption in the raw material production stage is the highest, followed by the highway operation and construction stage. The energy consumption per unit of tunnel engineering, bridge engineering, roadbed engineering and pavement engineering in the construction phase are 2279.00 tce, 1718.07 tce, 542.19 tce and 34.02 tce, and in operational phase, 85.44% of electricity consumption comes from tunnel ventilation and lighting. Therefore, in the bridge and tunnel construction process, we should promote energy-saving innovation of the construction technology and mechanical equipment, and further strengthen the research and development of tunnel ventilation, lighting energy-saving equipment and intelligent control technology, which will help significantly reduce the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of the life cycle of highway.

  8. REDUCED ENERGY CONSUMPTION THROUGH PROJECTILE BASED EXCAVATION

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Machina

    2002-01-09

    The Projectile Based Excavation (ProjEX) program has as its goal, the reduction of energy required for production mining and secondary breakage through the use of a projectile based excavation system. It depends on the development of a low cost family of projectiles that will penetrate and break up different types of ore/rock and a low cost electric launch system. The electric launch system will eliminate the need for high cost propellant considered for similar concepts in the past. This document reports on the progress made in the program during the past quarter. It reports on projectile development experiments and the development of the electric launch system design.

  9. REDUCED ENERGY CONSUMPTION THROUGH PROJECTILE BASED EXCAVATION

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Machina

    2002-10-12

    The Projectile Based Excavation (ProjEX) program has as its goal, the reduction of energy required for production mining and secondary breakage through the use of a projectile based excavation system. It depends on the development of a low cost family of projectiles that will penetrate and break up different types of ore/rock and a low cost electric launch system. The electric launch system will eliminate the need for high cost propellant investigated for similar concepts in the past. This document reports on the progress made in the program during the past quarter. It reports on projectile development and the development of the electric launch system design.

  10. Understanding energy consumption of sensor enabled applications on mobile phones.

    PubMed

    Crk, Igor; Albinali, Fahd; Gniady, Chris; Hartman, John

    2009-01-01

    Recent research in ubiquitous and mobile computing uses mobile phones and wearable accelerometers to monitor individuals' physical activities for personalized and proactive health care. The goal of this project is to measure and reduce the energy demand placed on mobile phones that monitor individuals' physical activities for extended periods of time with limited access to battery recharging and mobile phone reception. Many issues must be addressed before mobile phones become a viable platform for remote health monitoring, including: security, reliability, privacy, and, most importantly, energy. Mobile phones are battery-operated, making energy a critical resource that must be carefully managed to ensure the longest running time before the battery is depleted. In a sense, all other issues are secondary, since the mobile phone will simply not function without energy. In this project, we therefore focus on understanding the energy consumption of a mobile phone that runs MIT wockets, physical activity monitoring applications, and consider ways to reduce its energy consumption.

  11. REDUCED ENERGY CONSUMPTION THROUGH PROJECTILE BASED EXCAVATION

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Machina

    2003-06-06

    The Projectile Based Excavation (ProjEX) program has as its goal, the reduction of energy required for production mining and secondary breakage through the use of a projectile based excavation system. It depends on the development of a low cost family of projectiles that will penetrate and break up different types of ore/rock and a low cost electric launch system. The electric launch system will eliminate the need for high cost propellant considered for similar concepts in the past. This document reports on the program findings through the first two phases. It presents projectile design and experiment data and the preliminary design for electric launch system. Advanced Power Technologies, Inc., now BAE SYSTEMS Advanced Technologies, Inc., was forced to withdraw from the program with the loss of one of our principal mining partners, however, the experiments conducted suggest that the approach is feasible and can be made cost effective.

  12. Estimating Total Energy Consumption and Emissions of China's Commercial and Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Fridley, David; Fridley, David G.; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan

    2008-03-01

    Buildings represent an increasingly important component of China's total energy consumption mix. However, accurately assessing the total volume of energy consumed in buildings is difficult owing to deficiencies in China's statistical collection system and a lack of national surveys. Official statistics suggest that buildings account for about 19% of China's total energy consumption, while others estimate the proportion at 23%, rising to 30% over the next few years. In addition to operational energy, buildings embody the energy used in the in the mining, extraction, harvesting, processing, manufacturing and transport of building materials as well as the energy used in the construction and decommissioning of buildings. This embodied energy, along with a building's operational energy, constitutes the building's life-cycle energy and emissions footprint. This report first provides a review of international studies on commercial building life-cycle energy use from which data are derived to develop an assessment of Chinese commercial building life-cycle energy use, then examines in detail two cases for the development of office building operational energy consumption to 2020. Finally, the energy and emissions implications of the two cases are presented.

  13. National Weatherization Assistance Program Evaluation: Assessment of Refrigerator Energy Use

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward; Goeltz, Rick

    2015-03-01

    This report assesses the energy consumption characteristics and performance of refrigerators that were monintored as a component of the Indoor Air Quality Study that itself was a component of the retrospective evaluation of the Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program.

  14. Energy-drink consumption in college students and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Attila, Sema; Çakir, Banu

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the frequency of energy-drink consumption and associated factors in a group of college students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Hacettepe University (Ankara, Turkey) and included 439 students pursuing a career in medicine, sports, and arts. Only fourth-year students were approached. Data were collected using a self-administered standard questionnaire. In bivariate analyses, frequency of energy-drink consumption was higher in students of arts and sports and in those who did not have breakfast on a regular basis, ever smoked cigarettes, drank alcoholic beverages, and regularly engaged in sports compared with their counterparts. Many students who had "ever" tried an energy drink did so the first time because they wondered about its taste. Of regular users of energy drinks, reasons for using such drinks varied across the three selected groups of students and included obtaining getting energy, staying awake, boosting performance while doing sports, or mixing with alcoholic beverages. About 40% of all current users of energy drinks reported that they mixed those with alcoholic beverages. In multivariate analyses, statistically significant predictors of energy-drink consumption were faculty type, presence of any health insurance, use of alcoholic beverages, and monthly income, controlling for gender. Most students could not correctly define the ingredients of energy drinks or their potential hazardous health effects, and they could not distinguish energy and sports drinks when they were requested to select them from a list of commercial names of various drinks. Consumption of energy drinks, despite the variation in the reason for choosing such drinks, is quite common in college students. Awareness of university students of the ingredients and potential health hazards of energy drinks, in particular in mixing with alcoholic beverages, should be increased. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Reducing agitator energy consumption without sacrificing agitation

    SciTech Connect

    Golobic, R.A.; Derrickson, G.S.

    1982-01-01

    Rising energy costs and their increasing net effect on the cost of a mineral product requires that every aspect of processing-plant operations reduce consumed horsepower without sacrificing the grade of the product. This paper addresses two principles in the design and selection of axial-flow agitator propellers that contribute to significant reductions in required horsepower. The first of these involves the use of good design principles. The swirling wake generated by an agitator propeller induces losses in the pumping action. By designing an agitator of proper twist and shape one can minimize these losses. Depending upon the design chosen for comparison, these losses can be reduced by 30 to 50% without any sacrifice in pumping or without increasing the complexity of the design. The second aspect involves an appropriate selection of the agitator propeller diameter. The required horsepower can be significantly reduced by using a propeller of larger diameter while operating it at a lower revolutions per minute (RPM) with no sacrifice in the pumping. 3 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Energy 101: Home Energy Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    A home energy checkup helps owners determine where their house is losing energy and money - and how such problems can be corrected to make the home more energy efficient. A professional technician - often called an energy auditor - can give your home a checkup. You can also do some of the steps yourself. Items shown here include checking for leaks, examining insulation, inspecting the furnace and ductwork, performing a blower door test and using an infrared camera.

  17. Energy 101: Home Energy Assessment

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    A home energy checkup helps owners determine where their house is losing energy and money - and how such problems can be corrected to make the home more energy efficient. A professional technician - often called an energy auditor - can give your home a checkup. You can also do some of the steps yourself. Items shown here include checking for leaks, examining insulation, inspecting the furnace and ductwork, performing a blower door test and using an infrared camera.

  18. Analysis of federal incentives used to stimulate energy consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, R.J.; Cone, B.W.; Emery, J.C.; Huelshoff, M.; Lenerz, D.E.; Marcus, A.; Morris, F.A.; Sheppard, W.J.; Sommers, P.

    1981-08-01

    The purpose of the analysis is to identify and quantify Federal incentives that have increased the consumption of coal, oil, natural gas, and electricity. The introductory chapter is intended as a device for presenting the policy questions about the incentives that can be used to stimulate desired levels of energy development. In the theoretical chapter federal incentives were identified for the consumption of energy as Federal government actions whose major intent or result is to stimulate energy consumption. The stimulus comes through changing values of variables included in energy demand functions, thereby inducing energy consumers to move along the function in the direction of greater quantity of energy demanded, or through inducing a shift of the function to a position where more energy will be demanded at a given price. The demand variables fall into one of six categories: price of the energy form, price of complements, price of substitutes, preferences, income, and technology. The government can provide such incentives using six different policy instruments: taxation, disbursements, requirements, nontraditional services, traditional services, and market activity. The four major energy forms were examined. Six energy-consuming sectors were examined: residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, transportation, and public. Two types of analyses of incentive actions are presented in this volume. The generic chapter focused on actions taken in 1978 across all energy forms. The subsequent chapters traced the patterns of incentive actions, energy form by energy form, from the beginning of the 20th century, to the present. The summary chapter includes the results of the previous chapters presented by energy form, incentive type, and user group. Finally, the implications of these results for solar policy are presented in the last chapter. (MCW)

  19. Energy consumption trends of multi-unit residential buildings in the city of Toronto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binkley, Clarissa

    The purpose of this research is to determine the average energy intensity of multi-unit residential buildings (MURBs) in Toronto, and evaluate whether certain building characteristics influence energy intensity. This information is particularly important in the Toronto market. Relative to the city's population, Toronto has an unusually high proportion of MURBs with more than half of residential dwellings in apartment buildings. Additionally, Toronto MURBs are significant consumers of energy and produce an estimated 1.3M tonnes of CO2e each year. The ultimate goal is to assess the most efficient building retrofit measures. Energy consumption data for Toronto MURBs were collected and weather normalized. Correlations between the energy data and the building characteristics were examined. Window characteristics and heating system type were found to have the most significant influence on energy intensity. Establishing energy consumption characteristics of MURBs is the first step towards improving the energy efficiency of Toronto's MURBs stock.

  20. Assessment of consumption and expenditure data collected from energy suppliers against bill data obtained from interviewed households: Case study with 2009 RECS

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    By comparing the different data sources (survey respondents provide information about their household characteristics and energy use; interviewers used portable devices to scan the respondents’ utility bills), we hope to learn more about any limitations in the data that we collect, which we can then attempt to address. As such, this limited empirical study is an example of the research that EIA conducts to evaluate and subsequently improve on the quality of data that EIA collects.

  1. Legitimacy of concerns about caffeine and energy drink consumption.

    PubMed

    Wesensten, Nancy J

    2014-10-01

    Whether caffeine and energy drink consumption presents a critical emerging health problem is not currently known. Available evidence suggests that energy drink consumption represents a change in the ways in which individuals in the United States consume caffeine but that the amount of caffeine consumed daily has not appreciably increased. In the present review, the question of whether Americans are sleep deprived (a potential reason for using caffeine) is briefly explored. Reported rates of daily caffeine consumption (based on beverage formulation) and data obtained from both civilian and military populations in the United States are examined, the efficacy of ingredients other than caffeine in energy drinks is discussed, and the safety and side effects of caffeine are addressed, including whether evidence supports the contention that excessive caffeine/energy drink consumption induces risky behavior. The available evidence suggests that the main legitimate concern regarding caffeine and energy drink use is the potential negative impact on sleep but that, otherwise, there is no cause for concern regarding caffeine use in the general population. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Expert system for the analysis of building energy consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Haberl, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    A significant portion of unnecessary energy consumption in a building can often be attributed to specific operational events, especially in large institutional buildings with complex energy consuming subsystems. Once identified, these events can be tracked automatically with regression techniques and an expert system on a desk top microcomputer using information and observations from daily on-site visits. A prototype methodology, using these techniques, was able to reduce energy consumption for a pilot building by 15%. The pilot building for the application of the methodology is the University of Colorado Recreation Center. The methodology uses multivariate linearized regression, and the expert system was developed with an available proprietary expert-system shell. The expert system contains a previously assembled knowledge base which represents the expertise of on-site maintenance personnel, as well as that of the author gained over the six years the building has been under study. The methodology developed, the Building Energy Analysis CONsultant (BEACON) system, has two main components, an energy consumption predictor, and an expert system that analyzes abnormal consumption according to predefined IF-THEN rules.

  3. Consumption of Energy Drinks among Undergraduate Students in Taiwan: Related Factors and Associations with Substance Use.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yen-Jung; Peng, Ching-Yi; Lan, Yu-Ching

    2017-08-24

    Background: This study aimed to investigate the consumption of energy drinks and associated factors among undergraduate students in Taiwan. Methods: Data came from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2015. Eligible participants completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing use and perceptions of energy drinks, tobacco, alcohol, and betel nut. Results: Among 606 surveyed undergraduate students, 24.8% reported consuming energy drinks in the past 30 days. The major reasons for use included keeping alert at work (48.7%), being curious about the products (32.0%), enjoying the flavor (31.3%), or preparing for school exams (26.7%). Among energy drink users, half have never read the nutrition label, and 15.3% reported that they had ever mixed energy drinks with alcohol. Most participants showed negative attitudes toward using tobacco, alcohol, or betel nut, while 54.1% reported positive attitudes toward consuming energy drinks. Being male, living away from parents' home, tobacco use, alcohol use, and positive perceptions of energy drink's effects significantly predicted energy drink consumption. Conclusions: In addition to exploring motivations of energy drink consumption in undergraduate students in Taiwan, the study findings indicated that energy drink consumption might relate to the use of tobacco and alcohol, which should be taken into account in substance use prevention programs.

  4. Energy drink consumption is associated with anxiety in Australian young adult males.

    PubMed

    Trapp, Georgina S A; Allen, Karina; O'Sullivan, Therese A; Robinson, Monique; Jacoby, Peter; Oddy, Wendy H

    2014-05-01

    Energy drinks are predominantly targeted to young adult consumers; however, there has been limited research into their effects on psychological functioning in this demographic group. This study examined cross-sectional associations between energy drink consumption and mental health in a population-based sample of young adults participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. We used self-report questionnaires to assess energy drink consumption and mental health (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21; DASS-21) at the 20-year cohort follow-up. In the regression analyses, we considered associations between energy drink consumption (mL/day) and continuous DASS-21 scores, adjusting for sociodemographic variables, alcohol and drug use, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), and dietary intake. Our sample included 502 males and 567 females (mean age 20 ± 3 years). After adjusting for potential confounding factors and controlling for coexisting mental health problems, energy drink consumption (per 100 mL/day) was significantly associated with anxiety (but not depression or stress), and this relationship was found only in males (β = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.05, 0.58). Our study found that energy drink consumption was associated with increased anxiety in young adult males. Further research into the possible contribution of energy drink use to the development of mental health problems in young adults is needed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A Low Power Consumption Algorithm for Efficient Energy Consumption in ZigBee Motes.

    PubMed

    Vaquerizo-Hdez, Daniel; Muñoz, Pablo; R-Moreno, María D; F Barrero, David

    2017-09-22

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are becoming increasingly popular since they can gather information from different locations without wires. This advantage is exploited in applications such as robotic systems, telecare, domotic or smart cities, among others. To gain independence from the electricity grid, WSNs devices are equipped with batteries, therefore their operational time is determined by the time that the batteries can power on the device. As a consequence, engineers must consider low energy consumption as a critical objective to design WSNs. Several approaches can be taken to make efficient use of energy in WSNs, for instance low-duty-cycling sensor networks (LDC-WSN). Based on the LDC-WSNs, we present LOKA, a LOw power Konsumption Algorithm to minimize WSNs energy consumption using different power modes in a sensor mote. The contribution of the work is a novel algorithm called LOKA that implements two duty-cycling mechanisms using the end-device of the ZigBee protocol (of the Application Support Sublayer) and an external microcontroller (Cortex M0+) in order to minimize the energy consumption of a delay tolerant networking. Experiments show that using LOKA, the energy required by the sensor device is reduced to half with respect to the same sensor device without using LOKA.

  6. Developing an Analytical Framework for Argumentation on Energy Consumption Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Hui; Mehl, Cathy E.; Lan, Deborah H.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to develop a framework for analyzing the argumentation practice of high school students and high school graduates. We developed the framework in a specific context--how energy consumption activities such as changing diet, converting forests into farmlands, and choosing transportation modes affect the carbon cycle. The…

  7. Developing an Analytical Framework for Argumentation on Energy Consumption Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Hui; Mehl, Cathy E.; Lan, Deborah H.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to develop a framework for analyzing the argumentation practice of high school students and high school graduates. We developed the framework in a specific context--how energy consumption activities such as changing diet, converting forests into farmlands, and choosing transportation modes affect the carbon cycle. The…

  8. Energy Cost and Consumption Audit Program. 1975-76 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Task Force, Washington, DC.

    Results reported in this document were obtained from a questionnaire distributed to higher education business officers and physical plant directors requesting information on total campus and individual building energy cost and consumption for the fiscal year July 1, 1975, through June 30, 1976. Usable reports were received from 330 (22 percent) of…

  9. Data-driven forecasting algorithms for building energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Hae Young; Rajagopal, Ram

    2013-04-01

    This paper introduces two forecasting methods for building energy consumption data that are recorded from smart meters in high resolution. For utility companies, it is important to reliably forecast the aggregate consumption profile to determine energy supply for the next day and prevent any crisis. The proposed methods involve forecasting individual load on the basis of their measurement history and weather data without using complicated models of building system. The first method is most efficient for a very short-term prediction, such as the prediction period of one hour, and uses a simple adaptive time-series model. For a longer-term prediction, a nonparametric Gaussian process has been applied to forecast the load profiles and their uncertainty bounds to predict a day-ahead. These methods are computationally simple and adaptive and thus suitable for analyzing a large set of data whose pattern changes over the time. These forecasting methods are applied to several sets of building energy consumption data for lighting and heating-ventilation-air-conditioning (HVAC) systems collected from a campus building at Stanford University. The measurements are collected every minute, and corresponding weather data are provided hourly. The results show that the proposed algorithms can predict those energy consumption data with high accuracy.

  10. Impact of electric cars on national energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, P. D.

    1980-02-01

    Energy utilization of electric vehicles is discussed in terms of energy efficiency in comparison to internal combustion engine automobiles, starting from oil or coal as the prime energy source. It is found that although an electric car does not save primary energy resources, it can transfer some of the transportation fuel needs from petroleum to coal, nuclear, or hydropower. With reference to the impact of electric vehicles on reduction of petroleum consumption, it is shown that the dependence of the United States on foreign oil can be reduced much more quickly and at much lower cost by converting electric utility boilers from oil to coal.

  11. Energy intensity, electricity consumption, and advanced manufacturing-technology usage

    SciTech Connect

    Doms, M.E.; Dunne, T.

    1995-07-01

    This article reports on the relationship between the usage of advanced manufacturing technologies (AMTs) and energy consumption patterns in manufacturing plants. Using data from the Survey of Manufacturing Technology and the 1987 Census of Manufactures, we model the energy intensity and the electricity intensity of plants as functions of AMT usage and plant age. The main findings are that plants that utilize AMTs are less-energy intensive than plants not using AMTs, but consume proportionately more electricity as a fuel source. Additionally, older plants are generally more energy intensive and rely on fossil fuels to a greater extent than younger plants. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

  12. Energy consumption and gait analysis in children with myelomeningocele.

    PubMed

    Galli, M; Crivellini, M; Fazzi, E; Motta, F

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine, in children with different levels of myelomeningocele (MMC), the gait pattern and energy cost of walking with and without ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs). We found that each MMC level was characterised by recognisable gait patterns and that the abnormalities closely reflected the muscle deficits present. Furthermore, the study also introduces new indices for evaluating the energy cost of locomotion and demonstrates that the energy required for walking is increased in children with MMC compared with non disabled children. With respect to barefoot conditions, the use of AFOs leads to an improvement in gait and reduced energy consumption.

  13. Assessing summertime urban air conditioning consumption in a semiarid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamanca, F.; Georgescu, M.; Mahalov, A.; Moustaoui, M.; Wang, M.; Svoma, B. M.

    2013-09-01

    Evaluation of built environment energy demand is necessary in light of global projections of urban expansion. Of particular concern are rapidly expanding urban areas in environments where consumption requirements for cooling are excessive. Here, we simulate urban air conditioning (AC) electric consumption for several extreme heat events during summertime over a semiarid metropolitan area with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled to a multilayer building energy scheme. Observed total load values obtained from an electric utility company were split into two parts, one linked to meteorology (i.e., AC consumption) which was compared to WRF simulations, and another to human behavior. WRF-simulated non-dimensional AC consumption profiles compared favorably to diurnal observations in terms of both amplitude and timing. The hourly ratio of AC to total electricity consumption accounted for ˜53% of diurnally averaged total electric demand, ranging from ˜35% during early morning to ˜65% during evening hours. Our work highlights the importance of modeling AC electricity consumption and its role for the sustainable planning of future urban energy needs. Finally, the methodology presented in this article establishes a new energy consumption-modeling framework that can be applied to any urban environment where the use of AC systems is prevalent.

  14. A survey of energy-drink consumption among medical students.

    PubMed

    Hidiroglu, Seyhan; Tanriover, Ozlem; Unaldi, Sule; Sulun, Serdar; Karavus, Melda

    2013-07-01

    To determine the frequency and pattern of energy drink consumption among medical school students, their knowledge of its effects and side effects and to see its relation with alcohol and cigarette usage. The descriptive analytical study was conducted at Marmara University Medical School, Istanbul, Turkey from October 2011 and January 2012. A semi-structured questionnaire was filled by students who were asked about their socio-demographic status and their energy drink consumption. SPSS 12 was used for statistical analysis. The mean age of the 390 students in the study was 20.98+/-1.96 years (range:16-27). Of them, 204 (52.3%) were females and 186 (47.7%) were males. Overall 52(13.3%) were smoking regularly at least one cigarette per day; 122(31.3%) were consuming alcohol; 127 (32.6%) had consumed energy drinks at least once and 73(18.8%)more than once. In terms of perception, 110(28.2%) students said energy drinks were similar to sports drinks, while only 121(41.1%) named the brands correctly; 96 (24.6%) students did not answer this particular question. Although consumption of energy drinks was common among medical students, the knowledge of ingredients and knowledge of health risks of energy drinks among them was unsatisfactory.

  15. Building and occupant characteristics as determinants of residential energy consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Nieves, A.L.

    1981-10-01

    The major goals of the research are to gain insight into the probable effects of building energy performance standards on energy consumption; to obtain observations of actual residential energy consumption that could affirm or disaffirm comsumption estimates of the DOE 2.0A simulation model; and to investigate home owner's conservation investments and home purchase decisions. The first chapter covers the investigation of determinants of household energy consumption. The presentation begins with the underlying economic theory and its implications, and continues with a description of the data collection procedures, the formulation of variables, and then of data analysis and findings. In the second chapter the assumptions and limitations of the energy use projections generated by the DOE 2.0A model are discussed. Actual electricity data for the houses are then compared with results of the simulation. The third chapter contains information regarding households' willingness to make energy conserving investments and their ranking of various conservation features. In the final chapter conclusions and recommendations are presented with an emphasis on the policy implications of this study. (MCW)

  16. China's transportation energy consumption and CO2 emissions from a global perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Xiang; Chen, Wenying; Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.; Kim, Son H.; Patel, Pralit L.; Yu, Sha; Kyle, G. Page

    2015-07-01

    ABSTRACT Rapidly growing energy demand from China's transportation sector in the last two decades have raised concerns over national energy security, local air pollution, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and there is broad consensus that China's transportation sector will continue to grow in the coming decades. This paper explores the future development of China's transportation sector in terms of service demands, final energy consumption, and CO2 emissions, and their interactions with global climate policy. This study develops a detailed China transportation energy model that is nested in an integrated assessment model—Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM)—to evaluate the long-term energy consumption and CO2 emissions of China's transportation sector from a global perspective. The analysis suggests that, without major policy intervention, future transportation energy consumption and CO2 emissions will continue to rapidly increase and the transportation sector will remain heavily reliant on fossil fuels. Although carbon price policies may significantly reduce the sector's energy consumption and CO2 emissions, the associated changes in service demands and modal split will be modest, particularly in the passenger transport sector. The analysis also suggests that it is more difficult to decarbonize the transportation sector than other sectors of the economy, primarily owing to its heavy reliance on petroleum products.

  17. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carried out to identify and discuss the published articles that examined the beneficial and adverse health effects related to energy drink. It is concluded that although energy drink may have beneficial effects on physical performance, these products also have possible detrimental health consequences. Marketing of energy drinks should be limited or forbidden until independent research confirms their safety, particularly among adolescents. PMID:26715927

  18. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS ) 2009 Technical Documentation - Summary

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    RECS is a periodic survey sponsored by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) that provides detailed information about energy usage in U.S. homes. RECS is a multi-year effort consisting of a Household Survey phase, data collection from household energy suppliers, and detailed consumption and expenditures estimation. The Household Survey collects data on energy-related characteristics and usage patterns of a nationally representative sample of housing units. For renters that do not directly pay for their energy usage, a supplementary Rental Agent Survey is conducted. The Energy Supplier Surveys (ESS) collect data on how much electricity, natural gas, propane/LPG, fuel oil, and kerosene were consumed in the sampled housing unit during the reference year. It also collects data on actual dollar amounts spent on these energy sources.

  19. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carried out to identify and discuss the published articles that examined the beneficial and adverse health effects related to energy drink. It is concluded that although energy drink may have beneficial effects on physical performance, these products also have possible detrimental health consequences. Marketing of energy drinks should be limited or forbidden until independent research confirms their safety, particularly among adolescents.

  20. Environmental knowledge and attitudes and behaviours towards energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Paço, Arminda; Lavrador, Tânia

    2017-07-15

    Numerous investigations have arisen in order to study and characterise environmentally friendly consumer profiles, with some authors applying the relationship between knowledge, attitudes and behaviour to this end. The present research approach, based upon the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), seeks to verify the existence of relationships between knowledge and attitudes and between knowledge and environmental behaviour. In this instance, data collection involved a questionnaire aimed at assessing the overall environmental knowledge of respondents as well as their attitudes and behaviours regarding energy issues (savings, consumption, interest, use). The results pointed to the lack of relationship between knowledge and attitudes, and between knowledge and behaviour whilst the relationship between attitudes and behaviour proved to be only weak. The results also found that males, older students and those studying Engineering and the Social and Human Sciences are those reporting higher levels of environmental knowledge. However, when it comes to attitudes and behaviours, females seem to display more awareness around these issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Computer simulated building energy consumption for verification of energy conservation measures in network facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plankey, B.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program called ECPVER (Energy Consumption Program - Verification) was developed to simulate all energy loads for any number of buildings. The program computes simulated daily, monthly, and yearly energy consumption which can be compared with actual meter readings for the same time period. Such comparison can lead to validation of the model under a variety of conditions, which allows it to be used to predict future energy saving due to energy conservation measures. Predicted energy saving can then be compared with actual saving to verify the effectiveness of those energy conservation changes. This verification procedure is planned to be an important advancement in the Deep Space Network Energy Project, which seeks to reduce energy cost and consumption at all DSN Deep Space Stations.

  2. Computer simulated building energy consumption for verification of energy conservation measures in network facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plankey, B.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program called ECPVER (Energy Consumption Program - Verification) was developed to simulate all energy loads for any number of buildings. The program computes simulated daily, monthly, and yearly energy consumption which can be compared with actual meter readings for the same time period. Such comparison can lead to validation of the model under a variety of conditions, which allows it to be used to predict future energy saving due to energy conservation measures. Predicted energy saving can then be compared with actual saving to verify the effectiveness of those energy conservation changes. This verification procedure is planned to be an important advancement in the Deep Space Network Energy Project, which seeks to reduce energy cost and consumption at all DSN Deep Space Stations.

  3. Factors affecting the energy consumption of two refrigerator-freezers

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, J.Y.; Kelley, G.E.

    1996-12-31

    Two refrigerator-freezers, one with a top-mounted freezer and one with side-by-side doors, were tested in the laboratory to determine the sensitivity of their energy consumption to various operational factors. Room temperature, room humidity, door openings, and the setting of the anti-sweat heater switch were the factors examined. The results indicated that the room temperature and door openings had a significantly greater effect on energy consumption than the other two factors. More detailed tests were then performed under different room temperature and door-opening combinations. The relationship of door openings and the equivalent test room temperature was established. Finally, the effect on energy of different temperature settings was studied. Test results are presented and discussed.

  4. Energy consumption in buildings and female thermal demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingma, Boris; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter

    2015-12-01

    Energy consumption of residential buildings and offices adds up to about 30% of total carbon dioxide emissions; and occupant behaviour contributes to 80% of the variation in energy consumption. Indoor climate regulations are based on an empirical thermal comfort model that was developed in the 1960s (ref. ). Standard values for one of its primary variables--metabolic rate--are based on an average male, and may overestimate female metabolic rate by up to 35% (ref. ). This may cause buildings to be intrinsically non-energy-efficient in providing comfort to females. Therefore, we make a case to use actual metabolic rates. Moreover, with a biophysical analysis we illustrate the effect of miscalculating metabolic rate on female thermal demand. The approach is fundamentally different from current empirical thermal comfort models and builds up predictions from the physical and physiological constraints, rather than statistical association to thermal comfort. It provides a substantiation of the thermal comfort standard on the population level and adds flexibility to predict thermal demand of subpopulations and individuals. Ultimately, an accurate representation of thermal demand of all occupants leads to actual energy consumption predictions and real energy savings of buildings that are designed and operated by the buildings services community.

  5. Recent trends of energy consumption and air pollution in China

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, H.Z.; Hao, J.M.; Hu, M.Y.; Nie, Y.F.

    2007-03-15

    The relationship between air pollution and energy consumption is a hot topic that is receiving increased attention by industry, regulatory agencies, as well as the public. China is currently undergoing a profound economic and social transition. Since the late 1990s, China's energy production and consumption have undergone an unexpectedly precipitous up-and-down fluctuation, and the related air pollution has changed dramatically. In this study, energy use and the related air pollution during the past years are analyzed and discussed in detail. Further, suggestions on sustainable energy use, air pollution control, as well as CO{sub 2}, abatement are proposed. By 2003, the total primary energy consumption of China had reached 1678.00 million tons (MT) of standard coal equivalent. As a result, emissions of SO{sub 2}, and NOx increased to 21.58 and 16.13 MT in 2003, respectively. Acid rain pollution worsened nationwide after 2000, with the areas of acid rain remaining stable while some seriously acid rain polluted areas worsened. This implies that more rigorous regulations, standards, and effective economic policies are needed.

  6. A survey of energy drink and alcohol mixed with energy drink consumption.

    PubMed

    Magnezi, Racheli; Bergman, Lisa Carroll; Grinvald-Fogel, Haya; Cohen, Herman Avner

    2015-01-01

    Energy drink consumption among youth is increasing despite recommendations by the American Academy of Pediatrics to eliminate consumption by youth. This study provides information on consumption of energy drinks and alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) in a sample of Israeli youth and how consumer knowledge about the risks affects consumption rates. The study was conducted in three Tel Aviv public schools, with a total enrollment of 1,253 students in grades 8 through 12. Among them, 802 students completed a 49-item questionnaire about energy drink and AmED consumption, for a 64 % response rate Non-responders included 451 students who were absent or refused to participate. All students in the same school were administered the questionnaire on the same day. Energy drinks are popular among youth (84.2 % have ever drunk). More tenth through twelfth grade students consumed energy drinks than eighth and ninth grade students. Students who began drinking in elementary school (36.8 %) are at elevated risk for current energy drink (P < .001) and AmED (P = .002) use. Knowledge about amounts consumed and recommended allowances is associated with less consumption (OR 1.925; 95 %CI 1.18-3.14). The association between current AmED consumption and drinking ED at a young age is important. Boys and those who start drinking early have a greater risk of both ED and AmED consumption. The characteristics of early drinkers can help increase awareness of potential at-risk youth, such as junior and senior high school students with less educated or single parents. Risks posed by early use on later energy drink and AmED consumption are concerning. We suggest that parents should limit accessibility. Increased knowledge about acceptable and actual amounts of caffeine in a single product might decrease consumption.

  7. Experimental verification of an energy consumption signal tool for operational decision support in an office building

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlak, Gregory S.; Henze, Gregor P.; Hirsch, Adam I.; Florita, Anthony R.; Dodier, Robert H.

    2016-12-01

    This paper demonstrates an energy signal tool to assess the system-level and whole-building energy use of an office building in downtown Denver, Colorado. The energy signal tool uses a traffic light visualization to alert a building operator to energy use which is substantially different from expected. The tool selects which light to display for a given energy end-use by comparing measured energy use to expected energy use, accounting for uncertainty. A red light is only displayed when a fault is likely enough, and abnormal operation costly enough, that taking action will yield the lowest cost result. While the theoretical advances and tool development were reported previously, it has only been tested using a basic building model and has not, until now, been experimentally verified. Expected energy use for the field demonstration is provided by a compact reduced-order representation of the Alliance Center, generated from a detailed DOE-2.2 energy model. Actual building energy consumption data is taken from the summer of 2014 for the office building immediately after a significant renovation project. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a first look at the building following its major renovation compared to the design intent. The tool indicated strong under-consumption in lighting and plug loads and strong over-consumption in HVAC energy consumption, which prompted several focused actions for follow-up investigation. In addition, this paper illustrates the application of Bayesian inference to the estimation of posterior parameter probability distributions to measured data. Practical discussion of the application is provided, along with additional findings from further investigating the significant difference between expected and actual energy consumption.

  8. An analysis of residential energy consumption in a temperate climate

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Y.Y.; Vincent, W.

    1987-06-01

    Electrical energy consumption data have been recorded for several hundred submetered residential structures in Middle Tennessee. All houses were constructed with a common energy package.'' Specifically, daily cooling usage data have been collected for 130 houses for the 1985 and 1986 cooling seasons, and monthly heating usage data for 186 houses have been recorded by occupant participation over a seven-year period. Cooling data have been analyzed using an SPSSx multiple regression analysis and results are compared to several cooling models. Heating, base, and total energy usage are also analyzed and regression correlation coefficients are determined as a function of several house parameters.

  9. Oxygen Consumption Rate and Energy Expenditure in Mice: Indirect Calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Ran; Tong, Qingchun

    2017-01-01

    Global obesity epidemic demands more effective therapeutic treatments and better understanding of obesity pathophysiology. Since obesity results from energy imbalance, accurate quantification of energy intake and energy expenditure (EE) becomes an essential prerequisite to phenotype the cause for obesity development. Indirect calorimetry has long been used as one of the most established methods in EE quantification by detecting changes in levels of O2 consumption and CO2 production. In this article, we describe procedures and important considerations for an effective measurement using indirect calorimetry.

  10. Correlates of University Students’ Soft and Energy Drink Consumption According to Gender and Residency

    PubMed Central

    Deliens, Tom; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed personal and environmental correlates of Belgian university students’ soft and energy drink consumption and investigated whether these associations were moderated by gender or residency. Four hundred twenty-five university students completed a self-reported on-line questionnaire assessing socio-demographics, health status, soft and energy drink consumption, as well as personal and environmental factors related to soft and energy drink consumption. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Students believing soft drink intake should be minimized (individual subjective norm), finding it less difficult to avoid soft drinks (perceived behavioral control), being convinced they could avoid soft drinks in different situations (self-efficacy), having family and friends who rarely consume soft drinks (modelling), and having stricter family rules about soft drink intake were less likely to consume soft drinks. Students showing stronger behavioral control, having stricter family rules about energy drink intake, and reporting lower energy drink availability were less likely to consume energy drinks. Gender and residency moderated several associations between psychosocial constructs and consumption. Future research should investigate whether interventions focusing on the above personal and environmental correlates can indeed improve university students’ beverage choices. PMID:26258790

  11. Correlates of University Students' Soft and Energy Drink Consumption According to Gender and Residency.

    PubMed

    Deliens, Tom; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2015-08-06

    This study assessed personal and environmental correlates of Belgian university students' soft and energy drink consumption and investigated whether these associations were moderated by gender or residency. Four hundred twenty-five university students completed a self-reported on-line questionnaire assessing socio-demographics, health status, soft and energy drink consumption, as well as personal and environmental factors related to soft and energy drink consumption. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Students believing soft drink intake should be minimized (individual subjective norm), finding it less difficult to avoid soft drinks (perceived behavioral control), being convinced they could avoid soft drinks in different situations (self-efficacy), having family and friends who rarely consume soft drinks (modelling), and having stricter family rules about soft drink intake were less likely to consume soft drinks. Students showing stronger behavioral control, having stricter family rules about energy drink intake, and reporting lower energy drink availability were less likely to consume energy drinks. Gender and residency moderated several associations between psychosocial constructs and consumption. Future research should investigate whether interventions focusing on the above personal and environmental correlates can indeed improve university students' beverage choices.

  12. Question 7: Optimized Energy Consumption for Protein Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szaflarski, Witold; Nierhaus, Knud H.

    2007-10-01

    In our previous contribution (Nierhaus, Orig Life Evol Biosph, this volume, 2007) we mentioned that life had solved the problem of energy supply in three major steps, and that these steps also mark major stages during the development of life. We further outlined a possible scenario concerning a minimal translational apparatus focusing on the essential components necessary for protein synthesis. Here we continue that consideration by addressing on one of the main problems of early life, namely avoiding wasteful energy loss. With regard to the limiting energy supply of early living systems, i.e. those of say more than 3,000 Ma, a carefully controlled and product oriented energy consumption was in demand. In recent years we learned how a bacterial cell avoids energy drain, thus being able to pump most of the energy into protein synthesis. These lessons must be followed by the design of a minimal living system, which is surveyed in this short article.

