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Sample records for assessing health worker

  1. Lay Outreach Workers and the Ohio Migrant and Seasonal Farm Workers Health Education Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Olga L.

    The Migrant and Seasonal Farm Workers Project sought to determine the health education needs of this indigent population in Ohio using the help of lay outreach workers. A bilingual needs assessment survey was developed containing questions on demographics, place of permanent residence, points of travel after working in Ohio, and type of work and…

  2. [Efficiency assessment of investment in workers' health--economic issues].

    PubMed

    Rydlewska-Liszkowska, Izabela; Dawydzik, Lech T

    2002-01-01

    The economic analysis of efficiency of investment in health care and health at large by means of cost-benefit or cost-effectiveness techniques is the subject of implementation work in a number of countries. Poland's integration with the countries of the European Union justifies the need to understand and to use economic analyses. Unfortunately, these activities encounter many methodological and executive barriers. The investments in workers' health are not only investments in health care and the improvement of working conditions, but also in compensations, including financial ones, resulting from adverse effects of factors influencing the health of working population. The financial reporting system that exists in Poland does not ensure the possibility of full presentation of the aggregated data on the financing of activities for workers' health and diminishing of the adverse effects of factors present in the work environment. The information on the outcome of the investments in workers' health come from different sources, which means that it applies to different groups subjected to the analysis. The problem lies not only in the assessment of profitability of health investments but also in the social problem of the division of the resultant costs and benefits among various branches of the national economy. Therefore, the analyses involving mutual relations between individual sectors that invest in workers' health and those that bear consequences is essential in the terms of economic analyses. The authors present the determinants of economic evaluation in regard to health of working population in Poland.

  3. Assessment of village health worker training program in Tuguegarao, Philippine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Min; Koh, Kwang Wook; Oak, Chul Ho; Jung, Woo Hyuk; Kim, Sung Hyun; Park, Dae Hee

    2009-11-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of 'village health worker training program' which aimed to build community participatory health promotion capacity of community leaders in villages of low developed country and to develop methods for further development of the program. The intervention group were 134 community leaders from 25 barangays (village). Control group were 149 form 4 barangays. Intervention group participated 3-day training program. Questionnaire was developed based on 'Health Promotion Capacity Checklist' which assessed capacity in 4 feathers; 'knowledge', 'skill', 'commitment', and 'resource'. Each feather was assessed in 4 point rating scale. Capacity scores between intervention group and control group were examined to identify changes between the pre- and post-intervention periods. A qualitative evaluation of the program was conducted to assess the appropriateness of the program. The program was conducted in Tuguegarao city, Philippine in January, 2009. The result showed significant increases in the total health promotion capacity and each feather of health promotion capacities between pre and post assessment of intervention group. But there was no significant change in that of control group. Participants marked high level of satisfaction for preparedness, selection of main subjects and education method. Qualitative evaluation revealed that training program facilitated community participatory health promotion capacity of participants. This study suggested that the Village health worker training program is effective for building health promotion capacity of community leaders and it can be a main method for helping low developed countries with further development.

  4. Assessment of health effects in workers at gasoline station.

    PubMed

    Pranjić, Nurka; Mujagić, Hamza; Nurkić, Mahmud; Karamehić, Jasenko; Pavlović, Slobodan

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was to made assessment of health effects in 37 workers exposed to gasoline, and its constituents at gasoline stations between 1985 and 1996. Thirty-seven persons who had been exposed to gasoline for more than five years were examined. The evaluation included a medical / occupational history, haematological and biochemical examination, a physical exam, standardized psychological tests, and ultrasound examination of kidneys and liver. The groups were identical in other common parameters including age, gender (all men), and level of education (P<0. 05). The data were compared to two control groups: 61 healthy non-exposed controls and 25 workers at gasoline stations exposed to organic lead for only nine months. Peripheral smear revealed basophilic stippling and reticulocytosis. We found in chronic exposed gasoline workers haematological disorders: mild leukocytosis (7 of 37), lymphocytosis (20 of 37), mild lymhocytopenia (3 of 37), and decrease of red blood cells count (11 of 37). Results indicated that they have suffered from liver disorders: lipoid degeneration of liver (14 of 37), chronic functional damages of liver (3 of 37), cirrhosis (1 of 37). Ultrasound examination indicated chronic kidney damages (8 of 37). These results significantly differed from those of controls (P< 0.05). In 13 out of 37 workers at gasoline stations exposed to gasoline for more than 5 years the symptom of depression and decreased reaction time and motor abilities were identified. The summary of diseases of workers exposed to organic lead and gasoline are discussed.

  5. Career Education for Mental Health Workers. Health Assessment. Human Service Instructional Series. Module No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redcay, Madeleine C.

    This module on health assessment is one of a set of six developed to prepare human services workers for the changing mental health service delivery system. A total of seven objectives are included to help students utilize knowledge of physical factors which may influence health and behavior in order to recognize signs and symptoms which indicate…

  6. Health risk assessment on tunnel workers' exposure to PM10 based on triangular fuzzy numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fei; Xiao, Minsi; Zhang, Jingdong; Yang, Jun; Zhu, Liyun

    2017-03-01

    The triangular fuzzy numbers were introduced to environmental assessment system, health risk assessment model based on triangular fuzzy numbers was built to calculate exposure dose and characterize the health risk of tunnel workers' exposure to PM10. PM10 was measured on the site at 7 sampling spots of the tunnel. In order to ensure the accuracy of the assessment, the exposure factors of tunnel workers were obtained through questionnaires instead of handbooks. 176 workers including 5 types of workers were selected as samples. The results showed that PM10 exposure concentrations of different types of workers from high to low were excavation workers, blasting workers, secondary-lining workers, slag-out workers, and supporting workers. According to health risk assessment, all of the five types of tunnel workers had health risk. Excavation workers' highest hazard quotient was mainly due to extremely high concentration of PM10. For secondary-lining workers, their hazard quotient was second only to excavation workers for their relatively high inhalation rate and exposure time.

  7. Reaching remote health workers in Malawi: baseline assessment of a pilot mHealth intervention.

    PubMed

    Lemay, Nancy Vollmer; Sullivan, Tara; Jumbe, Brian; Perry, Cary Peabody

    2012-01-01

    mHealth has great potential to change the landscape of health service delivery in less developed countries--expanding the reach of health information to frontline health workers in remote areas. Formative, process, and summative evaluation each play an important role in mHealth interventions. K4Health conducted a Health Information Needs Assessment in Malawi from July to September 2009 (formative evaluation) that found widespread use of cell phones among health workers offering new opportunities for knowledge exchange, especially in areas where access to health information is limited. K4Health subsequently designed an 18-month demonstration project (January 2010 to June 2011) to improve the exchange and use of family planning/reproductive health and HIV/AIDS knowledge among health workers, which included the introduction of a short message service (SMS) network. K4Health conducted a pretest of the mHealth intervention from June to October 2010. A baseline assessment was carried out in November 2010 before expanding the SMS network and included use of qualitative and quantitative measures and comparison groups (summative evaluation). Routinely collected statistics also guide the program (process evaluation). This article describes the approach and main findings of the SMS baseline study and contributes to a growing body of evidence measuring the effectiveness and efficiency of mHealth programs using a strong evaluation design.

  8. Assessing Health Workers' Performance. A Manual for Training and Supervision. Public Health Papers No. 72.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, F. M.; Snow, R.

    This manual is intended to assist teachers and supervisors by providing a set of guidelines on the design and use of methods for assessment of students' and health workers' performance. It is divided into two parts. Part 1 outlines a general approach to performance assessment, establishes a set of principles essential to the effective assessment…

  9. Worker health and safety training: assessing impact among responders.

    PubMed

    Weidner, B L; Gotsch, A R; Delnevo, C D; Newman, J B; McDonald, B

    1998-03-01

    A mail survey was conducted among emergency responders who received training at the New Jersey/New York Hazardous Materials Worker Training Center. Responses indicate that technical topics are extremely important (i.e., decontamination, personal protection); that the vast preponderance of trainees felt confident in their ability to recall specific critical concepts in a crisis; and that 42% of respondents (75) had experienced an incident that would have resulted in injury or death without training. Phone surveys for details of specific incidents reported by 43 of the 75 mail survey respondents revealed that anecdotal data provide powerful evidence of the value of training; that extensive and uniform training is needed across jurisdictions; that training should emphasize the technical aspects of health and safety, and should include demonstration and hands-on techniques; and that integrated organizational support for implementation of health and safety practices is critical.

  10. Effectiveness of computerized risk assessment system on enhancing workers' occupational health and attitudes towards occupational health.

    PubMed

    Ho, Wan-Yi; Sung, Connie Y Y; Yu, Qiu-Hua; Chan, Chetwyn C H

    2014-01-01

    Efforts have been paid to lower the health risks associated with use of computers at the workplace. Computerized risk assessment systems are available in the market for adoption by companies. The Display Screen Equipment Risk Assessment and Management System was designed for conducting risk assessment and providing intelligent-driven solutions for DSE-related occupational health problems. This report summarizes two consecutive research work conducted on evaluating its effect in reducing body discomfort and mental fatigue, and enhancing sedentary workers' occupational health. Convenience sampling was adopted to recruit participants (111 participants for Study 1 and 75 participants for Study 2 who were randomly assigned to an immediate or a delayed intervention group. The intervention was using DSE RAM System to perform a risk assessment followed by an immediate modification of participant's workstation based on the recommendations generated by the System. Face to face interview was conducted and participants completed three sets of questionnaires right before the assessment and two weeks after the intervention. The results of Study 1 revealed that the DSE RAM System was effective for alleviating the discomfort and fatigue levels by rectifying the workstation-worker match. These mismatches were identified to be the heights of monitor, keyboard and chair with the workers. The results of Study 2 indicate that the System was specific for promoting participants to take more frequent rest breaks (OR: 3.65) and pay more attention to occupational safety and health information (OR: 3.90). In particular, the take frequent rest breaks behavior was found to predict decrease in discomfort in the eyes and mental fatigue (lack of energy). Nevertheless, there was no strong evidence on the use of the System can lead to immediate attitudinal changes towards occupational health and safety. The findings support the notion that workers' participation and integration of ergonomics into

  11. Health status assessment of workers during construction phase of highway rehabilitation projects around lahore, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Abrar, Amina; Cheema, Kausar Jamal; Saif, Samia; Mahmood, Asim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The study focused on assessment of the health status of workers during construction phase of highway rehabilitation projects at six selected sites of N5 around Lahore, including Kala Shah Kaku, Muridke, Kamuki, Bhaipheru, Pattoki, and Okara. Methods: The study was based on multi-methods approach involving hazard identification through survey and checklist as well as a questionnaire for health status assessment and measurements of health parameters including peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and audiometric screening of 300 subjects. Results: The study revealed non-congenial working conditions at the sites. Noise, vibrations, dust, asphalt fumes, poor work postures, and injuries were found to be major health hazards. PEFR of most of the workers was found to be significantly lower than the reference value. Average PEFR±SEM values were 187±5.1 l/min, 178±4.3 l/min, and 266±5.3 l/min in ground preparation workers, asphalt workers, and heavy vehicle drivers, respectively. The highest rate (29%) of hearing loss was recorded among heavy vehicle drivers. Musculoskeletal problems were found to be more common among ground preparation workers. Conclusion: Data revealed unsatisfactory health status of most of the workers. Direct relationship between health outcomes and the type of construction activities were observed. The current study focuses on the importance of including occupational health and safety plan in the execution phase of every developmental project that involves construction activities. PMID:27853055

  12. Community Health Worker Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perales, Aurora Rodriguez

    An experienced community health worker describes her experiences in the field as a basis for recommended guidelines for the role, philosophy, aims, and goals of community health workers. The role of the community health worker as a member of the health care team is explored, and the problem of recognition for community health workers is considered…

  13. Assessing the implementation of performance management of health care workers in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The performance management concept is relatively new to the Ugandan health sector. Uganda has been implementing health sector reforms for nearly two decades. The reforms included the introduction of the results-oriented management in the public sector and the decentralisation of the management of health care workers from central to local governments. This study examined the implementation of performance management of health care workers in order to propose strategies for improvement. Methods The study was a descriptive survey carried out in the Kumi, Mbale, Sironko and Tororo districts and utilising mixed research methodology. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data from the health care workers. A semi-structured interview guide was used to collect qualitative data from the health service managers. The sample for the quantitative method was selected using stratified random sampling. Purposive sampling was used to select health service managers. Quantitative data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version 18.0). Qualitative data were categorised according to the themes and analysed manually. Results The findings show that to some extent performance management is implemented in the health sector; however, there were loopholes in its implementation. There were inadequacies in setting performance targets and performance management planning was hardly done. Although many health care workers had job descriptions, the performance indicators and standards were not clearly defined and known to all workers and managers. Additionally the schedules for performance assessments were not always adhered to. There were limited prospects for career progression, inadequate performance feedback and poor rewarding mechanisms. Conclusions Performance management of health care workers is inadequately done in the districts. Performance management is a key component of attempts to improve health sector outcomes. As a

  14. Development of the Competency Assessment Tool-Mental Health, an instrument to assess core competencies for mental health care workers.

    PubMed

    Clasen, Carla; Meyer, Cheryl; Brun, Carl; Mase, William; Cauley, Kate

    2003-01-01

    As the focus on accountability in health care increases, there has been a corresponding emphasis on establishing core competencies for health care workers. This article discusses the development of an instrument to establish core competencies for workers in inpatient mental health settings. Twenty-six competencies were identified and rated by mental health care personnel on two subscales: the importance of the competency and how much behavioral health care workers could benefit from training on the competency. The reliability of the scale and its contributions to the training, retention and recruitment of direct care workers for behavioral health are discussed.

  15. Assessment of Tooth Wear Among Glass Factory Workers: WHO 2013 Oral Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Pulkit; Bhat, Nagesh; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Mridula; Bapat, Salil; Gupta, Vivek Vardhan

    2015-08-01

    Glass factory workers are often exposed to the hazardous environment that leads to deleterious oral health and subsequently, general health. We planned to determine the effects of the particulates present in the milieu on the tooth wear among workers. To assess tooth wear among glass factory workers in Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among 936 glass workers in Jaipur, Rajasthan, India from January-June 2014. A survey proforma was designed for tooth wear evaluation with the help of WHO Oral Health Assessment form 2013 (for adults). Information regarding oral health practices, adverse habits and dietary habits, demographic details was gathered and clinical parameters were recorded. The Chi-square test, t-test, One-way Analysis of Variance and a Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. The most prevalent form of erosion was enamel erosion (589, 62.93%) with few subjects of deeper dentinal erosion and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.001). Dental erosion was found to be higher among males compared to females. Years of experience and educational status were identified as best predictors for dental erosion. It was concluded that there was considerable evidence of dental erosion found among the factory workers. Due to ignorance on social, cultural and health aspects, professional approach with regular dental care services for detection of early symptoms and planning of preventive strategies is warranted.

  16. Assessment of Tooth Wear Among Glass Factory Workers: WHO 2013 Oral Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Nagesh; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Mridula; Bapat, Salil; Gupta, Vivek Vardhan

    2015-01-01

    Background Glass factory workers are often exposed to the hazardous environment that leads to deleterious oral health and subsequently, general health. We planned to determine the effects of the particulates present in the milieu on the tooth wear among workers. Aim To assess tooth wear among glass factory workers in Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. Settings and Design A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among 936 glass workers in Jaipur, Rajasthan, India from January-June 2014. Materials and Methods A survey proforma was designed for tooth wear evaluation with the help of WHO Oral Health Assessment form 2013 (for adults). Information regarding oral health practices, adverse habits and dietary habits, demographic details was gathered and clinical parameters were recorded. Statistical Analysis The Chi–square test, t–test, One-way Analysis of Variance and a Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. Results The most prevalent form of erosion was enamel erosion (589, 62.93%) with few subjects of deeper dentinal erosion and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.001). Dental erosion was found to be higher among males compared to females. Years of experience and educational status were identified as best predictors for dental erosion. Conclusion It was concluded that there was considerable evidence of dental erosion found among the factory workers. Due to ignorance on social, cultural and health aspects, professional approach with regular dental care services for detection of early symptoms and planning of preventive strategies is warranted. PMID:26436050

  17. Health risk assessment of workers exposed to metals from an aluminium production plant.

    PubMed

    Buranatrevedh, Surasak

    2010-12-01

    Foundry is an industry involved various kinds of metals and chemicals. Workers who work in foundry industry are at risk of exposure to these metals and chemicals. Objective of this study was to conduct quantitative health risk assessment for workers who exposed to metals from an aluminium production industry. The U.S. National Academy of Sciences' four steps of health risk assessment were used to conduct quantitative health risk assessment in this study. This study showed that there were 6 types of metals involved in the aluminium foundry in this study. These metals could cause various health effects but not cancers. Workers were mostly exposed to these metals by inhalation. Calculated reference dose (RfD) for inhalation of aluminium used in this assessment was 0.000015 mg/kg/day. Calculated RID for inhalation of manganese used in this assessment was 0.000002 mg/kg/day. Calculated RfD for inhalation of copper used in this assessment was 0.000028 mg/kg/day. Calculated RID for inhalation of zinc used in this assessment was 0.000083 mg/ kg/day. Calculated RID for inhalation of magnesium used in this assessment was 0.949833 mg/kg/day. Calculated RID for inhalation of iron used in this assessment was 10.6219 mg/kg/day. Maximum daily doses (MDDs) for workers who exposed to metals measured in this foundry were 0, 0, 0.000463, 0.0000927, 0.000162 and 0 mg/kg/day for manganese, zinc, aluminium, iron, magnesium and copper, respectively. Finally, risk characterization for workers exposed to metals in this aluminium foundry showed that workers in this foundry had 31 times higher risk of developing diseases from aluminium than persons who were not exposed to aluminium. These workers had the same risk of developing diseases from other metals and chemicals as persons who were not exposed to those metals and chemicals. Workers who exposed to aluminium in this aluminium production plant had 31 times risk of developing non-carcinogenic effects from aluminium compared with normal

  18. Assessing Interventions To Improve Influenza Vaccine Uptake Among Health Care Workers.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Harunor; Yin, Jiehui Kevin; Ward, Kirsten; King, Catherine; Seale, Holly; Booy, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Despite official recommendations for health care workers to receive the influenza vaccine, uptake remains low. This systematic review of randomized controlled trials was conducted to understand the evidence about interventions to improve influenza vaccine uptake among health care workers. We identified twelve randomized controlled trials that, collectively, assessed six major categories of interventions involving 193,924 health care workers in high-income countries. The categories were educational materials and training sessions, improved access to the vaccine, rewards following vaccination, organized efforts to raise vaccine awareness, reminders to get vaccinated, and the use of lead advocates for vaccination. Only one of the four studies that evaluated the effect of a single intervention in isolation demonstrated a significantly higher vaccine uptake rate in the intervention group, compared to controls. However, five of the eight studies that evaluated a combination of strategies showed significantly higher vaccine uptake. Despite the low quality of the studies identified, the data suggest that combined interventions can moderately increase vaccine uptake among health care workers. Further methodologically appropriate trials of combined interventions tailored to individual health care settings and incorporating less-studied strategies would enhance the evidence about interventions to improve immunization uptake among health care workers.

  19. How occupational health is assessed in mine workers in Murmansk Oblast

    PubMed Central

    Skandfer, Morten; Siurin, Sergei; Talykova, Ljudmila; Øvrum, Arild; Brenn, Tormod; Vaktskjold, Arild

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to describe how work exposure and occupational health is assessed for mine workers in Murmansk Oblast, Russia. Study design A descriptive study based on current practice, laws and available literature. Methods The information and data were obtained from scientific publications, reports, regional and federal statistics, legal documents, through personal visits and onsite inspections. Results Several institutions are involved in these assessments, but all mine workers have been examined by specialists at one institution, which helps to ensure that the work is of stable quality and adds reliability value to the numbers. Workplace risks are assigned hazard grades, which influence the frequency of periodic medical examinations and salary levels. The examinations are aimed to diagnose latent or manifest occupational disease. This may lead to relocation to a workplace with lower exposure levels, free medical treatment, compensation and a lower pension age. Conclusions Regulations and systems to protect the health of mine workers have more emphasis on control and repair than on prevention. Since relocation can lower the salary, some workers may under-report medical problems. To what degree this happens is unknown. The mining enterprises pay the medical service provider for periodic medical examinations, which could potentially weaken their independent role. This framework is important to understand when studying and assessing the health of working populations in the circumpolar region. PMID:22584515

  20. [Health Risk Assessment of Tunnel Workers Based on the Investigation and Analysis of Occupational Exposure to PM10].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Hua-li; Yang, Jun; Qiu, Zhen-zhen; Lei, Wan-xiong; Zeng, Ting-ting; Lan, Zhi-cai

    2015-08-01

    The health risk of tunnel workers' occupational exposure to PM10, was evaluated applying public health exposure evaluation nodel. A questionnaire survey of 250 tunnel workers was conducted in a construction site of Ma-zhu Highway in Hubei Province, and the concentrations of PM10 were monitored. The results showed that the PM10 exposure concentrations of different types of tunnel workers were extremely high. Compared with the limited value, the PM10 exposure concentrations were 83 times, 18 times, 8 times, 9 times Emd 9 times for excavation workers, blasting workers, supporting workers, slag-out workers and secondary-lining workers, respectively. For secondary-lining workers, the average daily exposure time was the longest, which was 11.48 h x d(-1), and the energy metabolism rate was also the highest, which was 1067.43 kj x (m2 x h)(-1). Regarding the inhalation rates, secondary-lining workers could be classified to high-level working intensity, and the other four types of tunnel workers could he classified to middle-level working intensity. The health risk assessment results showed that all tunnel workers had health risk. High exposure concentration of PM10 was the main reason for excavation workers' highest hazard quotient, and it was the same for the blasting workers. The reason for secondary-lining workers' high hazard quotient was that they had higher inhalation rates and longer average daily exposure time. In order to reduce the health risk of tunnel workers, firstly the workers should be equipped with appropriate respiratory protective equipment; secondly an appropriate tunnel working standard should be developed to set a reasonable working-years for reducing the exposure time.

  1. Assessment of hand hygiene compliance after hand hygiene education among health care workers in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Sansam, Sim; Yamamoto, Eiko; Srun, Sok; Sinath, Yin; Moniborin, Mey; Bun Sim, Kheang; Reyer, Joshua A; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2016-05-01

    Health care-associated infection (HCAI) is the most frequent adverse event for hospitalized patients. Hand hygiene is a simple and effective solution to protect patients from HCAI. This study aimed to introduce hand hygiene to health care workers based on the World Health Organization guideline for reducing HCAI in Cambodia and to assess their behavioral patterns on hand hygiene. All health care workers at Kampong Cham provincial hospital had lectures and practice on hand hygiene in January 2012. The surveys for hand hygiene compliance (HHC) were performed after 6 months, 1 year and 2 years, respectively. The number of surgical site infections (SSI) was counted in 2011 and 2014. Our analysis used the data of 58 workers, who were observed at all three points, although 139 workers were observed during the study period. The average of HHC at 6 months, 1 year and 2 years were 62.37%, 85.76% and 80.36%, respectively. The improved group (HHC 2 years/1 year≧1) had 32 workers, whereas the worsened group (HHC 2 years/1 year<1) had 26. There was a significant difference in departments of the two groups (P=0.011) but not in sex, age or occupations. The improved group had more workers of General (31.2% vs. 19.2%), Surgical (25.0% vs. 11.5%) and Infection (21.9% vs. 11.5%) categories compared to the worsened group. The incidence of SSI was improved from 32.26% in 2011 to 0.97% in 2014. Our results suggest that the education and the survey on hand hygiene are effective for reducing HCAI in Cambodia.

  2. Assessment of hand hygiene compliance after hand hygiene education among health care workers in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Sansam, Sim; Yamamoto, Eiko; Srun, Sok; Sinath, Yin; Moniborin, Mey; Bun Sim, Kheang; Reyer, Joshua A.; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Health care-associated infection (HCAI) is the most frequent adverse event for hospitalized patients. Hand hygiene is a simple and effective solution to protect patients from HCAI. This study aimed to introduce hand hygiene to health care workers based on the World Health Organization guideline for reducing HCAI in Cambodia and to assess their behavioral patterns on hand hygiene. All health care workers at Kampong Cham provincial hospital had lectures and practice on hand hygiene in January 2012. The surveys for hand hygiene compliance (HHC) were performed after 6 months, 1 year and 2 years, respectively. The number of surgical site infections (SSI) was counted in 2011 and 2014. Our analysis used the data of 58 workers, who were observed at all three points, although 139 workers were observed during the study period. The average of HHC at 6 months, 1 year and 2 years were 62.37%, 85.76% and 80.36%, respectively. The improved group (HHC 2 years/1 year≧1) had 32 workers, whereas the worsened group (HHC 2 years/1 year<1) had 26. There was a significant difference in departments of the two groups (P=0.011) but not in sex, age or occupations. The improved group had more workers of General (31.2% vs. 19.2%), Surgical (25.0% vs. 11.5%) and Infection (21.9% vs. 11.5%) categories compared to the worsened group. The incidence of SSI was improved from 32.26% in 2011 to 0.97% in 2014. Our results suggest that the education and the survey on hand hygiene are effective for reducing HCAI in Cambodia. PMID:27303102

  3. Assessment of zero gravity effects on space worker health and safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    One objective of the study is to assess the effects of all currently known deviations from normal of medical, physiological, and biochemical parameters which appear to be due to zero gravity (zero-g) environment and to acceleration and deceleration to be experienced, as outlined in the references Solar Power Satellites (SPS) design, by space worker. Study results include identification of possible health or safety effects on space workers either immediate or delayed due to the zero gravity environment and acceleration and deceleration; estimation of the probability that an individual will be adversely affected; description of the possible consequence to work efficiency in persons adversely affected; and description of the possible/probable consequences to immediate and future health of individuals exposed to this environment. A research plan, which addresses the uncertainties in current knowledge regarding the health and safety hazards to exposed SPS space workers, is presented. Although most adverse affects experienced during space flight soon disappeared upon return to the Earth's environment, there remains a definite concern for the long-term effects to SPS space workers who might spend as much as half their time in space during a possible five year career period. The proposed 90 day up/90 day down cycle, coupled with the fact that most of the effects of weightlessness may persist throughout the flight along with the realization that recovery may occupy much of the terrestrial stay, may keep the SPS workers in a deviant physical condition or state of flux for 60 to 100% of their five year career.

  4. Assessment of zero gravity effects on space worker health and safety

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    One objective of the study is to assess the effects of all currently known deviations from normal of medical, physiological, and biochemical parameters which appear to be due to zero gravity (zero-g) environment and to acceleration and deceleration to be experienced, as outlined in the reference Solar Power Satellite (SPS) design, by space worker. Study results include identification of possible health or safety effects on space workers - either immediate or delayed - due to the zero gravity environment and acceleration and deceleration; estimation of the probability that an individual will be adversely affected; description of the possible consequence to work efficiently in persons adversely affected; and description of the possible/probable consequences to immediate and future health of individuals exposed to this environment. A research plan, which addresses the uncertainties in current knowledge regarding the health and safety hazards to exposed SPS space workers, is presented. Although most adverse affects experienced during space flight soon disappeared upon return to the Earth's environment, there remains a definite concern for the long-term effects to SPS space workers who might spend as much as half their time in space during a possible five-year career period. The proposed 90-day up/90 day down cycle, coupled with the fact that most of the effects of weightlessness may persist throughout the flight along with the realization that recovery may occupy much of the terrestrial stay, may keep the SPS workers in a deviant physical condition or state of flux for 60 to 100% of their five-year career. (JGB)

  5. Health care workers.

    PubMed

    Udasin, I G

    2000-12-01

    More people are employed in the health care sector than in any other industry in the United States. Health care workers are exposed to a wide variety of hazards, including biological, chemical, physical and psychological stressors. Concerns about exposure to contagious diseases such as HIV, Hepatitis B and C, and tuberculosis have influenced the career choices of many health professionals. Physical hazards, especially ergonomic ones, account for the majority of the disability faced by health care workers. Chemical exposure and psychosocial stresses are also present in health care institutions. The exposure encountered in health care facilities is potentially dangerous to health care workers as well as to their family members and unborn children.

  6. [Health situation assessment by primary care workers based on geographic information systems].

    PubMed

    Ritter, Fernando; Rosa, Roger dos Santos; Flores, Rui

    2013-12-01

    Primary healthcare has made little use of information systems to assess the population's health situation due to the difficulty in understanding the reports. Generic definitions of actions are common, based on empirical observations. The current study aimed to evaluate whether the introduction of georeferenced indicators can serve to better identify individuals' health situation, which would help planning actions by health teams. Healthcare workers from eight teams answered a questionnaire at three different moments: the first, before reading the information system's reports; the second after reading; and the third after using georeferencing. The results showed a significant difference in the classification of the health situation using georeferencing when compared to the previous moments (p < 0.05). Georeferencing facilitated analysis of the health situation, fostering better monitoring of work processes. Finally, use of the data points to rationalization of actions and possible upgrading of healthcare. The study suggests the use of georeferencing in the work agenda to become an effective tool for orienting actions.

  7. Assessment of Anxiety Level of Emergency Health-care Workers by Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 Tool.

    PubMed

    Alharthy, Nesrin; Alrajeh, Osama Abdulrahman; Almutairi, Mohammed; Alhajri, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Dealing with emergency patients is considered to be a stressful situation to all health-care workers in the emergency department (ED). Prolonged stress predispose to physical and inconsequential psychiatric disturbances. Anxiety and depressive mode were found to be the most commonly experienced psychiatric manifestation among emergency health-care workers. The aim of this study is to screen and assess the severity of anxiety among health professionals working in ED. Cross-sectional study design was used. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)-7 screening tool was used to assess for anxiety symptoms. GAD-7 is a validated self-report tool that comprises seven questions where each question is rated on a 3-point scale. Demographic data were collected from the study sample. The study sample consists of emergency physician, nurses, and other emergency medical services workers. Data analysis was performed using SAS version 9.2 software. Descriptive statistics, nonparametric comparison, and correlation were performed as part of data analysis. A total of 135 participants completed the questionnaire, of which, 66% of the participants were males. Occupational status of the respondents indicated that majority (35.6%) were physicians followed by 27.4% of emergency medical, and 27% of nurses. The results of this study indicated that 48% of the subjects were observed without an anxiety disorder. However, moderate to mild degrees of anxiety disorder was identified among 20.7% and 23.7% of the subjects, respectively. Severe anxiety disorder was found among 7.6% of the respondents. Emergency medical services workers were reported to have the highest GAD-7 score followed by physicians and nurses P = 0.039. Gender and older age group among health professionals were statistically significant correlated with higher GAD-7 score P = 0.028 and 0.048, respectively. There is no significant difference in GAD-7 score among health professional dealing with adult versus pediatrics patient. From this

  8. [Self-assessment of health status and associated factors: a study in bank workers].

    PubMed

    Petarli, Glenda Blaser; Salaroli, Luciane Bresciani; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza; Zandonade, Eliana

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how bank employees assess their health status and risk factors associated with this indicator in this population. This is a cross-sectional study involving 525 workers of a banking system in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The magnitude of the associations was assessed using logistic regression hierquizada in levels. It was found that 17% (n = 87) of bank self-rated their health status as fair or poor. Were associated with worse self-assessed health of the low socioeconomic level (OR = 1.80; 95%CI: 1.06-3.05), the sedentary lifestyle (OR = 2.64; 95%CI: 1.42-4.89), the excess weight (OR = 3.18; 95%CI: 1.79-5.65), low social support (OR = 3.71; 95%CI: 2.10-6.58), and the presence of chronic diseases (OR = 5,49; 95%CI: 2.46-12.27). It is concluded that, compared with other locations, there was a significant number of banking that self-rated their health status as fair or poor, and that the presence of chronic diseases was presented as the factor with the greatest impact on how the individual evaluates their own health.

  9. Health and safety practices among farmers and other workers: a needs assessment.

    PubMed

    Hope, A; Kelleher, C; Holmes, L; Hennessy, T

    1999-05-01

    The development of appropriate health and safety interventions for farmers and agri-workers is important world-wide but data on present practices and attitudes to change are lacking. A representative quota sample (n = 1,938) of the Irish population was surveyed on lifestyle practices and workplace risk assessment and control measures, in relation to chemical exposure, manual handling and machinery. Focus group discussions were conducted also with 47 representatives of national farming organizations. As compared with the general workforce, farmers had a significantly (p < 0.01) lower level of assessment of risk hazards associated with manual handling and machinery. Both farmers and employees in workplaces with less than 20 employees reported a significantly lower level of safety training. Male farmers had a particularly negative health profile with only 18% reporting regular dental checks, 26% practising skin protection and 29% taking regular exercise. Discussions indicated that barriers to change included low perceived susceptibility, lack of time and resources. Mental health issues were particularly highlighted. We conclude farmers differ significantly in many instances from the rest of the workforce in regard to occupational health and safety issues and specific interventions in key areas are required for the agri-sector.

  10. Assessment of the effects of the zero gravity environment on the health and safety of space workers. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-18

    A review was conducted of currently available information relating to adverse effects to the health and safety that SPS space workers may experience. Currently available information on the responses of humans to space flight is somewhat limited and was obtained under conditions which are grossly different from conditions to be experienced by future space workers. The limitations in information and differences in conditions have been considered in the assessment of potential health and safety hazards to the SPS space workers. The study did not disclose any adverse effects that would result in long term deviations to the medical or physiological health of space workers so long as proper preventive or ameleorating actions were taken.

  11. Assessment of the effects of the zero gravity environment on the health and safety of space workers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A review was conducted of currently available information relating to adverse effects to the health and safety that space power system (SPS) space workers may experience. Currently available information on the responses of humans to space flight is somewhat limited and was obtained under conditions which are grossly different from conditions to be experienced by future space workers. The limitations in information and differences in conditions were considered in the assessment of potential health and safety hazards to the SPS space workers. The study did not disclose any adverse effects that would result in long term deviations to the medical physiological health of space workers so long as proper preventive or ameliorating action were taken.

  12. Migration of health workers.

    PubMed

    Buchan, James

    2008-01-01

    The discussion and debate stimulated by these papers focused across a range of issues but there were four main areas of questioning: "measuring" and monitoring migration (issues related to comparability, completeness and accuracy of data sets on human resources); the impact of migration of health workers on health systems; the motivations of individual health workers to migrate (the "push" and "pull" factors) and the effect of policies designed either to reduce migration (e.g "self ufficiency") or to stimulate it (e.g active international recruitment). It was recognised that there was a critical need to examine migratory flows within the broader context of all health care labour market dynamics within a country, that increasing migration of health workers was an inevitable consequence of globalisation, and that there was a critical need to improve monitoring so as to better inform policy formulation and policy testing in this area.

  13. A multi-sector assessment of community organizational capacity for promotion of Chinese immigrant worker health.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jenny H-C; Thompson, Elaine A

    2017-08-28

    Community-based collaborative approaches have received increased attention as a means for addressing occupational health disparities. Organizational capacity, highly relevant to engaging and sustaining community partnerships, however, is rarely considered in occupational health research. To characterize community organizational capacity specifically relevant to Chinese immigrant worker health, we used a cross-sectional, descriptive design with 36 agencies from six community sectors in King County, Washington. Joint interviews, conducted with two representatives from each agency, addressed three dimensions of organizational capacity: organizational commitment, resources, and flexibility. Descriptive statistics were used to capture the patterning of these dimensions by community sector. Organizational capacity varied widely across and within sectors. Chinese and Pan-Asian service sectors indicated higher capacity for Chinese immigrant worker health than did Chinese faith-based, labor union, public, and Pan-ethnic nonprofit sectors. Variation in organizational capacity in community sectors can inform selection of collaborators for community-based, immigrant worker health interventions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. [Worker's Health Surveillance

    PubMed

    Machado

    1997-01-01

    This paper is part of a broader discussion on the need for more in-depth study of workers' health surveillance practices, which are most often developed empirically, without well-defined theoretical or technical foundations. The paper presents a concept of surveillance in workers' health as a fulcrum for actions in the relationship between the work process and health. It emphasizes the exposure-based perspective involved in the epidemiological approach. Risk situations and effects are placed in spatial and technological context. The model provides an interdisciplinary approach with a technological, social, and epidemiological basis in a three-dimensional structure. A matrix for planning actions in workers' health surveillance is also presented, focusing on the connections between effects, risks, territory, and activities.

  15. U.S. Department of Energy worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with environmental restoration and waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.P.; Legg, J.; Travis, C.C.; Simek, M.A.; Sutherland, J.; Scofield, P.A.

    1995-06-01

    This document describes a worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM). The methodology is appropriate for estimating worker risks across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex at both programmatic and site-specific levels. This document supports the worker health risk methodology used to perform the human health risk assessment portion of the DOE Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) although it has applications beyond the PEIS, such as installation-wide worker risk assessments, screening-level assessments, and site-specific assessments.

  16. Using Dust Assessment Technology to Leverage Mine Site Manager-Worker Communication and Health Behavior: A Longitudinal Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Emily J.; Cecala, Andrew B.; Hoebbel, Cassandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Research continues to investigate barriers to managing occupational health and safety behaviors among the workforce. Recent literature argues that (1) there is a lack of consistent, multilevel communication and application of health and safety practices, and (2) social scientific methods are absent when determining how to manage injury prevention in the workplace. In response, the current study developed and tested a multilevel intervention case study at two industrial mineral mines to help managers and workers communicate about and reduce respirable silica dust exposures at their mine sites. A dust assessment technology, the Helmet-CAM, was used to identify and encourage communication about potential problem areas and tasks on site that contributed to elevated exposures. The intervention involved pre- and post-assessment field visits, four weeks apart that included multiple forms of data collection from workers and managers. Results revealed that mine management can utilize dust assessment technology as a risk communication tool to prompt and communicate about healthier behaviors with their workforce. Additionally, when workers were debriefed with the Helmet-CAM data through the device software, the dust exposure data can help improve the knowledge and awareness of workers, empowering them to change subtle behaviors that could reduce future elevated exposures to respirable silica dust. This case study demonstrates that incorporating social scientific methods into the application of health and safety management strategies, such as behavioral modification and technology integration, can leverage managers’ communication practices with workers, subsequently improving health and safety behaviors. PMID:26807445

  17. Using Dust Assessment Technology to Leverage Mine Site Manager-Worker Communication and Health Behavior: A Longitudinal Case Study.

    PubMed

    Haas, Emily J; Cecala, Andrew B; Hoebbel, Cassandra L

    2016-01-06

    Research continues to investigate barriers to managing occupational health and safety behaviors among the workforce. Recent literature argues that (1) there is a lack of consistent, multilevel communication and application of health and safety practices, and (2) social scientific methods are absent when determining how to manage injury prevention in the workplace. In response, the current study developed and tested a multilevel intervention case study at two industrial mineral mines to help managers and workers communicate about and reduce respirable silica dust exposures at their mine sites. A dust assessment technology, the Helmet-CAM, was used to identify and encourage communication about potential problem areas and tasks on site that contributed to elevated exposures. The intervention involved pre- and post-assessment field visits, four weeks apart that included multiple forms of data collection from workers and managers. Results revealed that mine management can utilize dust assessment technology as a risk communication tool to prompt and communicate about healthier behaviors with their workforce. Additionally, when workers were debriefed with the Helmet-CAM data through the device software, the dust exposure data can help improve the knowledge and awareness of workers, empowering them to change subtle behaviors that could reduce future elevated exposures to respirable silica dust. This case study demonstrates that incorporating social scientific methods into the application of health and safety management strategies, such as behavioral modification and technology integration, can leverage managers' communication practices with workers, subsequently improving health and safety behaviors.

  18. Standardized assessment of psychosocial factors and their influence on medically confirmed health outcomes in workers: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rosário, Susel; Fonseca, João A; Nienhaus, Albert; da Costa, José Torres

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of psychosocial work factors have indicated their importance for workers' health. However, to what extent health problems can be attributed to the nature of the work environment or other psychosocial factors is not clear. No previous systematic review has used inclusion criteria based on specific medical evaluation of work-related health outcomes and the use of validated instruments for the assessment of the psychosocial (work) environment. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence assessing the relationship between the psychosocial work environment and workers' health based on studies that used standardized and validated instruments to assess the psychosocial work environment and that focused on medically confirmed health outcomes. A systematic review of the literature was carried out by searching the databases PubMed, B-ON, Science Direct, Psycarticles, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection and the search engine (Google Scholar) using appropriate words for studies published from 2004 to 2014. This review follows the recommendations of the Statement for Reporting Systematic Reviews (PRISMA). Studies were included in the review if data on psychosocial validated assessment method(s) for the study population and specific medical evaluation of health-related work outcome(s) were presented. In total, the search strategy yielded 10,623 references, of which 10 studies (seven prospective cohort and three cross-sectional) met the inclusion criteria. Most studies (7/10) observed an adverse effect of poor psychosocial work factors on workers' health: 3 on sickness absence, 4 on cardiovascular diseases. The other 3 studies reported detrimental effects on sleep and on disease-associated biomarkers. A more consistent effect was observed in studies of higher methodological quality that used a prospective design jointly with the use of validated instruments for the assessment of the psychosocial (work) environment and clinical

  19. Health hazard assessment of occupationally di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate-exposed workers in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenxin; Xu, Xiaobing; Fan, Chinbay Q

    2015-02-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) is a potential hazard to human health. The effects of occupational high level DEHP exposure on human health were evaluated by measuring the plasma cholinesterase, residues, renal and hepatic biochemical markers. The study was conducted in three representative polyvinyl chloride manufacturing facilities from large size (S1), medium side (S2) to small size (S3). Total 456 adult males including 352 exposed workers (occupational) and 104 control workers (background) were selected. The average DEHP concentrations in respirable particulate matter were 233, 291, and 707 μg m(-3) for S1-S3, respectively, compared with 0.26 μg m(-3) in the background atmosphere (labeled by S4). The results showed significant decreases in post exposure plasma cholinesterase (PChE) levels (<30%) from the exposed workers as compared to baseline. These exposed workers had been evaluated for plasma DEHP residues. Regression analyses explored that PChE decreased significantly with increasing plasma DEHP residues. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatinine, urea, gamma glutamyltransferase, malondialdehyde, total antioxidant and C-reactive protein were significantly raised as compared to the controls. Of the 352 exposed workers, 116 (33.0%) had a daily DEHP intake 22.7 μg kg bw(-1)d(-1) , which is more than 20 μg kg bw(-1)d(-1) specified by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The study demonstrated that occupational phthalate exposure produces health hazards. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Service quality assessment of workers compensation health care delivery programs in New York using SERVQUAL.

    PubMed

    Arunasalam, Mark; Paulson, Albert; Wallace, William

    2003-01-01

    Preferred provider organizations (PPOs) provide healthcare services to an expanding proportion of the U.S. population. This paper presents a programmatic assessment of service quality in the workers' compensation environment using two different models: the PPO program model and the fee-for-service (FFS) payor model. The methodology used here will augment currently available research in workers' compensation, which has been lacking in measuring service quality determinants and assessing programmatic success/failure of managed care type programs. Results indicated that the SERVQUAL tool provided a reliable and valid clinical quality assessment tool that ascertained that PPO marketers should focus on promoting physician outreach (to show empathy) and accessibility (to show reliability) for injured workers.

  1. [Assessement of combined impact of hazards on petrochemical and chemical workers' health].

    PubMed

    Badamshina, G G; Karimova, L K; Tkacheva, T A; Mavrina, L N; Bakirova, A É

    2013-01-01

    We have conducted a study on working conditions and health status of petrochemical workers. The main hazardous factor of work environment and manufacture process has been found to be work environment air pollution caused by Class 2-3 hazards. Depending on the composition of the current complex of hazards, the manufacture workers comprise three groups determined by the impact of aromatic hydrocarbons, olefin oxides and their combinations. It has been shown that the combined impact of aromatic hydrocarbons and olefin oxides combination may produce a more pronounced hazardous impact on workers' health compared with the impact of aromatic hydrocarbons or olefin oxides taken separately. This may be due to the summing up of biological effects.

  2. [Assessment of competencies of community health workers for epidemiological data collection].

    PubMed

    Musse, Juliana de Oliveira; Marques, Roberta Smania; Lopes, Fernando Rocha Lucena; Monteiro, Karolinne Souza; dos Santos, Silvana Cristina

    2015-02-01

    The scope of this study was to assess competencies in terms of reading, comprehension and problem-solving using educational material created for epidemiological research on people with disabilities. A form with twenty multiple-choice questions was prepared and distributed to a sample of 348 community health workers (CHWs) in the State of Paraíba. The socioeconomic profile revealed that, within the sample, most of these CHWs are female, between 30-49 years of age, married or in a stable relationship, with two children and have graduated from high school. Over 98% of CHWs are government employees and more than half have been working for more than eight years in the same community, predominantly in the urban area. The score for overall performance evaluation ranged from 33 to 60 points, with the mean score of 53.44 ± 4.88 points. This means that the CHWs were able to resolve over 65% of the questions properly. The overall performance was positively correlated with education and negatively with age, having children and the time taken to complete high school education. The overall results indicate the increasing professionalization and education of the CHWs and their potential role as collaborators in basic scientific research to make generalizations about public health.