  13. Consumption of energy drinks among lebanese youth: a pilot study on the prevalence and side effects.

    PubMed

    Itany, Manal; Diab, Batoul; Rachidi, Samar; Awada, Sanaa; Al Hajje, Amal; Bawab, Wafaa; Salameh, Pascale

    2014-09-01

    The new millennium has been together with a variety of synthetic and caffeinated high-energy drinks targeting the youth market. Energy drinks raise the level of energy and their consumption has been increased significantly worldwide. This research aimed to determine patterns of energy drink consumption and to assess the prevalence of adverse side effects among energy drink users. A pilot cross-sectional study survey was undertaken on students aged between 13 and 30 years in private and public schools and universities in Lebanon over 5 months. A self-administered questionnaire was used inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, consumption patterns, attitudes and beliefs about energy drinks. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Data was analyzed using SPSS 17. We studied 1500 students (mean age: 18.92 ± 1.85; 51.3% were males). The overall prevalence of energy drinks consumption was 63.6% (60.5% were males), among which 50.5% used alcoholic energy drinks. Respondents indicated that most consumed energy drinks were "Red Bull" and "Boom Boom" (70.9% and 51.5% respectively). In total, 64.5% of participants believed the effect of these drinks in energizing the body, and 72.7% believed that they can stimulate intellectual capacities. In addition, 29.6% of consumers experienced at least one adverse effect, where tachycardia was reported in 21.1% of cases. On the other hand, desired effects felt after consumption were mostly pleasure (33.8%). Males had a 3-time more risk of consuming such drinks compared to females (OR: 0.381, P < 0.001; 95% CI: 0.300-0.484). Additionally, this analysis demonstrated a significant association between energy drinks consumption and regions outside Beirut (OR: 1.401, P: 0.006; 95% CI: 1.103-1.781), medical field of work (OR: 0.376, P: 0.010; 95% CI: 0.179-0.790) and higher personal income (OR: 1.317, P < 0.001; 95% CI: 1.117-1.553). This study showed a high prevalence of energy drinks consumption among youth. The current

  14. Consumption of Energy Drinks Among Lebanese Youth: A Pilot Study on the Prevalence and Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Itany, Manal; Diab, Batoul; Rachidi, Samar; Awada, Sanaa; Al Hajje, Amal; Bawab, Wafaa; Salameh, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Background: The new millennium has been together with a variety of synthetic and caffeinated high-energy drinks targeting the youth market. Energy drinks raise the level of energy and their consumption has been increased significantly worldwide. Objectives: This research aimed to determine patterns of energy drink consumption and to assess the prevalence of adverse side effects among energy drink users. Patients and Methods: A pilot cross-sectional study survey was undertaken on students aged between 13 and 30 years in private and public schools and universities in Lebanon over 5 months. A self-administered questionnaire was used inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, consumption patterns, attitudes and beliefs about energy drinks. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Data was analyzed using SPSS 17. Results: We studied 1500 students (mean age: 18.92 ± 1.85; 51.3% were males). The overall prevalence of energy drinks consumption was 63.6% (60.5% were males), among which 50.5% used alcoholic energy drinks. Respondents indicated that most consumed energy drinks were “Red Bull” and “Boom Boom” (70.9% and 51.5% respectively). In total, 64.5% of participants believed the effect of these drinks in energizing the body, and 72.7% believed that they can stimulate intellectual capacities. In addition, 29.6% of consumers experienced at least one adverse effect, where tachycardia was reported in 21.1% of cases. On the other hand, desired effects felt after consumption were mostly pleasure (33.8%). Males had a 3-time more risk of consuming such drinks compared to females (OR: 0.381, P < 0.001; 95% CI: 0.300-0.484). Additionally, this analysis demonstrated a significant association between energy drinks consumption and regions outside Beirut (OR: 1.401, P: 0.006; 95% CI: 1.103-1.781), medical field of work (OR: 0.376, P: 0.010; 95% CI: 0.179-0.790) and higher personal income (OR: 1.317, P < 0.001; 95% CI: 1.117-1.553). Conclusions: This study

  15. Benchmarking of energy consumption of continuous galvanizing lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, B.; Chavan, R.

    2005-11-01

    A case study revealed that more than 13,500 MMBtu of energy is wasted annually when a single galvanizing line is off-production for hardware replacement for duration of a few hours every 2 weeks. This energy if utilized for production will yield about 13,000 tons of Galvanized Sheet Steel annually from a single galvanizing line. Thus for the 57 [1] hot dip galvanizing lines in US this figure results in a production loss of 741,000 tons/year. An attempt has been made to develop a spreadsheet that will take into account all the major energy consuming equipment in a typical hot dip continuous line. It maintains a track of the current production and energy consumption. It can simulate a scenario where either the number of shutdowns or the hours per shutdown will be reduced as a consequence of better material developed by the researchers. Different charts pertaining to energy consumed by different equipment group, total cost of energy spent on natural gas and electricity, MMBtu/Ton, Tons/Year and Production time before shutdowns assists the engineers decide the best operating stretch to suite their production rate and optimize energy consumption to some extent. Validation data gathered from the three well established galvanizing lines powers this spreadsheet to forecast annual increase in production and thus helps judge the performance of the new hardware.

  16. Cardiovascular complications from consumption of high energy drinks: recent evidence.

    PubMed

    Chrysant, S G; Chrysant, G S

    2015-02-01

    The energy drinks (ED) are caffeinated beverages that are popular among teenagers and young adults. They are aggressively marketed as providing alertness, energy and sex prowess. The EDs in addition to caffeine contain several plant stimulants and simple sugars, which increase their caloric content. The caffeine concentration in these drinks is high and their overconsumption could lead to insomnia, agitation, tremors and cardiovascular complications including sudden death. Alcohol is often mixed with EDs (AMEDs) in the wrong perception that the caffeine in the EDs will prevent the drowsiness and sleepiness from alcohol and allow the person to consume more alcohol. This false perception, could lead to alcohol intoxication and the taking of risky decisions, like driving under the influence of alcohol and the risk of serious physical harm to themselves and others. To prevent the problem of consumption of EDs and AMEDs, the caring physician could help by advising the parents and his young patients about the serious health risks from the consumption of these drinks. In order to grasp the extend of the problem of ED and AMED consumption, we did a Medline search of the English language literature from January 2010 to December 2013, using the terms EDs and alcohol-mixed EDs. All the findings from the recent studies regarding the cardiovascular complications from the consumption of EDs and AMEDs together with collateral literature will be discussed in this review.

  17. TV Energy Consumption Trends and Energy-Efficiency Improvement Options

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Won Young; Phadke, Amol; Shah, Nihar; Letschert, Virginie

    2011-07-01

    The SEAD initiative aims to transform the global market by increasing the penetration of highly efficient equipment and appliances. SEAD is a government initiative whose activities and projects engage the private sector to realize the large global energy savings potential from improved appliance and equipment efficiency. SEAD seeks to enable high-level global action by informing the Clean Energy Ministerial dialogue as one of the initiatives in the Global Energy Efficiency Challenge. In keeping with its goal of achieving global energy savings through efficiency, SEAD was approved as a task within the International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC) in January 2010. SEAD partners work together in voluntary activities to: (1) ?raise the efficiency ceiling? by pulling super-efficient appliances and equipment into the market through cooperation on measures like incentives, procurement, awards, and research and development (R&D) investments; (2) ?raise the efficiency floor? by working together to bolster national or regional policies like minimum efficiency standards; and (3) ?strengthen the efficiency foundations? of programs by coordinating technical work to support these activities. Although not all SEAD partners may decide to participate in every SEAD activity, SEAD partners have agreed to engage actively in their particular areas of interest through commitment of financing, staff, consultant experts, and other resources. In addition, all SEAD partners are committed to share information, e.g., on implementation schedules for and the technical detail of minimum efficiency standards and other efficiency programs. Information collected and created through SEAD activities will be shared among all SEAD partners and, to the extent appropriate, with the global public.As of April 2011, the governments participating in SEAD are: Australia, Brazil, Canada, the European Commission, France, Germany, India, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, Sweden

  18. Energy drink consumption and increased risk for alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Kasperski, Sarah J.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Griffiths, Roland R.; O'Grady, Kevin E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Energy drinks are highly caffeinated beverages that are increasingly consumed by young adults. Prior research has established associations between energy drink use and heavier drinking and alcohol-related problems among college students. This study investigated the extent to which energy drink use might pose additional risk for alcohol dependence over and above that from known risk factors. Methods Data were collected via personal interview from 1,097 fourth-year college students sampled from one large public university as part of an ongoing longitudinal study. Alcohol dependence was measured with DSM-IV criteria. Results After adjustment for the sampling design, 51.3%wt of students were classified as “low-frequency” energy drink users (1 to 51 days in the past year) and 10.1%wt as “high-frequency” users (≥52 days). Typical caffeine consumption varied widely depending on the brand consumed. Compared to the low-frequency group, high-frequency users drank alcohol more frequently (141.6 vs. 103.1 days) and in higher quantities (6.15 vs. 4.64 drinks/typical drinking day). High-frequency users were at significantly greater risk for alcohol dependence relative to both non-users (AOR=2.40, 95% CI=1.27-4.56, p=.007) and low-frequency users (AOR=1.86, 95% CI=1.10, 3.14, p=.020), even after holding constant demographics, typical alcohol consumption, fraternity/sorority involvement, depressive symptoms, parental history of alcohol/drug problems, and childhood conduct problems. Low-frequency energy drink users did not differ from non-users on their risk for alcohol dependence. Conclusions Weekly or daily energy drink consumption is strongly associated with alcohol dependence. Further research is warranted to understand the possible mechanisms underlying this association. College students who frequently consume energy drinks represent an important target population for alcohol prevention. PMID:21073486

  19. Energy consumption quota management of Wanda commercial buildings in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, D. B.; Xiao, H.; Wang, X.; Liu, J. J.; Wang, X.; Jin, X. Q.; Wang, J.; Xie, X. K.

    2016-08-01

    There is limited research of commercial buildings’ energy use data conducted based on practical analysis in China nowadays. Some energy consumption quota tools like Energy Star in U.S or VDI 3807 in Germany have limitation in China's building sector. This study introduces an innovative methodology of applying energy use quota model and empirical management to commercial buildings, which was in accordance of more than one hundred opened shopping centers of a real estate group in China. On the basis of statistical benchmarking, a new concept of “Modified coefficient”, which considers weather, occupancy, business layout, operation schedule and HVAC efficiency, is originally introduced in this paper. Our study shows that the average energy use quota increases from north to south. The average energy use quota of sample buildings is 159 kWh/(m2.a) of severe cold climate zone, 179 kWh/(m2.a) of cold zone, 188 kWh/(m2.a) of hot summer and cold winter zone, and 200 kWh/(m2.a) of hot summer and warm winter zone. The energy use quota model has been validated in the property management for year 2016, providing a new method of commercial building energy management to the industry. As a key result, there is 180 million energy saving potential based on energy quota management in 2016, equals to 6.2% saving rate of actual energy use in 2015.

  20. Analysing domestic activity to reduce household energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Fréjus, Myriam; Guibourdenche, Julien

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents our reflections on the issue of behavioral change according to energy conservation constraints and on the status of sustainability in the design of ambient interactive systems at home. We point out how ergonomics contributes to the study of human factors underlying energy consumption. Relating to situated cognition and human computer interaction, our approach relies both on the ergonomic evaluation of feedback consumption displays and on the modeling of domestic activities in order to identify household concerns in real settings. We present empirical results to illustrate this global approach. The results of those studies allow the design of interactive systems: informative and pedagogical systems as well as pervasive and adaptive ambient systems. In our approach, sustainability is taken into account as a design criterion, as security could be, whereas the main design purpose is to aid households in their daily life in order to build a "sustainable situation".

  1. Quality of Ambulant Measures of Distance, Speed, Load and Energy Consumption During Military Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    Assess the Energie Expenditure of Yoga Exercise. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 39 (5), Supplement, p S177. [6] Gallagher, K. I. FACSM...Monitors During Free-Living Conditions. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 39 (5), Supplement, p S183. [3] Malavolti, A., Pietrobelli, A...Science in Sports & Exercise, 39 (5), Supplement, p S178. Quality of Ambulant Measures of Distance, Speed, Load and Energy Consumption During

  2. Study of unconventional aircraft engines designed for low energy consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Declining U.S. oil reserves and escalating energy costs underline the need for reducing fuel consumption in aircraft engines. The most promising unconventional aircraft engines based on their potential for fuel savings and improved economics are identified. The engines installed in both a long-range and medium-range aircraft were evaluated. Projected technology advances are identified and evaluated for their state-of-readiness for application to a commercial transport. Programs are recommended for developing the necessary technology.

  3. 10 CFR 431.324 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency and standby mode energy consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... efficiency and standby mode energy consumption of metal halide lamp ballasts. 431.324 Section 431.324 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL... measurement of energy efficiency and standby mode energy consumption of metal halide lamp ballasts. (a)......

  4. 10 CFR 431.324 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency and standby mode energy consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... efficiency and standby mode energy consumption of metal halide lamp ballasts. 431.324 Section 431.324 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL... measurement of energy efficiency and standby mode energy consumption of metal halide lamp ballasts. (a)......

  5. 10 CFR 431.324 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency and standby mode energy consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... efficiency and standby mode energy consumption of metal halide lamp ballasts. 431.324 Section 431.324 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL... measurement of energy efficiency and standby mode energy consumption of metal halide lamp ballasts. (a)......

  6. Assessing water consumption in extreme diet scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalava, Mika; Guillaume, Joseph; Kummu, Matti

    2017-04-01

    Most of the food for humanity comes from agriculture. Producing it requires enormous resources, and the projected population growth will further increase the stress on the environment. A number of strategies have been suggested to make food production sustainable. One of them, changing the human diet, has been shown to have a considerable potential in reducing use of resources, including water. Using water footprint methodology, our results show that moving to a mostly plant-based diet or a more conservative diet change combined with halving food losses would reduce the number of people living under water scarcity by hundreds of millions. Alternatively, it would enable producing sufficient, healthy food supply for a much larger population. Questions are still remaining, though. While water footprints alone have been criticised for only concentrating on water volumes and not the impacts of consumption, with proper attention to existing resources and the ecological relevance of using them, the water footprints allow straightforward analysis of limited modifications to food systems. On the other hand, large changes to the demand of each of the crops as well as shifts in ratios between plant- and animal-based foodstuffs alter some of the underlying assumptions, which are based on the current production. We present concepts to try to tackle the dynamics involved with diet change. Specifically, we discuss and present results related to: 1) Effects of changes in the areas used for production of a crop on its marginal water footprint 2) Use of non-food grade crop production as feed 3) Use of feed from co-production systems

  7. Ocean Energy Technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    The Department of Energy Ocean Energy Technology (OET) program is assessed. A summary of OET program activities during the period FY 1980 through FY 1983 documents the most significant findings of DOE-sponsored research and development in each of six program elements: Advanced Power Systems Development, Closed-Cycle Power Systems Development, Alternative Energy Systems Development, Environmental Research, Ocean Engineering, and Engineering Development. The summary is based on extensive review of technical documentation and discussions with DOE and field organization personnel. The result is a concise, comprehensive description of all significant OET activities during the period. Assessment of the current state of ocean technologies is documented through the use of matrices which relate elements of the current ocean technology WBS to a nine-level scale which defines technology status ranging from preliminary feasibility through off-the-shelf availability. These Technical Progress Matrices (TPMs) were developed for each of four ocean system configurations by integrating inputs from seven OET participating field organizations. An evaluation of the critical technical unknowns which would form the basis for future ocean energy public and private research and development activities is presented. This evaluation was accomplished using an accepted technique for group interaction and consensus formation in a meeting of knowledgeable program participants. The results of this meeting are presented in the form of forty minimum essential unknowns (MEUs). An analysis of the correlation of this list of unknowns with DOE policy and selection criteria for acceptable federally-sponsored R and D revealed significant research needs in the areas defined as the primary federal role.

  8. Increased alcohol consumption, nonmedical prescription drug use, and illicit drug use are associated with energy drink consumption among college students

    PubMed Central

    Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Kasperski, Sarah J.; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Griffiths, Roland R.; Wish, Eric D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives This longitudinal study examined the prevalence and correlates of energy drink use among college students, and investigated its possible prospective associations with subsequent drug use, including nonmedical prescription drug use. Methods Participants were 1,060 undergraduates from a large, public university who completed three annual interviews, beginning in their first year of college. Use of energy drinks, other caffeinated products, tobacco, alcohol, and other illicit and prescription drugs were assessed, as well as demographic and personality characteristics. Results Annual weighted prevalence of energy drink use was 22.6%wt and 36.5%wt in the second and third year of college, respectively. Compared to energy drink non-users, energy drink users had heavier alcohol consumption patterns, and were more likely to have used other drugs, both concurrently and in the preceding assessment. Regression analyses revealed that Year 2 energy drink use was significantly associated with Year 3 nonmedical use of prescription stimulants and prescription analgesics, but not with other Year 3 drug use, holding constant demographics, prior drug use, and other factors. Conclusions A substantial and rapidly-growing proportion of college students use energy drinks. Energy drink users tend to have greater involvement in alcohol and other drug use and higher levels of sensation-seeking, relative to non-users of energy drinks. Prospectively, energy drink use has a unique relationship with nonmedical use of prescription stimulants and analgesics. More research is needed regarding the health risks associated with energy drink use in young adults, including their possible role in the development of substance use problems. PMID:20729975

  9. Impact of CBR Traffic on Energy Consumption in MANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabbur Mr., Shridhar; Ahammed, G. F. Ali, Dr.; Banu, Rashma, Dr.

    2017-08-01

    Mobile Ad hoc networks (MANETs) are power constrained since nodes are operated with limited battery supply. If a battery of the node drains, its ability to forward the traffic gets affected results in reduced network lifetime. There has been considerable progress in the battery technology, but not in par with the semiconductor technology. There are various techniques adopt different approach to achieve energy efficiency. The proposed approach uses a cost metric for path selection, which is a function of residual battery and current traffic load at a node. The simulation has been carried out using QualNet simulator. The performance is based on average energy consumption for varying CBR applications.

  10. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers. 431.193 Section 431.193 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY... § 431.193 Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers. The test...

  11. Oxygen consumption and energy expenditure of level versus downhill running.

    PubMed

    Robergs, R A; Wagner, D R; Skemp, K M

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess and compare submaximal oxygen consumption (VO2) and energy expenditure (kJ) while running at 0, -1.8, -3.6, and -5.4% grades for three individually selected running speeds (9.4 + 0.79, 10.3 + 0.74, 11.3 + 0.73 km.h-1). Subjects completed the four grade conditions in random order via a modified Latin squares design at three self-selected submaximal running speeds for each condition. Thirteen (5 females and 8 males) recreational (< 35 km.wk-1) runners (age: 27.7 +/- 4.3 yrs) volunteered for the study. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA (Grade x Speed) was used to analyze steady-state VO2 and kJ expenditure. Stepwise linear multiple regression was used to develop an equation for predicting VO2 for running at recreational speeds on moderately negative grades. VO2 and kJ mean values were significantly different between all speed and % grade comparisons. Compared to level grade, the average reductions in VO2 and kJ expenditure ranged from approximately 9% at a grade of -1.8% to 22% at a grade of -5.4%. The relationship between VO2 and % grade for each running speed was linear. For a given speed, running at a modest negative grade can significantly decrease VO2 and kJ expenditure compared to level running. The following regression equation can be used to estimate VO2 (ml.kg-1.min-1) for running at recreational speeds on slight downhills: VO2 = 6.8192 + 0.1313 (speed in m.min-1) + 1.2367 (% grade).

  12. Three essays in energy consumption: Time series analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Hee Bai

    1997-10-01

    Firstly, this dissertation investigates that which demand specification is an appropriate model for long-run energy demand between the conventional demand specification and the limited demand specification. In order to determine the components of a stable long-run demand for different sectors of the energy industry, I perform cointegration tests by using the Johansen test procedure. First, I test the conventional demand specification including prices and income as components. Second, I test a limited demand specification only income as a component. The reason for performing these tests is that we can determine that which demand specification is a good long-run predictor of energy consumption between the two demand specifications by using the cointegration tests. Secondly, for the purpose of planning and forecasting energy demand in case of cointegrated system, long-run elasticities are of particular interest. To retrieve the optimal level of energy demand in case of price shock, we need long-run elasticities rather than short-run elasticities. The energy demand study provides valuable information to the energy policy makers who are concerned about the long-run impact of taxes and tariffs. A long-run price elasticity is a primary barometer of the substitution effect between energy and non-energy inputs and long-run income elasticity is an important factor since we can measure the energy demand growing slowly or fast than in the past depending on the magnitude of long-run elasticity. The one other problem in estimating the total energy demand is that there exists an aggregation bias stemming from the process of summation in four different energy types for the total aggregation prices and total aggregation energy consumption. In order to measure the aggregation bias between the Btu aggregation method and the Divisia Index method, i.e., which methodology has less aggregation bias in the long-run, I compare the two estimation results with calculated results estimated on

  13. Analyzing Residential End-Use Energy Consumption Data to Inform Residential Consumer Decisions and Enable Energy Efficiency Improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Derrick R.

    consumption, which suggests significant diminishing returns for parties interested in monitoring appliance level electricity consumption. Another way to improve understanding of residential energy consumption is through the development of residential use phase energy vectors for use in the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) model. The EIO-LCA model is a valuable scoping tool to predict the environmental impacts of economic activity. This tool has a gap in its capabilities as residential use phase energy is outside the scope of the model. Adding use phase energy vectors to the EIO-LCA model will improve the modeling, provide a more complete estimation of energy impacts and allow for embedded energy to be compared to use phase energy for the purchase of goods and services in the residential sector. This work adds 21 quads of energy to the residential energy sector for the model and 15 quads of energy for personal transportation. These additions represent one third of the total energy consumption of the United States and a third of the total energy in the EIO-LCA model. This work also demonstrates that for many products such as electronics and household appliances use phase energy demands are much greater than manufacturing energy demands and dominate the life cycles for these products. A final way in which this thesis improves upon the understanding of how use phase energy is consumed in a home is through the exploration of potential energy reductions in a home. This analysis selects products that are used or consumed in a home, and explores the potential for reductions in the embedded manufacturing and use phase energy of that product using EIO-LCA and the energy vectors created in Chapter 3. The results give consumers an understanding of where energy is consumed in the lifecycle of products that they purchase and provide policy makers with valuable information on how to focus or refocus policies that are aimed and reducing energy in the residential sector

  14. [Methodological bases of the nutritional-physiological assessment of the per capita consumption of foods. 2. Nutritional-physiological assessment of the per capita consumption].

    PubMed

    Ulbricht, G; Räke, I; Möhr, M

    1979-01-01

    The different items of the per caput consumption (cf. Part I) are evaluated from the viewpoint of nutritional physiology, and the average energy and nutrient supply of the total population is calculated and compared with the recommended dietary allowances. The nutritional status of the population is globally assessed. A reduction in calorie and fat consumption seems desirable, which will be promoted by a better supply of calorie-reduced products. Further food modifications, e.g., in the form of protein, vitamin and mineral fortifications, are not necessary for the average population.

  15. The federal energy policy: An example of its potential impact on energy consumption and expenditures in minority and poor households

    SciTech Connect

    Poyer, D.A.

    1991-09-01

    This report presents an analysis of the relative impacts of the National Energy Strategy on majority and minority households and on nonpoor and poor households. (Minority households are defined as those headed by black or Hispanic persons; poor households are defined as those having combined household income less than or equal to 125% of the Office of Management and Budget`s poverty-income threshold.) Energy consumption and expenditures, and projected energy expenditures as a share of income, for the period 1987 to 2009 are reported. Projected consumptions of electricity and nonelectric energy over this period are also reported for each group. An analysis of how these projected values are affected under different housing growth scenarios is performed. The analysis in this report presents a preliminary set of projections generated under a set of simplifying assumptions. Future analysis will rigorously assess the sensitivity of the projected values to various changes in a number of these assumptions.

  16. Assessing the environmental impacts of freshwater consumption in LCA.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Stephan; Koehler, Annette; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2009-06-01

    A method for assessing the environmental impacts of freshwater consumption was developed. This method considers damages to three areas of protection: human health, ecosystem quality, and resources. The method can be used within most existing life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methods. The relative importance of water consumption was analyzed by integrating the method into the Eco-indicator-99 LCIA method. The relative impact of water consumption in LCIA was analyzed with a case study on worldwide cotton production. The importance of regionalized characterization factors for water use was also examined in the case study. In arid regions, water consumption may dominate the aggregated life-cycle impacts of cotton-textile production. Therefore, the consideration of water consumption is crucial in life-cycle assessment (LCA) studies that include water-intensive products, such as agricultural goods. A regionalized assessment is necessary, since the impacts of water use vary greatly as a function of location. The presented method is useful for environmental decision-support in the production of water-intensive products as well as for environmentally responsible value-chain management.

  17. Optimizing Energy Consumption in Building Designs Using Building Information Model (BIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egwunatum, Samuel; Joseph-Akwara, Esther; Akaigwe, Richard

    2016-09-01

    Given the ability of a Building Information Model (BIM) to serve as a multi-disciplinary data repository, this paper seeks to explore and exploit the sustainability value of Building Information Modelling/models in delivering buildings that require less energy for their operation, emit less CO2 and at the same time provide a comfortable living environment for their occupants. This objective was achieved by a critical and extensive review of the literature covering: (1) building energy consumption, (2) building energy performance and analysis, and (3) building information modeling and energy assessment. The literature cited in this paper showed that linking an energy analysis tool with a BIM model helped project design teams to predict and create optimized energy consumption. To validate this finding, an in-depth analysis was carried out on a completed BIM integrated construction project using the Arboleda Project in the Dominican Republic. The findings showed that the BIM-based energy analysis helped the design team achieve the world's first 103% positive energy building. From the research findings, the paper concludes that linking an energy analysis tool with a BIM model helps to expedite the energy analysis process, provide more detailed and accurate results as well as deliver energy-efficient buildings. The study further recommends that the adoption of a level 2 BIM and the integration of BIM in energy optimization analyse should be made compulsory for all projects irrespective of the method of procurement (government-funded or otherwise) or its size.

  18. Controlled cooling of an electronic system for reduced energy consumption

    DOEpatents

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2016-08-09

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided. The control includes automatically determining at least one adjusted control setting for at least one adjustable cooling component of a cooling system cooling the electronic system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on power being consumed by the cooling system and temperature of a heat sink to which heat extracted by the cooling system is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on one or more experimentally obtained models relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the one or more adjustable cooling components of the cooling system.

  19. The Consumption of Energy Drinks Among a Sample of College Students and College Student Athletes.

    PubMed

    Gallucci, Andrew R; Martin, Ryan J; Morgan, Grant B

    2016-02-01

    To assess energy drink (ED) consumption, potential ED correlates, and ED-related motivations among a sample of college students to determine differences based on athlete status (student athlete vs. non-athlete). Six hundred and ninety-two college students completed surveys at a large private university in the United States. Participants completed a paper based questionnaire assessing ED and ED-related variables. Over thirty-six percent (197 non-athletes, 58 student athletes) of participants reported ED consumption in the preceding 30 days. Multivariately, there was no difference in ED consumption based on athlete status. Heavy episodic drinking and prescription stimulant misuse were both correlated with increased ED consumption. ED motivations differed based on the frequency of ED consumption. ED use was common among student athletes and non-athletes in our sample. It is important to be aware of the correlation between heavy episodic drinking, prescription stimulant misuse, and ED consumption among college student populations because of the adverse consequences associated with these behaviors.

  20. Energy consumption renewable energy development and environmental impact in Algeria - Trend for 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahnoune, F.; Imessad, K.; Bouakaz, D. M.

    2017-02-01

    The study provides a detailed analysis of the energy production and consumption in Algeria and the associated CO2 emissions. Algeria is an important energy producer (oil and natural gas). The production is currently around 155 MToe. The total primary energy consumption amounted to about 58 MToe equivalent to 1.46 Toe/capita. The energy demand is still increasing, an average annual growth rate of more than 6% per year during the last decade. The growth rate for electricity production was almost twice that of the total energy consumption. In 2015, the installed capacity of the electricity generation plants reached 17.6 GW. Electricity consumption was 64.6 TWh and is expected to reach at least 75 TWh in 2020 and 130 TWh in 2030. The already high electricity demand will double by 2030. In the structure of final energy consumption, the transport sector ranks first (36%), natural gas consumption ranks second (28.5%), followed by electricity production (27.7%). By activity, the energy sector is the main source of CO2 emissions, about ¾ of the total and this sector has the most important potential for mitigation measures. CO2 emissions from this energy sector amounted to 112.2 MT CO2 as follows: 33% transport, 31% electricity production and 26% from natural gas combustion for residential use. The integration of renewable sources in the energy mix represents for Algeria a major challenge. In 2015, Algeria adopted an ambitious program for development of renewable energy. The target is to achieve 22 GW capacity of electricity from renewable by 2030 to reach a rate of 27 % of national electricity generation through renewable sources. By implementing this program, CO2 emissions of power generation will be reduced by more than 18% in 2030.

  1. Analysis on energy consumption index system of thermal power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, J. B.; Zhang, N.; Li, H. F.

    2017-05-01

    Currently, the increasingly tense situation in the context of resources, energy conservation is a realistic choice to ease the energy constraint contradictions, reduce energy consumption thermal power plants has become an inevitable development direction. And combined with computer network technology to build thermal power “small index” to monitor and optimize the management system, the power plant is the application of information technology and to meet the power requirements of the product market competition. This paper, first described the research status of thermal power saving theory, then attempted to establish the small index system and build “small index” monitoring and optimization management system in thermal power plant. Finally elaborated key issues in the field of small thermal power plant technical and economic indicators to be further studied and resolved.

  2. Annual Energy Consumption Analysis Report for Richland Middle School

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bing

    2003-12-18

    Richland Middle School is a single story, 90,000 square feet new school located in Richland, WA. The design team proposed four HVAC system options to serve the building. The proposed HVAC systems are listed as following: (1) 4-pipe fan coil units served by electrical chiller and gas-fired boilers, (2) Ground-source closed water loop heat pumps with water loop heat pumps with boiler and cooling tower, and (3) VAV system served by electrical chiller and gas-fired boiler. This analysis estimates the annual energy consumptions and costs of each system option, in order to provide the design team with a reasonable basis for determining which system is most life-cycle cost effective. eQuest (version 3.37), a computer-based energy simulation program that uses the DOE-2 simulation engine, was used to estimate the annual energy costs.

  3. A thirst for power: A global analysis of water consumption for energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spang, Edward

    Producing energy resources requires significant quantities of freshwater. As an energy sector changes or expands, the mix of technologies deployed to produce fuels and electricity determines the associated burden on regional water resources. A number of reports exist that specify water consumption by discrete energy production technologies. This research synthesizes and expands this previous work by examining the global distribution of water consumption intensity of national-level energy portfolios. By defining and calculating indicators to quantify the relative water use intensity of national energy systems, it was possible to highlight potentially problematic areas of high water use intensity while also providing examples of water-efficient energy production. The results of the research show a high variability in the national water consumption of energy production (WCEP) for the 158 countries that were assessed. However, looking across the indicators for WCEP internationally, the countries that were heavily producing fossil fuel or biofuels demonstrated the greatest intensity of energy-based water consumption. The economic imperative to develop fossil fuels drives high water consumption in countries that already lack sufficient water supplies. Meanwhile, biofuels require so much water over their lifecycle per unit of produced energy that any modest commitment to producing biofuels has significant water consumption ramifications for the country. While these results are based on a comprehensive review of available data, future research in this area could be significantly enhanced through better data and widespread adoption of consistent reporting mechanisms. Additional opportunities to expand the field include increasing the resolution of the study regions, tracking these indicators over time, and exploring innovative policy approaches to managing national WCEP effectively. For nations facing the greatest limitations in the availability of local water and energy

  4. The analysis of energy consumption of the transport and manipulation process of Fanuc AM100iB robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cholewa, A.; Świder, J.; Zbilski, A.

    2017-08-01

    This article describes test results of energy consumption of Fanuc ArcMate 100iB robot during realization of the transport and manipulation process. The energy consumption test involved the acquisition of values of angular positions of the robot’s encoder shafts and values of tensions and expansions of the electrical currents in three phases of each engine. Based on the simulation results, the analysis of energy consumption was carried out, which specified the tested palletizing process using the set of complete and partial decompositions of the energy consumption of all these factors, which in significant degree impacted the amount of energy taken during the process. Quality of the data provided by the analysis of energy consumption was assessed through validation of results, which involved direct comparison of corresponding parameters, which values were measured and calculated. With regards to the developed analysis of energy consumption, computerized techniques were used to determine the impact of all material factors on the total energy consumption of the machine. The work presents the most significant results of the obtained outcomes.

  5. Guide to Home Energy Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-01

    A proper home energy assessment (also called a home energy audit) will tell you how much energy you use in your house, the most cost-effective measures you can take to improve the energy efficiency of your home, and how to save money on energy bills.

  6. State of energy consumption and CO2 emission in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Azad, Abul K; Nashreen, S W; Sultana, J

    2006-03-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the most important gases in the atmosphere, and is necessary for sustaining life on Earth. It is also considered to be a major greenhouse gas contributing to global warming and climate change. In this article, energy consumption in Bangladesh is analyzed and estimates are made of CO2 emission from combustion of fossil fuel (coal, gas, petroleum products) for the period 1977 to 1995. International Panel for Climate Change guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories were used in estimating CO2 emission. An analysis of energy data shows that the consumption of fossil fuels in Bangladesh is growing by more than 5% per year. The proportion of natural gas in total energy consumption is increasing, while that of petroleum products and coal is decreasing. The estimated total CO2 release from all primary fossil fuels used in Bangladesh amounted to 5072 Gigagram (Gg) in 1977, and 14 423 Gg in 1995. The total amounts of CO2 released from petroleum products, natural gas, and coal in the period 1977-1995 were 83 026 Gg (50% of CO2 emission), 72 541 Gg (44% of CO2 emission), and 9545 Gg (6% CO2 emission), respectively. A trend in CO2 emission with projections to 2070 is generated. In 2070, total estimated CO2 emission will be 293 260 Gg with a current growth rate of 6.34% y . CO2 emission from fossil fuels is increasing. Petroleum products contribute the majority of CO2 emission load, and although the use of natural gas is increasing rapidly, its contribution to CO2 emission is less than that of petroleum products. The use of coal as well as CO2 emission from coal is expected to gradually decrease.

  7. 75 FR 66008 - Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... Parts 433 and 435 RIN 1904-AB96 Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal... proposed rulemaking (NOPR) regarding the fossil fuel- generated energy consumption ] requirements for new... regarding the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption requirements for new Federal buildings and major...

  8. On-site energy consumption and selected emissions at softwood sawmills in the southwestern United States

    Treesearch

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Todd A. Morgan; Colin B. Sorenson

    2016-01-01

    Presently there is a lack of information describing US southwestern energy consumption and emissions generated from the sawmilling industry. This article uses a mail survey of softwood sawmills in the states of Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico to develop a profile of on-site energy consumption and selected emissions for the industry. Energy consumption is...

  9. Climate Impacts on Extreme Energy Consumption of Different Types of Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingcai; Shi, Jun; Guo, Jun; Cao, Jingfu; Niu, Jide; Xiong, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    Exploring changes of building energy consumption and its relationships with climate can provide basis for energy-saving and carbon emission reduction. Heating and cooling energy consumption of different types of buildings during 1981-2010 in Tianjin city, was simulated by using TRNSYS software. Daily or hourly extreme energy consumption was determined by percentile methods, and the climate impact on extreme energy consumption was analyzed. The results showed that days of extreme heating consumption showed apparent decrease during the recent 30 years for residential and large venue buildings, whereas days of extreme cooling consumption increased in large venue building. No significant variations were found for the days of extreme energy consumption for commercial building, although a decreasing trend in extreme heating energy consumption. Daily extreme energy consumption for large venue building had no relationship with climate parameters, whereas extreme energy consumption for commercial and residential buildings was related to various climate parameters. Further multiple regression analysis suggested heating energy consumption for commercial building was affected by maximum temperature, dry bulb temperature, solar radiation and minimum temperature, which together can explain 71.5 % of the variation of the daily extreme heating energy consumption. The daily extreme cooling energy consumption for commercial building was only related to the wet bulb temperature (R2= 0.382). The daily extreme heating energy consumption for residential building was affected by 4 climate parameters, but the dry bulb temperature had the main impact. The impacts of climate on hourly extreme heating energy consumption has a 1-3 hour delay in all three types of buildings, but no delay was found in the impacts of climate on hourly extreme cooling energy consumption for the selected buildings. PMID:25923205

  10. Climate impacts on extreme energy consumption of different types of buildings.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingcai; Shi, Jun; Guo, Jun; Cao, Jingfu; Niu, Jide; Xiong, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    Exploring changes of building energy consumption and its relationships with climate can provide basis for energy-saving and carbon emission reduction. Heating and cooling energy consumption of different types of buildings during 1981-2010 in Tianjin city, was simulated by using TRNSYS software. Daily or hourly extreme energy consumption was determined by percentile methods, and the climate impact on extreme energy consumption was analyzed. The results showed that days of extreme heating consumption showed apparent decrease during the recent 30 years for residential and large venue buildings, whereas days of extreme cooling consumption increased in large venue building. No significant variations were found for the days of extreme energy consumption for commercial building, although a decreasing trend in extreme heating energy consumption. Daily extreme energy consumption for large venue building had no relationship with climate parameters, whereas extreme energy consumption for commercial and residential buildings was related to various climate parameters. Further multiple regression analysis suggested heating energy consumption for commercial building was affected by maximum temperature, dry bulb temperature, solar radiation and minimum temperature, which together can explain 71.5 % of the variation of the daily extreme heating energy consumption. The daily extreme cooling energy consumption for commercial building was only related to the wet bulb temperature (R2= 0.382). The daily extreme heating energy consumption for residential building was affected by 4 climate parameters, but the dry bulb temperature had the main impact. The impacts of climate on hourly extreme heating energy consumption has a 1-3 hour delay in all three types of buildings, but no delay was found in the impacts of climate on hourly extreme cooling energy consumption for the selected buildings.

  11. Sample design for the residential energy consumption survey

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide detailed information about the multistage area-probability sample design used for the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). It is intended as a technical report, for use by statisticians, to better understand the theory and procedures followed in the creation of the RECS sample frame. For a more cursory overview of the RECS sample design, refer to the appendix entitled ``How the Survey was Conducted,`` which is included in the statistical reports produced for each RECS survey year.

  12. Wavelet modulation: An alternative modulation with low energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chafii, Marwa; Palicot, Jacques; Gribonval, Rémi

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents wavelet modulation, based on the discrete wavelet transform, as an alternative modulation with low energy consumption. The transmitted signal has low envelope variations, which induces a good efficiency for the power amplifier. Wavelet modulation is analyzed and compared for different wavelet families with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) in terms of peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR), power spectral density (PSD) properties, and the impact of the power amplifier on the spectral regrowth. The performance in terms of bit error rate and complexity of implementation are also evaluated, and several trade-offs are characterized. xml:lang="fr"

  13. Perceived stress, energy drink consumption, and academic performance among college students.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Michele L; DeBarr, Kathy A

    2011-01-01

    This study explored relationships regarding perceived stress, energy drink consumption, and academic performance among college students. Participants included 136 undergraduates attending a large southern plains university. Participants completed surveys including items from the Perceived Stress Scale(1) and items to describe energy drink consumption, academic performance, and demographics. Positive correlations existed between participants' perceived stress and energy drink consumption. Participants' energy drink consumption and academic performance were negatively correlated. Freshmen (M = 0.330) and sophomores (M = 0.408) consumed a lower number of energy drinks yesterday than juniors (M = 1.000). Males reported higher means than females for selected energy drink consumption items. Statistically significant interactions existed between gender and year in school for selected energy drink consumption items. Results confirm gender differences in energy drink consumption and illuminate a need for education regarding use of energy drinks in response to perceived stress.

  14. Comfort, Indoor Air Quality, and Energy Consumption in Low Energy Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Engelmann, P.; Roth, K.; Tiefenbeck, V.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the results of an in-depth evaluation of energy consumption and thermal comfort for two potential net zero-energy homes (NZEHs) in Massachusetts, as well as an indoor air quality (IAQ) evaluation performed in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).

  15. Comfort, Indoor Air Quality, and Energy Consumption in Low Energy Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Englemann, P.; Roth, K.; Tiefenbeck, V.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the results of an in-depth evaluation of energy consumption and thermal comfort for two potential net zero-energy homes (NZEHs) in Massachusetts, as well as an indoor air quality (IAQ) evaluation performed in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).

  16. On increasing network lifetime in body area networks using global routing with energy consumption balancing.

    PubMed

    Tsouri, Gill R; Prieto, Alvaro; Argade, Nikhil

    2012-09-26

    Global routing protocols in wireless body area networks are considered. Global routing is augmented with a novel link cost function designed to balance energy consumption across the network. The result is a substantial increase in network lifetime at the expense of a marginal increase in energy per bit. Network maintenance requirements are reduced as well, since balancing energy consumption means all batteries need to be serviced at the same time and less frequently. The proposed routing protocol is evaluated using a hardware experimental setup comprising multiple nodes and an access point. The setup is used to assess network architectures, including an on-body access point and an off-body access point with varying number of antennas. Real-time experiments are conducted in indoor environments to assess performance gains. In addition, the setup is used to record channel attenuation data which are then processed in extensive computer simulations providing insight on the effect of protocol parameters on performance. Results demonstrate efficient balancing of energy consumption across all nodes, an average increase of up to 40% in network lifetime corresponding to a modest average increase of 0.4 dB in energy per bit, and a cutoff effect on required transmission power to achieve reliable connectivity.

  17. On Increasing Network Lifetime in Body Area Networks Using Global Routing with Energy Consumption Balancing

    PubMed Central

    Tsouri, Gill R.; Prieto, Alvaro; Argade, Nikhil

    2012-01-01

    Global routing protocols in wireless body area networks are considered. Global routing is augmented with a novel link cost function designed to balance energy consumption across the network. The result is a substantial increase in network lifetime at the expense of a marginal increase in energy per bit. Network maintenance requirements are reduced as well, since balancing energy consumption means all batteries need to be serviced at the same time and less frequently. The proposed routing protocol is evaluated using a hardware experimental setup comprising multiple nodes and an access point. The setup is used to assess network architectures, including an on-body access point and an off-body access point with varying number of antennas. Real-time experiments are conducted in indoor environments to assess performance gains. In addition, the setup is used to record channel attenuation data which are then processed in extensive computer simulations providing insight on the effect of protocol parameters on performance. Results demonstrate efficient balancing of energy consumption across all nodes, an average increase of up to 40% in network lifetime corresponding to a modest average increase of 0.4 dB in energy per bit, and a cutoff effect on required transmission power to achieve reliable connectivity. PMID:23201987

  18. Energy Drink and Coffee Consumption and Psychopathology Symptoms Among Early Adolescents: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about possible links between energy drink use and psychopathology among youth. This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between energy drink consumption and psychopathology among early adolescents. In addition, associations between psychopathology and coffee consumption were examined to assess whether findings were specific to energy drinks or also applied to another commonly used caffeinated beverage. Methods: One hundred forty-four youth who participated in the Camden Youth Development Study (72 males; mean age 11.9 at wave 1; 65% Hispanic, 30% African American) were assessed using self-report measures of frequency of energy drink and coffee consumption and depression, anxiety, conduct disorder (CD) symptoms, and teacher reports of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Youth (92%) were reassessed 16 months later. Results: Concurrently, energy drink and coffee consumption were associated with similar psychopathology symptoms; when the other beverage was adjusted for, energy drinks remained associated with CD and coffee remained associated with panic anxiety. Initial energy drink consumption predicted increasing ADHD and CD over time, though the association with CD dropped to a trend level of significance when coffee was adjusted for. Initial levels of hyperactive ADHD predicted increasing coffee consumption over time; this association remained when energy drinks were controlled. Social anxiety was associated with less increase in energy drink consumption over time, controlling for coffee. Conclusion: Energy drink and coffee consumption among early adolescents are concurrently associated with similar psychopathology symptoms. Longitudinally, the associations between these beverages and psychopathology differ, indicating that these substances have differing implications for development over time. PMID:27274416

  19. Energy Drink and Coffee Consumption and Psychopathology Symptoms Among Early Adolescents: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations.

    PubMed

    Marmorstein, Naomi R

    2016-06-01

    Background: Little is known about possible links between energy drink use and psychopathology among youth. This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between energy drink consumption and psychopathology among early adolescents. In addition, associations between psychopathology and coffee consumption were examined to assess whether findings were specific to energy drinks or also applied to another commonly used caffeinated beverage. Methods: One hundred forty-four youth who participated in the Camden Youth Development Study (72 males; mean age 11.9 at wave 1; 65% Hispanic, 30% African American) were assessed using self-report measures of frequency of energy drink and coffee consumption and depression, anxiety, conduct disorder (CD) symptoms, and teacher reports of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Youth (92%) were reassessed 16 months later. Results: Concurrently, energy drink and coffee consumption were associated with similar psychopathology symptoms; when the other beverage was adjusted for, energy drinks remained associated with CD and coffee remained associated with panic anxiety. Initial energy drink consumption predicted increasing ADHD and CD over time, though the association with CD dropped to a trend level of significance when coffee was adjusted for. Initial levels of hyperactive ADHD predicted increasing coffee consumption over time; this association remained when energy drinks were controlled. Social anxiety was associated with less increase in energy drink consumption over time, controlling for coffee. Conclusion: Energy drink and coffee consumption among early adolescents are concurrently associated with similar psychopathology symptoms. Longitudinally, the associations between these beverages and psychopathology differ, indicating that these substances have differing implications for development over time.

  20. Analytical Treatment of Forecasts of Electric Energy Consumption in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balodis, M.; Gavars, V.; Andersons, J.

    2014-06-01

    In the paper, the changes in electric energy consumption are analyzed as associated with structural changes in the Latvian economy of postsocialistic period. To the analysis, a particular approach is applied, which consists in comparison of the basic and specific electricity consumption indices in West-, Central-, and East-European states for the time span of 1990-2010, with differences and tendencies of changes revealed. Tendencies of the type are determined for the electric energy consumption in Latvia, and recommendations are given for the use of such indices in the relevant forecasts. Rakstā apskatītas elektroenerģijas patēriņa izmaiņas, kas saistītas ar Latvijas postsociālisma perioda ekonomikas strukturālām izmaiņām. Rakstā dota Latvijas galveno elektroenerģijas patēriņa indikatoru analīze, lietojot īpašu pieeju - Rietumeiropas, Centrāleiropas un Austrumeiropas valstu indikatoru salīdzinājumu. Analizēts periods no 1990. gada līdz 2010. gadam. Salīdzināti Eiropas valstu grupu īpatnējie elektroenerģijas patēriņa indikatori un noskaidrotas to atšķirības un izmaiņu tendences. Noteiktas elektroenerģijas patēriņa izmaiņu tendences Latvijā. Dotas rekomendācijas par šo indikatoru izmantošanu elektroenerģijas patēriņa prognozēšanā. 07.05.2014.

  1. The measurement of energy consumption by exercise bikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jwo, Ching-Song; Chien, Chao-Chun; Jeng, Lung-Yue

    2006-11-01

    This paper is intended as an investigation is that to measure the amount of energy consumption can be consumed by riding bikes and also could recycle the consuming energy during exercising. Exercisers ride the bicycle inputting the driving force through a compressor of refrigeration system, which can circulate the refrigerant in the system and calculate the calorific capacity from the spread of the condenser. In addition, we can make up chiller water in the evaporator. Experiments were performed to prove the hypotheses. Therefore, this experiment has designed the sports goods which reach the purpose of doing exercise, measuring accurately the consuming calorific capacity and having the function of making chiller water. After exercising, you can drink the water producing during exercise and apply on the system of air conditioner, which attains two objectives.

  2. RECENT TRENDS IN EMERGING TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Bunting, Bruce G

    2012-01-01

    Abundance of energy can be improved both by developing new sources of fuel and by improving efficiency of energy utilization, although we really need to pursue both paths to improve energy accessibility in the future. Currently, 2.7 billion people or 38% of the world s population do not have access to modern cooking fuel and depend on wood or dung and 1.4 billion people or 20% do not have access to electricity. It is estimated that correcting these deficiencies will require an investment of $36 billion dollars annually through 2030. In growing economies, energy use and economic growth are strongly linked, but energy use generally grows at a lower rate due to increased access to modern fuels and adaptation of modern, more efficient technology. Reducing environmental impacts of increased energy consumption such as global warming or regional emissions will require improved technology, renewable fuels, and CO2 reuse or sequestration. The increase in energy utilization will probably result in increased transportation fuel diversity as fuels are shaped by availability of local resources, world trade, and governmental, environmental, and economic policies. The purpose of this paper is to outline some of the recently emerging trends, but not to suggest winners. This paper will focus on liquid transportation fuels, which provide the highest energy density and best match with existing vehicles and infrastructure. Data is taken from a variety of US, European, and other sources without an attempt to normalize or combine the various data sources. Liquid transportation fuels can be derived from conventional hydrocarbon resources (crude oil), unconventional hydrocarbon resources (oil sands or oil shale), and biological feedstocks through a variety of biochemical or thermo chemical processes, or by converting natural gas or coal to liquids.

  3. Energy-Filtered Tunnel Transistor: A New Device Concept Toward Extremely-Low Energy Consumption Electronics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-17

    technical report 3. DATES COVERED {From - To) Apri 1 1, 2012 - September 30, 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Energy -Filtered Tunnel Transistor: A...New Device Concept Toward Extremely-Low Energy Consumption Electronics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER N00014-12-1-0492 5c. PROGRAM...release; distribution is unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This project has investigated fundamental physics of electron energy filtering

  4. Technology change and energy consumption: A comparison of residential subdivisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieves, L. A.; Nieves, A. L.

    The energy savings in residential buildings likely to result from implementation of the building energy performance standards (BEPS) were assessed. The goals were to: compare energy use in new homes designed to meet or exceed BEPS levels of energy efficiency with that in similar but older homes designed to meet conventional building codes, and to survey the home owners regarding their energy conservation attitudes and behaviors and to ascertain the degree to which conservation attitudes and behaviors are related to residential energy use. The consumer demand theory which provides the framework for the empirical analysis is presented. The sample residences are described and the data collection method discussed. The definition and measurement of major variables are presented.

  5. Drivers of U.S. Household Energy Consumption, 1980-2009

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the residential sector accounted for 21% of total primary energy consumption and about 20% of carbon dioxide emissions in the United States (computed from EIA 2013). Because of the impacts of residential sector energy use on the environment and the economy, this study was undertaken to help provide a better understanding of the factors affecting energy consumption in this sector. The analysis is based on the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) residential energy consumption surveys (RECS) 1980-2009.

  6. An Integrated Geovisual Analytics Framework for Analysis of Energy Consumption Data and Renewable Energy Potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Maness, Christopher S; Kramer, Ian S; Kodysh, Jeffrey B; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Steed, Chad A; Karthik, Rajasekar; Nugent, Philip J; Myers, Aaron T

    2012-01-01

    We present an integrated geovisual analytics framework for utility consumers to interactively analyze and benchmark their energy consumption. The framework uses energy and property data already available with the utility companies and county governments respectively. The motivation for the developed framework is the need for citizens to go beyond the conventional utility bills in understanding the patterns in their energy consumption. There is also a need for citizens to go beyond one-time improvements that are often not monitored and measured over time. Some of the features of the framework include the ability for citizens to visualize their historical energy consumption data along with weather data in their location. The quantity of historical energy data available is significantly more than what is available from utility bills. An overlay of the weather data provides users with a visual correlation between weather patterns and their energy consumption patterns. Another feature of the framework is the ability for citizens to compare their consumption on an aggregated basis to that of their peers other citizens living in houses of similar size and age and within the same or different geographical boundaries, such as subdivision, zip code, or county. The users could also compare their consumption to others based on the size of their family and other attributes. This feature could help citizens determine if they are among the best in class . The framework can also be used by the utility companies to better understand their customers and to plan their services. To make the framework easily accessible, it is developed to be compatible with mobile consumer electronics devices.

  7. USING TIME VARIANT VOLTAGE TO CALCULATE ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND POWER USE OF BUILDING SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Augenbroe , Godfried

    2015-12-09

    Buildings are the main consumers of electricity across the world. However, in the research and studies related to building performance assessment, the focus has been on evaluating the energy efficiency of buildings whereas the instantaneous power efficiency has been overlooked as an important aspect of total energy consumption. As a result, we never developed adequate models that capture both thermal and electrical characteristics (e.g., voltage) of building systems to assess the impact of variations in the power system and emerging technologies of the smart grid on buildings energy and power performance and vice versa. This paper argues that the power performance of buildings as a function of electrical parameters should be evaluated in addition to systems’ mechanical and thermal behavior. The main advantage of capturing electrical behavior of building load is to better understand instantaneous power consumption and more importantly to control it. Voltage is one of the electrical parameters that can be used to describe load. Hence, voltage dependent power models are constructed in this work and they are coupled with existing thermal energy models. Lack of models that describe electrical behavior of systems also adds to the uncertainty of energy consumption calculations carried out in building energy simulation tools such as EnergyPlus, a common building energy modeling and simulation tool. To integrate voltage-dependent power models with thermal models, the thermal cycle (operation mode) of each system was fed into the voltage-based electrical model. Energy consumption of systems used in this study were simulated using EnergyPlus. Simulated results were then compared with estimated and measured power data. The mean square error (MSE) between simulated, estimated, and measured values were calculated. Results indicate that estimated power has lower MSE when compared with measured data than simulated results. Results discussed in this paper will illustrate the

  8. Energy consumption in road transport: data-collection requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Millar, M.; Bernard, M.J.

    1983-06-03

    Despite recent softening in world oil prices, oil imports continue to represent a serious drain on the foreign-exchange reserves of many countries. As a result, governments throughout the world are pursuing a variety of policies - from increased exploitation of indigenous resources to conservation and other improvements in energy-conversion efficiency - in an effort to reduce their reliance on imported oil. Road transport, representing upwards of 30% of petroleum-product consumption in many countries, represents a logical target for such efforts. However, beyond the gross statistics available from oil company records on fuel sales, oftimes little is known about precisely how this sizeable quantity of fuel is consumed. Without more specific data on the modal composition of road-transport demand, the energy-conversion characteristics of the vehicles serving that demand, the operational features of those vehicles, etc., governments cannot hope to develop the conservation programs so urgently needed. Data on road freight are particularly sparse and, given the developing supply/demand imbalance for middle-distillate fuels, current data gaps may well develop into future supply shortages or cross-subsidization issues. Since the mid-1970s, most of the nations of North and South America have mounted programs to collect data on the energy-consumption characteristics of road transport. This paper reports on one such effort now underway in Jamaica. While certain of the transportation and data-collection issues which influenced methodology selection may be unique to that country, others are common to many countries at similar levels of urbanization, motorization, and income. With appropriate modification to account for distinctive local conditions, the Jamaican data-collection procedure has broad applicability, in whole or in part, to a variety of national and regional contexts.

  9. Reducing cooling energy consumption in data centres and critical facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Gareth

    Given the rise of our everyday reliance on computers in all walks of life, from checking the train times to paying our credit card bills online, the need for computational power is ever increasing. Other than the ever-increasing performance of home Personal Computers (PC's) this reliance has given rise to a new phenomenon in the last 10 years ago. The data centre. Data centres contain vast arrays of IT cabinets loaded with servers that perform millions of computational equations every second. It is these data centres that allow us to continue with our reliance on the internet and the PC. As more and more data centres become necessary due to the increase in computing processing power required for the everyday activities we all take for granted so the energy consumed by these data centres rises. Not only are more and more data centres being constructed daily, but operators are also looking at ways to squeeze more processing from their existing data centres. This in turn leads to greater heat outputs and therefore requires more cooling. Cooling data centres requires a sizeable energy input, indeed to many megawatts per data centre site. Given the large amounts of money dependant on the successful operation of data centres, in particular for data centres operated by financial institutions, the onus is predominantly on ensuring the data centres operate with no technical glitches rather than in an energy conscious fashion. This report aims to investigate the ways and means of reducing energy consumption within data centres without compromising the technology the data centres are designed to house. As well as discussing the individual merits of the technologies and their implementation technical calculations will be undertaken where necessary to determine the levels of energy saving, if any, from each proposal. To enable comparison between each proposal any design calculations within this report will be undertaken against a notional data facility. This data facility will

  10. Energy audit in small wastewater treatment plants: methodology, energy consumption indicators, and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Foladori, P; Vaccari, M; Vitali, F

    2015-01-01

    Energy audits in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) reveal large differences in the energy consumption in the various stages, depending also on the indicators used in the audits. This work is aimed at formulating a suitable methodology to perform audits in WWTPs and identifying the most suitable key energy consumption indicators for comparison among different plants and benchmarking. Hydraulic-based stages, stages based on chemical oxygen demand, sludge-based stages and building stages were distinguished in WWTPs and analysed with different energy indicators. Detailed energy audits were carried out on five small WWTPs treating less than 10,000 population equivalent and using continuous data for 2 years. The plants have in common a low designed capacity utilization (52% on average) and equipment oversizing which leads to waste of energy in the absence of controls and inverters (a common situation in small plants). The study confirms that there are several opportunities for reducing energy consumption in small WWTPs: in addition to the pumping of influent wastewater and aeration, small plants demonstrate low energy efficiency in recirculation of settled sludge and in aerobic stabilization. Denitrification above 75% is ensured through intermittent aeration and without recirculation of mixed liquor. Automation in place of manual controls is mandatory in illumination and electrical heating.

  11. Energy assessment: physical activity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Physical activity is an important component of total energy expenditure, contributing to energy intake needs; it also provides certain health benefits. This review chapter provides state-of-the-art information to researchers and clinicians who are interested in developing research studies or interv...

  12. A local energy consumption prediction-based clustering protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiguo; Feng, Li; Jia, Lili; Gu, Xin; Yu, Dongxiao

    2014-12-03

    Clustering is a fundamental and effective technique for utilizing sensor nodes' energy and extending the network lifetime for wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a novel clustering protocol, LECP-CP (local energy consumption prediction-based clustering protocol), the core of which includes a novel cluster head election algorithm and an inter-cluster communication routing tree construction algorithm, both based on the predicted local energy consumption ratio of nodes. We also provide a more accurate and realistic cluster radius to minimize the energy consumption of the entire network. The global energy consumption can be optimized by the optimization of the local energy consumption, and the energy consumption among nodes can be balanced well. Simulation results validate our theoretical analysis and show that LECP-CP has high efficiency of energy utilization, good scalability and significant improvement in the network lifetime.

  13. Biodiesel Supply and Consumption in the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    The historical biodiesel consumption data published in the Energy Information Administration's Monthly Energy Review March 2009 edition were revised to account for imports and exports. Table 10.4 of the Monthly Energy Review was expanded to display biodiesel imports, exports, stocks, stock change, and consumption. Similar revisions were made in the April 2009 edition of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO).

  14. 16 CFR 305.5 - Determinations of estimated annual energy consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. 305.5... energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. (a) Procedures for determining the estimated annual energy consumption, the estimated annual operating costs, the energy efficiency ratings, and the...

  15. Biodiesel Supply and Consumption in the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    The historical biodiesel consumption data published in the Energy Information Administration's Monthly Energy Review March 2009 edition were revised to account for imports and exports. Table 10.4 of the Monthly Energy Review was expanded to display biodiesel imports, exports, stocks, stock change, and consumption. Similar revisions were made in the April 2009 edition of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO).

  16. Study of unconventional aircraft engines designed for low energy consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neitzel, R. E.; Hirschkron, R.; Johnston, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    A study of unconventional engine cycle concepts, which may offer significantly lower energy consumption than conventional subsonic transport turbofans, is described herein. A number of unconventional engine concepts were identified and parametrically studied to determine their relative fuel-saving potential. Based on results from these studies, regenerative, geared, and variable-boost turbofans, and combinations thereof, were selected along with advanced turboprop cycles for further evaluation and refinement. Preliminary aerodynamic and mechanical designs of these unconventional engine configurations were conducted and mission performance was compared to a conventional, direct-drive turofan reference engine. Consideration is given to the unconventional concepts, and their state of readiness for application. Areas of needed technology advancement are identified.

  17. Household Energy Consumption: Community Context and the Fuelwood Transition*

    PubMed Central

    Link, Cynthia F.; Axinn, William G.; Ghimire, Dirgha J.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the influence of community context on change over time in households’ use of non-wood fuels. Our theoretical framework builds on sociological concepts in order to study energy consumption at the micro-level. The framework emphasizes the importance of nonfamily organizations and services in the local community as determinants of the transition from use of fuelwood to use of alternative fuels. We use multilevel longitudinal data on household fuel choice and community context from rural Nepal to provide empirical tests of our theoretical model. Results reveal that increased exposure to nonfamily organizations in the local community increases the use of alternative fuels. The findings illustrate key features of human impacts on the local environment and motivate greater incorporation of social organization into research on environmental change. PMID:23017795

  18. Estimating transportation energy consumption of residential land types. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-02-01

    To estimate the transportation energy implications of residential development, the vehicle miles traveled (VMT) from that development was calculated for each individual unit of government in Dane County. The VMT incorporates the trip frequency and the associated trip length for vehicular trips made by occupants of single and multi-family dwelling units for any given location in the county. The methodology involved ten basic steps which included: defining the overall study area, defining subareas, determining the average number of household trips by dwelling unit type in each subarea, determining the average trip length for each household type, calculating the resulting VMT, applying the VMT factors to the existing fleet of vehicles and the estimated miles per gallon (MPG) rating, estimating the gallons of fuel consumed, converting gallons to Btu's, determining density and transportation energy relationships, and developing a system for tracking transportation energy consumption trends from residential development. The results available include trip frequency rates, average trip length, annual vehicle miles traveled, the resulting gallons of fuel consumed and costs of that fuel. These factors are provided for single-family and multi-family units. The data are presented in two different categories: community class and geographic area.

  19. End use energy consumption data base: transportation sector

    SciTech Connect

    Hooker, J.N.; Rose, A.B.; Greene, D.L.

    1980-02-01

    The transportation fuel and energy use estimates developed a Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the End Use Energy Consumption Data Base are documented. The total data base contains estimates of energy use in the United States broken down into many categories within all sectors of the economy: agriculture, mining, construction, manufacturing, commerce, the household, electric utilities, and transportation. The transportation data provided by ORNL generally cover each of the 10 years from 1967 through 1976 (occasionally 1977 and 1978), with omissions in some models. The estimtes are broken down by mode of transport, fuel, region and State, sector of the economy providing transportation, and by the use to which it is put, and, in the case of automobile and bus travel, by the income of the traveler. Fuel types include natural gas, motor and aviation gasoline, residual and diesel oil, liuqefied propane, liquefied butane, and naphtha- and kerosene-type jet engine fuels. Electricity use is also estimated. The mode, fuel, sector, and use categories themselves subsume one, two, or three levels of subcategories, resulting in a very detailed categorization and definitive accounting.

  20. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other nonalcoholic beverages, and consequences for overall alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Verster, Joris C; Benson, Sarah; Scholey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this survey was to assess the motives for energy drink consumption, both alone and mixed with alcohol, and to determine whether negative or neutral motives for consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) have a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption. Demographics, alcohol and energy drink consumption-related questions, and motives for the consumption of energy drinks (alone or mixed with alcohol) were assessed. The motives to mix alcohol with energy drinks were compared with those for mixing alcohol with other nonalcoholic beverages. A total of 2,329 students who completed the study consumed energy drinks. The motives for consuming energy drinks (without alcohol) included "I like the taste" (58.6%), "To keep me awake" (54.3%), "It gives me energy" (44.3%), "It helps concentrating when studying" (33.9%), "It increases alertness" (28.8%), "It helps me concentrate better" (20.6%), and "It makes me less sleepy when driving" (14.2%). A total of 1,239 students reported occasionally consuming AMED (AMED group). The most frequent motives included "I like the taste" (81.1%), "I wanted to drink something else" (35.3%), and "To celebrate a special occasion" (14.6%). No relevant differences in motives were observed for using an energy drink or another nonalcoholic beverage as a mixer. A minority of students (21.6%) reported at least one negative motive to consume AMED. Despite these negative motives, students reported consuming significantly less alcohol on occasions when they consumed AMED compared to alcohol-only occasions. The majority of students who consume energy drinks (without alcohol) do so because they like the taste, or they consume these drinks to keep them awake and give them energy. AMED consumption is more frequently motivated by neutral as opposed to negative motives. No relevant differences in drinking motives and overall alcohol consumption were observed between the occasions when energy drinks or other nonalcoholic beverages were

  1. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Motor Gasoline Consumption Model

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    The motor gasoline consumption module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide forecasts of total U.S. consumption of motor gasolien based on estimates of vehicle miles traveled and average vehicle fuel economy.

  2. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Motor Gasoline Consumption Model

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    The motor gasoline consumption module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide forecasts of total U.S. consumption of motor gasolien based on estimates of vehicle miles traveled and average vehicle fuel economy.

  3. Energy consumption program: A computer model simulating energy loads in buildings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoller, F. W.; Lansing, F. L.; Chai, V. W.; Higgins, S.

    1978-01-01

    The JPL energy consumption computer program developed as a useful tool in the on-going building modification studies in the DSN energy conservation project is described. The program simulates building heating and cooling loads and computes thermal and electric energy consumption and cost. The accuracy of computations are not sacrificed, however, since the results lie within + or - 10 percent margin compared to those read from energy meters. The program is carefully structured to reduce both user's time and running cost by asking minimum information from the user and reducing many internal time-consuming computational loops. Many unique features were added to handle two-level electronics control rooms not found in any other program.

  4. Energy consumption program: A computer model simulating energy loads in buildings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoller, F. W.; Lansing, F. L.; Chai, V. W.; Higgins, S.

    1978-01-01

    The JPL energy consumption computer program developed as a useful tool in the on-going building modification studies in the DSN energy conservation project is described. The program simulates building heating and cooling loads and computes thermal and electric energy consumption and cost. The accuracy of computations are not sacrificed, however, since the results lie within + or - 10 percent margin compared to those read from energy meters. The program is carefully structured to reduce both user's time and running cost by asking minimum information from the user and reducing many internal time-consuming computational loops. Many unique features were added to handle two-level electronics control rooms not found in any other program.

  5. Structural Decomposition Analysis of China’s Industrial Energy Consumption Based on Input-Output Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X. Y.; Zhou, J. Q.; Wang, Z.; Deng, L. C.; Hong, S.

    2017-05-01

    China is now at a stage of accelerated industrialization and urbanization, with energy-intensive industries contributing a large proportion of economic growth. In this study, we examined industrial energy consumption by decomposition analysis to describe the driving factors of energy consumption in China. Based on input-output (I-O) tables from the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) website and China’s energy use data from 1995 to 2011, we studied the sectorial changes of energy efficiency during the examined period. The results showed that all industries increased their energy efficiency. Energy consumption was decomposed into three factors by the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) method. The increase in production output was the leading factor that drives up China’s energy consumption. World Trade Organization accession and financial crises had great impact on the energy consumption. Based on these results, a series of energy policy suggestions for decision-makers has been proposed.

  6. Energy consumption in residential building: The effect of appliances and human behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, K. A.; Hariri, Azian; Leman, A. M.; Yusof, M. Z. M.; Najib, M. N. M.

    2017-04-01

    Electricity is the predominant energy source used in these buildings. Therefore, energy management in residential buildings requires serious attention to ensure the energy consumption in residential building have been managed properly. Currently, the unstable of fuel price give the big impact to electricity price. Due to the issue, consumers require to use electricity more wisely. Using energy efficiently is one of the solution to reduce energy consumption. This paper aims to propose an initiative strategy for energy management system based on an analysis of energy consumption in residential building. The level of energy consumption among the occupants was found by obtaining electricity bills and distributing a questionnaire. A case study was carried out in selected areas in the Southern Zone of Peninsular Malaysia. The results of the study show that energy consumption was significant increased by month and the EEES as one of energy management system was suggested.

  7. Harvesting microalgal biomass using a magnetically induced membrane vibration (MMV) system: filtration performance and energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Bilad, M R; Discart, V; Vandamme, D; Foubert, I; Muylaert, K; Vankelecom, Ivo F J

    2013-06-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of submerged microfiltration to harvest both a marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum and a Chlorella vulgaris in a recently developed magnetically induced membrane vibrating (MMV) system. We assess the filtration performance by conducting the improved flux step method (IFM), fed-batch concentration filtrations and membrane fouling autopsy using two lab-made membranes with different porosity. The full-scale energy consumption was also estimated. Overall results suggest that the MMV offers a good fouling control and the process was proven to be economically attractive. By combining the membrane filtration (15× concentration) with centrifugation to reach a final concentration of 25% w/v, the energy consumption to harvest P. tricornutum and C. vulgaris was, respectively, as low as 0.84 and 0.77kWh/m(3), corresponding to 1.46 and 1.39 kWh/kg of the harvested biomass.

  8. Impact of Sustainable Cool Roof Technology on Building Energy Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuppuluri, Prem Kiran

    Highly reflective roofing systems have been analyzed over several decades to evaluate their ability to meet sustainability goals, including reducing building energy consumption and mitigating the urban heat island. Studies have isolated and evaluated the effects of climate, surface reflectivity, and roof insulation on energy savings, thermal load mitigation and also ameliorating the urban heat island. Other sustainable roofing systems, like green-roofs and solar panels have been similarly evaluated. The motivation for the present study is twofold: the first goal is to present a method for simultaneous evaluation and inter-comparison of multiple roofing systems, and the second goal is to quantitatively evaluate the realized heating and cooling energy savings associated with a white roof system compared to the reduction in roof-top heat flux. To address the first research goal a field experiment was conducted at the International Harvester Building located in Portland, OR. Thermal data was collected for a white roof, vegetated roof, and a solar panel shaded vegetated roof, and the heat flux through these roofing systems was compared against a control patch of conventional dark roof membrane. The second research goal was accomplished using a building energy simulation program to determine the impact of roof area and roof insulation on the savings from a white roof, in both Portland and Phoenix. The ratio of cooling energy savings to roof heat flux reduction from replacing a dark roof with a white roof was 1:4 for the month of July, and 1:5 annually in Portland. The COP of the associated chillers ranges from 2.8-4.2, indicating that the ratio of cooling energy savings to heat flux reduction is not accounted for solely by the COP of the chillers. The results of the building simulation indicate that based on energy savings alone, white roofs are not an optimal choice for Portland. The benefits associated with cooling energy savings relative to a black roof are offset by

  9. A Survey of Energy Drink Consumption Patterns Among College Students at a Mostly Hispanic University.

    PubMed

    Cabezas-Bou, Ernesto; De León-Arbucias, Jeidiel; Matos-Vergara, Nikol; Álvarez-Bagnarol, Yocasta; Ortega-Guzmán, Jesús; Narváez-Pérez, Karla; Cruz-Bermúdez, Nelson D; Díaz-Ríos, Manuel

    2016-12-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine energy drink (ED) consumption patterns among Hispanic college students. We measured the prevalence and frequency of ED consumption according to gender, degree programs, and specific university-related and social situations. In addition, we assessed the frequency of consumption of EDs mixed with alcoholic beverages. Methods: A total of 508 college students from the University of Puerto Rico, the largest Hispanic institution of higher education statewide, completed an online questionnaire. Results: Twenty-one percent of participants reported consuming EDs with the majority consuming EDs either occasionally (every 2-3 months) or at least once or twice a month. Men were found to be more likely to consume EDs than women. Undergraduate students were found less likely to consume EDs than graduate students. Most students consumed EDs while studying and during social activities. More than one-third of participants that consume EDs admitted mixing them with an alcoholic beverage. Graduate students were found to consume EDs mixed with alcohol more often. Conclusions: The majority of students consumed EDs occasionally and while studying. Most side effects reported after consuming EDs were similar to previous findings. The higher consumption of EDs and of EDs mixed with alcohol by students in graduate programs could be explained by a higher and more complex study load requiring longer periods of wakefulness and concentration. Future studies looking at the consumption patterns of EDs in more competitive graduate programs such as medical and/or dentistry school should be considered.

  10. Evaluation of the impact of the surrounding urban morphology on building energy consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Nyuk Hien; Chen, Yixing; Hajadi, Norwin; Sathyanarayanan, Haripriya; Manickavasagam, Yamini Vidya; Jusuf, Steve Kardinal; Syafii, Nedyomukti Imam

    2011-01-15

    Empirical models of minimum (T{sub min}), average (T{sub avg}) and maximum (T{sub max}) air temperature for Singapore estate have been developed and validated based on a long-tem field measurement. There are three major urban elements, which influence the urban temperature at the local scale. Essentially, they are buildings, greenery and pavement. Other related parameters identified for the study, such as green plot ratio (GnPR), sky view factor (SVF), surrounding building density, the wall surface area, pavement area, albedo are also evaluated to give a better understanding on the likely impact of the modified urban morphology on energy consumption. The objective of this research is to assess and to compare how the air temperature variation of urban condition can affect the building energy consumption in tropical climate of Singapore. In order to achieve this goal, a series of numerical calculation and building simulation are utilized. A total of 32 cases, considering different urban morphologies, are identified and evaluated to give better a understanding on the implication of urban forms, with the reference to the effect of varying density, height and greenery density. The results show that GnPR, which related to the present of greenery, have the most significant impact on the energy consumption by reducing the temperature by up to 2 C. The results also strongly indicate an energy saving of 4.5% if the urban elements are addressed effectively. (author)

  11. Current Status and Future Scenarios of Residential Building Energy Consumption in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Nishida, Masaru; Gao, Weijun

    2008-12-01

    China's rapid economic expansion has propelled it into the ranks of the largest energy consuming nation in the world, with energy demand growth continuing at a pace commensurate with its economic growth. Even though the rapid growth is largely attributable to heavy industry, this in turn is driven by rapid urbanization process, by construction materials and equipment produced for use in buildings. Residential energy is mostly used in urban areas, where rising incomes have allowed acquisition of home appliances, as well as increased use of heating in southern China. The urban population is expected to grow by 20 million every year, accompanied by construction of 2 billion square meters of buildings every year through 2020. Thus residential energy use is very likely to continue its very rapid growth. Understanding the underlying drivers of this growth helps to identify the key areas to analyze energy efficiency potential, appropriate policies to reduce energy use, as well as to understand future energy in the building sector. This paper provides a detailed, bottom-up analysis of residential building energy consumption in China using data from a wide variety of sources and a modeling effort that relies on a very detailed characterization of China's energy demand. It assesses the current energy situation with consideration of end use, intensity, and efficiency etc, and forecast the future outlook for the critical period extending to 2020, based on assumptions of likely patterns of economic activity, availability of energy services, technology improvement and energy intensities.

  12. State Energy Data Needs Assessment

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    This report responds to Section 805(d) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA), Public Law 110-140, requiring the Energy Information Administration to assess State-level energy data needs and submit to Congress a plan to address those needs.

  13. The determinants and trends in household energy consumption in United States during 2001-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karuppusamy, Sadasivan

    Objective: The focus of this study is a broad examination of household energy consumption for appliance use, space heating, space cooling, and water heating in United States over the period 2001-2009 using Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) from the years 2001 and 2009. Methods: Linear Regression Analysis is used to identfy determinants of household energy consumption for each of the end uses. Regression based decomposition analysis is used to identify trends in residential energy consumption for each of the end uses. Results: The study identified current determinants of household energy consumption for each of the end uses. These determinants are employed in the study to predict trends in household energy consumption for each of the end uses. Based on the results policy interventions at local and federal level for energy conservation are suggested.

  14. [Energy consumption and GDP growth in Beijing: cointegration and causality analysis].

    PubMed

    Chen, Cao-Cao; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Chun-Lan; Wang, Hai-Hua; Li, Zheng

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, the Johansen cointegration technique and the vector error correction model (VECM) were used to examine the causal relationship between energy consumption (LEC) and gross domestic product (LGDP) for Beijing during the period of 1980 to 2008. Results indicated that LEC and LGDP for Beijing were related by one cointegrating vector and there was a long-run unidirectional causal relationship from GDP to energy consumption. The long-term and short-term elasticity from economy to energy consumption were 0.44 and 0.12 separately. Statistic analysis showed that from 1980 to 2008 every 1% growth in GDP annually would drive energy consumption increasing rate by 0.4% correspondently. And the effect imposed from economy to energy consumption was lagging. It showed that energy consumption was not a strong exogenous variable as to economy. The finding has significant implications from the point of view of energy conservation, emission reduction and economic development.

  15. Energy drinks: what is all the hype? The dangers of energy drink consumption.

    PubMed

    Rath, Mandy

    2012-02-01

    To describe the adverse effects associated with energy drink consumption among adolescents and young adults. Review of literature utilizing Medscape, the Internet, MD Consult, and CINAHL. The following search terms were used: Energy drinks, caffeine, guarana, taurine, ginseng, sugar, and caffeine toxicity. Search was limited to English language sources from 2005 to 2010. The popularity of energy drinks and the rapid growth of their excessive consumption among adolescents and young adults have brought about great concern in regards to overall health and well-being. Caffeine, which is readily available to minors, is the most commonly used psychoactive substance in the world and imposes a potentially harmful influence on health, academic performance, and personal adjustments. Teens and young adults account for nearly $2.3 billion of energy drink sales. Adolescents and young adults are often unaware that various products, such as energy drinks, herbal medications, and various other medications that promote alertness, contain caffeine. When these products are taken together, caffeine toxicity and severe adverse effects can occur. Practitioners need to be aware of the consequences of energy drink consumption and be prepared to provide appropriate patient education. ©2012 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2012 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.

  16. Nonresidential buildings energy consumption survey: 1979 consumption and expenditures. Part 2. Steam, fuel oil, LPG, and all fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Patinkin, L.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents data on square footage and on total energy consumption and expenditures for commercial buildings in the contiguous United States. Also included are detailed consumption and expenditures tables for fuel oil or kerosene, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and purchased steam. Commercial buildings include all nonresidential buildings with the exception of those where industrial activities occupy more of the total square footage than any other type of activity. 7 figures, 23 tables.