  3. Accuracy of Assessment of Eligibility for Early Medical Abortion by Community Health Workers in Ethiopia, India and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Heidi Bart; Ganatra, Bela; Nguyen, My Huong; Habib, Ndema; Afework, Mesganaw Fantahun; Harries, Jane; Iyengar, Kirti; Moodley, Jennifer; Lema, Hailu Yeneneh; Constant, Deborah; Sen, Swapnaleen

    2016-01-01

    To assess the accuracy of assessment of eligibility for early medical abortion by community health workers using a simple checklist toolkit. Diagnostic accuracy study. Ethiopia, India and South Africa. Two hundred seventeen women in Ethiopia, 258 in India and 236 in South Africa were enrolled into the study. A checklist toolkit to determine eligibility for early medical abortion was validated by comparing results of clinician and community health worker assessment of eligibility using the checklist toolkit with the reference standard exam. Accuracy was over 90% and the negative likelihood ratio <0.1 at all three sites when used by clinician assessors. Positive likelihood ratios were 4.3 in Ethiopia, 5.8 in India and 6.3 in South Africa. When used by community health workers the overall accuracy of the toolkit was 92% in Ethiopia, 80% in India and 77% in South Africa negative likelihood ratios were 0.08 in Ethiopia, 0.25 in India and 0.22 in South Africa and positive likelihood ratios were 5.9 in Ethiopia and 2.0 in India and South Africa. The checklist toolkit, as used by clinicians, was excellent at ruling out participants who were not eligible, and moderately effective at ruling in participants who were eligible for medical abortion. Results were promising when used by community health workers particularly in Ethiopia where they had more prior experience with use of diagnostic aids and longer professional training. The checklist toolkit assessments resulted in some participants being wrongly assessed as eligible for medical abortion which is an area of concern. Further research is needed to streamline the components of the tool, explore optimal duration and content of training for community health workers, and test feasibility and acceptability.

  4. Accuracy of Assessment of Eligibility for Early Medical Abortion by Community Health Workers in Ethiopia, India and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, My Huong; Habib, Ndema; Afework, Mesganaw Fantahun; Harries, Jane; Iyengar, Kirti; Moodley, Jennifer; Constant, Deborah; Sen, Swapnaleen

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the accuracy of assessment of eligibility for early medical abortion by community health workers using a simple checklist toolkit. Design Diagnostic accuracy study. Setting Ethiopia, India and South Africa. Methods Two hundred seventeen women in Ethiopia, 258 in India and 236 in South Africa were enrolled into the study. A checklist toolkit to determine eligibility for early medical abortion was validated by comparing results of clinician and community health worker assessment of eligibility using the checklist toolkit with the reference standard exam. Results Accuracy was over 90% and the negative likelihood ratio <0.1 at all three sites when used by clinician assessors. Positive likelihood ratios were 4.3 in Ethiopia, 5.8 in India and 6.3 in South Africa. When used by community health workers the overall accuracy of the toolkit was 92% in Ethiopia, 80% in India and 77% in South Africa negative likelihood ratios were 0.08 in Ethiopia, 0.25 in India and 0.22 in South Africa and positive likelihood ratios were 5.9 in Ethiopia and 2.0 in India and South Africa. Conclusion The checklist toolkit, as used by clinicians, was excellent at ruling out participants who were not eligible, and moderately effective at ruling in participants who were eligible for medical abortion. Results were promising when used by community health workers particularly in Ethiopia where they had more prior experience with use of diagnostic aids and longer professional training. The checklist toolkit assessments resulted in some participants being wrongly assessed as eligible for medical abortion which is an area of concern. Further research is needed to streamline the components of the tool, explore optimal duration and content of training for community health workers, and test feasibility and acceptability. PMID:26731176

  5. A cohort study of health care workers to assess nosocomial transmissibility of Nipah virus, Malaysia, 1999.

    PubMed

    Mounts, A W; Kaur, H; Parashar, U D; Ksiazek, T G; Cannon, D; Arokiasamy, J T; Anderson, L J; Lye, M S

    2001-03-01

    During 1998-1999, an outbreak of Nipah virus encephalitis occurred in Malaysia. To assess the possibility of nosocomial transmission, 338 health care workers (HCWs) exposed and 288 HCWs unexposed to outbreak-related patients were surveyed, and their serum samples were tested for anti-Nipah virus antibody. Needlestick injuries were reported by 12 (3%) HCWs, mucosal surface exposure to body fluids by 39 (11%), and skin exposure to body fluids by 89 (25%). No encephalitis occurred in either group. Three exposed and no unexposed HCWs tested positive by EIA for IgG antibodies. It is likely that these 3 were false positives; no IgM response occurred, and the serum samples were negative for anti-Nipah virus neutralizing antibodies. The risk of nosocomial transmission of Nipah virus appears to be low; however, given the high case-fatality rate and the presence of virus in respiratory secretions and urine of some patients, standard and droplet infection-control practices should be maintained with these patients.

  6. Applying the community health worker model to diabetes management: using mixed methods to assess implementation and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Cherrington, Andrea; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Amick, Halle; Scarinci, Isabel; Allison, Jeroan; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2008-11-01

    The community health worker (CHW) model is a popular method for reaching vulnerable populations with diabetes. This study assessed implementation and effectiveness of the model within diabetes programs. Four databases were searched to identify diabetes programs implementing the CHW model. Corresponding articles were reviewed and semi-structured interviews were conducted with directors of each program. Eight studies met inclusion criteria for review and their program managers were interviewed. Five CHW roles were identified: educator, case manager, role model, program facilitator, and advocate. Roles, responsibilities and training varied greatly across programs. Selected outcomes also varied, ranging from physiologic measures, to health behaviors, to measures of health care utilization and cost. Research regarding application of the community health worker model in diabetes management is limited and consensus regarding the scope of the CHW's role is lacking. Future studies should rigorously examine how best to integrate this promising model into chronic disease management.

  7. Village malaria worker performance key to the elimination of artemisinin-resistant malaria: a Western Cambodia health system assessment.

    PubMed

    Canavati, Sara E; Lawpoolsri, Saranath; Quintero, Cesia E; Nguon, Chea; Ly, Po; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Sintasath, David; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Peeters Grietens, Koen; Whittaker, Maxine Anne

    2016-05-20

    Village malaria workers (VMWs) and mobile malaria workers (MMWs) are a critical component of Cambodia's national strategy to eliminate Plasmodium falciparum malaria by 2025. Since 2004, VMWs have been providing malaria diagnosis through the use of rapid diagnostic tests and free-of-charge artemisinin-based combination therapy in villages more than 5 km away from the closest health facility. They have also played a key role in the delivery of behaviour change communication interventions to this target population. This study aimed to assess the job performance of VMWs/MMWs, and identify challenges they face, which may impede elimination efforts. A mixed-methods assessment was conducted in five provinces of western Cambodia. One hundred and eighty five VMW/MMW participants were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. Qualitative data was gathered through a total of 60 focus group discussions and 65 in-depth interviews. Data triangulation of the qualitative and quantitative data was used during analysis. Overall, VMWs/MMWs met or exceeded the expected performance levels (80 %). Nevertheless, some performance gaps were identified. Misconceptions regarding malaria transmission and prevention were found among workers. The recommended approach for malaria treatment, directly-observed treatment (DOT), had low implementation rates. Stock-outs, difficulties in reaching out to migrant and mobile populations, insufficient means of transportation and dwindling worker satisfaction also affected job performance. VMW/MMW job performance must be increased from 80 to 100 % in order to achieve elimination. In order to do this, it is recommended for the national malaria programme to eliminate worker malaria knowledge gaps. Barriers to DOT implementation and health system failures also need to be addressed. The VMW programme should be expanded on several fronts in order to tackle remaining performance gaps. Findings from this evaluation are useful to inform the planning of future

  8. A tool to assess knowledge, attitude and behavior of Indonesian health care workers regarding infection control.

    PubMed

    Duerink, D O; Hadi, U; Lestari, E S; Roeshadi, Djoko; Wahyono, Hendro; Nagelkerke, N J D; Van der Meulen, R G; Van den Broek, P J

    2013-07-01

    to investigate knowledge, attitude and behaviour toward infection control in two teaching hospitals on the island of Java by means of a questionnaire and to evaluate the use of the questionnaire as a tool. we investigated knowledge, attitude and behaviour toward infection control in two teaching hospitals on the island of Java by means of a questionnaire to identify problem areas, barriers and facilitators. The target was to include at least 50% of all health care workers (physicians, nurses, assistant nurses and infection control nurses) in each hospital, department and profession. Differences between demographic variables and scores for individual questions and groups of questions were compared using the chi-square statistic and analysis of variance and Spearman's rho was used to test for correlations between knowledge, attitude, self-reported behaviour and perceived obstacles. more than half of the health care workers of the participating departments completed the questionnaire. Of the 1036 respondents (44% nurses, 37% physicians and 19% assistant nurses), 34% were vaccinated against hepatitis B, 77% had experienced needle stick accidents and 93% had been instructed about infection control. The mean of the correct answers to the knowledge questions was 44%; of the answers to the attitude questions 67% were in agreement with the correct attitude; obstacles to compliance with infection control guidelines were perceived in 30% of the questions and the mean self-reported compliance was 63%. Safe handling of sharps, hand hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment were identified as the most important aspects for interventions. Significant positive correlations were found between knowledge, attitude, self-reported behaviour and perceived obstacles. the questionnaire in conjunction with site visits and interviews was a valuable strategy to identify trouble spots in the hospitals and to determine barriers to facilitators of change that should be taken into

  9. Assessing mercury health effects in gold workers near El Callao, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Rojas, M; Drake, P L; Roberts, S M

    2001-02-01

    Mercury exposure and health status were examined in 40 gold workers in the area surrounding El Callao, Venezuela. Concentrations of mercury in workplace air were measured on 3 successive days, and spot urine and hair samples were also taken for analysis. Subjects underwent a physical examination and completed a questionnaire regarding employment history, work activities involving mercury exposure, use of protective clothing and equipment, and frequency of 37 symptoms associated with mercury toxicity. A complete set of health data was collected for 29 of the subjects. Use of protective equipment was limited, and 17.9%, 24.1%, and 48.3% of subjects had mercury concentrations in air, hair, and urine, respectively, above contemporary occupational exposure guidelines. Physical examination found the workers to be generally healthy and without overt symptoms of mercury toxicity. The frequency of psychoneurological, gastrointestinal, cardio-respiratory, and dermal symptoms was unrelated to any of the measures of mercury exposure. Two subjects had modestly elevated urinary levels of N-acetyl beta-D-glucosaminidase. Despite substantial occupational exposure to mercury among a number of the subjects, few adverse health effects were observed that were plausibly related to mercury.

  10. Assessing the Impact of Community Engagement Interventions on Health Worker Motivation and Experiences with Clients in Primary Health Facilities in Ghana: A Randomized Cluster Trial

    PubMed Central

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Spieker, Nicole; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Health worker density per 1000 population in Ghana is one of the lowest in the world estimated to be 2.3, below the global average of 9.3. Low health worker motivation induced by poor working conditions partly explain this challenge. Albeit the wage bill for public sector health workers is about 90% of domestic government expenditure on health in countries such as Ghana, staff motivation and performance output remain a challenge, suggesting the need to complement financial incentives with non-financial incentives through a community-based approach. In this study, a systematic community engagement (SCE) intervention was implemented to engage community groups in healthcare quality assessment to promote mutual collaboration between clients and healthcare providers, and enhance health worker motivation levels. SCE involves structured use of existing community groups and associations to assess healthcare quality in health facilities. Identified quality gaps are discussed with healthcare providers, improvements made and rewards given to best performing facilities for closing quality care gaps. Purpose To evaluate the effect of SCE interventions on health worker motivation and experiences with clients. Methods The study is a cluster randomized trial involving health workers in private (n = 38) and public (n = 26) primary healthcare facilities in two administrative regions in Ghana. Out of 324 clinical and non-clinical staff randomly interviewed at baseline, 234 (72%) were successfully followed at end-line and interviewed on workplace motivation factors and personal experiences with clients. Propensity score matching and difference-in-difference estimations were used to estimate treatment effect of the interventions on staff motivation. Results Intrinsic (non-financial) work incentives including cordiality with clients and perceived career prospects appeared to be prime sources of motivation for health staff interviewed in intervention health facilities while

  11. Assessing the Impact of Community Engagement Interventions on Health Worker Motivation and Experiences with Clients in Primary Health Facilities in Ghana: A Randomized Cluster Trial.

    PubMed

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Spieker, Nicole; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F

    2016-01-01

    Health worker density per 1000 population in Ghana is one of the lowest in the world estimated to be 2.3, below the global average of 9.3. Low health worker motivation induced by poor working conditions partly explain this challenge. Albeit the wage bill for public sector health workers is about 90% of domestic government expenditure on health in countries such as Ghana, staff motivation and performance output remain a challenge, suggesting the need to complement financial incentives with non-financial incentives through a community-based approach. In this study, a systematic community engagement (SCE) intervention was implemented to engage community groups in healthcare quality assessment to promote mutual collaboration between clients and healthcare providers, and enhance health worker motivation levels. SCE involves structured use of existing community groups and associations to assess healthcare quality in health facilities. Identified quality gaps are discussed with healthcare providers, improvements made and rewards given to best performing facilities for closing quality care gaps. To evaluate the effect of SCE interventions on health worker motivation and experiences with clients. The study is a cluster randomized trial involving health workers in private (n = 38) and public (n = 26) primary healthcare facilities in two administrative regions in Ghana. Out of 324 clinical and non-clinical staff randomly interviewed at baseline, 234 (72%) were successfully followed at end-line and interviewed on workplace motivation factors and personal experiences with clients. Propensity score matching and difference-in-difference estimations were used to estimate treatment effect of the interventions on staff motivation. Intrinsic (non-financial) work incentives including cordiality with clients and perceived career prospects appeared to be prime sources of motivation for health staff interviewed in intervention health facilities while financial incentives were ranked

  12. "Cloud" health-care workers.

    PubMed Central

    Sherertz, R. J.; Bassetti, S.; Bassetti-Wyss, B.

    2001-01-01

    Certain bacteria dispersed by health-care workers can cause hospital infections. Asymptomatic health-care workers colonized rectally, vaginally, or on the skin with group A streptococci have caused outbreaks of surgical site infection by airborne dispersal. Outbreaks have been associated with skin colonization or viral upper respiratory tract infection in a phenomenon of airborne dispersal of Staphylococcus aureus called the "cloud" phenomenon. This review summarizes the data supporting the existence of cloud health-care workers. PMID:11294715

  13. Assessment of knowledge and practice of health workers towards tuberculosis infection control and associated factors in public health facilities of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Demissie Gizaw, Girma; Aderaw Alemu, Zewdie; Kibret, Kelemu Tilahun

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is the leading causes of mortality among infectious diseases worldwide. The risk of transmission from patients to health workers is doubles that of the general population. The close contact to the infectious case before diagnosis is the major risk for tuberculosis infection. The aim of the study was to assess knowledge and practice of health professionals towards tuberculosis infection control and its associated factors in health facilities of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from February 29 to April 15/2014 in selected health facilities in Addis Ababa. Five hundred ninety health workers were included in the study. The sample size was assigned to each health facility proportional to their number of health workers. Study subjects were selected from each stratum by simple random sampling technique. Interviewer administered structured questionnaire was used to collect information. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with knowledge and practice of health workers towards tuberculosis infection control. Five hundred eighty two participants with 98.6% response rate were involved in the study. Of these, 36.1% had poor knowledge and 51.7% unsatisfactory practice score towards tuberculosis infection control. Having more than six years working experience in health facility (AOR = 2.51; 95% CI: 1.5-4.1) and tuberculosis related training (AOR = 2.51 95% CI; 1.5, 4.1) were significantly associated with knowledge on tuberculosis infection control. Having experience in tuberculosis clinic (AOR =1.93; 95% CI: 1.12, 3.34) and tuberculosis related training (AOR = 1.48; 95% CI: 1.87, 2.51) were significantly associated with practice on tuberculosis infection control. One third of health workers had relatively poor knowledge and nearly half of them had unsatisfactory practice on tuberculosis infection control. Tuberculosis training and work experiences in health facility are determinant factor to knowledge

  14. [Rural workers' health in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Jessica Pronestino de Lima; Oliveira, Bruno Luciano Carneiro Alves de; Muzi, Camila Drumond; Cunha, Carlos Leonardo Figueiredo; Brito, Alexandre dos Santos; Luiz, Ronir Raggio

    2015-08-01

    Workers' health is a central theme in public health surveys, but the specificity of work activities should be considered. This study aimed to analyze the health of rural workers in Brazil that perform both agricultural and non-agricultural work, based on self-rated health and self-reported diseases. The Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (PNAD 2008) was used, incorporating information from the complex sampling plan. Agricultural workers 18 years or older were selected, stratified according to those with and without non-agricultural work. Logistic regression was performed for self-rated health, and odds ratios were calculated for self-reported diseases. Exclusive agricultural work decreased the odds of reporting good health and increased the odds of reporting back pain, high blood pressure, and arthritis/rheumatism. Exclusive agricultural workers reported more diseases and worse living conditions. Self-rated health was generally better in workers with non-agricultural occupations.

  15. Toward universal coverage in Afghanistan: A multi-stakeholder assessment of capacity investments in the community health worker system.

    PubMed

    Edward, Anbrasi; Branchini, Casey; Aitken, Iain; Roach, Melissa; Osei-Bonsu, Kojo; Arwal, Said Habib

    2015-11-01

    Global efforts to scale-up the community health workforce have accelerated as a result of the growing evidence of their effectiveness to enhance coverage and health outcomes. Reconstruction efforts in Afghanistan integrated capacity investments for community based service delivery, including the deployment of over 28,000 community health workers (CHWs) to ensure access to basic preventive and curative services. The study aimed to conduct capacity assessments of the CHW system and determine stakeholder perspectives of CHW performance. Structured interviews were conducted on a national sample from 33 provinces and included supervisors, facility providers, patients, and CHWs. Formative assessments were also conducted with national policymakers, community members and health councils in two provinces. Results indicate that more than 70% of the NGO's provide comprehensive training for CHWs, 95% CHWs reported regular supervision, and more than 60% of the health posts had adequate infrastructure and essential commodities. Innovative strategies of paired male and female CHWs, institution of a special cadre of community health supervisors, and community health councils were introduced as systems strengthening mechanisms. Reported barriers included unrealistic and expanding task expectations (14%), unsatisfactory compensation mechanisms (75%), inadequate transport (69%), and lack of commodities (40%). Formative assessments evidenced that CHWs were highly valued as they provided equitable, accessible and affordable 24-h care. Their loyalty, dedication and the ability for women to access care without male family escorts was appreciated by communities. With rising concerns of workforce deficits, insecurity and budget constraints, the health system must enhance the capacity of these frontline workers to improve the continuum of care. The study provides critical insight into the strengths and constraints of Afghanistan's CHW system, warranting further efforts to contextualize

  16. The World Trade Center Disaster and the Health of Workers: Five-Year Assessment of a Unique Medical Screening Program

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Robin; Moline, Jacqueline; Skloot, Gwen; Metzger, Kristina; Baron, Sherry; Luft, Benjamin; Markowitz, Steven; Udasin, Iris; Harrison, Denise; Stein, Diane; Todd, Andrew; Enright, Paul; Stellman, Jeanne Mager; Landrigan, Philip J.; Levin, Stephen M.

    2006-01-01

    Background Approximately 40,000 rescue and recovery workers were exposed to caustic dust and toxic pollutants following the 11 September 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC). These workers included traditional first responders, such as firefighters and police, and a diverse population of construction, utility, and public sector workers. Methods To characterize WTC-related health effects, the WTC Worker and Volunteer Medical Screening Program was established. This multicenter clinical program provides free standardized examinations to responders. Examinations include medical, mental health, and exposure assessment questionnaires; physical examinations; spirometry; and chest X rays. Results Of 9,442 responders examined between July 2002 and April 2004, 69% reported new or worsened respiratory symptoms while performing WTC work. Symptoms persisted to the time of examination in 59% of these workers. Among those who had been asymptomatic before September 11, 61% developed respiratory symptoms while performing WTC work. Twenty-eight percent had abnormal spirometry; forced vital capacity (FVC) was low in 21%; and obstruction was present in 5%. Among nonsmokers, 27% had abnormal spirometry compared with 13% in the general U.S. population. Prevalence of low FVC among nonsmokers was 5-fold greater than in the U.S. population (20% vs. 4%). Respiratory symptoms and spirometry abnormalities were significantly associated with early arrival at the site. Conclusion WTC responders had exposure-related increases in respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function test abnormalities that persisted up to 2.5 years after the attacks. Long-term medical monitoring is required to track persistence of these abnormalities and identify late effects, including possible malignancies. Lessons learned should guide future responses to civil disasters. PMID:17185275

  17. Competence of health workers in emergency obstetric care: an assessment using clinical vignettes in Brong Ahafo region, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Lohela, Terhi Johanna; Nesbitt, Robin Clark; Manu, Alexander; Vesel, Linda; Okyere, Eunice; Kirkwood, Betty; Gabrysch, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess health worker competence in emergency obstetric care using clinical vignettes, to link competence to availability of infrastructure in facilities, and to average annual delivery workload in facilities. Design Cross-sectional Health Facility Assessment linked to population-based surveillance data. Setting 7 districts in Brong Ahafo region, Ghana. Participants Most experienced delivery care providers in all 64 delivery facilities in the 7 districts. Primary outcome measures Health worker competence in clinical vignette actions by cadre of delivery care provider and by type of facility. Competence was also compared with availability of relevant drugs and equipment, and to average annual workload per skilled birth attendant. Results Vignette scores were moderate overall, and differed significantly by respondent cadre ranging from a median of 70% correct among doctors, via 55% among midwives, to 25% among other cadres such as health assistants and health extension workers (p<0.001). Competence varied significantly by facility type: hospital respondents, who were mainly doctors and midwives, achieved highest scores (70% correct) and clinic respondents scored lowest (45% correct). There was a lack of inexpensive key drugs and equipment to carry out vignette actions, and more often, lack of competence to use available items in clinical situations. The average annual workload was very unevenly distributed among facilities, ranging from 0 to 184 deliveries per skilled birth attendant, with higher workload associated with higher vignette scores. Conclusions Lack of competence might limit clinical practice even more than lack of relevant drugs and equipment. Cadres other than midwives and doctors might not be able to diagnose and manage delivery complications. Checking clinical competence through vignettes in addition to checklist items could contribute to a more comprehensive approach to evaluate quality of care. Trial registration number NCT00623337

  18. Health effects of gasoline exposure. I. Exposure assessment for U.S. distribution workers.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, T J; Hammond, S K; Wong, O

    1993-01-01

    Personal exposures were estimated for a large cohort of workers in the U.S. domestic system for distributing gasoline by trucks and marine vessels. This assessment included development of a rationale and methodology for extrapolating vapor exposures prior to the availability of measurement data, analysis of existing measurement data to estimate task and job exposures during 1975-1985, and extrapolation of truck and marine job exposures before 1975. A worker's vapor exposure was extrapolated from three sets of factors: the tasks in his or her job associated with vapor sources, the characteristics of vapor sources (equipment and other facilities) at the work site, and the composition of petroleum products producing vapors. Historical data were collected on the tasks in job definitions, on work-site facilities, and on product composition. These data were used in a model to estimate the overall time-weighted-average vapor exposure for jobs based on estimates of task exposures and their duration. Task exposures were highest during tank filling in trucks and marine vessels. Measured average annual, full-shift exposures during 1975-1985 ranged from 9 to 14 ppm of total hydrocarbon vapor for truck drivers and 2 to 35 ppm for marine workers on inland waterways. Extrapolated past average exposures in truck operations were highest for truck drivers before 1965 (range 140-220 ppm). Other jobs in truck operations resulted in much lower exposures. Because there were few changes in marine operations before 1979, exposures were assumed to be the same as those measured during 1975-1985. Well-defined exposure gradients were found across jobs within time periods, which were suitable for epidemiologic analyses. PMID:8020436

  19. Comparative assessment of migrant farm worker health in conventional and organic horticultural systems in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Cross, Paul; Edwards, Rhiannon T; Hounsome, Barry; Edwards-Jones, Gareth

    2008-02-25

    This study describes the self-reported health and well-being status of field and packhouse workers in UK vegetable horticulture, and tests the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the self-reported health of workers on organic and conventional horticultural farms. The majority of those sampled were migrant workers (93%) from Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia and the Ukraine. More than 95% of the respondents were aged 18-34 and recruited through university agricultural faculties in East European or employed via UK agencies. The health of 605 farm workers (395 males and 210 females) was measured through the use of four standard health instruments. Farm workers' health was significantly poorer than published national norms for three different health instruments (Short Form 36, EuroQol EQ-5D and the Visual Analogue Scale). There were no significant differences in the health status of farm workers between conventional and organic farms for any of these three instruments. However, organic farm workers scored higher on a fourth health instrument the Short Depression Happiness Scale (SDHS) indicating that workers on organic farms were happier than their counterparts working on conventional farms. Multiple regression analysis suggested that the difference in the SDHS score for organic and conventional farms is closely related to the range and number of tasks the workers performed each day. These findings suggest that a great deal of improvement in the self-reported health of farmers will need to occur before organic farms meet the requirements of the 'Principle of Health' as described by IFOAM. Ensuring that farm workers have a varied range of tasks could be a cost effective means of improving self-reported health status in both organic and conventional farming systems.

  20. Assessing knowledge and application of emergency risk communication principles among public health workers in China.

    PubMed

    Cope, James R; Frost, Melinda; Richun, Li; Xie, Ruiqian

    2014-06-01

    Since 2003, the Chinese National Health and Family Planning Commission (formerly the Ministry of Health) has implemented changes to more effectively communicate risk during public health emergencies. In spite of ongoing improvements, provincial and sub-provincial leaders face barriers, such as established modes of operation, lack of training, shortage of trained risk communicators, and limited understanding and willingness of recipients to mitigate risks. We assessed the current status of and barriers to risk communication knowledge and practice among public health practitioners in China. We designed the survey questionnaire to capture information related to the risk communication core capacities required by international health regulations and common risk communication principles. Our findings showed that risk communication training has successfully developed an awareness of risk communication principles and the ability to implement those principles in practice in China. Future efforts should focus on areas such as a dedicated risk communication workforce, requirements that public health agencies develop a risk communication plan, and additional training for public health practitioners and their partners. It is critical that the infectious diseases prevention and control law be amended to grant provincial and local public health agencies more autonomy to release information.

  1. Hierarchical cluster analysis for exposure assessment of workers in the Semiconductor Health Study.

    PubMed

    Hines, C J; Selvin, S; Samuels, S J; Hammond, S K; Woskie, S R; Hallock, M F; Schenker, M B

    1995-12-01

    The fabrication of integrated circuits in the semiconductor industry involves worker exposures to multiple chemical and physical agents. The potential for a high degree of correlation among exposure variables was of concern in the Semiconductor Health Study. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify groups or "clusters" of correlated variables. Several variations of hierarchical cluster analysis were performed on 14 chemical and physical agents, using exposure data on 882 subjects from the historical cohort of the epidemiological studies. Similarity between agent pairs was determined by calculating two metrics of dissimilarity, and hierarchical trees were constructed using three clustering methods. Among subjects exposed to ethylene-based glycol ethers (EGE), xylene, or n-butyl acetate (nBA), 83% were exposed to EGE and xylene, 86% to EGE and nBA, and 94% to xylene and nBA, suggesting that exposures to EGE, xylene, and nBA were highly correlated. A high correlation was also found for subjects exposed to boron and phosphorus (80%). The trees also revealed cluster groups containing agents associated with work-group exposure categories developed for the epidemiologic analyses.

  2. An assessment of the emergency response among health workers involved in the 2010 cholera outbreak in northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oladele, David A; Oyedeji, Kolawole S; Niemogha, Mary-Theresa; Nwaokorie, Francisca; Bamidele, Moses; Musa, Adesola Z; Adeneye, Adeniyi K; Bamidele, Tajudeen A; Ochoga, Michael; Akinsinde, Kehinde A; Brai, Bartholomew I; Omonigbehin, Emmanuel A; Fesobi, Toun W; Smith, Stella I; Ujah, Innocent A

    2012-10-01

    The 2010 cholera outbreak in northern Nigeria affected over 40,000 people, with a case fatality rate (CFR) of ≥3.75%. We assessed the emergency response of health care workers (HCWs) involved in case management. This was a cross-sectional study with data collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Data entry and analysis were performed using Epi info software. A total of 56 HCWs were interviewed. The mean age was 31 years (SD±8.16 years). The majority of the HCWs (80%; n=45) were aged 18-39 years. Most were community health extension workers (60%), and 3.6% (n=2) were medical doctors. Many of the HCWs had less than 2 years of work experience (42%). Additionally, 82% of the respondents had <1 week of cholera emergency response training, and 50% of the HCWs managed >20 suspected cases of cholera per day. Although 78% of HCWs reported the practice of universal safety precautions, 32% (n=18) knew HCWs who developed symptoms of cholera during the epidemic, most of which was believed to be hospital acquired (78%). We also found that 77% (n=43) of HCWs had no access to the required emergency response supplies. Inadequate training, a lack of qualified HCWs and a limited supply of emergency response kits were reported. Therefore, the government and stakeholders should address the gaps noted to adequately control and prevent future epidemics. Copyright © 2012 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Wages, health benefits, and workers' health.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sara R; Davis, Karen; Doty, Michelle M; Ho, Alice

    2004-10-01

    Employer-based health insurance provides the majority of U.S. workers with access to health care and protection against devastating financial losses. Millions of workers, however, do not receive health benefits from their employers, and few sources of affordable coverage exist outside the employer-based system. This study, based on data from the Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Survey, finds a deep divide in the U.S. labor force and an urgent need for expanding access to comprehensive and affordable coverage to working Americans and their families. According to the authors, higher-wage workers are more likely than their lower-paid counterparts to have health insurance and health-related benefits, such as paid sick leave, and to use preventive care services. Low-wage workers, meanwhile, are much more likely to forgo needed health care because of cost and to report problems paying medical bills.

  4. [OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT IN WORKERS IN IMPROVEMENT OF NATIONAL POLICY IN OCCUPATIONAL HYGIENE AND SAFETY].

    PubMed

    Shur, P Z; Zaĭtseva, N V; Alekseev, V B; Shliapnikov, D M

    2015-01-01

    In accordance with the international documents in the field of occupational safety and hygiene, the assessment and minimization of occupational risks is a key instrument for the health maintenance of workers. One of the main ways to achieve it is the minimization of occupational risks. Correspondingly, the instrument for the implementation of this method is the methodology of analysis of occupational risks. In Russian Federation there were the preconditions for the formation of the system for the assessment and management of occupational risks. As the target of the national (state) policy in the field of occupational safety in accordance with ILO Conventions it can be offered the prevention of accidents and injuries to health arising from work or related with it, minimizing the causes of hazards inherent in the working environment, as far as it is reasonably and practically feasible. Global trend ofusing the methodology of the assessment and management of occupational risks to life and health of citizens requires the improvement of national policies in the field of occupational hygiene and safety. Achieving an acceptable level of occupational risk in the formation of national policy in the field of occupational hygiene and safety can be considered as one of the main tasks.

  5. Assessment of Health-Care Worker Exposure to Pandemic Flu in Hospital Rooms

    PubMed Central

    Ghia, U.; Gressel, M.; Konangi, S.; Mead, K.; Kishore, A.; Earnest, G.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a current Airborne Infection Isolation Room (AIIR) in protecting health-care workers (HCWs) from airborne-infection (AI) exposure, and compares HCW AI exposures within an AIIR and a traditional patient room. We numerically simulated the air-flow patterns in the rooms, using room geometries and layout (room dimensions, bathroom dimensions and details, placement of vents and furniture), ventilation parameters (flow rates at the inlet and outlet vents, diffuser design, thermal sources, etc.), and pressurization corresponding to those measured at a local hospital. A patient-cough was introduced into each simulation, and the AI dispersal was tracked in time using a multi-phase flow simulation approach. The measured data showed that ventilation rates for both rooms exceeded 12 air-changes per hour (ACH), and the AIIR was at almost 16 ACH. Thus, the AIIR met the recommended design criteria for ventilation rate and pressurization. However, the computed results revealed incomplete air mixing, and not all of the room air was changed 12 (or 16) times per hour. In fact, in some regions of the room, the air merely circulated, and did not refresh. With the main exhaust flow rate exceeding the main supply, mass flow rate conservation required a part of the deficit to be accounted for by air migration from the corridor through the gaps around the main door. Hence, the AIIR was effective in containing the “infectious aerosol” within the room. However, it showed increased exposure of the HCW to the AI pathogens, as the flow from the ceiling-mounted supply louver first encountered the patient and then the HCW almost directly on its way to the main exhaust, also located on the ceiling. The traditional patient room exhibited a similar flow path. In addition, for the traditional patient room, some cough-generated aerosol is observed very close to the gaps around the door to the corridor, indicating that the aerosol may escape to the corridor

  6. Assessment of Health-Care Worker Exposure to Pandemic Flu in Hospital Rooms.

    PubMed

    Ghia, U; Gressel, M; Konangi, S; Mead, K; Kishore, A; Earnest, G

    This study examines the effectiveness of a current Airborne Infection Isolation Room (AIIR) in protecting health-care workers (HCWs) from airborne-infection (AI) exposure, and compares HCW AI exposures within an AIIR and a traditional patient room. We numerically simulated the air-flow patterns in the rooms, using room geometries and layout (room dimensions, bathroom dimensions and details, placement of vents and furniture), ventilation parameters (flow rates at the inlet and outlet vents, diffuser design, thermal sources, etc.), and pressurization corresponding to those measured at a local hospital. A patient-cough was introduced into each simulation, and the AI dispersal was tracked in time using a multi-phase flow simulation approach. The measured data showed that ventilation rates for both rooms exceeded 12 air-changes per hour (ACH), and the AIIR was at almost 16 ACH. Thus, the AIIR met the recommended design criteria for ventilation rate and pressurization. However, the computed results revealed incomplete air mixing, and not all of the room air was changed 12 (or 16) times per hour. In fact, in some regions of the room, the air merely circulated, and did not refresh. With the main exhaust flow rate exceeding the main supply, mass flow rate conservation required a part of the deficit to be accounted for by air migration from the corridor through the gaps around the main door. Hence, the AIIR was effective in containing the "infectious aerosol" within the room. However, it showed increased exposure of the HCW to the AI pathogens, as the flow from the ceiling-mounted supply louver first encountered the patient and then the HCW almost directly on its way to the main exhaust, also located on the ceiling. The traditional patient room exhibited a similar flow path. In addition, for the traditional patient room, some cough-generated aerosol is observed very close to the gaps around the door to the corridor, indicating that the aerosol may escape to the corridor, and

  7. Studying Readiness for Clinical Decision Support for Worker Health Using the Rapid Assessment Process and Mixed Methods Interviews

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Joan S.; Chase, Dian; Wiesen, Jane F.; Murphy, Elizabeth V.; Marovich, Stacey

    2016-01-01

    To determine how the Rapid Assessment Process (RAP) can be adapted to evaluate the readiness of primary care clinics for acceptance and use of computerized clinical decision support (CDS) related to clinical management of working patients, we used a unique blend of ethnographic methods for gathering data. First, knowledge resources, which were prototypes of CDS content areas (diabetes, lower back pain, and asthma) containing evidence-based information, decision logic, scenarios and examples of use, were developed by subject matter experts. A team of RAP researchers then visited five clinic settings to identify barriers and facilitators to implementing CDS about the health of workers in general and the knowledge resources specifically. Methods included observations, semi-structured qualitative interviews and graphic elicitation interviews about the knowledge resources. We used both template and grounded hermeneutic approaches to data analysis. Preliminary results indicate that the methods succeeded in generating specific actionable recommendations for CDS design. PMID:28269822

  8. Studying Readiness for Clinical Decision Support for Worker Health Using the Rapid Assessment Process and Mixed Methods Interviews.

    PubMed

    Ash, Joan S; Chase, Dian; Wiesen, Jane F; Murphy, Elizabeth V; Marovich, Stacey

    2016-01-01

    To determine how the Rapid Assessment Process (RAP) can be adapted to evaluate the readiness of primary care clinics for acceptance and use of computerized clinical decision support (CDS) related to clinical management of working patients, we used a unique blend of ethnographic methods for gathering data. First, knowledge resources, which were prototypes of CDS content areas (diabetes, lower back pain, and asthma) containing evidence-based information, decision logic, scenarios and examples of use, were developed by subject matter experts. A team of RAP researchers then visited five clinic settings to identify barriers and facilitators to implementing CDS about the health of workers in general and the knowledge resources specifically. Methods included observations, semi-structured qualitative interviews and graphic elicitation interviews about the knowledge resources. We used both template and grounded hermeneutic approaches to data analysis. Preliminary results indicate that the methods succeeded in generating specific actionable recommendations for CDS design.

  9. Can mothers recognize neonatal illness correctly? Comparison of maternal report and assessment by community health workers in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y; El Arifeen, S; Mannan, I; Rahman, S M; Bari, S; Darmstadt, G L; Black, R E; Baqui, A H

    2010-06-01

    To validate maternal recognition of neonatal illnesses at home compared to assessment by community health workers (CHWs) during routine household surveillance for neonatal illness in rural Bangladesh. Surveillance in the intervention arm of two cluster-randomized, controlled trials of newborn interventions conducted in Sylhet and Mirzapur districts of Bangladesh. CHWs promoted birth and newborn care preparedness during two prenatal visits, including recognition of neonatal illnesses. CHWs assessed 8472 neonates on post-natal days 0, 3, and 6 between 2004 and 2005 in Sylhet, and 7587 neonates on post-natal days 0, 2, 5, and 8 between 2004 and 2006 in Mirzapur. In both sites, CHW identified neonates with very severe disease (VSD), using clinical algorithms that included ascertainment of illness history reported by mother and observation of clinical signs of illness. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of maternal report of any illness sign compared to CHWs' assessments and classification of VSD. Analysis was restricted to mothers whose neonates were assessed by CHWs at home during the routine visit schedule. Maternal report of any signs had sensitivity of 24% and 20% and positive predictive value of 45% and 54% in Sylhet and Mirzapur, respectively. Maternal recognition of neonatal illnesses at home was poor in two rural areas in Bangladesh. Interventions need to be designed to improve maternal recognition, and routine post-natal assessment by CHWs at home may be an essential component of community-based newborn care to improve care-seeking for newborn illness.

  10. [Violence on health care workers].

    PubMed

    Cannavò, M; Fusaro, N; Colaiuda, F; Rescigno, G; Fioravanti, M

    2017-01-01

    The Emergency Department (ED) is vulnerable for workplace violence, but little is known about this and its consequences. Objectives of this study were presence, characteristics and effects of violence from patients and visitors on health care workers in an Emergency Department (ED). This study was about the Accident and Emergency Department, S. Pertini Hospital, (ASL RMB, Rome, Italy). Data were collected from November 2014 to January 2015 on frequency and type of violent behavior in the past five years experienced by staff members and their level of stress by an ad hoc questionnaire for the evaluation of violent events in health activities (QVS) and a questionnaire on perceived work-related stress (QES). Of the 58 eligible workers, 51 completed the interview. Health care workers were regularly exposed to violence with a consequent severe underreporting to work authorities and only a minor reporting to the police. A diffuse belief that workplace violence is a normal part of the work was also identified. Aggressors were usually patients or their relatives and were mainly males. Health care workers may suffer physical and emotional harm. Emergency Department health care workers are at risk of experiencing workplace violence and should have specific training and support in the management of violent situations focused on early identification, communication strategies, and de-escalation techniques.

  11. An assessment of the impact of Health Workers for Change in Avellaneda, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Pittman, P; Blatt, G; Rodriguez, P

    2001-09-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series in a primary health care clinic in Avellaneda, Argentina. The study found that there was an important impact at the facility level 2 months after the intervention (T2). Health workers were motivated and willing to examine their own practices critically in an effort to improve quality of care. Informants from the community also perceived that patients were being treated more kindly. Eleven months later (T3), however, the impact at the facility level had receded significantly. At the system level the main benefit of the workshops was to focus attention on the health workers themselves, particularly their perception that there was little communication with the authorities. As a result, the number of system level supervisors increased and they were urged to spend more time in the clinics. Reasons for the limited impact at T3 are discussed and suggestions are made for improving the intervention.

  12. Narratives of Violence, Pathology, and Empowerment: Mental Health Needs Assessment of Home-Based Female Sex Workers in Rural India.

    PubMed

    Sardana, Srishti; Marcus, Marina; Verdeli, Helen

    2016-08-01

    This study explores the narratives of psychological distress and resilience among a group of female sex workers who use residential spaces to attend to clients in rural India. The narratives reflect the lived experiences of these women. They describe the women's reasons for opting into sex work; guilt, shame, and stigma related to their sex worker status; experiences with intimate partner and domestic violence; health-related problems; communication with their family members about their sex worker status; mental health referral practices among the women; and elements of resilience and strength that they experience within themselves and within their community of fellow sex workers. The article also offers elements of our own experiences of recruiting the women to participate in the focus group, training local outreach workers in conducting focus group discussions, and forging a collaboration with a local community-based organization to highlight important barriers, challenges, and strategies for planning a group-based discussion to explore the mental health needs of home-based sex workers. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of hand washing among health care workers in Ain Shams University hospitals in Cairo.

    PubMed

    Abd Elaziz, K M; Bakr, I M

    2009-03-01

    Most nosocomial infections are thought to be transmitted by the hands of health care workers. The aim of this work was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of hand washing among health care workers (HCW) in Ain-Shams University hospitals and to investigate the presence of the necessary facilities and supplies required for hand washing (HW) in ten wards. A cross-sectional descriptive and observational study was conducted for six months from June till November 2006. Observation of the HCW for hand washing practice was done at any opportunity of contact with the patients in the different wards by members of the infection control team. Knowledge & attitude of HCW towards hand hygiene was done through self-administered questionnaire to HCW in 10 different departments. The total opportunities observed were 2189 opportunities. Doctors showed a significantly higher compliance (37.5%) than other groups of HCW (P = 0.000), however only 11.6% of the opportunities observed for doctors were done appropriately. The most common type of HW practiced among HCW was the routine HW (64.2%) and the least was the antiseptic HW (3.9%). Having a short contact time and improper drying (23.2%) were the most common errors that lead to inappropriate HW. Most of the wards had available sinks (80%) but none of them had available paper towels. The mean knowledge score was higher in nurses compared to doctors (42.6 +/- 1.7 versus 39.1 +/- 10.5). Most of the nurses (97.3%) believe that administrative orders and continuous observation can improve hand washing practices. Implementation of multifaceted interventional behavioral hand hygiene program with continuous monitoring and performance feedback, increasing the supplies necessary for HW and institutional support are important for improving the compliance of hand hygiene guidelines.

  14. Workers' exposures and potential health risks to air toxics in a petrochemical complex assessed by improved methodology.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chang-Chuan; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chang, Ta-Yuan; Tsai, Dai-Hua

    2006-02-01

    This study was designed to comprehensively evaluate workers' potential health risks of exposure to 39 air toxics in the Ta-sher Petrochemical Complex. Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) was used to measure concentrations of air toxics. We used the measured worksite concentrations between 1997 and 1999 at 11 companies in the petrochemical complex, employing 3,100 on-site workers. The 39 measured air toxics included 10 chemicals with acute reference exposure levels (RELa), 19 chemicals with chronic reference exposure levels (RELc), and 3 chemicals classified as Class 1 or 2A human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). We then used RELa to calculate the hazard index of acute health effects (HI ( A )) for workers in individual plants. We also calculated the hazard index of chronic health effects (HIc) and cancer risks for all workers in the entire petrochemical complex. Workers in five companies had HI ( A ) greater than 1 because of toluene, benzene, methyl ethyl ketone, chloroform and isopropanol exposures. Workers in this petrochemical complex had HIc greater than 1 because of acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, hydrogen cyanide, and n,n-dimethylformamide exposures. Risk of hematopoietic system cancer because of benzene and ethylene oxide exposure, and respiratory system cancer because of 1,3-butadiene exposure was estimated to be 3.1-6.1 x 10(-4) and 5.2-7.1 x 10(-4), respectively. Our findings indicated that workers in the petrochemical complex might have excess cancer and noncancer risks due to acute or chronic exposures to air toxics from multiple emission sources.

  15. Home Health Care for California's Injured Workers

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, Barbara O.; Boustead, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The California Department of Industrial Relations/Division of Worker's Compensation asked RAND to provide technical assistance in developing a fee schedule for home health services provided to injured workers. The fee schedule needs to address the full spectrum of home health services ranging from skilled nursing and therapy services to unskilled personal care or chore services that may be provided by family members. RAND researchers consulted with stakeholders in the California workers’ compensation system to outline issues the fee schedule should address, reviewed home health fee schedules used by other payers, and conducted interviews with WC administrators from other jurisdictions to elicit their experiences. California stakeholders identified unskilled attendant services as most problematic in determining need and payment rates, particularly services furnished by family members. RAND researchers concentrated on fee schedule options that would result in a single fee schedule covering the full range of home health care services furnished to injured workers and made three sets of recommendations. The first set pertains to obtaining additional information that would highlight the policy issues likely to occur with the implementation of the fee schedule and alternatives for assessing an injured worker's home health care needs. Another approach conforms most closely with the Labor Code requirements. It would integrate the fee schedules used by Medicare, In-Home Health Supportive Services, and the federal Office of Workers’ Compensation. The third approach would base the home health fee schedule on rules used by the federal Office of Workers’ Compensation. PMID:28083362

  16. Qualitative Assessment of the Application of a Discrete Choice Experiment With Community Health Workers in Uganda: Aligning Incentives With Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Brunie, Aurélie; Chen, Mario; Akol, Angela

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Maximizing the benefits of community health worker (CHW) programs requires strategies for improving motivation, performance, and retention. Discrete choice experiments (DCE) are increasingly used to inform policy response to health workforce shortages in rural areas, and may be of value in the context of CHW programs. Participants are presented with pairs of hypothetical jobs that are described by job attributes with varying levels and are asked what their preferred job is within each pair. Responses are then analyzed quantitatively to obtain information on what attributes are important to participants. We conducted a qualitative assessment to examine the appropriateness and validity of applying a DCE to a new population of CHWs with lower literacy. Methods: In 2011, we conducted a mixed-method study with CHWs in Uganda, consisting of 183 surveys and 43 in-depth interviews (IDIs). The DCE was administered to both survey and IDI participants. This article reports on the qualitative assessment of the implementation of the DCE. We compare DCE responses between survey and IDI participants to determine whether administering the DCE in a qualitative (IDI) context altered responses. We then present additional information collected on CHWs' decision-making processes and their experiences with the DCE in the IDIs. Results: Choices made by IDI participants were consistent with the choices made by survey participants. In-depth exploration of CHWs' observations in answering the DCE suggest that, overall, CHWs comprehended the DCE exercise and made reasoned choices. However, the data revealed some level of cognitive difficulty and highlighted some design and implementation challenges that are important to consider, particularly when applying a DCE to populations with lower literacy. These include the need to keep the number of attributes small; to choose levels that are realistic yet show sufficient range; and to clearly define attributes and their levels

  17. Qualitative Assessment of the Application of a Discrete Choice Experiment With Community Health Workers in Uganda: Aligning Incentives With Preferences.

    PubMed

    Brunie, Aurélie; Chen, Mario; Akol, Angela

    2016-12-23

    Maximizing the benefits of community health worker (CHW) programs requires strategies for improving motivation, performance, and retention. Discrete choice experiments (DCE) are increasingly used to inform policy response to health workforce shortages in rural areas, and may be of value in the context of CHW programs. Participants are presented with pairs of hypothetical jobs that are described by job attributes with varying levels and are asked what their preferred job is within each pair. Responses are then analyzed quantitatively to obtain information on what attributes are important to participants. We conducted a qualitative assessment to examine the appropriateness and validity of applying a DCE to a new population of CHWs with lower literacy. In 2011, we conducted a mixed-method study with CHWs in Uganda, consisting of 183 surveys and 43 in-depth interviews (IDIs). The DCE was administered to both survey and IDI participants. This article reports on the qualitative assessment of the implementation of the DCE. We compare DCE responses between survey and IDI participants to determine whether administering the DCE in a qualitative (IDI) context altered responses. We then present additional information collected on CHWs' decision-making processes and their experiences with the DCE in the IDIs. Choices made by IDI participants were consistent with the choices made by survey participants. In-depth exploration of CHWs' observations in answering the DCE suggest that, overall, CHWs comprehended the DCE exercise and made reasoned choices. However, the data revealed some level of cognitive difficulty and highlighted some design and implementation challenges that are important to consider, particularly when applying a DCE to populations with lower literacy. These include the need to keep the number of attributes small; to choose levels that are realistic yet show sufficient range; and to clearly define attributes and their levels. DCEs can be an appropriate approach

  18. Relationship of respiratory health status to grain dust in a Witwatersrand grain mill: comparison of workers' exposure assessments with industrial hygiene survey findings.

    PubMed

    Fonn, S; Groeneveld, H T; deBeer, M; Becklake, M R

    1993-10-01

    Objective measures of exposure furnished by dust monitoring are both costly and time consuming and require a sufficient level of technology. However, they are important in demonstrating exposure-response relationships, in furnishing information necessary to establish environmental control levels, and to assess if interventions, for instance, improving dust control, have been effective. In this paper respiratory symptoms and cross-shift changes in spirometric lung function were related to dust exposure level in a grain mill assessed in two ways, subjectively (by workers themselves on a four point scale) and objectively (by personal dust monitoring). Health indicators that depend on the individual's perception (e.g., symptoms) correlated more closely with the subjectively assessed dust category, while health indicators that were measured objectively (e.g., cross-week FVC and FEV1 change) correlated more closely with the objectively assessed dust category. However, the patterns of relationship of respiratory health indicators to either dust category were similar, and exposure assessed by one method was, to a large extent, a proxy for the other. The most significant predictor of workers' choice of dust exposure category was the measured dust level. These findings indicate that exposure categories based on workers' assessment of dustiness can be a useful tool in etiologic research, in particular in establishing exposure-response relationships.

  19. Health risk assessment of inhalation exposure of irrigation workers and the public to trihalomethanes from reclaimed water in landscape irrigation in Tianjin, North China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen-Chen; Niu, Zhi-Guang; Zhang, Ying

    2013-11-15

    To estimate the concentration in air and the cancer risk of irrigation workers and the public exposed to the total trihalomethanes (TTHMs) in reclaimed water used for landscape irrigation, a probabilistic health risk assessment was conducted through the integrated use of one-dimensional (1-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) Monte Carlo simulations. Before the 2-D simulation, a sensitivity analysis corresponding to the 1-D simulation was carried out to identity the factors most affecting the outputs. The results reveal that the TTHM concentration level and cancer risk for workers' exposure is much higher than that for public exposure in landscape irrigation. Moreover, the most influential factors are quite different for workers' exposure and public exposure. The 2-D Monte Carlo risk analysis result for the workers indicated that the lowest-risk, highest-risk and two critical points for irrigation height are 0.7 m, 1.53 m, 1.4m and 1.65 m when the mean value of the risk is selected as the reference statistic for risk management. Based on the risk assessment results, different measures can be suggested for the risk control of different populations. Furthermore, the influential variables should be better characterized to improve the accuracy of health risk assessment.

  20. A qualitative assessment of health extension workers' relationships with the community and health sector in Ethiopia: opportunities for enhancing maternal health performance.

    PubMed

    Kok, Maryse C; Kea, Aschenaki Z; Datiko, Daniel G; Broerse, Jacqueline E W; Dieleman, Marjolein; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Tulloch, Olivia

    2015-09-30

    Health extension workers (HEWs) in Ethiopia have a unique position, connecting communities to the health sector. This intermediary position requires strong interpersonal relationships with actors in both the community and health sector, in order to enhance HEW performance. This study aimed to understand how relationships between HEWs, the community and health sector were shaped, in order to inform policy on optimizing HEW performance in providing maternal health services. We conducted a qualitative study in six districts in the Sidama zone, which included focus group discussions (FGDs) with HEWs, women and men from the community and semi-structured interviews with HEWs; key informants working in programme management, health service delivery and supervision of HEWs; mothers; and traditional birth attendants. Respondents were asked about facilitators and barriers regarding HEWs' relationships with the community and health sector. Interviews and FGDs were recorded, transcribed, translated, coded and thematically analysed. HEWs were selected by their communities, which enhanced trust and engagement between them. Relationships were facilitated by programme design elements related to support, referral, supervision, training, monitoring and accountability. Trust, communication and dialogue and expectations influenced the strength of relationships. From the community side, the health development army supported HEWs in liaising with community members. From the health sector side, top-down supervision and inadequate training possibilities hampered relationships and demotivated HEWs. Health professionals, administrators, HEWs and communities occasionally met to monitor HEW and programme performance. Expectations from the community and health sector regarding HEWs' tasks sometimes differed, negatively affecting motivation and satisfaction of HEWs. HEWs' relationships with the community and health sector can be constrained as a result of inadequate support systems, lack of

  1. Health Needs of Migrant Workers in Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesinger, Doris P.

    A survey of Wisconsin's migrant workers was conducted to obtain demographic information, to determine unmet health care needs, and to make recommendations for migrant health services based on those needs. A stratified random sample of 408 workers was selected, representing about 10% of the migrant workers in Wisconsin in the 1978 season; 262 of…

  2. Health risk assessment for vehicle inspection workers exposed to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in their work place.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng-hui; Kong, Shao-fei; Geng, Chun-mei; Han, Bin; Lu, Bing; Sun, Ru-feng; Zhao, Ruo-jie; Bai, Zhi-peng

    2013-03-01

    Inhalatory and dermal exposures of on-duty vehicle inspection workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Beijing were investigated from April 18 to May 17, 2011. Exposure levels to particulate PAHs for the vehicle inspection workers at gasoline, bus and diesel lines were found to be 56.07 ng m(-3), 111.72 ng m(-3) and 199.80 ng m(-3), respectively. A probabilistic risk assessment framework was integrated with the toxic equivalence factors (TEFs) and the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) approaches to quantitatively estimate the exposure risk for vehicle inspection workers of the three work lines. The median values of inhalation risk were estimated to be 3.7 × 10(-7), 5.0 × 10(-7) and 1.37 × 10(-6), respectively, while the median dermal ILCR values were 7.05 × 10(-6), 6.98 × 10(-6) and 1.28 × 10(-5), respectively for gasoline, bus, and diesel inspection workers. Total ILCR was higher than the acceptable risk level of 10(-6), indicating unacceptable potential cancer risk.

  3. Can Community Health Workers Report Accurately on Births and Deaths? Results of Field Assessments in Ethiopia, Malawi and Mali

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Romesh; Amouzou, Agbessi; Munos, Melinda; Marsh, Andrew; Hazel, Elizabeth; Victora, Cesar; Black, Robert; Bryce, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Most low-income countries lack complete and accurate vital registration systems. As a result, measures of under-five mortality rates rely mostly on household surveys. In collaboration with partners in Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, and Mali, we assessed the completeness and accuracy of reporting of births and deaths by community-based health workers, and the accuracy of annualized under-five mortality rate estimates derived from these data. Here we report on results from Ethiopia, Malawi and Mali. Method In all three countries, community health workers (CHWs) were trained, equipped and supported to report pregnancies, births and deaths within defined geographic areas over a period of at least fifteen months. In-country institutions collected these data every month. At each study site, we administered a full birth history (FBH) or full pregnancy history (FPH), to women of reproductive age via a census of households in Mali and via household surveys in Ethiopia and Malawi. Using these FBHs/FPHs as a validation data source, we assessed the completeness of the counts of births and deaths and the accuracy of under-five, infant, and neonatal mortality rates from the community-based method against the retrospective FBH/FPH for rolling twelve-month periods. For each method we calculated total cost, average annual cost per 1,000 population, and average cost per vital event reported. Results On average, CHWs submitted monthly vital event reports for over 95 percent of catchment areas in Ethiopia and Malawi, and for 100 percent of catchment areas in Mali. The completeness of vital events reporting by CHWs varied: we estimated that 30%-90% of annualized expected births (i.e. the number of births estimated using a FPH) were documented by CHWs and 22%-91% of annualized expected under-five deaths were documented by CHWs. Resulting annualized under-five mortality rates based on the CHW vital events reporting were, on average, under-estimated by 28% in Ethiopia, 32% in

  4. Is health worker migration a case of poaching?

    PubMed

    Snyder, Jeremy

    2009-03-01

    Many nations in the developing world invest scarce funding into training health workers. When these workers migrate to richer countries, particularly when this migration occurs before the source community can recoup the costs of training, the destination community realizes a net gain in resources by obtaining the workers' skills without having to pay for their training. This effect of health worker migration has frequently been condemned as 'poaching' or a case of theft. I assess the charge that the rich nations of the world poach the resources of the developing world through the active recruitment of migrants. I argue that the charge of poaching is misguided in these cases. The misuse of the term poaching is particularly troubling as it distracts attention away from the many actual moral wrongs taking place through the process of health worker migration and objectifies health workers.

  5. Keys to Successful Community Health Worker Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duthie, Patricia; Hahn, Janet S.; Philippi, Evelyn; Sanchez, Celeste

    2012-01-01

    For many years community health workers (CHW) have been important to the implementation of many of our health system's community health interventions. Through this experience, we have recognized some unique challenges in community health worker supervision and have highlighted what we have learned in order to help other organizations effectively…

  6. Keys to Successful Community Health Worker Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duthie, Patricia; Hahn, Janet S.; Philippi, Evelyn; Sanchez, Celeste

    2012-01-01

    For many years community health workers (CHW) have been important to the implementation of many of our health system's community health interventions. Through this experience, we have recognized some unique challenges in community health worker supervision and have highlighted what we have learned in order to help other organizations effectively…

  7. Flu vaccine among health workers in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Shahbic, Hessa E; Said, Hana A

    2010-10-01

    To assessed the coverage rate of influenza vaccination among Health Care Workers at Hamad Medical Corporation in 2006 vaccination campaign and also assessed the reasons for non-vaccination in among physicians and nurses. This is an observational study conducted in Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar between April 2007 and August 2007. The 2006 vaccination campaign records were analyzed to determine the influenza vaccination coverage rate among all staff in 6 independent facilities. We used a self-administrative questionnaire to assess the reasons for not getting the influenza vaccine among a random sample of non-vaccinated physicians and nurses. Approximately 19.4% of all staff were vaccinated and there were statistically significant differences between the type of health care facilities among physicians and nurses group. Approximately 58% of the random sample of 1261 physicians and nurses returned the questionnaire. The most frequently cited reasons for non-vaccination were lack of time to get immunized (16.5%) and concerns on vaccine side effects (13.6%). Influenza vaccination coverage of health care workers is low and variable depending on type of health care setting, therefore, it is essential to identify the reasons for low vaccination rate in different health care facility in which assists the guidance to improve the coverage rates for the following years.

  8. Assessment of Factors Associated with Breast Self-Examination among Health Extension Workers in West Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Azage, Muluken; Abeje, Gedefaw; Mekonnen, Alemtsehay

    2013-01-01

    Background. Early detection of breast cancer using breast self-examination (BSE) plays an important role in decreasing its morbidity and mortality. Objective. To identify factors associated with BSE among health extension workers in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods. Cross-sectional study design was employed from October to November, 2012 in West Gojjam Zone of Amhara region. Simple random sampling technique was used to recruit a total of 390 health extension workers (HEWs). A structured Amharic questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS statistical package version 16.0. Result. This study found that 37% of HEWs had ever practiced BSE and 14.4% practiced it regularly. The three main reasons for not doing regular BSE were no breast problem (53.2%), not knowing the technique of BSE (30.6%), and not knowing the importance of BSE (21.4%). Discussion with families on BSE and history of breast examination by health professionals were found significantly associated with ever practice of BSE. Conclusion. BSE practice was found low in this study. Having information on the importance of BSE was predictor of BSE practice. Therefore, it is important to give training on BSE techniques and its role on breast cancer prevention for HEWs.

  9. Assessment of Factors Associated with Breast Self-Examination among Health Extension Workers in West Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Azage, Muluken; Abeje, Gedefaw; Mekonnen, Alemtsehay

    2013-01-01

    Background. Early detection of breast cancer using breast self-examination (BSE) plays an important role in decreasing its morbidity and mortality. Objective. To identify factors associated with BSE among health extension workers in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods. Cross-sectional study design was employed from October to November, 2012 in West Gojjam Zone of Amhara region. Simple random sampling technique was used to recruit a total of 390 health extension workers (HEWs). A structured Amharic questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS statistical package version 16.0. Result. This study found that 37% of HEWs had ever practiced BSE and 14.4% practiced it regularly. The three main reasons for not doing regular BSE were no breast problem (53.2%), not knowing the technique of BSE (30.6%), and not knowing the importance of BSE (21.4%). Discussion with families on BSE and history of breast examination by health professionals were found significantly associated with ever practice of BSE. Conclusion. BSE practice was found low in this study. Having information on the importance of BSE was predictor of BSE practice. Therefore, it is important to give training on BSE techniques and its role on breast cancer prevention for HEWs. PMID:24298389

  10. Workers' decisions to take-up offered health insurance coverage: assessing the importance of out-of-pocket premium costs.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Philip F; Vistnes, Jessica

    2003-07-01

    Many proposed policy initiatives involve subsidies directed toward encouraging employers to offer coverage and toward workers to encourage enrollment in offered plans. Given that insurance coverage reflects employers' decisions to offer coverage, eligibility requirements for such coverage, and employees' take-up decisions, all three elements are important when considering mechanisms to decrease the number of uninsured individuals. In this study, we examine the relationship between workers' decisions to take-up offers of health insurance and annual out-of-pocket contributions, total premiums, and employer and workforce characteristics. We model the take-up decision using cross-sectional data from approximately 18,000 establishments per year from the 1997 to 1999 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey - Insurance Component. We find that workers are less likely to enroll in coverage as single employee contributions increase. Our results for family contributions are much smaller than for single contributions and are not statistically significant in all years. Our simulation results suggest that reducing employee contribution levels for single coverage from existing levels in 1999 to zero would yield an increase in take-up rates of roughly 6% points in establishments that had required a positive level of contributions. Our results also indicate that of the 13.8 million private sector workers who decline coverage from their employers, 2.5 million would potentially enroll in employer-sponsored coverage if the cost of single coverage were to fall to zero. Reducing employee contributions will increase take-up rates; however, even when employees pay nothing for their coverage, some employees elect not to enroll.

  11. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health and Health Care: an Assessment and Analysis of the Awareness and Perceptions of Public Health Workers Implementing a Statewide Community Transformation Grant in Texas.

    PubMed

    Akinboro, Oladimeji; Ottenbacher, Allison; Martin, Marcus; Harrison, Roderick; James, Thomas; Martin, Eddilisa; Murdoch, James; Linnear, Kim; Cardarelli, Kathryn

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the awareness of public health professionals regarding racial and ethnic disparities in health in the United States of America (USA). Our study objective was to assess the awareness and perceptions of a group of public health workers in Texas regarding racial health disparities and their chief contributing causes. We surveyed public health professionals working on a statewide grant in Texas, who were participants at health disparities' training workshops. Multivariable logistic regression was employed in examining the association between the participants' characteristics and their perceptions of the social determinants of health as principal causes of health disparities. There were 106 respondents, of whom 38 and 35 % worked in health departments and non-profit organizations, respectively. The racial/ethnic groups with the highest incidence of HIV/AIDS and hypertension were correctly identified by 63 and 50 % of respondents, respectively, but only 17, and 32 % were knowledgeable regarding diabetes and cancer, respectively. Seventy-one percent of respondents perceived that health disparities are driven by the major axes of the social determinants of health. Exposure to information about racial/ethnic health disparities within the prior year was associated with a higher odds of perceiving that social determinants of health were causes of health disparities (OR 9.62; 95 % CI 2.77, 33.41). Among public health workers, recent exposure to information regarding health disparities may be associated with their perceptions of health disparities. Further research is needed to investigate the impact of such exposure on their long-term perception of disparities, as well as the equity of services and programs they administer.

  12. [Health maintenance strategy for construction industry workers].

    PubMed

    Perminova, I Iu; Logvinenko, I I

    2011-01-01

    The authors analyzed work conditions and health state of workers engaged into construction industry in Kemerovo city. Findings are that complex approach to carrying out the strategy "Health for all in XXI century" causes health preservation.

  13. [Calculation of workers' health care costs].

    PubMed

    Rydlewska-Liszkowska, Izabela

    2006-01-01

    subjects as cost objects and taking account of all their interrelations. Final products, specific assignments, resources and activities may all be regarded as cost objects. The ABC method is characterized by a very high informative value in terms of setting prices of products in the area of workers' health care. It also facilitates the assessment of costs of individual activities under a multidisciplinary approach to health care and the setting costs of varied products. The ABC method provides precise data on the consumption of resources, such as human labor or various materials.

  14. Does workplace health promotion reach shift workers?

    PubMed

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Clausen, Thomas; Jørgensen, Marie Birk

    2015-01-01

    One reason for health disparities between shift and day workers may be that workplace health promotion does not reach shift workers to the same extent as it reaches day workers. This study aimed to investigate the association between shift work and the availability of and participation in workplace health promotion. We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from a large representative sample of all employed people in Denmark. We obtained information on the availability of and participation in six types of workplace health promotion. We also obtained information on working hours, ie, fixed day work (reference) and shift work (four categories), psychosocial work factors, and health behaviors. We conducted binary logistic regression analyses both in the total sample (N=7555) and in a sub-sample consisting of job groups with representatives in all shift work categories (N=2064). In the general working population, fixed evening and fixed night workers, and employees working variable shifts including night work reported a higher availability of health promotion, while employees working variable shifts without night work reported a lower availability of health promotion. Within job groups undertaking shift work, we found few differences between day and shift workers, and these few differences appear to favor shift workers. Day workers and shift workers did not differ significantly with respect to their participation in health promotion. The present study could not confirm that shift workers in general report a lower availability of and participation in workplace health promotion.

  15. Hobby or job? Mexican female health workers.

    PubMed

    Harrison, M E

    1994-01-01

    A critical analysis of the role and status of female health workers in the primary health care service (PHC) of the Secretary of Health in the Federal District of Mexico is presented. Women are key workers in the health service; however, since the creation of the PHC service, women appear to have been kept in low-pay, low-status jobs. Data from questionnaires and in-depth interviews with female health workers in the Federal District illustrate the situation. Female health workers' status is determined by the structure and operation of the PHC system; by family and personal needs; by the cultural context of Mexican society; and by the fact that some female health workers view their job as a hobby, placing family considerations above career enhancement.

  16. Occupational health nursing with Navajo workers. Providing culturally competent care.

    PubMed

    Lusk, P; Holst, P

    2001-01-01

    1. Native Americans in the southwestern United States are considered a "vulnerable population." Native Americans have economic difficulties, poor health, and little access to health care. The Navajo nation is the largest Native American reservation in the United States. 2. Occupational health nurses who provide culturally competent care increase the likelihood for Navajo workers to obtain optimal benefits from workplace health services. 3. The nurse uses cultural assessment skills and critical thinking abilities to maximize therapeutic interactions and minimize barriers in communications with workers of other cultural backgrounds. 4. The nurse who is knowledgeable about the Navajo way can help achieve a balance between the traditional ways and Western ways of addressing serious health care issues facing the Navajo worker. This knowledge and cultural awareness also increases the effectiveness of health promotion and health education programs offered to workers, their families, and their communities.

  17. Health disparities among health care workers.

    PubMed

    Mawn, Barbara; Siqueira, Eduardo; Koren, Ainat; Slatin, Craig; Devereaux Melillo, Karen; Pearce, Carole; Hoff, Lee Ann

    2010-01-01

    In this article we describe the process of an interdisciplinary case study that examined the social contexts of occupational and general health disparities among health care workers in two sets of New England hospitals and nursing homes. A political economy of the work environment framework guided the study, which incorporated dimensions related to market dynamics, technology, and political and economic power. The purpose of this article is to relate the challenges encountered in occupational health care settings and how these could have impacted the study results. An innovative data collection matrix that guided small-group analysis provided a firm foundation from which to make design modifications to address these challenges. Implications for policy and research include the use of a political and economic framework from which to frame future studies, and the need to maintain rigor while allowing flexibility in design to adapt to challenges in the field.

  18. How do health workers see community participation?

    PubMed

    Freyens, P; Mbakuliyemo, N; Martin, M

    1993-01-01

    A survey of health workers in Rwanda suggested that they were somewhat reluctant to accept the involvement of lay people in the promotion and implementation of primary care programmes. Various obstacles to community participation were identified by the health workers, who, however, suggested general rather than specific remedies for the situation as they saw it.

  19. [A study on estimating health workers requirement (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Park, I H

    1980-11-01

    4 metholological approaches to the assessment of future demand for health manpower are considered: health needs, service targets, health demand, and ratio of health manpower to population. The service targets approach appears to be the most appropriate for family planning and maternal and child health services. Once targets are determined, they are converted into manpower requirements on the basis of personnel ratios and productivity assumptions. Requirements for family planning workers are estimated by the fertility decline approach, based on national demographic targets established in quantitative terms. Actual number of family planning workers are estimated at 2619 in 1981 (over 14% of current workers in the field) and 2214 in 1986. To meet the established minimum requirements on the maternal and child health program (3 antepartum contacts and direct or indirect services at delivery), more than 4500 workers will be needed during 1981-86. (Author's modified)

  20. Assessment of the quality of antenatal care services provided by health workers using a mobile phone decision support application in northern Nigeria: a pre/post-intervention study.

    PubMed

    McNabb, Marion; Chukwu, Emeka; Ojo, Oluwayemisi; Shekhar, Navendu; Gill, Christopher J; Salami, Habeeb; Jega, Farouk

    2015-01-01

    Given the shortage of skilled healthcare providers in Nigeria, frontline community health extension workers (CHEWs) are commonly tasked with providing maternal and child health services at primary health centers. In 2012, we introduced a mobile case management and decision support application in twenty primary health centers in northern Nigeria, and conducted a pre-test/post-test study to assess whether the introduction of the app had an effect on the quality of antenatal care services provided by this lower-level cadre. Using the CommCare mobile platform, the app dynamically guides CHEWs through antenatal care protocols and collects client data in real time. Thirteen health education audio clips are also embedded in the app for improving and standardizing client counseling. To detect changes in quality, we developed an evidence-based quality score consisting of 25 indicators, and conducted a total of 266 client exit interviews. We analyzed baseline and endline data to assess changes in the overall quality score as well as changes in the provision of key elements of antenatal care. Overall, the quality score increased from 13.3 at baseline to 17.2 at endline (p<0.0001), out of a total possible score of 25, with the most significant improvements related to health counseling, technical services provided, and quality of health education. These study results suggest that the introduction of a low-cost mobile case management and decision support application can spur behavior change and improve the quality of services provided by a lower level cadre of healthcare workers. Future research should employ a more rigorous experimental design to explore potential longer-term effects on client health outcomes.

  1. Occupational health problems among migrant and seasonal farm workers.

    PubMed Central

    Mobed, K; Gold, E B; Schenker, M B

    1992-01-01

    Migrant and seasonal farm workers are one of the most underserved and understudied populations in the United States. The total US population of such farm workers has been estimated at 5 million, of whom about 20% live or work in California. Farm workers perform strenuous tasks and are exposed to a wide variety of occupational risks and hazards. Low socioeconomic status and poor access to health care also contribute to existing health problems in this population. Potential farm work-related health problems include accidents, pesticide-related illnesses, musculoskeletal and soft-tissue disorders, dermatitis, noninfectious respiratory conditions, reproductive health problems, health problems of children of farm workers, climate-caused illnesses, communicable diseases, bladder and kidney disorders, and eye and ear problems. Few epidemiologic studies exist of these occupational health problems. No comprehensive epidemiologic studies have assessed the magnitude of occupational health problems among migrant and seasonal farm workers and their dependents. Although the migratory nature of this population makes long-term studies difficult, the development of standardized data collection instruments for health consequences and scientific assessment of farm work exposures and working conditions are vital to characterize and reduce the occupational health risks in farm workers. PMID:1413786

  2. [Health status of nursing workers in functional retraining and readaptation].

    PubMed

    Cacciari, Pâmella; Haddad, Maria do Carmo Lourenço; Vannuchi, Marli Terezinha Oliveira; Dalmas, José Carlos

    2013-12-01

    Cross-sectional descriptive study aimed to assess the health status of nursing staff retrained due to illness of a public university hospital in northern Paraná, Brazil. Data of 34 workers were collected through the application of the Medical Outcomes Studies 36 items - Short Form (MOS SF-36). The results showed that physical problems were the reason for retraining in 91.2 % of cases. Of the eight domains assessed by the MOS SF -36, the worst scores referred to bodily pain, vitality and general health and the best scores were attributed to aspects of the mental health component. Workers retrained due to physical reason had lower scores in all domains except emotional performance in relation to those with mental problem. The evaluation of the perceived health of these workers showed that retraining due to illness is a strategy developed to enhance the functional capacity of workers, despite their limitations.

  3. Considerations for increasing the competences and capacities of the public health workforce: assessing the training needs of public health workers in Texas

    PubMed Central

    Borders, Stephen; Blakely, Craig; Quiram, Barbara; McLeroy, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    Background Over the last two decades, concern has been expressed about the readiness of the public health workforce to adequately address the scientific, technological, social, political and economic challenges facing the field. A 1988 report from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) served as a catalyst for the re-examination of the public health workforce. The IOM's call to increase the relevance of public health education and training prompted a renewed effort to identify competences needed by public health personnel and the organizations that employ them. Methods A recent evaluation sought to address the role of the 10 essential public health services in job services among the Texas public health workforce. Additionally, the evaluation examined the Texas public health workforce's need for training in the 10 essential public health services. Results and conclusion Overall, the level of perceived training needs varied dramatically by job category and health department type. When comparing aggregate training needs, public health workers with greater day-to-day contact (nurses, health educators) indicated a greater need for training than their peers who did not, such as those working in administrative positions. When prioritizing and designing future training modules regarding the 10 essential public health services, trainers should consider the effects of job function, location and contact with the public. PMID:16872494

  4. [Worker's health & outsourcing: worker's profile in a hospital cleaning service].

    PubMed

    Chillida, Manuela de Santana Pi; Cocco, Maria Inês Monteiro

    2004-01-01

    In the last two decades, service outsourcing has reduced companies' costs by the rationalization of their actions and the exploration of precarious work relations. This research aimed to outline the profile of outsourced workers in the cleaning service of a university hospital, identify their points of view about the health-illness process and future plans. This is a descriptive study from a quantitative approach, involving a random sample with 50 cleaning workers. Most of them started to work early, 74% were women and education level was low. In 36% of the cases, physicians diagnosed some kind of illness. In the analyzed period, 84% of the interviewees had realized medical consultations, resulting in an average of 3.6 consultations per worker, 56% of which involved general clinicians. Data analysis allowed for the identification of these professionals' perspectives in relation to the health/illness process and their future.

  5. Ultramorphological sperm characteristics in the risk assessment of health effects after radiation exposure among salvage workers in Chernobyl.

    PubMed Central

    Fischbein, A; Zabludovsky, N; Eltes, F; Grischenko, V; Bartoov, B

    1997-01-01

    We present a pilot study of individuals (liquidators) who were engaged in clean-up operations after the disaster at the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl in Ukraine. In the 10 years since the disaster, adverse health effects among exposed individuals have not been clearly defined. There is widespread fear of damage to the reproductive system, with implications for fertility problems and adverse effects on offspring. Bearing this in mind, methods to evaluate the potential for production of fertile semen have been applied using quantitative ultramorphological (QUM) analysis. QUM analysis examines the organization and integrity of sperm organelles by electron microscopy, using both transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Significant differences were observed between clean-up workers and controls of similar age regarding certain ultramorphological parameters of the sperm head. The results of this pilot study suggest that QUM analysis of human sperm is a feasible approach for evaluating the fertility potential of individuals who were exposed to ionizing radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Images Figure 1. A Figure 1. B Figure 1. C PMID:9467060

  6. The PAediatric Risk Assessment (PARA) Mobile App to Reduce Postdischarge Child Mortality: Design, Usability, and Feasibility for Health Care Workers in Uganda.

    PubMed

    English, Lauren Lacey; Dunsmuir, Dustin; Kumbakumba, Elias; Ansermino, John Mark; Larson, Charles P; Lester, Richard; Barigye, Celestine; Ndamira, Andrew; Kabakyenga, Jerome; Wiens, Matthew O

    2016-02-15

    Postdischarge death in children is increasingly being recognized as a major contributor to overall child mortality. The PAediatric Risk Assessment (PARA) app is an mHealth tool developed to aid health care workers in resource-limited settings such as Sub-Saharan Africa to identify pediatric patients at high risk of both in-hospital and postdischarge mortality. The intended users of the PARA app are health care workers (ie, nurses, doctors, and clinical officers) with varying levels of education and technological exposure, making testing of this clinical tool critical to successful implementation. Our aim was to summarize the usability evaluation of the PARA app among target users, which consists of assessing the ease of use, functionality, and navigation of the interfaces and then iteratively improving the design of this clinical tool. Health care workers (N=30) were recruited to participate at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital and Holy Innocents Children's Hospital in Mbarara, Southwestern Uganda. This usability study was conducted in two phases to allow for iterative improvement and testing of the interfaces. The PARA app was evaluated using quantitative and qualitative measures, which were compared between Phases 1 and 2 of the study. Participants were given two patient scenarios that listed hypothetical information (ie, demographic, social, and clinical data) to be entered into the app and to determine the patient's risk of in-hospital and postdischarge mortality. Time-to-completion and user errors were recorded for each participant while using the app. A modified computer system usability questionnaire was utilized at the end of each session to elicit user satisfaction with the PARA app and obtain suggestions for future improvements. The average time to complete the PARA app decreased by 30% from Phase 1 to Phase 2, following user feedback and modifications. Participants spent the longest amount of time on the oxygen saturation interface, but modifications

  7. Impact assessment and cost-effectiveness of m-health application used by community health workers for maternal, newborn and child health care services in rural Uttar Pradesh, India: a study protocol.

    PubMed

    Prinja, Shankar; Nimesh, Ruby; Gupta, Aditi; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Thakur, Jarnail Singh; Gupta, Madhu; Singh, Tarundeep

    2016-01-01

    An m-health application has been developed and implemented with community health workers to improve their counseling in a rural area of India. The ultimate aim was to generate demand and improve utilization of key maternal, neonatal, and child health services. The present study aims to assess the impact and cost-effectiveness of this project. A pre-post quasi-experimental design with a control group will be used to undertake difference in differences analysis for assessing the impact of intervention. The Annual Health Survey (2011) will provide pre-intervention data, and a household survey will be carried out to provide post-intervention data.Two community development blocks where the intervention was introduced will be treated as intervention blocks while two controls blocks are selected after matching with intervention blocks on three indicators: average number of antenatal care checkups, percentage of women receiving three or more antenatal checkups, and percentage of institutional deliveries. Two categories of beneficiaries will be interviewed in both areas: women with a child between 29 days and 6 months and women with a child between 12 and 23 months. Propensity score matched samples from intervention and control areas in pre-post periods will be analyzed using the difference in differences method to estimate the impact of intervention in utilization of key services.Bottom-up costing methods will be used to assess the cost of implementing intervention. A decision model will estimate long-term effects of improved health services utilization on mortality, morbidity, and disability. Cost-effectiveness will be assessed in terms of incremental cost per disability-adjusted life year averted and cost per unit increase in composite service coverage in intervention versus control groups. The study will generate significant evidence on impact of the m-health intervention for maternal, neonatal, and child services and on the cost of scaling up m-health technology for

  8. Knowing Both: Towards Integrating Two Main Approaches to the Tertiary Education of Health Care Workers Involved in Caring for People Living with HIV/AIDS. A Needs Assessment of HIV/AIDS Tertiary Education for Health Care Workers in Metropolitan South Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsey, Barry; Mills, Patricia

    The need for continuing education about human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) was assessed for health care workers in metropolitan South Australia. Seventeen focus group discussions were held to solicit the views and experiences of various persons regarding HIV/AIDS tertiary education. Included in the…

  9. Assessing Acceptability of a Diagnostic and Malaria Treatment Package Delivered by Community Health Workers in Malaria-Endemic Settings of Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Jegede, Ayodele S.; Oshiname, Frederick O.; Sanou, Armande K.; Nsungwa-Sabiiti, Jesca; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo O.; Siribié, Mohamadou; Afonne, Chinenye; Sermé, Luc; Falade, Catherine O.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and rectal artesunate for severe malaria in children is proven. However, acceptability of a package of interventions that included use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), ACTs, and rectal artesunate when provided by community health workers (CHWs) is uncertain. This study assessed acceptability of use of CHWs for case management of malaria using RDTs, ACTs, and rectal artesunate. Methods. The study was carried out in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda in 2015 toward the end of an intervention using CHWs to provide diagnosis and treatment. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews (KIIs) were conducted with parents of sick children, community leaders, and health workers to understand whether they accepted the package for case management of malaria using CHWs. Transcripts from FGDs and KII recordings were analyzed using content analysis. The findings were described, interpreted, and reported in the form of narratives. Results. Treatment of malaria using the CHWs was acceptable to caregivers and communities. The CHWs were perceived to be accessible, diligent, and effective. There were no physical, social, or cultural barriers to accessing the CHWs’ services. Respondents were extremely positive about the intervention and were concerned that CHWs had limited financial and nonfinancial incentives that would reduce their motivation and willingness to continue. Conclusions. Treatment of malaria using CHWs was fully accepted. CHWs should be compensated, trained, and well supervised. Clinical Trials Registration. ISRCTN13858170. PMID:27941109

  10. [Health problems of workers in the Americas].

    PubMed

    Villafaña, C

    1983-12-01

    Most of the problems concerning the health of the workers in developing countries exist in Latin America : rapid urbanisation, dearth of information on the risks the workers face, intensification of efforts to increase returns. The geographic situation of a country also has its importance: working conditions are more difficult in tropical climates. Over populated, poor districts increase the danger of transmission of infectious diseases. Loneliness, a change in the mode of life are an incentive to alcoholism. The vast majority of Latin American workers are employed in small workshops. In Puerto Rico, 90 per cent of them work in firms employing less than fifty people. It is precisely in these small workshops that health problems are the most serious. The publication of laws to protect health is not sufficient, education campaigns must be organized at all levels: government officials, trade-unions, entrepreneurs and the workers themselves. Education programmes to protect the health of the workers must include the prevention of new risks due to environmental conditions. Health education is essential to protect and improve the health of the workers in Latin America.

  11. Community health workers in global health: scale and scalability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Anne; Sullivan, Sarah; Khan, Mohammed; Sachs, Sonia; Singh, Prabhjot

    2011-01-01

    Community health worker programs have emerged as one of the most effective strategies to address human resources for health shortages while improving access to and quality of primary healthcare. Many developing countries have succeeded in deploying community health worker programs in recognition of the potential of community health workers to identify, refer, and in many cases treat illnesses at the household level. However, challenges in program design and sustainability are expanded when such programs are expanded at scale, particularly with regard to systems management and integration with primary health facilities. Several nongovernmental organizations provide cases of innovation on management of community health worker programs that could support a sustainable system that is capable of being expanded without being stressed in its functionality nor effectiveness--therefore, providing for stronger scalability. This paper explores community health worker programs that have been deployed at national scale, as well as scalable innovations found in successful nongovernmental organization-run community health worker programs. In exploration of strategies to ensure sustainable community health worker programs at scale, we reconcile scaling constraints and scalable innovations by mapping strengths of nongovernmental organizations' community health worker programs to the challenges faced by programs currently deployed at national scale. © 2011 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  12. [Health management of Saipem workers with projects involving abroad activities].

    PubMed

    Nicosia, V; De Sanctis, S; Mika, F; Consentino, M; Mascheroni, G

    2007-01-01

    In remote areas and in developing countries, where adequate health-care structures are few and sparse, Occupational Medicine contributes to guaranteeing workers' health. Companies like Saipem, involved in activities that are carried out in remote, inhospitable areas must ensure the safety and guarantee the health conditions of workers in relation to the risk factors connected with the job as well as with the environment in which it is performed. In such situations, Occupational Medicine addresses both the health aspects of the workplace and of the community, and is the pivot around which revolves the health-care support of workers employed abroad in the sense of protection and enhancement of health. The risks connected with work abroad are of three main types: 1) job-related risks; 2) risks connected with the environment; 3) risks related to the organization of work and the changes in the worker's daily life. The job-related risks are similar to those connected with analogous jobs performed elsewhere. The risks connected with the environment are related to adverse climatic conditions, extreme temperatures and unknown and often dangerous flora and fauna. The occupational physician is called upon to assess the suitability of workers for jobs that are based in remote areas. The main clinical conditions that can prevent issue of the Medical Fitness Certificate to workers for long-stay jobs abroad are discussed.

  13. Concept Attainment Teaching Methodology (CATM)--An Effective Approach for Training Workers on Chemicals Health Hazards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suleiman, Abdulqadir Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Workers handling chemicals need to understand the risk to health involved in their work, and this requires training. In this study effectivity of concept attainment teaching methodology (CATM) as training strategy for cleaning workers was assessed. CATM was used to train workers on chemicals information and health hazards. Pictures, illustrations,…

  14. [Self-assessment of tasks and roles of occupational medicine service (OMS) nurses in the Polish system of workers' health protection].

    PubMed

    Sakowski, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of survey performed to find out how occupational medicine service (OMS) nurses assess their tasks and roles in the Polish system of workers' health protection. The survey was carried out in a random group of 200 OMS nurses. The survey showed that OMS nurses form-an experienced professional group. According to self-assessment they have an opportunity to use their competence in its full scope. Almost half of respondents agreed that in Poland the skills of OMS nurses are properly used. There are two reasons why certain tasks are not performed by OMS nurses, first, certain tasks are assigned to other persons in the unit; second, employers are sometimes not interested in those tasks or find them not necessary. The majority of nurses assess their knowledge and preparation to perform tasks relatively well, however they want to broaden their knowledge and improve their skills. OMS nurses play an important role in the Polish system of workers' health protection. They perform many tasks, which fall within the scope of OMS activities being currently implemented. Their competences are usually properly used. There is a need to convince employers that the scope of services provided by OMS units should be extended and adequately financed. This should result in the better use of OMS nurses' competences. Nurses are well educated and skilled to perform their jobs. Nevertheless, they feel the need to broaden their knowledge. Although the programs of specialization and qualification courses are rather comprehensive, nurses declare that some areas should be enriched with additional information.

  15. Assessment of Breast Cancer Knowledge among Health Workers in Bangui, Central African Republic: a Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Balekouzou, Augustin; Yin, Ping; Pamatika, Christian Maucler; Nambei, Sylvain Wilfrid; Djeintote, Marceline; Doromandji, Eric; Gouaye, Andre Richard; Yamba, Pascal Gastien; Guessy, Elysee Ephraim; Ba-Mpoutou, Bertrand; Mandjiza, Dieubeni Rawago; Shu, Chang; Yin, Minghui; Fu, Zhen; Qing, Tingting; Yan, Mingming; Mella, Grace; Koffi, Boniface

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women worldwide. High breast cancer mortality has been attributed to lack of public awareness of the disease. Little is known about the level of knowledge of breast cancer in Central African Republic. This study aimed to investigate the knowledge of health professionals on breast cancer. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 158 health professionals (27 medical; 131 paramedical) in 17 hospitals in Bangui using a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistical analysis, Person's χ 2 test and ANOVA were applied to examine associations between variables with <0.05 being considered significant. Data analyzed using SPSS version 20 indicates that average knowledge about breast cancer perception of the entire population was 47.6%, diagnosis method 45.5%, treatment 34.3% and risk factors 23.8%. Most respondents (65.8%) agreed that breast cancer is important in the Central African Republic and that family history is a risk factor (44.3%). Clinical assessments and mammography were considered most suitable diagnostic methods, and surgery as the best treatment. The knowledge level was significantly higher among medical than paramedical staff with regard to risk factors, diagnosis and treatment. However the trainee group had very high significant differences of knowledge compared with all other groups. There is a very urgent need to update the various training programs for these professionals, with recommendations of retraining. Health authorities must create suitable structures for the overall management of cancer observed as a serious public health problem.

  16. Respiratory Health in Waste Collection and Disposal Workers

    PubMed Central

    Vimercati, Luigi; Baldassarre, Antonio; Gatti, Maria Franca; De Maria, Luigi; Caputi, Antonio; Dirodi, Angelica A.; Cuccaro, Francesco; Bellino, Raffaello Maria

    2016-01-01

    Waste management, namely, collection, transport, sorting and processing, and disposal, is an issue of social concern owing to its environmental impact and effects on public health. In fact, waste management activities are carried out according to procedures that can have various negative effects on the environment and, potentially, on human health. The aim of our study was to assess the potential effects on respiratory health of this exposure in workers in the waste management and disposal field, as compared with a group of workers with no occupational exposure to outdoor pollutants. The sample consisted of a total of 124 subjects, 63 waste collectors, and 61 office clerks. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects before inclusion in the study. The entire study population underwent pulmonary function assessments with spirometry and completed two validated questionnaires for the diagnosis of rhinitis and chronic bronchitis. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA 13. Spirometry showed a statistically significant reduction in the mean Tiffenau Index values in the exposed workers, as compared with the controls, after adjusting for the confounding factors of age, BMI, and smoking habit. Similarly, the mean FEV1 values were lower in the exposed workers than in the controls, this difference being again statistically significant. The FVC differences measured in the two groups were not found to be statistically significant. We ran a cross-sectional study to investigate the respiratory health of a group of workers in the solid waste collection and disposal field as compared with a group of office workers. In agreement with most of the data in the literature, our findings support the existence of a prevalence of respiratory deficits in waste disposal workers. Our data suggest the importance of adopting preventive measures, such as wearing specific individual protection devices, to protect this particular category of workers from adverse effects on respiratory

  17. Investigation of mental health in Indonesian health workers immigrating to Japan under the Economic Partnership Agreement.

    PubMed

    Sato, Fumiko; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Kamide, Kei

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the mental health status of Indonesian nurses and care workers who immigrated to Japan after the Economic Partnership Agreement was signed by the governments of Japan and Indonesia in 2008. From November 2012 to March 2013, questionnaires were mailed to 206 workers in 87 medical and caregiving facilities that openly accept Indonesian EPA immigrant workers. Responses were received from 71 workers in 35 facilities. Responses from 22.5% of workers suggested that they were at risk of developing mental health problems, and "gender" and "acquisition state of national qualifications" were the main factors influencing their mental health status. The results suggest that support after obtaining national qualifications is inadequate and that mid and long-term support systems that focus on the needs of immigrant healthcare workers after passing national examinations are necessary.