  17. Multicontextual correlates of energy-dense, nutrient-poor snack food consumption by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Larson, Nicole; Miller, Jonathan M; Eisenberg, Marla E; Watts, Allison W; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2017-05-01

    Frequent consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor snack foods is an eating behavior of public health concern. This study was designed to inform strategies for reducing adolescent intake of energy-dense snack foods by identifying individual and environmental influences. Surveys were completed in 2009-2010 by 2540 adolescents (54% females, mean age = 14.5 ± 2.0, 80% nonwhite) in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota schools. Daily servings of energy-dense snack food was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire that asked about consumption of 21 common snack food items, such as potato chips, cookies, and candy. Data representing characteristics of adolescents' environments were collected from parents/caregivers, friends, school personnel, Geographic Information System sources, and a content analysis of favorite television shows. Linear regression was used to examine relationships between each individual or environmental characteristic and snack food consumption in separate models and also to examine relationships in a model including all of the characteristics simultaneously. The factors found to be significantly associated with higher energy-dense snack food intake represented individual attitudes/behaviors (e.g., snacking while watching television) and characteristics of home/family (e.g., home unhealthy food availability), peer (friends' energy-dense snack food consumption), and school (e.g., student snack consumption norms) environments. In total, 25.5% of the variance in adolescents' energy-dense snack food consumption was explained when factors from within each context were examined together. The results suggest that the design of interventions targeting improvement in the dietary quality of adolescents' snack food choices should address relevant individual factors (e.g., eating while watching television) along with characteristics of their home/family (e.g., limiting the availability of unhealthy foods), peer (e.g., guiding the efforts of a peer leader in

  18. Alcohol mixed with energy drinks are robustly associated with patterns of problematic alcohol consumption among young adult college students.

    PubMed

    Snipes, Daniel J; Jeffers, Amy J; Green, Brooke A; Benotsch, Eric G

    2015-02-01

    Young adults are a population at great risk for problematic health behaviors. Alcohol mixed with energy drink (AmED) consumption is a relatively popular health risk behavior among young adults. AmED consumption continues to illustrate negative outcomes in the research literature, having been linked with other substance use, high-risk sexual behavior, and sexual victimization. Limited research to date has examined associations between AmED consumption and patterns of alcohol dependence. Undergraduate college students (n=757) filled out an online survey which assessed their drinking habits in the past week and month, including their consumption of AmED beverages, personality characteristics, substance use, and problematic alcohol consumption via the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). A minority of participants reported AmED consumption in both the past month (11.6%) and past week (9.7%). Compared to their alcohol-only drinking counterparts, AmED consumers scored significantly higher on measures of impulsivity, and lower on anxiety sensitivity when compared to their alcohol-only drinking counterparts. In multivariate analyses, AmED consumption was robustly associated with patterns of alcohol dependence (AUDIT score≥8) among young adult college students, while controlling for energy drink use, alcohol use, personality factors, substance use, and demographic variables. AmED consumption in the past month is robustly associated with problematic alcohol consumption. The present study describes harmful outcomes associated with AmED consumption, and extends the literature on the combined effects of alcohol and energy drinks on young adult risk behaviors. Further research needs to address causal mechanisms for the AmED and problematic alcohol consumption relation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Physical exercise, energy expenditure and tobacco consumption in adolescents from Murcia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez García, Pedro Luis; López Villalba, Francisco José; López Miñarro, Pedro Ángel; García Cantó, Eliseo

    2014-02-01

    Physical and sports activity is essential for a healthy lifestyle and is considered a prevention factor for several harmful habits on health. The purpose of this study was to establish the relationship between the level of physical activity, energy expenditure and tobacco consumption among adolescent students. Adolescent students aged 14 to 17 years old from the province of Murcia were included. Their level of physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and smoking was evaluated using the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance. Out of 344 adolescents, 20.3% were overweight and 5.8%, obese. Of the total, 44.2% reported being active on a regular basis, while 55.8% were irregularly active or inactive. The level of physical exercise was higher among boys than girls. Tobacco was consumed by 20.3% of the sample, but no significant differences were observed based on sex. The highest energy expenditure from physical activity was positively associated with non consumption of tobacco. Among adolescents, a higher level of physical activity and a higher energy expenditure are positively associated with non consumption of tobacco.

  20. Investigation of cointegration and causality between energy consumption and employment with implications for the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, B.S.; Andrews, D.R.; Birkett, B.S.

    1998-08-01

    Applying Hsiao`s version of the Granger causality method, this article examines the multivariate causality between energy consumption and employment with the environmental implications for the US. Unit root and cointegration tests are performed. While no causality from energy consumption to employment is found, a reverse causality from employment to energy consumption is detected. This study implies that a reduction in energy consumption may reduce air pollution and preserve clean air, yet it may not cause major changes in the level of employment for those economies that are service oriented.

  1. Comparison and Evolution of Energy Consumption in Moroccan Agro-food Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Badaoui, Meryem; Touzani, Abdellatif

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this article is to establish a comparison between the Moroccan energy consumption and the BREF the reference document on best available techniques in the food industries, then an evolution of this consumption by 2030 in order to better understand it and to define strategies to reduce energy bill. According to a survey conducted among 5000 Moroccan companies, we were able to compare the energy consumption of the agro-food industries including sugar industry, dairy industry, cereal industry; fatty substances industry and fishing industry with that of the BREF. Also an evolution of Moroccan consumption was established by 2030 using the linear regression method, and then calculated a non-negligible average annual growth rate (AAGR). The results show that the Moroccan energy consumption is adequate to that of the BREF, and an energy consumption constantly increasing by registering a non-negligible AAGR.

  2. Does energy consumption contribute to environmental pollutants? Evidence from SAARC countries.

    PubMed

    Akhmat, Ghulam; Zaman, Khalid; Shukui, Tan; Irfan, Danish; Khan, Muhammad Mushtaq

    2014-05-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the causal relationship between energy consumption and environmental pollutants in selected South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) countries, namely, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Srilanka, over the period of 1975-2011. The results indicate that energy consumption acts as an important driver to increase environmental pollutants in SAARC countries. Granger causality runs from energy consumption to environmental pollutants, but not vice versa, except carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in Nepal where there exists a bidirectional causality between CO2 and energy consumption. Methane emissions in Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Srilanka and extreme temperature in India and Srilanka do not Granger cause energy consumption via both routes, which holds neutrality hypothesis. Variance decomposition analysis shows that among all the environmental indicators, CO2 in Bangladesh and Nepal exerts the largest contribution to changes in electric power consumption. Average precipitation in India, methane emissions in Pakistan, and extreme temperature in Srilanka exert the largest contribution.

  3. Assessing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Energy Use at a University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, William; Bhatia, Krishan Kumar; Parisi, Matthew; Foote, Jessica; Imperatore, John, III

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the carbon dioxide emissions associated with electric, HVAC, and hot water use from a US university. Design/methodology/approach: First, the total on-campus electrical, natural gas and oil consumption for an entire year was assessed. For each category of energy use, the carbon associated with…

  4. Assessing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Energy Use at a University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, William; Bhatia, Krishan Kumar; Parisi, Matthew; Foote, Jessica; Imperatore, John, III

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the carbon dioxide emissions associated with electric, HVAC, and hot water use from a US university. Design/methodology/approach: First, the total on-campus electrical, natural gas and oil consumption for an entire year was assessed. For each category of energy use, the carbon associated with…

  5. [Energy Consumption Comparison and Energy Saving Approaches for Different Wastewater Treatment Processes in a Large-scale Reclaimed Water Plant].

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Li, Ya-ming; Wei, Yuan-song; Lü, Jian; Yu, Da-wei; Liu, Ji-bao; Fan, Yao-bo

    2015-06-01

    Energy consumption is the main performance indicator of reclaimed water plant (RWP) operation. Methods of specific energy consumption analysis, unit energy consumption analysis and redundancy analysis were applied to investigate the composition and spatio-temporal distribution of energy consumption in Qinghe RWP with inverted A2/O, A2/O and A2/O-MBR processes. And the A2/ O-MBR process was mainly analyzed to identify the main nodes and causes for high energy consumption, approaches for energy saving were explored, and the energy consumption before and after upgrading for energy saving was compared. The results showed that aeration was the key factor affecting energy consumption in both conventional and A2/O-MBR processes, accounting for 42.97% and 50.65% of total energy consumption, respectively. A pulsating aeration allowed an increasing membrane flux and remarkably reduced the energy consumption of the A2/O-MBR process while still meeting the effluent standard, e.g., the membrane flux was increased by 20%, and the energy consumptions per kiloton wastewater and kilogram COD(removed) were decreased by 42.39% to 0.53 kW-h-kg-3 and by 54.74% to 1.29 kW x h x kg(-1), respectively. The decrease of backflow ratio in the A2/O-MBR process within a certain range would not deteriorate the effluent quality due to its insignificant correlation with the effluent quality, and therefore may be considered as one of the ways for further energy saving.

  6. Energy performance assessment with empirical methods: application of energy signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belussi, L.; Danza, L.; Meroni, I.; Salamone, F.

    2015-03-01

    Energy efficiency and reduction of building consumption are deeply felt issues both at Italian and international level. The recent regulatory framework sets stringent limits on energy performance of buildings. Awaiting the adoption of these principles, several methods have been developed to solve the problem of energy consumption of buildings, among which the simplified energy audit is intended to identify any anomalies in the building system, to provide helpful tips for energy refurbishments and to raise end users' awareness. The Energy Signature is an operational tool of these methodologies, an evaluation method in which energy consumption is correlated with climatic variables, representing the actual energy behaviour of the building. In addition to that purpose, the Energy Signature can be used as an empirical tool to determine the real performances of the technical elements. The latter aspect is illustrated in this article.

  7. Consumption-weighted life cycle assessment of a consumer electronic product community.

    PubMed

    Ryen, Erinn G; Babbitt, Callie W; Williams, Eric

    2015-02-17

    A new approach for quantifying the net environmental impact of a "community" of interrelated products is demonstrated for consumer electronics owned by an average U.S. household over a 15-year period (1992-2007). This consumption-weighted life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology accounts for both product consumption (number of products per household) and impact (cumulative energy demand (MJ) and greenhouse gas emissions (MT CO2 eq) per product), analyzed using a hybrid LCA framework. Despite efficiency improvements in individual devices from 1992 to 2007, the net impact of the entire product community increased, due primarily to increasing ownership and usage. The net energy impact for the product community is significant, nearly 30% of the average gasoline use in a U.S. passenger vehicle in 2007. The analysis points to a large contribution by legacy products (cathode ray tube televisions and desktop computers), due to historically high consumption rates, although impacts are beginning to shift to smaller mobile devices. This method is also applied to evaluate prospective intervention strategies, indicating that environmental impact can be reduced by strategies such as lifespan extension or energy efficiency, but only when applied to all products owned, or by transforming consumption trends toward fewer, highly multifunctional products.

  8. Transportation Energy Futures: Combining Strategies for Deep Reductions in Energy Consumption and GHG Emissions (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    This fact sheet summarizes actions in the areas of light-duty vehicle, non-light-duty vehicle, fuel, and transportation demand that show promise for deep reductions in energy use. Energy efficient transportation strategies have the potential to simultaneously reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project examined how the combination of multiple strategies could achieve deep reductions in GHG emissions and petroleum use on the order of 80%. Led by NREL, in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory, the project's primary goal was to help inform domestic decisions about transportation energy strategies, priorities, and investments, with an emphasis on underexplored opportunities. TEF findings reveal three strategies with the potential to displace most transportation-related petroleum use and GHG emissions: 1) Stabilizing energy use in the transportation sector through efficiency and demand-side approaches. 2) Using additional advanced biofuels. 3) Expanding electric drivetrain technologies.

  9. Assessment of the U.S. Department of Energy's Home Energy Scoring Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, David; Merket, Noel; Polly, Ben; Heaney, Mike; Casey, Sean; Robertson, Joseph

    2012-07-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted a series of assessments of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) proposed Home Energy Scoring Tool (HEST). This report is an assessment of the 4/27/2012 release of HEST. Predictions of electric and natural gas consumption were compared with weather-normalized utility billing data for a mixture of newer and older homes located in Oregon, Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Carolina and Texas.

  10. A survey of energy drinks consumption practices among student -athletes in Ghana: lessons for developing health education intervention programmes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Globally, young adults and college athletes are primary targets of the marketing campaigns of energy drink companies. Consequently, it is reported that young adults and college athletes consume energy drinks frequently. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of energy drink consumption among student-athletes selected from seven public universities in Ghana. The study assessed the energy drink consumption patterns, types usually consumed, frequency of consumption and reasons why athletes consumed energy drinks. Methods A total number of 180 student-athletes gave their consent to participate in the study and completed a questionnaire which was administered during an inter-university sports competition. Results Most of the participants (62.2%) reported consuming at least one can of energy drink in a week. A high proportion (53.6%) of the respondents who drink energy drinks indicated that they did so to replenish lost energy after training or a competition. Other reasons given as to why energy drinks were consumed by the study participants included to provide energy and fluids to the body (25.9%), to improve performance (9.8%) and to reduce fatigue (5.4%). Conclusion These results suggest the need to plan health education programmes to particularly correct some wrong perceptions that athletes have regarding the benefits of energy drinks and also create awareness among student-athletes about the side effects of excessive intake of energy drinks. PMID:22444601

  11. A survey of energy drinks consumption practices among student -athletes in Ghana: lessons for developing health education intervention programmes.

    PubMed

    Buxton, Christiana; Hagan, John E

    2012-03-24

    Globally, young adults and college athletes are primary targets of the marketing campaigns of energy drink companies. Consequently, it is reported that young adults and college athletes consume energy drinks frequently. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of energy drink consumption among student-athletes selected from seven public universities in Ghana. The study assessed the energy drink consumption patterns, types usually consumed, frequency of consumption and reasons why athletes consumed energy drinks. A total number of 180 student-athletes gave their consent to participate in the study and completed a questionnaire which was administered during an inter-university sports competition. Most of the participants (62.2%) reported consuming at least one can of energy drink in a week. A high proportion (53.6%) of the respondents who drink energy drinks indicated that they did so to replenish lost energy after training or a competition. Other reasons given as to why energy drinks were consumed by the study participants included to provide energy and fluids to the body (25.9%), to improve performance (9.8%) and to reduce fatigue (5.4%). These results suggest the need to plan health education programmes to particularly correct some wrong perceptions that athletes have regarding the benefits of energy drinks and also create awareness among student-athletes about the side effects of excessive intake of energy drinks.

  12. Low Calorie Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Energy and Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality in British Adults.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Sigrid A; Horgan, Graham W; Francis, Lucy E; Gibson, Amelia A; Stephen, Alison M

    2016-01-02

    It is unclear whether consumption of low-calorie beverages (LCB) leads to compensatory consumption of sweet foods, thus reducing benefits for weight control or diet quality. This analysis investigated associations between beverage consumption and energy intake and diet quality of adults in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) (2008-2011; n = 1590), classified into: (a) non-consumers of soft drinks (NC); (b) LCB consumers; (c) sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumers; or (d) consumers of both beverages (BB), based on 4-day dietary records. Within-person data on beverage consumption on different days assessed the impact on energy intake. LCB consumers and NC consumed less energy and non-milk extrinsic sugars than other groups. Micronutrient intakes and food choices suggested higher dietary quality in NC/LCB consumers compared with SSB/BB consumers. Within individuals on different days, consumption of SSB, milk, juice, and alcohol were all associated with increased energy intake, while LCB and tea, coffee or water were associated with no change; or reduced energy intake when substituted for caloric beverages. Results indicate that NC and LCB consumers tend to have higher quality diets compared with SSB or BB consumers and do not compensate for sugar or energy deficits by consuming more sugary foods.

  13. Low Calorie Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Energy and Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality in British Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Sigrid A.; Horgan, Graham W.; Francis, Lucy E.; Gibson, Amelia A.; Stephen, Alison M.

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether consumption of low-calorie beverages (LCB) leads to compensatory consumption of sweet foods, thus reducing benefits for weight control or diet quality. This analysis investigated associations between beverage consumption and energy intake and diet quality of adults in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) (2008–2011; n = 1590), classified into: (a) non-consumers of soft drinks (NC); (b) LCB consumers; (c) sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumers; or (d) consumers of both beverages (BB), based on 4-day dietary records. Within-person data on beverage consumption on different days assessed the impact on energy intake. LCB consumers and NC consumed less energy and non-milk extrinsic sugars than other groups. Micronutrient intakes and food choices suggested higher dietary quality in NC/LCB consumers compared with SSB/BB consumers. Within individuals on different days, consumption of SSB, milk, juice, and alcohol were all associated with increased energy intake, while LCB and tea, coffee or water were associated with no change; or reduced energy intake when substituted for caloric beverages. Results indicate that NC and LCB consumers tend to have higher quality diets compared with SSB or BB consumers and do not compensate for sugar or energy deficits by consuming more sugary foods. PMID:26729159

  14. Analysis of electric energy consumption of automatic milking systems in different configurations and operative conditions.

    PubMed

    Calcante, Aldo; Tangorra, Francesco M; Oberti, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) have been a revolutionary innovation in dairy cow farming. Currently, more than 10,000 dairy cow farms worldwide use AMS to milk their cows. Electric consumption is one of the most relevant and uncontrollable operational cost of AMS, ranging between 35 and 40% of their total annual operational costs. The aim of the present study was to measure and analyze the electric energy consumption of 4 AMS with different configurations: single box, central unit featuring a central vacuum system for 1 cow unit and for 2 cow units. The electrical consumption (daily consumption, daily consumption per cow milked, consumption per milking, and consumption per 100L of milk) of each AMS (milking unit + air compressor) was measured using 2 energy analyzers. The measurement period lasted 24h with a sampling frequency of 0.2Hz. The daily total energy consumption (milking unit + air compressor) ranged between 45.4 and 81.3 kWh; the consumption per cow milked ranged between 0.59 and 0.99 kWh; the consumption per milking ranged between 0.21 and 0.33 kWh; and the consumption per 100L of milk ranged between 1.80 to 2.44 kWh according to the different configurations and operational contexts considered. Results showed that AMS electric consumption was mainly conditioned by farm management rather than machine characteristics/architectures. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Climatic change feedback to the energy sector: Developing integrated assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Sailor, D.J.

    1997-12-31

    There is a complex relationship between climate and the energy sector. The emissions of particulates, aerosols, and greenhouse gases from fossil fuel consumption is expected to have a significant impact on future climates. As climate changes, however, both energy consumption and energy production will be affected. Specifically, under global warming there will be a significant increase in electricity use for air conditioning, and a decrease in natural gas and heating oil consumption due to a decreased need for space heating in winter. Furthermore, the projected changes in temperature and precipitation that will arise due to the greenhouse effect will significantly impact the hydroelectric power generation industry, and other renewable forms of energy production. This paper discusses the mechanisms by which climate variability and climatic change impact the energy sector, and how models of these impacts can be used in utility planning, integrated assessments, and policy development.

  16. A look at commercial buildings in 1995: Characteristics, energy consumption, and energy expenditures

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The commercial sector consists of business establishments and other organizations that provide services. The sector includes service businesses, such as retail and wholesale stores, hotels and motels, restaurants, and hospitals, as well as a wide range of facilities that would not be considered commercial in a traditional economic sense, such as public schools, correctional institutions, and religious and fraternal organizations. Nearly all energy use in the commercial sector takes place in, or is associated with, the buildings that house these commercial activities. Analysis of the structures, activities, and equipment associated with different types of buildings is the clearest way to evaluate commercial sector energy use. The Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) is a national-level sample survey of commercial buildings and their energy suppliers conducted quadrennially (previously triennially) by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The target population for the 1995 CBECS consisted of all commercial buildings in the US with more than 1,000 square feet of floorspace. Decision makers, businesses, and other organizations that are concerned with the use of energy--building owners and managers, regulators, legislative bodies and executive agencies at all levels of government, utilities and other energy suppliers--are confronted with a buildings sector that is complex. Data on major characteristics (e.g., type of building, size, year constructed, location) collected from the buildings, along with the amount and types of energy the buildings consume, help answer fundamental questions about the use of energy in commercial buildings.

  17. Urban energy consumption and related carbon emission estimation: a study at the sector scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Weiwei; Chen, Chen; Su, Meirong; Chen, Bin; Cai, Yanpeng; Xing, Tao

    2013-12-01

    With rapid economic development and energy consumption growth, China has become the largest energy consumer in the world. Impelled by extensive international concern, there is an urgent need to analyze the characteristics of energy consumption and related carbon emission, with the objective of saving energy, reducing carbon emission, and lessening environmental impact. Focusing on urban ecosystems, the biggest energy consumer, a method for estimating energy consumption and related carbon emission was established at the urban sector scale in this paper. Based on data for 1996-2010, the proposed method was applied to Beijing in a case study to analyze the consumption of different energy resources (i.e., coal, oil, gas, and electricity) and related carbon emission in different sectors (i.e., agriculture, industry, construction, transportation, household, and service sectors). The results showed that coal and oil contributed most to energy consumption and carbon emission among different energy resources during the study period, while the industrial sector consumed the most energy and emitted the most carbon among different sectors. Suggestions were put forward for energy conservation and emission reduction in Beijing. The analysis of energy consumption and related carbon emission at the sector scale is helpful for practical energy saving and emission reduction in urban ecosystems.

  18. A US-China Interview Study: Biology Students' Argumentation and Explanation about Energy Consumption Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Hui; Hokayem, Hayat; Wang, Sasha; Wei, Xin

    2016-01-01

    As China and the United States become the top two carbon emitters in the world, it is crucial for citizens in both countries to construct a sophisticated understanding of energy consumption issues. This interview study examines how U.S. and Chinese students compare in explaining and arguing about two critical energy consumption issues: burning…

  19. A US-China Interview Study: Biology Students' Argumentation and Explanation about Energy Consumption Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Hui; Hokayem, Hayat; Wang, Sasha; Wei, Xin

    2015-01-01

    As China and the United States become the top two carbon emitters in the world, it is crucial for citizens in both countries to construct a sophisticated understanding of energy consumption issues. This interview study examines how U.S. and Chinese students compare in explaining and arguing about two critical energy consumption issues: burning…

  20. Consumption of Energy in New York State: 1972 (with Estimates for 1973).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausgaard, Olaf

    This report contains tabular data on energy consumption for the calendar year 1972 and a forecast of natural gas requirements for the period 1973 to 1976. Broad sector categories used in the tables are electric utilities, residential commercial, industrial, and transportation. Tables show energy consumption by primary source and major sector for…

  1. A US-China Interview Study: Biology Students' Argumentation and Explanation about Energy Consumption Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Hui; Hokayem, Hayat; Wang, Sasha; Wei, Xin

    2016-01-01

    As China and the United States become the top two carbon emitters in the world, it is crucial for citizens in both countries to construct a sophisticated understanding of energy consumption issues. This interview study examines how U.S. and Chinese students compare in explaining and arguing about two critical energy consumption issues: burning…

  2. 10 CFR 430.23 - Test procedures for the measurement of energy and water consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... per cycle for water softener regeneration, in kilowatt-hours and determined according to section 5.1.3... paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section, W = the water energy consumption per cycle for the normal cycle as... defined in section 1.12 of appendix C1 to this subpart, and the water energy consumption per cycle...

  3. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... distribution transformers. 431.193 Section 431.193 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Test Procedures § 431.193 Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers. The...

  4. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... distribution transformers. 431.193 Section 431.193 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Test Procedures § 431.193 Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers. The...

  5. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... distribution transformers. 431.193 Section 431.193 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Test Procedures § 431.193 Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers. The...

  6. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... distribution transformers. 431.193 Section 431.193 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Test Procedures § 431.193 Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers. The...

  7. Understanding Teenagers' Personal Contexts to Design Technology That Supports Learning about Energy Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avramides, Katerina; Craft, Brock; Luckin, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Energy sustainability is prevalent in political and popular rhetoric and yet energy consumption is rising. Teenagers are an important category of future energy consumers, but little is known of their conceptions about energy and energy saving. We report on empirical research with two groups of teenagers. This is part of ongoing work to design…

  8. Understanding Teenagers' Personal Contexts to Design Technology That Supports Learning about Energy Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avramides, Katerina; Craft, Brock; Luckin, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Energy sustainability is prevalent in political and popular rhetoric and yet energy consumption is rising. Teenagers are an important category of future energy consumers, but little is known of their conceptions about energy and energy saving. We report on empirical research with two groups of teenagers. This is part of ongoing work to design…

  9. Input-output modeling for urban energy consumption in Beijing: dynamics and comparison.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lixiao; Hu, Qiuhong; Zhang, Fan

    2014-01-01

    Input-output analysis has been proven to be a powerful instrument for estimating embodied (direct plus indirect) energy usage through economic sectors. Using 9 economic input-output tables of years 1987, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1997, 2000, 2002, 2005, and 2007, this paper analyzes energy flows for the entire city of Beijing and its 30 economic sectors, respectively. Results show that the embodied energy consumption of Beijing increased from 38.85 million tonnes of coal equivalent (Mtce) to 206.2 Mtce over the past twenty years of rapid urbanization; the share of indirect energy consumption in total energy consumption increased from 48% to 76%, suggesting the transition of Beijing from a production-based and manufacturing-dominated economy to a consumption-based and service-dominated economy. Real estate development has shown to be a major driving factor of the growth in indirect energy consumption. The boom and bust of construction activities have been strongly correlated with the increase and decrease of system-side indirect energy consumption. Traditional heavy industries remain the most energy-intensive sectors in the economy. However, the transportation and service sectors have contributed most to the rapid increase in overall energy consumption. The analyses in this paper demonstrate that a system-wide approach such as that based on input-output model can be a useful tool for robust energy policy making.

  10. Input-Output Modeling for Urban Energy Consumption in Beijing: Dynamics and Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lixiao; Hu, Qiuhong; Zhang, Fan

    2014-01-01

    Input-output analysis has been proven to be a powerful instrument for estimating embodied (direct plus indirect) energy usage through economic sectors. Using 9 economic input-output tables of years 1987, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1997, 2000, 2002, 2005, and 2007, this paper analyzes energy flows for the entire city of Beijing and its 30 economic sectors, respectively. Results show that the embodied energy consumption of Beijing increased from 38.85 million tonnes of coal equivalent (Mtce) to 206.2 Mtce over the past twenty years of rapid urbanization; the share of indirect energy consumption in total energy consumption increased from 48% to 76%, suggesting the transition of Beijing from a production-based and manufacturing-dominated economy to a consumption-based and service-dominated economy. Real estate development has shown to be a major driving factor of the growth in indirect energy consumption. The boom and bust of construction activities have been strongly correlated with the increase and decrease of system-side indirect energy consumption. Traditional heavy industries remain the most energy-intensive sectors in the economy. However, the transportation and service sectors have contributed most to the rapid increase in overall energy consumption. The analyses in this paper demonstrate that a system-wide approach such as that based on input-output model can be a useful tool for robust energy policy making. PMID:24595199

  11. The impact of state energy programs and other contextual factors on U.S. buildings energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofori-Boadu, Andrea N. Y. A.

    High energy consumption in the United States has been influenced by populations, climates, income and other contextual factors. In the past decades, U.S. energy policies have pursued energy efficiency as a national strategy for reducing U.S. environmental degradation and dependence on foreign oils. The quest for improved energy efficiency has led to the development of energy efficient technologies and programs. The implementation of energy programs in the complex U.S. socio-technical environment is believed to promote the diffusion of energy efficiency technologies. However, opponents doubt the fact that these programs have the capacity to significantly reduce U.S. energy consumption. In order to contribute to the ongoing discussion, this quantitative study investigated the relationships existing among electricity consumption/ intensity, energy programs and contextual factors in the U.S. buildings sector. Specifically, this study sought to identify the significant predictors of electricity consumption and intensity, as well as estimate the overall impact of selected energy programs on electricity consumption and intensity. Using state-level secondary data for 51 U.S. states from 2006 to 2009, seven random effects panel data regression models confirmed the existence of significant relationships among some energy programs, contextual factors, and electricity consumption/intensity. The most significant predictors of improved electricity efficiency included the price of electricity, public benefits funds program, building energy codes program, financial and informational incentives program and the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program. Consistently, the Southern region of the U.S. was associated with high electricity consumption and intensity; while the U.S. commercial sector was the greater benefactor from energy programs. On the average, energy programs were responsible for approximately 7% of the variation observed in electricity consumption

  12. Interactions Between Energy Drink Consumption and Sleep Problems: Associations with Alcohol Use Among Young Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Marmorstein, Naomi R

    2017-09-01

    Background: Energy drink consumption and sleep problems are both associated with alcohol use among adolescents. In addition, caffeine consumption (including energy drinks) is associated with sleep problems. However, information about how these three constructs may interact is limited. The goal of this study was to examine potential interactions between energy drink consumption and sleep problems in the concurrent prediction of alcohol use among young adolescents. Coffee and soda consumption were also examined for comparison. Methods: Participants from the Camden Youth Development Study were included (n = 127; mean age = 13.1; 68% Hispanic, 29% African American) and questionnaire measures of frequency of caffeinated beverage consumption (energy drinks, coffee, and soda), sleep (initial insomnia, sleep disturbances, daytime fatigue, and sleep duration), and alcohol consumption were used. Regression analyses were conducted to examine interactions between caffeinated beverage consumption and sleep in the concurrent prediction of alcohol use. Results: Energy drink consumption interacted with initial insomnia and daytime fatigue to concurrently predict particularly frequent alcohol use among those with either of these sleep-related problems and energy drink consumption. The pattern of results for coffee consumption was similar for insomnia but reached only a trend level of significance. Results of analyses examining soda consumption were nonsignificant. Conclusions: Young adolescents who both consume energy drinks and experience initial insomnia and/or daytime fatigue are at particularly high risk for alcohol use. Coffee consumption appears to be associated with similar patterns. Longitudinal research is needed to explain the developmental pathways by which these associations emerge, as well as mediators and moderators of these associations.

  13. The impact of relative energy prices on industrial energy consumption in China: a consideration of inflation costs.

    PubMed

    He, Lingyun; Ding, Zhihua; Yin, Fang; Wu, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Significant effort has been exerted on the study of economic variables such as absolute energy prices to understand energy consumption and economic growth. However, this approach ignores general inflation effects, whereby the prices of baskets of goods may rise or fall at different rates from those of energy prices. Thus, it may be the relative energy price, not the absolute energy price, that has most important effects on energy consumption. To test this hypothesis, we introduce a new explanatory variable, the domestic relative energy price, which we define as "the ratio of domestic energy prices to the general price level of an economy," and we test the explanatory power of this new variable. Thus, this paper explores the relationship between relative energy prices and energy consumption in China from the perspective of inflation costs over the period from 1988 to 2012. The direct, regulatory and time-varying effects are captured using methods such as ridge regression and the state-space model. The direct impacts of relative energy prices on total energy consumption and intensity are -0.337 and -0.250, respectively; the effects of comprehensive regulation on energy consumption through the economic structure and the energy structure are -0.144 and -0.148, respectively; and the depressing and upward effects of rising and falling energy prices on energy consumption are 0.3520 and 0.3564, respectively. When economic growth and the energy price level were stable, inflation persisted; thus, rising energy prices benefitted both the economy and the environment. Our analysis is important for policy makers to establish effective energy-pricing policies that ensure both energy conservation and the stability of the pricing system.

  14. Reduction in Energy Consumption & Variability in Steel Foundry Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Peters

    2005-05-04

    large process variation. This indicates the need for ongoing monitoring of the process and system to quantify the effort being expended. A system to measure the grinding effort was investigated but did not prove to be successful. A weld wire counting system was shown to be very successful in tracking casting quality by monitoring the quantity of weld wire being expended on a per casting basis. Further use of such systems is highly recommended. The field studies showed that the visual inspection process for the casting surface was a potentially large source of process variation. Measurement system analysis studies were conducted at three steel casting producers. The tests measured the consistency of the inspectors in identifying the same surface anomalies. The repeatability (variation of the same operator inspecting the same casting) was found to be relatively consistent across the companies at about 60-70%. However, this is still are very large amount of variation. Reproducibility (variation of different operators inspecting the same casting) was worse, ranging between 20 to 80% at the three locations. This large amount of variation shows that there is a great opportunity for improvement. Falsely identifying anomalies for reworking will cause increased expense and energy consumption. This is particularly true if a weld repair and repeated heat treatment is required. However, not identifying an anomaly could also result in future rework processing, a customer return, or scrap. To help alleviate this problem, casting surface comparator plates were developed and distributed to the industry. These plates are very inexpensive which enables them to be provided to all those involved with casting surface quality, such as operators, inspectors, sales, and management.

  15. Energy consumption analysis of the Venus Deep Space Station (DSS-13)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, N. V.

    1983-01-01

    This report continues the energy consumption analysis and verification study of the tracking stations of the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex, and presents an audit of the Venus Deep Space Station (DSS 13). Due to the non-continuous radioastronomy research and development operations at the station, estimations of energy usage were employed in the energy consumption simulation of both the 9-meter and 26-meter antenna buildings. A 17.9% decrease in station energy consumption was experienced over the 1979-1981 years under study. A comparison of the ECP computer simulations and the station's main watt-hour meter readings showed good agreement.

  16. Power wheelchair range testing and energy consumption during fatigue testing.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R A; VanSickle, D P; Albright, S J; Stewart, K J; Flannery, M; Robertson, R N

    1995-10-01

    The range of a power wheelchair depends on many factors including: battery type, battery state, wheelchair/rider weight, terrain, the efficiency of the drive train, and driving behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of three methods of estimating power wheelchair range. Another significant purpose was to compare the current draw on pavement to current draw on an International Standards Organization (ISO) Double Drum tester at one m/sec. Tests were performed on seven different power wheelchairs unloaded, and loaded with an ISO 100 kg test dummy. Each chair was configured according to the manufacturer's specifications, and tires were properly inflated. Experienced test technicians were used for the tennis court tests, and treadmill tests. An ISO 100 kg test dummy was used for the ISO Double Drum test. Energy consumption was measured over a distance of 1500 m for each of the three test conditions. The rolling surface was level in all cases. Repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed a significant difference (p = 0.0001) between the predicted range at maximum speed for the three tests. Post hoc analysis demonstrated a significant difference (p < 0.01) in estimated range at maximum speed between the Double Drum test and the treadmill test, as well as between the Double Drum test and the tennis court test. Our results indicate no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the predicted range at maximal speed between the treadmill and tennis court tests. A simple relationship does not exist between the results of range testing with the Double Drum tester and the tennis court. An alternative would be to permit the use of a treadmill for range testing as simple relationships between all pertinent treadmill and tennis court range data were found. For the Double Drum tester used, the current demand is higher than under normal usage. This presents a problem as current is related to load torque in a power wheelchair. Hence, the Double

  17. Is the Consumption of Energy Drinks Associated With Academic Achievement Among College Students?

    PubMed

    Champlin, Sara E; Pasch, Keryn E; Perry, Cheryl L

    2016-08-01

    Despite widely reported side effects, use of energy drinks has increased among college students, who report that they consume energy drinks to help them complete schoolwork. However, little is known about the association between energy drink use and academic performance. We explored the relationship between energy drink consumption and current academic grade point average (GPA) among first-year undergraduate students. Participants included 844 first-year undergraduates (58.1 % female; 50.7 % White). Students reported their health behaviors via an online survey. We measured energy drink consumption with two measures: past month consumption by number of drinks usually consumed in 1 month and number consumed during the last occasion of consumption. We used multiple linear regression modeling with energy drink consumption and current GPA, controlling for gender, race, weekend and weekday sleep duration, perceived stress, perceived stress management, media use, and past month alcohol use. We found that past month energy drink consumption quantity by frequency (p < 0.001), and energy drinks consumed during the last occasion (p < 0.001), were associated with a lower GPA. Energy drinks consumed during the last occasion of consumption (p = 0.01) remained significantly associated with a lower GPA when controlling for alcohol use. While students report using energy drinks for school-related reasons, our findings suggest that greater energy drink consumption is associated with a lower GPA, even after controlling for potential confounding variables. Longitudinal research is needed that addresses whether GPA declines after continued use of energy drinks or if students struggling academically turn to energy drinks to manage their schoolwork.

  18. [Alcohol consumption in patients with psychiatric disorders: assessment and treatment].

    PubMed

    Lang, J-P; Bonnewitz, M-L; Kusterer, M; Lalanne-Tongio, L

    2014-09-01

    Alcohol consumption in France exceeds the European average (12.7L of pure alcohol/habitant/year in 2009 for an average of 12.5 L). This consumption has a major professional, social and health impact on the individuals and their families. The cost of such, estimated in Europe to be of 155.8 billion Euros in 2010, is the highest among the central nervous system diseases in Europe, far higher than that of depression or dementia. Patients suffering from psychiatric disorders are more frequently affected by problems related to alcohol use than the general population. They are also more vulnerable to the immediate and subsequent consequences of their consumption. The alcohol related disorders that are often accompanied by risk taking and other addictive behaviour require a global assessment of the addiction, with and without substance, and of the complications. These have a strong impact on risk taking, compliance with care, and the morbidity of somatic and psychiatric disorders, as well as access to optimal care and the life span of patients suffering from psychiatric disorders. The development of addictology care, with integrative treatment programs, is recommended in response to these public health issues. Nevertheless, specific addictology practices and partners with addictology care structures are still scarcely developed in psychiatry. Firstly, it would be necessary to set up such integrated treatments through the systematisation of an "addictology" checkup on admission, a global assessment of addictive behaviour and cognitive disorders, using pragmatic tools that are user-friendly for the care teams, maintain the reduction in risk taking, and apply prescriptions for addiction to psychotropic treatments, in liaison with the referring general practitioner. As early as possible, accompanied by specific training in addictology for the psychiatrists and the mental health nursing teams, such care could be enhanced by the development of liaison and advanced psychiatric

  19. [Method for grading industrial sectors in energy consumption and its application].

    PubMed

    Mao, Jian-Su; Ma, Lan

    2013-04-01

    Energy is mainly consumed by the urban industry system, thus grading industrial sectors for their energy consumption may help to identify the concerned industrial sectors and provide necessary information for industrial energy management in China's industrialization and urbanization. In present article, based on a review of the fundamental relationships between energy consumption and industrial sectors, the contribution rates and energy efficiency of industrial sectors are chosen as typical parameters for energy consumption. The concept of distance index of industrial sectors for energy consumption is defined through China's average level as a reference base. The grade of industrial sectors in energy consumption is classed into 9 types from extreme advantage to extreme disadvantage according to the scope of distance index values, and the types of industrial sectors that need to be more concerned are pointed out. Taking Chongqing as a case study, the application for grading industrial sectors for their energy consumption was exhibited, by which, the main industrial sectors are grated and the industrial sectors that should be special concerned in energy management are determined.

  20. Development and application of rapid assessment diet and physical activity indexes, which suggest high consumption of energy-dense foods and inadequate exercise among adolescents from 6 Latin American cities: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    McArthur, Laura H; Holbert, Donald; Peña, Manuel

    2008-09-01

    This study describes the development and application of a rapid assessment diet quality index (RADQI) and a rapid assessment physical activity index (RAPAI) to characterize the energy intake and expenditure patterns of 1279 Latin American adolescents. Secondary aims were to describe the strength of the relationships of energy intakes and expenditures with sex, socioeconomic status, body mass index, and city of residence and to identify the students' reasons for undertaking physical activity and the types of activities they most enjoyed. Participants were eighth and ninth grade students from Buenos Aires, Argentina; Guatemala City, Guatemala; Havana, Cuba; Lima, Peru; Panama City, Panama; and Santiago, Chile. The RADQI and RAPAI scores were rescaled to T scores with a mean of 50 points (+/-10) for comparison. The RADQI scores ranged from 53.0 points (+/-10.5) in Panama City to 44.7 points (+/-8.3) in Santiago, and RAPAI scores ranged from 54.8 points (+/-9.2) in Panama City to 46.2 points (+/-8.6) in Santiago. The correlation between RADQI and RAPAI scores for the combined data set was weak but positive. The 2 reasons most often given for undertaking physical activity were to improve their physical health and to improve their psychological well-being, whereas the types of physical activities most enjoyed involved competitive sports. Results suggest frequent intakes of energy-dense diets and inadequate physical activity participation, prompting a need for learning opportunities targeted at adolescents and their families that teach healthy food choices and encourage greater physical activity participation.