  18. Cognitive health and older workers: policy implications.

    PubMed

    Melillo, Karen Devereaux

    2013-06-01

    Cognitive health, memory complaints, and cognitive impairment among older workers have begun to receive attention in the research, practice, education, and policy arenas. With the aging population of the United States continuing to increase, projections are that the number of workers 65 and older is also expected to increase. Concerns regarding cognitive impairment and job performance in older workers are being raised. Being familiar with the policies and regulations that protect older workers and offering support and guidance to older adults as they contemplate major life transitions, such as retirement, are important role components for gerontological nurses. Using the five levels of analysis in the social ecology model, selected public policies to support older adults in the workforce are reviewed, and recommendations are presented for fostering positive workplace policies that can promote cognitive health. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Assessing inhalatory and dermal exposures and their resultant health-risks for workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contained in oil mists in a fastener manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Ru; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Wang, Ying-Fang

    2008-10-01

    This study first assessed workers' inhalatory and dermal exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contained in oil mists. Then, their resultant lung cancer and skin cancer risks were estimated. Finally, control strategies were initiated from the health-risk management aspect. All threading workers in a fastener manufacturing plant were included. 16 inhalatory and 88 dermal PAH exposure samples were collected. Results show that the inhalatory gas phase total PAH exposure level (8.60 x 10(4) ng/m3) was much higher than that of particle phase (2.30 x 10(3) ng/m3). Workers' mean inhalatory exposure level (8.83 x 10(4) ng/m3) was lower, but its corresponding 1-sided upper 95% confidence level (UCL1,95% = 1.02 x 10(5) ng/m3) was higher than the time-weighted average permissible exposure level (PEL-TWA) regulated in Taiwan for PAHs (1.00 x 10(5) ng/m3). The mean whole body total PAHs dermal exposure levels was 5.44 x 10(6) ng/day and the top five exposed surface areas were lower arm, hand, upper arm, neck, and head/front. The estimated lifetime skin cancer risk (9.72 x 10(-3)) was lower than that of lung cancer risk (1.64 x 10(-2)), but both were higher than the significant risk level (10(-3)) defined by the US Supreme Court in 1980. The installation of a local exhaust ventilation system at the threading machine should be considered as the first priority measurement because both lung and skin cancer risks can be reduced simultaneously. If the personal protection equipment would be adopted in the future, both respiratory protection equipment and protective clothing should be used simultaneously.

  20. Health of workers exposed to electric fields.

    PubMed Central

    Broadbent, D E; Broadbent, M H; Male, J C; Jones, M R

    1985-01-01

    The results of health questionnaire interviews with 390 electrical power transmission and distribution workers, together with long term estimates of their exposure to 50 Hz electric fields, and short term measurements of the actual exposure for 287 of them are reported. Twenty eight workers received measurable exposures, averaging about 30 kVm-1h over the two week measurement period. Estimated exposure rates were considerably greater, but showed fair correlation with the measurements. Although the general level of health was higher than we have found in manual workers in other industries, there were significant differences in the health measures between different categories of job, different parts of the country, and in association with factors such as overtime, working alone, or frequently changing shift. After allowing for the effects of job and location, however, we found no significant correlations of health with either measured or estimated exposure to electric fields. PMID:3970875

  1. Total Worker Health Intervention Increases Activity of Sedentary Workers.

    PubMed

    Carr, Lucas J; Leonhard, Christoph; Tucker, Sharon; Fethke, Nathan; Benzo, Roberto; Gerr, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Office employees are exposed to hazardous levels of sedentary work. Interventions that integrate health promotion and health protection elements are needed to advance the health of sedentary workers. This study tested an integrated intervention on occupational sedentary/physical activity behaviors, cardiometabolic disease biomarkers, musculoskeletal discomfort, and work productivity. Two-group, RCT. Data were collected between January and August 2014. Overweight/obese adults working in sedentary desk jobs were randomized to: (1) a health protection-only group (HPO, n=27); or (2) an integrated health protection/health promotion group (HP/HP, n=27). HPO participants received an ergonomic workstation optimization intervention and three e-mails/week promoting rest breaks and posture variation. HP/HP participants received the HPO intervention plus access to a seated activity permissive workstation. Occupational sedentary and physical activity behaviors (primary outcomes), cardiometabolic health outcomes, musculoskeletal discomfort, and work productivity (secondary outcomes) were measured at baseline and post-intervention (16 weeks). The HP/HP group increased occupational light intensity physical activity over the HPO group and used the activity permissive workstations 50 minutes/work day. Significant associations were observed between activity permissive workstation adherence and improvements in several cardiometabolic biomarkers (weight, total fat mass, resting heart rate, body fat percentage) and work productivity outcomes (concentration at work, days missed because of health problems). The HP/HP group increased occupational physical activity and greater activity permissive workstation adherence was associated with improved health and work productivity outcomes. These findings are important for employers interested in advancing the well-being of sedentary office workers. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT02071420. Copyright © 2016 American Journal

  2. A trial of a job-specific workers' health surveillance program for construction workers: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dutch construction workers are offered periodic health examinations. This care can be improved by tailoring this workers health surveillance (WHS) to the demands of the job and adjust the preventive actions to the specific health risks of a worker in a particular job. To improve the quality of the WHS for construction workers and stimulate relevant job-specific preventive actions by the occupational physician, we have developed a job-specific WHS. The job-specific WHS consists of modules assessing both physical and psychological requirements. The selected measurement instruments chosen, are based on their appropriateness to measure the workers' capacity and health requirements. They include a questionnaire and biometrical tests, and physical performance tests that measure physical functional capabilities. Furthermore, our job-specific WHS provides occupational physicians with a protocol to increase the worker-behavioural effectiveness of their counselling and to stimulate job-specific preventive actions. The objective of this paper is to describe and clarify our study to evaluate the behavioural effects of this job-specific WHS on workers and occupational physicians. Methods/Design The ongoing study of bricklayers and supervisors is a nonrandomised trial to compare the outcome of an intervention (job-specific WHS) group (n = 206) with that of a control (WHS) group (n = 206). The study includes a three-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure is the proportion of participants who have undertaken one or more of the preventive actions advised by their occupational physician in the three months after attending the WHS. A process evaluation will be carried out to determine context, reach, dose delivered, dose received, fidelity, and satisfaction. The present study is in accordance with the TREND Statement. Discussion This study will allow an evaluation of the behaviour of both the workers and occupational physician regarding the preventive actions

  3. HEALTH INSURANCE COVERAGE FOR WORKERS ON LAYOFF.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KOLODRUBETZ, WALTER W.

    ESTIMATES OF GROUP HEALTH INSURANCE COVERAGE BY INDUSTRY INDICATE THAT EXTENDED PROTECTION DURING LAYOFF IS GUARANTEED TO NO MORE THAN A TENTH OF THE APPROXIMATELY 50 MILLION WORKERS COVERED BY GROUP HEALTH INSURANCE PLANS. THIS COVERAGE HAS LARGELY DEVELOPED DURING THE PAST 15 YEARS. FRAGMENTARY DATA SUGGEST THAT INCREASED COST ATTRIBUTABLE TO…

  4. Developing Community Health Worker Diabetes Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, W. J.; Lemay, C. A.; Hargraves, J. L.; Gorodetsky, T.; Calista, J.

    2012-01-01

    We designed, implemented and evaluated a 48-hour training program for community health workers (CHWs) deployed to diabetes care teams in community health centers (CHCs). The curriculum included core knowledge/skills with diabetes content to assist CHWs in developing patient self-management goals. Our qualitative evaluation included…

  5. Developing Community Health Worker Diabetes Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, W. J.; Lemay, C. A.; Hargraves, J. L.; Gorodetsky, T.; Calista, J.

    2012-01-01

    We designed, implemented and evaluated a 48-hour training program for community health workers (CHWs) deployed to diabetes care teams in community health centers (CHCs). The curriculum included core knowledge/skills with diabetes content to assist CHWs in developing patient self-management goals. Our qualitative evaluation included…

  6. Health and safety organizing: OCAW'S worker-to-worker health and safety training program.

    PubMed

    Slatin, C

    2001-01-01

    In 1987, the Oil, Chemical, and Atomic Workers International Union (OCAW) was funded as one of the original eleven awardees of the Superfund Worker Training Program of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. The OCAW, with the Labor Institute, developed a hazardous waste worker and hazardous materials emergency responder health and safety training program that was specific to its members in the represented industries. A social history is developed to explore a union-led, worker health education intervention. The program sought to develop worker-trainers who would conduct the training, using the Small-Group Activity Method, participate in curriculum development, and ultimately use health and safety training as a vehicle for identifying, developing, and mobilizing health and safety activists among the membership. Although the direction for this effort came from progressive leadership, it arose from the political economy of labor/management relations within specific industrial sectors.

  7. Health problems among nursing workers in a haemodialysis service.

    PubMed

    Prestes, Francine Cassol; Beck, Carmem Lúcia Colomé; Magnago, Tânia Solange Bosi de Souza; Silva, Rosângela Marion da; Coelho, Alexa Pupiara Flores

    2016-03-01

    Objective The aim was to measure work-related health problems among nursing workers at a haemodialysis unit in southern Brazil and associate these issues with the socio-occupational characteristics of the workers. Method This is a qualitative study conducted with 46 nursing workers. Data were collected using a general health questionnaire with socio-occupational information and a work-related health assessment scale. The data were subjected to descriptive, correlational, bivariate analysis with significance levels of 5% using Epi-info® and Predictive Analytics Software. Results Physical, psychological, and social problems were considered bearable, and job satisfaction was associated with current income and work absenteeism for health treatment (p< 0.05). Back pain (3.74 ± 2.04) and leg pain (3.48 ± 2.10) were considered severe. There was a direct correlation between the health issues (r> 0.31, p <0.05). Conclusion In spite of the positive results of the work-related health assessment among the studied population, the results confirm the need to promote the health of nursing workers.

  8. Respiratory health status of gilsonite workers.

    PubMed

    Keimig, D G; Castellan, R M; Kullman, G J; Kinsley, K B

    1987-01-01

    Gilsonite, a solidified hydrocarbon used in the manufacture of automotive body seam sealers, is mined only in the Uinta Basin of Eastern Utah and Western Colorado. Health effects of gilsonite dust exposure have not previously been published and exposure to gilsonite dust is not regulated. To examine potential respiratory health effects associated with gilsonite dust exposures, this cross-sectional study surveyed the 100 current male employees who had been exposed to gilsonite dust at 3 existing gilsonite companies. Total dust exposures up to 28 times the nuisance dust standard were found, and 5 of 99 (5%) workers had chest radiographs consistent with pneumoconiosis of low profusion. Increased prevalences of cough and phlegm were found in workers with high-exposure jobs, but no evidence for dust-related pulmonary function impairment was noted. To prevent pulmonary health effects, we recommend reducing dust exposures for those workers in jobs currently characterized by relatively high dust exposures.

  9. Oral health of foreign domestic workers: exploring the social determinants.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaoli; Chan, Chi Wai; Mak, Siu Lun; Ng, Zevon; Kwong, Wai Hang; Kot, Ching Ching Shirley

    2014-10-01

    Foreign domestic helpers constitute a significant proportion of migrant workers worldwide. This population subgroup provides an opportunity for understanding social determinants of oral health in immigrant community. A random sample of 122 Indonesian domestic helpers in Hong Kong completed a questionnaire on their demographic background, social characteristics (competency in local languages, immigration history, living condition, social connections, and leisure activities) and oral health behaviours (knowledge, attitudes, practice and self-efficacy). Their tooth status and periodontal health were assessed. Participants tended to start flossing after settling in Hong Kong. Favourable oral health knowledge was found in more acculturated participants, as indicated by proficiency in local languages and immigration history. Engagement in social and/or religious activities and decent living condition provided by employers were associated with favourable oral health behaviours and/or better oral health. Social determinants explained 13.2 % of variance in caries severity. Our findings support the significant impact of social circumstances on oral health of domestic workers.

  10. An assessment and quantitative uncertainty analysis of the health risks to workers exposed to chromium contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Paustenbach, D.J.; Meyer, D.M.; Sheehan, P.J.; Lau, V. )

    1991-05-01

    Millions of tons of chromite-ore processing residue have been used as fill in various locations in Northern New Jersey and elsewhere in the United States. The primary toxicants in the residue are trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). The hazard posed by Cr(III) is negligible due to its low acute and chronic toxicity. In contrast, Cr(VI) is considered a inhalation human carcinogen at high concentrations. Approximately 40 commercial and industrial properties in Northern New Jersey have been identified as containing chromite ore processing residue in the soil. The arithmetic mean and geometric mean concentrations of total chromium in soil were 977 and 359 mg/kg, respectively. The data were log-normal distributed. The arithmetic mean and geometric mean concentrations of Cr(VI) in surface soil were 37.6 and 3.1 mg/kg, respectively. The data could not be fit to a standard distribution, likely due to the large number of samples with concentrations below the method detection limit (65%). Dose was calculated for each exposure route using a Monte Carlo statistical simulation. Probability distributions of most exposure parameters were incorporated into the analyses to predict the range and probability of uptake for persons in the exposed population. The exposure parameter distributions included in this assessment are: the concentrations of Cr(VI) and total chromium in air and soil, fraction of the year when suspension of airborne soil particulates is likely to occur due to weather conditions, fraction of Cr(VI) in air which is respirable (less than 10 microns), soil loading rate on skin, occupational tenure, and body weight. The techniques used in this assessment are applicable for evaluating the human health risks posed by most industrial sites having contaminated soil.

  11. An assessment and quantitative uncertainty analysis of the health risks to workers exposed to chromium contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Paustenbach, D J; Meyer, D M; Sheehan, P J; Lau, V

    1991-05-01

    Millions of tons of chromite-ore processing residue have been used as fill in various locations in Northern New Jersey and elsewhere in the United States. The primary toxicants in the residue are trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)]. The hazard posed by Cr(III) is negligible due to its low acute and chronic toxicity. In contrast, Cr(VI) is considered a inhalation human carcinogen at high concentrations. Approximately 40 commercial and industrial properties in Northern New Jersey have been identified as containing chromite ore processing residue in the soil. One site, a partially-paved trucking terminal, was evaluated in this assessment. The arithmetic mean and geometric mean concentrations of total chromium in soil were 977 and 359 mg/kg, respectively. The data were log-normal distributed. The arithmetic mean and geometric mean concentrations of Cr(VI) in surface soil were 37.6 and 3.1 mg/kg, respectively. The data could not be fit to a standard distribution, likely due to the large number of samples with concentrations below the method detection limit (65%). Dose was calculated for each exposure route using a Monte Carlo statistical simulation. Probability distributions of most exposure parameters were incorporated into the analyses to predict the range and probability of uptake for persons in the exposed population. The exposure parameter distributions included in this assessment are: the concentrations of Cr(VI) and total chromium in air and soil, fraction of the year when suspension of airborne soil particulates is likely to occur due to weather conditions, fraction of Cr(VI) in air which is respirable (less than 10 microns), soil loading rate on skin, occupational tenure, and body weight. The techniques used in this assessment are applicable for evaluating the human health risks posed by most industrial sites having contaminated soil. The estimated average daily dose (ADD) via ingestion and dermal absorption for the individual exposed

  12. Developing a Curriculum for Human Service Workers. Career Education for Mental Health Workers. Occasional Paper Series, No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Arthur L.; Gordon, Katherine K.

    Based on an educational needs assessment, a project designed a community college curriculum to develop the competencies of human service workers for the changing mental health service delivery system. The curriculum prepares workers to meet future service needs such as pre-discharge preparation of patients, outreach, aftercare, community…

  13. REMEDIATION FACILITY WORKER DOSE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    V. Arakali; E. Faillace

    2004-02-27

    The purpose of this design calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel in the Remediation Facility performing operations to receive, prepare, open, repair, recover, disposition, and correct off-normal and non-standard conditions with casks, canisters, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies, and waste packages (WP). The specific scope of work contained in this calculation covers both collective doses and individual worker group doses on an annual basis, and includes the contributions due to external and internal radiation. The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the Remediation Facility and provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application.

  14. Assessment of the impact of quality improvement interventions on the quality of sick child care provided by Health Extension Workers in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Nathan P; Amouzou, Agbessi; Hazel, Elizabeth; Legesse, Hailemariam; Degefie, Tedbabe; Tafesse, Mengistu; Black, Robert E; Bryce, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Background Ethiopia has scaled up integrated community case management of childhood illness (iCCM), including several interventions to improve the performance of Health Extension Workers (HEWs). We assessed associations between interventions to improve iCCM quality of care and the observed quality of care among HEWs. Methods We assessed iCCM implementation strength and quality of care provided by HEWs in Ethiopia. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess associations between interventions to improve iCCM quality of care and correct management of iCCM illnesses. Findings Children who were managed by an HEW who had attended a performance review and clinical mentoring meeting (PRCMM) had 8.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.34–29.51) times the odds of being correctly managed, compared to children managed by an HEW who did not attend a PRCMM. Management by an HEW who received follow–up training also significantly increased the odds of correct management (odds ratio (OR) = 2.09, 95% CI 1.05–4.18). Supervision on iCCM (OR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.23–1.72) did not significantly affect the odds of receiving correct care. Conclusions These results suggest PRCMM and follow–up training were effective interventions, while implementation of supportive supervision needs to be reviewed to improve impact. PMID:27606058

  15. AGING FACILITY WORKER DOSE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Thacker

    2005-03-24

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel working in the Aging Facility performing operations to transfer aging casks to the aging pads for thermal and logistical management, stage empty aging casks, and retrieve aging casks from the aging pads for further processing in other site facilities. Doses received by workers due to aging cask surveillance and maintenance operations are also included. The specific scope of work contained in this calculation covers both collective doses and individual worker group doses on an annual basis, and includes the contributions due to external and internal radiation from normal operation. There are no Category 1 event sequences associated with the Aging Facility (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167268], Section 7.2.1). The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the Aging Facility and to provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application. The calculations contained in this document were developed by Environmental and Nuclear Engineering of the Design and Engineering Organization and are intended solely for the use of the Design and Engineering Organization in its work regarding facility operation. Yucca Mountain Project personnel from the Environmental and Nuclear Engineering should be consulted before use of the calculations for purposes other than those stated herein or use by individuals other than authorized personnel in Environmental and Nuclear Engineering.

  16. [Towards a comprehensive policy for health workers].

    PubMed

    Becerra, Carlos; Herrera, Tania

    2014-11-27

    Health workers are crucial to the performance of a health system. Their situation is critical and this has been recognized as a global problem. The main challenges are their number, distribution, skills and performance conditions. Addressing these issues must necessarily involve a multifactorial, intersectoral and international approach, where determinant factors are: educational policies, forms of recruitment, permanency and termination of contract, issues that arise throughout their working cycle. In Chile, the management of health workers does not follow a comprehensive outlook. The type, number and distribution of technicians and professionals do not respond to a nationwide planning strategy, and there is no coordination between health authorities and universities. The result is that the system is not responding to the health needs of the population, nor is fulfilling the promise of a public service career that encourages good performance, investing in its human resources.

  17. Curriculum for Community Health Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwick, Paula S.

    The Community Outreach Curriculum described in this paper is designed to prepare community health aides employed through the Outreach Department of Pima County (Arizona) Indian Health Inc., (PCIHI), which consists of two medical clinics on two separate reservations. The first sections of the paper describe PCIHI, provide a rationale for the…

  18. Curriculum for Community Health Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwick, Paula S.

    The Community Outreach Curriculum described in this paper is designed to prepare community health aides employed through the Outreach Department of Pima County (Arizona) Indian Health Inc., (PCIHI), which consists of two medical clinics on two separate reservations. The first sections of the paper describe PCIHI, provide a rationale for the…

  19. Perceived heat stress and health effects on construction workers

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Priya; Rajiva, Ajit; Andhare, Dileep; Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Tiwari, Abhiyant; Sheffield, Perry

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Increasing heat waves-particularly in urban areas where construction is most prevalent, highlight a need for heat exposure assessment of construction workers. This study aims to characterize the effects of heat on construction workers from a site in Gandhinagar. Materials and Methods: This study involved a mixed methods approach consisting of a cross sectional survey with anthropometric measurements (n = 219) and four focus groups with construction workers, as well as environmental measurements of heat stress exposure at a construction site. Survey data was collected in two seasons i.e., summer and winter months, and heat illness and symptoms were compared between the two time periods. Thematic coding of focus group data was used to identify vulnerability factors and coping mechanisms of the workers. Heat stress, recorded using a wet bulb globe temperature monitor, was compared to international safety standards. Results: The survey findings suggest that heat-related symptoms increased in summer; 59% of all reports in summer were positive for symptoms (from Mild to Severe) as compared to 41% in winter. Focus groups revealed four dominant themes: (1) Non-occupational stressors compound work stressors; (2) workers were particularly attuned to the impact of heat on their health; (3) workers were aware of heat-related preventive measures; and (4) few resources were currently available to protect workers from heat stress. Working conditions often exceed international heat stress safety thresholds. Female workers and new employees might be at increased risk of illness or injury. Conclusion: This study suggests significant health impacts on construction workers from heat stress exposure in the workplace, showed that heat stress levels were higher than those prescribed by international standards and highlights the need for revision of work practices, increased protective measures, and possible development of indigenous work safety standards for heat exposure

  20. Perceived heat stress and health effects on construction workers.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Priya; Rajiva, Ajit; Andhare, Dileep; Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Tiwari, Abhiyant; Sheffield, Perry

    2015-01-01

    Increasing heat waves-particularly in urban areas where construction is most prevalent, highlight a need for heat exposure assessment of construction workers. This study aims to characterize the effects of heat on construction workers from a site in Gandhinagar. This study involved a mixed methods approach consisting of a cross sectional survey with anthropometric measurements (n = 219) and four focus groups with construction workers, as well as environmental measurements of heat stress exposure at a construction site. Survey data was collected in two seasons i.e., summer and winter months, and heat illness and symptoms were compared between the two time periods. Thematic coding of focus group data was used to identify vulnerability factors and coping mechanisms of the workers. Heat stress, recorded using a wet bulb globe temperature monitor, was compared to international safety standards. The survey findings suggest that heat-related symptoms increased in summer; 59% of all reports in summer were positive for symptoms (from Mild to Severe) as compared to 41% in winter. Focus groups revealed four dominant themes: (1) Non-occupational stressors compound work stressors; (2) workers were particularly attuned to the impact of heat on their health; (3) workers were aware of heat-related preventive measures; and (4) few resources were currently available to protect workers from heat stress. Working conditions often exceed international heat stress safety thresholds. Female workers and new employees might be at increased risk of illness or injury. This study suggests significant health impacts on construction workers from heat stress exposure in the workplace, showed that heat stress levels were higher than those prescribed by international standards and highlights the need for revision of work practices, increased protective measures, and possible development of indigenous work safety standards for heat exposure.

  1. Skilled birth attendance: what does it mean and how can it be measured? A clinical skills assessment of maternal and child health workers in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Carlough, M; McCall, M

    2005-05-01

    The presence of a skilled birth attendant at delivery is important in averting maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. It has now shown that even trained traditional birth attendants (TBAs) cannot, in most cases, save women's lives effectively because they are unable to treat complications, and are often unable to refer. Qualified midwives and doctors are often not available in the rural areas and community settings where most women in developing countries deliver. Defining the minimum competency level necessary to meet the definition of skilled birth attendant is important, particularly in countries such as Nepal with limited availability of facility-based emergency obstetric care. Maternal and child health workers are local women aged 18-35 who completed a 15-week course in maternal and child health. As the role of MCHWs has expanded to meet the country's needs for skilled attendance, a 6-week "refresher" course in midwifery skills is offered. The results of this clinical skills assessment of 104 randomly selected MCHWs from 15 districts across Nepal supports the premise that MCHWs with appropriate training have an acceptable level of knowledge and skill, demonstrated in a practice situation, to meet the definition of community level skilled birth attendants. Yet, competency alone will not necessarily improve the situation. To affect maternal mortality in Nepal, MCHWs must be widely available, they must be allowed to do what they are trained to do, and they must have logistical and policy support.

  2. Effects of heat on workers' health and productivity in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ro-Ting; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2009-11-11

    The impact of global warming on population health is a growing concern and has been widely discussed. The issue of heat stress disorders and consequent productivity reduction among workers has not yet been widely addressed. Taiwan is an island straddling the Tropic of Cancer in the West Pacific and has both subtropical and tropical climates. As of 2008, the economy of Taiwan accounts for 1.1% of the world gross domestic product at purchasing power parity and is listed as 19th in the world and eighth in Asia, according to International Monetary Fund data. The aim of this paper is to identify occupations at risk and the potential health impacts of heat on workers in Taiwan. Historical data relating to meteorology, population, the labour force and economy were obtained from publicly available databases from the Taiwanese government. Hot seasons with an average maximum temperature above 30 degrees C and relative humidity above 74%, lasting for four to six months from May to October, pose health threats to construction, farming and fishery workers. In particular, populations of ageing farmers and physically overloaded construction workers are the two most vulnerable worker categories in which high temperature impacts on health and productivity. Currently, regulations and preventive actions for heat relief are difficult to enforce for several reasons, including lack of equipment for measuring environmental conditions, lack of awareness of potential hazards and strict time constraints imposed on workers. There is an urgent need to systematically and comprehensively assess the impact of a warming climate on workers' health and productivity to provide effective prevention strategies for a better working and living environment in Taiwan.

  3. Safety assessment for ethanol-based topical antiseptic use by health care workers: Evaluation of developmental toxicity potential.

    PubMed

    Maier, Andrew; Ovesen, Jerald L; Allen, Casey L; York, Raymond G; Gadagbui, Bernard K; Kirman, Christopher R; Poet, Torka; Quiñones-Rivera, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Ethanol-based topical antiseptic hand rubs, commonly referred to as alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHS), are routinely used as the standard of care to reduce the presence of viable bacteria on the skin and are an important element of infection control procedures in the healthcare industry. There are no reported indications of safety concerns associated with the use of these products in the workplace. However, the prevalence of such alcohol-based products in healthcare facilities and safety questions raised by the U.S. FDA led us to assess the potential for developmental toxicity under relevant product-use scenarios. Estimates from a physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling approach suggest that occupational use of alcohol-based topical antiseptics in the healthcare industry can generate low, detectable concentrations of ethanol in blood. This unintended systemic dose probably reflects contributions from both dermal absorption and inhalation of volatilized product. The resulting internal dose is low, even under hypothetical, worst case intensive use assumptions. A significant margin of exposure (MOE) exists compared to demonstrated effect levels for developmental toxicity under worst case use scenarios, and the MOE is even more significant for typical anticipated occupational use patterns. The estimated internal doses of ethanol from topical application of alcohol-based hand sanitizers are also in the range of those associated with consumption of non-alcoholic beverages (i.e., non-alcoholic beer, flavored water, and orange juice), which are considered safe for consumers. Additionally, the estimated internal doses associated with expected exposure scenarios are below or in the range of the expected internal doses associated with the current occupational exposure limit for ethanol set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. These results support the conclusion that there is no significant risk of developmental or reproductive toxicity from

  4. Assessment of the uptake of neonatal and young infant referrals by community health workers to public health facilities in an urban informal settlement, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nsibande, Duduzile; Doherty, Tanya; Ijumba, Petrida; Tomlinson, Mark; Jackson, Debra; Sanders, David; Lawn, Joy

    2013-02-06

    Globally, 40% of the 7.6 million deaths of children under five every year occur in the neonatal period (first 28 days after birth). Increased and earlier recognition of illness facilitated by community health workers (CHWs), coupled with effective referral systems can result in better child health outcomes. This model has not been tested in a peri-urban poor setting in Africa, or in a high HIV context. The Good Start Saving Newborn Lives (SNL) study (ISRCTN41046462) conducted in Umlazi, KwaZulu-Natal, was a community randomized trial to assess the effect of an integrated home visit package delivered to mothers by CHWs during pregnancy and post-delivery on uptake of PMTCT interventions and appropriate newborn care practices. CHWs were trained to refer babies with illnesses or identified danger signs. The aim of this sub-study was to assess the effectiveness of this referral system by describing CHW referral completion rates as well as mothers' health-care seeking practices. Interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire with all mothers whose babies had been referred by a CHW since the start of the SNL trial. Descriptive analysis was conducted to describe referral completion and health seeking behaviour of mothers. Of the 2423 women enrolled in the SNL study, 148 sick infants were referred between June 2008 and June 2010. 62% of referrals occurred during the first 4 weeks of life and 22% between birth and 2 weeks of age. Almost all mothers (95%) completed the referral as advised by CHWs. Difficulty breathing, rash and redness/discharge around the cord accounted for the highest number of referrals (26%, 19% and 17% respectively). Only16% of health workers gave written feedback on the outcome of the referral to the referring CHW. We found high compliance with CHW referral of sick babies in an urban South African township. This suggests that CHWs can play a significant role, within community outreach teams, to improve newborn health and reduce child

  5. Workers' knowledge and beliefs about cardiometabolic health risk.

    PubMed

    Damman, Olga C; van der Beek, Allard J; Timmermans, Danielle R M

    2014-01-01

    Investigate workers' knowledge and beliefs about cardiometabolic risk. A survey on the risks of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease was disseminated among Dutch construction workers and employees from the general working population. We had 482 respondents (26.8%) among construction workers and 738 respondents (65.1%) among the general working population. Employees showed reasonable basic knowledge, especially about cardiovascular disease risk factors and risk reduction. Nevertheless, they also had knowledge gaps (eg, specific dietary intake) and showed misconceptions of what elevated risk entails. Employees having lower education, being male, and having lower health literacy demonstrated less adequate knowledge and beliefs. To improve the potential effect of health risk assessments in the occupational setting, physicians should explain what it means to be at elevated cardiometabolic risk and target their messages to employee subgroups.

  6. Female health workers -- responsibilities and constraints.

    PubMed

    Nanda, P

    1993-02-01

    The Social Rural Research Institute confirms that 60-70% of village people in India seek the health services of a rural private practitioner (RPP), 98-99% of whom are men. Dais or female midwives provide most obstetric and childbirth care and have done so for generations. They have learned the skills needed to deliver infants from their forebears. They constitute a category separate from that of RPPs in rural India. Villagers have begun to accept modern medicine, resulting in the marginalization of Dais. Consequently, Dais face social pressures, lack of professional recognition, and problems of credibility. The government of India has trained rural health workers (75% of whom are female) in preventive and promotive health care since 1977. Other community workers include Anganwadi workers, Saathins, and trained assistant nurse-midwives but they have little authority or power to make decisions. The government claims that training women for these grass root roles empowers them, but it has not granted them power to make decisions, resulting in their low social status. They do not receive wages for their work, but honorariums, while most men receive a salary. Some cases objecting to this mode of payment have become before the High Court in Jaipur. In 1990 in Padampura, Saathins protested their low wages in relation to their long work hours, large workload, and commitment. Gender, caste, and class biases further undermine the status of many of these grass roots workers (e.g., the rape case of a Saathin in Bhateri district of Rajasthan). They must work odd hours and in far away villages with no transportation or other support. The government and nongovernmental groups should support them vigorously, including promoting their professional and social legitimacy and credibility. They should institutionalize a link between the community workers, RPPs, and primary health care physicians to establish this needed legitimacy and credibility.

  7. Radiation Safety among Workers in Health Services.

    PubMed

    Jones, Eric; Mathieson, Kathleen

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey health service workers regarding their radiation safety knowledge and practice. Participants were health service workers (n = 721) who received an anonymous online survey by email to test their radiation safety knowledge. A knowledge test of 15 questions was completed by 412 respondents. The overall average percent correct was 77.9%. Health physicists/medical physicists had the highest average percent score (93.5%), while physician assistants scored the lowest (60.0%). Of all the respondents, only 64.0% reported they participated in periodic radiation safety training at their place of employment. The most common topic selected where participants wanted additional training was in biological effects of radiation (41.0%). In conclusion, radiation safety training and education needs to be developed and planned effectively. Areas or specialties with poor radiation safety knowledge need to be addressed with corresponding safety measures.

  8. Continuing Education on Suicide Assessment and Crisis Intervention for Social Workers and Other Mental Health Professionals: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirick, Rebecca G.; Bridger, Joanna; McCauley, James; Berkowitz, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Historically, graduate training programs have not taught suicide assessment and intervention skills in depth; therefore, the development of effective continuing education offerings is relevant and necessary for practicing social workers. Although the ability to increase knowledge and confidence is critical, a focus on competency-based education…

  9. Continuing Education on Suicide Assessment and Crisis Intervention for Social Workers and Other Mental Health Professionals: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirick, Rebecca G.; Bridger, Joanna; McCauley, James; Berkowitz, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Historically, graduate training programs have not taught suicide assessment and intervention skills in depth; therefore, the development of effective continuing education offerings is relevant and necessary for practicing social workers. Although the ability to increase knowledge and confidence is critical, a focus on competency-based education…

  10. Health Educators and Community Health Workers

    MedlinePlus

    ... contact your state’s board of health, nursing, or human services. Important Qualities Analytical skills. Health educators collect ... patterns and causes of disease and injury in humans. They seek to reduce the risk and occurrence ...

  11. Cage Versus Noncage Laying-Hen Housings: Worker Respiratory Health.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Diane; Arteaga, Veronica; Armitage, Tracey; Mitloehner, Frank; Tancredi, Daniel; Kenyon, Nicholas; Schenker, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare respiratory health of poultry workers in conventional cage, enriched cage and aviary layer housing on a single commercial facility, motivated by changing requirements for humane housing of hens. Three workers were randomly assigned daily, one to each of conventional cage, enriched cage, and aviary housing in a crossover repeated-measures design for three observation periods (for a total of 123 worker-days, eight different workers). Workers' exposure to particles were assessed (Arteaga et al. J Agromedicine. 2015;20:this issue) and spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, respiratory symptoms, and questionnaires were conducted pre- and post-shift. Personal exposures to particles and endotoxin were significantly higher in the aviary than the other housings (Arteaga et al., 2015). The use of respiratory protection was high; the median usage was 70% of the shift. Mixed-effects multivariate regression models of respiratory cross-shift changes were marginally significant, but the aviary system consistently posted the highest decrements for forced expiratory volume in 1 and 6 seconds (FEV1 and FEV6) compared with the enriched or conventional housing. The adjusted mean difference in FEV1 aviary - enriched cage housing was -47 mL/s, 95% confidence interval (CI): (-99 to 4.9), P = .07. Similarly, for FEV6, aviary - conventional housing adjusted mean difference was -52.9 mL/6 s, 95% CI: (-108 to 2.4), P = .06. Workers adopting greater than median use of respiratory protection were less likely to exhibit negative cross-shift pulmonary function changes. Although aviary housing exposed workers to significantly higher respiratory exposures, cross-shift pulmonary function changes did not differ significantly between houses. Higher levels of mask use were protective; poultry workers should wear respiratory protection as appropriate to avoid health decrements.

  12. Sex worker health: San Francisco style.

    PubMed

    Cohan, D; Lutnick, A; Davidson, P; Cloniger, C; Herlyn, A; Breyer, J; Cobaugh, C; Wilson, D; Klausner, J

    2006-10-01

    To describe the characteristics of sex workers accessing care at a peer based clinic in San Francisco and to evaluate predictors of sexually transmitted infections (STI). We conducted an observational study of sex workers at St James Infirmary. Individuals underwent an initial questionnaire, and we offered screening for STI at each clinic visit. We performed univariate, bivariate, and multivariable analyses to assess for predictors of STI in this population. We saw 783 sex workers identifying as female (53.6%), male (23.9%), male to female transgender (16.1%), and other (6.5%). 70% had never disclosed their sex work to a medical provider. Participants represented a wide range of ethnicities, educational backgrounds, and types of sex work. The most common substance used was tobacco (45.8%). Nearly 40% reported current illicit drug use. Over half reported domestic violence, and 36.0% reported sex work related violence. Those screened had gonorrhoea (12.4%), chlamydia (6.8%), syphilis (1.8%), or herpes simplex virus 2 (34.3%). Predictors of STI included African-American race (odds ratio (OR) 3.3), male gender (OR 1.9), and sex work related violence (OR 1.9). In contrast, participants who had only ever engaged in collective sex work were less likely to have an STI (OR 0.4). The majority of sex workers have never discussed their work with a medical provider. Domestic violence is extremely prevalent as is work related violence. Working with other sex workers appears to be protective of STIs. STI prevention interventions should target African-American and male sex workers. Addressing violence in the workplace and encouraging sex workers to work collectively may be effective prevention strategies.

  13. Sex worker health: San Francisco style

    PubMed Central

    Cohan, D; Lutnick, A; Davidson, P; Cloniger, C; Herlyn, A; Breyer, J; Cobaugh, C; Wilson, D; Klausner, J

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To describe the characteristics of sex workers accessing care at a peer based clinic in San Francisco and to evaluate predictors of sexually transmitted infections (STI). Methods We conducted an observational study of sex workers at St James Infirmary. Individuals underwent an initial questionnaire, and we offered screening for STI at each clinic visit. We performed univariate, bivariate, and multivariable analyses to assess for predictors of STI in this population. Results We saw 783 sex workers identifying as female (53.6%), male (23.9%), male to female transgender (16.1%), and other (6.5%). 70% had never disclosed their sex work to a medical provider. Participants represented a wide range of ethnicities, educational backgrounds, and types of sex work. The most common substance used was tobacco (45.8%). Nearly 40% reported current illicit drug use. Over half reported domestic violence, and 36.0% reported sex work related violence. Those screened had gonorrhoea (12.4%), chlamydia (6.8%), syphilis (1.8%), or herpes simplex virus 2 (34.3%). Predictors of STI included African‐American race (odds ratio (OR) 3.3), male gender (OR 1.9), and sex work related violence (OR 1.9). In contrast, participants who had only ever engaged in collective sex work were less likely to have an STI (OR 0.4). Conclusions The majority of sex workers have never discussed their work with a medical provider. Domestic violence is extremely prevalent as is work related violence. Working with other sex workers appears to be protective of STIs. STI prevention interventions should target African‐American and male sex workers. Addressing violence in the workplace and encouraging sex workers to work collectively may be effective prevention strategies. PMID:16854996

  14. Migration of health workers: a challenge for health care system.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Shaista; Masroor, Imrana; Shafqat, Gulnaz

    2012-09-01

    The migration of health workers has resulted in a growing apprehension universally because of its impact on health system of the developing countries. Although the choice to migrate is basically a personal one, however, the overall social and economic circumstances have important impact on the decision to migrate. The "push and pull" factors for migration are disparity in working conditions, pay, lack of promotion opportunities, poor living conditions, desire to gain experience, professional development, family background and family wealth. A strategic approach by the government and other agencies is mandatory for regulating the flow of health workers between countries. A range of policies and interventions are needed to deal with the broader health system issue and problems of health workers that influence their recruitment, retention, deployment and progress.

  15. 40 CFR 300.150 - Worker health and safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Worker health and safety. 300.150... PLAN Responsibility and Organization for Response § 300.150 Worker health and safety. (a) Response actions under the NCP will comply with the provisions for response action worker safety and health in...

  16. 40 CFR 300.150 - Worker health and safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Worker health and safety. 300.150... PLAN Responsibility and Organization for Response § 300.150 Worker health and safety. (a) Response actions under the NCP will comply with the provisions for response action worker safety and health in...

  17. 40 CFR 300.150 - Worker health and safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Worker health and safety. 300.150... PLAN Responsibility and Organization for Response § 300.150 Worker health and safety. (a) Response actions under the NCP will comply with the provisions for response action worker safety and health in...

  18. 40 CFR 300.150 - Worker health and safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Worker health and safety. 300.150... PLAN Responsibility and Organization for Response § 300.150 Worker health and safety. (a) Response actions under the NCP will comply with the provisions for response action worker safety and health in...

  19. 40 CFR 300.150 - Worker health and safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Worker health and safety. 300.150... PLAN Responsibility and Organization for Response § 300.150 Worker health and safety. (a) Response actions under the NCP will comply with the provisions for response action worker safety and health in...

  20. Respiratory health and lung function in Chinese restaurant kitchen workers.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tze Wai; Wong, Andromeda H S; Lee, Frank S C; Qiu, Hong

    2011-10-01

    To measure air pollutant concentrations in Chinese restaurant kitchens using different stove types and assess their influence on workers' respiratory health. 393 kitchen workers from 53 Chinese restaurants were surveyed over 16 months: 115 workers from 21 restaurants using only electric stoves and 278 workers from 32 restaurants using only gas stoves. Workers were interviewed about their respiratory symptoms and had their lung function tested. Concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) and fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) were measured using portable monitors and air-bag sampling. Temperature and noise levels were assessed. Median concentrations of NO, NO(2) and CO were 7.4, 1.5 and 1.6 times higher in gas-fuelled kitchens than in electric ones and average concentrations of PM(2.5) and TVOC were 81% and 78% higher, respectively. Differences were smaller for CH(4) and NMHC. Electricity-run kitchens were 4.5°C cooler and 9 dBA less noisy than gas-fuelled ones. Workers using electric cookers had significantly better lung function than their gas-using counterparts and their mean FEV(1) and FVC values were 5.4% and 3.8% higher, respectively, after adjustment for confounders. Wheeze, phlegm, cough and sore throat were more prevalent in workers using gas. The adjusted OR for having phlegm regularly was significantly higher. The poorer lung function and higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms among workers in gas-fuelled kitchens compared to those in electricity-powered kitchens may be associated with exposure to higher concentrations of toxic air pollutants generated during gas cooking.

  1. Occupational health nurse practitioners' roles in workers' compensation.

    PubMed

    Foster, Donna

    2008-05-01

    The occupational health nurse practitioner is an integral part of coordinating care for the injured or ill worker. Decisions regarding whether an injury or illness is related to work are based on the practitioner's diagnosis and reports of the worker's progress. Understanding workers' compensation laws will enable the practitioner to provide efficient care for the worker.

  2. [Shoe factory workers, solvents and health].

    PubMed

    Foà, Vito; Martinotti, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to organic solvents in footwear manufacturing industry came from the glues used adhering the shoe parts to each other. Benzene was the first solvent used in shoe factories until the evidence of its capacity to cause leukaemia. Then, the demonstration that exposure to n-hexane was related to distal polyneuropathy limited the use of this substance. After that, results of neurotoxicological studies conducted on workers exposed to different mixtures of organic solvents make necessary prevention measure directed to a progressive reduction of air dispersion of these chemicals. Today exposure to solvents in workplaces is regulated by health based exposure limit values that should warranty absence of central nervous system effects. One of the most important rules of occupational medicine is verify that these exposure levels are really health protective also for workers with increased susceptibility.

  3. The narrative psychology of community health workers.

    PubMed

    Murray, Michael; Ziegler, Friederike

    2015-03-01

    Community health psychology is an approach which promotes community mobilisation as a means of enhancing community capacity and well-being and challenging health inequalities. Much of the research on this approach has been at the more strategic and policy level with less reference to the everyday experiences of community workers who are actively involved in promoting various forms of community change. This article considers the narrative accounts of a sample of 12 community workers who were interviewed about their lives. Their accounts were analysed in terms of narrative content. This revealed the tensions in their everyday practice as they attempted to overcome community divisions and management demands for evidence. Common to all accounts was a commitment to social justice. These findings are discussed with reference to opportunities and challenges in the practice of community work. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Preventing tuberculosis among health workers in Malawi.

    PubMed Central

    Harries, A. D.; Hargreaves, N. J.; Gausi, F.; Kwanjana, J. H.; Salaniponi, F. M.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Following the introduction of guidelines for the control of tuberculosis (TB) infection in all hospitals in Malawi, a study was carried out to determine whether the guidelines were being implemented, the time between admission to hospital and the diagnosis of pulmonary TB had been reduced, and the annual case notification rates among health workers had fallen and were comparable to those of primary-school teachers. METHODS: The study involved 40 district and mission hospitals. Staff and patients were interviewed in order to determine whether the guidelines had been adopted. In four hospitals the diagnostic process in patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB was evaluated before and after the introduction of the guidelines, with the aid of case notes and TB registers. In all hospitals the proportion of health workers registered with TB before and after the guidelines were introduced, in 1996 and 1999, respectively, was determined by conducting interviews and consulting staff lists and TB registers. A similar method was used to determine the proportion of primary-school teachers who were registered with TB in 1999. FINDINGS: The guidelines were not uniformly implemented. Only one hospital introduced voluntary counselling and testing for its staff. Most hospitals stated that they used rapid systems to diagnose pulmonary TB. However, there was no significant change in the interval between admission and diagnosis or between admission and treatment of patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB. The TB case notification rate for 2979 health workers in 1999 was 3.2%; this did not differ significantly from the value of 3.7% for 2697 health workers in 1996 but was significantly higher than that of 1.8% for 4367 primary-school teachers in 1999. CONCLUSION: The introduction of guidelines for the control of TB infection is an important intervention for reducing nosocomial transmission of the disease, but rigorous monitoring and follow-up are needed in order to ensure

  5. Lay health workers and HIV programmes: implications for health systems.

    PubMed

    Schneider, H; Lehmann, U

    2010-01-01

    One of the consequences of massive investment in antiretroviral access and other AIDS programmes has been the rapid emergence of large numbers of lay workers in the health systems of developing countries. In South Africa, government estimates are 65,000, mostly HIV/TB care-related lay workers contribute their labour in the public health sector, outnumbering the main front-line primary health care providers and professional nurses. The phenomenon has grown organically and incrementally, playing a wide variety of care-giving, support and advocacy roles. Using South Africa as a case, this paper discusses the different forms, traditions and contradictory orientations taken by lay health work and the system-wide effects of a large lay worker presence. As pressures to regularise and formalize the status of lay health workers grow, important questions are raised as to their place in health systems, and more broadly what they represent as a new intermediary layer between state and citizen. It argues for a research agenda that seeks to better characterise types of lay involvement in the health system, particularly in an era of antiretroviral therapy, and which takes a wider perspective on the meanings of this recent re-emergence of an old concept in health systems heavily affected by HIV/AIDS.