  1. Reducing Operating Costs and Energy Consumption at Water Utilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Due to their unique combination of high energy usage and potential for significant savings, utilities are turning to energy-efficient technologies to help save money. Learn about cost and energy saving technologies from this brochure.

  2. Operational energy performance assessment system of municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lingbo; Zeng, Siyu; Chen, Jining; He, Miao; Yang, Wan

    2010-01-01

    Based on the statistical analysis of operational energy consumption and its influential factors from data of 599 Chinese WWTPs in 2006, it is noticed that the most influential factors include treatment technology adopted, treated sewage amount, removed pollutants amount, etc. Using the conclusion above, this paper sets up an integrated system of operational energy performance assessment for municipal wastewater treatment plants. Combining with result from on-spot research and model simulation, the calculating method of benchmark value and score of 7 energy efficiency indicators grouped into 3 levels is stated. Applying the assessment system to three plants, its applicability and objectivity are proved and suggestions to improve energy performance are provided.

  3. 76 FR 72872 - Rule Concerning Disclosures Regarding Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... CFR Part 305 Rule Concerning Disclosures Regarding Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances and Other Products Required Under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (``Appliance Labeling... Rule, issued pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA),\\1\\ requires energy labeling...

  4. Power to the Plug: An Introduction to Energy, Electricity, Consumption and Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    DOE / EERE / NEED Project

    2011-06-07

    The NEED Project and the U.S. Department of Energy have collaborated to bring you this educational four-page guide to energy, electricity, consumption and efficiency. It includes, on the last page, a home energy survey to help you analyze your home energy use.

  5. Energy Consumption in Schools and Homes. Technical Report No. 2 of a Study of School Calendars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Research.

    In this, the second in a series of reports, a study of school and home energy consumption in New York was undertaken to determine if schools would save energy by closing for an extended period during cold weather; if more energy is used in homes when schools are closed than when schools are in session; and, if energy savings by schools during a…

  6. Analysis of U.S. household wood energy consumption: 1967-2009

    Treesearch

    Nianfu. Song; Francisco X. Aguilar; Stephen R. Shifley; Michael E. Goerndt

    2012-01-01

    The residential sector consumes about 23% of the energy derived from wood (wood energy) in the U.S. An estimated error correction model with data from 1967 to 2009 suggests that residential wood energy consumption has declined by an average 3% per year in response to technological progress, urbanization, accessibility of non-wood energy, and other factors associated...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix U to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption... Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fans 1. Scope... significant digits as the previous step. Round the final energy consumption value to the nearest whole number...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption... Appendix Q to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent... reference; see § 430.3). The test for measuring standby mode energy consumption of fluorescent lamp ballasts...

  9. Energy drink consumption is associated with unhealthy dietary behaviours among college youth.

    PubMed

    Poulos, Natalie S; Pasch, Keryn E

    2015-11-01

    Energy drink consumption has been associated with a variety of health risk behaviours, yet little research has explored the relationship between energy drinks and dietary behaviours of emerging adults. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between energy drink consumption and dietary behaviours among energy drink users and non-users within a sample of college youth. College freshmen (n = 585, m age = 18.7 years; 47% non-Hispanic White, 20.9% Hispanic, 25.5% Asian, 2.7% non-Hispanic Black and 4.4% other; 56% female), at a large, southwest university self-reported their energy drink consumption in the past week and a variety of dietary behaviours, including past week soda, diet soda, pre-packaged salty snacks, pre-packaged sweet snacks, fast food, restaurant food, frozen food, fruits, vegetables, milk and breakfast consumption. Linear regression analyses were run to determine associations between energy drink consumption and dietary behaviour among users and non-users of energy drinks. Analyses controlled for gender, race/ethnicity and body mass index (BMI). Overall, 17.5% of students had consumed energy drinks in the past week. Energy drink users were more likely to be male, White and have a greater BMI. Students also reported low past week intake of fruits, vegetables, milk and breakfast. Past week energy drink consumption was associated with increased soda and frozen meal consumption. Given a rapidly expanding energy drink market, future dietary interventions among college youth may want to consider the implications of energy drinks, as results of this study suggest consumption of these beverages is associated with unhealthy dietary behaviours and a greater BMI. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.

  10. Assessment of Triton Potential Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friar, J. L.; Payne, G. L.

    1995-12-01

    An assessment is made of the dominant features contributing to the triton potential energy, with the objective of understanding qualitatively their origins and sensitivities. Relativistic effects, short-range repulsion, and OPEP dominance are discussed. A determination of the importance of various regions of nucleon-nucleon separation is made numerically.

  11. Power-law relationships for estimating mass, fuel consumption and costs of energy conversion equipments.

    PubMed

    Caduff, Marloes; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Althaus, Hans-Joerg; Hendriks, A Jan

    2011-01-15

    To perform life-cycle assessment studies, data on the production and use of the products is required. However, often only few data or measurements are available. Estimation of properties can be performed by applying scaling relationships. In many disciplines, they are used to either predict data or to search for underlying patterns, but they have not been considered in the context of product assessments hitherto. The goal of this study was to explore size scaling for commonly used energy conversion equipment, that is, boilers, engines, and generators. The variables mass M, fuel consumption Q, and costs C were related to power P. The established power-law relationships were M = 10(0.73.. 1.89)P(0.64.. 1.23) (R(2) ≥ 0.94), Q = 10(0.06.. 0.68)P(0.82.. 1.02) (R(2) ≥ 0.98) and C = 10(2.46.. 2.86)P(0.83.. 0.85) (R(2) ≥ 0.83). Mass versus power and costs versus power showed that none of the equipment types scaled isometrically, that is, with a slope of 1. Fuel consumption versus power scaled approximately isometrically for steam boilers, the other equipments scaled significantly lower than 1. This nonlinear scaling behavior induces a significant size effect. The power laws we established can be applied to scale the mass, fuel consumption and costs of energy conversion equipments up or down. Our findings suggest that empirical scaling laws can be used to estimate properties, particularly relevant in studies focusing on early product development for which generally only little information is available.

  12. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Natural Gas Consumption and Prices

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The natural gas consumption and price modules of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model are designed to provide consumption and end-use retail price forecasts for the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors in the nine Census districts and natural gas working inventories in three regions. Natural gas consumption shares and prices in each Census district are used to calculate an average U.S. retail price for each end-use sector.

  13. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Natural Gas Consumption and Prices

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The natural gas consumption and price modules of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model are designed to provide consumption and end-use retail price forecasts for the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors in the nine Census districts and natural gas working inventories in three regions. Natural gas consumption shares and prices in each Census district are used to calculate an average U.S. retail price for each end-use sector.

  14. A new procedure to analyze the effect of air changes in building energy consumption

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Today, the International Energy Agency is working under good practice guides that integrate appropriate and cost effective technologies. In this paper a new procedure to define building energy consumption in accordance with the ISO 13790 standard was performed and tested based on real data from a Spanish region. Results Results showed that the effect of air changes on building energy consumption can be defined using the Weibull peak function model. Furthermore, the effect of climate change on building energy consumption under several different air changes was nearly nil during the summer season. Conclusions The procedure obtained could be the much sought-after solution to the problem stated by researchers in the past and future research works relating to this new methodology could help us define the optimal improvement in real buildings to reduce energy consumption, and its related carbon dioxide emissions, at minimal economical cost. PMID:24456655

  15. [Characteristics and influence factors of the energy consumption and pollutant discharge of municipal solid waste transfer stations in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao; Li, Zhen-Shan; Feng, Ya-Bin; Jiao, An-Ying; Xue, An

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we investigated characteristics and influence factors of energy consumption and pollutant discharge (ECPD) of municipal solid waste transfer stations (MSW TSs) in Beijing by assessing four parameters including the amount of waste recycled, leachate production, water consumption and electricity consumption, based on three years' average data of MSW TSs in Beijing obtained through field investigations from 2009 to 2011. Meanwhile, integral performances of the stations with and without garbage sorting capacities (Sorting TS and Compressing TS) were also analyzed. Results showed that MSW TSs in Beijing differ greatly. For each ton of MSW, masses of waste recycled, leachate productions, water consumptions and electricity consumptions generally fall in the ranges of 12.9 kg x t(-1), 5.8-49.0 kg x t(-1), 40. 3-156.7 kg x t(-1) and 1.75-5.60 kWh x t(-1), respectively. Despite overall the higher energy consumption and more pollutant discharge than Compressing TS, Sorting TS could achieve waste reduction and reuse by recycling part of the municipal solid wastes, as well as the optimization of process by sorting wastes into different ingredients for corresponding waste disposal plants, which could reduce heavy burdens of landfills and extend their lifespans.

  16. A comparative evaluation of dietary indicators used in food consumption assessments of at-risk populations.

    PubMed

    Rose, Donald; Chotard, Sophie; Oliveira, Leila; Mock, Nancy; Libombo, Marcella

    2008-06-01

    Easy-to-collect dietary indicators have been used increasingly for planning and evaluation of food security interventions. Various indicators have been employed, but rarely has a full set of indicators been compared using a common framework. This paper evaluates the performance of five dietary indicators for the assessment of household energy consumption using a common framework and recent data from Mozambique. Data were analyzed from a 2004 household survey, Current Vulnerability Analysis in Seven Provinces of Mozambique. Households (n = 4,358) were sampled from 42 rural districts using a two-stage design, and a quantitative 24-hour dietary recall was employed. Household energy intake ratios were calculated as the food energy consumed by household members divided by the sum of the members' recommended intakes. Five proxy indicators of household consumption in the previous day were developed: the number of meals, the number of food groups, the number of food items, a score based on a simple weighting of food groups consumed, and a predicted energy intake ratio based on weighting of food groups consumed with previously estimated regression coefficients. The performance of these indicators was assessed using correlations with energy intake, receiver operator characteristic analysis, efficiency of predictions, and prevalence estimate comparisons. Although the predicted energy intake ratio performed best on all these performance criteria, and the simple food-group-weighted score performed second best, differences among the indicators on many of the criteria were relatively small. New assessment systems could take full advantage of easy-to-collect information by using one of these best-scoring indicators, although established systems could continue to use some of the other indicators explored here, such as the food item count, without much loss in accuracy.

  17. Lower energy intake following consumption of Hi-oleic and regular peanuts compared with iso-energetic consumption of potato crisps.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Jayne A; Howe, Peter R C; Buckley, Jonathan D; Wright, Graeme C; Bryan, Janet; Coates, Alison M

    2014-11-01

    Snack foods can contribute a high proportion of energy intake to the diet. Peanuts are a snack food rich in unsaturated fatty acids, protein and fibre which have demonstrated satiety effects and may reduce total energy intake, despite their high energy density. This study examined the effects of consuming Hi-oleic (oleic acid ~75% of total fatty acids) peanuts and regular peanuts (oleic acid ~50% and higher in polyunsaturated fatty acids) compared with a high carbohydrate snack (potato crisps) on satiety and subsequent energy intake. Using a triple crossover study design, 24 participants (61 ± 1 years) consumed iso-energetic amounts (56-84 g) of Hi-oleic or regular peanuts or (60-90 g) potato crisps after an overnight fast. Hunger and satiety were assessed at baseline, 30, 60, 120 and 180 minutes following snack consumption using visual analogue scales, after which a cold buffet meal was freely consumed and energy intake measured. The same snack was consumed on 3 subsequent days with energy intake assessed from dietary records. This protocol was repeated weekly with each snack food. Total energy intake was lower following consumption of Hi-oleic and regular peanuts compared with crisps, both acutely during the buffet meal (-21%; p<.001 and -17%; p< .01) and over the 4 days (-11%; p< .001 and -9%; p< .01). Despite these reductions in energy intake, no differences in perceived satiety were observed. The findings suggest peanuts may be a preferred snack food to include in the diet for maintaining a healthy weight.

  18. Territorial approach to increased energy consumption of water extraction from depletion of a highlands Mexican aquifer.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Carlos Roberto; Esteller, María Vicenta; Díaz-Delgado, Carlos

    2013-10-15

    This work proposes a method to estimate increased energy consumption of pumping caused by a drawdown of groundwater level and the equivalent energy consumption of the motor-pump system in an aquifer under intensive exploitation. This method has been applied to the Valley of Toluca aquifer, located in the Mexican highlands, whose intensive exploitation is reflected in a decline in the groundwater level of between 0.10 and 1.6 m/year. Results provide a summary of energy consumption and a map of energy consumption isopleths showing the areas that are most susceptible to increases in energy consumption due to pumping. The proposed method can be used to estimate the effect of the intensive exploitation of the Valley of Toluca aquifer on the energy consumption of groundwater extraction. Finding reveals that, for the year 2006, groundwater extraction in the urban zone required 2.39 times more energy than the conditions observed 38 years earlier. In monetary terms, this reflects an increase of USD$ 3 million annually, according to 2005 energy production costs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Energy consumption and expenditure projections by population group on the basis of the annual energy outlook 1999 forecast

    SciTech Connect

    Poyer, D.A.; Balsley, J.H.

    2000-01-07

    This report presents an analysis of the relative impact of the base-case scenario used in Annual Energy Outlook 1999 on different population groups. Projections of energy consumption and expenditures, as well as energy expenditure as a share of income, from 1996 to 2020 are given. The projected consumption of electricty, natural gas, distillate fuel, and liquefied petroleum gas during this period is also reported for each population group. In addition, this report compares the findings of the Annual Energy Outlook 1999 report with the 1998 report. Changes in certain indicators and information affect energy use forecasts, and these effects are analyzed and discussed.

  20. Validated Predictions of Metabolic Energy Consumption for Submaximal Effort Movement

    PubMed Central

    Tsianos, George A.; MacFadden, Lisa N.

    2016-01-01

    Physical performance emerges from complex interactions among many physiological systems that are largely driven by the metabolic energy demanded. Quantifying metabolic demand is an essential step for revealing the many mechanisms of physical performance decrement, but accurate predictive models do not exist. The goal of this study was to investigate if a recently developed model of muscle energetics and force could be extended to reproduce the kinematics, kinetics, and metabolic demand of submaximal effort movement. Upright dynamic knee extension against various levels of ergometer load was simulated. Task energetics were estimated by combining the model of muscle contraction with validated models of lower limb musculotendon paths and segment dynamics. A genetic algorithm was used to compute the muscle excitations that reproduced the movement with the lowest energetic cost, which was determined to be an appropriate criterion for this task. Model predictions of oxygen uptake rate (VO2) were well within experimental variability for the range over which the model parameters were confidently known. The model's accurate estimates of metabolic demand make it useful for assessing the likelihood and severity of physical performance decrement for a given task as well as investigating underlying physiologic mechanisms. PMID:27248429

  1. Is more always better? The nonlinear relationship between energy consumption and wellbeing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan Winfrey, Elise Marie

    Policymakers today face rapidly expanding world populations, increasing evidence of environmental degradation and climate change, and mounting economic crises. In this context, they are grappling with the challenge of balancing environmental concerns, economic viability, and the wellbeing of their citizens. Because energy consumption has both positive and negative wellbeing implications, it is unclear whether societal goals to raise standards of living through energy-intensive lifestyles conflict with the social, economic, environmental, and health dimensions of broader wellbeing aspirations. Though there has been a significant amount of research on the long-run environmental consequences of increasing aggregate world energy demand, there is a lack of direct evidence on the relationship between energy consumption and wellbeing. This paper attempts to improve our understanding of the net wellbeing consequences of energy consumption. Specifically, it examines whether there is a nonlinear relationship between per capita energy consumption, as measured alternatively by CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita), electricity consumption (kWh per capita), and total energy consumption (kg of oil equivalent per capita), and wellbeing, as measured by individual life satisfaction aggregated at the country level. Panel and cross-sectional regression analyses are conducted using data from the Gallup World Poll (GWP), integrated European and World Values Surveys (WVS-EVS), and the World Bank DataBank (WBDB). Despite the classic economic assumption that more is always better, this analysis indicates that increasing energy consumption is not always associated with wellbeing improvements. The empirical results provide some suggestive evidence that life satisfaction gains associated with energy consumption may eventually be counterbalanced by the related human and environmental costs. This is valuable information for policymakers trying to balance environmental, energy-security, and

  2. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Other Petroleum Products Consumption Model

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    The other petroleum product consumption module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide U.S. consumption forecasts for 6 petroleum product categories: asphalt and road oil, petrochemical feedstocks, petroleum coke, refinery still gas, unfinished oils, and other miscvellaneous products

  3. The spatial distribution of remote sensed SO2 in China and its relationship with energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chao; Wang, Yunpeng; Li, Lili; Liu, Yihong

    2017-07-01

    The spatial distribution of SO2 in China was analyzed using OMI-Level3 SO2 PBL (planetary boundary layer) column concentration data of 2013. At the same time, the total value of energy consumption per unit area and coal energy consumption per unit area were analyzed and compared with SO2 distribution. Results show that SO2 distribute unevenly in whole China, and even at the provincial level, SO2 concentration difference was obvious. The spatial distribution of SO2 in China displays characteristics of two highest plates as the center, sub-high regions radiate from center, as well as “The east higher than the west, and the north higher than the south”. Energy consumption per unit area and coal consumption per unit area also distribute unevenly, and the two distributions have similar characteristics but different details. The higher similar spatial distributions of SO2 and energy consumption (especially coal consumption) imply the firm connection of SO2 pollution and coal consumption. SO2 pollution in China remains acute, and the control on coal consumption remains important and emergent in recent years.

  4. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Other Petroleum Products Consumption Model

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    The other petroleum product consumption module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide U.S. consumption forecasts for 6 petroleum product categories: asphalt and road oil, petrochemical feedstocks, petroleum coke, refinery still gas, unfinished oils, and other miscvellaneous products

  5. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other nonalcoholic beverages, and consequences for overall alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Verster, Joris C; Benson, Sarah; Scholey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this survey was to assess the motives for energy drink consumption, both alone and mixed with alcohol, and to determine whether negative or neutral motives for consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) have a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption. Methods Demographics, alcohol and energy drink consumption-related questions, and motives for the consumption of energy drinks (alone or mixed with alcohol) were assessed. The motives to mix alcohol with energy drinks were compared with those for mixing alcohol with other nonalcoholic beverages. Results A total of 2,329 students who completed the study consumed energy drinks. The motives for consuming energy drinks (without alcohol) included “I like the taste” (58.6%), “To keep me awake” (54.3%), “It gives me energy” (44.3%), “It helps concentrating when studying” (33.9%), “It increases alertness” (28.8%), “It helps me concentrate better” (20.6%), and “It makes me less sleepy when driving” (14.2%). A total of 1,239 students reported occasionally consuming AMED (AMED group). The most frequent motives included “I like the taste” (81.1%), “I wanted to drink something else” (35.3%), and “To celebrate a special occasion” (14.6%). No relevant differences in motives were observed for using an energy drink or another nonalcoholic beverage as a mixer. A minority of students (21.6%) reported at least one negative motive to consume AMED. Despite these negative motives, students reported consuming significantly less alcohol on occasions when they consumed AMED compared to alcohol-only occasions. Conclusion The majority of students who consume energy drinks (without alcohol) do so because they like the taste, or they consume these drinks to keep them awake and give them energy. AMED consumption is more frequently motivated by neutral as opposed to negative motives. No relevant differences in drinking motives and overall alcohol consumption were

  6. Characteristics of US Health Care Providers Who Counsel Adolescents on Sports and Energy Drink Consumption.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Nan; Wethington, Holly; Onufrak, Stephen; Belay, Brook

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To examine the proportion of health care providers who counsel adolescent patients on sports and energy drink (SED) consumption and the association with provider characteristics. Methods. This is a cross-sectional analysis of a survey of providers who see patients ≤17 years old. The proportion providing regular counseling on sports drinks (SDs), energy drinks (EDs), or both was assessed. Chi-square analyses examined differences in counseling based on provider characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression calculated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for characteristics independently associated with SED counseling. Results. Overall, 34% of health care providers regularly counseled on both SEDs, with 41% regularly counseling on SDs and 55% regularly counseling on EDs. On adjusted modeling regular SED counseling was associated with the female sex (aOR: 1.44 [95% CI: 1.07-1.93]), high fruit/vegetable intake (aOR: 2.05 [95% CI: 1.54-2.73]), family/general practitioners (aOR: 0.58 [95% CI: 0.41-0.82]) and internists (aOR: 0.37 [95% CI: 0.20-0.70]) versus pediatricians, and group versus individual practices (aOR: 0.59 [95% CI: 0.42-0.84]). Modeling for SD- and ED-specific counseling found similar associations with provider characteristics. Conclusion. The prevalence of regular SED counseling is low overall and varies. Provider education on the significance of SED counseling and consumption is important.

  7. A Model for Education: Energy-Water Consumption Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bontrager, Ralph L.; Hubbard, Charles W.

    Public schools are in a position to convince society-at-large of the national energy problem. There is a direct relationship between energy costs to the schools and the type of educational programs they can provide. While waiting for a national energy policy with a section devoted to schools, districts can calculate the amount and cost of energy…

  8. Mechanical work and energy consumption in children with cerebral palsy after single-event multilevel surgery.

    PubMed

    Marconi, Valeria; Hachez, Hélèn; Renders, Anne; Docquier, Pierre-Louis; Detrembleur, Chrisitine

    2014-09-01

    Multilevel surgery is commonly performed to improve walking in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Classical gait analysis (kinetics, kinematics) demonstrated positive outcomes after this intervention, however it doesn't give global indication about gait's features. The assessment of energy cost and mechanical work of locomotion can provide an overall description of walking functionality. Therefore, we propose to describe the effects of multilevel surgery in children with CP, considering energetics, mechanical work, kinetic and kinematic of walking. We measured external, internal, total work, energy cost, recovery, efficiency, kinetic and kinematic of walking in 10 children with CP (4 girls, 6 boys; 13 years ± 2) before and 1 year after multilevel surgery. Kinetic and kinematic results are partially comparable to previous findings, energy cost of walking is significantly reduced (p < 0.05); external, internal, total work, recovery, efficiency are not significantly different (p = 0.129; p = 0.147; p = 0.795; p = 0.119; p = 0.21). The improvement of the walking's energy consumption is not accompanied by a corresponding improvement of mechanical work. Therefore it is conceivable that the improvement of walking economy depend on a reduced effort of the muscle to maintain the posture, rather then to an improvement of the mechanism of energy recovery typical of human locomotion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. 10 CFR Appendix X to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Dehumidifiers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Dehumidifiers X Appendix X to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Appendix X to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of...

  10. An analysis of household energy use by racial/ethnic composition: Consumption, efficiency, and lifestyles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, Carlos

    The goal of this dissertation is to provide the most recent household energy consumption analysis by racial/ethnic household composition. This dissertation found that significant differences in behavior, energy consumption, and energy efficiency exist by racial/ethnic household composition. The models suggest that behavioral energy intensity is lower among households led by racial/ethnic minorities. Energy consumption and efficiency models suggest that Hispanic households consume less energy and are more efficient, while Black households consume more energy and are less efficient, than White households. However, when stratifying the models by housing vintage, the differences between Hispanic and White households are not consistent. Differences between Black and White households are evident only among those in housing units built before 1980, indicating that Black households in older vintages live in less efficient housing units and could be at a disadvantage that could result in having to pay a higher share of household income on energy use. Results also point towards evidence that energy efficiency standards since the late 1970s could have actually mitigated potential inequality associated with excess energy use by race/ethnicity. Improving energy efficiency of housing units may be beneficial not only to reduce total energy consumption levels, but also have the potential to lessen the burden of energy costs that lower income households (irrespective of race/ethnicity) might experience otherwise.

  11. The associations between emotional eating and consumption of energy-dense snack foods are modified by sex and depressive symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Géraldine M; Méjean, Caroline; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Andreeva, Valentina A; Bellisle, France; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, emotional eating (EmE) has incited substantial research interest as an important psychologic determinant of food intake and overweight. However, little is known about factors that might modulate its relations with dietary habits. The objective of this study was to examine the association between EmE and consumption of energy-dense snack food and assess the 2-way interaction of EmE with sex and depressive symptoms. A total of 7378 men and 22,862 women from the NutriNet-Santé cohort (France, 2009-2013) who completed ≥6 self-reported 24-h food records were included in this cross-sectional analysis. EmE was evaluated via the revised 21-item Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The associations between EmE and energy-dense food consumption were assessed by multivariable logistic and linear regression models adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Higher EmE was associated with higher consumption of energy-dense snacks and, in particular, with consumption of sweet-and-fatty foods across most categories studied. However, these associations were stronger in women with depressive symptoms (e.g., high consumption of chocolate, OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.43, 2.20; cakes/biscuits/pastries, OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.45, 2.26) compared with those without depressive symptoms (e.g., high consumption of chocolate, OR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.36, 1.69; cakes/biscuits/pastries, OR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.29, 1.61). In contrast, the significant positive associations observed in men without depressive symptoms (e.g., high consumption of chocolate, OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.16, 1.52; cakes/biscuits/pastries, OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.48) were not found in men with depressive symptoms. In conclusion, in women, EmE was positively associated with consumption of energy-dense snack food, particularly in those with depressive symptoms. For men, the relation between EmE and energy-dense snack foods was

  12. Caffeine consumption around an exercise bout: effects on energy expenditure, energy intake, and exercise enjoyment.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Matthew M; Hall, Susan; Leveritt, Michael; Grant, Gary; Sabapathy, Surendran; Desbrow, Ben

    2014-10-01

    Combining an exercise and nutritional intervention is arguably the optimal method of creating energy imbalance for weight loss. This study sought to determine whether combining exercise and caffeine supplementation was more effective for promoting acute energy deficits and manipulations to substrate metabolism than exercise alone. Fourteen recreationally active participants (mean ± SD body mass index: 22.7 ± 2.6 kg/m2) completed a resting control trial (CON), a placebo exercise trial (EX), and a caffeine exercise trial (EX+CAF, 2 × 3 mg/kg of caffeine 90 min before and 30 min after exercise) in a randomized, double-blinded design. Trials were 4 h in duration with 1 h of rest, 1 h of cycling at ∼65% power at maximum O2 consumption or rest, and a 2-h recovery. Gas exchange, appetite perceptions, and blood samples were obtained periodically. Two hours after exercise, participants were offered an ad libitum test meal where energy and macronutrient intake were recorded. EX+CAF resulted in significantly greater energy expenditure and fat oxidation compared with EX (+250 kJ; +10.4 g) and CON (+3,126 kJ; +29.7 g) (P < 0.05). A trend for reduced energy and fat intake compared with CON (-718 kJ; -8 g) (P = 0.055) was observed. Consequently, EX+CAF created a greater energy deficit (P < 0.05). Caffeine also led to exercise being perceived as less difficult and more enjoyable (P < 0.05). Combining caffeine with exercise creates a greater acute energy deficit, and the implications of this protocol for weight loss or maintenance over longer periods of time in overweight/obese populations should be further investigated. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Data Center Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Site Assessment: Anderson Readiness Center; Salem, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, I.; Van Geet, O.

    2014-06-01

    This report summarizes the results from the data center energy efficiency and renewable energy site assessment conducted for the Oregon Army National Guard in Salem, Oregon. A team led by NREL conducted the assessment of the Anderson Readiness Center data centers March 18-20, 2014 as part of ongoing efforts to reduce energy use and incorporate renewable energy technologies where feasible. Although the data centers in this facility account for less than 5% of the total square footage, they are estimated to be responsible for 70% of the annual electricity consumption.

  14. Clinical Symptoms and Adverse Effects Associated With Energy Drink Consumption in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Dalia; Reed-Schrader, Essie; Olympia, Robert P; Brady, Jodi; Rivera, Ruby; Serra, Theresa; Weber, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of energy drink consumption by adolescents, to identify associated clinical symptoms and adverse effects, and to gain an understanding to the motivation behind its consumption. A prospective, questionnaire-based study was conducted at 2 emergency departments from June 2011 to June 2013. The questionnaire was distributed to a convenience sample of adolescents aged 12 to 18 years. Stratification was performed on the basis of frequency of consumption: frequent consumption (at least once a month) and infrequent consumption (less frequent than once a month). Data analysis was performed on 612 completed questionnaires. Two hundred two responders (33%) were considered frequent energy drink consumers. Frequent consumers were more likely to be involved in high-risk behaviors and more likely to consume other caffeinated drinks. In the previous 6 months, frequent energy drink consumers were more likely to report headache (76%), anger (47%), and increased urination (24%) and were more likely to require medical evaluation for headache (41%) and difficulty breathing (22%). Frequent energy drink consumers were more likely to believe that energy drinks "help me do better in school" (12%), "help me do better in sports" (35%), "are just for fun" (46%), "help me stay up at night" (67%), and "make me concentrate/focus better" (34%). Clarifying common misconceptions associated with energy drink consumption, especially in high-risk adolescents and frequent energy drink consumers, may decrease the frequency of symptoms experienced by adolescents, such as headache and difficulty breathing, requiring medical evaluation.

  15. Embodied energy consumption and carbon emissions evaluation for urban industrial structure optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xi; Chen, Zhanming; Li, Jinkai

    2014-03-01

    Cities are the main material processors associated with industrialization. The development of urban production based on fossil fuels is the major contributor to the rise of greenhouse gas density, and to global warming. The concept of urban industrial structure optimization is considered to be a solution to urban sustainable development and global climate issues. Enforcing energy conservation and reducing carbon emissions are playing key roles in addressing these issues. As such, quantitative accounting and the evaluation of energy consumption and corresponding carbon emissions, which are by-products of urban production, are critical, in order to discover potential opportunities to save energy and to reduce emissions. Conventional evaluation indicators, such as "energy consumption per unit output value" and "emissions per unit output value", are concerned with immediate consumptions and emissions; while the indirect consumptions and emissions that occur throughout the supply chain are ignored. This does not support the optimization of the overall urban industrial system. To present a systematic evaluation framework for cities, this study constructs new evaluation indicators, based on the concepts of "embodied energy" and "embodied carbon emissions", which take both the immediate and indirect effects of energy consumption and emissions into account. Taking Beijing as a case, conventional evaluation indicators are compared with the newly constructed ones. Results show that the energy consumption and emissions of urban industries are represented better by the new indicators than by conventional indicators, and provide useful information for urban industrial structure optimization.

  16. Dairy Consumption and Insulin Resistance: The Role of Body Fat, Physical Activity, and Energy Intake

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Larry A.; Erickson, Andrea; LeCheminant, James D.; Bailey, Bruce W.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between dairy consumption and insulin resistance was ascertained in 272 middle-aged, nondiabetic women using a cross-sectional design. Participants kept 7-day, weighed food records to report their diets, including dairy intake. Insulin resistance was assessed using the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA). The Bod Pod was used to measure body fat percentage, and accelerometry for 7 days was used to objectively index physical activity. Regression analysis was used to determine the extent to which mean HOMA levels differed across low, moderate, and high dairy intake categories. Results showed that women in the highest quartile of dairy consumption had significantly greater log-transformed HOMA values (0.41 ± 0.53) than those in the middle-two quartiles (0.22 ± 0.55) or the lowest quartile (0.19 ± 0.58) (F = 6.90, P = 0.0091). The association remained significant after controlling for each potential confounder individually and all covariates simultaneously. Adjusting for differences in energy intake weakened the relationship most, but the association remained significant. Of the 11 potential confounders, only protein intake differed significantly across the dairy categories, with those consuming high dairy also consuming more total protein than their counterparts. Apparently, high dairy intake is a significant predictor of insulin resistance in middle-aged, nondiabetic women. PMID:25710041

  17. The causal link among militarization, economic growth, CO2 emission, and energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Bildirici, Melike E

    2017-02-01

    This paper examines the long-run and the causal relationship among CO2 emissions, militarization, economic growth, and energy consumption for USA for the period 1960-2013. Using the bound test approach to cointegration, a short-run as well as a long-run relationship among the variables with a positive and a statistically significant relationship between CO2 emissions and militarization was found. To determine the causal link, MWALD and Rao's F tests were applied. According to Rao's F tests, the evidence of a unidirectional causality running from militarization to CO2 emissions, from energy consumption to CO2 emissions, and from militarization to energy consumption all without a feedback was found. Further, the results determined that 26% of the forecast-error variance of CO2 emissions was explained by the forecast error variance of militarization and 60% by energy consumption.

  18. Energy and nutrient intakes of Swedish children in relation to consumption of and habits associated with school lunch.

    PubMed

    Persson Osowski, Christine; Becker, Wulf; Enghardt Barbieri, Heléne; Lindroos, Anna Karin

    2017-02-01

    School lunches are provided free in Sweden, although some children choose not to eat school lunch. The aim of this study was to analyse Swedish children's total energy and nutrient intakes on weekdays by the frequency of school lunch consumption and to analyse energy and nutrient intakes from school lunches by sex. Factors associated with children's school lunch habits were also studied. Children in grades 2 and 5 ( n=1905) completed a food diary (school lunch data available for 1840 children) and the mean energy and nutrient intakes per day and per school lunch were calculated. The children also completed questions on the frequency of school lunch consumption and school lunch habits. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with school lunch habits. Children who reported eating school lunch every day had significantly higher energy and absolute nutrient intakes than children reporting eating school lunch less than five times a week, but not standardized for energy. Boys had significantly higher energy and absolute nutrient intakes from school lunches than girls, but not standardized for energy. Younger children and children who liked school lunches had higher odds of eating school lunch every day. Children in grade 5, those with a foreign background and those disliking school lunches had higher odds of omitting the main lunch component. Regular school lunch consumption was associated with a higher total intake for most nutrients, but not a better nutrient density. School lunch habits were associated with age, ethnic background and liking school lunches.

  19. Household energy consumption in the United States, 1987 to 2009: Socioeconomic status, demographic composition, and energy services profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Robert J.

    This dissertation examines household energy consumption in the United States over the period of 1987 to 2009, specifically focusing on the role of socioeconomic status, demographic composition, and energy services profiles. The dissertation makes use of four cross-sections from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey data series to examine how household characteristics influence annual energy consumption overall, and by fuel type. Chapter 4 shows that household income is positively related to energy consumption, but more so for combustible fuel consumption than for electricity consumption. Additionally, results for educational attainment suggest a less cross-sectional association and more longitudinal importance as related to income. Demographic composition matters, as predicted by the literature; household size and householder age show predicted effects, but when considered together, income explains any interaction between age and household size. Combustible fuels showed a far greater relationship to housing unit size and income, whereas electricity consumption was more strongly related to educational attainment, showing important differences in the associations by fuel type. Taken together, these results suggest a life course-based model for understanding energy consumption that may be strongly linked to lifestyles. Chapter 5 extends the findings in Chapter 4 by examining the patterning of physical characteristics and behaviors within households. The chapter uses Latent Class Analysis to examine a broad set of energy significant behaviors and characteristics to discover five unique energy services profiles. These profiles are uniquely patterned across demographic and socioeconomic compositions of households and have important effects on energy consumption. These profiles are likely byproducts of the lifestyles in which the household takes part, due to factors such as their socioeconomic status and household demographic composition. Overall, the dissertation

  20. The effects of temporal perspective on college students' energy drink consumption.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jarim; Anagondahalli, Deepa

    2017-09-01

    Consideration of future consequences (CFC) describes the extent to which individuals consider potential future outcomes of their present behaviors. This personality trait has been found to predict repetitive health behaviors. Research is yet to explore the role of health beliefs, which may mediate the relationship between CFC and self-directed health behaviors. Thus, this study examined how CFC affects energy drink-related health beliefs and consumption behavior. A cross-sectional correlational online survey with 1,050 college students was conducted. Key measures include the CFC Scale, health belief measures, and current energy drink consumption pattern. CFC was associated with energy drink consumption as well as several health beliefs. CFC had indirect effects on energy drink consumption through health beliefs, including perceived severity of consuming energy drinks (indirect effect estimate = -.191, 95% confidence interval [CI] [-.271, -.122]), perceived benefits of avoiding energy drinks (indirect effect estimate = -.108, 95% CI [-.174, -.050]), and perceived barriers in abstaining from energy drinks (energy level-related barriers, indirect effect estimate = -.274, 95% CI [-.387, -.181]; and socialization-related barriers, indirect effect estimate = .152, 95% CI [.078, .249]). As the first study to examine CFC's indirect effects on a self-directed health behavior through health beliefs, this study extended CFC's applicability by examining its role in the context of college students' energy drink consumption. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. 77 FR 234 - Rule Concerning Disclosures Regarding Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... CFR Part 305 RIN 3084-AB03 Rule Concerning Disclosures Regarding Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances and Other Products Required Under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act... industry members ] and consumers determine whether equipment meets applicable new Department of Energy...

  2. Measuring the Efficacy of an Energy and Environmental Awareness Campaign to Effectively Reduce Water Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laura Little

    2010-01-01

    Increased energy costs and a move toward environmental stewardship are driving many organizations, including universities, to engage in awareness efforts to reduce both energy consumption and their carbon footprint. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether organizational programs aimed at energy and environmental awareness have a…

  3. Measuring the Efficacy of an Energy and Environmental Awareness Campaign to Effectively Reduce Water Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laura Little

    2010-01-01

    Increased energy costs and a move toward environmental stewardship are driving many organizations, including universities, to engage in awareness efforts to reduce both energy consumption and their carbon footprint. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether organizational programs aimed at energy and environmental awareness have a…

  4. Evaluation on Thermal Environment and Energy Consumption of a Demonstration Building in Ningqiang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen; Ma, Jinghui

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to clarify the thermal performance and environment of a demonstration building in Ningqiang, China, utilizing building indoor temperature and energy consumption simulation program EnergyPlus. Compared with the existing building model, the energy saving rate of the demonstration building model is 42.42%, 6.92% higher than that of benchmark model, based on simulation analyses.

  5. 10 CFR 431.64 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of commercial refrigerators...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption of commercial refrigerators, freezers, and refrigerator-freezers. 431.64 Section 431.64 Energy... method for the measurement of energy consumption of commercial refrigerators, freezers, and refrigerator... energy consumption in kilowatt hours per day (kWh/day) for a given product category and volume or total...