  6. Latex allergies in the health care worker.

    PubMed

    Tesiorowski, Caroline C

    2003-02-01

    A dramatic increase in the incidence of latex allergies in health care workers followed the surge in latex glove use accompanying the rise of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the early 1980s. This increase in latex glove use was driven by the release of Universal Precautions issued by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in response to the rise of HIV and other blood-borne pathogens. Efforts to stem allergic responses in the workplace have relied on the substitution of other materials for latex. Unfortunately, there is so much latex in everyday life that avoiding this allergen is exceedingly difficult once one is sensitized. Additionally, there are numerous cross reactants that are present in the environment. The situation is further confounded by the introduction of genetically manipulated foods and agricultural products that contain defense proteins genetically inserted to protect plants from pests and pathogens. Many of these defense proteins are antigens that will cross react with latex. Sensitivity reactions, once developed, may progress to the point at which the health care worker is excluded from working. This report provides an overview of rubber products and cross reactants, allergic reactions, and latex sensitivity for the health care worker. Copyright 2003 by American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses.

  7. Needlestick injuries among health care workers. A literature review.

    PubMed

    Porta, C; Handelman, E; McGovern, P

    1999-06-01

    Needlestick injuries among health care workers are a recognized health hazard, with 400,000 needlesticks occurring annually among the 4 million health care workers in the United States. Existing needlestick injury literature primarily focuses on hospital sites and may not be generalizable to other health care settings such as nursing homes, home health care sites, clinics, and emergency response units. Nurses were at high risk of needlestick injury from syringes and i.v. equipment relative to the other health care workers. Recapping, prohibited by the OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Standard, continues to be an identified cause of injury. The literature supports comprehensive injury prevention and control strategies in conjunction with the use of safer needle devices. Health care organizations should assess their worksites to identify hazards and select products and strategies to correct the problem. Future research should clarify accurate needlestick injury rates (e.g., establish consistent denominators), address non-hospital setting risks, validate self reported data, and evaluate comprehensive interventions that employ engineering strategies to minimize the risk.

  8. [Health risk assessment of exposure to metals in the workers of the steel foundry and in the general population of Taranto (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Soleo, Leonardo; Lovreglio, Piero; Panuzzo, Laura; D'Errico, Maria Nicolà; Basso, Antonella; Gilberti, Maria Enrica; Drago, Ignazio; Tomasi, Cesare; Apostoli, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    To study the urinary excretion of As, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Ba, Hg, Pb, Sb in workers at the Taranto integrated-cycle steel foundry and in subjects from the general population of Taranto, to assess the health risk posed by occupational exposure and environmental exposure, respectively, to these metals. The study included 49 steel foundry workers (exposed), working in the minerals and agglomerates pools, steel processing plants 1 and 2 and maritime plants, and 50 subjects belonging to the general population of Taranto resident at various distances from the factory (controls), randomly selected from the exposed subjects and controls enrolled in previous research conducted in 2005. A questionnaire was administered to all participants, enquiring into general characteristics, lifestyle, diet, and any medical conditions. Informed written consent to take part in the study was obtained from all subjects before enrolment. The results of environmental monitoring performed in 2005 in the workers' sectors, consisting of determining As, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in the respirable dust, revealed by both samplers applied in fixed positions and personal samplers, were considered. Urine samples were obtained from all participants on a Friday, to determine As and Cr by AAS and all the other metal elements by a multielement technique with ICP-MS. Urinary creatinine was also determined to make any necessary adjustments. All urine analyses were performed in 2005 within one month of urine collection. In the respirable dust, As and Cd were always within the LOD, whereas Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu and Pb were 1-2 orders of magnitude below the respective TLV-TWA of the ACGIH. Mn was the only metal element that presented significantly higher urinary concentrations in exposed subjects as compared to controls, although the values in both groups were in any case within the Italian reference range. Co, Cu, Zn, Sn and Sb showed significantly higher urinary concentrations in controls than in

  9. Knowledge brokering with injured workers: Perspectives of injured worker groups and health care professionals.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Lynn; McDermid, Joy; Kothari, Anita; Lindsay, Rob; Brake, Phil; Page, Peter; Argyle, Colin; Gagnon, Crystal; Knott, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the barriers and facilitators in brokering knowledge brokering knowledge to help injured workers make informed decisions about recovery and to support their transitions to return to work (RTW). Perceptions of 63 Injured Worker Groups (IWGs) and 43 Health Care Professionals (HCPs) in facilitating and brokering knowledge were examined. Critical theory and participatory action research approaches informed the development of a multi-stakeholder research team and the study design to support an exploration into knowledge exchange and transfer. Data was analyzed using a critical occupational perspective to reveal the source of barriers and to identify the facilitators of the knowledge exchange and transfer process. Barriers in transferring knowledge included system barriers, a lack of information accessibility, and problems with variations in injured worker capacity and experience using information. IWG and HCP participants lacked expertise in knowledge transfer. Findings also revealed the interactive knowledge transfer processes that IWGs and HCPs use to help injured workers understand and use information. Change is required to improve knowledge exchange and transfer of information for and to persons with injuries and disabilities. Suggested changes include the development of a sustainable knowledge transfer community of practice, a best practice guide for knowledge brokers such as IWGs and HCPs, and a process for ongoing assessment and evaluation of injured worker information needs and preferences.

  10. [Concomitant influence of occupational and social risk factors on health of workers engaged into powder metallurgy].

    PubMed

    Shur, P Z; Zaĭtseva, N V; Kostarev, V G; Lebedeva-Nesevria, N A; Shliapnikov, D M

    2012-01-01

    Results of health risk evaluation in workers engaged into powder metallurgy, using complex of hygienic, medical, epidemiologic and sociologic studies, enable to define priority occupational and social risk factors, to assess degree of their influence on the workers' health and to identify occupationally induced diseases.

  11. Coking wastewater treatment plant as a source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the atmosphere and health-risk assessment for workers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanhui; Wei, Chaohai; Feng, Chunhua; Yan, Bo; Li, Ning; Peng, Pingan; Fu, Jiamo

    2012-08-15

    PAHs were identified and some of them were determined in the air around a coking wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) using passive air samplers. Seventy seven PAHs were found in the emissions from the degreasing tanks, the aeration tanks and the secondary clarifiers. ∑PAH concentrations within the plant (373.3±27.3-12959.5±685.9 ng/m(3)) were 3-41 times higher compared to the reference sites (315.7±50.2-363.4±77.5 ng/m(3)). The identification of numerous PAHs and high concentrations of these selected ones in the air of the studied sites indicated that the coking WWTP was a new source of atmospheric PAHs. Variations in the PAH pattern were observed in air within the coking WWTP. For example, Flu and Pyr accounted for 35-46% of the total contents at the degreasing tanks, but less than 10% at the hydrolytic tanks. The calculation of the diagnostic ratios suggested that PAHs in the emissions had the source characters of coal combustion. Furthermore, highly elevated PAH concentrations were determined at the degreasing tanks compared to the other tanks (i.e., aeration tanks and secondary clarifiers) and likely associated with their high concentrations in the coking wastewater and increased volatilization at high water temperature. Health risk assessments were carried out by evaluating the inhalation PAH exposure data. The resultant inhalation exposure levels due to TEQ(BaP) for workers ranged from 1.6±0.6 to 71.2±8.2 ng/m(3), and the estimated lung cancer risks were between 0.1×10(-3)±0.1×10(-4) and 5.2×10(-3)±0.5×10(-3), indicating PAHs in the air around the degreasing tanks and the aerobic tanks would have potential lung cancer risk for the operating workers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Health Profile of Construction Workers in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Yi, Wen; Chan, Albert

    2016-12-13

    Construction is a manual, heavy, and complex sector concerning the most fatal accidents and high incidence of occupational illnesses and injuries resulting in days away from work. In Hong Kong, "Pilot Medical Examination Scheme for Construction Workers" was launched in 2014 to detect the health problems of their construction workforce. All registered workers under the Construction Workers Registration Board are eligible to join the scheme. The purpose of this paper is to assess the physical condition, physiological status, and musculoskeletal disorders of 942 construction workers in Hong Kong. This study adopted a two-phase design, which includes a basic medical examination to measure the workers' physiological parameters, such as blood pressure, resting heart rate, glucose, cholesterol, uric acid, liver function test, and renal function test; as well as a face-to-face interview following the medical examination to collect their demographic information and pain experience. Individual characteristics, including gender, age, obesity, alcohol drinking habit, and sleeping habit influenced the health condition of construction workers. Among the participants, 36.1% and 6.5% of them were overweight and obese, respectively. In addition, 43.0%, 38.4%, 16.2%, and 13.9% of the participants exceeded the thresholds of cholesterol, blood pressure, urea nitrogen, and uric urea, correspondingly. Moreover, 41.0% of the participants suffered musculoskeletal pain, where the most frequent painful parts occur in the lower back, shoulder, knees, leg, and neck. Through these findings, a series of important issues that need to be addressed is pointed out in terms of maintaining the physical well-being and reducing musculoskeletal disorders of construction workers. The finding may have implications for formulating proper intervention strategies for the sustainable development of Hong Kong's construction industry.

  13. Mental disorders among health workers in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Knuth, Berenice Scaletzky; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Oses, Jean Pierre; Radtke, Vinicius Augusto; Cocco, Rafaela Abreu; Jansen, Karen

    2015-08-01

    The scope of this article is to deter mine the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) and Depression among Community Health Agents (CHA) and employees of Psychosocial Care Centers (CAPS). It is a cross-sectional descriptive study involving the target population of Community Health Workers and Psychosocial Care Center workers, linked to the Municipal Health Department of Pelotas in the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul. The presence of common mental disorders was considered when the Self Report Questionnaire (SRQ) was > 7 and the occurrence of depression when BDI > 12. In total, 257 professionals participated in the study. Among mental health professionals (n = 119), the prevalence of CMDs was 25.2% and depression was 23.5%, while the prevalence of CMDs was 48.6% and depression was 29% among CHA (n = 138). The ratio of CMDs between the two groups of professionals was statistically different (p < 0.001). In this study, it was observed that the CAPS professionals are more adapted to work issues, with less perceived health problems arising from work and with a lower prevalence of mental disorders compared to CHA.

  14. Health care worker exposures to the antibacterial agent triclosan.

    PubMed

    MacIsaac, Julia K; Gerona, Roy R; Blanc, Paul D; Apatira, Latifat; Friesen, Matthew W; Coppolino, Michael; Janssen, Sarah

    2014-08-01

    We sought to quantify absorption of triclosan, a potential endocrine disruptor, in health care workers with occupational exposure to soap containing this chemical. A cross-sectional convenience sample of two groups of 38 health care workers at separate inpatient medical centers: hospital 1 uses 0.3% triclosan soap in all patient care areas; hospital 2 does not use triclosan-containing products. Additional exposure to triclosan-containing personal care products was assessed through a structured questionnaire. Urine triclosan was quantified and the occupational contribution estimated through regression modeling. Occupational exposure accounted for an incremental triclosan burden of 206 ng/mL (P = 0.02), while triclosan-containing toothpaste use was associated with 146 ng/mL higher levels (P < 0.001). Use of triclosan-containing antibacterial soaps in health care settings represents a substantial and potentially biologically relevant source of occupational triclosan exposure.

  15. Conference report: community health centers and vulnerable workers.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    A one-day conference in Washington brought together leaders of community health centers and worker advocates to discuss collaboration. They agreed that health centers could help protect vulnerable workers. They agreed on use of electronic medical records; access to workers compensation; Medical-Legal Partnerships; better understanding of work settings in their communities; and educating clinicians on work and jobs.

  16. An assessment of community health workers' ability to screen for cardiovascular disease risk with a simple, non-invasive risk assessment instrument in Bangladesh, Guatemala, Mexico, and South Africa: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Gaziano, Thomas A; Abrahams-Gessel, Shafika; Denman, Catalina A; Montano, Carlos Mendoza; Khanam, Masuma; Puoane, Thandi; Levitt, Naomi S

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease contributes substantially to the non-communicable disease (NCD) burden in low-income and middle-income countries, which also often have substantial health personnel shortages. In this observational study we investigated whether community health workers could do community-based screenings to predict cardiovascular disease risk as effectively as could physicians or nurses, with a simple, non-invasive risk prediction indicator in low-income and middle-income countries. This observation study was done in Bangladesh, Guatemala, Mexico, and South Africa. Each site recruited at least ten to 15 community health workers based on usual site-specific norms for required levels of education and language competency. Community health workers had to reside in the community where the screenings were done and had to be fluent in that community's predominant language. These workers were trained to calculate an absolute cardiovascular disease risk score with a previously validated simple, non-invasive screening indicator. Community health workers who successfully finished the training screened community residents aged 35-74 years without a previous diagnosis of hypertension, diabetes, or heart disease. Health professionals independently generated a second risk score with the same instrument and the two sets of scores were compared for agreement. The primary endpoint of this study was the level of direct agreement between risk scores assigned by the community health workers and the health professionals. Of 68 community health worker trainees recruited between June 4, 2012, and Feb 8, 2013, 42 were deemed qualified to do fieldwork (15 in Bangladesh, eight in Guatemala, nine in Mexico, and ten in South Africa). Across all sites, 4383 community members were approached for participation and 4049 completed screening. The mean level of agreement between the two sets of risk scores was 96·8% (weighted κ=0·948, 95% CI 0·936-0·961) and community health workers showed

  17. Effectiveness of total worker health interventions.

    PubMed

    Anger, W Kent; Elliot, Diane L; Bodner, Todd; Olson, Ryan; Rohlman, Diane S; Truxillo, Donald M; Kuehl, Kerry S; Hammer, Leslie B; Montgomery, Dede

    2015-04-01

    Total Worker Health (TWH) was introduced and the term was trademarked in 2011 by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to formally signal the expansion of traditional occupational safety and health (OSH) to include wellness and well-being. We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, and other databases using keywords TWH, health promotion, health protection, and variants for articles meeting the criteria of (a) employing both occupational safety and/or health (OSH, or health protection) and wellness and/or well-being (health promotion, or HP) in the same intervention study, and (b) reporting both OSH and HP outcomes. Only 17 published studies met these criteria. All but 1 of the 17 TWH interventions improved risk factors for injuries and/or chronic illnesses, and 4 improved 10 or more risk factors. Several TWH interventions reported sustained improvements for over a year, although only 1 is readily available for dissemination. These results suggest that TWH interventions that address both injuries and chronic diseases can improve workforce health effectively and more rapidly than the alternative of separately employing more narrowly focused programs to change the same outcomes in serial fashion. These 17 articles provide useful examples of how TWH interventions can be structured. The promise of simultaneous improvements in safety, health, and well-being leads to the call to pursue TWH research to identify and disseminate best practices.

  18. Peer workers' perceptions and experiences of barriers to implementation of peer worker roles in mental health services: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Vandewalle, Joeri; Debyser, Bart; Beeckman, Dimitri; Vandecasteele, Tina; Van Hecke, Ann; Verhaeghe, Sofie

    2016-08-01

    To identify peer workers' perceptions and experiences of barriers to implementation of peer worker roles in mental health services. Review of qualitative and quantitative studies. A comprehensive electronic database search was conducted between October 2014 and December 2015 in PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, and PsycARTICLES. Additional articles were identified through handsearch. All articles were assessed on quality. A thematic analysis informed by a multi-level approach was adopted to identify and discuss the main themes in the individual studies. Reporting was in line with the 'Enhancing transparency in reporting the synthesis of qualitative research' statement. Eighteen articles met the inclusion criteria. All studies adopted qualitative research methods, of which three studies used additional quantitative methods. Peer workers' perceptions and experiences cover a range of themes including the lack of credibility of peer worker roles, professionals' negative attitudes, tensions with service users, struggles with identity construction, cultural impediments, poor organizational arrangements, and inadequate overarching social and mental health policies. This review can inform policy, practice and research from the unique perspective of peer workers. Mental health professionals and peer workers should enter into an alliance to address barriers in the integration of peer workers and to enhance quality of service delivery. Longitudinal research is needed to determine how to address barriers in the implementation of peer worker roles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Heat stress assessment among workers in a Nicaraguan sugarcane farm

    PubMed Central

    Delgado Cortez, Orlando

    2009-01-01

    Background Heat illness is a major cause of preventable morbidity worldwide. Workers exposed to intense heat can become unable to activate compensation mechanisms, putting their health at risk. Heat stress also has a direct impact on production by causing poor task performance and it increases the possibility of work-related morbidity and injuries. During the sugarcane harvest period, workers are exposed to excessive sunlight and heat from approximately 6 am to 3 pm. A first assessment of heat stress during the 2006/2007 harvesting season served to redesign the existing rehydration measures. In this project, sugarcane workers were provided with more rehydration solutions and water during their work schedule. Objective To assess heat stress preventive measures in order to improve existing rehydration strategies as a means of increasing productivity. Methods A small group of 22 workers were followed up for 15 days during working hours, from 6 am to 3 pm. Selection criteria were defined: to have worked more than 50% of the day's working schedule and to have worked for at least 10 days of the follow-up period. A simple data recollection sheet was used. Information regarding the amount of liquid intake was registered. Production output data was also registered. Temperature measurements were recorded by using a portable temperature monitoring device (‘EasyLog’, model EL-USB-2). Results The average temperature measurements were above the Nicaraguan Ministry of Labour thresholds. Seven workers drank 7–8 L of liquid, improving their production. Output production increased significantly (p=0.005) among those best hydrated, from 5.5 to 8 tons of cut sugarcane per worker per day. Conclusions Productivity improved with the new rehydration measures. Awareness among workers concerning heat stress prevention was increased. PMID:20052378

  20. Health care worker perspectives of their motivation to reduce health care-associated infections.

    PubMed

    McClung, Laura; Obasi, Chidi; Knobloch, Mary Jo; Safdar, Nasia

    2017-10-01

    Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are largely preventable, but are associated with considerable health care burden. Given the significant cost of HAIs, many health care institutions have implemented bundled interventions to reduce HAIs. These complex behavioral interventions require considerable effort; however, individual behaviors and motivations crucial to successful and sustained implementation have not been adequately assessed. We evaluated health care worker motivations to reduce HAIs. This was a phenomenologic qualitative study of health care workers in different roles within a university hospital, recruited via a snowball strategy. Using constructs from the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research model, face-to-face semi-structured interviews were used to explore perceptions of health care worker motivation to follow protocols on HAI prevention. Across all types of health care workers interviewed, patient safety and improvement in clinical outcomes were the major motivators to reducing HAIs. Other important motivators included collaborative environment that valued individual input, transparency and feedback at both organizational and individual levels, leadership involvement, and refresher trainings and workshops. We did not find policy, regulatory considerations, or financial penalties to be important motivators. Health care workers perceived patient safety and clinical outcomes as the primary motivators to reduce HAI. Leadership engagement and data-driven interventions with frequent performance feedback were also identified as important facilitators of HAI prevention. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Health worker recruitment and deployment in remote areas of Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Efendi, Ferry

    2012-01-01

    Providing health care in remote and very remote areas has long been a major concern in Indonesia. In order to improve access to quality health care for residents in these areas, various policies on recruitment and deployment of health workers have been implemented, among them compulsory service, contracted staff and the Special Assignment of strategic health workers. Indonesia's difficult geography presents great challenges to health service delivery and most health workers prefer to serve in urban areas, resulting in an uneven distribution of health workers and shortages in remote areas. Great efforts have been made to mobilize health human resources more equitably, including placement schemes for strategic health workers and contracted staff, combined with an incentive scheme. While these have partially addressed the severe shortage of health workers in remote areas, current government policies were reviewed in order to clarify the current situation in Indonesia. The Contracted Staff and Special Assignment of Strategic Health Workers programs show have made a significant contribution to improving the availability of health workers in Indonesia's remote areas. As these two programs used financial incentives as the main intervention, other non-financial interventions should also be trialed. For example, incentives such as the promise of a civil servant appointment or the provision of continuing professional education, as well as the recruitment of rural-background health workers may increase the willingness of health staff to serve in the remote and very remote areas of Indonesia.

  2. Social Workers' Role in the Canadian Mental Health Care System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towns, Ashley M.; Schwartz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Using Canadian survey data this research provides social workers in Canada with a better understanding of their role in the Canadian mental health care system. Methods: By analyzing data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 Mental Health and Well-being, the role of social workers in the Canadian mental health system was…

  3. Social Workers' Role in the Canadian Mental Health Care System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towns, Ashley M.; Schwartz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Using Canadian survey data this research provides social workers in Canada with a better understanding of their role in the Canadian mental health care system. Methods: By analyzing data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 Mental Health and Well-being, the role of social workers in the Canadian mental health system was…

  4. Community health workers and primary health care in Honduras.

    PubMed

    Quillian, J P

    1993-01-01

    Community participation and utilization of community health workers (CHWs) are essential components of the primary health care model. The success of CHWs is dependent on their training and subsequent community support. Community-prepared nurses are ideal CHW educators. A training program for CHWs was implemented in Honduras emphasizing the principles of adult learning and problem-based learning. Following a 4-month program of training a primary health care clinic was opened and managed by CHWs for a population over 10,000. Approximately 80% of local health problems were managed by the CHWs proving that well-trained CHWs can have a significant impact on the delivery of health care.

  5. Community Health Workers and Mobile Technology: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Rebecca; Catalani, Caricia; Wimbush, Julian; Israelski, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    through operational improvements and rigorous study designs. Programmatic and scientific gaps will need to be addressed by global leaders as they advance the use and assessment of mobile technology tools for community health workers. PMID:23776544

  6. Process Evaluation of a Workers' Health Surveillance Program for Meat Processing Workers.

    PubMed

    van Holland, Berry J; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R; Reneman, Michiel F; Soer, Remko

    2016-07-30

    Objective To evaluate the implementation process of a workers' health surveillance (WHS) program in a Dutch meat processing company. Methods Workers from five plants were eligible to participate in the WHS program. The program consisted of four evaluative components and an intervention component. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to evaluate seven process aspects. Data were gathered by interviews with stakeholders, participant questionnaires, and from registries of the company and occupational health service. Results Two recruitment strategies were used: open invitation or automatic participation. Of the 986 eligible workers, 305 participated in the program. Average reach was 53 %. Two out of five program components could not be assessed on dose delivered, dose received and fidelity. If components were assessable, 85-100 % of the components was delivered, 66-100 % of the components was received by participants, and fidelity was 100 %. Participants were satisfied with the WHS program (mean score 7.6). Contextual factors that facilitated implementation were among others societal developments and management support. Factors that formed barriers were program novelty and delayed follow-up. Conclusion The WHS program was well received by participants. Not all participants were offered the same number of program components, and not all components were performed according to protocol. Deviation from protocol is an indication of program failure and may affect program effectiveness.

  7. [Mapping of information on worker's health].

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Raul Borges; Ribeiro, Helena

    2010-12-01

    Geographic studies and spatial analyses have been recognized in Brazilian public health papers. It is still, however, very little explored by researchers. In a survey of the leading scientific journals covering issues related to Brazilian worker's health, we found the predominant use of charts and tables as a way to organize and present results with a small number of maps. This survey was conducted by examining all papers published in four journals, covering the period from 1967 to 2009 (Revista de Saúde Pública, Cadernos de Saúde Pública, Revista Saúde e Sociedade, and Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia). After analyzing the set of papers selected for the study, the papers that used maps were given special attention. The tools of geoprocessing and geostatistics with GIS support, although little used, open new possibilities to use thematic cartography in the field of workers' health. However, it is recommended that editors of scientific journals have detailed technical standards as well as specific reports for the publication of cartographic figures aimed at facilitating the modifications necessary for the improvement of the visual quality of maps and of the spatial correlations through cartography.

  8. Assessing the first wave of epidemiological studies of nanomaterial workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing; Tsai, Candace S. J.; Pelclova, Daniela; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Schulte, Paul A.

    2015-10-01

    The results of early animal studies of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and air pollution epidemiology suggest that it is important to assess the health of ENM workers. Initial epidemiological studies of workers' exposure to ENMs (<100 nm) are reviewed and characterized for their study designs, findings, and limitations. Of the 15 studies, 11 were cross-sectional, 4 were longitudinal (1 was both cross-sectional and longitudinal in design), and 1 was a descriptive pilot study. Generally, the studies used biologic markers as the dependent variables. All 11 cross-sectional studies showed a positive relationship between various biomarkers and ENM exposures. Three of the four longitudinal studies showed a negative relationship; the fourth showed positive findings after a 1-year follow-up. Each study considered exposure to ENMs as the independent variable. Exposure was assessed by mass concentration in 10 studies and by particle count in six studies. Six of them assessed both mass and particle concentrations. Some of the studies had limited exposure data because of inadequate exposure assessment. Generally, exposure levels were not very high in comparison to those in human inhalation chamber studies, but there were some exceptions. Most studies involved a small sample size, from 2 to 258 exposed workers. These studies represent the first wave of epidemiological studies of ENM workers. They are limited by small numbers of participants, inconsistent (and in some cases inadequate) exposure assessments, generally low exposures, and short intervals between exposure and effect. Still, these studies are a foundation for future work; they provide insight into where ENM workers are experiencing potentially adverse effects that might be related to ENM exposures.

  9. The home health workforce: a distinction between worker categories.

    PubMed

    Stone, Robyn; Sutton, Janet P; Bryant, Natasha; Adams, Annelise; Squillace, Marie

    2013-01-01

    The demand for home health aides is expected to rise, despite concerns about the sustainability of this workforce. Home health workers receive low wages and little training and have high turnover. It is difficult to recruit and retain workers to improve clinical outcomes. This study presents national estimates to examine how home health workers and the subgroup of workers differ in terms of sociodemographic characteristics, compensation, benefits, satisfaction, and retention. Hospice aides fare better than other categories of workers and are less likely to leave their job. Policymakers should consider strategies to increase the quality and stability of this workforce.

  10. Information support for the ambulant health worker.

    PubMed

    Merrell, Ronald C; Merriam, Nathaniel; Doarn, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Health workers are trained to work in information-rich environments. Nineteen medical students evaluated 2700 patients in four villages in Kenya where there was no power or phone. A model of information support included personal digital assistants (PDA), electronic medical records (EMR), satellite telecommunications, medical software, and solar power. The students promptly found the advantages of PDA over paper. By using software for decision support and interacting with the EMR data for medical expertise, very few live telemedicine consults were needed. The cost of this information support was only US 0.28 dollars per patient visit. We conclude information resources can be provided in remote environments at reasonable cost.

  11. Occupational health survey of farm workers by camp health aides.

    PubMed

    Cameron, L; Lalich, N; Bauer, S; Booker, V; Bogue, H O; Samuels, S; Steege, A L

    2006-05-01

    Little is known about the magnitude of occupational health problems among migrant farm workers. A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in two migrant farm worker communities: Homestead, Florida, and Kankakee, Illinois. Camp Health Aides (CHAs) interviewed 425 workers about job tasks, personal protective equipment (PPE), field sanitation, work exposures, and selected health conditions. Limited provision of personal protective equipment was reported among those reporting early re-entry tasks: 35% in Kankakee and 42% in Homestead were provided gloves, and 22% in Homestead and 0% in Kankakee were provided protective clothing. About two-thirds were provided toilet facilities and water for hand-washing. Workers reported high prevalences of health conditions consistent with exposure to ergonomic hazards and pesticides. The prevalence of back pain in the past 12 months was 39% in Homestead and 24% in Kankakee. Among Homestead participants, 35% experienced eye symptoms, while 31% reported skin symptoms. These symptoms were less prevalent among Kankakee participants (16% for both eye and skin symptoms). Specific areas of concern included back pain associated with heavy lifting and ladder work; eye and skin irritation associated with fertilizer application tasks and with working in fields during or after spraying of chemicals, especially early re-entry of sprayed fields; and skin irritation associated with a lack of access to hand-washing facilities. In both Kankakee and Homestead, better adherence to safety standards is needed, as well as greater efforts to implement solutions that are available to help prevent work-related musculoskeletal problems.

  12. Measuring return on investment of outreach by community health workers.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Elizabeth M; Everhart, Rachel M; Wright, Richard A

    2006-02-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) are effective in improving access to health care, promoting client knowledge and behavior change, and contributing to improved health status of individuals. However, few outreach programs have evaluated the financial impact of CHWs on health care systems and policies. A longitudinal repeated measures design was used to assess the return on investment (ROI) of outreach by CHWs employed by Denver Health Community Voices. Service utilization, charges and reimbursements for 590 underserved men were analyzed 9 months before and after interaction with a CHW. Primary and specialty care visits increased and urgent care, inpatient, and outpatient behavioral health care utilization decreased, resulting in a reduction of monthly uncompensated costs by $14,244. Program costs were $6,229 per month and the ROI was 2.28:1.00, a savings of $95,941 annually. These data provide evidence of economic contributions that CHWs make to a public safety net system and inform policy making regarding program sustainability.

  13. Are health workers motivated by income? Job motivation of Cambodian primary health workers implementing performance-based financing.

    PubMed

    Khim, Keovathanak

    2016-01-01

    Background Financial incentives are widely used in performance-based financing (PBF) schemes, but their contribution to health workers' incomes and job motivation is poorly understood. Cambodia undertook health sector reform from the middle of 2009 and PBF was employed as a part of the reform process. Objective This study examines job motivation for primary health workers (PHWs) under PBF reform in Cambodia and assesses the relationship between job motivation and income. Design A cross-sectional self-administered survey was conducted on 266 PHWs, from 54 health centers in the 15 districts involved in the reform. The health workers were asked to report all sources of income from public sector jobs and provide answers to 20 items related to job motivation. Factor analysis was conducted to identify the latent variables of job motivation. Factors associated with motivation were identified through multivariable regression. Results PHWs reported multiple sources of income and an average total income of US$190 per month. Financial incentives under the PBF scheme account for 42% of the average total income. PHWs had an index motivation score of 4.9 (on a scale from one to six), suggesting they had generally high job motivation that was related to a sense of community service, respect, and job benefits. Regression analysis indicated that income and the perception of a fair distribution of incentives were both statistically significant in association with higher job motivation scores. Conclusions Financial incentives used in the reform formed a significant part of health workers' income and influenced their job motivation. Improving job motivation requires fixing payment mechanisms and increasing the size of incentives. PBF is more likely to succeed when income, training needs, and the desire for a sense of community service are addressed and institutionalized within the health system.

  14. Are health workers motivated by income? Job motivation of Cambodian primary health workers implementing performance-based financing.

    PubMed

    Khim, Keovathanak

    2016-01-01

    Financial incentives are widely used in performance-based financing (PBF) schemes, but their contribution to health workers' incomes and job motivation is poorly understood. Cambodia undertook health sector reform from the middle of 2009 and PBF was employed as a part of the reform process. This study examines job motivation for primary health workers (PHWs) under PBF reform in Cambodia and assesses the relationship between job motivation and income. A cross-sectional self-administered survey was conducted on 266 PHWs, from 54 health centers in the 15 districts involved in the reform. The health workers were asked to report all sources of income from public sector jobs and provide answers to 20 items related to job motivation. Factor analysis was conducted to identify the latent variables of job motivation. Factors associated with motivation were identified through multivariable regression. PHWs reported multiple sources of income and an average total income of US$190 per month. Financial incentives under the PBF scheme account for 42% of the average total income. PHWs had an index motivation score of 4.9 (on a scale from one to six), suggesting they had generally high job motivation that was related to a sense of community service, respect, and job benefits. Regression analysis indicated that income and the perception of a fair distribution of incentives were both statistically significant in association with higher job motivation scores. Financial incentives used in the reform formed a significant part of health workers' income and influenced their job motivation. Improving job motivation requires fixing payment mechanisms and increasing the size of incentives. PBF is more likely to succeed when income, training needs, and the desire for a sense of community service are addressed and institutionalized within the health system.

  15. From worker health to citizen health: moving upstream.

    PubMed

    Sepulveda, Martin-Jose

    2013-12-01

    New rapid growth economies, urbanization, health systems crises, and "big data" are causing fundamental changes in social structures and systems, including health. These forces for change have significant consequences for occupational and environmental medicine and will challenge the specialty to think beyond workers and workplaces as the principal locus of innovation for health and performance. These trends are placing great emphasis on upstream strategies for addressing the complex systems dynamics of the social determinants of health. The need to engage systems in communities for healthier workforces is a shift in orientation from worker and workplace centric to citizen and community centric. This change for occupational and environmental medicine requires extending systems approaches in the workplace to communities that are systems of systems and that require different skills, data, tools, and partnerships.

  16. From Worker Health To Citizen Health: Moving Upstream

    PubMed Central

    Sepulveda, Martin-Jose

    2014-01-01

    New rapid growth economies, urbanization, health systems crises and “big data” are causing fundamental changes in social structures and systems including health. These forces for change have significant consequences for occupational and environmental medicine and will challenge the specialty to think beyond workers and workplaces as the principal locus of innovation for health and performance. These trends are placing great emphasis on upstream strategies for addressing the complex systems dynamics of the social determinants of health. The need to engage systems in communities for healthier workforces is a shift in orientation from worker and workplace centric to citizen and community centric. This change for occupational and environmental medicine requires extending systems approaches in the workplace to communities which are systems of systems and which require different skills, data, tools and partnerships. PMID:24284749

  17. [Health risk among workers employed in rubber footwear plant].

    PubMed

    Szubert, Z; Wilczyńska, U; Sobala, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the health risk of workers performing specific jobs in the process of the rubber footwear production by defining the cause and length of temporary work disability, as well as mortality causes and level. The analysis was carried out in the groups of workers performing the following jobs: mixing, mill operation, pressing and vulcanizing (A); semi-product preparation and calendaring (B); finishing and sorting (C); production of polyvinyl chloride footwear (D); and auxiliary works (E). The sickness absence study covered all workers (208 men and 315 women) employed in a large rubber footwear company and performing all above-listed jobs in 1995. Standardized sick days ratio was used to analyze the risk of temporary work disability. Mortality rate was estimated on the basis of the results of the cohort study performed in the same company among workers who had worked at least three months during the years 1945-1985. The follow-up continued until 31 December 1997. The present study included sub-cohorts composed of 5628 men and 7197 women, performing jobs listed above. The results of both studies indicated the enhanced risk of cardiovascular diseases among workers employed in the basic phases of the production process. The increased risk of the diseases of the digestive system was observed in men and women employed in: finishing, sorting and packing of the products (group C); in men involved in mixing, pressing and vulcanizing (group A); and in women engaged in auxiliary works (group E). In addition, the enhanced risk of sickness absence due to the diseases of the respiratory, digestive, or genitourinary systems was related to the enhanced risk of death from malignant neoplasms in a given site. The analysis showed that the temporary work disability may be regarded as a parameter useful in early assessment of health effects of the work environmental hazards.

  18. Assessing Oral Cancer Awareness Among Rural Latino Migrant Workers.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Virginia J; Schenck, David P; Chaney, Elizabeth H; Padhya, Tapan

    2016-06-01

    Latino migrant farm workers suffer significant health disparities, including poor oral health. The purpose of this research was to assess Latino migrant farm workers' OC awareness, including knowledge and care-seeking behaviors. A 42-item survey was developed. Trained, bilingual researchers verbally administered the survey to migrant farm workers in Hillsborough County, Florida. Frequencies and descriptive statistics were generated to report baseline data. The sample consisted of 53.7 % female respondents. The mean age for males and females respectively was 38.7 and 39.2. Most respondents had attended grade school; 6.7 % never attended school. Perceptions of cancer susceptibility were present; knowledge of OC risk factors, signs and symptoms was low. Participants were unlikely to seek preventive care. The results contribute to the limited studies regarding Latino migrant farm workers and oral cancer risk factor awareness and knowledge. Findings highlight factors influencing motivation and care-seeking behaviors, as well as provide guidance for development of educational materials.

  19. [Latex gloves dermatitis in health care workers].

    PubMed

    Mattei, O; Di Martino, T; Ferraro, P

    2007-01-01

    With regard to health care workers the irritative contact dermatitis represents about the 80% of all the dermopathies in sanitary staff whereas the allergic contact dermatitis covers approximately the 20% of the professional dermatoses. In our study 4 cases of allergy to latex in hospital nurses are presented; the clinical history is described for each of them as well as the resulting judgment of suitability to the specific work. In general population the allergy to latex is estimated to be approximately 1-6%; in sanitary staff it rises to 5-12%. We have to observe that not all the sensitive subjects show symptoms of allergy. Actually the 4 cases described represent less than 1% of the surveyed group. The sensitization is likely to be so reduced also thanks to the application of preventive guide-lines such as the one proposed by NIOSH. In Italy the criteria in preventing allergic reactions to latex are illustrated in a consensus document issued by a study-team from Italian Association of the Health Workers.

  20. [Assessment of lunch served in the Workers' Food Program, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Savio, Karin Eleonora Oliveira; Costa, Teresa Helena Macedo da; Miazaki, Edina; Schmitz, Bethsáida de Abreu Soares

    2005-04-01

    In the light of the Workers' Food Program (WFP) growth and its recent review of nutritional parameters regulations, the study aimed at evaluating food intake in WFP through dietary assessment of lunch served in the program and workers' nutritional status. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a representative sample of workers in Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil. A total of 1,044 subjects who had lunch at 52 food and nutrition units were evaluated. Social-economic and demographic data were collected as well as anthropometric measures for calculating the Body Mass Index. Food intake was assessed by dish weight and direct observation of dish composition. Of all subjects, 43% had excess weight, 33.7% were overweight and 9.3% were obese. Males were most affected. Median lunch energy intake was 515 kcal in women and 736 kcal in men. Median dietary fiber intake was 6.0 g among women and 8.3 g among men, and median cholesterol intake was over 90 mg among subjects with excess weight. The results indicate that the study population who is often seen as healthy is at nutritional risk. Workers in WFP should be targeted for health promotion strategies using especially nutritionists' skills as educators.

  1. Legal and regulatory framework for health worker retention in Mozambique: Public health law research to strengthen health systems and services.

    PubMed

    Verani, Andre R; Cossa, Dalmázia; Malaica A Mbeve, Ana; Sorneta, Carla; Ramirez, Lucy; Boore, Amy L; Mucambe, Francina; Vergara, Alfredo E

    2016-05-26

    Realizing the fundamental contribution of human resources to public health, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued policy recommendations for health worker retention. We reviewed Mozambique's laws and regulations and assessed the extent to which this legal and regulatory framework governing public sector health workers aligns with the WHO health worker retention recommendations. We provide guidance for future analysis of non-binding policies that may fill gaps identified in our review. We also indicate how to link legal analysis to the cycle by which research informs policy, policy informs practice, and practice leads to improvements in health systems and population health. Finally, we demonstrate the relevance of understanding and analyzing the impact of domestic laws on global health. Future research should assess implementation of health worker allowances and any associations with increased hiring, more equitable distribution, and improved retention - all are essential to public health in Mozambique.Journal of Public Health Policy advance online publication, 26 May 2016; doi:10.1057/jphp.2016.22.

  2. Why health care workers decline influenza vaccination.

    PubMed

    Moore, Brenda S

    2009-11-01

    Influenza vaccine is essential to preventing influenza among health care workers and their patients. Therefore, the staff of the employee health clinic worked diligently to provide an opportunity for all employees to receive influenza vaccinations. Despite these efforts, a significant percentage of employees declined the vaccine. During the 2007-2008 influenza season, employees were instructed to either receive the influenza vaccine or decline in writing. The vaccination rate for all staff members and direct caregivers, during the 2007-2008 vaccination season, was 52%, with 35% declining and 13% not participating. In response to the 35% declining, data were analyzed to develop an effective educational tool focused on reasons for declination. This article presents an overview of the study, the reasons employees declined influenza vaccine, and strategies for improving vaccination rates. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. [Protecting health of workers and predictive preventive personified medicine].

    PubMed

    Izmerov, N F; Bukhtiiarov, I V; Prokopenko, L V; Kuz'mina, L P

    2013-01-01

    Industrial medicine is an integrated sphere of preventive medicine, aimed to regulate health of workers and concerned with scentific basis and practical application of means and methods to preserve and improve workers' health. The article covers major research trends in workers' health preservation, results of fundamental studies on pathogenetic mechanisms and developmental patterns of contemporary occupational and industrial pathologies, prospects of predictive personified trend development and its application in industrial medicine.

  4. [Management of "complicated" work fitness judgements among health care workers].

    PubMed

    Tonelli, F; Salvioni, M; Cucchi, I; Omeri, E; Piretti, C; Ronchin, M; Carrer, P

    2007-01-01

    The occupational physician, performing health surveillance within a hospital, may face to some difficulties due to the variety and complexity of the tasks and the health risk factors of the health care workers. One of the hardest issue for occupational physician is to provide judgement on worker's fitness. Moreover, this task could be more complicated when a impaired worker could represent an hazard for his patients and colleagues. The authors will illustrate three critical clinical cases examined in Occupational Health Unit of Luigi Sacco Hospital, Milan; furthermore, the authors will show the difficulties and the applied solutions in order to provide the judgement on worker's fitness.

  5. Assessing health worker's duties from the viewpoint of principals and pupils concerning healthcare of students in the rural areas of Iran.

    PubMed

    Moghadam, Mahmoud Nekoei; Khanjani, Narges

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the duties of regional healthcare workers (Behvarzes) regarding healthcare of pupils in the rural areas of Iran. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2007-2008 on 384 pupils and their school managers in the rural areas of Sharbabak in Kerman, Iran. The research population was evaluated with separate questionnaires for the managers and the pupils. The results were analysed using descriptive statistical methods. The study showed that 250 (65%) of the total participants believed that the Behvarzes performed the minimum required duties for supervision of the pupil's personal health, and 257 (67%), 173 (45%), 269 (70%) and 269 (70%) thought they performed the minimum for promoting the environmental health status of the school, for pupils' nutrition, for accident prevention, and for disease control respectively. Behvarzes have been very successful in promoting healthcare among villagers in Iran, but they should pay more attention to the nutritional status of the students.

  6. Bacterial contamination of stethoscopes used by health workers: public health implications.

    PubMed

    Uneke, Chigozie J; Ogbonna, Annayo; Oyibo, Patrick G; Onu, Christian M

    2010-08-04

    This study was designed to assess both the potential for bacterial transmission by stethoscopes used by health-care workers in Nigeria and the implications for patient safety and control of hospital-acquired infections. A structured questionnaire was administered to health workers and the surface of the diaphragm of their stethoscopes swabbed for bacteriological analysis using standard techniques. Of the 107 stethoscopes surveyed, 84 (79%) were contaminated with bacteria; 59 (81%) of the contaminated stethoscopes belonged to physicians and 25 (74%) were from other health workers. Isolates included Staphylococcus aureus (54%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19%), Enterococcus faecalis (14%), and Escherichia coli (13%). All stethoscopes that had never been cleaned were contaminated while lower levels of contamination were found on those cleaned one week or less before the survey (chi(2) = 22.4, P < .05). Contamination was significantly higher on stethoscopes cleaned with only water (100%) compared to those cleaned with alcohol (49%) (chi(2) = 30.17, P < .05). Significantly fewer (9%) stethoscopes from health workers who washed their hands after seeing each patient were contaminated when compared with the instruments (86%) of those who did not practice hand washing (chi(2) = 23.79, P < .05). E. coli showed the highest antibiotic resistance, while S. aureus showed the highest antibiotic susceptibility. Strict adherence to stethoscope disinfection practices by health workers can minimize cross-contamination and ensure improved patient safety in hospital environments.

  7. Full-time workers with precarious employment face lower protection for receiving annual health check-ups.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Mariko; Tsurugano, Shinobu; Nishikitani, Mariko; Yano, Eiji

    2012-10-01

    Precarious employment is one of the social determinants of health. In 2010, 34.4% of Japanese workers fell into this employment category. The purpose of our study was to assess whether the use of annual health check-ups varied by worker contract type. Using 2007 nationally representative survey data, we compared the annual health check-up compliance of permanently employed full-time workers versus that of precariously employed workers (hourly, dispatched, and fixed-term workers). Dispatched workers and hourly workers received health check-ups less often compared with permanent workers. Hourly young male workers received health check-ups five times less frequently than permanent workers. The percentage of workers who consulted a physician after receiving advice to do so did not differ by employment types, except in older men. In Japan, workers with precarious employment, most notably hourly and dispatched workers, had a lower rate of health check-ups compared with full-time workers in permanent positions. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Health hazards among workers in plastic industry.

    PubMed

    Helal, Sawsan Farouk; Elshafy, Wessam Sabry

    2013-10-01

    Styrene is a basic building block for manufacturing thousands of products throughout the world. The present study aimed to (1) detect the presence of styrene and/or its metabolites in the workers in one of the Egyptian plastic factories; (2) demonstrate some common health effects of styrene exposure among the same group by some laboratory investigations and compare them with the unexposed healthy individuals; and (3) correlate the duration of styrene exposure and its level in the blood with the severity of the demonstrated health effects. This study was conducted in one of Egyptian plastic factories. The exposed group was 40 male workers, ranging in age from 18 to 33 years (23.20 ± 4.09), working 12 h/day with 1 day off, and working without any protective equipment. A control group of 50 unexposed healthy males matched with the exposed group for age (21-35 yrs (23.40 ± 4.05)), sex, socioeconomic status, and smoking habit is selected. Written individual consent is obtained from all participants followed by (a) a full medical and occupational history and full clinical examination; (b) ventilatory function tests: forced vital capacity (FVC), slow vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV₁)%, FEV₁/FVC%, peak expiratory flow, and mid-expiratory flow 25-75%; (c) analyses of β₂ microglobulin; blood styrene level; and urinary mandelic acid; and (d) cytogenetic study. The study results showed a statistically significant difference between the exposed and the control groups as regard the blood styrene level, urinary mandelic acid level, β₂ microgloblin in urine, and chromosomal study. The study also showed a statistically significant correlation between the duration of styrene exposure and ventilatory function parameters, also between the duration of styrene exposure and some detectable chromosomal aberrations. Our study recommends the implementation of preemployment and periodic medical examinations and health education programs using

  9. Health Profile of Construction Workers in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Wen; Chan, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Construction is a manual, heavy, and complex sector concerning the most fatal accidents and high incidence of occupational illnesses and injuries resulting in days away from work. In Hong Kong, “Pilot Medical Examination Scheme for Construction Workers” was launched in 2014 to detect the health problems of their construction workforce. All registered workers under the Construction Workers Registration Board are eligible to join the scheme. The purpose of this paper is to assess the physical condition, physiological status, and musculoskeletal disorders of 942 construction workers in Hong Kong. This study adopted a two-phase design, which includes a basic medical examination to measure the workers’ physiological parameters, such as blood pressure, resting heart rate, glucose, cholesterol, uric acid, liver function test, and renal function test; as well as a face-to-face interview following the medical examination to collect their demographic information and pain experience. Individual characteristics, including gender, age, obesity, alcohol drinking habit, and sleeping habit influenced the health condition of construction workers. Among the participants, 36.1% and 6.5% of them were overweight and obese, respectively. In addition, 43.0%, 38.4%, 16.2%, and 13.9% of the participants exceeded the thresholds of cholesterol, blood pressure, urea nitrogen, and uric urea, correspondingly. Moreover, 41.0% of the participants suffered musculoskeletal pain, where the most frequent painful parts occur in the lower back, shoulder, knees, leg, and neck. Through these findings, a series of important issues that need to be addressed is pointed out in terms of maintaining the physical well-being and reducing musculoskeletal disorders of construction workers. The finding may have implications for formulating proper intervention strategies for the sustainable development of Hong Kong’s construction industry. PMID:27983612

  10. Disparities in precarious workers' health care access in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Min, Jin-Young; Park, Shin-Goo; Hwang, Sang Hee; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2016-12-01

    This study explored whether precarious workers have difficulties in health care access as compared with non-precarious workers. The 2008 Korean Community Health Survey data were used for this study. Information was obtained on 51,322 participants (40,514 non-precarious workers and 10,808 precarious workers). Precarious workers were defined as part-time or contingent workers. Precarious workers had significantly higher risk of limited access to hospitals (OR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.06-1.22) and dentists (OR = 1.28; 95% CI: 1.21-1.36) than non-precarious workers; disparities in doctor contacts among precarious workers were mostly linked to not having enough money. The risk of not receiving preventive care-medical checkups (OR = 0.52; 95% CI: 0.49-0.55) or cancer screenings (OR = 0.82; 95% CI: 0.77-0.86)-was also significantly elevated among precarious workers. We found that precarious workers had more difficulty accessing health care or receiving health checkups or cancer screenings than their non-precarious counterparts. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:1136-1144, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Hand hygiene among health care workers.

    PubMed

    Mani, Ameet; Shubangi, A M; Saini, Rajiv

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare-associated infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients worldwide. Transmission of health care associated pathogens generally occurs via the contaminated hands of health care workers. Hand hygiene has long been considered one of the most important infection control measures to prevent health care-associated infections. For generations, hand washing with soap and water has been considered a measure of personal hygiene. As early as 1822, a French pharmacist demonstrated that solutions containing chlorides of lime or soda could eradicate the foul odor associated with human corpses and that such solutions could be used as disinfectants and antiseptics. This paper provides a comprehensive review of data regarding hand washing and hand antisepsis in healthcare settings. In addition, it provides specific recommendations to uphold improved hand-hygiene practices and reduce transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to patients and personnel in healthcare settings. This article also makes recommendations and suggests the significance of hand health hygiene in infection control.

  12. Assessing the first wave of epidemiological studies of nanomaterial workers

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Candace S. J.; Pelclova, Daniela; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Schulte, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    The results of early animal studies of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and air pollution epidemiology suggest that it is important to assess the health of ENM workers. Initial epidemiological studies of workers’ exposure to ENMs (<100 nm) are reviewed and characterized for their study designs, findings, and limitations. Of the 15 studies, 11 were cross-sectional, 4 were longitudinal (1 was both cross-sectional and longitudinal in design), and 1 was a descriptive pilot study. Generally, the studies used biologic markers as the dependent variables. All 11 cross-sectional studies showed a positive relationship between various biomarkers and ENM exposures. Three of the four longitudinal studies showed a negative relationship; the fourth showed positive findings after a 1-year follow-up. Each study considered exposure to ENMs as the independent variable. Exposure was assessed by mass concentration in 10 studies and by particle count in six studies. Six of them assessed both mass and particle concentrations. Some of the studies had limited exposure data because of inadequate exposure assessment. Generally, exposure levels were not very high in comparison to those in human inhalation chamber studies, but there were some exceptions. Most studies involved a small sample size, from 2 to 258 exposed workers. These studies represent the first wave of epidemiological studies of ENM workers. They are limited by small numbers of participants, inconsistent (and in some cases inadequate) exposure assessments, generally low exposures, and short intervals between exposure and effect. Still, these studies are a foundation for future work; they provide insight into where ENM workers are experiencing potentially adverse effects that might be related to ENM exposures. PMID:26635494

  13. Workplace mobbing and effects on workers' health.

    PubMed

    Meseguer de Pedro, Mariano; Soler Sánchez, María Isabel; Sáez Navarro, María Concepción; García Izquierdo, Mariano

    2008-05-01

    In this work, we analyze various consequences of the phenomenon of mobbing on the health of a work sector with special characteristics: the agro fruit sector. For this purpose, we collected data from a sample of 396 workers (61 men and 331 women) belonging to this sector in the Region of Murcia (Spain). A questionnaire with the following measurement instruments was administered: a Spanish adaptation of the revised Negative Acts Questionnaire (Sáez, García, & Llor, 2003), the Psychosomatic Problems Questionnaire (Hock, 1988), and a measure of absenteeism. The results revealed a significant and positive relation between workplace mobbing and psychosomatic symptoms, but not with absenteeism. The implications of the results for future research are discussed.

  14. Diabetes Training for Community Health Workers

    PubMed Central

    Aponte, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Background A 2.5-month diabetes education training for community health workers (CHWs) was developed, implemented, and evaluated. Methods Training methods used included case studies, role-playing, and lectures. Exams were used throughout the training for its evaluation. Teaching was delivered by different ways: a one day American Diabetes Association (ADA) course; a five day Diabetes Self-Management Program (DSMP); Conversation Maps; and a series of seven National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) diabetes education booklets. Results Qualitative and quantitative evaluative methods were used during and after the training. The CHWs’ diabetes knowledge was evaluated by a pre- and post-test Diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire (DKQ). The post-test was conducted one week after completing the training. The findings showed that the diabetes knowledge of the CHWs increased. Conclusions Diabetes competencies and evaluative tools need to be developed specific for CHWs as a way to standardize all CHW diabetes trainings. PMID:27110434

  15. Women brothel workers and occupational health risks

    PubMed Central

    Cwikel, J; Ilan, K; Chudakov, B

    2003-01-01

    Study objectives: This study examined working conditions, reported morbidity, symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression and their relation to an index of occupational health risk among women working in brothels in Israel. Design: Personal structured interviews with a scale of occupational risk that included seven self report items reflecting past and present morbidity and symptoms. Participants and setting: A purposive sample of 55 women in three cities in Israel, between the ages of 18–38. Main results: Most (82%) women were trafficked into Israel to work illegally in prostitution, effectively deriving them of access to discretionary health care. A third of the sample (32%) had a high score (between 3 to 6) on the index of occupational risk factors. A high score was not related to recent physician or gynaecological visits and was more common among illegal workers than those with residence status. A set of regression analyses showed that the most significant predictors of reporting a high level of occupational risk symptoms were starting sex work at an early age, the number of hours worked in a day, a history of suicide attempts and PTSD symptoms. Conclusions: High occupational risk was found to be unrelated to recent physician or gynaecological visits, indicating that these visits were most probably controlled by the brothel owners and not by medical need as perceived by the women themselves. Furthermore, occupational risk factors were associated with some of the working and background conditions reported by women brothel workers. There is an urgent need for medical care for this high risk group. PMID:14573588

  16. [Financial incentives in workers' health management].

    PubMed

    Rydlewska-Liszkowska, Izabela

    2008-01-01

    In the countries of the European Union, several million workers meet with an accident every year. In the national economy, the costs of accidents at work and occupational diseases are born by different institutions in different proportions, and they are estimated at several percent of the gross domestic product of each of these countries. The issue concerning economic consequences of occupational diseases and accidents at work has been emphasized in the section on health and safety at work of the Community Strategy for 2007-2012. Bearing this in mind, the need have arose to strengthen the efficiency of legal instruments and economic stimuli to motivate actions aimed at improving work conditions. Economic stimuli and legal instruments complement each other in the process of motivating various institutions. The following kinds of economic stimuli have been distinguished: subsidies, grants and financial assistance of the state and stimuli incorporated into tax and insurance systems. Economic evaluation at the information, allocation and educational levels, being an economic tool, may support policymakers who can use this tool to asses economic efficiency of decisions made in the area of health and safety of workers as well as to asses economic consequences of the functioning of legal instruments. The aim of the project, implemented under the Seventh Framework Program by the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, is to promote the system of economic stimuli understood as an incentive to undertake actions for the improvement of work conditions. Owing to this project the discussion forum, addressed to relevant and interested social partners, will be established, and experts in the field will assist in determining directions of further actions aimed at advancing motivation systems.

  17. Health Care Workers' Experiences of Aggression.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Katelyn; Oram, Joanne; Tinson, Helen; Shum, David

    2017-10-01

    To identify the prevalence of patient aggression against health care workers, the consequences and coping mechanisms. Retrospective cross-sectional design. 50 participants comprised 37 nurses, 1 ward staff, 12 allied health staff employed in two brain injury wards with experience ranging from 3months to 34years. Neurosciences and Brain Injury Rehabilitation wards of a metropolitan tertiary hospital in Brisbane. Researcher designed self-report questionnaire. 98% of respondents had experienced aggression during their health care careers with an average of 143.93 events. Physical injuries had been sustained by 40% of staff, psychological injury by 82%, but only 12% sought treatment. Verbal aggression related to receiving a psychological injury (r=0.305, p<0.05). Experiencing one type of aggression made it more likely the person would also experience the other types of aggression. Verbal aggression was correlated with physical aggression (r=0.429, p<0.01) and non-verbal aggression (r=0.286, p<0.05), and physical aggression was correlated with non-verbal aggression (r=0.333, p<0.05). The majority of staff used informal debriefing with others as their main coping strategy which was considered effective. Patient aggression is prevalent and of serious concern for staff working in hospital settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Social and medical problems of occupational health of railway workers].

    PubMed

    Sorokin, O N

    2000-01-01

    The article "Social and medical problems of healthcare in railway transport" presents principal factors influencing railway workers' health. The factors are those of social importance and influencing occupational suitability, general morbidity and morbidity with transitory disablement, disability in railway transport and its causes. The article shows therapeutic, sanitary and epidemiologic, social measures of prophylaxis for better work conditions and preservation of railway workers' health.

  19. [The role of the ASL of Brescia in the health and safety of immigrant workers].

    PubMed

    Scarcella, C; Benedetti, L; Comincini, F; El Hamad, I; Magoni, M; Provasi, M; Sottini, D

    2011-01-01

    According to available studies, migrant workers represent a vulnerable workers' category. For this reason, the Italian law on safety and health at work (art. 11, D.Lgs 81/08) points out the need for Public Administration initiatives devoted to migrant workers' health and safety at work. Local Public Health Department of Brescia for years now had a significant commitment in migrants' health. Thanks to the collaboration of occupational physicians and expert physicians on migration health, it was developed a multidimensional method to assess working risks taking into account also the fragile conditions of migrant workers, considering both personal and social characteristics and professional experience, in order to support companies in the planning of necessary actions to improve health and safety at work. The method was shared by both local industrial association and trade unions and then tested in some manufactures.

  20. Stigma-related mental health knowledge and attitudes among primary health workers and community health volunteers in rural Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mutiso, Victoria N; Musyimi, Christine W; Nayak, Sameera S; Musau, Abednego M; Rebello, Tahilia; Nandoya, Erick; Tele, Albert K; Pike, Kathleen; Ndetei, David M

    2017-09-01

    The study was conducted in rural Kenya and assessed stigma in health workers from primary health facilities. This study compared variations in stigma-related mental health knowledge and attitudes between primary health workers (HWs) and community health volunteers (CHVs). Participants ( n = 44 HWs and n = 60 CHVs) completed the self-report Mental Health Knowledge Schedule and the Reported and Intended Behavior Scale, along with sociodemographic questions. Multiple regression models were used to assess predictors of mental health knowledge and stigmatizing behaviors. HWs had significantly higher mean mental health knowledge scores than CHVs, p < .001, and significantly higher mean positive attitudes scores than CHVs, p = .042. When controlling for relevant covariates, higher positive attitudes was the only significant predictor of higher mental health knowledge, and self-rating of sense of belonging to the community and mental health knowledge remained the main predictors of positive attitudes. Results suggest that stigma-related mental health knowledge and attitudes are associated, and interventions should target these areas with health workers. There is scope for intervention to increase knowledge and positive attitudes for individuals who feel a strong sense of community belonging. Future studies should test feasible ways to reduce stigma in this population.

  1. Evaluating goals in worker health protection using a participatory design and an evaluation checklist.

    PubMed

    Ahonen, Emily Q; Zanoni, Joseph; Forst, Linda; Ochsner, Michele; Kimmel, Louis; Martino, Carmen; Ringholm, Elisa; Rodríguez, Eric; Kader, Adam; Sokas, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Spanish-speaking immigrant workers in construction are considered hard to reach and at high risk for work-related injury and fatality. This evaluation study describes the use of participatory methods and an evaluation checklist to consider a health and safety (H&S) training program for these workers. A previously developed training manual and model were disseminated to eight worker centers (WCs) through participatory research collaboration. It incorporated H&S training for workers while strengthening the role of WCs as sources for leadership development and worker empowerment. Design, delivery, reaction, application, and extension were assessed through individual interviews with participants, trained trainers, and center staff and through observation of training sessions and partner debriefs; pre- and post-training tests assessed participant learning. Results indicate moderate learning and application by participants and strong evidence for structural gains in and among WCs. We conclude that such partnerships and models are valuable tools for collaborating with hard-to-reach workers.

  2. Exposure of health workers in primary health care to glutaraldehyde

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In order to avoid proliferation of microorganisms, cleaning, disinfection and sterilisation in health centres is of utmost importance hence reducing exposure of workers to biological agents and of clients that attend these health centres to potential infections. One of the most commonly-used chemical is glutaraldehyde. The effects of its exposure are well known in the hospital setting; however there is very little information available with regards to the primary health care domain. Objective To determine and measure the exposure of health workers in Primary Health Care Centres. Environmental to glutaraldehyde and staff concentration will be measured and compared with regulated Occupational Exposure Limits. Methods/Design Observational, cross-sectional and multi-centre study. The study population will be composed of any health professionals in contact with the chemical substance that work in the Primary Health Care Centres in the areas of Barcelonès Nord, Maresme, and Barcelona city belonging to the Catalan Institute of Health. Data will be collected from 1) Glutaraldhyde consumption from the previous 4 years in the health centres under study. 2) Semi-structured interviews and key informants to gather information related to glutaraldehyde exposure. 3) Sampling of the substance in the processes considered to be high exposure. Discussion Although glutaraldehyde is extensively used in health centres, scientific literature only deals with certain occupational hazards in the hospital setting. This study attempts to take an in-depth look into the risk factors and environmental conditions that exist in the primary care workplace with exposure to glutaraldehyde. PMID:24180250

  3. Disabled Village Children. A Guide for Community Health Workers, Rehabilitation Workers, and Families. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, David

    This heavily illustrated volume is a reference book intended to bring together basic information to help community health workers, rehabilitation workers, and families in rural areas of developing countries meet the needs of village children with a wide range of disabilities. Part 1, "Working with the Child and Family," reviews the prevention of…

  4. What elements of the work environment are most responsible for health worker dissatisfaction in rural primary care clinics in Tanzania?

    PubMed

    Mbaruku, Godfrey M; Larson, Elysia; Kimweri, Angela; Kruk, Margaret E

    2014-08-03

    In countries with high maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality, reliable access to quality healthcare in rural areas is essential to save lives. Health workers who are satisfied with their jobs are more likely to remain in rural posts. Understanding what factors influence health workers' satisfaction can help determine where resources should be focused. Although there is a growing body of research assessing health worker satisfaction in hospitals, less is known about health worker satisfaction in rural, primary health clinics. This study explores the workplace satisfaction of health workers in primary health clinics in rural Tanzania. Overall, 70 health workers in rural Tanzania participated in a self-administered job satisfaction survey. We calculated mean ratings for 17 aspects of the work environment. We used principal components analysis (PCA) to identify groupings of these variables. We then examined the bivariate associations between health workers demographics and clinic characteristics and each of the satisfaction scales. Results showed that 73.9% of health workers strongly agreed that they were satisfied with their job; however, only 11.6% strongly agreed that they were satisfied with their level of pay and 2.9% with the availability of equipment and supplies. Two categories of factors emerged from the PCA: the tools and infrastructure to provide care, and supportive interpersonal environment. Nurses and medical attendants (compared to clinical officers) and older health workers had higher satisfaction scale ratings. Two dimensions of health workers' work environment, namely infrastructure and supportive interpersonal work environment, explained much of the variation in satisfaction among rural Tanzanian health workers in primary health clinics. Health workers were generally more satisfied with supportive interpersonal relationships than with the infrastructure. Human resource policies should consider how to improve these two aspects of work as a

  5. Oral Health of Stone Mine Workers of Jodhpur City, Rajasthan, India

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Jitender; Gupta, Sarika; Chand, Sachin

    2014-01-01

    Background Occupational injuries cause major health problems, which the developed, developing, and underdeveloped nations worldwide are facing today. The present study aimed to assess dental caries, periodontal health of stone mine workers, and the relationship between wasting diseases and the years of working experience. Methods The study population comprised 510 men, selected based on the stratified cluster sampling procedure. Clinical oral examinations were carried out, and periodontal disease, dental caries, and wasting diseases were recorded. Results Workers were in the age group of 17–56 years; the prevalence of dental caries in the workers was found to be 74%, with a mean decayed, missing, filled teeth index of 2.89. A periodontal pocket of more than 6 mm was observed in 6% of the workers. Conclusion The oral health of mine workers is in a poor state; steps should be taken so as to provide basic medical and dental care facilities. PMID:25379327

  6. Occupational Health Hazards among Healthcare Workers in Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaozhong; Buregyeya, Esther; Musoke, David; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Halage, Abdullah Ali; Whalen, Christopher; Bazeyo, William; Williams, Phillip; Ssempebwa, John

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the occupational health hazards faced by healthcare workers and the mitigation measures. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study utilizing quantitative data collection methods among 200 respondents who worked in 8 major health facilities in Kampala. Results. Overall, 50.0% of respondents reported experiencing an occupational health hazard. Among these, 39.5% experienced biological hazards while 31.5% experienced nonbiological hazards. Predictors for experiencing hazards included not wearing the necessary personal protective equipment (PPE), working overtime, job related pressures, and working in multiple health facilities. Control measures to mitigate hazards were availing separate areas and containers to store medical waste and provision of safety tools and equipment. Conclusion. Healthcare workers in this setting experience several hazards in their workplaces. Associated factors include not wearing all necessary protective equipment, working overtime, experiencing work related pressures, and working in multiple facilities. Interventions should be instituted to mitigate the hazards. Specifically PPE supply gaps, job related pressures, and complacence in adhering to mitigation measures should be addressed. PMID:25802531

  7. Listening to Community Health Workers: How Ethnographic Research Can Inform Positive Relationships Among Community Health Workers, Health Institutions, and Communities

    PubMed Central

    Closser, Svea; Kalofonos, Ippolytos

    2014-01-01

    Many actors in global health are concerned with improving community health worker (CHW) policy and practice to achieve universal health care. Ethnographic research can play an important role in providing information critical to the formation of effective CHW programs, by elucidating the life histories that shape CHWs’ desires for alleviation of their own and others’ economic and health challenges, and by addressing the working relationships that exist among CHWs, intended beneficiaries, and health officials. We briefly discuss ethnographic research with 3 groups of CHWs: volunteers involved in HIV/AIDS care and treatment support in Ethiopia and Mozambique and Lady Health Workers in Pakistan. We call for a broader application of ethnographic research to inform working relationships among CHWs, communities, and health institutions. PMID:24625167

  8. Primary Mental Health Workers within Youth Offending Teams: A New Service Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callaghan, Jane; Pace, Francis; Young, Bridget; Vostanis, Panos

    2003-01-01

    Primary Mental Health Workers (PMHWs) have been deployed to address the mental health needs of young offenders in two UK areas. The mental health characteristics of 60 young people consecutively referred to these PMHWs, the assessment outcome and interventions offered, are described. Findings indicate the usefulness of such a model in providing an…

  9. Factors associated with health-seeking behavior among migrant workers in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Migrant workers are a unique phenomenon in the process of China's economic transformation. The household registration system classifies them as temporary residents in cities, putting them in a vulnerable state with an unfair share of urban infrastructure and social public welfare. The amount of pressure inflicted by migrant workers in Beijing, as one of the major migration destinations, is currently at a threshold. This study was designed to assess the factors associated with health-seeking behavior and to explore feasible solutions to the obstacles migrant workers in China faced with when accessing health-care. Methods A sample of 2,478 migrant workers in Beijing was chosen by the multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method. A structured questionnaire survey was conducted via face-to-face interviews between investigators and subjects. The multilevel methodology (MLM) was used to demonstrate the independent effects of the explanatory variables on health seeking behavior in migrant workers. Results The medical visitation rate of migrant workers within the past two weeks was 4.8%, which only accounted for 36.4% of those who were ill. Nearly one-third of the migrant workers chose self-medication (33.3%) or no measures (30.3%) while ill within the past two weeks. 19.7% of the sick migrants who should have been hospitalized failed to receive medical treatment within the past year. According to self-reported reasons, the high cost of health service was a significant obstacle to health-care access for 40.5% of the migrant workers who became sick. However, 94.0% of the migrant workers didn't have any insurance coverage in Beijing. The multilevel model analysis indicates that health-seeking behavior among migrants is significantly associated with their insurance coverage. Meanwhile, such factors as household monthly income per capita and working hours per day also affect the medical visitation rate of the migrant workers in Beijing. Conclusion This study

  10. Walking beyond our borders with frontline health workers in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Walker, Raquel

    2013-12-01

    In many developing countries, access to health care can be out of reach for many women and newborns. Trained frontline health workers serve as the first point of contact for medical care in many of these areas, and their efforts can prevent illness and death from conditions such as malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea. Their work is especially vital to reducing maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality. Due to the global shortage of health workers, nurses and organizations need to collectively advocate for the support and training of frontline health workers.

  11. Integrating Community Health Workers (CHWs) into Health Care Organizations.

    PubMed

    Payne, Julianne; Razi, Sima; Emery, Kyle; Quattrone, Westleigh; Tardif-Douglin, Miriam

    2017-04-08

    Health care organizations increasingly employ community health workers (CHWs) to help address growing provider shortages, improve patient outcomes, and increase access to culturally sensitive care among traditionally inaccessible or disenfranchised patient populations. Scholarly interest in CHWs has grown in recent decades, but researchers tend to focus on how CHWs affect patient outcomes rather than whether and how CHWs fit into the existing health care workforce. This paper focuses on the factors that facilitate and impede the integration of the CHWs into health care organizations, and strategies that organizations and their staff develop to overcome barriers to CHW integration. We use qualitative evaluation data from 13 awardees that received Health Care Innovation Awards from the Centers of Medicare and Medicaid Innovation to enhance the quality of health care, improve health outcomes, and reduce the cost of care using programs involving CHWs. We find that organizational capacity, support for CHWs, clarity about health care roles, and clinical workflow drive CHW integration. We conclude with practical recommendations for health care organizations interested in employing CHWs.

  12. Community Health Workers as Support for Sickle Cell Care.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Lewis L; Green, Nancy S; Donnell Ivy, E; Neunert, Cindy E; Smaldone, Arlene; Johnson, Shirley; Castillo, Sheila; Castillo, Amparo; Thompson, Trevor; Hampton, Kisha; Strouse, John J; Stewart, Rosalyn; Hughes, TaLana; Banks, Sonja; Smith-Whitley, Kim; King, Allison; Brown, Mary; Ohene-Frempong, Kwaku; Smith, Wally R; Martin, Molly

    2016-07-01

    Community health workers are increasingly recognized as useful for improving health care and health outcomes for a variety of chronic conditions. Community health workers can provide social support, navigation of health systems and resources, and lay counseling. Social and cultural alignment of community health workers with the population they serve is an important aspect of community health worker intervention. Although community health worker interventions have been shown to improve patient-centered outcomes in underserved communities, these interventions have not been evaluated with sickle cell disease. Evidence from other disease areas suggests that community health worker intervention also would be effective for these patients. Sickle cell disease is complex, with a range of barriers to multifaceted care needs at the individual, family/friend, clinical organization, and community levels. Care delivery is complicated by disparities in health care: access, delivery, services, and cultural mismatches between providers and families. Current practices inadequately address or provide incomplete control of symptoms, especially pain, resulting in decreased quality of life and high medical expense. The authors propose that care and care outcomes for people with sickle cell disease could be improved through community health worker case management, social support, and health system navigation. This paper outlines implementation strategies in current use to test community health workers for sickle cell disease management in a variety of settings. National medical and advocacy efforts to develop the community health workforce for sickle cell disease management may enhance the progress and development of "best practices" for this area of community-based care. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  13. Community Health Workers as Support for Sickle Cell Care

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Lewis L.; Green, Nancy S.; Ivy, E. Donnell; Neunert, Cindy; Smaldone, Arlene; Johnson, Shirley; Castillo, Sheila; Castillo, Amparo; Thompson, Trevor; Hampton, Kisha; Strouse, John J.; Stewart, Rosalyn; Hughes, TaLana; Banks, Sonja; Smith-Whitley, Kim; King, Allison; Brown, Mary; Ohene-Frempong, Kwaku; Smith, Wally R.; Martin, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Community health workers are increasingly recognized as useful for improving health care and health outcomes for a variety of chronic conditions. Community health workers can provide social support, navigation of health systems and resources, and lay counseling. Social and cultural alignment of community health workers with the population they serve is an important aspect of community health worker intervention. Although community health worker interventions have been shown to improve patient-centered outcomes in underserved communities, these interventions have not been evaluated with sickle cell disease. Evidence from other disease areas suggests that community health worker intervention also would be effective for these patients. Sickle cell disease is complex, with a range of barriers to multifaceted care needs at the individual, family/friend, clinical organization, and community levels. Care delivery is complicated by disparities in health care: access, delivery, services, and cultural mismatches between providers and families. Current practices inadequately address or provide incomplete control of symptoms, especially pain, resulting in decreased quality of life and high medical expense. The authors propose that care and care outcomes for people with sickle cell disease could be improved through community health worker case management, social support, and health system navigation. This report outlines implementation strategies in current use to test community health workers for sickle cell disease management in a variety of settings. National medical and advocacy efforts to develop the community health workforce for sickle cell disease management may enhance the progress and development of “best practices” for this area of community-based care. PMID:27320471

  14. Early implementation of WHO recommendations for the retention of health workers in remote and rural areas.

    PubMed

    Buchan, James; Couper, Ian D; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Thepannya, Khampasong; Jaskiewicz, Wanda; Perfilieva, Galina; Dolea, Carmen

    2013-11-01

    The maldistribution of health workers between urban and rural areas is a policy concern in virtually all countries. It prevents equitable access to health services, can contribute to increased health-care costs and underutilization of health professional skills in urban areas, and is a barrier to universal health coverage. To address this long-standing concern, the World Health Organization (WHO) has issued global recommendations to improve the rural recruitment and retention of the health workforce. This paper presents experiences with local and regional adaptation and adoption of WHO recommendations. It highlights challenges and lessons learnt in implementation in two countries - the Lao People's Democratic Republic and South Africa - and provides a broader perspective in two regions - Asia and Europe. At country level, the use of the recommendations facilitated a more structured and focused policy dialogue, which resulted in the development and adoption of more relevant and evidence-based policies. At regional level, the recommendations sparked a more sustained effort for cross-country policy assessment and joint learning. There is a need for impact assessment and evaluation that focus on the links between the rural availability of health workers and universal health coverage. The effects of any health-financing reforms on incentive structures for health workers will also have to be assessed if the central role of more equitably distributed health workers in achieving universal health coverage is to be supported.

  15. Early implementation of WHO recommendations for the retention of health workers in remote and rural areas

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, James; Couper, Ian D; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Thepannya, Khampasong; Jaskiewicz, Wanda; Perfilieva, Galina

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The maldistribution of health workers between urban and rural areas is a policy concern in virtually all countries. It prevents equitable access to health services, can contribute to increased health-care costs and underutilization of health professional skills in urban areas, and is a barrier to universal health coverage. To address this long-standing concern, the World Health Organization (WHO) has issued global recommendations to improve the rural recruitment and retention of the health workforce. This paper presents experiences with local and regional adaptation and adoption of WHO recommendations. It highlights challenges and lessons learnt in implementation in two countries – the Lao People's Democratic Republic and South Africa – and provides a broader perspective in two regions – Asia and Europe. At country level, the use of the recommendations facilitated a more structured and focused policy dialogue, which resulted in the development and adoption of more relevant and evidence-based policies. At regional level, the recommendations sparked a more sustained effort for cross-country policy assessment and joint learning. There is a need for impact assessment and evaluation that focus on the links between the rural availability of health workers and universal health coverage. The effects of any health-financing reforms on incentive structures for health workers will also have to be assessed if the central role of more equitably distributed health workers in achieving universal health coverage is to be supported. PMID:24347707

  16. Quality of care provided by mid-level health workers: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lassi, Zohra S; Cometto, Giorgio; Huicho, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the effectiveness of care provided by mid-level health workers. Methods Experimental and observational studies comparing mid-level health workers and higher level health workers were identified by a systematic review of the scientific literature. The quality of the evidence was assessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation criteria and data were analysed using Review Manager. Findings Fifty-three studies, mostly from high-income countries and conducted at tertiary care facilities, were identified. In general, there was no difference between the effectiveness of care provided by mid-level health workers in the areas of maternal and child health and communicable and noncommunicable diseases and that provided by higher level health workers. However, the rates of episiotomy and analgesia use were significantly lower in women giving birth who received care from midwives alone than in those who received care from doctors working in teams with midwives, and women were significantly more satisfied with care from midwives. Overall, the quality of the evidence was low or very low. The search also identified six observational studies, all from Africa, that compared care from clinical officers, surgical technicians or non-physician clinicians with care from doctors. Outcomes were generally similar. Conclusion No difference between the effectiveness of care provided by mid-level health workers and that provided by higher level health workers was found. However, the quality of the evidence was low. There is a need for studies with a high methodological quality, particularly in Africa – the region with the greatest shortage of health workers. PMID:24347706

  17. Health Care Waste Segregation Behavior among Health Workers in Uganda: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Akulume, Martha; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The goal of this study was to assess the appropriateness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting health care waste segregation behaviors and to examine the factors that influence waste segregation behaviors. Methodology. One hundred and sixty-three health workers completed a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional survey that examined the theory of planned behavior constructs (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention) and external variables (sociodemographic factors, personal characteristics, organizational characteristics, professional characteristics, and moral obligation). Results. For their most recent client 21.5% of the health workers reported that they most definitely segregated health care waste while 5.5% did not segregate. All the theory of planned behavior constructs were significant predictors of health workers' segregation behavior, but intention emerged as the strongest and most significant (r = 0.524, P < 0.001). The theory of planned behavior model explained 52.5% of the variance in health workers' segregation behavior. When external variables were added, the new model explained 66.7% of the variance in behavior. Conclusion. Generally, health workers' health care waste segregation behavior was high. The theory of planned behavior significantly predicted health workers' health care waste segregation behaviors.

  18. Health Care Waste Segregation Behavior among Health Workers in Uganda: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The goal of this study was to assess the appropriateness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting health care waste segregation behaviors and to examine the factors that influence waste segregation behaviors. Methodology. One hundred and sixty-three health workers completed a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional survey that examined the theory of planned behavior constructs (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention) and external variables (sociodemographic factors, personal characteristics, organizational characteristics, professional characteristics, and moral obligation). Results. For their most recent client 21.5% of the health workers reported that they most definitely segregated health care waste while 5.5% did not segregate. All the theory of planned behavior constructs were significant predictors of health workers' segregation behavior, but intention emerged as the strongest and most significant (r = 0.524, P < 0.001). The theory of planned behavior model explained 52.5% of the variance in health workers' segregation behavior. When external variables were added, the new model explained 66.7% of the variance in behavior. Conclusion. Generally, health workers' health care waste segregation behavior was high. The theory of planned behavior significantly predicted health workers' health care waste segregation behaviors. PMID:28115950

  19. Epidemiological study of health hazards among workers handling engineered nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing; Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Wang, Shu-Li; Li, Lih-Ann; Chiang, Hung-Che; Li, Wan-Fen; Lin, Pin-Pin; Lai, Ching-Huang; Lee, Hui-Ling; Lin, Ming-Hsiu; Hsu, Jin-Huei; Chen, Chiou-Rong; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Liao, Hui-Yi; Chung, Yu-Teh

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to establish and identify the health effect markers of workers with potential exposure to nanoparticles (20-100 nm) during manufacturing and/or application of nanomaterials. For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 227 workers who handled nanomaterials and 137 workers for comparison who did not from 14 plants in Taiwan. A questionnaire was used to collect data on exposure status, demographics, and potential confounders. The health effect markers were measured in the medical laboratory. Control banding from the Nanotool Risk Level Matrix was used to categorize the exposure risk levels of the workers. The results showed that the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) in risk level 1 (RL1) and risk level 2 (RL2) workers was significantly ( p < 0.05) lower than in control workers. A significantly decreasing gradient was found for SOD (control > RL1 > RL2). Another antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), was significantly lower only in RL1 workers than in the control workers. The cardiovascular markers, fibrinogen and ICAM (intercellular adhesion molecule), were significantly higher in RL2 workers than in controls and a significant dose-response with an increasing trend was found for these two cardiovascular markers. Another cardiovascular marker, interleukin-6, was significantly increased among RL1 workers, but not among RL2 workers. The accuracy rate for remembering 7-digits and reciting them backwards was significantly lower in RL2 workers (OR = 0.48) than in controls and a significantly reversed gradient was also found for the correct rate of backward memory (OR = 0.90 for RL1, OR = 0.48 for RL2, p < 0.05 in test for trend). Depression of antioxidant enzymes and increased expression of cardiovascular markers were found among workers handling nanomaterials. Antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD and GPX, and cardiovascular markers, such as fibrinogen, ICAM, and interluekin-6, are possible biomarkers for medical surveillance of

  20. Implementation of Brazil's "family health strategy": factors associated with community health workers', nurses', and physicians' delivery of drug use services.

    PubMed

    Spector, Anya Y; Pinto, Rogério M; Rahman, Rahbel; da Fonseca, Aline

    2015-05-01

    Brazil's "family health strategy" (ESF), provides primary care, mostly to individuals in impoverished communities through teams of physicians, nurses, and community health workers (CHWs). ESF workers are called upon to offer drug use services (e.g., referrals, counseling) as drug use represents an urgent public health crisis. New federal initiatives are being implemented to build capacity in this workforce to deliver drug use services, yet little is known about whether ESF workers are providing drug use services already. Guided by social cognitive theory, this study examines factors associated with ESF workers' provision of drug use services. Cross-sectional surveys were collected from 262 ESF workers (168 CHWs, 62 nurses, and 32 physicians) in Mesquita, Rio de Janeiro State and Santa Luzia, Minas Gerais State. provision of drug-use services. capacity to engage in evidence-based practice (EBP), resource constraints, peer support, knowledge of EBP, and job title. Logistic regression was used to determine relative influence of each predictor upon the outcome. Thirty-nine percent reported providing drug use services. Younger workers, CHWs, workers with knowledge about EBP and workers that report peer support were more likely to offer drug use services. Workers that reported resource constraints and more capacity to implement EBP were less likely to offer drug use services. ESF workers require education in locating, assessing and evaluating the latest research. Mentorship from physicians and peer support through team meetings may enhance workers' delivery of drug use services, across professional disciplines. Educational initiatives aimed at ESF teams should consider these factors as potentially enhancing implementation of drug use services. Building ESF workers' capacity to collaborate across disciplines and to gain access to tools for providing assessment and treatment of drug use issues may improve uptake of new initiatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All

  1. Health Risks Awareness of Electronic Waste Workers in the Informal Sector in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ohajinwa, Chimere M; Van Bodegom, Peter M; Vijver, Martina G; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2017-08-13

    Insight into the health risk awareness levels of e-waste workers is important as it may offer opportunities for better e-waste recycling management strategies to reduce the health effects of informal e-waste recycling. Therefore, this study assessed the knowledge, attitude, and practices associated with occupational health risk awareness of e-waste workers compared with a control group (butchers) in the informal sector in Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was used to assess health risk awareness of 279 e-waste workers (repairers and dismantlers) and 221 butchers from the informal sector in three locations in Nigeria in 2015. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographic backgrounds, occupational history, knowledge, attitude, and work practices. The data was analysed using Analysis of Variance. The three job designations had significantly different knowledge, attitude, and practice mean scores (p = 0.000), with butchers consistently having the highest mean scores. Only 43% of e-waste workers could mention one or more Personal Protective Equipment needed for their job compared with 70% of the butchers. The health risk awareness level of the e-waste workers was significantly lower compared with their counterparts in the same informal sector. A positive correlation existed between the workers' knowledge and their attitude and practice. Therefore, increasing the workers' knowledge may decrease risky practices.

  2. [Relationship between physical activity and health examination variables in male workers--new methods to assess physical activity and their applications to epidemiologic research].

    PubMed

    Naito, Y

    1994-08-01

    Few epidemiological studies investigating the relationship between physical activity and cardiovascular diseases have been performed in Japan. To quantify the physical activity of individuals, a 24-hour activity record was developed to calculate 24-hour energy expenditure for use in an epidemiologic survey. Major physical activity was recorded every 15 minutes during a day and the relative metabolic rate for each physical activity was adopted from data of the Labor Science Institute in Japan. The 24-hour energy expenditure per body surface area was used as an index of physical activity. Reproducibility of this index was examined by retesting subsamples 3 months apart, and good results were confirmed. The association between physical activity and health examination variables was analyzed for the 319 male workers aged 40-49 in Osaka, Kochi, and Akita Prefecture. Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure per body surface area was positively correlated with maximal oxygen uptake and negatively correlated with skinfold thickness, resting heart rate, logarithm of triglyceride, hemoglobin and uric acid. In addition, a newly developed questionnaire on physical activity with 11 questions was administered in Osaka on 1819 male factory workers aged 40-49. From multiple regression analysis, three questions were shown to be significant predictors of 24-hour energy expenditure per body surface area--1. "What percentage of work time is spent on your feet?" 2. "When climbing three floors, which do you usually choose, the stairs or the escalator?", 3. "How long are you involved in heavy physical labor each day?" The daily physical activity score estimated using the regression equation showed good reproducibility in retesting a year apart. Controlling for age, body mass index, alcohol intake, and cigarette smoking, the score was negatively correlated to skinfold thickness, diastolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, total cholesterol, logarithm of triglyceride, hemoglobin, and uric acid

  3. Agricultural health and safety: incorporating the worker perspective.

    PubMed

    Liebman, Amy K; Augustave, Wilson

    2010-07-01

    This commentary offers a worker's perspective on agricultural health and safety and describes (1) the historical exemption of agriculture from regulatory oversight and barriers encountered due to lack of regulations and poor enforcement of the existing standards; (2) the effect of immigration status on worker protections; and (3) the basic desire for economic survival and how this impacts worker health and safety. The commentary describes two models to reduce hazards at work that illustrate how workers' perspectives can be incorporated successfully at the policy level and during the intervention development process and puts forth recommendations for employers, researchers, and funding agencies to facilitate the integration of workers' perspectives into occupational health and safety in agriculture. Ultimately, improved worker protection requires systemic policy and regulatory changes as well as strong enforcement of existing regulations. This commentary summarizes the presentation, "Ground View: Perspectives of Hired Workers," at the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conference, "Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture," January 27-28, 2010, Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas.

  4. Knowledge and skills retention among frontline health workers: community maternal and newborn health training in rural Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gobezayehu, Abebe Gebremariam; Mohammed, Hajira; Dynes, Michelle M; Desta, Binyam Fekadu; Barry, Danika; Aklilu, Yeshiwork; Tessema, Hanna; Tadesse, Lelissie; Mikulich, Meridith; Buffington, Sandra Tebben; Sibley, Lynn M

    2014-01-01

    We examined the degree to which the skills and knowledge of health workers in Ethiopia were retained 18 months after initial maternal and newborn health training and sought to identify factors associated with 18-month skills assessment performance. A nonexperimental, descriptive design was employed to assess 18-month skills performance on the topics of Prevent Problems Before Baby Is Born and Prevent Problems After Baby Is Born. Assessment was conducted by project personnel who also received the maternal and newborn health training and additional training to reliably assess health worker performance. Among the 732 health workers who participated in maternal and newborn health training in 6 rural districts of the Amhara and Oromia regions of Ethiopia (including pretesting before training and a posttraining posttest), 75 health extension workers (78%) and 234 guide team members (37%) participated in 18-month posttest. Among health extension workers in both regions, strong knowledge retention was noted in 10 of 14 care steps for Prevent Problems Before Baby Is Born and in 14 of 16 care steps of Prevent Problems After Baby Is Born. Lower knowledge retention was observed among guide team members in the Amhara region. Across regions, health workers scored lowest on steps that involved nonaction (eg, do not give oxytocin). Educational attainment and age were among the few variables found to significantly predict test performance, although participants varied substantially by other sociodemographic characteristics. Results demonstrated an overall strong retention of knowledge and skills among health extension workers and highlighted the need for improvement among some guide team members. Refresher training and development of strategies to improve knowledge of retention of low-performing steps were recommended. © 2014 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  5. Health profile of workers in a ship building and repair industry

    PubMed Central

    Lokhande, Vaishali R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The modern ship building industry, which encompasses the ship yards and marine equipment manufacturing, is an important and strategic industry. The various activities in modern ship building, maintenance, and repair have to be carried out at heights, or in closed confined spaces along with the added risk of exposure to chemicals and metal fumes. These activities expose the workers to various health hazards. Aims: This study was carried out with an aim to assess the health profile of workers in the ship building industry and to assess the occupational health issues related to ship building. Settings and Design: It was a cross-sectional study carried out on 100 randomly selected workers in a ship building yard in Mumbai, and their health profile was studied. Materials and Methods: The workers were enquired for history of co-morbidities, addictions and personal protective equipment use, health-related complaints, and were examined systemically as well as for bedside tests for hearing and detailed systemic examination as per the history or co-morbidity. Results: The important observations were those of prevalence of addictions (69%), irregular use of personal protective equipments (PPEs) among 50% of paint workers, presence of hypertension (20%), overweight (53%), osteoarthritis (10%), hearing loss (25%), and poor self-care. Conclusions: Health education to the workers regarding occupational hazards and lifestyle diseases along with more emphasis on the use of PPEs with regular health examination needs reinforcement. PMID:25568604

  6. Mental health issues of peacekeeping workers.

    PubMed

    Shigemura, Jun; Nomura, Soichiro

    2002-10-01

    The end of the Cold War has brought a dramatic change to the international political situation and the role of the United Nations peacekeeping operations (PKO) has drawn increased attention. While many reports on PKO have focused on political or sociologic considerations, the mental health of the peacekeepers themselves has received little attention and psychiatric problems that can have a negative impact on mission success have been largely ignored. Participation in PKO creates a number of stressors and serious psychiatric and/or physical disorders may result. Yet, there is little research on this topic, either domestically or globally, and the methodology for clinical intervention remains in an early stage of development. We have reviewed previous reports to determine how various stressors before, during and after deployment affect the participants. Research in associated fields (e.g. crisis workers and military personnel) are also reviewed and their application to peacekeeping psychiatry is discussed. It must be admitted that the significance of PKO is arguable and each PKO is unique in terms of the nature of its mission and the local situation. Yet, the relationship between the psychiatric status of the personnel and the characteristics of an individual mission has never been studied. At present, no clear consensus regarding a framework for psychiatric intervention exists. Studies that enhance the recognition and significance of peacekeeping psychiatry are likely to improve the efficacy of PKO.