  6. Energy compensation following consumption of sugar-reduced products: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Markey, Oonagh; Le Jeune, Julia; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2016-09-01

    Consumption of sugar-reformulated products (commercially available foods and beverages that have been reduced in sugar content through reformulation) is a potential strategy for lowering sugar intake at a population level. The impact of sugar-reformulated products on body weight, energy balance (EB) dynamics and cardiovascular disease risk indicators has yet to be established. The REFORMulated foods (REFORM) study examined the impact of an 8-week sugar-reformulated product exchange on body weight, EB dynamics, blood pressure, arterial stiffness, glycemia and lipemia. A randomized, controlled, double-blind, crossover dietary intervention study was performed with fifty healthy normal to overweight men and women (age 32.0 ± 9.8 year, BMI 23.5 ± 3.0 kg/m(2)) who were randomly assigned to consume either regular sugar or sugar-reduced foods and beverages for 8 weeks, separated by 4-week washout period. Body weight, energy intake (EI), energy expenditure and vascular markers were assessed at baseline and after both interventions. We found that carbohydrate (P < 0.001), total sugars (P < 0.001) and non-milk extrinsic sugars (P < 0.001) (% EI) were lower, whereas fat (P = 0.001) and protein (P = 0.038) intakes (% EI) were higher on the sugar-reduced than the regular diet. No effects on body weight, blood pressure, arterial stiffness, fasting glycemia or lipemia were observed. Consumption of sugar-reduced products, as part of a blinded dietary exchange for an 8-week period, resulted in a significant reduction in sugar intake. Body weight did not change significantly, which we propose was due to energy compensation.

  7. Development of Scales to Assess Homeownership Consumption and Investment Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Jeanette A.; Olson, Geraldine I.

    1986-01-01

    A method to measure homeowners' housing consumption and investment attitudes was developed. Dimensions in the consumption scale were space, tenure, structure, quality, and neighborhood. The investment scale included tax benefits, equity, rate of return, leverage, and risk. Personal variables were hypothesized to have an effect on overall…

  8. Alcoa Teams with DOE to Reduce Energy Consumption

    SciTech Connect

    2004-05-01

    This is the first in a series of DOE Industrial Technologies Program case studies on corporate energy management. The case study highlights Alcoa Aluminum's successful results and activities through its corporate energy management approach and collaboration with DOE. Case studies in this series will be used to encourage other energy-intensive industrial plants to adopt a corporate strategy, and to promote the concept of replicating results with a company or industry.

  9. Modeling energy consumption in membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment in north Africa.

    PubMed

    Skouterisl, George; Arnot, Tom C; Jraou, Mouna; Feki, Firas; Sayadi, Sami

    2014-03-01

    Two pilot-scale membrane bioreactors were operated alongside a full-sized activated sludge plant in Tunisia in order to compare specific energy demand and treated water quality. Energy consumption rates were measured for the complete membrane bioreactor systems and for their different components. Specific energy demand was measured for the systems and compared with the activated sludge plant, which operated at around 3 kWh m(-3). A model was developed for each membrane bioreactor based on both dynamic and steady-state mass balances, microbial kinetics and stoichiometry, and energy balance. Energy consumption was evaluated as a function of mixed-liquor suspended solids concentration, net permeate fluxes, and the resultant treated water quality. This work demonstrates the potential for using membrane bioreactors in decentralised domestic water treatment in North Africa, at energy consumption levels similar or lower than conventional activated sludge systems, with the added benefit of producing treated water suitable for unrestricted crop irrigation.

  10. Evaluation of energy consumption during aerobic sewage sludge treatment in dairy wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowski, Wojciech; Żyłka, Radosław; Malinowski, Paweł

    2017-02-01

    The subject of the research conducted in an operating dairy wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was to examine electric energy consumption during sewage sludge treatment. The excess sewage sludge was aerobically stabilized and dewatered with a screw press. Organic matter varied from 48% to 56% in sludge after stabilization and dewatering. It proves that sludge was properly stabilized and it was possible to apply it as a fertilizer. Measurement factors for electric energy consumption for mechanically dewatered sewage sludge were determined, which ranged between 0.94 and 1.5 kWhm(-3) with the average value at 1.17 kWhm(-3). The shares of devices used for sludge dewatering and aerobic stabilization in the total energy consumption of the plant were also established, which were 3% and 25% respectively. A model of energy consumption during sewage sludge treatment was estimated according to experimental data. Two models were applied: linear regression for dewatering process and segmented linear regression for aerobic stabilization. The segmented linear regression model was also applied to total energy consumption during sewage sludge treatment in the examined dairy WWTP. The research constitutes an introduction for further studies on defining a mathematical model used to optimize electric energy consumption by dairy WWTPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Compilation and application of Japanese inventories for energy consumption and air pollutant emissions using input-output tables.

    PubMed

    Nansai, Keisuke; Moriguchi, Yuichi; Tohno, Susumu

    2003-05-01

    Preparing emission inventories is essential to the assessment and management of our environment. In this study, Japanese air pollutant emissions, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions categorized by approximately 400 sectors (as classified by Japanese input-output tables in 1995) were estimated, and the contributions of each sector to the total amounts were analyzed. The air pollutants examined were nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), and suspended particulate matter (SPM). Consumptions of about 20 fossil fuels and five other fuels were estimated according to sector. Air pollutant emission factors for stationary sources were calculated from the results of a survey on air pollution prevention in Japan. Pollutant emissions from mobile sources were estimated taking into consideration vehicle types, traveling speeds, and distances. This work also counted energy supply and emissions from seven nonfossil fuel sources, including nonthermal electric power, and CO2 emissions from limestone (for example, during cement production). The total energy consumption in 1995 was concluded to be 18.3 EJ, and the annual total emissions of CO2, NOx, SOx, and SPM were, respectively, 343 Mt-C, 3.51 Mt, 1.87 Mt, and 0.32 Mt. An input-output analysis of the emission inventories was used to calculate the amounts of energy consumption and emissions induced in each sector by the economic final demand.

  12. An investigation of cointegration and causality between energy consumption and economic growth

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, B.S.

    1995-12-31

    This paper reexamines the causality between energy consumption and economic growth with both bivariate and multivariate models by applying the recently developed methods of cointegration and Hsiao`s version of the Granger causality to transformed U.S. data for the period 1947-1990. The Phillips-Perron (PP) tests reveal that the original series are not stationary and, therefore, a first differencing is performed to secure stationarity. The study finds no causal linkages between energy consumption and economic growth. Energy and gross national product (GNP) each live a life of its own. The results of this article are consistent with some of the past studies that find no relationship between energy and GNP but are contrary to some other studies that find GNP unidirectionally causes energy consumption. Both the bivariate and trivariate models produce the similar results. We also find that there is no causal relationship between energy consumption and industrial production. The United States is basically a service-oriented economy and changes in energy consumption can cause little or no changes in GNP. In other words, an implementation of energy conservation policy may not impair economic growth. 27 refs., 5 tabs.

  13. Salad and satiety: the effect of timing of salad consumption on meal energy intake

    PubMed Central

    Roe, Liane S.; Meengs, Jennifer S.; Rolls, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study, consuming a fixed amount of low-energy-dense salad as a first course reduced meal energy intake. We investigated whether this effect depended on serving salad before rather than with the main course, or on compulsory rather than ad libitum consumption. On five occasions, 46 women consumed ad libitum a main course of pasta, accompanied four times by low-energy-dense salad (300 g; 100 kcal [418 kJ]). At two meals the salad was served 20 min before the pasta (once compulsory; once ad libitum), and at two meals the salad was served with the pasta (once compulsory; once ad libitum). Results showed that adding a fixed amount of salad to the meal reduced energy intake by 11% (57±19 kcal [238±79 kJ]. Ad libitum salad consumption was less than compulsory consumption and did not significantly affect energy intake. Across all participants, the timing of serving the salad did not significantly influence energy intake, but the effect of timing depended on participant scores for flexible dietary restraint. Consuming low-energy-dense salad before rather than with the main course increased vegetable consumption by 23%. To moderate energy intake, maximizing the amount of salad eaten may be more important than the timing of consumption. PMID:22008705

  14. Salad and satiety. The effect of timing of salad consumption on meal energy intake.

    PubMed

    Roe, Liane S; Meengs, Jennifer S; Rolls, Barbara J

    2012-02-01

    In a previous study, consuming a fixed amount of low-energy-dense salad as a first course reduced meal energy intake. We investigated whether this effect depended on serving salad before rather than with the main course, or on compulsory rather than ad libitum consumption. On five occasions, 46 women consumed ad libitum a main course of pasta, accompanied four times by low-energy-dense salad (300 g; 100 kcal [418 kJ]). At two meals the salad was served 20 min before the pasta (once compulsory; once ad libitum), and at two meals the salad was served with the pasta (once compulsory; once ad libitum). Results showed that adding a fixed amount of salad to the meal reduced energy intake by 11% (57±19 kcal [238±79 kJ]). Ad libitum salad consumption was less than compulsory consumption and did not significantly affect energy intake. Across all participants, the timing of serving the salad did not significantly influence energy intake, but the effect of timing depended on participant scores for flexible dietary restraint. Consuming low-energy-dense salad before rather than with the main course increased vegetable consumption by 23%. To moderate energy intake, maximizing the amount of salad eaten may be more important than the timing of consumption. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Video game console usage and US national energy consumption: Results from a field-metering study

    DOE PAGES

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Pratt, Stacy; ...

    2014-10-23

    There has been an increased in attention placed on the energy consumption of miscellaneous electronic loads in buildings by energy analysts and policymakers in recent years. The share of electricity consumed by consumer electronics in US households has increased in the last decade. Many devices, however, lack robust energy use data, making energy consumption estimates difficult and uncertain. Video game consoles are high-performance machines present in approximately half of all households and can consume a considerable amount of power. The precise usage of game consoles has significant uncertainty, however, leading to a wide range of recent national energy consumption estimates.more » We present here an analysis based on field-metered usage data, collected as part of a larger field metering study in the USA. This larger study collected data from 880 households in 2012 on a variety of devices, including 113 game consoles (the majority of which are Generation 7 consoles). From our metering, we find that although some consoles are left on nearly 24 h/day, the overall average usage is lower than many other studies have assumed, leading to a US national energy consumption estimate of 7.1 TWh in 2012. Nevertheless, there is an opportunity to reduce energy use with proper game console power management, as a substantial amount of game console usage occurs with the television turned off. The emergence of Generation 8 consoles may increase national energy consumption.« less

  16. Video game console usage and US national energy consumption: Results from a field-metering study

    SciTech Connect

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Pratt, Stacy; Willem, Henry; Claybaugh, Erin; Beraki, Bereket; Nagaraju, Mythri; Price, Sarah K.; Young, Scott J.; Donovan, Sally M.; Ganeshalingam, Mohan

    2014-10-23

    There has been an increased in attention placed on the energy consumption of miscellaneous electronic loads in buildings by energy analysts and policymakers in recent years. The share of electricity consumed by consumer electronics in US households has increased in the last decade. Many devices, however, lack robust energy use data, making energy consumption estimates difficult and uncertain. Video game consoles are high-performance machines present in approximately half of all households and can consume a considerable amount of power. The precise usage of game consoles has significant uncertainty, however, leading to a wide range of recent national energy consumption estimates. We present here an analysis based on field-metered usage data, collected as part of a larger field metering study in the USA. This larger study collected data from 880 households in 2012 on a variety of devices, including 113 game consoles (the majority of which are Generation 7 consoles). From our metering, we find that although some consoles are left on nearly 24 h/day, the overall average usage is lower than many other studies have assumed, leading to a US national energy consumption estimate of 7.1 TWh in 2012. Nevertheless, there is an opportunity to reduce energy use with proper game console power management, as a substantial amount of game console usage occurs with the television turned off. The emergence of Generation 8 consoles may increase national energy consumption.

  17. Numerical prediction of energy consumption in buildings with controlled interior temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Jarošová, P.; Št’astník, S.

    2015-03-10

    New European directives bring strong requirement to the energy consumption of building objects, supporting the renewable energy sources. Whereas in the case of family and similar houses this can lead up to absurd consequences, for building objects with controlled interior temperature the optimization of energy demand is really needed. The paper demonstrates the system approach to the modelling of thermal insulation and accumulation abilities of such objetcs, incorporating the significant influence of additional physical processes, as surface heat radiation and moisture-driven deterioration of insulation layers. An illustrative example shows the numerical prediction of energy consumption of a freezing plant in one Central European climatic year.

  18. Consumption of energy drinks, alcohol, and alcohol-mixed energy drinks among Italian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Flotta, Domenico; Micò, Rocco; Nobile, Carmelo G A; Pileggi, Claudia; Bianco, Aida; Pavia, Maria

    2014-06-01

    It has been argued that the excessive consumption of energy drinks (EDs) may have serious health consequences, and that may serve as an indicator for substance use and other risky behaviors. The present paper offers a perspective on this topic that remains underexplored on the population of adolescents. Data were collected via self-administered anonymous questionnaires from 870 adolescents aged 15 to 19 years who were recruited from a random sample of public secondary schools in the geographic area of the Calabria Region, in the South of Italy. A total of 616 participants completed the survey for a response rate of 70.8%. Nearly 68% of respondents had drunk at least a whole can of ED during their life, and about 55% reported consuming EDs during the 30 days before the survey. Only 13% of interviewed adolescents were aware that drinking EDs is the same as drinking coffee, whereas a sizable percentage believed that drinking EDs is the same as drinking carbonated beverages or rehydrating sport drinks. Forty-six percent of adolescents had drunk alcohol-mixed energy drinks (AmEDs) during their life, and 63% of lifetime users admitted drinking AmEDs during the 30 days before the survey. Overall, 210 (63.3%) had drunk alcohol alone not mixed with EDs during their life, and more than half (56.3%) reported having consumed it at least once during the 30 days before the survey. Multivariate analysis showed that the factors independently associated with the consumption of AmEDs were the increasing number of sexual partners, being a current smoker, being male, riding with a driver who had been drinking alcohol, and having used marijuana. Comprehensive educational programs among youths focusing on potential health effects of EDs, alcohol, and the combination of the two, designed to empower the ability to manage these drinking habits, are strongly advisable. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  19. Effectiveness of In-Home Feedback Devices in Conjunction with Energy Use Information on Residential Energy Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rungta, Shaily

    Residential energy consumption accounts for 22% of the total energy use in the United States. The consumer's perception of energy usage and conservation are very inaccurate which is leading to growing number of individuals who try to seek out ways to use energy more wisely. Hence behavioral change in consumers with respect to energy use, by providing energy use feedback may be important in reducing home energy consumption. Real-time energy information feedback delivered via technology along with feedback interventions has been reported to produce up to 20 percent declines in residential energy consumption through past research and pilot studies. There are, however, large differences in the estimates of the effect of these different types of feedback on energy use. As part of the Energize Phoenix Program, (a U.S. Department of Energy funded program), a Dashboard Study was conducted by the Arizona State University to estimate the impact of real-time, home-energy displays in conjunction with other feedback interventions on the residential rate of energy consumption in Phoenix, while also creating awareness and encouragement to households to reduce energy consumption. The research evaluates the effectiveness of these feedback initiatives. In the following six months of field experiment, a selected number of low-income multi-family apartments in Phoenix, were divided in three groups of feedback interventions, where one group received residential energy use related education and information, the second group received the same education as well as was equipped with the in-home feedback device and the third was given the same education, the feedback device and added budgeting information. Results of the experiment at the end of the six months did not lend a consistent support to the results from literature and past pilot studies. The data revealed a statistically insignificant reduction in energy consumption for the experiment group overall and inconsistent results for

  20. Preliminary Analysis of Energy Consumption for Cool Roofing Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Mellot, Joe; New, Joshua Ryan; Sanyal, Jibonananda

    2013-01-01

    The spread of cool roofing has been more than prolific over the last decade. Driven by public demand and by government initiatives cool roofing has been a recognized low cost method to reduce energy demand by reflecting sunlight away from structures and back in to the atmosphere. While much of the country can benefit from the use of cool coatings it remains to be seen whether the energy savings described are appropriate in cooler climates. By use of commonly available calculators one can analyze the potential energy savings based on environmental conditions and construction practices.

  1. Preliminary Analysis of Energy Consumption for Cool Roofing Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Mellot, Joe; Sanyal, Jibonananda; New, Joshua Ryan

    2013-01-01

    The spread of cool roofing has been more than prolific over the last decade. Driven by public demand and by government initiatives cool roofing has been a recognized low cost method to reduce energy demand by reflecting sunlight away from structures and back in to the atmosphere. While much of the country can benefit from the use of cool coatings it remains to be seen whether the energy savings described are appropriate in cooler climates. By use of commonly available calculators one can analyze the potential energy savings based on environmental conditions and construction practices.

  2. Materials advances required to reduce energy consumption through the application of heavy duty diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, J.W.

    1984-09-01

    Several key materials advances are required to reduce energy consumption through application of heavy duty diesel engines. Heavy duty diesel engines are viewed as effecting energy use both directly through fuel consumption, and indirectly through their durability with large energy expenditures required to replace worn-out engines. Materials advances that would improve fuel consumption include materials related to hot gas-path insulation, and materials related to design advances (other than insulation). Most design advances that are focused on fuel consumption or other performance factors also directly influence durability through materials properties. Several major engine components and many conventional (and advanced) materials are examined. If materials development is integrated with design and manufacturing advances, then fuel economy higher than 0.28 BSFC (50 pct thermal efficiency), and durability beyond 750,000 miles may be achievable.

  3. Improving the Model for Energy Consumption Load Demand Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunnoon, Pituk; Chalermyanont, Kusumal; Limsakul, Chusak

    This paper proposes an application of a filter method in preprocessing stage for mid-term load demand forecasting to improve electricity load forecasting and to guarantee satisfactory forecasting accuracy. Case study employs the historical electricity consumption demand data in Thailand which were recorded in the 12 years of 1997 through to 2007. The load demand forecasted value is used for unit commitment and fuel reserve planning in the power system. This method consists of a trend component and a cyclical component decomposed from the original load demand using the Hodrick-Prescott (HP) filter in the preprocessing stage and the forecasting of each component using Double Neural Networks (DNNs) in the forecasting stage. Experimental results show that with preprocessing before forecasting can predict the load demand better than that without preprocessing.

  4. PRELIMINARY CONSERVATION TABLES FROM THE NATIONAL INTERIM ENERGY CONSUMPTION SURVEY

    EIA Publications

    1979-01-01

    The focus of this report is the conservation activities performed by households since January 1977, and the status of households with respect to insulation, storm windows, and other energy conserving characteristics.

  5. Causes and Solutions for High Energy Consumption in Traditional Buildings Located in Hot Climate Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barayan, Olfat Mohammad

    A considerable amount of money for high-energy consumption is spent in traditional buildings located in hot climate regions. High-energy consumption is significantly influenced by several causes, including building materials, orientation, mass, and openings' sizes. This paper aims to identify these causes and find practical solutions to reduce the annual cost of bills. For the purpose of this study, simulation research method has been followed. A comparison between two Revit models has also been created to point out the major cause of high-energy consumption. By analysing different orientations, wall insulation, and window glazing and applying some other high performance building techniques, a conclusion was found to confirm that appropriate building materials play a vital role in affecting energy cost. Therefore, the ability to reduce the energy cost by more than 50% in traditional buildings depends on a careful balance of building materials, mass, orientation, and type of window glazing.

  6. Study on the China regional economic growth and energy consumption intensity difference convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Mei; Wu, Lu

    2017-04-01

    Based on theory of convergence, firstly, per-capita GDP difference convergence model of underdeveloped regions and developing regions compared with developed regions are established, then, convergence model of energy consumption intensity difference compared with per-capita GDP difference is built, from which, it is found that China's regional per-capita GDP growth shows convergence trend, and convergence rate of energy consumption intensity is slightly slower than the per-capita GDP. So, it is suggested that the local government should fully consider the convergence characteristics of regional energy consumption difference to guarantee not only economic growth but also energy saving and emission reduction in order to ensure sustained economic growth in the implementation of energy-saving emission reduction strategies.

  7. Modeling energy consumption of residential furnaces and boilers in U.S. homes

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, James; Dunham-Whitehead, Camilla; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James

    2004-02-01

    In 2001, DOE initiated a rulemaking process to consider whether to amend the existing energy efficiency standards for furnaces and boilers. A key factor in DOE's consideration of new standards is their cost-effectiveness to consumers. Determining cost-effectiveness requires an appropriate comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. This report describes calculation of equipment energy consumption (fuel and electricity) based on estimated conditions in a sample of homes that are representative of expected furnace and boiler installations. To represent actual houses with furnaces and boilers in the United States, we used a set of houses from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey of 1997 conducted by the Energy Information Administration. Our calculation methodology estimates the energy consumption of alternative (more-efficient) furnaces, if they were to be used in each house in place of the existing equipment. We developed the method of calculation described in this report for non-weatherized gas furnaces. We generalized the energy consumption calculation for this product class to the other furnace product classes. Fuel consumption calculations for boilers are similar to those for the other furnace product classes. The electricity calculations for boilers are simpler than for furnaces, because boilers do not provide thermal distribution for space cooling as furnaces often do.

  8. A novel cost based model for energy consumption in cloud computing.

    PubMed

    Horri, A; Dastghaibyfard, Gh

    2015-01-01

    Cloud data centers consume enormous amounts of electrical energy. To support green cloud computing, providers also need to minimize cloud infrastructure energy consumption while conducting the QoS. In this study, for cloud environments an energy consumption model is proposed for time-shared policy in virtualization layer. The cost and energy usage of time-shared policy were modeled in the CloudSim simulator based upon the results obtained from the real system and then proposed model was evaluated by different scenarios. In the proposed model, the cache interference costs were considered. These costs were based upon the size of data. The proposed model was implemented in the CloudSim simulator and the related simulation results indicate that the energy consumption may be considerable and that it can vary with different parameters such as the quantum parameter, data size, and the number of VMs on a host. Measured results validate the model and demonstrate that there is a tradeoff between energy consumption and QoS in the cloud environment. Also, measured results validate the model and demonstrate that there is a tradeoff between energy consumption and QoS in the cloud environment.

  9. A Novel Cost Based Model for Energy Consumption in Cloud Computing

    PubMed Central

    Horri, A.; Dastghaibyfard, Gh.

    2015-01-01

    Cloud data centers consume enormous amounts of electrical energy. To support green cloud computing, providers also need to minimize cloud infrastructure energy consumption while conducting the QoS. In this study, for cloud environments an energy consumption model is proposed for time-shared policy in virtualization layer. The cost and energy usage of time-shared policy were modeled in the CloudSim simulator based upon the results obtained from the real system and then proposed model was evaluated by different scenarios. In the proposed model, the cache interference costs were considered. These costs were based upon the size of data. The proposed model was implemented in the CloudSim simulator and the related simulation results indicate that the energy consumption may be considerable and that it can vary with different parameters such as the quantum parameter, data size, and the number of VMs on a host. Measured results validate the model and demonstrate that there is a tradeoff between energy consumption and QoS in the cloud environment. Also, measured results validate the model and demonstrate that there is a tradeoff between energy consumption and QoS in the cloud environment. PMID:25705716

  10. Methodological Approach to Determining the Effect of Parallel Energy Consumption on District Heating System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latosov, Eduard; Volkova, Anna; Siirde, Andres; Kurnitski, Jarek; Thalfeldt, Martin

    2017-05-01

    District heating (DH) offers the most effective way to enhance the efficiency of primary energy use, increasing the share of renewable energy in energy consumption and decreasing the amount of CO2 emissions. According to Article 9 section 1 of the Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 May 2010 on the energy performance of buildings, the Member states of the European Union are obligated to draw up National Plans for increasing the number of nearly zero-energy buildings [1]. Article 2 section 2 of the same Directive states that the energy used in nearly zero-energy buildings should be created covered to a very significant extent by energy from renewable sources, including energy from renewable sources produced on-site or nearby. Thus, the heat distributed by DH systems and produced by manufacturing devices located in close vicinity of the building also have to be taken into account in determining the energy consumption of the building and the share of renewable energy used in the nearly zero-energy buildings. With regard to the spreading of nearly zero-energy and zero-energy houses, the feasibility of on-site energy (heat and/or electricity) production and consumption in DH areas energy (i.e. parallel consumption, when the consumer, connected to DH system, consumes energy for heat production from other sources besides the DH system as well) needs to be examined. In order to do that, it is necessary to implement a versatile methodological approach based on the principles discussed in this article.

  11. Beverage consumption, appetite, and energy intake: what did you expect?123

    PubMed Central

    Cassady, Bridget A; Considine, Robert V

    2012-01-01

    Background: Beverage consumption is implicated in the overweight/obesity epidemic through the weaker energy compensation response it elicits compared with solid food forms. However, plausible mechanisms are not documented. Objective: This study assessed the cognitive and sensory contributions of differential postingestive responses to energy- and macronutrient-matched liquid (in beverage form) and solid food forms and identifies physiologic processes that may account for them. Design: Fifty-two healthy adults [mean ± SD age: 24.7 ± 5.5 y; BMI (in kg/m2): 26.3 ± 6.3] completed this randomized, 4-arm crossover study. Participants consumed oral liquid and solid preloads that they perceived, through cognitive manipulation, to be liquid or solid in their stomach (ie, oral liquid/perceived gastric liquid, oral liquid/perceived gastric solid, oral solid/perceived gastric liquid, or oral solid/perceived gastric solid). However, all preloads were designed to present a liquid gastric challenge. Appetite, gastric-emptying and orocecal transit times, and selected endocrine responses were monitored for the following 4 h; total energy intake was also recorded. Results: Oral-liquid and perceived gastric-liquid preloads elicited greater postprandial hunger and lower fullness sensations, more rapid gastric-emptying and orocecal transit times, attenuated insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 release, and lower ghrelin suppression than did responses after oral-solid and perceived gastric-solid treatments (all P < 0.05). Faster gastric-emptying times were significantly associated with greater energy intake after consumption of perceived gastric-liquid preloads (P < 0.05). Energy intake was greater on days when perceived gastric-liquid preloads were consumed than when perceived gastric solids were consumed (2311 ± 95 compared with 1897 ± 72 kcal, P = 0.007). Conclusions: These data document sensory and cognitive effects of food form on ingestive behavior and identify physical and

  12. [Evaluation of the balance between energy supplement and consumption in patients with serious burn: a problem worth further investigation].

    PubMed

    Peng, Xi

    2013-08-01

    The energy expenditure of burn patients can be determined accurately by indirect calorimetry measurement, or estimated approximately with energy expenditure equations. However, the energy requirement is not entirely equal to energy expenditure in the whole process of burn injury. The energy consumption induced by hyper catabolism is increased significantly, and on the other hand, the ability of nutrient absorption and anabolism decreased remarkably in the early phase of burn injury, thus leading to imbalance between energy consumption and demand. However, energy supplement as calculated according to energy consumption may induce overfeeding in the early phase of burn injury. Excessive nutrients intake can not be fully utilized to decrease hypermetabolic reaction, but it might exacerbate metabolic disorder. Therefore, the energy supplement should be lower than energy consumption during the early stage of burns. With the advance of disease course, the internal environment becomes stable gradually, ending in a balance between anabolism and catabolism. Energy supplement should be increased gradually according to energy consumption. During the convalescent period, anabolic metabolism exceeds catabolic metabolism, therefore the quantity of energy supplement should be moderately higher than that of energy consumption. Thus, the energy consumption and energy supplement may reach a balance during the whole course of treatment. The purpose of the article is to analyze and discuss how to estimate energy expenditure precisely and evaluate energy requirement correctly, in order to reach a balance between energy consumption and supplement during a long course of treatment for severe burn patients.

  13. Bisphenol A exposure assessment from olive oil consumption.

    PubMed

    Abou Omar, Tarek F; Sukhn, Carol; Fares, Souha A; Abiad, Mohamad G; Habib, Rima R; Dhaini, Hassan R

    2017-07-01

    The use of bisphenol A (BPA) in packaging has grown over the past 50 years despite concerns of its migration into packaged food and beverages, resulting in human exposure. Many studies have reported tumorigenic effects and endocrine alterations associated with BPA in animal models. This study aims at assessing human exposure to BPA from olive oil. A total of 27 olive oil samples were collected from mills and local villagers in the Hasbaya District, a major olive oil harvesting region in Lebanon. Information on storage conditions was also collected. BPA was extracted and quantified by HPLC. Results showed significantly higher BPA levels in olive oil samples stored in plastic vs. non-plastic packaging (mean = 333 vs. 150 μg/kg, p value = 0.006), samples with a plastic storage duration of >1 year compared to those with a storage duration of <1 year (mean = 452 vs. 288 μg/kg, p value = 0.008), and oil samples sourced from locals compared to oil mills (mean = 376 vs. 228 μg/kg, p value = 0.022). Statistically significant higher BPA levels remained for samples stored in plastic vs. non-plastic packaging in the bootstrap multivariable linear regression (B = 121.56, 95% CI 53.44-194.39, p value = 0.009). This is the first report on BPA levels in Mediterranean olive oil. The estimated exposure was 1.38% of the EFSA tolerable daily intake, hence there are no concerns about potential health risks from olive oil consumption.

  14. Constraining Energy Consumption of China's Largest IndustrialEnterprises Through the Top-1000 Energy-Consuming EnterpriseProgram

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Wang, Xuejun

    2007-06-01

    Between 1980 and 2000, China's energy efficiency policiesresulted in a decoupling of the traditionally linked relationship betweenenergy use and gross domestic product (GDP) growth, realizing a four-foldincrease in GDP with only a doubling of energy use. However, during Chinas transition to a market-based economy in the 1990s, many of thecountry's energy efficiency programs were dismantled and between 2001 and2005 China's energy use increased significantly, growing at about thesame rate as GDP. Continuation of this one-to-one ratio of energyconsumption to GDP given China's stated goal of again quadrupling GDPbetween 2000 and 2020 will lead to significant demand for energy, most ofwhich is coal-based. The resulting local, national, and globalenvironmental impacts could be substantial.In 2005, realizing thesignificance of this situation, the Chinese government announced anambitious goal of reducing energy consumption per unit of GDP by 20percent between 2005 and 2010. One of the key initiatives for realizingthis goal is the Top-1000 Energy-Consuming Enterprises program. Thecomprehensive energy consumption of these 1000 enterprises accounted for33 percent of national and 47 percent of industrial energy usage in 2004.Under the Top-1000 program, 2010 energy consumption targets wereannounced for each enterprise. Activities to be undertaken includebenchmarking, energy audits, development of energy saving action plans,information and training workshops, and annual reporting of energyconsumption. This paper will describe the program in detail, includingthe types of enterprises included and the program activities, and willprovide an analysis of the progress and lessons learned todate.

  15. The relationship between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions: Empirical evidence from China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaojian; Li, Qiuying; Fang, Chuanglin; Zhou, Chunshan

    2016-01-15

    Following several decades of rapid economic growth, China has become the largest energy consumer and the greatest emitter of CO2 in the world. Given the complex development situation faced by contemporary China, Chinese policymakers now confront the dual challenge of reducing energy use while continuing to foster economic growth. This study posits that a better understanding of the relationship between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions is necessary, in order for the Chinese government to develop the energy saving and emission reduction strategies for addressing the impacts of climate change. This paper investigates the cointegrating, temporally dynamic, and casual relationships that exist between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions in China, using data for the period 1990-2012. The study develops a comprehensive conceptual framework in order to perform this analysis. The results of cointegration tests suggest the existence of long-run cointegrating relationship among the variables, albeit with short dynamic adjustment mechanisms, indicating that the proportion of disequilibrium errors that can be adjusted in the next period will account for only a fraction of the changes. Further, impulse response analysis (which describes the reaction of any variable as a function of time in response to external shocks) found that the impact of a shock in CO2 emissions on economic growth or energy consumption was only marginally significant. Finally, Granger casual relationships were found to exist between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions; specifically, a bi-directional causal relationship between economic growth and energy consumption was identified, and a unidirectional causal relationship was found to exist from energy consumption to CO2 emissions. The findings have significant implications for both academics and practitioners, warning of the need to develop and implement long-term energy and economic policies in

  16. Prey consumption and energy transfer by marine birds in the Gulf of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, George L.; Drew, Gary S.; Jahncke, Jaime; Piatt, John F.

    2005-03-01

    We investigated prey consumption by marine birds and their contribution to cross-shelf fluxes in the northern Gulf of Alaska. We utilized data from the North Pacific Pelagic Seabird Database for modeling energy demand and prey consumption. We found that prey consumption by marine birds was much greater over the continental shelf than it was over the basin. Over the shelf, subsurface-foraging marine birds dominated food consumption, whereas over the basin, surface-foraging birds took the most prey biomass. Daily consumption by marine birds during the non-breeding season ("winter") from September through April was greater than daily consumption during the breeding season, between May and August. Over the shelf, shearwaters, murres and, in winter, sea ducks, were the most important consumers. Over the basin, northern fulmars, gulls and kittiwakes predominated in winter and storm-petrels dominated in May to August. Our results suggest that marine birds contribute little to cross-shelf fluxes of energy or matter, but they do remove energy from the marine system through consumption, respiration and migration.

  17. Prey consumption and energy transfer by marine birds in the Gulf of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, G.L.; Drew, G.S.; Jahncke, J.; Piatt, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated prey consumption by marine birds and their contribution to cross-shelf fluxes in the northern Gulf of Alaska. We utilized data from the North Pacific Pelagic Seabird Database for modeling energy demand and prey consumption. We found that prey consumption by marine birds was much greater over the continental shelf than it was over the basin. Over the shelf, subsurface-foraging marine birds dominated food consumption, whereas over the basin, surface-foraging birds took the most prey biomass. Daily consumption by marine birds during the non-breeding season ("winter") from September through April was greater than daily consumption during the breeding season, between May and August. Over the shelf, shearwaters, murres and, in winter, sea ducks, were the most important consumers. Over the basin, northern fulmars, gulls and kittiwakes predominated in winter and storm-petrels dominated in May to August. Our results suggest that marine birds contribute little to cross-shelf fluxes of energy or matter, but they do remove energy from the marine system through consumption, respiration and migration. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Reducing energy consumption in buildings: the potential for conservation in djibouti

    SciTech Connect

    Jarmul, S.

    1984-07-01

    This study outlines the energy consumed by buildings of Djibouti. It describes the energy conditions that exist today, and includes a summary of energy audits of typical Djiboutian buildings. It also presents recommendations aimed at reducing energy consumption in both existing construction and in that planned for the future. Further, it explores the various options available for implementing the changes that have to be made in order to achieve these reductions.

  19. Safe Upper-Bounds Inference of Energy Consumption for Java Bytecode Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navas, Jorge; Mendez-Lojo, Mario; Hermenegildo, Manuel V.

    2008-01-01

    Many space applications such as sensor networks, on-board satellite-based platforms, on-board vehicle monitoring systems, etc. handle large amounts of data and analysis of such data is often critical for the scientific mission. Transmitting such large amounts of data to the remote control station for analysis is usually too expensive for time-critical applications. Instead, modern space applications are increasingly relying on autonomous on-board data analysis. All these applications face many resource constraints. A key requirement is to minimize energy consumption. Several approaches have been developed for estimating the energy consumption of such applications (e.g. [3, 1]) based on measuring actual consumption at run-time for large sets of random inputs. However, this approach has the limitation that it is in general not possible to cover all possible inputs. Using formal techniques offers the potential for inferring safe energy consumption bounds, thus being specially interesting for space exploration and safety-critical systems. We have proposed and implemented a general frame- work for resource usage analysis of Java bytecode [2]. The user defines a set of resource(s) of interest to be tracked and some annotations that describe the cost of some elementary elements of the program for those resources. These values can be constants or, more generally, functions of the input data sizes. The analysis then statically derives an upper bound on the amount of those resources that the program as a whole will consume or provide, also as functions of the input data sizes. This article develops a novel application of the analysis of [2] to inferring safe upper bounds on the energy consumption of Java bytecode applications. We first use a resource model that describes the cost of each bytecode instruction in terms of the joules it consumes. With this resource model, we then generate energy consumption cost relations, which are then used to infer safe upper bounds. How

  20. Assessment of wind energy potential in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starosta, Katarzyna; Linkowska, Joanna; Mazur, Andrzej

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the presentation is to show the suitability of using numerical model wind speed forecasts for the wind power industry applications in Poland. In accordance with the guidelines of the European Union, the consumption of wind energy in Poland is rapidly increasing. According to the report of Energy Regulatory Office from 30 March 2013, the installed capacity of wind power in Poland was 2807MW from 765 wind power stations. Wind energy is strongly dependent on the meteorological conditions. Based on the climatological wind speed data, potential energy zones within the area of Poland have been developed (H. Lorenc). They are the first criterion for assessing the location of the wind farm. However, for exact monitoring of a given wind farm location the prognostic data from numerical model forecasts are necessary. For the practical interpretation and further post-processing, the verification of the model data is very important. Polish Institute Meteorology and Water Management - National Research Institute (IMWM-NRI) runs an operational model COSMO (Consortium for Small-scale Modelling, version 4.8) using two nested domains at horizontal resolutions of 7 km and 2.8 km. The model produces 36 hour and 78 hour forecasts from 00 UTC, for 2.8 km and 7 km domain resolutions respectively. Numerical forecasts were compared with the observation of 60 SYNOP and 3 TEMP stations in Poland, using VERSUS2 (Unified System Verification Survey 2) and R package. For every zone the set of statistical indices (ME, MAE, RMSE) was calculated. Forecast errors for aerological profiles are shown for Polish TEMP stations at Wrocław, Legionowo and Łeba. The current studies are connected with a topic of the COST ES1002 WIRE-Weather Intelligence for Renewable Energies.

  1. Consumption of energy drinks by children and young people: a rapid review examining evidence of physical effects and consumer attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Cheetham, Mandy; Riby, Deborah M; Crossley, Stephen J; Lake, Amelia A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine patterns of energy drink consumption by children and young people, attitudes towards these drinks, and any associations with health or other outcomes. Design Rapid evidence assessment and narrative synthesis. Data sources 9 electronic bibliographic databases, reference lists of relevant studies and searches of the internet. Results A total of 410 studies were located, with 46 meeting the inclusion criteria. The majority employed a cross-sectional design, involved participants aged 11–18 years, and were conducted in North America or Europe. Consumption of energy drinks by children and young people was found to be patterned by gender, with boys consuming more than girls, and also by activity levels, with the highest consumption observed in the most and least sedentary individuals. Several studies identified a strong, positive association between the use of energy drinks and higher odds of health-damaging behaviours, as well as physical health symptoms such as headaches, stomach aches, hyperactivity and insomnia. There was some evidence of a dose–response effect. 2 experimental studies involving small numbers of junior athletes demonstrated a positive impact on limited aspects of sports performance. 3 themes emerged from the qualitative studies: reasons for use; influences on use; and perceived efficacy and impact. Taste and energy-seeking were identified as key drivers, and branding and marketing were highlighted as major influences on young people's consumption choices. Awareness of possible negative effects was low. Conclusions There is growing evidence that consumption of energy drinks is associated with a range of adverse outcomes and risk behaviours in terms of children's health and well-being. However, taste, brand loyalty and perceived positive effects combine to ensure their popularity with young consumers. More research is needed to explore the short-term and long-term impacts in all spheres, including health, behaviour and

  2. Energy consumption and conservation psychology: A review and conceptual analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shippee, Glenn

    1980-07-01

    The burgeoning literature devoted to “the psychology of energy consumption” is categorized by specific methodological approach, is critically reviewed, and is conceptually analyzed. Three main categories of energy research are discerned, these categories corresponding to the traditional methodological typology of the survey study, the field experiment, and the laboratory investigation. For each of these major approaches, several subcategories and special topic areas are noted and discussed. The intention of these conceptual analyses is to stimulate research interest and to provide directions for future research activities. The review concludes with the encouraging observation that several directions can be generalized from the literature. More importantly, these generalizations are corroborated across experiments conducted within each major methodological approach. The importance of behavioral approaches to energy issues and the necessity for additional governmental support for these activities is also emphasized.