  7. Improving Health Care for Spanish-Speaking Rural Dairy Farm Workers.

    PubMed

    Buckheit, Caledonia; Pineros, Dwan; Olson, Ardis; Johnson, Deborah; Genereaux, Stephen

    Dartmouth Geisel Migrant Health (DGMH) is a medical student group that provides on-site health services for Spanish-speaking dairy workers in rural Vermont and New Hampshire in conjunction with a federally qualified health center (FQHC). This project was undertaken to evaluate and improve the services provided by DGMH and the FQHC and to refine understanding of the target population. We surveyed 25 workers at 6 collaborating dairy farms to identify health priorities and concerns and perceived barriers and facilitators to health care for these workers. Surveys were administered over 2 weeks in July 2015. Interpreter-mediated appointment and sliding-fee-scale data from a period 7 months that spanned survey administration were also assessed. Diabetes and hypertension were the most common health concerns. Thirty-two percent of participants reported 10 or more days of depressed mood in the past month. Insurance and language were the most common barriers to health care and employers and on-site clinics were the most common facilitators. Appointments most often addressed women's health, gastrointestinal problems, health maintenance, diabetes, and back pain. Thirty FQHC sliding-fee-scale applications were completed by workers. These Spanish-speaking dairy-farm workers have many health concerns and perceive substantial barriers to health care. Collaboration between medical students, a rural FQHC, and farm employers provides important services that facilitate health care access among this population. © Copyright 2017 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  8. The impact of biotechnology on agricultural worker safety and health.

    PubMed

    Shutske, J M; Jenkins, S M

    2002-08-01

    Biotechnology applications such as the use and production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been widely promoted, adopted, and employed by agricultural producers throughout the world. Yet, little research exists that examines the implications of agricultural biotechnology on the health and safety of workers involved in agricultural production and processing. Regulatory frameworks do exist to examine key issues related to food safety and environmental protection in GMO applications. However, based on the lack of research and regulatory oversight, it would appear that the potential impact on the safety and health of workers is of limited interest. This article examines some of the known worker health and safety implications related to the use and production of GMOs using the host, agent, and environment framework. The characteristics of employers, workers, inputs, production practices, and socio-economic environments in which future agricultural workers perform various tasks is likely to change based on the research summarized here.

  9. Promoting Occupational Safety and Health for Cambodian Entertainment Sector Workers.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Lee-Nah; Howard, Richard; Torriente, Anna Maria; Por, Chuong

    2016-08-01

    Cambodia has developed booming textile, garment, tourism, and entertainment service industries since the mid-1990s. The 2007 global financial crisis pushed many garment workers, who lost their jobs, into the entertainment sector. Entertainment workers are typically engaged informally by their employers and are subjected to long working hours, sexual harassment, and violence. Many who sell beverages are forced into excessive alcohol consumption as part of their work. Many are also expected by their employers and clients to provide sexual services. To address unsafe and unhealthy working conditions for these workers, an innovative occupational safety and health regulation was adopted in 2014. This first-of-its-kind occupational safety and health regulation was developed jointly by the Cambodian Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training and employers' and workers' organizations in the entertainment sector. The implementation of this regulation can also be a viable contribution of occupational safety and health to HIV interventions for these workers.

  10. Growing your own: community health workers and jobs to careers.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Brandy; Morgan, Jennifer Craft; Chuang, Emmeline; Konrad, Thomas R

    2011-01-01

    This article evaluates the implementation and impact of 5 workforce development programs aimed at achieving skills upgrades, educational advancement, and career development for community health workers (CHWs). Quantitative and qualitative case study data from the national evaluation of the Jobs to Careers: Transforming the Front Lines of Health Care initiative demonstrate that investing in CHWs can achieve measurable worker (eg, raises) and programmatic (eg, more skilled workers) outcomes. To achieve these outcomes, targeted changes were made to the structure, culture, and work processes of employing organizations. These findings have implications for other health care employers interested in developing their CHW workforce.

  11. Integrated worker health protection and promotion programs: overview and perspectives on health and economic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pronk, Nicolaas P

    2013-12-01

    To describe integrated worker health protection and promotion (IWHPP) program characteristics, to discuss the rationale for the integration of occupational safety and health and worksite health promotion programs, and to summarize what is known about the impact of these programs on health and economic outcomes. A descriptive assessment of the current state of the IWHPP field and a review of studies on the effectiveness of IWHPP programs on health and economic outcomes were undertaken. Sufficient evidence of effectiveness was found for IWHPP programs when health outcomes were considered. Impact on productivity-related outcomes is considered promising, but inconclusive, whereas insufficient evidence was found for health care expenditures. Existing evidence supports an integrated approach in terms of health outcomes but will benefit significantly from research designed to support the business case for employers of various company sizes and industry types.

  12. Atmospheric metallic and arsenic pollution at an offshore drilling platform in the Bo Sea: A health risk assessment for the workers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Han, Suqin; Bi, Xiaohui; Zhao, Zhijing; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Wenjie; Zhang, Min; Chen, Jing; Wu, Jianhui; Zhang, Yufen; Feng, Yinchang

    2016-03-05

    To investigate the ambient metal pollution at the offshore drilling platform in the Bo Sea, which few studies have focused on, PM2.5 samples were collected and ten heavy metals, as well as As, were analyzed. High concentration levels of metals were observed, and the heavy metal pollution was quite serious compared to air quality standards and other marine areas. Back trajectories and wind dependent and PCA analyses showed that the marine sources included ship traffic emissions and corrosive stainless steels from the equipment at the platform as well as industrial emissions from stainless steel production and coal combustion sources, which were transported from the surrounding mainland. Both contributed greatly to the ambient metallic particles at the offshore platform. The Hazard Index values of the metals, which were much less than 1, the Carcinogenic Risk data, which were lower than the EPA's acceptable range, and the fact that the metal concentrations did not the exceed the permissible exposure limits of OSHA, indicated that the health risks from the ambient metallic particles for the oil-drilling workers were not significant.

  13. Job satisfaction and motivation among public sector health workers: evidence from Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hotchkiss, David R; Banteyerga, Hailom; Tharaney, Manisha

    2015-10-29

    Although human resources for health have received increased attention by health systems decision-makers and researchers in recent years, insufficient attention has been paid to understanding the factors that influence the performance of health workers. This empirical study investigates the factors that are associated with health worker motivation over time among public sector primary health care workers in Ethiopia. The study is based on data from public sector health worker surveys collected through a convenience sample of 43 primary health care facilities in four regions (Addis Ababa, Oromia, Amhara, and Somali) at three points in time: 2003/04, 2006, and 2009. Using a Likert scale, respondents were asked to respond to statements regarding job satisfaction, pride in work, satisfaction with financial rewards, self-efficacy, satisfaction with facility resources, and self-perceived conscientiousness. Inter-reliability of each construct was assessed using Cronbach's alpha, and indices of motivational determinants and outcomes were calculated for each survey round. To explore the associations between motivational determinants and outcomes, bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were carried out based on a pooled dataset. Among the sample public sector health workers, several dimensions of health worker motivation significantly increased over the study period, including two indicators of motivational outcomes-overall job satisfaction and self-perceived conscientiousness-and two indicators of motivational determinants-pride and self-efficacy. However, two other dimensions of motivation-satisfaction with financial rewards and satisfaction with facility resources-significantly decreased. The multivariate analyses found that the constructs of pride, self-efficacy, satisfaction with financial rewards, and satisfaction with facility resources were significantly associated with the motivational outcomes, after controlling for other factors. Overall, the findings

  14. Burnout among workers in a pediatric health care system.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Linda M; Nawaz, Muhammad K; Hood, Joyce L; Bae, Sejong

    2012-08-01

    Burnout among health care workers is recognized as an organizational risk contributing to absenteeism, presenteeism, excessive turnover, or illness, and may also manifest as decreased patient satisfaction. Pediatric health care may add stressors including worried parents of ill or dying children, child custody issues, child abuse, and workplace violence. The purpose of this study was to measure burnout among workers in a regional pediatric health care system and report whether burnout in a pediatric health care system is different from previously published data on human service workers. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) and the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) were used to measure burnout. Pediatric health care workers expressed significantly less burnout as compared to published MBI-HSS scores and client-related CBI scores. Personal burnout CBI scores were not different, but work-related CBI scores were significantly higher than normative scores. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Why restrictions on the immigration of health workers are unjust.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Javier

    2014-12-01

    Some bioethicists and political philosophers argue that rich states should restrict the immigration of health workers from poor countries in order to prevent harm to people in these countries. In this essay, I argue that restrictions on the immigration of health workers are unjust, even if this immigration results in bad health outcomes for people in poor countries. I contend that negative duties to refrain from interfering with the occupational liberties of health workers outweighs rich states' positive duties to prevent harm to people in sending countries. Furthermore, I defend this claim against the objection that health workers in poor countries acquire special duties to their compatriots that render them liable to coercive interference.

  16. Stigma Related to HIV among Community Health Workers in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Norr, Kathleen F.; McCreary, Linda; Irarrázabal, Lisette; Bernales, Margarita; Miner, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Purpose When healthcare workers have stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV it may lead to discriminatory behavior that interferes with prevention, treatment, and care. This research examined the HIV-related stigmatizing attitudes reported by health workers in Santiago, Chile. Methods The study used focus group data from the first phase of a larger study to develop and test a HIV prevention intervention for Chilean health workers. Ten focus groups were conducted with Health workers in two communities in Santiago, Chile. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Two central themes emerged: Societal stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV and healthcare system’s policies related to HIV. Both inaccurate fears of transmission among the general public and Chilean Health workers and societal prejudices against homosexuals contributed to stigmatization and discrimination. Conclusions Health workers did not recognize their own stigmatizing attitudes or discriminatory behaviors, but their discussion indicated that these behaviors and attitudes did exist. Healthcare system issues identified included problems with confidentiality due to the desire to inform other health workers about client HIV status. Health workers must be sensitized to the current stigmatization and misinformation associated with HIV and its negative impacts on persons living with HIV and the general community. Implications All clinical and non-clinical workers at community clinics need mandatory education for HIV prevention that focuses on changing attitudes as well as sharing knowledge. Also, the Chilean law protecting people living with HIV and the confidentiality of their medical care needs to be publicized, along with guidelines for its enactment in clinics and other health facilities. PMID:21687824

  17. Subjective Health Complaints Among Workers in the Aftermath of an Oil Tank Explosion.

    PubMed

    Tjalvin, Gro; Hollund, Bjørg Eli; Lygre, Stein Håkon Låstad; Moen, Bente Elisabeth; Bråtveit, Magne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess whether exposed workers had more subjective health complaints than controls 1 1/2 years after a chemical explosion involving a mixture of hydrocarbons and sulfurous compounds. A cross-sectional survey based on the Subjective Health Complaints Inventory (SHC) was conducted among 147 exposed workers and 137 controls. A significantly higher total SCH score (linear regression, p=.01) was found for the exposed workers compared with controls when adjusting for gender, age, smoking habits, and educational level. The exposed workers reported significantly more headache, hot flashes, sleep problems, tiredness, dizziness, and sadness/depression. The cause of these complaints is unknown, but health personnel should be aware that health complaints might be related to polluting episodes even when exposure levels are below occupational guideline levels.

  18. Hazards and health problems in occupations dominated by aged workers in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jungsun; Kim, Soo Geun; Park, Jong-Shik; Han, Boyoung; Kim, Kab Bae; Kim, Yangho

    2017-01-01

    South Korea's population is aging more rapidly than any other country. Aging of the productive population will lead to shortage of labor and the decreasing quality of the labor force in South Korea. South Korea needs health care strategies to support the establishment of work environments that are appropriate for elderly workers who have reduced physical capacity. This paper aims to identify occupations that are dominated by aged workers and assess the exposure to hazards and work-related health problems of aged workers in these occupations. We identified the 20 occupations in South Korea that employ the most aged workers (at least 55 years-old), among all 149 occupations that are defined as minor categories (identified by three digits) by the Korean Standard Classification of Occupations (KSCO). Exposure to hazards and work-related health problems of individuals in these occupations were evaluated by analyzing the results of the fourth Working Conditions Survey of 2014. Among the 20 occupations that employ the most aged workers, 'Elementary Occupations', which the KSCO classifies as major category (9), had the largest proportion of aged workers. After this, there were five occupations of skilled manual workers and six occupations of skilled non-manual workers. Aged workers in elementary and skilled manual occupations reported frequent exposure to job-specific hazards, such as noise, vibrations, high and low temperatures, solvents, and chemicals. Relative to other workers, aged workers in the occupations reported more frequent exposure to ergonomic hazards, such as tiring or painful positions, carrying or moving heavy loads, and repetitive movements, and also reported more work-related musculoskeletal disorders and general fatigue. Injury due to accident was common in machinery-handling occupations. Job-specific hazards should be reduced to prevent occupation-related disorders in elementary and skilled manual occupations that are dominated by aged workers.

  19. Are health workers motivated by income? Job motivation of Cambodian primary health workers implementing performance-based financing

    PubMed Central

    Khim, Keovathanak

    2016-01-01

    Background Financial incentives are widely used in performance-based financing (PBF) schemes, but their contribution to health workers’ incomes and job motivation is poorly understood. Cambodia undertook health sector reform from the middle of 2009 and PBF was employed as a part of the reform process. Objective This study examines job motivation for primary health workers (PHWs) under PBF reform in Cambodia and assesses the relationship between job motivation and income. Design A cross-sectional self-administered survey was conducted on 266 PHWs, from 54 health centers in the 15 districts involved in the reform. The health workers were asked to report all sources of income from public sector jobs and provide answers to 20 items related to job motivation. Factor analysis was conducted to identify the latent variables of job motivation. Factors associated with motivation were identified through multivariable regression. Results PHWs reported multiple sources of income and an average total income of US$190 per month. Financial incentives under the PBF scheme account for 42% of the average total income. PHWs had an index motivation score of 4.9 (on a scale from one to six), suggesting they had generally high job motivation that was related to a sense of community service, respect, and job benefits. Regression analysis indicated that income and the perception of a fair distribution of incentives were both statistically significant in association with higher job motivation scores. Conclusions Financial incentives used in the reform formed a significant part of health workers’ income and influenced their job motivation. Improving job motivation requires fixing payment mechanisms and increasing the size of incentives. PBF is more likely to succeed when income, training needs, and the desire for a sense of community service are addressed and institutionalized within the health system. PMID:27319575

  20. Social isolation among Latino workers in rural North Carolina: exposure and health implications.

    PubMed

    Mora, Dana C; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Anderson, Andrea M; Chen, Haiying; Arcury, Thomas A; Marín, Antonio J; Quandt, Sara A

    2014-10-01

    Immigrant Latinos frequently experience social isolation in their receiving communities. This paper investigates the prevalence of social isolation among immigrant workers in a new settlement area and delineates the association between social isolation and physical and mental health outcomes. Interviews were conducted in Spanish with immigrant Latino manual workers (N = 743) in western North Carolina. The CES-D and the SF-12 questionnaires assessed health outcomes. A social isolation scale was used to assess degree of social isolation. Nearly 1 in 5 workers (19.5 %) reported the highest level of social isolation. Social isolation was associated with higher depressive symptoms and poorer physical and mental health, related to quality of life. Social isolation is a common experience among immigrant Latinos that may have negative implications for physical and mental health. Community outreach efforts to minimize experiences of isolation may be useful in protecting immigrant physical and mental health.

  1. Breastfeeding knowledge among health workers in rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sonal; Rollins, Nigel C; Bland, Ruth

    2005-02-01

    The aim of the study was to conduct a rapid assessment of breastfeeding knowledge amongst health workers in an area of high HIV prevalence. A cross-sectional survey using semi-structured questionnaires and problem-based scenarios was carried out. Responses were compared to those recommended in the World Health Organization (WHO) Breastfeeding Counselling Course. The setting was a rural area of KwaZulu Natal, with a population of 220 000 people. At the time of the study approximately 36 per cent of pregnant women were HIV-infected and no programme to prevent mother-to-child transmission was in place. A convenient sample of 71 healthcare workers (14 doctors, 25 professional nurses, 16 staff nurses, and 16 community health workers) were included in the study. Over 50% of respondents had given breastfeeding advice to clients over the previous month. However, there were significant discrepancies in breastfeeding knowledge compared to WHO recommendations. Ninety-three per cent (n = 13) of doctors knew that breastfeeding should be initiated within 30 min of delivery, but 71 per cent (n = 10) would recommend water, and 50 per cent (n = 7) solids to breastfed infants under 6 months of age. Fifty-seven per cent (n = 8) considered glucose water necessary for neonatal jaundice, constipation, and for infants immediately after delivery. Only 44 per cent (n = 7) of staff nurses and 56 per cent (n = 14) of professional nurses knew that breastfeeding should be on demand. The majority would recommend water, formula milk, and solids to breastfed infants under 6 months of age, and glucose water for neonatal jaundice and immediately after delivery. Knowledge of community health workers differed most from WHO recommendations: only 37 per cent (n = 6) knew that breastfeeding should be initiated within 30 min of delivery, 68 per cent (n = 11) thought breastfeeding should be on schedule and not on demand, and the majority would recommend supplements to infants under 6 months of age. Few

  2. Office Home Care Workers' Occupational Health: Associations with Workplace Flexibility and Worker Insecurity

    PubMed Central

    Zeytinoglu, Isik U.; Denton, Margaret; Davies, Sharon; Plenderleith, Jennifer Millen

    2009-01-01

    Office home care workers provide support to visiting staff, although their work tends to be invisible in many respects. This paper focuses on managers, supervisors, coor dinators, case managers and office administrative staff in home care. We examine the effects of workplace flexibility and worker insecurity on office home care workers' occupational health, particularly their self-reported stress and musculoskeletal disorders. Data come from our survey of 300 home care office staff in a mid-sized city in Ontario. Results show that workers' perceptions of insecurity are positively associated with musculoskeletal disorders but not workplace flexibility measures. We recommend that managers and other decision-makers in the home care field pay attention to the perceptions of workers' insecurity in initiating workplace flexibility measures. PMID:20436813

  3. Office home care workers' occupational health: associations with workplace flexibility and worker insecurity.

    PubMed

    Zeytinoglu, Isik U; Denton, Margaret; Davies, Sharon; Plenderleith, Jennifer Millen

    2009-05-01

    Office home care workers provide support to visiting staff, although their work tends to be invisible in many respects. This paper focuses on managers, supervisors, coor dinators, case managers and office administrative staff in home care. We examine the effects of workplace flexibility and worker insecurity on office home care workers' occupational health, particularly their self-reported stress and musculoskeletal disorders. Data come from our survey of 300 home care office staff in a mid-sized city in Ontario. Results show that workers' perceptions of insecurity are positively associated with musculoskeletal disorders but not workplace flexibility measures. We recommend that managers and other decision-makers in the home care field pay attention to the perceptions of workers' insecurity in initiating workplace flexibility measures.

  4. [Attitudes of mental health workers toward people with schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Druetta, Ivana; Ceresa, María F; Leiderman, Eduardo A

    2013-01-01

    Stigma is a social and universal phenomenon which constitutes the core of various social barriers. Stigmatizing attitudes of mental health workers influence the outcome of patients and affect their recovery. Our purpose was to determine some attitudes and social distance of mental health workers toward people with schizophrenia. 517 mental health workers were surveyed at two national conferences in Argentina. More than 90% believed that patients have the right to know their diagnosis, but only 64% informed it. Psychiatrists and men professionals were more likely to inform the diagnosis. Eighteen per cent thought that the voting right of people with schizophrenia should be revoked, 13% believed that this group should not have children and 63.7% thought that they should not be mental health professionals. Only 10% believed that people with schizophrenia can recover completely. There was a statistical difference in the social distance according to health workers' gender, years of experience and the percentage of patients assisted. There exist social distance and stigmatizing attitudes toward people with schizophrenia among mental health workers. The contact could help to reduce social distance. Anti-stigmatizing education programs should be directed toward mental health workers since their initial training.

  5. Occupational health programme for lead workers in battery plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byung-Kook

    The realization of problems resulting from the exposure to undue high lead levels of workers in lead-using industries, particularly in storage battery plants, has given rise to a new occupational health service, the so-called type specific (harmful agent specific) group occupational health. In 1988, the Korean Ministry of Labor designated the Institute of Industrial Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, as an authorized organization to take care of lead workers in lead industries. The following occupational health services are provided by the Institute: (i) physical health examination; (ii) biological monitoring with zinc protoporphyrin, urine δ-aminolevulinic acid and blood lead; (iii) respiratory protection with maintenance-free respirators; (iv) measurement of the environmental condition of workplaces; (v) health education. A three-year occupational health programme for lead workers has contributed to improvements in the working conditions of lead industries, particularly in large-scale battery plants, and has decreased the unnecessary high lead burden of workers through on-going medical surveillance with biological monitoring and health education schemes. The strong commitment of both employers and the government to improve the working conditions of lead industries, together with the full cooperation of lead workers, has served to reduce the high lead burdens of lead workers. This decreases the number of lead-poisoning cases and provides more comfortable workplaces, particularly in battery plants.

  6. [A Literature Review of Health Effects on Workers in Disasters].

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Yu; Mori, Koji

    2015-09-01

    Various types of disasters, such as natural disasters, industrial accidents and crimes, often occur in the workplace and many workers are involved in them. They are not only directly injured but also exposed to health hazards, such as terrible experiences and chemical materials. Occupational health specialists are expected to act to minimize the adverse health effects from them speedily and appropriately. It is assumed that learning from past cases is effective for such occupational health activities. Accordingly, we conducted a literature review about the health effects on workers in disasters. Relevant literature was searched in PubMed. Twenty four studies were extracted by our criteria. In this review, subjects were limited to general workers by excluding professional workers, such as emergency services and firefighters. The health effects were examined as follows: mental health (13 articles), respiratory (5), cardiovascular (2), musculoskeletal (1), skin (1), nervous (1), and general (1). It was obvious that few studies on general workers were published when considering large number of disasters in the past. Factors that affect health outcomes were categorized into ① those related to devastation of environment of work and life due to disaster, and ② those related to health hazards due to disasters. Knowledge from the review will support the activities of occupational health specialists during disasters, but additional studies are needed.

  7. Staphylococcal nasal carriage of health care workers.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Naeem

    2010-07-01

    To determine the frequency of staphylococcal nasal carriage of health care workers (HCWs) and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolates for appropriate decolonization therapy. An observational study. The study was conducted at Holy Family Hospital, Rawalpindi, during the period from May 2007 to April 2008. Nasal swabs from anterior nares of HCWs were cultured and identified as Staphylococcus aureus, coagulasenegative staphylococci (CoNS), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), methicillin-resistant CoNS (MRCoNS) by using standard methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on Muller Hinton Agar using disc diffusion method. Of the 468 HCWs, 213 (45.5%) participants were men and 255 (54.5%) were women. Eighty five (18.2%) were nasal carriers of S. aureus, 07 (1.5%) for MRSA, 343 (73.3%) for CoNS and 10 (2.1%) for MRCoNS. The highest carriage rate for S. aureus was in midwives (30%) followed by maintenance staff (28.6%), security guards (25%), technicians (23.5%), staff nurses (22.7%) and < 20% in house physicians and nursing students. Carriage rate in HCWs from different departments was: surgical ICU (40%), gynaecology (34.9%), delivery room (30%), gynaecology operation rooms (25%), medicine (22.7%) and < 20% in pediatrics and surgery. All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, imipenem and levofloxacin and > 90% of S. aureus and CoNS were susceptible to amikacin, gentamicin and fluoroquinolones tested. Fluoroquinolones, preferably oral levofloxacin in combination with topical gentamicin ointment, in places like Pakistan where mupirocin is not routinely available, can be used for decolonization of nasal staphylococcal carriage.

  8. Health Inequalities among Workers with a Foreign Background in Sweden: Do Working Conditions Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Dunlavy, Andrea C.; Rostila, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Employment and working conditions are key social determinants of health, yet current information is lacking regarding relationships between foreign background status, working conditions and health among workers in Sweden. This study utilized cross-sectional data from the 2010 Swedish Level of Living Survey (LNU) and the Level of Living Survey for Foreign Born Persons and their Children (LNU-UFB) to assess whether or not health inequalities exist between native Swedish and foreign background workers and if exposure to adverse psychosocial and physical working conditions contributes to the risk for poor health among foreign background workers. A sub-sample of 4,021 employed individuals aged 18–65 was analyzed using logistic regression. Eastern European, Latin American and Other Non-Western workers had an increased risk of both poor self-rated health and mental distress compared to native Swedish workers. Exposure to adverse working conditions only minimally influenced the risk of poor health. Further research should examine workers who are less integrated or who have less secure labor market attachments and also investigate how additional working conditions may influence associations between health and foreign background status. PMID:23846669

  9. Health Status of Children of Migrant Farm Workers: Farm Worker Family Health Program, Moultrie, Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Aryeh D.; Wold, Judith Lupo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the health status of migrant farmworkers’ children served by the Farm Worker Family Health Program (FWFHP) in Moultrie, Georgia. Methods. We analyzed data from children aged 0 to 16 years examined through the FWFHP from 2003 to 2011 (n across years = 179–415). We compared their prevalence of overweight, obesity, elevated blood pressure, anemia, and stunting with that of children in the United States and Mexico. Results. Across study years, prevalence of overweight, obesity, elevated blood pressure, anemia, and stunting ranged from 13.5% to 21.8%, 24.0% to 37.4%, 4.1% to 20.2%, 10.1% to 23.9%, and 1% to 6.4%, respectively. Children in the FWFHP had a higher prevalence of obesity than children in all comparison groups, and FWFHP children aged 6 to 12 years had a higher prevalence of elevated blood pressure than all comparison groups. Older FWFHP children had a higher prevalence of anemia than US children and Mexican children. Children in FWFHP had a higher prevalence of stunting than US and Mexican American children. Conclusions. We observed an elevated prevalence of obesity, anemia among older age groups, and stunting in this sample of children of migrant workers. PMID:24328649

  10. Purchasing power of civil servant health workers in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Ferrinho, Fátima; Amaral, Marta; Russo, Giuliano; Ferrinho, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Health workers' purchasing power is an important consideration in the development of strategies for health workforce development. This work explores the purchasing power variation of Mozambican public sector health workers, between 1999 and 2007. In general, the calculated purchasing power increased for most careers under study, and the highest percentage increase was observed for the lowest remuneration careers, contributing in this way for a relative reduction in the difference between the higher and the lower salaries. This was done through a simple and easy-to-apply methodology to estimate salaries' capitalization rate, by means of the accumulated inflation rate, after taking wage revisions into account. All the career categories in the Ministry of Health and affiliated public sector institutions were considered. Health workers' purchasing power is an important consideration in the development of strategies for health workforce development. This work explores the purchasing power variation of Mozambican public sector health workers, between 1999 and 2007. In general, the calculated purchasing power increased for most careers under study, and the highest percentage increase was observed for the lowest remuneration careers, contributing in this way for a relative reduction in the difference between the higher and the lower salaries. These results seem to contradict a commonly held assumption that health sector pay has deteriorated over the years, and with substantial damage for the poorest. Further studies appear to be needed to design a more accurate methodology to better understand the evolution and impact of public sector health workers' remunerations across the years.

  11. "Pizza is cheaper than salad": assessing workers' views for an environmental food intervention.

    PubMed

    Devine, Carol M; Nelson, Janet A; Chin, Nancy; Dozier, Ann; Fernandez, Isabel Diana

    2007-11-01

    "Images of a Healthy Worksite" aims to provide easy access to healthful foods and to reduce sedentarism at the worksite-to prevent weight gain. Formative research for the nutrition intervention component was aimed at gaining a broad understanding of the sociocultural role of food and eating among workers and worker perspectives on socially feasible and culturally acceptable environmental intervention strategies. Using an adapted PRECEDE health planning model, we conducted ecological, educational, environmental, and administrative assessments at the worksite. Through 15 in-depth interviews, five focus groups, and community mapping at two sites with 79 administrators, managers, workers, and food service personnel (51% men, 82% white), we assessed workers' perspectives on physical, sociocultural, economic, and policy environments. Data were coded for predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors related to intervention strategies in vending, cafeteria, catering, and informal food environments. After classification for reach, intensity, and sustainability, objectives and evaluation plans were developed for each highly ranked strategy. Key sociocultural factors affecting food and eating included: stress-related eating in a downsizing workplace, enthusiasm for employer-sponsored weight gain prevention efforts that respect personal privacy, and the consequences of organizational culture on worker access to the food and eating environment. Workers supported healthier cafeteria and catering options, bringing healthful foods closer, and labeling of healthful options. We provide a practical and systematic approach to formative research and assess the interrelatedness of the physical, policy, economic, and sociocultural factors that affect environmental worksite interventions to prevent weight gain among employees.

  12. [Evolution of worker's health in the social security medical examination in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Pinto Júnior, Afrânio Gomes; Braga, Ana Maria Cheble Bahia; Roselli-Cruz, Amadeu

    2012-10-01

    In order to analyze the practice of the social security medical examination starting from the introduction of the worker's health paradigms, data was gathered on the granting of social security disability benefits to assess worker illness based on notification of work-related accidents in the cement industries of Rio de Janeiro. From 2007 to 2009 there was only one notification, which involved a worker handling toxic waste instead of the energy matrix. However, the analysis revealed sources and mechanisms of illness overlooked in the social security medical examination, which is still focused on the one-cause-only logic of occupational medicine. To achieve the worker's health paradigms, changes are required to alter the way of conducting the social security medical examination, by re-establishing partnerships, training human resources, adopting epidemiological indicators, as well as setting and assessing social security goals that transcend the mere granting of disability benefits.

  13. The Role of Bilingual Workers without Professional Mental Health Training in Mental Health Services for Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egli, Eric

    This paper discusses the use of bilingual workers who do not have formal mental health training as mediators and providers of mental health care for refugees. The introduction provides a background discussion of the need for refugee mental health services, the characteristics of bilingual mental health workers, and the work places and expectations…

  14. Ethiopian community health workers' beliefs and attitudes towards children with autism: Impact of a brief training intervention.

    PubMed

    Tilahun, Dejene; Fekadu, Abebaw; Tekola, Bethlehem; Araya, Mesfin; Roth, Ilona; Davey, Basiro; Hanlon, Charlotte; Hoekstra, Rosa A

    2017-09-01

    There is a severe shortage of services for children with autism in Ethiopia; access to services is further impeded by negative beliefs and stigmatising attitudes towards affected children and their families. To increase access to services, care provision is decentralised through task-shifted care by community health extension workers. This study aimed to examine the impact of a brief training (Health Education and Training; HEAT) for Ethiopian rural health extension workers and comprised three groups: (1) health extension workers who completed a basic mental health training module (HEAT group, N = 104); (2) health extension workers who received enhanced training, comprising basic HEAT as well as video-based training on developmental disorders and a mental health pocket guide (HEAT+ group, N = 97); and (3) health extension workers untrained in mental health (N = 108). All participants completed a questionnaire assessing beliefs and social distance towards children with autism. Both the HEAT and HEAT+ group showed fewer negative beliefs and decreased social distance towards children with autism compared to the untrained health extension worker group, with the HEAT+ group outperforming the HEAT group. However, HEAT+ trained health extension workers were less likely to have positive expectations about children with autism than untrained health extension workers. These findings have relevance for task-sharing and scale up of autism services in low-resource settings worldwide.

  15. [Assessment by industrial workers of their satisfaction with medical care].

    PubMed

    Rozenfel'd, L G; Makarov, V B; Kotov, A A

    1990-01-01

    A total of 1252 workers from 21 enterprises were surveyed by means of questionnaires. The survey uncovered grave shortcomings in the delivery of medical care at all levels. In particular, only 58.2 per cent of the interviewed were satisfied with the work of feldshers providing medical care at health posts. An analysis was also made of workers' suggestions regarding the work of shop physicians, chiefs of health units, administration, public organisations at enterprises and their working collectives.

  16. Front-line worker engagement: greening health care, improving worker and patient health, and building better jobs.

    PubMed

    Chenven, Laura; Copeland, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    Frontline workers have a great deal to contribute to improving environmental sustainability of their employers and the health of workers and patients. This article discusses a national project of the Healthcare Career Advancement Program, funded by the U.S. Department of Labor to support green jobs development. Implementation was accomplished through a labor/management collaboration between union locals and 11 employers in four regions throughout the United States. The project developed and implemented a model of training and education for environmental service workers and other frontline health-care workers in hospital settings that supported systems change and built new roles for these workers. It empowered them to contribute to triple bottom line outcomes in support of People (patients, workers, the community), Planet (environmental sustainability and a lower carbon footprint), and Profit (cost savings for the institutions). In the process workers more clearly articulated their important role as a part of the healthcare team and learned how they could contribute to improved patient and worker health and safety.

  17. Effects of Hurricane Hugo: Mental Health Workers and Community Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muzekari, Louis H.; And Others

    This paper reports the effects of Hurricane Hugo on mental health workers and indigenous community members. The response and perceptions of mental health staff from the South Carolina Department of Mental Health (Go Teams) from areas unaffected by the hurricane were compared and contrasted with those of a subsequent Hugo Outreach Support Team…

  18. Recovery Competencies for New Zealand Mental Health Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hagan, Mary

    This book contains a detailed report of the recovery principles set out in the Mental Health Commission's Blueprint for Mental Health Services in New Zealand. The competencies, endorsed by the New Zealand government, describe what mental health workers need to know about using the recovery approach in their work with people with mental illness.…

  19. Community Health Workers and Their Value to Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Michael S.; Gunter, Kathryn E.; Palmisano, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) play a vital and unique role in linking diverse and underserved populations to health and social service systems. Despite their effectiveness, as documented by empirical studies across various disciplines including public health, nursing, and biomedicine, the value and potential role of CHWs in the social work…

  20. Effects of Hurricane Hugo: Mental Health Workers and Community Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muzekari, Louis H.; And Others

    This paper reports the effects of Hurricane Hugo on mental health workers and indigenous community members. The response and perceptions of mental health staff from the South Carolina Department of Mental Health (Go Teams) from areas unaffected by the hurricane were compared and contrasted with those of a subsequent Hugo Outreach Support Team…

  1. Predictors of health-related quality of life among industrial workers: A descriptive correlational study.

    PubMed

    Malak, Malakeh Z

    2017-06-01

    Assessment and evaluation of the health-related quality of life of industrial workers is an important research focus. This descriptive correlational study identifies the predictors of health-related quality of life using a random sampling of industrial workers (n = 640) from construction factories in Amman Governorate in Jordan using demographic characteristics, a health and work-related factors questionnaire, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief scale. Results showed that industrial workers had good physical health but a poor working environment. There was a statistically significant relationship between educational level, conflict between work and individual life and work and social life, working hours, and workload, and all domains of health-related quality of life. Overall, educational level was the main predictor for all domains of health-related quality of life. Such results confirm the need to develop appropriate interventions and strategies to improve workers' health-related quality of life. Furthermore, developing an integrated approach among policymakers, employers, and work organizations to enhance industrial workers' occupational health programs could be effective. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. The use of a rating instrument to teach and assess communication skills of health-care workers in a clinic in the Western Cape.

    PubMed

    Steyn, M; Borcherds, R; van der Merwe, N

    1999-06-01

    Research in health communication shows communication to be an important aspect of successful health-care. Moreover, training courses which provide feedback have been shown to improve health professionals' ability to conduct successful interviews. This article describes a rating instrument which was developed in order to facilitate teaching and assessing the communication aspects of health-care interviews. The instrument was found to be useful in a training programme offered to nursing staff of a TB Clinic in Mitchells Plain, Western Cape. The instrument appears as Table 1. In the Table categories of communication behaviours, each indicating an important aspect of the interaction, are given as the six headings. These are: establishing rapport and respect listening receptively confirming the patient sharing control informing effectively and checking perceptions. Within each category the more detailed specific behaviours are listed, allowing for close analysis of a care-giver's interviewing skill. The article briefly discusses the importance in effective communication between the care-giver and patient of each category of behaviours given in the instrument, supported by evidence from research. Lastly the article describes a "case study" on how the instrument has been successfully used in a training programme.

  3. Health status, work limitations, and return-to-work trajectories in injured workers with musculoskeletal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Franche, Renée-Louise; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Côté, Pierre; Lee, Hyunmi; Severin, Colette; Vidmar, Marjan; Carnide, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to describe the health status and work limitations in injured workers with musculoskeletal disorders at 1 month post-injury, stratified by return-to-work status, and to document their return-to-work trajectories 6 months post-injury. Methods A sample of 632 workers with a back or upper extremity musculoskeletal disorder, who filed a Workplace Safety and Insurance Board lost-time claim injury, participated in this prospective study. Participants were assessed at baseline (1 month post-injury) and at 6 months follow-up. Results One month post-injury, poor physical health, high levels of depressive symptoms and high work limitations are prevalent in workers, including in those with a sustained first return to work. Workers with a sustained first return to work report a better health status and fewer work limitations than those who experienced a recurrence of work absence or who never returned to work. Six months post-injury, the rate of recurrence of work absence in the trajectories of injured workers who have made at least one return to work attempt is high (38%), including the rate for workers with an initial sustained first return to work (27%). Conclusions There are return-to-work status specific health outcomes in injured workers. A sustained first return to work is not equivalent to a complete recovery from musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:17616838

  4. Assessing the skills of home care workers in helping older people take their prescribed medications.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Elizabeth E J

    2015-08-01

    The Southern Health and Social Care Trust in Northern Ireland applied a modified version of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) to assess the skills of home care workers in assisting older people taking prescribed medications. In Northern Ireland, home care workers are care workers employed by health and social care trusts or private agencies. The application of the model has developed the skills of this staff group, improved the relationship between the commissioner and provider, significantly reduced the time spent by community nurses in individual training and assessment, and enhanced the patient experience for those taking medication. Overall, the application of this model has provided assurances to the Trust board, the executive director of nursing, and operational directors that home care workers are competent in assisting older people in this high-risk activity.

  5. Health and safety implications of recruitment payments in migrant construction workers

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, H. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Middle East construction sector is heavily reliant on a migrant workforce that predominantly originates from South Asia. It is common practice for migrant construction workers to pay a local labour recruiter the equivalent of one or more years’ prospective overseas salary to secure employment, work and travel permits and transportation. The occupational health and safety implications of these financial arrangements remain unexplored. Aims To examine associations between payment to a labour recruiter, perceived general health and worksite accidents among migrant construction workers in the Middle East. Methods A questionnaire was completed by a convenience sample of predominantly Indian migrant construction workers drawn from a large construction project. The relationship between payment and risk of poor health and workplace accidents was assessed using multivariate logistic regression models (crude and adjusted for socio-demographic and occupational factors). Results There were 651 participants. The majority (58%) of migrant construction workers had paid a labour recruiter and ~40% had experienced a worksite accident. Between 3% (labourers) and 9% (foremen) perceived their health to be poor. Labourers and skilled workers who had paid a labour recruiter were significantly more likely to have experienced a worksite accident in the previous 12 months. Skilled workers, but not labourers and foremen, who had paid a labour recruiter were at increased risk of poor health. Conclusions The mechanisms linking labour recruiter payments to adverse safety and health outcomes warrant investigation with a view to developing interventions to erode these links. PMID:24668316

  6. Health and safety implications of recruitment payments in migrant construction workers.

    PubMed

    Hassan, H A; Houdmont, J

    2014-07-01

    The Middle East construction sector is heavily reliant on a migrant workforce that predominantly originates from South Asia. It is common practice for migrant construction workers to pay a local labour recruiter the equivalent of one or more years' prospective overseas salary to secure employment, work and travel permits and transportation. The occupational health and safety implications of these financial arrangements remain unexplored. To examine associations between payment to a labour recruiter, perceived general health and worksite accidents among migrant construction workers in the Middle East. A questionnaire was completed by a convenience sample of predominantly Indian migrant construction workers drawn from a large construction project. The relationship between payment and risk of poor health and workplace accidents was assessed using multivariate logistic regression models (crude and adjusted for socio-demographic and occupational factors). There were 651 participants. The majority (58%) of migrant construction workers had paid a labour recruiter and ~40% had experienced a worksite accident. Between 3% (labourers) and 9% (foremen) perceived their health to be poor. Labourers and skilled workers who had paid a labour recruiter were significantly more likely to have experienced a worksite accident in the previous 12 months. Skilled workers, but not labourers and foremen, who had paid a labour recruiter were at increased risk of poor health. The mechanisms linking labour recruiter payments to adverse safety and health outcomes warrant investigation with a view to developing interventions to erode these links. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.

  7. Occupationally acquired HIV: the vulnerability of health care workers under workers' compensation laws.

    PubMed Central

    Tereskerz, P M; Jagger, J

    1997-01-01

    Approximately 800,000 needlesticks and other sharp injuries from contaminated medical devices occur in health care settings each year, of which an estimated 16,000 are contaminated by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Health care workers who are occupationally infected by HIV are at risk of being left without workers' compensation coverage. In some states, the definition of an occupational disease is so restrictive that infected health care workers are unlikely to qualify for benefits. For those who are able to meet the definition, compensation is often inadequate. Recourse is also limited by statutory provisions that preclude health care workers from bringing civil suits against their employers. We recommend the amendment of legislation to provide more equitable remedies, including: (1) broadening the definition of occupational disease; (2) eliminating provisions that require a claimant to prove that (a) a specific occupational incident resulted in infection and (b) HIV is not an ordinary disease of life; (3) expanding the time for filing a claim; (4) assuring that lifetime benefits will be provided to the disabled health care worker; and (5) assuring that claims will remain confidential. PMID:9314817

  8. Occupationally acquired HIV: the vulnerability of health care workers under workers' compensation laws.

    PubMed

    Tereskerz, P M; Jagger, J

    1997-09-01

    Approximately 800,000 needlesticks and other sharp injuries from contaminated medical devices occur in health care settings each year, of which an estimated 16,000 are contaminated by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Health care workers who are occupationally infected by HIV are at risk of being left without workers' compensation coverage. In some states, the definition of an occupational disease is so restrictive that infected health care workers are unlikely to qualify for benefits. For those who are able to meet the definition, compensation is often inadequate. Recourse is also limited by statutory provisions that preclude health care workers from bringing civil suits against their employers. We recommend the amendment of legislation to provide more equitable remedies, including: (1) broadening the definition of occupational disease; (2) eliminating provisions that require a claimant to prove that (a) a specific occupational incident resulted in infection and (b) HIV is not an ordinary disease of life; (3) expanding the time for filing a claim; (4) assuring that lifetime benefits will be provided to the disabled health care worker; and (5) assuring that claims will remain confidential.

  9. Oral health related knowledge, attitude and practices among the primary health care workers of a district in India

    PubMed Central

    Bhoopathi, Praveen Haricharan; Reddy, Peddi Reddy Parthasarthi; Kotha, Arpitha; Mancherla, Monica; Boinapalli, Prathibha; Samba, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices of the primary health care workers in our country. Materials and Methods: Data was gathered by means of a closed-ended questionnaire form. A total of 30 primary health centers (PHCs) and 60 subcenters (SCs) were included in the study. Frequency distribution was used together with Chi-square tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA) in this study. A P value of < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Only 40% of the primary health care workers knew that dental caries is multifactorial, majority of them could not identify the symptoms of gum diseases, a meager number of the primary health care workers (28%) knew about the oral health aspects of a pregnant lady, and with the exception of doctors, the other health care workers were not sure of the etiology of oral cancer. Conclusion: About one-tenth of the primary care workers had high knowledge regarding oral health, only one-tenth of them had highly favorable oral health attitudes, and 9% of them had highly favorable oral health practices. PMID:25452921

  10. Integrated Worker Health Protection and Promotion Programs: Overview and Perspectives on Health and Economic Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Pronk, Nicolaas P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe integrated worker health protection and promotion (IWHPP) program characteristics, to discuss the rationale for integration of OSH and WHP programs, and to summarize what is known about the impact of these programs on health and economic outcomes. Methods A descriptive assessment of the current state of the IWHPP field and a review of studies on the effectiveness of IWHPP programs on health and economic outcomes. Results Sufficient evidence of effectiveness was found for IWHPP programs when health outcomes are considered. Impact on productivity-related outcomes is considered promising, but inconclusive, whereas insufficient evidence was found for health care expenditures. Conclusions Existing evidence supports an integrated approach in terms of health outcomes but will benefit significantly from research designed to support the business case for employers of various company sizes and industry types. PMID:24284747

  11. Health risk assessment of migrant workers' exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in air and dust in an e-waste recycling area in China: Indication for a new wealth gap in environmental rights.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yalin; Hu, Jinxing; Lin, Wei; Wang, Ning; Li, Cheng; Luo, Peng; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Wang, Wenbo; Su, Xiaomei; Chen, Chen; Liu, Yindong; Huang, Ronglang; Shen, Chaofeng

    2016-02-01

    Migrant workers who work and live in polluted environment are a special vulnerable group in the accelerating pace of urbanization and industrialization in China. In the electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area, for example, migrant workers' exposure to pollutants, such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), is the result of an informal e-waste recycling process. A village in an electronic waste recycling area where migrant workers gather was surveyed. The migrant workers' daily routines were simulated according to the three-space transition: work place-on the road-home. Indoor air and dust in the migrant workers' houses and workplaces and the ambient air on the roads were sampled. The PCB levels of the air and dust in the places corresponding to the migrant workers are higher than those for local residents. The migrant workers have health risks from PCBs that are 3.8 times greater than those of local residents. This is not only caused by the exposure at work but also by their activity patterns and the environmental conditions of their dwellings. These results revealed the reason for the health risk difference between the migrant workers and local residents, and it also indicated that lifestyle and economic status are important factors that are often ignored compared to occupational exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Improving fit to work assessments for rail safety workers by exploring work limitations.