  3. Electricity Generation, Electricity Consumption, and Energy Efficiency in the United States: A Dual Climatic-Behavioral Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Christopher Alan

    Much of the United States (US) has seen an increase in warm days, decrease in cool days, and increase in extreme weather events. These trends are projected to continue across much of the US and in turn increase the demand for electricity and subsequent greenhouse gas emissions. Ambitious energy efficiency (EE) programs are used across the US by energy utility organizations to reduce electricity demand and emissions. This study examined the impact of climatic variability on electricity consumption, as well as how pro-conservation interventions such as EE programs and experiential learning can be utilized to mitigate residential electricity consumption and emissions. Chapter 2 of this study examined the impact of EE programs on residential electricity consumption taking into account climatic indicators across the contiguous US. A state-by-state analysis suggested that climatic indicators were more explanatory of residential consumption than energy utility organization EE efforts at the state-level. Chapter 3 examined residential electricity consumption for heating and cooling applications explained by energy utility organization EE efforts and climatic indicators in the Southeast US. Indirect spending on EE programs was significantly related to heating and cooling applications and heating degree days, a climatic indicator for number of days over a certain temperature, were significantly related to cooling equipment applications. A survey of 2,450 residential electricity consumers was analyzed. Residents who were aware of EE programs and participated in EE programs were significantly more likely than those who were not to support energy utility organization use of clean energy and government subsidies for EE programs. Chapter 4 provided case study in a Southeast US state where a pro-conservation behavioral intervention was deployed in an elementary school. This chapter utilized a longitudinal design and mixed methodology to assess the effect of curriculum

  4. Energy consumption optimization of the total-FETI solver by changing the CPU frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horak, David; Riha, Lubomir; Sojka, Radim; Kruzik, Jakub; Beseda, Martin; Cermak, Martin; Schuchart, Joseph

    2017-07-01

    The energy consumption of supercomputers is one of the critical problems for the upcoming Exascale supercomputing era. The awareness of power and energy consumption is required on both software and hardware side. This paper deals with the energy consumption evaluation of the Finite Element Tearing and Interconnect (FETI) based solvers of linear systems, which is an established method for solving real-world engineering problems. We have evaluated the effect of the CPU frequency on the energy consumption of the FETI solver using a linear elasticity 3D cube synthetic benchmark. In this problem, we have evaluated the effect of frequency tuning on the energy consumption of the essential processing kernels of the FETI method. The paper provides results for two types of frequency tuning: (1) static tuning and (2) dynamic tuning. For static tuning experiments, the frequency is set before execution and kept constant during the runtime. For dynamic tuning, the frequency is changed during the program execution to adapt the system to the actual needs of the application. The paper shows that static tuning brings up 12% energy savings when compared to default CPU settings (the highest clock rate). The dynamic tuning improves this further by up to 3%.

  5. Energy consumption analysis of constant voltage and constant current operations in capacitive deionization

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Yatian; Campbell, Patrick G.; Gu, Lei; Knipe, Jennifer M.; Dzenitis, Ella; Santiago, Juan G.; Stadermann, Michael

    2016-09-21

    Here we report our studies to compare energy consumption of a CDI cell in constant voltage (CV) and constant current (CC) operations, with a focus on understanding the underlying physics of consumption patterns. The comparison is conducted under conditions that the CV and CC operations result in the same amounts of input charge and within identical charging phase durations. We present two electrical circuit models to simulate energy consumption in charging phase: one is a simple RC circuit model, and the other a transmission line circuit model. We built and tested a CDI cell to validate the transmission line model, and performed a series of experiments to compare CV versus CC operation under the condition of equal applied charge and charging duration. The experiments show that CC mode consumes energy at 33.8 kJ per mole of ions removed, which is only 28% of CV mode energy consumption (120.6 kJ/mol), but achieves similar level of salt removals. Lastly, together, the models and experiment support our major conclusion that CC is more energy efficient than CV for equal charge and charging duration. The models also suggest that the lower energy consumption of CC in charging is due to its lower resistive dissipation.

  6. Energy consumption analysis of constant voltage and constant current operations in capacitive deionization

    DOE PAGES

    Qu, Yatian; Campbell, Patrick G.; Gu, Lei; ...

    2016-09-21

    Here we report our studies to compare energy consumption of a CDI cell in constant voltage (CV) and constant current (CC) operations, with a focus on understanding the underlying physics of consumption patterns. The comparison is conducted under conditions that the CV and CC operations result in the same amounts of input charge and within identical charging phase durations. We present two electrical circuit models to simulate energy consumption in charging phase: one is a simple RC circuit model, and the other a transmission line circuit model. We built and tested a CDI cell to validate the transmission line model,more » and performed a series of experiments to compare CV versus CC operation under the condition of equal applied charge and charging duration. The experiments show that CC mode consumes energy at 33.8 kJ per mole of ions removed, which is only 28% of CV mode energy consumption (120.6 kJ/mol), but achieves similar level of salt removals. Lastly, together, the models and experiment support our major conclusion that CC is more energy efficient than CV for equal charge and charging duration. The models also suggest that the lower energy consumption of CC in charging is due to its lower resistive dissipation.« less

  7. Energy consumption analysis of constant voltage and constant current operations in capacitive deionization

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Yatian; Campbell, Patrick G.; Gu, Lei; Knipe, Jennifer M.; Dzenitis, Ella; Santiago, Juan G.; Stadermann, Michael

    2016-09-21

    Here we report our studies to compare energy consumption of a CDI cell in constant voltage (CV) and constant current (CC) operations, with a focus on understanding the underlying physics of consumption patterns. The comparison is conducted under conditions that the CV and CC operations result in the same amounts of input charge and within identical charging phase durations. We present two electrical circuit models to simulate energy consumption in charging phase: one is a simple RC circuit model, and the other a transmission line circuit model. We built and tested a CDI cell to validate the transmission line model, and performed a series of experiments to compare CV versus CC operation under the condition of equal applied charge and charging duration. The experiments show that CC mode consumes energy at 33.8 kJ per mole of ions removed, which is only 28% of CV mode energy consumption (120.6 kJ/mol), but achieves similar level of salt removals. Lastly, together, the models and experiment support our major conclusion that CC is more energy efficient than CV for equal charge and charging duration. The models also suggest that the lower energy consumption of CC in charging is due to its lower resistive dissipation.

  8. Effect of Groove Surface Texture on Tribological Characteristics and Energy Consumption under High Temperature Friction

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Chen, Guiming; Fan, Boxuan; Liu, Jianyou

    2016-01-01

    Energy consumption and tribological properties could be improved by proper design of surface texture in friction. However, some literature focused on investigating their performance under high temperature. In the study, different groove surface textures were fabricated on steels by a laser machine, and their tribological behaviors were experimentally studied with the employment of the friction and wear tester under distinct high temperature and other working conditions. The friction coefficient was recorded, and wear performance were characterized by double light interference microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Then, the performances of energy consumptions were carefully estimated. Results showed that friction coefficient, wear, and energy consumption could almost all be reduced by most textures under high temperature conditions, but to a different extent which depends on the experimental conditions and texture parameters. The main improvement mechanisms were analyzed, such as the hardness change, wear debris storage, thermal stress release and friction induced temperature reduction by the textures. Finally, a scattergram of the relatively reduced ratio of the energy consumption was drawn for different surface textures under four distinctive experimental conditions to illustrate the comprehensive energy consumption improving ability of textures, which was of benefit for the application of texture design. PMID:27035658

  9. Balancing energy consumption with hybrid clustering and routing strategy in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhezhuang; Chen, Liquan; Liu, Ting; Cao, Lianyang; Chen, Cailian

    2015-10-20

    Multi-hop data collection in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a challenge issue due to the limited energy resource and transmission range of wireless sensors. The hybrid clustering and routing (HCR) strategy has provided an effective solution, which can generate a connected and efficient cluster-based topology for multi-hop data collection in WSNs. However, it suffers from imbalanced energy consumption, which results in the poor performance of the network lifetime. In this paper, we evaluate the energy consumption of HCR and discover an important result: the imbalanced energy consumption generally appears in gradient k = 1, i.e., the nodes that can communicate with the sink directly. Based on this observation, we propose a new protocol called HCR-1, which includes the adaptive relay selection and tunable cost functions to balance the energy consumption. The guideline of setting the parameters in HCR-1 is provided based on simulations. The analytical and numerical results prove that, with minor modification of the topology in Sensors 2015, 15 26584 gradient k = 1, the HCR-1 protocol effectively balances the energy consumption and prolongs the network lifetime.

  10. The efficiency of orthotic interventions on energy consumption in paraplegic patients: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Arazpour, M; Samadian, M; Bahramizadeh, M; Joghtaei, M; Maleki, M; Ahmadi Bani, M; Hutchins, S W

    2015-01-20

    Study design:This is a systematic literature review.Objectives:Different types of orthoses have been developed to enable and facilitate ambulation in individuals with paraplegia. However, their effect on energy consumption while ambulating is not clear. The objective of this review was to compare the energy expenditure required to walk with these devices.Methods:Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) method, and based on selected keywords and their composition according to the Population Intervention Comparison Outcome (PICO) method, a search was performed in Science Direct, Google Scholar, Scopus, Web of Knowledge and PubMed databases. The searches were restricted to papers published in the English language and were conducted during February 2014; the last access to the database was on 25 February 2014. A total of 24 articles were chosen for final evaluation.Results:Hybrid orthoses reduce energy consumption compared with mechanical orthoses when used for walking by paraplegic patients. The isocentric reciprocating gait orthosis has been shown to be more effective than other reciprocating orthoses in reducing energy consumption. Energy consumption when walking with powered orthoses (PO) and hybrid orthoses was also reduced compared with when walking with conventional orthoses.Conclusions:The hybrid orthoses and PO could be effective alternatives in rehabilitation for spinal cord injury patients to help improve the energy consumption.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 20 January 2015; doi:10.1038/sc.2014.227.

  11. Effect of Groove Surface Texture on Tribological Characteristics and Energy Consumption under High Temperature Friction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Chen, Guiming; Fan, Boxuan; Liu, Jianyou

    2016-01-01

    Energy consumption and tribological properties could be improved by proper design of surface texture in friction. However, some literature focused on investigating their performance under high temperature. In the study, different groove surface textures were fabricated on steels by a laser machine, and their tribological behaviors were experimentally studied with the employment of the friction and wear tester under distinct high temperature and other working conditions. The friction coefficient was recorded, and wear performance were characterized by double light interference microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Then, the performances of energy consumptions were carefully estimated. Results showed that friction coefficient, wear, and energy consumption could almost all be reduced by most textures under high temperature conditions, but to a different extent which depends on the experimental conditions and texture parameters. The main improvement mechanisms were analyzed, such as the hardness change, wear debris storage, thermal stress release and friction induced temperature reduction by the textures. Finally, a scattergram of the relatively reduced ratio of the energy consumption was drawn for different surface textures under four distinctive experimental conditions to illustrate the comprehensive energy consumption improving ability of textures, which was of benefit for the application of texture design.

  12. Analysis and clustering of natural gas consumption data for thermal energy use forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Alessandro; Fantozzi, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, after a brief analysis of the connections between the uses of natural gas and thermal energy use, the natural gas consumption data related to Italian market are analyzed and opportunely clustered in order to compute the typical consumption profile in different days of the week in different seasons and for the different class of users: residential, tertiary and industrial. The analysis of the data shows that natural gas consumption profile is mainly related to seasonality pattern and to the weather conditions (outside temperature, humidity and wind chiller). There is also an important daily pattern related to industrial and civil sector that, at a lower degree than the previous one, does affect the consumption profile and have to be taken into account for defining an effective short and mid term thermal energy forecasting method. A possible mathematical structure of the natural gas consumption profile is provided. Due to the strong link between thermal energy use and natural gas consumption, this analysis could be considered the first step for the development of a model for thermal energy forecasting.

  13. Preliminary study of advanced turbofans for low energy consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knip, G.

    1975-01-01

    This analysis determines the effect of higher overall engine pressure ratios (OPR's), bypass ratios (BPR's), and turbine rotor-inlet temperature on a Mach-0.85 transport having a range of 5556 km (3000 nmi) and carrying a payload of 18144 kg (40,000 lbs-200 passengers). Sideline noises (jet plus fan) of between 91 and 106 EPNdB (FAR36) are considered. Takeoff gross weight (TOGW), fuel consumption (kg/pass. km) and direct operating cost (DOC) are used at the figures of merit. Based on predicted 1985 levels of engine technology and a noise goal of 96 EPNdB, the higher-OPR engine results in an airplane that is 18 percent lighter in terms of TOGW, uses 22.3 percent less fuel, and has a 14.7 percent lower DOC than a comparable airplane powered by a current turbofan. Cooling the compressor bleed air and lowering the cruise Mach number appear attractive in terms of further improving the figures of merit.

  14. Energy drinks consumption practices among medical students of a Private sector University of Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Usman, Asma; Bhombal, Swaleha Tariq; Jawaid, Ambreen; Zaki, Samar

    2015-09-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has become popular among students and athletes over the past few years. To explore the phenomenon, a cross-sectional survey was conducted through a self-administered pilot-tested questionnaire. Frequency of energy drinks consumption was found to be 121(52%) in a sample of 233 medical students. Red bull was the most common brand consumed 101(43%). The major reasons reported for its usage were to gain/replenish energy by 36(15.4%), and studying for examination by 34(14.6%). Television was reported as the major source of information 153(66%) followed by friends 113(48%). There was a high frequency of energy drinks' consumption among medical students of a private university. There is a strong need to create awareness regarding these drinks, especially among adolescents and teenagers.

  15. Changes in Natural Gas Monthly Consumption Data Collection and the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    EIA Publications

    2010-01-01

    Beginning with the December 2010 issue of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO), the Energy Information Administration (EIA) will present natural gas consumption forecasts for the residential and commercial sectors that are consistent with recent changes to the Form EIA-857 monthly natural gas survey.

  16. Study of the Potential Energy Consumption Impacts of Connected and Automated Vehicles

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    A new study commissioned by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, finds that the introduction of connected and automated vehicle technologies have the potential to affect vehicle energy consumption, travel, usage, vehicle design and attributes, and personal ownership rates. Rate of technology development, consumer acceptance, and regulatory support and oversight will affect the rate of market penetration of these vehicle technologies.

  17. Interactions among energy consumption, economic development and greenhouse gas emissions in Japan after World War II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The long-term dynamic changes in the triad, energy consumption, economic development, and Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in Japan after World War II were quantified, and the interactions among them were analyzed based on an integrated suite of energy, emergy and economic indices...

  18. Interactions among energy consumption, economic development and greenhouse gas emissions in Japan after World War II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The long-term dynamic changes in the triad, energy consumption, economic development, and Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in Japan after World War II were quantified, and the interactions among them were analyzed based on an integrated suite of energy, emergy and economic indices...

  19. The global contribution of energy consumption by product exports from China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Erzi; Peng, Chong

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a model to analyze the mechanism of the global contribution of energy usage by product exports. The theoretical analysis is based on the perspective that contribution estimates should be in relatively smaller sectors in which the production characteristics could be considered, such as the productivity distribution for each sector. Then, we constructed a method to measure the global contribution of energy usage. The simple method to estimate the global contribution is the percentage of goods export volume compared to the GDP as a multiple of total energy consumption, but this method underestimates the global contribution because it ignores the structure of energy consumption and product export in China. According to our measurement method and based on the theoretical analysis, we calculated the global contribution of energy consumption only by industrial manufactured product exports in a smaller sector per industry or manufacturing sector. The results indicated that approximately 42% of the total energy usage in the whole economy for China in 2013 was contributed to foreign regions. Along with the primary products and service export in China, the global contribution of energy consumption for China in 2013 by export was larger than 42% of the total energy usage.

  20. Application of advanced methods for the prognosis of production energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetter, R.; Witczak, P.; Staiger, B.; Spindler, C.; Hertel, J.

    2014-12-01

    This paper, based on a current research project, describes the application of advanced methods that are frequently used in fault-tolerance control and addresses the issue of the prognosis of energy efficiency. Today, the energy a product requires during its operation is the subject of many activities in research and development. However, the energy necessary for the production of goods is very often not analysed in comparable depth. In the field of electronics, studies come to the conclusion that about 80% of the total energy used by a product is from its production [1]. The energy consumption in production is determined very early in the product development process by designers and engineers, for example through selection of raw materials, explicit and implicit requirements concerning the manufacturing and assembly processes, or through decisions concerning the product architecture. Today, developers and engineers have at their disposal manifold design and simulation tools which can help to predict the energy consumption during operation relatively accurately. In contrast, tools with the objective to predict the energy consumption in production and disposal are not available. This paper aims to present an explorative study of the use of methods such as Fuzzy Logic to predict the production energy consumption early in the product development process.

  1. An Investigation of Energy Consumption and Cost in Large Air-Conditioned Buildings. An Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milbank, N. O.

    Two similarly large buildings and air conditioning systems are comparatively analyzed as to energy consumption, costs, and inefficiency during certain measured periods of time. Building design and velocity systems are compared to heating, cooling, lighting and distribution capabilities. Energy requirements for pumps, fans and lighting are found to…

  2. Changes in Natural Gas Monthly Consumption Data Collection and the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    EIA Publications

    2010-01-01

    Beginning with the December 2010 issue of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO), the Energy Information Administration (EIA) will present natural gas consumption forecasts for the residential and commercial sectors that are consistent with recent changes to the Form EIA-857 monthly natural gas survey.

  3. Measurements relating fire radiative energy density and surface fuel consumption - RxCADRE 2011 and 2012

    Treesearch

    Andrew T. Hudak; Matthew B. Dickinson; Benjamin C. Bright; Robert L. Kremens; E. Louise Loudermilk; Joseph J. O' Brien; Benjamin S. Hornsby; Roger D. Ottmar

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale experiments have demonstrated that fire radiative energy is linearly related to fuel combusted but such a relationship has not been shown at the landscape level of prescribed fires. This paper presents field and remotely sensed measures of pre-fire fuel loads, consumption, fire radiative energy density (FRED) and fire radiative power flux density (FRFD),...

  4. Energy consumption and the unexplained winter warming over northern Asia and North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guang J.; Cai, Ming; Hu, Aixue

    2013-05-01

    The worldwide energy consumption in 2006 was close to 498 exajoules. This is equivalent to an energy convergence of 15.8TW into the populated regions, where energy is consumed and dissipated into the atmosphere as heat. Although energy consumption is sparsely distributed over the vast Earth surface and is only about 0.3% of the total energy transport to the extratropics by atmospheric and oceanic circulations, this anthropogenic heating could disrupt the normal atmospheric circulation pattern and produce a far-reaching effect on surface air temperature. We identify the plausible climate impacts of energy consumption using a global climate model. The results show that the inclusion of energy use at 86 model grid points where it exceeds 0.4Wm-2 can lead to remote surface temperature changes by as much as 1K in mid- and high latitudes in winter and autumn over North America and Eurasia. These regions correspond well to areas with large differences in surface temperature trends between observations and global warming simulations forced by all natural and anthropogenic forcings. We conclude that energy consumption is probably a missing forcing for the additional winter warming trends in observations.

  5. Woody biomass pretreatment for cellulosic ethanol production : technology and energy consumption evaluation

    Treesearch

    Junyong Zhu; X.J. Pan

    2010-01-01

    This review presents a comprehensive discussion of the key technical issues in woody biomass pretreatment: barriers to efficient cellulose saccharification, pretreatment energy consumption, in particular energy consumed for wood-size reduction, and criteria to evaluate the performance of a pretreatment. A post-chemical pretreatment size-reduction approach is proposed...

  6. Impact of climatic factors on energy consumption during the heating season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, A. S.; Reshetar, O. A.; Belova, I. N.

    2016-09-01

    Global and regional climate changes produce a significant effect on energy production and consumption, especially on heating and air conditioning in residential, industrial, commercial, and office rooms. In Russia, with its contracting climate conditions, energy consumption varies a lot in different regions. Thus, we have to review the dynamics of energy consumption during the cold season individually for each region of the country. We analyzed the dynamics of duration and temperature of the heating season in Moscow region and completed a comparative study of heat energy consumption, actual and calculated based on the 'degreedays' concept, in the municipal economy of Moscow during the last decade. Based on the actual data analysis, we proved that conservation of energy resources in a large city relies not so much on a shortening of the heating period as on the growth of atmospheric air temperature in winter. The projected climate warming in the Moscow region in the nearest decades, along with measures of energy conservation, will promote a significant reduction in energy consumption of the municipal economy in winter. The results shown in this article were obtained in the process of preparing and implementing project no. 16-17-00114 by the Russian Science Foundation "Analysis of an impact of the regional climate change on the residential and commercial energy consumption of Russian megacities," within the main area of focus of the Russian Science Foundation, which is "Fundamental Research and Exploration in Main Topical Areas of Focus." The project was implemented within the framework of the scientific area of focus, which is "Reduction of the Risk and Mitigation of Consequences of Natural and Man-made Disasters" ("Studying Economical, Political, and Social Consequences of Global Climate Changes" problem).

  7. Impact of office productivity cloud computing on energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Williams, Daniel R; Tang, Yinshan

    2013-05-07

    Cloud computing is usually regarded as being energy efficient and thus emitting less greenhouse gases (GHG) than traditional forms of computing. When the energy consumption of Microsoft's cloud computing Office 365 (O365) and traditional Office 2010 (O2010) software suites were tested and modeled, some cloud services were found to consume more energy than the traditional form. The developed model in this research took into consideration the energy consumption at the three main stages of data transmission; data center, network, and end user device. Comparable products from each suite were selected and activities were defined for each product to represent a different computing type. Microsoft provided highly confidential data for the data center stage, while the networking and user device stages were measured directly. A new measurement and software apportionment approach was defined and utilized allowing the power consumption of cloud services to be directly measured for the user device stage. Results indicated that cloud computing is more energy efficient for Excel and Outlook which consumed less energy and emitted less GHG than the standalone counterpart. The power consumption of the cloud based Outlook (8%) and Excel (17%) was lower than their traditional counterparts. However, the power consumption of the cloud version of Word was 17% higher than its traditional equivalent. A third mixed access method was also measured for Word which emitted 5% more GHG than the traditional version. It is evident that cloud computing may not provide a unified way forward to reduce energy consumption and GHG. Direct conversion from the standalone package into the cloud provision platform can now consider energy and GHG emissions at the software development and cloud service design stage using the methods described in this research.

  8. Energy consumption of termite colonies of Nasutitermes ephratae (Isoptera: Termitidae).

    PubMed

    Muradian, R; Issa, S; Jaffe, K

    1999-07-01

    Measurements of CO2 production of whole termite colonies showed that respiration intensity varies slightly during the daily cycle, that the relation between standard metabolism and colony size is best described with a negative exponential, taking into account the proportion of the various castes. Larger colonies were more efficient in their energy use, suggesting that energetic considerations may contribute in explaining the maintenance in evolution of complex societies.

  9. Life cycle assessment of vehicle lightweighting: a physics-based model of mass-induced fuel consumption.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Chul; Wallington, Timothy J

    2013-12-17

    Lightweighting is a key strategy used to improve vehicle fuel economy. Replacing conventional materials (e.g., steel) with lighter alternatives (e.g., aluminum, magnesium, and composites) decreases energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during vehicle use, but often increases energy consumption and GHG emissions during materials and vehicle production. Assessing the life-cycle benefits of mass reduction requires a quantitative description of the mass-induced fuel consumption during vehicle use. A new physics-based method for estimating mass-induced fuel consumption (MIF) is proposed. We illustrate the utility of this method by using publicly available data to calculate MIF values in the range of 0.2-0.5 L/(100 km 100 kg) based on 106 records of fuel economy tests by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for 2013 model year vehicles. Lightweighting is shown to have the most benefit when applied to vehicles with high fuel consumption and high power. Use of the physics-based model presented here would place future life cycle assessment studies of vehicle lightweighting on a firmer scientific foundation.

  10. Transportation vehicle energy intensities. A joint DOT/NASA reference paper. [energy consumption of air and ground vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascy, A. C.; Paullin, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    A compilation of data on the energy consumption of air and ground vehicles is presented. The ratio BTU/ASM, British Thermal Units/Available Seat Mile, is used to express vehicle energy intensiveness, and related to the energy consumed directly in producing seat-mile or ton-mile productivity. Data is presented on passenger and freight vehicles which are in current use or which are about to enter service, and advanced vehicles which may be operational in the 1980's and beyond. For the advanced vehicles, an estimate is given of the date of initial operational service, and the performance characteristics. Other key considerations in interpreting energy intensiveness for a given mode are discussed, such as: load factors, operations, overhead energy consumption, and energy investments in new structure and equipment.

  11. 10 CFR Appendix P to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Pool Heaters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... power consumption during the off mode, PW,OFF = 0, and the fossil fuel energy consumed during the off... 62301 (Second Edition) (incorporated by reference; see § 430.3), and the fossil fuel energy consumption... in Btu. 5.2 Average annual fossil fuel energy for pool heaters. The average annual fuel energy for...

  12. 10 CFR 431.224 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption for traffic signal modules and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption for traffic signal modules and pedestrian modules. 431.224 Section 431.224 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... measurement of energy consumption for traffic signal modules and pedestrian modules. (a) Scope. This section...

  13. Informing Intervention Strategies to Reduce Energy Drink Consumption in Young People: Findings From Qualitative Research.

    PubMed

    Francis, Jacinta; Martin, Karen; Costa, Beth; Christian, Hayley; Kaur, Simmi; Harray, Amelia; Barblett, Ann; Oddy, Wendy Hazel; Ambrosini, Gina; Allen, Karina; Trapp, Gina

    2017-10-01

    To determine young people's knowledge of energy drinks (EDs), factors influencing ED consumption, and intervention strategies to decrease ED consumption in young people. Eight group interviews with young people (aged 12-25 years). Community groups and secondary schools in Perth, Western Australia. Forty-one young people, 41% of whom were male and 73% of whom consumed EDs. Factors influencing ED consumption and intervention strategies informed by young people to reduce ED consumption. Two researchers conducted a qualitative content analysis on the data using NVivo software. Facilitators of ED consumption included enhanced energy, pleasant taste, low cost, peer pressure, easy availability, and ED promotions. Barriers included negative health effects, unpleasant taste, high cost, and parents' disapproval. Strategies to reduce ED consumption included ED restrictions, changing ED packaging, increasing ED prices, reducing visibility in retail outlets, and research and education. Because many countries allow the sale of EDs to people aged <18 years, identifying ways to minimize potential harm from EDs is critical. This study provided unique insights into intervention strategies suggested by young people to reduce ED consumption. In addition to more research and education, these strategies included policy changes targeting ED sales, packaging, price, and visibility. Future research might examine the feasibility of implementing such interventions. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Analysis of Electrical Energy Consumption of the Impact Screwdriver During Assembly of Fixed Threaded Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinevich, I.; Nikishin, Vl.; Mozga, N.; Laitans, M.

    2017-06-01

    The paper deals with the possibilities of reducing the consumption of electrical energy of the impact screwdriver during the assembly of fixed threaded joints. The recommendations related to a decrease in electrical energy consumption would allow reducing product costs but so far there have been no such recommendations from the producers of the tool as to the effective operating regimes of the impact screwdrivers in relation to electrical energy consumption and necessary tightening moment of the nut. The aim of the study is to find out the economical operating mode of the electrical impact screwdriver when assembling fixed threaded joints. By varying the set speed of the rotor head and working time of the impact mechanism, there is an opportunity to determine electrical energy consumption of the tool for the given tightening moment. The results of the experiment show that at the same tightening moment obtained the electrical energy consumption of the impact screwdriver is less at a higher starting set speed of the rotor head but shorter operating time of the impact mechanism than at a lower speed of the rotor head and longer operating time of the impact mechanism.

  15. Characteristics of US Health Care Providers Who Counsel Adolescents on Sports and Energy Drink Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Nan; Wethington, Holly; Onufrak, Stephen; Belay, Brook

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To examine the proportion of health care providers who counsel adolescent patients on sports and energy drink (SED) consumption and the association with provider characteristics. Methods. This is a cross-sectional analysis of a survey of providers who see patients ≤17 years old. The proportion providing regular counseling on sports drinks (SDs), energy drinks (EDs), or both was assessed. Chi-square analyses examined differences in counseling based on provider characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression calculated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for characteristics independently associated with SED counseling. Results. Overall, 34% of health care providers regularly counseled on both SEDs, with 41% regularly counseling on SDs and 55% regularly counseling on EDs. On adjusted modeling regular SED counseling was associated with the female sex (aOR: 1.44 [95% CI: 1.07–1.93]), high fruit/vegetable intake (aOR: 2.05 [95% CI: 1.54–2.73]), family/general practitioners (aOR: 0.58 [95% CI: 0.41–0.82]) and internists (aOR: 0.37 [95% CI: 0.20–0.70]) versus pediatricians, and group versus individual practices (aOR: 0.59 [95% CI: 0.42–0.84]). Modeling for SD- and ED-specific counseling found similar associations with provider characteristics. Conclusion. The prevalence of regular SED counseling is low overall and varies. Provider education on the significance of SED counseling and consumption is important. PMID:24790611

  16. Impact of urbanization and climate warming on energy consumption in large cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, V. V.; Ginzburg, A. S.; Demchenko, P. F.; Tereshin, A. G.; Belova, I. N.; Kasilova, E. V.

    2016-10-01

    This article considers the urban heat island effect, taking into account peculiarities of energy consumption in large cities. It is shown that energy demand in large cities must be planned, taking into account of the seasonal asymmetry of the impact of anthropogenic heat fluxes on energy demand of the urban economy in the warm and cold seasons of the year. Together with the heat island effect, climate changes in Russian cities should decrease the overall energy demand due to space heating and air conditioning. At the same time, the increasing energy share used for air conditioning always remains one or two orders of magnitude smaller than the energy share used for space heating.

  17. Impact of Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 206 Rebates on Consumers and Renewable Energy Consumption, With Projections to 2010

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA), with the agreement of the Department, interpreted section 206(d) as calling for a listing of the types of renewable fuels available today, and a listing of those that will be available in the future based on the incentives provided in section 206(d). This report provides that information, and also provides information concerning renewable energy equipment and renewable energy consumption.

  18. Alcohol Mixed with Energy Drinks: Consumption Patterns and Motivations for Use in U.S. College Students

    PubMed Central

    Marczinski, Cecile A.

    2011-01-01

    Binge drinking in college students is widespread and known to cause significant harms and health hazards for the drinker. One factor that may be exacerbating hazardous drinking in young people is the new popular trend of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED). However, rates of AmED use and motivations for AmED consumption in college students have not been well established. In this study, 706 undergraduate college students from a university in the United States participated in a web-based survey that queried self-reported alcohol, energy drink, and AmED use. In addition, motivations for using AmEDs were assessed. The results indicated that for all participants, 81% reported that they have tried at least one energy drink in the past and 36% reported consumption of at least one energy drink in the past 2 weeks. Alcohol consumption patterns were similar to findings from U.S. national surveys of college drinking, as 37% of respondents were classified as binge drinkers and 23% abstained from drinking. In the whole sample (including the alcohol abstainers), 44% reported trying AmED at least once and 9% reported AmED consumption at least once in the past 2 weeks. 78% of respondents agreed with the statement that AmEDs appeal to underage drinkers. When AmED users were asked about various motivations for consuming AmEDs, users reported that they consumed these beverages to get drunk and reduce sedation compared to alcohol alone. In conclusion, the consumption of AmEDs is common in U.S. college students. Motivations for using AmEDs include the reduction of the sedative effects of alcohol, an important interoceptive cue that one should stop drinking. PMID:21909303

  19. Alcohol mixed with energy drinks: consumption patterns and motivations for use in U.S. college students.

    PubMed

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2011-08-01

    Binge drinking in college students is widespread and known to cause significant harms and health hazards for the drinker. One factor that may be exacerbating hazardous drinking in young people is the new popular trend of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED). However, rates of AmED use and motivations for AmED consumption in college students have not been well established. In this study, 706 undergraduate college students from a university in the United States participated in a web-based survey that queried self-reported alcohol, energy drink, and AmED use. In addition, motivations for using AmEDs were assessed. The results indicated that for all participants, 81% reported that they have tried at least one energy drink in the past and 36% reported consumption of at least one energy drink in the past 2 weeks. Alcohol consumption patterns were similar to findings from U.S. national surveys of college drinking, as 37% of respondents were classified as binge drinkers and 23% abstained from drinking. In the whole sample (including the alcohol abstainers), 44% reported trying AmED at least once and 9% reported AmED consumption at least once in the past 2 weeks. 78% of respondents agreed with the statement that AmEDs appeal to underage drinkers. When AmED users were asked about various motivations for consuming AmEDs, users reported that they consumed these beverages to get drunk and reduce sedation compared to alcohol alone. In conclusion, the consumption of AmEDs is common in U.S. college students. Motivations for using AmEDs include the reduction of the sedative effects of alcohol, an important interoceptive cue that one should stop drinking.

  20. Food Store Choice Among Urban Slum Women Is Associated With Consumption of Energy-Dense Food.

    PubMed

    Anggraini, Roselynne; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Bardosono, Saptawati; Khusun, Helda; Worsley, Anthony

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations of food store choice with food consumption among urban slum women. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 188 urban slum women (19-50 years old) in Jakarta, Indonesia. A semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess food consumption. Associations between food consumption and food store choice were tested by linear regression. This study found that frequencies of buying food from small shops (warung), street food vendors, and modern food stores were significantly associated with consumption of snacks, mixed dishes, and fruit respectively. In addition, buying food from traditional markets and small cafes (warung makan) was not significantly associated with particular types of food consumption. As modern food stores are rarely utilized by these women, small shops (warung) and street food vendors are likely to be important channels to improve slum dwellers' diet.

  1. Relationship Between Energy Drink Consumption and Nutrition Knowledge in Student-Athletes.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Richard; Kliemann, Nathalie; Evansen, Taylor; Brand, Jefferson

    2017-01-01

    To identify the relationships between energy drink consumption, nutrition knowledge, and socio-demographic characteristics in a convenience sample of student-athletes. Cross-sectional. Online survey. A total of 194 student-athletes (112 female and 82 male). Socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of human nutrition, energy drink consumption habits. Chi-square tests of independence, independent t tests, and hierarchical regression analyses were applied. Most student-athletes in the sample (85.5%) did not consume energy drinks, but those who did tended to be male (P = .004), had lower overall knowledge of nutrition (P = .02), and had a lower grade point average (P < .001) than did nonusers. Also, energy drink consumption was associated with the overall nutrition knowledge score when adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, with nonusers having greater nutrition knowledge (P = .007) than users. Student-athletes tend to refrain from energy drink use but those who use it have a tendency to have lower nutrition knowledge than do nonusers. Therefore, nutrition education targeted toward student-athletes should encompass the consumption of energy drinks because limited evidence shows the benefits of collegiate athletes consuming energy drinks. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Motility, Force Generation, and Energy Consumption of Unicellular Parasites.

    PubMed

    Hochstetter, Axel; Pfohl, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Motility is a key factor for pathogenicity of unicellular parasites, enabling them to infiltrate and evade host cells, and perform several of their life-cycle events. State-of-the-art methods of motility analysis rely on a combination of optical tweezers with high-resolution microscopy and microfluidics. With this technology, propulsion forces, energies, and power generation can be determined so as to shed light on the motion mechanisms, chemotactic behavior, and specific survival strategies of unicellular parasites. With these new tools in hand, we can elucidate the mechanisms of motility and force generation of unicellular parasites, and identify ways to manipulate and eventually inhibit them.

  3. Muscle Synergies Heavily Influence the Neural Control of Arm Endpoint Stiffness and Energy Consumption.

    PubMed

    Inouye, Joshua M; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J

    2016-02-01

    Much debate has arisen from research on muscle synergies with respect to both limb impedance control and energy consumption. Studies of limb impedance control in the context of reaching movements and postural tasks have produced divergent findings, and this study explores whether the use of synergies by the central nervous system (CNS) can resolve these findings and also provide insights on mechanisms of energy consumption. In this study, we phrase these debates at the conceptual level of interactions between neural degrees of freedom and tasks constraints. This allows us to examine the ability of experimentally-observed synergies--correlated muscle activations--to control both energy consumption and the stiffness component of limb endpoint impedance. In our nominal 6-muscle planar arm model, muscle synergies and the desired size, shape, and orientation of endpoint stiffness ellipses, are expressed as linear constraints that define the set of feasible muscle activation patterns. Quadratic programming allows us to predict whether and how energy consumption can be minimized throughout the workspace of the limb given those linear constraints. We show that the presence of synergies drastically decreases the ability of the CNS to vary the properties of the endpoint stiffness and can even preclude the ability to minimize energy. Furthermore, the capacity to minimize energy consumption--when available--can be greatly affected by arm posture. Our computational approach helps reconcile divergent findings and conclusions about task-specific regulation of endpoint stiffness and energy consumption in the context of synergies. But more generally, these results provide further evidence that the benefits and disadvantages of muscle synergies go hand-in-hand with the structure of feasible muscle activation patterns afforded by the mechanics of the limb and task constraints. These insights will help design experiments to elucidate the interplay between synergies and the mechanisms

  4. User-needs study for the 1993 residential energy consumption survey

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-24

    During 1992, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) conducted a user-needs study for the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Every 3 years, the RECS collects information on energy consumption and expenditures for various classes of households and residential buildings. The RECS is the only source of such information within EIA, and one of only a few sources of such information anywhere. EIA sent letters to more than 750 persons, received responses from 56, and held 15 meetings with users. Written responses were also solicited by notices published in the April 14, 1992 Federal Register and in several energy-related publications. To ensure that the 1993 RECS meets current information needs, EIA made a specific effort to get input from policy makers and persons needing data for forecasting efforts. These particular needs relate mainly to development of the National Energy Modeling System and new energy legislation being considered at the time of the user needs survey.

  5. Renewable energy rebound effect?: Estimating the impact of state renewable energy financial incentives on residential electricity consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, Beth A.

    Climate change is a well-documented phenomenon. If left unchecked greenhouse gas emissions will continue global surface warming, likely leading to severe and irreversible impacts. Generating renewable energy has become an increasingly salient topic in energy policy as it may mitigate the impact of climate change. State renewable energy financial incentives have been in place since the mid-1970s in some states and over 40 states have adopted one or more incentives at some point since then. Using multivariate linear and fixed effects regression for the years 2002 through 2012, I estimate the relationship between state renewable energy financial incentives and residential electricity consumption, along with the associated policy implications. My hypothesis is that a renewable energy rebound effect is present; therefore, states with renewable energy financial incentives have a higher rate of residential electricity consumption. I find a renewable energy rebound effect is present in varying degrees for each model, but the results do not definitively indicate how particular incentives influence consumer behavior. States should use caution when adopting and keeping renewable energy financial incentives as this may increase consumption in the short-term. The long-term impact is unclear, making it worthwhile for policymakers to continue studying the potential for renewable energy financial incentives to alter consumer behavior.

  6. The influence of biomass energy consumption on CO2 emissions: a wavelet coherence approach.

    PubMed

    Bilgili, Faik; Öztürk, İlhan; Koçak, Emrah; Bulut, Ümit; Pamuk, Yalçın; Muğaloğlu, Erhan; Bağlıtaş, Hayriye H

    2016-10-01

    In terms of today, one may argue, throughout observations from energy literature papers, that (i) one of the main contributors of the global warming is carbon dioxide emissions, (ii) the fossil fuel energy usage greatly contributes to the carbon dioxide emissions, and (iii) the simulations from energy models attract the attention of policy makers to renewable energy as alternative energy source to mitigate the carbon dioxide emissions. Although there appears to be intensive renewable energy works in the related literature regarding renewables' efficiency/impact on environmental quality, a researcher might still need to follow further studies to review the significance of renewables in the environment since (i) the existing seminal papers employ time series models and/or panel data models or some other statistical observation to detect the role of renewables in the environment and (ii) existing papers consider mostly aggregated renewable energy source rather than examining the major component(s) of aggregated renewables. This paper attempted to examine clearly the impact of biomass on carbon dioxide emissions in detail through time series and frequency analyses. Hence, the paper follows wavelet coherence analyses. The data covers the US monthly observations ranging from 1984:1 to 2015 for the variables of total energy carbon dioxide emissions, biomass energy consumption, coal consumption, petroleum consumption, and natural gas consumption. The paper thus, throughout wavelet coherence and wavelet partial coherence analyses, observes frequency properties as well as time series properties of relevant variables to reveal the possible significant influence of biomass usage on the emissions in the USA in both the short-term and the long-term cycles. The paper also reveals, finally, that the biomass consumption mitigates CO2 emissions in the long run cycles after the year 2005 in the USA.

  7. [Consumption of sweetened, energy and alcoholic beverages among college students in the México-US border].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Miranda, Luis Mario; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Caravalí-Meza, Nuris Yohana; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo

    2014-09-28

    The consumption of sugary, energy and alcoholic drinks among college students might be a health risk factor. To assess the consumption of sugary, energy and alcoholic drinks and to determine their associations with body mass index (BMI) status among college students. Second and third year college students enrolled in five different majors at the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California were evaluated. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured and BMI was calculated. A frequency questionnaire of 19 drinks was administered. A total of 1138 students participated in the study. The prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity was 12 and 33% with 14 and 17% in women and men respectively. Fifty-five per cent of women and 68% of men consumed more than 25g of sugar drinks per day; 12% consumed more than 100g of sugar daily. The daily caloric intake from beverages was greater than 450kcal with 350kcal in men and women respectively. Ten per cent of women and 15% of men consumed more than 30g of alcohol daily. The sugary drinks more frequently consumed were fruit juices (90%), whole milk (69%), regular soft drinks (83%), beer (37%), liquor (27%) and energy drinks (12%). Consumption of sugary, energy, and alcoholic drinks is very high, which may be a health risk in this population. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Energy and electrode consumption analysis of electrocoagulation for the removal of arsenic from underground water.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Villafañe, J F; Montero-Ocampo, C; García-Lara, A M

    2009-12-30

    A systematic study of the effect of design and operation conditions of an electrochemical reactor on the treatment time for arsenic (As) electro-removal from underground water (GW) was carried out to analyse the energy and electrode consumption. The effects of four factors--current density, interelectrode distance, electrode area-volume ratio, and liquid motion driving mode--were evaluated. The response variables were the energy and the electrode consumption and the treatment time to reduce the GW residual As concentration to 10 microg L(-1), which is the maximum contaminant level (MCL) established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in drinking water. The results obtained in this study showed that the factor that had the greatest effect on most of the response variables was the liquid motion driving mode. The best residence time was 20s, which favoured low energy consumption (58.78 Wh m(-3)) and low electrode material loss (9.59 g m(-3)).

  9. Energy consumption by embryos of a viviparous lizard, Eulamprus tympanum, during development.

    PubMed

    Robert, K A; Thompson, M B

    2000-12-01

    Energy consumption during development has been measured in many oviparous lizards, but not in viviparous lizards in utero. It has always been assumed that energy consumption by embryos of viviparous lizards during development is similar to that of oviparous species. Estimation of energy consumption of viviparous lizards in vivo are confounded by the possible influence of pregnancy on maternal metabolism. Here we separated maternal and embryonic metabolism in measurements of pregnant Eulamprus tympanum throughout pregnancy. Our data support the hypothesis that the energetic cost of development in viviparous lizards (19.8 kJ g(-1)) is similar to that in oviparous lizards (mean 16.2 kJ g(-1)), at least for a species with a simple placenta. An increase in maternal metabolism of 29% above that for non-pregnant E. tympanum goes to maintain pregnancy, and represents an important component of the reproductive effort in E. tympanum.

  10. Complementary effects of torrefaction and co-pelletization: Energy consumption and characteristics of pellets.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liang; Yuan, Xingzhong; Li, Hui; Li, Changzhu; Xiao, Zhihua; Jiang, Longbo; Huang, Binbin; Xiao, Zhihong; Chen, Xiaohong; Wang, Hou; Zeng, Guangming

    2015-06-01

    In this study, complementary of torrefaction and co-pelletization for biomass pellets production was investigated. Two kinds of biomass materials were torrefied and mixed with oil cake for co-pelletization. The energy consumption during pelletization and pellet characteristics including moisture absorption, pellet density, pellet strength and combustion characteristic, were evaluated. It was shown that torrefaction improved the characteristics of pellets with high heating values, low moisture absorption and well combustion characteristic. Furthermore, co-pelletization between torrefied biomass and cater bean cake can reduce several negative effects of torrefaction such as high energy consumption, low pellet density and strength. The optimal conditions for energy consumption and pellet strength were torrefied at 270°C and a blending with 15% castor bean cake for both biomass materials. The present study indicated that compelmentary performances of the torrefaction and co-pelletization with castor bean cake provide a promising alternative for fuel production from biomass and oil cake.

  11. Energieverbruik in de textielnijverheid (The consumption of energy in the textile industry). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bettens, G.

    1984-01-01

    Figures are given for the consumption and cost of energy in the Belgian textile industry. The main energy users are identified as the wet processes such as dyeing. A brief survey of mechanical processes such as yarn and fabric manufacture is given showing where economies can be made by running at a slower speed and using modern machinery. The wet processes are dealt with in more detail and general indications are given of how economies in energy consumption can be made. Modifying processes, reducing water consumption and improving drying techniques are three examples. The principles are outlined of heat recovery giving figures from industry of the kind of savings that can be made using heat exchangers.

  12. Reduction of lighting energy consumption in office buildings through improved daylight design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadouri, Maria Violeta Prado

    This study aims to investigate the lighting energy consumption in office buildings and the options for its reduction. One way to reduce lighting energy consumption is by improving the daylight design. A better use of daylight in buildings might be an outcome from the effort made in different directions. Like the improvement of a building's fabric and layout, the materials, even the furniture in a space influences the daylight quality considerably. Also very important role in lighting energy consumption has the development of more efficient lighting technology like the electric lighting control systems, such as photo sensors and occupancy sensors. Both systems are responsible so that the electric light is not used without reason. As the focusing area of this study, is to find ways to improve the daylight use in buildings, a consequent question is which are the methods provided in order to achieve this The accuracy of the methodology used is also an important issue in order to achieve reliable results. The methodology applied in this study includes the analysis of a case study by taking field measurements and computer simulations. The first stage included gathering information about the lighting design of the building and monitoring the light levels, both from natural and from the electric lighting. The second stage involved testing with computer simulations, different parameters that were expected to improve the daylight exploitation of the specific area. The results of the field measurements showed that the main problems of the space were the low natural light levels and the poor daylight distribution. The annual electric lighting energy consumption, as it was calculated with the use of computer simulations, represented the annual energy consumption of a typical air-conditioned prestige office building (energy consumption guide 19, for energy use in offices, 2000). After several computer simulations, the results showed that initial design parameters of the building

  13. Development of an energy consumption and cost data base for fuel cell total energy systems and conventional building energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pine, G.D.; Christian, J.E.; Mixon, W.R.; Jackson, W.L.

    1980-07-01

    This report describes the procedures and data sources used to develop an energy-consumption and system-cost data base for use in predicting the market penetration of phosphoric acid fuel cell total-energy systems in the nonindustrial building market. A computer program was used to simulate the hourly energy requirements of six types of buildings - office buildings, retail stores, hotels and motels, schools, hospitals, and multifamily residences. The simulations were done by using hourly weather tapes for one city in each of the ten Department of Energy administrative regions. Two types of building construction were considered, one for existing buildings and one for new buildings. A fuel cell system combined with electrically driven heat pumps and one combined with a gas boiler and an electrically driven chiller were compared with similar conventional systems. The methods of system simulation, component sizing, and system cost estimation are described for each system. The systems were simulated for a single building size for each building type. Methods were developed to extrapolate the system cost and performance data to other building sizes.

  14. Study of the cost/benefit tradeoffs for reducing the energy consumption of the commercial air transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    Practical means were assessed for achieving reduced fuel consumption in commercial air transportation. Five areas were investigated: current aircraft types, revised operational procedures, modifications to current aircraft, derivatives of current aircraft and new near-term fuel conservative aircraft. As part of a multiparticipant coordinated effort, detailed performance and operating cost data in each of these areas were supplied to the contractor responsible for the overall analysis of the cost/benefit tradeoffs for reducing the energy consumption of the domestic commercial air transportation system. A follow-on study was performed to assess the potential of an advanced turboprop transport aircraft concept. To provide a valid basis for comparison, an equivalent turbofan transport aircraft concept incorporating equal technology levels was also derived. The aircraft as compared on the basis of weight, size, fuel utilization, operational characteristics and costs.

  15. Smart HVAC Control in IoT: Energy Consumption Minimization with User Comfort Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Verikoukis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Smart grid is one of the main applications of the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm. Within this context, this paper addresses the efficient energy consumption management of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in smart grids with variable energy price. To that end, first, we propose an energy scheduling method that minimizes the energy consumption cost for a particular time interval, taking into account the energy price and a set of comfort constraints, that is, a range of temperatures according to user's preferences for a given room. Then, we propose an energy scheduler where the user may select to relax the temperature constraints to save more energy. Moreover, thanks to the IoT paradigm, the user may interact remotely with the HVAC control system. In particular, the user may decide remotely the temperature of comfort, while the temperature and energy consumption information is sent through Internet and displayed at the end user's device. The proposed algorithms have been implemented in a real testbed, highlighting the potential gains that can be achieved in terms of both energy and cost. PMID:25054163

  16. Power allocation strategies to minimize energy consumption in wireless body area networks.

    PubMed

    Kailas, Aravind

    2011-01-01

    The wide scale deployment of wireless body area networks (WBANs) hinges on designing energy efficient communication protocols to support the reliable communication as well as to prolong the network lifetime. Cooperative communications, a relatively new idea in wireless communications, offers the benefits of multi-antenna systems, thereby improving the link reliability and boosting energy efficiency. In this short paper, the advantages of resorting to cooperative communications for WBANs in terms of minimized energy consumption are investigated. Adopting an energy model that encompasses energy consumptions in the transmitter and receiver circuits, and transmitting energy per bit, it is seen that cooperative transmission can improve energy efficiency of the wireless network. In particular, the problem of optimal power allocation is studied with the constraint of targeted outage probability. Two strategies of power allocation are considered: power allocation with and without posture state information. Using analysis and simulation-based results, two key points are demonstrated: (i) allocating power to the on-body sensors making use of the posture information can reduce the total energy consumption of the WBAN; and (ii) when the channel condition is good, it is better to recruit less relays for cooperation to enhance energy efficiency.

  17. A Thirst for Power: Measuring the Water Consumption of National Energy Production Portfolios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spang, E.

    2011-12-01

    Discussion of the environmental implications of worldwide energy demand is currently dominated by the effects of CO2 emissions on our global climate. However, at the regional scale, the water resource requirements associated with energy systems are a growing concern. While much of the research in this area (commonly referred to as the "water-energy nexus") has focused on estimating the water consumption of discrete energy technologies, this research synthesizes and expands the existing work in the field to explore the comprehensive water consumption of national level energy portfolios. Understanding the system-wide coupled demand for these resources is crucial for regional governments seeking to improve and protect both water and energy security. To provide a new perspective on the topic, I defined a set of water intensity metrics for national energy production, calculated indicator values for over 150 countries, and digitally mapped the results to create the first global representation of the geographic distribution of water-intensive energy systems. The results demonstrate a high level of variation in the composition and quantities of water consumption across nations as well as across the suite of indicators that were applied. This suggests that meaningful evaluation of water-energy systems fundamentally requires the consideration of spatial and regional characteristics, as well as the application of multiple indicators to define the intensity of the coupled relationship.

  18. Smart HVAC control in IoT: energy consumption minimization with user comfort constraints.

    PubMed

    Serra, Jordi; Pubill, David; Antonopoulos, Angelos; Verikoukis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Smart grid is one of the main applications of the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm. Within this context, this paper addresses the efficient energy consumption management of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in smart grids with variable energy price. To that end, first, we propose an energy scheduling method that minimizes the energy consumption cost for a particular time interval, taking into account the energy price and a set of comfort constraints, that is, a range of temperatures according to user's preferences for a given room. Then, we propose an energy scheduler where the user may select to relax the temperature constraints to save more energy. Moreover, thanks to the IoT paradigm, the user may interact remotely with the HVAC control system. In particular, the user may decide remotely the temperature of comfort, while the temperature and energy consumption information is sent through Internet and displayed at the end user's device. The proposed algorithms have been implemented in a real testbed, highlighting the potential gains that can be achieved in terms of both energy and cost.

  19. Dairy product consumption, dietary nutrient and energy density and associations with obesity in Australian adolescents.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, T A; Bremner, A P; Bremer, H K; Seares, M E; Beilin, L J; Mori, T A; Lyons-Wall, P; Devine, A; Oddy, W H

    2015-10-01

    Dairy intake is likely to influence dietary energy density (ED) and nutrient density (ND), which are factors representing aspects of dietary quality. Although evidence suggests dairy intake is unlikely to contribute to obesity, intake tends to decrease over adolescence, potentially as a result of concerns around weight gain. We examined associations between dairy intake, ED and ND, and investigated relationships with obesity in adolescents. The present study comprised a cross-sectional study of 1613 14-year-olds in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Adolescents completed a 212-item food frequency questionnaire. Nutrient Rich Food index 9.3 (NRF9.3) was used to estimate ND. Age-specific body mass index (BMI) and waist-height cut-offs were used to categorise obesity risk. Mean (SD) dairy intake was: 2.62 (1.51) servings daily; ED was 4.53 (0.83) (food and beverage) and 6.28 (1.33) (food only); ND was 373 (109). Dairy intake was inversely associated with ED and positively associated with ND. The odds of being overweight (as assessed by BMI) increased by 1.24 (95% confidence interval = 1.09-1.42) with each 100-point increase in ND, after adjustment for potential confounders and energy intake. ED measures and dairy intake were inversely associated with obesity after adjustment for confounders; associations became nonsignificant after energy adjustment. The NRF9.3 was originally designed to assess foods, not diets. Further research in other cohorts to determine whether similar findings exist, or investigations into alternate measures of dietary ND, may prove useful. Our findings may be the result of factors such as an excess consumption of refined but fortified foods. Although higher dairy intakes were associated with higher ND, intakes were not associated with higher obesity risk. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  20. Assessment of water consumptions in small mediterranean islands' primary schools by means of a long-term online monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraris, Marco; De Gisi, Sabino; Farina, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    A key challenge of our society is improving schools through the sustainable use of resources especially in countries at risk of desertification. The estimation of water consumption is the starting point for the correct dimensioning of water recovery systems. To date, unlike the energy sector, there is a lack of scientific information regarding water consumption in school buildings. Available data refer roughly to indirect estimates by means of utility bills and therefore no information on the role of water leakage in the internal network of the school is provided. In this context, the aim of the work was to define and implement an on-line monitoring system for the assessment of water consumptions in a small Mediterranean island primary school to achieve the following sub-goals: (1) definition of water consumption profile considering teaching activities and secretarial work; (2) direct assessment of water consumptions and leakages and, (3) quantification of the behaviour parameters. The installed monitoring system consisted of 33 water metres (3.24 persons per water metre) equipped with sensors set on 1-L impulse signal and connected to a data logging system. Results showed consumptions in the range 13.6-14.2 L/student/day and leakage equal to 54.8 % of the total water consumptions. Considering the behavioural parameters, the consumptions related to toilet flushing, personal, and building cleaning were, respectively, 54, 43 and 3 % of the total water ones. Finally, the obtained results could be used for dimensioning the most suitable water recovery strategies at school level such as grey water or rainwater recovery systems.

  1. Consumption of Caffeinated Energy Drinks Among Youth and Young Adults in Canada.

    PubMed

    Reid, Jessica L; McCrory, Cassondra; White, Christine M; Martineau, Chantal; Vanderkooy, Pat; Fenton, Nancy; Hammond, David

    2017-03-01

    The growing market for caffeinated energy drinks (CEDs) has caused concern about excessive caffeine intake and potential adverse effects, particularly among young people. The current study examined patterns of CED consumption among youth and young adults in Canada, using data from a national online survey conducted in October 2014. Data from a non-probability sample of 2040 respondents aged 12-24 from a consumer panel was weighted to national proportions; measures of CED consumption were estimated, including prevalence, excessive daily consumption, and context for use (locations and reasons). Separate logistic regression models for two outcomes, past-week consumption and "ever" exceeding two energy drinks in a day (as per common guidance), were conducted to examine associations with demographic variables (sex, age, geographic region, race/ethnicity, and language). Overall, 73.6% of respondents reported "ever" consuming energy drinks; 15.6% had done so in the past week. Any consumption of energy drinks in the past week was more prevalent among males, Aboriginal respondents (vs. white only or mixed/other), and residents of British Columbia. Among "ever-consumers," 16.0% reported ever consuming more than two energy drinks in a day. Exceeding two in a day was more prevalent among older respondents (young adults aged 18-24), aboriginal respondents (vs. white only), and British Columbia residents. While the majority of youth and young adults had consumed energy drinks, about half were "experimental" consumers (i.e., consumed ≤ 5 drinks in their lifetime). Approximately one in six consumers had exceeded the usual guidance for maximum daily consumption, potentially increasing their risk of experiencing adverse effects.

  2. Sports and energy drink consumption are linked to health-risk behaviours among young adults.

    PubMed

    Larson, Nicole; Laska, Melissa N; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-10-01

    National data for the USA show increases in sports and energy drink consumption over the past decade with the largest increases among young adults aged 20-34 years. The present study aimed to identify sociodemographic factors and health-risk behaviours associated with sports and energy drink consumption among young adults. Cross-sectional analysis of survey data from the third wave of a cohort study (Project EAT-III: Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults). Regression models stratified on gender and adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics were used to examine associations of sports and energy drink consumption with eating behaviours, physical activity, media use, weight-control behaviours, sleep patterns and substance use. Participants completed baseline surveys in 1998-1999 as students at public secondary schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota, USA and the EAT-III surveys online or by mail in 2008-2009. The sample consisted of 2287 participants (55% female, mean age 25·3 years). Results showed 31·0% of young adults consumed sports drinks and 18·8% consumed energy drinks at least weekly. Among men and women, sports drink consumption was associated with higher sugar-sweetened soda and fruit juice intake, video game use and use of muscle-enhancing substances like creatine (P≤0·01). Energy drink consumption was associated with lower breakfast frequency and higher sugar-sweetened soda intake, video game use, use of unhealthy weight-control behaviours, trouble sleeping and substance use among men and women (P<0·05). Health professionals should consider the clustering of sports and energy drink consumption with other unhealthy behaviours in the design of programmes and services for young adults.

  3. Application of the advanced engineering environment for optimization energy consumption in designed vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monica, Z.; Sękala, A.; Gwiazda, A.; Banaś, W.

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays a key issue is to reduce the energy consumption of road vehicles. In particular solution one could find different strategies of energy optimization. The most popular but not sophisticated is so called eco-driving. In this strategy emphasized is particular behavior of drivers. In more sophisticated solution behavior of drivers is supported by control system measuring driving parameters and suggesting proper operation of the driver. The other strategy is concerned with application of different engineering solutions that aid optimization the process of energy consumption. Such systems take into consideration different parameters measured in real time and next take proper action according to procedures loaded to the control computer of a vehicle. The third strategy bases on optimization of the designed vehicle taking into account especially main sub-systems of a technical mean. In this approach the optimal level of energy consumption by a vehicle is obtained by synergetic results of individual optimization of particular constructional sub-systems of a vehicle. It is possible to distinguish three main sub-systems: the structural one the drive one and the control one. In the case of the structural sub-system optimization of the energy consumption level is related with the optimization or the weight parameter and optimization the aerodynamic parameter. The result is optimized body of a vehicle. Regarding the drive sub-system the optimization of the energy consumption level is related with the fuel or power consumption using the previously elaborated physical models. Finally the optimization of the control sub-system consists in determining optimal control parameters.

  4. Sports and energy drink consumption among a population-based sample of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Nicole; Laska, Melissa N.; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2017-01-01

    Objective National data for the U.S. show increases in sports and energy drink consumption over the past decade with the largest increases among young adults ages 20–34. This study aimed to identify sociodemographic factors and health risk behaviors associated with sports and energy drink consumption among young adults. Design Cross-sectional analysis of survey data from the third wave of a cohort study (Project EAT-III: Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults). Regression models stratified on gender and adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics were used to examine associations of sports and energy drink consumption with eating behaviors, physical activity, media use, weight-control behaviors, sleep patterns, and substance use. Setting Participants completed baseline surveys in 1998–1999 as students at public secondary schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota and the EAT-III surveys online or by mail in 2008–2009. Subjects The sample consisted of 2,287 participants (55% female, mean age=25.3). Results Results showed 31.0% of young adults consumed sports drinks and 18.8% consumed energy drinks at least weekly. Among men and women, sports drink consumption was associated with higher sugar-sweetened soda and fruit juice intake, video game use, and use of muscle-enhancing substances like creatine (p<0.01). Energy drink consumption was associated with lower breakfast frequency and higher sugar-sweetened soda intake, video game use, use of unhealthy weight-control behaviors, trouble sleeping, and substance use among men and women (p<0.05). Conclusions Health professionals should consider the clustering of sports and energy drink consumption with other unhealthy behaviors in the design of programs and services for young adults. PMID:25683863

  5. Sociodemographic Correlates of Energy Drink Consumption With and Without Alcohol: Results of a Community Survey

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Lisa K.; Fendrich, Michael; Chen, Han-Yang; Arria, Amelia M.; Cisler, Ron A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We examined the sociodemographic correlates of energy drink use and the differences between those who use them with and without alcohol in a representative community sample. Methods A random-digit-dial landline telephone survey of adults in the Milwaukee, Wisconsin area responded to questions about energy drink and alcohol plus energy drink use. Results Almost one-third of respondents consumed at least one energy drink in their lifetime, while slightly over 25% used energy drinks in the past year and 6% were past-year alcohol plus energy drink users. There were important racial/ethnic differences in consumption patterns. Compared to non-users, past-year energy drink users were more likely to be non-Black minorities; and past-year alcohol plus energy drink users when compared to energy drink users only were more likely to be White and younger. Alcohol plus energy drink users also were more likely to be hazardous drinkers. Conclusions Our results which are among the first from a community sample suggest a bifurcated pattern of energy drink use highlighting important population consumption differences between users of energy drinks only and those who use alcohol and energy drinks together. PMID:21276661

  6. Energy consumption by forward osmosis treatment of landfill leachate for water recovery.

    PubMed

    Iskander, Syeed Md; Zou, Shiqiang; Brazil, Brian; Novak, John T; He, Zhen

    2017-03-22

    Forward osmosis (FO) is an alternative approach for treating landfill leachate with potential advantages of reducing leachate volume and recovering high quality water for direct discharge or reuse. However, energy consumption by FO treatment of leachate has not been examined before. Herein, the operational factors such as recirculation rates and draw concentrations were studied for their effects on the quantified energy consumption by an FO system treating actual leachate collected from two different landfills. It was found that the energy consumption increased with a higher recirculation rate and decreased with a higher draw concentration, and higher water recovery tended to reduce energy consumption. The highest energy consumption was 0.276±0.033kWhm(-3) with the recirculation rate of 110mLmin(-1) and 1-M draw concentration, while the lowest of 0.005±0.000kWhm(-3) was obtained with 30mLmin(-1) recirculation and 3-M draw concentration. The leachate with lower concentrations of the contaminants had a much lower requirement for energy, benefited from its higher water recovery. Osmotic backwashing appeared to be more effective for removing foulants, but precise understanding of membrane fouling and its controlling methods will need a long-term study. The results of this work have implied that FO treatment of leachate could be energy efficient, especially with the use of a suitable draw solute that can be regenerated in an energy efficient way and/or through combination with other treatment technologies that can reduce contaminant concentrations before FO treatment, which warrants further investigation.

  7. Energy Consumption Calculation of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor for Railway Vehicle Traction Using Equivalent Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Minoru; Kawamura, Junya; Terauchi, Nobuo

    We are developing a new high performance traction motor for railway vehicle using interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) and expecting it can reduce energy consumption. To estimate the losses and energy consumption of IPMSM, a simple motor model is needed. In this paper, We propose a simple equivalent circuit and loss model for IPMSM, the constants of which can be obtained from several simple test results. The calculation results using them show that the total loss of the IPMSM becomes about 60% of that of the induction motor when used as a traction motor for a typical commuter train.

  8. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Electricity Generation and Fuel Consumption Models

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    The electricity generation and fuel consumption models of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model provide forecasts of electricity generation from various types of energy sources and forecasts of the quantities of fossil fuels consumed for power generation. The structure of the electricity industry and the behavior of power generators varies between different areas of the United States. In order to capture these differences, the STEO electricity supply and fuel consumption models are designed to provide forecasts for the four primary Census regions.

  9. The relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in Malaysia: ARDL bound test approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razali, Radzuan; Khan, Habib; Shafie, Afza; Hassan, Abdul Rahman

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the short-run and long-run dynamic causal relationship between energy consumption and income per capita both in bivariate and multivariate framework over the period 1971-2014 in the case of Malaysia [1]. The study applies ARDL Bound test procedure for the long run co-integration and Granger causality test for investigation of causal link between the variables. The ARDL bound test confirms the existence of long run co-integration relationship between the variables. The causality test show a feed-back hypothesis between income per capita and energy consumption over the period in the case of Malaysia.

  10. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Electricity Generation and Fuel Consumption Models

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    The electricity generation and fuel consumption models of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model provide forecasts of electricity generation from various types of energy sources and forecasts of the quantities of fossil fuels consumed for power generation. The structure of the electricity industry and the behavior of power generators varies between different areas of the United States. In order to capture these differences, the STEO electricity supply and fuel consumption models are designed to provide forecasts for the four primary Census regions.

  11. [Self-assessment of adolescents regarding water pipe consumption].

    PubMed

    Schwarzer, Mario; Thomas, Jule; Nedela-Morales, Michaela; Kaltenbach, Martin; Herrmann, Eva; Groneberg, David

    2015-01-01

    The use of water pipes is an alternative to cigarette smoking. Current studies show that water pipe smoking is as hazardous as smoking cigarettes. However, rates of water pipe consumption are still high. The consumption behaviour of students was investigated within the evaluation of the school-based prevention program Rauchzeichen. Data about the water pipe use of students was collected using a specially designed questionnaire. Water pipe user rates among students of 8th to 10th grade are still high (7.5 - 21.2 %). 13.2 % of the students, who consume water pipe regularly, state to be non smokers. It seems that many adolescents do not estimate water pipe use as smoking, which might lead to an underestimation of health risks or the use of the water pipe as an alternative addictive drug. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Cash and in-kind transfers in poor rural communities in Mexico increase household fruit, vegetable, and micronutrient consumption but also lead to excess energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Jef L; Gadsden, Paola; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; de Cossío, Teresa González

    2010-03-01

    Conditional transfer programs are increasingly popular, but the impact on household nutrient consumption has not been studied. We evaluated the impact of the Programa de Apoyo Alimentario (PAL), a cash and in-kind transfer program, on the energy and nutrient consumption of poor rural households in Mexico. The program has been shown to reduce poverty. Beneficiary households received either a food basket (including micronutrient-fortified milk) or cash. A random sample of 206 rural communities in Southern Mexico was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: a monthly food basket with or without health and nutrition education, a cash transfer with a cost to the government equivalent to the food basket (14 USD/mo) with education, or control. The impact after 14 mo of exposure was estimated in a panel of 5823 households using a double difference regression model with household fixed effects. PAL was associated with increases (P < 0.01) in the consumption of total energy (5-9%), energy from fruits and vegetables (24-28%), and energy from animal source foods (24-39%). It also affected iron, zinc, and vitamin A and C consumption (P < 0.05). The consumption of energy and all nutrients was greater in the food basket group (P < 0.05). Cash and in-kind transfers in populations that are not energy-deficient should be carefully redesigned to ensure that pulling poor families out of poverty leads to improved micronutrient intake but not to increased energy consumption.

  13. Sleep Quality, Sleep Patterns and Consumption of Energy Drinks and Other Caffeinated Beverages among Peruvian College Students

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Sixto E.; Martinez, Claudia; Oriol, Raphaelle A.; Yanez, David; Castañeda, Benjamín; Sanchez, Elena; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate sleep quality in relation to lifestyle characteristics including consumption of energy drinks and other caffeinated beverages among Peruvian college students. Methods A total of 2,458 college students were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire that collected information about a variety of behaviors including consumption of energy drinks, caffeinated and alcoholic beverages. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess sleep quality. Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for poor sleep quality in relation to lifestyle characteristics. Results A total of 965 males and 1,493 female students were enrolled in the study. 52.0% of males and 58.4% of females experienced poor sleep quality (p=0.002). Females (OR=1.28; 95% CI 1.08–1.51) and those who reported consuming ≥ 3 stimulant beverages per week (OR=1.88; 95% CI 1.42–2.50) had higher odds of poor sleep quality. Students who consumed 1–19 alcoholic beverages monthly (OR=1.90; 95% CI 1.46–2.49) had a higher odds of long sleep latency. Consumption of ≥ 3 stimulant beverages per week was associated with daytime dysfunction due to sleep loss (OR=1.45; 95% CI 1.10–1.90), short sleep duration (OR= 1.49; 95% CI 1.14–1.94), and use of sleep medication (OR= 2.10; 95% CI 1.35–3.28). Conclusions Consumption of energy drinks, other caffeinated beverages and alcoholic beverages are risk factors of poor sleep quality. Increased awareness of these associations should promote interventions to improve students’ lifestyle habits, including consumption of alcoholic and caffeinated beverages, and overall health. PMID:25243056

  14. Investigating the added values of high frequency energy consumption data using data mining techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Ying; Engström, Christopher; Malyarenko, Anatoliy; Wallin, Fredrik

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we apply data-mining techniques to customer classification and clustering tasks on actual electricity consumption data from 350 Swedish households. For the classification task we classify households into different categories based on some statistical attributes of their energy consumption measurements. For the clustering task, we use average daily load diagrams to partition electricity-consuming households into distinct groups. The data contains electricity consumption measurements on each 10-minute time interval for each light source and electrical appliance. We perform the classification and clustering tasks using four variants of processed data sets corresponding to the 10-minute total electricity consumption aggregated from all electrical sources, the hourly total consumption aggregated over all 10-minute intervals during that clock hour, the total consumption over each four-hour intervals and finally the daily total consumption. The goal is to see if there are any differences in using data sets of various frequency levels. We present the comparison results and investigate the added value of the high-frequency measurements, for example 10-minute measurements, in terms of its influence on customer clustering and classification.

  15. China's Top-1000 Energy-Consuming Enterprises Program:Reducing Energy Consumption of the 1000 Largest Industrial Enterprises in China

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Price, Lynn; Wang, Xuejun; Yun, Jiang

    2008-06-02

    In 2005, the Chinese government announced an ambitious goal of reducing energy consumption per unit of GDP by 20% between 2005 and 2010. One of the key initiatives for realizing this goal is the Top-1000 Energy-Consuming Enterprises program. The energy consumption of these 1000 enterprises accounted for 33% of national and 47% of industrial energy usage in 2004. Under the Top-1000 program, 2010 energy consumption targets were determined for each enterprise. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the program design and initial results, given limited information and data, in order to understand the possible implications of its success in terms of energy and carbon dioxide emissions reductions and to recommend future program modifications based on international experience with similar target-setting agreement programs. Even though the Top-1000 Program was designed and implemented rapidly, it appears that--depending upon the GDP growth rate--it could contribute to somewhere between approximately 10% and 25% of the savings required to support China's efforts to meet a 20% reduction in energy use per unit of GDP by 2010.

  16. End-use energy consumption estimates for US commercial buildings, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, D.B.; Wrench, L.E.; Marsh, T.L.

    1993-11-01

    An accurate picture of how energy is used in the nation`s stock of commercial buildings can serve a variety of program planning and policy needs within the Department of Energy, by utilities, and other groups seeking to improve the efficiency of energy use in the building sector. This report describes an estimation of energy consumption by end use based upon data from the 1989 Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS). The methodology used in the study combines elements of engineering simulations and statistical analysis to estimate end-use intensities for heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting, refrigeration, hot water, cooking, and miscellaneous equipment. Billing data for electricity and natural gas were first decomposed into weather and nonweather dependent loads. Subsequently, Statistical Adjusted Engineering (SAE) models were estimated by building type with annual data. The SAE models used variables such as building size, vintage, climate region, weekly operating hours, and employee density to adjust the engineering model predicted loads to the observed consumption. End-use consumption by fuel was estimated for each of the 5,876 buildings in the 1989 CBECS. The report displays the summary results for eleven separate building types as well as for the total US commercial building stock.

  17. End-use energy consumption estimates for U.S. commercial buildings, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, D.B.; Wrench, L.E.

    1997-03-01

    An accurate picture of how energy is used in the nation`s stock of commercial buildings can serve a variety of program planning and policy needs of the US Department of Energy, utilities, and other groups seeking to improve the efficiency of energy use in the building sector. This report describes an estimation of energy consumption by end use based upon data from the 1992 Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS). The methodology used in the study combines elements of engineering simulations and statistical analysis to estimate end-use intensities for heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting, refrigeration, hot water, cooking, and miscellaneous equipment. Statistical Adjusted Engineering (SAE) models were estimated by building type. The nonlinear SAE models used variables such as building size, vintage, climate region, weekly operating hours, and employee density to adjust the engineering model predicted loads to the observed consumption (based upon utility billing information). End-use consumption by fuel was estimated for each of the 6,751 buildings in the 1992 CBECS. The report displays the summary results for 11 separate building types as well as for the total US commercial building stock. 4 figs., 15 tabs.

  18. The impact of restaurant consumption among US adults: effects on energy and nutrient intakes.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Binh T; Powell, Lisa M

    2014-11-01

    To examine the effect of fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption on adults' energy intake and dietary indicators. Individual-level fixed-effects regression model estimation based on two different days of dietary intake data was used. Parallel to the rising obesity epidemic in the USA, there has been a marked upward trend in total energy intake derived from food away from home. The full sample included 12 528 respondents aged 20-64 years who completed 24 h dietary recall interviews for both day 1 and day 2 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008 and 2009-2010. Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption, respectively, was associated with an increase in daily total energy intake of 813·75 kJ (194·49 kcal) and 858·04 kJ (205·21 kcal) and with higher intakes of saturated fat (3·48 g and 2·52 g) and Na (296·38 mg and 451·06 mg). Individual characteristics moderated the impacts of restaurant food consumption with adverse impacts on net energy intake being larger for black adults compared with their white and Hispanic counterparts and greater for middle-income v. high-income adults. Adults' fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption was associated with higher daily total energy intake and poorer dietary indicators.

  19. Muscle Synergies Heavily Influence the Neural Control of Arm Endpoint Stiffness and Energy Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Inouye, Joshua M.; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Much debate has arisen from research on muscle synergies with respect to both limb impedance control and energy consumption. Studies of limb impedance control in the context of reaching movements and postural tasks have produced divergent findings, and this study explores whether the use of synergies by the central nervous system (CNS) can resolve these findings and also provide insights on mechanisms of energy consumption. In this study, we phrase these debates at the conceptual level of interactions between neural degrees of freedom and tasks constraints. This allows us to examine the ability of experimentally-observed synergies—correlated muscle activations—to control both energy consumption and the stiffness component of limb endpoint impedance. In our nominal 6-muscle planar arm model, muscle synergies and the desired size, shape, and orientation of endpoint stiffness ellipses, are expressed as linear constraints that define the set of feasible muscle activation patterns. Quadratic programming allows us to predict whether and how energy consumption can be minimized throughout the workspace of the limb given those linear constraints. We show that the presence of synergies drastically decreases the ability of the CNS to vary the properties of the endpoint stiffness and can even preclude the ability to minimize energy. Furthermore, the capacity to minimize energy consumption—when available—can be greatly affected by arm posture. Our computational approach helps reconcile divergent findings and conclusions about task-specific regulation of endpoint stiffness and energy consumption in the context of synergies. But more generally, these results provide further evidence that the benefits and disadvantages of muscle synergies go hand-in-hand with the structure of feasible muscle activation patterns afforded by the mechanics of the limb and task constraints. These insights will help design experiments to elucidate the interplay between synergies and the

  20. Regional overview of Latin American and Caribbean energy production, consumption, and future growth. Report series No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.

    1994-07-01

    The Latin American and Caribbean region - comprising Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean - is relatively well endowed with energy resources, although the distribution of these resources is uneven across countries. The region produces more energy than it consumes, and the surplus energy, which amounts to 3.6 million barrels of oil equivalent per day (boe/d), is mostly oil. While the region`s total oil (crude and products) exports decreased from 4.4 million barrels per day (b/d) in 1981 to 3.8 million b/d in 1992, its net oil exports increased from about 1.6 million b/d in 1981 to 2.8 million b/d in 1992. In 1993, the surplus oil in Latin America and the Caribbean remained at 2.8 million b/d. This report analyzes the key issues of the Latin American and Caribbean energy industry and presents the future outlook for oil, gas, coal, hydroelectricity, and nuclear power developments in the region. In addition, the status of biomass energy, geothermal, and other noncommercial energy in the region will be briefly discussed in the context of overall energy development. The rest of the report is organized as follows: Section II assesses the current situation of Latin American and Caribbean energy production and consumption, covering primary energy supply, primary energy consumption, downstream petroleum sector development, and natural gas utilization. Section III presents the results of our study of future energy growth in Latin America. Important hydrocarbons policy issues in the region are discussed in Section IV, and a summary and concluding remarks are provided in Section V.