    PubMed

    Boschman, J S; Hulshof, C T J; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2016-07-01

    We aim to provide evidence for improving fit to work assessments for rail safety workers and raised the question whether adding an assessment of work limitations is useful. Therefore, we assessed differences in the proportions of perceived work limitations and reported health complaints and whether older age or having health complaints are risk factors for having work limitations. Job requirements for rail safety workers are 'vigilance and clear judgment', 'good communication abilities', 'sufficient eye sight' and 'task-required physical abilities'. We invited 1000 workers to fill in a questionnaire about perceived work limitations and health problems related to their job requirements. Proportions of the two were compared by using the McNemar test. Associations were analyzed by using univariate logistic regression. Among 484 rail safety workers, we found statistically significant differences between the proportions of reported health complaints (2-26 %) and work limitations (10-32 %). No significant associations were found between older age and work limitations, except for workers in the age group 40-50 years regarding physical abilities. This was not found for the age group over 50 years. For each age category, workers reporting health complaints related to 'vigilance and clear judgment' and 'sufficient physical abilities' had a statistically significant increased risk for reporting work limitations as well (ORs 2.4-17.9). Our results indicate that fit to work assessments should include both health complaints and work limitations. Our results do not substantiate the assumption that workers over 40 years of age are at increased risk for work limitations in general.

  13. An assessment of the introduction of a multi-skilled worker into an acute care setting.

    PubMed

    Trerise, B; Lemieux-Charles, L

    1996-01-01

    The first reengineering project undertaken by the Sunnybrook Health Science Centre after adopting a philosophy of patient-focused care was the introduction of a new category of worker: the multi-skilled service assistant. This article describes the experiences of the first two cohorts of service assistants and assesses the changes made to the work itself and the integration of the new workers into the work environment. It concludes by sharing recommendations for introducing a new work role.

  14. The two cultures of health worker migration: a Pacific perspective.

    PubMed

    Connell, John

    2014-09-01

    Migration of health workers from relatively poor countries has been sustained for more than half a century. The rationale for migration has been linked to numerous factors relating to the economies and health systems of source and destination countries. The contemporary migration of health workers is also embedded in a longstanding and intensifying culture of migration, centred on the livelihoods of extended households, and a medical culture that is oriented to superior technology and advanced skills. This dual culture is particularly evident in small island states in the Pacific, but is apparent in other significant migrant source countries in the Caribbean, Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Family expectations of the benefits of migration indicate that regulating the migration and attrition of health workers necessitates more complex policies beyond those evident within health care systems alone.

  15. Health sector reform and public sector health worker motivation: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Franco, Lynne Miller; Bennett, Sara; Kanfer, Ruth

    2002-04-01

    Motivation in the work context can be defined as an individual's degree of willingness to exert and maintain an effort towards organizational goals. Health sector performance is critically dependent on worker motivation, with service quality, efficiency, and equity, all directly mediated by workers' willingness to apply themselves to their tasks. Resource availability and worker competence are essential but not sufficient to ensure desired worker performance. While financial incentives may be important determinants of worker motivation, they alone cannot and have not resolved all worker motivation problems. Worker motivation is a complex process and crosses many disciplinary boundaries, including economics, psychology, organizational development, human resource management, and sociology. This paper discusses the many layers of influences upon health worker motivation: the internal individual-level determinants, determinants that operate at organizational (work context) level, and determinants stemming from interactions with the broader societal culture. Worker motivation will be affected by health sector reforms which potentially affect organizational culture, reporting structures, human resource management, channels of accountability, types of interactions with clients and communities, etc. The conceptual model described in this paper clarifies ways in which worker motivation is influenced and how health sector reform can positively affect worker motivation. Among others, health sector policy makers can better facilitate goal congruence (between workers and the organizations they work for) and improved worker motivation by considering the following in their design and implementation of health sector reforms: addressing multiple channels for worker motivation, recognizing the importance of communication and leadership for reforms, identifying organizational and cultural values that might facilitate or impede implementation of reforms, and understanding that reforms

  16. Association between health worker motivation and healthcare quality efforts in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Spieker, Nicole; van Ostenberg, Paul; Ogink, Alice; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; de Wit, Tobias F Rinke

    2013-08-14

    Ghana is one of the sub-Saharan African countries making significant progress towards universal access to quality healthcare. However, it remains a challenge to attain the 2015 targets for the health related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) partly due to health sector human resource challenges including low staff motivation. This paper addresses indicators of health worker motivation and assesses associations with quality care and patient safety in Ghana. The aim is to identify interventions at the health worker level that contribute to quality improvement in healthcare facilities. The study is a baseline survey of health workers (n = 324) in 64 primary healthcare facilities in two regions in Ghana. Data collection involved quality care assessment using the SafeCare Essentials tool, the National Health Insurance Authority (NHIA) accreditation data and structured staff interviews on workplace motivating factors. The Spearman correlation test was conducted to test the hypothesis that the level of health worker motivation is associated with level of effort by primary healthcare facilities to improve quality care and patient safety. The quality care situation in health facilities was generally low, as determined by the SafeCare Essentials tool and NHIA data. The majority of facilities assessed did not have documented evidence of processes for continuous quality improvement and patient safety. Overall, staff motivation appeared low although workers in private facilities perceived better working conditions than workers in public facilities (P <0.05). Significant positive associations were found between staff satisfaction levels with working conditions and the clinic's effort towards quality improvement and patient safety (P <0.05). As part of efforts towards attainment of the health related MDGs in Ghana, more comprehensive staff motivation interventions should be integrated into quality improvement strategies especially in government-owned healthcare facilities where

  17. Association between health worker motivation and healthcare quality efforts in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ghana is one of the sub-Saharan African countries making significant progress towards universal access to quality healthcare. However, it remains a challenge to attain the 2015 targets for the health related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) partly due to health sector human resource challenges including low staff motivation. Purpose This paper addresses indicators of health worker motivation and assesses associations with quality care and patient safety in Ghana. The aim is to identify interventions at the health worker level that contribute to quality improvement in healthcare facilities. Methods The study is a baseline survey of health workers (n = 324) in 64 primary healthcare facilities in two regions in Ghana. Data collection involved quality care assessment using the SafeCare Essentials tool, the National Health Insurance Authority (NHIA) accreditation data and structured staff interviews on workplace motivating factors. The Spearman correlation test was conducted to test the hypothesis that the level of health worker motivation is associated with level of effort by primary healthcare facilities to improve quality care and patient safety. Results The quality care situation in health facilities was generally low, as determined by the SafeCare Essentials tool and NHIA data. The majority of facilities assessed did not have documented evidence of processes for continuous quality improvement and patient safety. Overall, staff motivation appeared low although workers in private facilities perceived better working conditions than workers in public facilities (P <0.05). Significant positive associations were found between staff satisfaction levels with working conditions and the clinic’s effort towards quality improvement and patient safety (P <0.05). Conclusion As part of efforts towards attainment of the health related MDGs in Ghana, more comprehensive staff motivation interventions should be integrated into quality improvement strategies especially

  18. Workplace Spanish for Health Care Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Paula

    This syllabus and curriculum guide were developed for a 12-week course in workplace Spanish for clinical workers at the Claretian Medical Center on the south side of Chicago. The purpose of the class was to provide basic communicative abilities in Spanish to the medical staff---registered nurses, triage nurses, and laboratory technologists--such…

  19. Oral health knowledge of health care workers in special children's center.

    PubMed

    Wyne, Amjad; Hammad, Nouf; Splieth, Christian

    2015-01-01

    To determine the oral health knowledge of health care workers in special children's center. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect following information: demographics, oral hygiene practices, importance of fluoride, dental visits, cause of tooth decay, gingival health, and sources of oral health information. The study was conducted at Riyadh Center for Special Children in Riyadh City from December 2013 to May 2014. All 60 health care workers in the center completed the questionnaire. A great majority (95%) of the workers brushed their teeth twice or more daily. More than two-third (71.7%) of the workers knew that fluoride helps in caries prevention. One in five (21.7%) workers thought that a dental visit only becomes necessary in case of a dental problem. Similarly, 13.3% of the workers thought to "wait till there is some pain in case of a dental cavity" before seeking dental treatment. The workers ranked soft drinks/soda (98.3%), flavored fizzy drinks (60%) and sweetened/flavored milks (43.3%) as top three cariogenic drinks. A great majority (95%) of the workers correctly responded that blood on toothbrush most probably is a sign of "gum disease". Dentists (50%) and media (45%) were the main source of their oral health information. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in workers' response in relation to their specific job. The special health care workers in the disabled children's center generally had satisfactory oral health knowledge and practices.

  20. UPMC MyHealth: managing the health and costs of U.S. healthcare workers.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Michael D; Peele, Pamela B; Keyser, Donna J; Liu, Yushu; Doyle, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    Workplace wellness programs hold promise for managing the health and costs of the U.S. workforce. These programs have not been rigorously tested in healthcare worksites. To evaluate the impact of MyHealth on the health and costs of UPMC healthcare workers. Five-year observational study conducted in 2013 with subgroup analyses and propensity-matched pair comparisons to more accurately interpret program effects. UPMC, an integrated health care delivery and financing system headquartered in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Participants included 13,627 UPMC employees who were continuously enrolled in UPMC-sponsored health insurance during the study period and demonstrated participation in MyHealth by completing a Health Risk Assessment in both 2007 and 2011, as well as 4,448 other healthcare workers employed outside of UPMC who did not participate in the program. A comprehensive wellness, prevention, and chronic disease management program that ties achievement of health and wellness requirements to receipt of an annual credit on participants' health insurance deductible. Health-risk levels, medical, pharmacy, and total healthcare costs, and Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set performance rates for prevention and chronic disease management. Significant improvements in health-risk status and increases in use of preventive and chronic disease management services were observed in the intervention group. Although total healthcare costs increased significantly, reductions in costs were significant for those who moved from higher- to the lowest-risk levels. The contrast differences in costs between reduced- and maintained-risk groups was also significant. Matched pair comparisons provided further evidence of program effects on observed reductions in costs and improvements in prevention, but not improvements in chronic disease management. Incorporating incentivized health management strategies in employer-sponsored health insurance benefit designs can serve as a useful

  1. [Health protection for rural workers: the need to standardize techniques for quantifying dermal exposure to pesticides].

    PubMed

    Selmi, Giuliana da Fontoura Rodrigues; Trapé, Angelo Zanaga

    2014-05-01

    Quantification of dermal exposure to pesticides in rural workers, used in risk assessment, can be performed with different techniques such as patches or whole body evaluation. However, the wide variety of methods can jeopardize the process by producing disparate results, depending on the principles in sample collection. A critical review was thus performed on the main techniques for quantifying dermal exposure, calling attention to this issue and the need to establish a single methodology for quantification of dermal exposure in rural workers. Such harmonization of different techniques should help achieve safer and healthier working conditions. Techniques that can provide reliable exposure data are an essential first step towards avoiding harm to workers' health.

  2. Comparative Study on Health-Related Quality of Life of Farmers and Workers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaofang; Gu, Shuyan; Duan, Shengnan; Wu, Yuan; Ye, Chiyu; Wang, Jing; Dong, Hengjin

    2017-05-01

    To estimate and compare the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) between Chinese farmers and workers and study the relationships between the sociodemographic factors and HRQOL of the 2 populations. We conducted 2 cross-sectional surveys in Zhejiang Province in China by using multistage cluster sampling; we applied the EuroQOL 5-dimensions 3-level (EQ-5D-3L) self-report questionnaire to assess the HRQOL of farmers and workers through face-to-face interviews. The χ(2) test, 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and multiple linear regression models were used to compare the HRQOL between farmers and workers and identify the factors that influence HRQOL. We included 3675 farmers and 2836 workers in the analysis. The HRQOL differed between the 2 populations. The most prevalent problems reported were Pain/Discomfort and Anxiety/Depression; workers reported significantly more Pain/Discomfort and Anxiety/Depression compared with farmers (P < 0.001). The mean EQ-5D index scores were 0.987 for farmers and 0.959 for workers (P < 0.001), and the EQ-VAS scores were 83.59 for farmers and 81.11 for workers (P < 0.001), indicating that farmers had better HRQOL compared with workers. Sex, age, marital status, education level, and personal monthly income were reported to influence the HRQOL of farmers, whereas marital status and education level were reported to influence that of workers. The HRQOL of farmers was better than that of workers. To improve the HRQOL, it is important to pay more attention to mental health, especially in workers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Restructuring brain drain: strengthening governance and financing for health worker migration

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Tim K.; Liang, Bryan A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Health worker migration from resource-poor countries to developed countries, also known as ‘‘brain drain’’, represents a serious global health crisis and a significant barrier to achieving global health equity. Resource-poor countries are unable to recruit and retain health workers for domestic health systems, resulting in inadequate health infrastructure and millions of dollars in healthcare investment losses. Methods Using acceptable methods of policy analysis, we first assess current strategies aimed at alleviating brain drain and then propose our own global health policy based solution to address current policy limitations. Results Although governments and private organizations have tried to address this policy challenge, brain drain continues to destabilise public health systems and their populations globally. Most importantly, lack of adequate financing and binding governance solutions continue to fail to prevent health worker brain drain. Conclusions In response to these challenges, the establishment of a Global Health Resource Fund in conjunction with an international framework for health worker migration could create global governance for stable funding mechanisms encourage equitable migration pathways, and provide data collection that is desperately needed. PMID:23336617

  4. Restructuring brain drain: strengthening governance and financing for health worker migration.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A

    2013-01-15

    Health worker migration from resource-poor countries to developed countries, also known as ''brain drain'', represents a serious global health crisis and a significant barrier to achieving global health equity. Resource-poor countries are unable to recruit and retain health workers for domestic health systems, resulting in inadequate health infrastructure and millions of dollars in healthcare investment losses. Using acceptable methods of policy analysis, we first assess current strategies aimed at alleviating brain drain and then propose our own global health policy based solution to address current policy limitations. Although governments and private organizations have tried to address this policy challenge, brain drain continues to destabilise public health systems and their populations globally. Most importantly, lack of adequate financing and binding governance solutions continue to fail to prevent health worker brain drain. In response to these challenges, the establishment of a Global Health Resource Fund in conjunction with an international framework for health worker migration could create global governance for stable funding mechanisms encourage equitable migration pathways, and provide data collection that is desperately needed.

  5. Distance education for tobacco reduction with Inuit frontline health workers

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Rob; Hammond, Merryl; Carry, Catherine L.; Kinnon, Dianne; Killulark, Joan; Nevala, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Background Tobacco reduction is a major priority in Canadian Inuit communities. However, many Inuit frontline health workers lacked the knowledge, confidence and support to address the tobacco epidemic. Given vast distances, high costs of face-to-face training and previous successful pilots using distance education, this method was chosen for a national tobacco reduction course. Objective To provide distance education about tobacco reduction to at least 25 frontline health workers from all Inuit regions of Canada. Design Promising practices globally were assessed in a literature survey. The National Inuit Tobacco Task Group guided the project. Participants were selected from across Inuit Nunangat. They chose a focus from a “menu” of 6 course options, completed a pre-test to assess individual learning needs and chose which community project(s) to complete. Course materials were mailed, and trainers provided intensive, individualized support through telephone, fax and e-mail. The course ended with an open-book post-test. Follow-up support continued for several months post-training. Results Of the 30 participants, 27 (90%) completed the course. The mean pre-test score was 72% (range: 38–98%). As the post-test was done using open books, everyone scored 100%, with a mean improvement of 28% (range: 2–62%). Conclusions Although it was often challenging to contact participants through phone, a distance education approach was very practical in a northern context. Learning is more concrete when it happens in a real-life context. As long as adequate support is provided, we recommend individualized distance education to others working in circumpolar regions. PMID:23984270

  6. Distance education for tobacco reduction with Inuit frontline health workers.

    PubMed

    Collins, Rob; Hammond, Merryl; Carry, Catherine L; Kinnon, Dianne; Killulark, Joan; Nevala, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco reduction is a major priority in Canadian Inuit communities. However, many Inuit frontline health workers lacked the knowledge, confidence and support to address the tobacco epidemic. Given vast distances, high costs of face-to-face training and previous successful pilots using distance education, this method was chosen for a national tobacco reduction course. To provide distance education about tobacco reduction to at least 25 frontline health workers from all Inuit regions of Canada. Promising practices globally were assessed in a literature survey. The National Inuit Tobacco Task Group guided the project. Participants were selected from across Inuit Nunangat. They chose a focus from a "menu" of 6 course options, completed a pre-test to assess individual learning needs and chose which community project(s) to complete. Course materials were mailed, and trainers provided intensive, individualized support through telephone, fax and e-mail. The course ended with an open-book post-test. Follow-up support continued for several months post-training. Of the 30 participants, 27 (90%) completed the course. The mean pre-test score was 72% (range: 38-98%). As the post-test was done using open books, everyone scored 100%, with a mean improvement of 28% (range: 2-62%). Although it was often challenging to contact participants through phone, a distance education approach was very practical in a northern context. Learning is more concrete when it happens in a real-life context. As long as adequate support is provided, we recommend individualized distance education to others working in circumpolar regions.

  7. Community health workers: examining the Helper Therapy principle.

    PubMed

    Roman, L A; Lindsay, J K; Moore, J S; Shoemaker, A L

    1999-04-01

    A community approach to the integration of health and social services for low-income pregnant women is being addressed through Community Integrated Service System (CISS) initiatives of the Maternal Child Health Bureau. This particular CISS program model was designed to enable low-income mothers to function in a Community Health Worker (CHW) role providing social support for at-risk pregnant women. Using Riessman's notion of "helper therapy," the model was also developed to enhance the potential for CHWs to gain helper benefits. The purpose of this exploratory study was to describe perceived helper benefits and stressors associated with the CHW role and to examine the usefulness of an instrument developed to assess benefits and stressors. The study findings revealed that the majority of CHWs perceived helper benefits that included positive feelings about self, a sense of belonging, valuable work experience, and access to health information and skills through training or contact with program staff. Stressors such as feeling inadequate to help, however, were associated with the helper role for some CHWs. Preliminary analysis of the Helper's Perception Measure indicated that it may be an effective measure and should be tested with a larger sample of CHWs.

  8. Occupational risk assessment of paint industry workers

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Hugo M.; Dagostim, Gracilene P.; da Silva, Arielle Mota; Tavares, Priscila; da Rosa, Luiz A. Z. C.; de Andrade, Vanessa M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Thousands of chemical compounds are used in paint products, like pigments, extenders, binders, additives, and solvents (toluene, xylene, ketones, alcohols, esters, and glycol ethers). Paint manufacture workers are potentially exposed to the chemicals present in paint products although the patterns and levels of exposure to individual agents may differ from those of painters. The aim of the present study was to evaluate genome damage induced in peripheral blood lymphocytes and oral mucosa cells of paint industry workers. Materials and Methods: Genotoxicity was evaluated using the alkaline Comet assay in blood lymphocytes and oral mucosa cells, and the Micronucleus test in oral mucosa cells. For the micronucleus test in exfoliated buccal cells, no significant difference was detected between the control and paint industry workers. Results: The Comet assay in epithelia buccal cells showed that the damage index (DI) and damage frequency (DF) observed in the exposed group were significantly higher relative to the control group (P≤0.05). In the same way, the Comet assay data in peripheral blood leukocytes showed that both analysis parameters (DI and DF) were significantly greater than that for the control group (P≤0.05). Conclusions: Chronic occupational exposure to paints may lead to a slightly increased risk of genetic damage among paint industry workers. PMID:22223950

  9. Factors affecting job motivation among health workers: a study from Iran.

    PubMed

    Daneshkohan, Abbas; Zarei, Ehsan; Mansouri, Tahere; Maajani, Khadije; Ghasemi, Mehri Siyahat; Rezaeian, Mohsen

    2014-11-26

    Human resources are the most vital resource of any organizations which determine how other resources are used to accomplish organizational goals. This research aimed to identity factors affecting health workers' motivation in Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (SBUMS). This is a cross-sectional survey conducted with participation of 212 health workers of Tehran health centers in November and December 2011. The data collection tool was a researcher-developed questionnaire that included 17 motivating factors and 6 demotivating factors and 8 questions to assess the current status of some factors. Validity and reliability of the tool were confirmed. Data were analyzed with descriptive and analytical statistical tests. The main motivating factors for health workers were good management, supervisors and managers' support and good working relationship with colleagues. On the other hand, unfair treatment, poor management and lack of appreciation were the main demotivating factors. Furthermore, 47.2% of health workers believed that existing schemes for supervision were unhelpful in improving their performance. Strengthening management capacities in health services can increase job motivation and improve health workers' performance. The findings suggests that special attention should be paid to some aspects such as management competencies, social support in the workplace, treating employees fairly and performance management practices, especially supervision and performance appraisal.

  10. Reducing occupational transmission of tuberculosis to health care workers.

    PubMed

    Collins, C M

    1993-10-01

    Tuberculosis infection is an occupational risk for nurses and others working in health care settings. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have issued guidelines for preventing transmission of tuberculosis to health care workers. Nurses should be familiar with these guidelines, current recommendations for protection and post-exposure management, and the implications of the resurgence of tuberculosis as an occupational health hazard.

  11. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding tuberculosis care among health workers in Southern Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Noé, Andrés; Ribeiro, Rafaela M; Anselmo, Rui; Maixenchs, Maria; Sitole, Layce; Munguambe, Khatia; Blanco, Silvia; le Souef, Peter; García-Basteiro, Alberto L

    2017-01-05

    Tuberculosis (TB) control is more likely to be achieved if the level of knowledge regarding TB is increased among health workers managing high-risk groups. No formal assessments regarding knowledge, attitudes and practises of health workers about TB have been published for Mozambique, a country facing challenges in the fight against TB, with a fragile health system and considerable work overload of health personnel. The main objective of the study was to determine the level of knowledge, identify attitudes and assess practices regarding TB care and control among health care workers of the district of Manhiça. A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed through the use of a specifically designed Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) questionnaire in the district of Manhiça, a high tuberculosis and HIV burden rural area in Southern Mozambique. In this district, 14 health care facilities service a population of approximately 160,000 people. The questionnaire took 30-45 min to administer with external assistance not permitted. The survey contained 79 questions pertaining to four different areas: demographics, TB knowledge, attitudes and practices. The study sample included 170 health care workers. The average knowledge score was 14.89 points (SD = 3.61) out of a total possible 26 points. Less than 30% of respondents had heard of Xpert MTB/RIF®. Seventy per cent agreed there was stigma associated with TB and 48.2% believed this stigma was greater than that associated with HIV. The average practice score was 3.2 out of 9 points (35.6%, SD = 2.4). Health care worker's knowledge gaps identified in this study may result in substandard patient care. Specific deficiencies in understanding existed in terms of paediatric TB and Xpert MTB/RIF® testing. The present study provides impetus for tailored TB education among health care workers from a high TB burden rural area in Southern Mozambique.

  12. Performance of community health workers: situating their intermediary position within complex adaptive health systems.

    PubMed

    Kok, Maryse C; Broerse, Jacqueline E W; Theobald, Sally; Ormel, Hermen; Dieleman, Marjolein; Taegtmeyer, Miriam

    2017-09-02

    Health systems are social institutions, in which health worker performance is shaped by transactional processes between different actors.This analytical assessment unravels the complex web of factors that influence the performance of community health workers (CHWs) in low- and middle-income countries. It examines their unique intermediary position between the communities they serve and actors in the health sector, and the complexity of the health systems in which they operate. The assessment combines evidence from the international literature on CHW programmes with research outcomes from the 5-year REACHOUT consortium, undertaking implementation research to improve CHW performance in six contexts (two in Asia and four in Africa). A conceptual framework on CHW performance, which explicitly conceptualizes the interface role of CHWs, is presented. Various categories of factors influencing CHW performance are distinguished in the framework: the context, the health system and intervention hardware and the health system and intervention software. Hardware elements of CHW interventions comprise the supervision systems, training, accountability and communication structures, incentives, supplies and logistics. Software elements relate to the ideas, interests, relationships, power, values and norms of the health system actors. They influence CHWs' feelings of connectedness, familiarity, self-fulfilment and serving the same goals and CHWs' perceptions of support received, respect, competence, honesty, fairness and recognition.The framework shines a spotlight on the need for programmes to pay more attention to ideas, interests, relationships, power, values and norms of CHWs, communities, health professionals and other actors in the health system, if CHW performance is to improve.

  13. Older and Younger Workers: The Equalling Effects of Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Vanessa; Quinn, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to consider the statistical evidence on the effects that ill health has on labour market participation and opportunities for younger and older workers in the East Midlands (UK). Design/methodology/approach: A statistical analysis of Labour Force Survey data was undertaken to demonstrate that health issues…

  14. EXPOSURES AND HEALTH OF FARM WORKER CHILDREN IN CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA STAR Program Center of Excellence in Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research at the University of California at Berkeley is currently conducting exposure and health studies for children of farm workers in the Salinas Valley of California. The Exp...

  15. EXPOSURES AND HEALTH OF FARM WORKER CHILDREN IN CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA STAR Program Center of Excellence in Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research at the University of California at Berkeley is currently conducting exposure and health studies for children of farm workers in the Salinas Valley of California. The Exp...

  16. Older and Younger Workers: The Equalling Effects of Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Vanessa; Quinn, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to consider the statistical evidence on the effects that ill health has on labour market participation and opportunities for younger and older workers in the East Midlands (UK). Design/methodology/approach: A statistical analysis of Labour Force Survey data was undertaken to demonstrate that health issues…

  17. Occupational health and safety among commercial sex workers.

    PubMed

    Ross, Michael W; Crisp, Beth R; Månsson, Sven-Axel; Hawkes, Sarah

    2012-03-01

    The concept of occupational health and safety (OHS) for commercial sex workers has rarely been investigated, perhaps because of the often informal nature of the workplace, the associated stigma, and the frequently illegal nature of the activity. We reviewed the literature on health, occupational risks, and safety among commercial sex workers. Cultural and local variations and commonalities were identified. Dimensions of OHS that emerged included legal and policing risks, risks associated with particular business settings such as streets and brothels, violence from clients, mental health risks and protective factors, alcohol and drug use, repetitive strain injuries, sexually transmissible infections, risks associated with particular classes of clients, issues associated with male and transgender commercial sex workers, and issues of risk reduction that in many cases are associated with lack of agency or control, stigma, and legal barriers. We further discuss the impact and potential of OHS interventions for commercial sex workers. The OHS of commercial sex workers covers a range of domains, some potentially modifiable by OHS programs and workplace safety interventions targeted at this population. We argue that commercial sex work should be considered as an occupation overdue for interventions to reduce workplace risks and enhance worker safety.

  18. Violence against health workers in Family Medicine Centers

    PubMed Central

    Al-Turki, Nouf; Afify, Ayman AM; AlAteeq, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Background Health care violence is a significant worldwide problem with negative consequences on both the safety and well-being of health care workers as well as workplace activities. Reports examining health care violence in Saudi Arabia are limited and the results are conflicting. Objective To estimate the prevalence and determine the demographic and occupational characteristics associated with workplace violence in primary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods A cross-sectional study included 270 health care workers in 12 family medicine centers in Riyadh during November and December 2014. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to estimate the frequency, timing, causes, reactions, and consequences of workplace violence plus participants’ demographic and occupational data. Results A total 123 health care workers (45.6%) experienced some kind of violence over 12 months prior to the study. These included physical (6.5%) and nonphysical violence (99.2%), including verbal violence (94.3%) and intimidation (22.0%). Offenders were patients (71.5%) in the majority of cases, companions (20.3%), or both (3.3%). Almost half (48.0%) of health care workers who experienced violence did nothing, 38.2% actively reported the event, and 13.8% consulted a colleague. A significant association of workplace violence was found with working multiple shifts, evening or night shift, and lack of an encouraging environment to report violence. Conclusion Workplace violence is still a significant problem in primary care centers. The high frequency of violence together with underreporting may indicate the inefficiency of the current safety program. More safety programs and training activities for health care workers, efficient reporting system, and zero tolerance policies need to be implemented to minimize workplace violence against health workers. PMID:27330300

  19. Strengthening practical wisdom: mental health workers' learning and development.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Kristin Ådnøy; Dahl, Hellen; Karlsson, Bengt; Arman, Maria

    2014-09-01

    Practical wisdom, understood as knowing how to be or act in any present situation with clients, is believed to be an essential part of the knowledge needed to be a professional mental health worker. Exploring processes of adapting, extending knowledge and refining tacit knowledge grounded in mental health workers' experiences with being in practice may bring awareness of how mental health workers reflect, learn and practice professional 'artistry'. The aim of the article was to explore mental health workers' processes of development and learning as they appeared in focus groups intended to develop practical wisdom. The main research question was 'How might the processes of development and learning contribute to developing practical wisdom in the individual as well as in the practice culture?' The design was multi-stage focus groups, and the same participants met four times. A phenomenological hermeneutical method for researching lived experience guided the analysis. Eight experienced mental health workers representing four Norwegian municipalities participated. The research context was community-based mental health services. The study was reported to Norwegian Social Data Services, and procedures for informed consent were followed. Two examples of processes of re-evaluation of experience (Association, Integration, Validation, Appropriation and Outcomes and action) were explored. The health workers had developed knowledge in previous encounters with clients. In sharing practice experiences, this knowledge was expressed and developed, and also tested and validated against the aims of practice. Discussions led to adapted and extended knowledge, and as tacit knowledge was expressed it could be used actively. Learning to reflect, being ready to be provoked and learning to endure indecisiveness may be foundational in developing practical wisdom. Openness is demanding, and changing habits of mind is difficult. Reflection on, and confrontation with, set practices are

  20. Health Risks Awareness of Electronic Waste Workers in the Informal Sector in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Van Bodegom, Peter M.; Vijver, Martina G.

    2017-01-01

    Insight into the health risk awareness levels of e-waste workers is important as it may offer opportunities for better e-waste recycling management strategies to reduce the health effects of informal e-waste recycling. Therefore, this study assessed the knowledge, attitude, and practices associated with occupational health risk awareness of e-waste workers compared with a control group (butchers) in the informal sector in Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was used to assess health risk awareness of 279 e-waste workers (repairers and dismantlers) and 221 butchers from the informal sector in three locations in Nigeria in 2015. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographic backgrounds, occupational history, knowledge, attitude, and work practices. The data was analysed using Analysis of Variance. The three job designations had significantly different knowledge, attitude, and practice mean scores (p = 0.000), with butchers consistently having the highest mean scores. Only 43% of e-waste workers could mention one or more Personal Protective Equipment needed for their job compared with 70% of the butchers. The health risk awareness level of the e-waste workers was significantly lower compared with their counterparts in the same informal sector. A positive correlation existed between the workers’ knowledge and their attitude and practice. Therefore, increasing the workers’ knowledge may decrease risky practices. PMID:28805712

  1. Sociocultural contexts and worker safety and health: findings of a study with Chinese immigrant restaurant workers.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jenny; Bruck, Annie

    2009-02-01

    More immigrants are seeking employment in restaurants. Drawing data from an ethnographic study, this article discusses what and how sociocultural contexts shape the safety and health of immigrant restaurant workers. Eighteen Chinese immigrants from China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan participated in the study. Data generation methods included a questionnaire, individual and focus group interviews, and participant observations. Ethnographic analysis revealed that immigration mechanisms, demands of English proficiency for employment, and existence of networks and ethnic communities shaped the participants' employment choices. Working hours and schedules, interpersonal relationships at work, job design and training, occupational safety and health training, and national events and economy further influenced the participants' occupational experiences and well-being. Issues were noted with job security, mental health, family relationships, and risks for occupational injuries and illnesses. Implications for occupational health nursing research and practice to reduce immigrant workers' vulnerability to poor safety and health outcomes conclude this article.

  2. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Dental Health Workers, Southern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Phethuayluk, Piriyalux; Maneelok, Supandee

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of this study was to describe the socioeconomic situation of dental health work and work characteristics and to evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among dental health workers. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 124 dental health workers and 124 persons in the reference group, matched to dental health workers by gender, were recruited from the workers who worked at the same 17 community hospitals in Nakhon Si Thammarat province, Thailand. Information was collected by using questionnaire. Data analysis comprised descriptive and analytical components. Results and Discussion. 75.8% were female and 24.2% were male dental health workers. 91.9% of subjects had worked >5 years. Most subjects worked for >8 hours per day and worked >6 days per week, at 63.7% and 53.2%, respectively. 100% of subjects worked in public institutions, and 68% also worked in both public and private institutions. Most subjects (52.4%) did not exercise. Daily activity, gender, duration of work, hours worked per day, days worked per week, and physical activity were significantly associated with musculoskeletal symptoms at <0.001. Conclusion. The prevention and reduction of MSDs among dentists should include improving their education in dental ergonomics. PMID:27597901

  3. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Dental Health Workers, Southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Decharat, Somsiri; Phethuayluk, Piriyalux; Maneelok, Supandee

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of this study was to describe the socioeconomic situation of dental health work and work characteristics and to evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among dental health workers. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 124 dental health workers and 124 persons in the reference group, matched to dental health workers by gender, were recruited from the workers who worked at the same 17 community hospitals in Nakhon Si Thammarat province, Thailand. Information was collected by using questionnaire. Data analysis comprised descriptive and analytical components. Results and Discussion. 75.8% were female and 24.2% were male dental health workers. 91.9% of subjects had worked >5 years. Most subjects worked for >8 hours per day and worked >6 days per week, at 63.7% and 53.2%, respectively. 100% of subjects worked in public institutions, and 68% also worked in both public and private institutions. Most subjects (52.4%) did not exercise. Daily activity, gender, duration of work, hours worked per day, days worked per week, and physical activity were significantly associated with musculoskeletal symptoms at <0.001. Conclusion. The prevention and reduction of MSDs among dentists should include improving their education in dental ergonomics.

  4. Sickness absence among health workers in belo horizonte, brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bassi, Iara; Assunção, Ada Ávila; Pimenta, Adriano Marçal; Benavides, Fernando G.; Ubalde-Lopez, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the prevalence of sickness absence and to analyze factors associated with the outcome according to gender in a sample of healthcare workers at the Belo Horizonte Health Department. Method: This study was based on a Belo Horizonte Health Department survey carried out between September 2008 and January 2009. From a randomly selected sample of 2,205 workers, 1,808 agreed to participate. Workers were classified into Health Staff or Health Care. Other explanatory variables were social and demographic data, work characteristics, and personal health. The Poisson regression was applied to analyze factors associated with sickness absence by the prevalence ratio (PR). Results: The overall prevalence of sickness absence was 31.5% (23.8% for men and 34.6% for women). In the final model, we found higher rates of sickness absence in both male and female workers involved in tasks with high psychosocial demands (PR=1.86 men; PR=1.38 women) and in those that reported using medication for treating chronic diseases (PR=1.96 men; PR=1.50 women). Women having a permanent job contract had a higher prevalence of sickness absence than those having a temporary job contract (PR=1.71). Conclusion: Our findings suggest a paradox in how healthcare is organized: good results in terms of its global objective of providing healthcare for citizens contrast with lack of effective measures for protecting healthcare workers. PMID:27010082

  5. Assessing Effectiveness of Ceiling-Ventilated Mock Airborne Infection Isolation Room in Preventing Hospital-Acquired Influenza Transmission to Health Care Workers.

    PubMed

    Thatiparti, Deepthi Sharan; Ghia, Urmila; Mead, Kenneth R

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to airborne influenza (or flu) from a patient's cough and exhaled air causes potential flu virus transmission to the persons located nearby. Hospital-acquired influenza is a major airborne disease that occurs to health care workers (HCW). This paper examines the airflow patterns and influenza-infected cough aerosol transport behavior in a ceiling-ventilated mock airborne infection isolation room (AIIR) and its effectiveness in mitigating HCW's exposure to airborne infection. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the airflow patterns and the flu virus dispersal behavior in a mock AIIR is conducted using the room geometries and layout (room dimensions, bathroom dimensions and details, placement of vents and furniture), ventilation parameters (flow rates at the inlet and outlet vents, diffuser design, thermal sources, etc.), and pressurization corresponding to that of a traditional ceiling-mounted ventilation arrangement observed in existing hospitals. The measured data shows that ventilation rates for the AIIR are about 12 air changes per hour(ach). However, the numerical results reveals incomplete air mixing and that not all of the room air is changed 12 times per hour. Two life-sized breathing human models are used to simulate a source patient and a receiving HCW. A patient cough cycle is introduced into the simulation and the airborne infection dispersal is tracked in time using a multiphase flow simulation approach. The results reveal air recirculation regions that diminished the effect of air filtration and prolong the presence of flu-contaminated air at the HCW's zone. Immediately after the patient coughs (0.51 s), the cough velocity from the patient's mouth drives the cough aerosols toward the HCW standing next to patient's bed. Within 0.7 s, the HCW is at risk of acquiring the infectious influenza disease, as a portion of these aerosols are inhaled by the HCW. As time progresses (5 s), the aerosols eventually spread throughout the entire

  6. Assessing Effectiveness of Ceiling-Ventilated Mock Airborne Infection Isolation Room in Preventing Hospital-Acquired Influenza Transmission to Health Care Workers

    PubMed Central

    Thatiparti, Deepthi Sharan; Ghia, Urmila; Mead, Kenneth R.

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to airborne influenza (or flu) from a patient's cough and exhaled air causes potential flu virus transmission to the persons located nearby. Hospital-acquired influenza is a major airborne disease that occurs to health care workers (HCW). This paper examines the airflow patterns and influenza-infected cough aerosol transport behavior in a ceiling-ventilated mock airborne infection isolation room (AIIR) and its effectiveness in mitigating HCW's exposure to airborne infection. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the airflow patterns and the flu virus dispersal behavior in a mock AIIR is conducted using the room geometries and layout (room dimensions, bathroom dimensions and details, placement of vents and furniture), ventilation parameters (flow rates at the inlet and outlet vents, diffuser design, thermal sources, etc.), and pressurization corresponding to that of a traditional ceiling-mounted ventilation arrangement observed in existing hospitals. The measured data shows that ventilation rates for the AIIR are about 12 air changes per hour(ach). However, the numerical results reveals incomplete air mixing and that not all of the room air is changed 12 times per hour. Two life-sized breathing human models are used to simulate a source patient and a receiving HCW. A patient cough cycle is introduced into the simulation and the airborne infection dispersal is tracked in time using a multiphase flow simulation approach. The results reveal air recirculation regions that diminished the effect of air filtration and prolong the presence of flu-contaminated air at the HCW's zone. Immediately after the patient coughs (0.51 s), the cough velocity from the patient's mouth drives the cough aerosols toward the HCW standing next to patient's bed. Within 0.7 s, the HCW is at risk of acquiring the infectious influenza disease, as a portion of these aerosols are inhaled by the HCW. As time progresses (5 s), the aerosols eventually spread throughout the entire

  7. Push, pull, and reverse: self-interest, responsibility, and the global health care worker shortage.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Katherine E; Siplon, Patricia

    2012-06-01

    The world is suffering from a dearth of health care workers, and sub-Saharan Africa, an area of great need, is experiencing the worst shortage. Developed countries are making the problem worse by luring health care workers away from the countries that need them most, while developing countries do not have the resources to stem the flow or even replace those lost. Postmodern philosopher Emmanuel Levinas offers a unique ethical framework that is helpful in assessing both the irresponsibility inherent in the current global health care situation and the responsibility and obligation held by the stakeholders involved in this global crisis. Drawing on Levinas' exploration of individual freedom and self-pursuit, infinite responsibility for the Other, and the potential emergence of a just community, we demonstrate its effectiveness in explaining the health care worker crisis, and we argue in favor of a variety of policy and development assistance measures that are grounded in an orientation of non-indifference toward Others.

  8. Health Education of Workers. Publication 1279.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Washington, DC. Div. of Occupational Health.

    As a ready reference for information on health education programs for employees, this monograph brings together four comprehensive review articles which have appeared in the literature and seven abstracts of studies and demonstrations. The articles are: "Health Education in the Occupational Setting,""Health Education in Industry,""Health Education…

  9. Addressing Younger Workers' Needs: The Promoting U through Safety and Health (PUSH) Trial Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rohlman, Diane S; Parish, Megan; Elliot, Diane L; Hanson, Ginger; Perrin, Nancy

    2016-08-10

    Most younger workers, less than 25 years old, receive no training in worker safety. We report the feasibility and outcomes of a randomized controlled trial of an electronically delivered safety and health curriculum for younger workers entitled, PUSH (Promoting U through Safety and Health). All younger workers (14-24 years old) hired for summer work at a large parks and recreation organization were invited to participate in an evaluation of an online training and randomized into an intervention or control condition. Baseline and end-of-summer online instruments assessed acceptability, knowledge, and self-reported attitudes and behaviors. One-hundred and forty participants (mean age 17.9 years) completed the study. The innovative training was feasible and acceptable to participants and the organization. Durable increases in safety and health knowledge were achieved by intervention workers (p < 0.001, effect size (Cohen's d) 0.4). However, self-reported safety and health attitudes did not improve with this one-time training. These results indicate the potential utility of online training for younger workers and underscore the limitations of a single training interaction to change behaviors. Interventions may need to be delivered over a longer period of time and/or include environmental components to effectively alter behavior.

  10. Workplace health promotion for older workers: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Poscia, Andrea; Moscato, Umberto; La Milia, Daniele Ignazio; Milovanovic, Sonja; Stojanovic, Jovana; Borghini, Alice; Collamati, Agnese; Ricciardi, Walter; Magnavita, Nicola

    2016-09-05

    Aging of the workforce is a growing problem. As workers age, their physical, physiological and psychosocial capabilities change. Keeping older workers healthy and productive is a key goal of European labor policy and health promotion is a key to achieve this result. Previous studies about workplace health promotion (WHP) programs are usually focused on the entire workforce or to a specific topic. Within the framework of the EU-CHAFEA ProHealth65+ project, this paper aims to systematically review the literature on WHP interventions specifically targeted to older workers (OWs). This systematic review was conducted by making a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, SCOPUS, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL and PsychINFO databases. Search terms included ageing (and synonyms), worker (and synonyms), intervention (and synonyms), and health (and synonyms). The search was limited to papers in English or Italian published between January, 1(st) 2000 and May, 31(st) 2015. Relevant references in the selected articles were also analyzed. Of the 299 articles initially identified as relating to the topic, 18 articles met the inclusion criteria. The type, methods and outcome of interventions in the WHP programs retrieved were heterogenous, as was the definition of the age at which a worker is considered to be 'older'. Most of the available studies had been conducted on small samples for a limited period of time. Our review shows that, although this issue is of great importance, studies addressing WHP actions for OWs are few and generally of poor quality. Current evidence fails to show that WHP programs improve the work ability, productivity or job retention of older workers. In addition, there is limited evidence that WHP programs are effective in improving lifestyles and concur to maintain the health and well-being of older workers. There is a need for future WHP programs to be well-designed so that the effectiveness and cost-benefit of workplace interventions can be

  11. Mercury in dental amalgam: Are our health care workers at risk?

    PubMed

    Sahani, M; Sulaiman, N S; Tan, B S; Yahya, N A; Anual, Z F; Mahiyuddin, W R Wan; Khan, M F; Muttalib, K A

    2016-11-01

    Dental amalgam in fillings exposes workers to mercury. The exposure to mercury was investigated among 1871 dental health care workers. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk of mercury exposure among dental compared to nondental health care workers and to determine other risk factors for mercury exposure. Respondents answered questionnaires to obtain demographic, personal, professional, and workplace information and were examined for their own amalgam fillings. Chronic mercury exposure was assessed through urinary mercury levels. In total, 1409 dental and 462 nondental health care workers participated in the study. Median urine mercury levels for dental and nondental health care workers were 2.75 μg/L (interquartile range [IQR] = 3.0175) and 2.66 μg/L (IQR = 3.04) respectively. For mercury exposure, there were no significant risk factor found among the workers involved within the dental care. The Mann-Whitney test showed that urine mercury levels were significantly different between respondents who eat seafood more than 5 times per week compared to those who eat it less frequently or not at all (p = 0.003). The urinary mercury levels indicated significant difference between dental workers in their practice using squeeze cloths (Mann-Whitney test, p = 0.03). Multiple logistic regression showed that only the usage of cosmetic products that might contain mercury was found to be significantly associated with the urinary mercury levels (odds ratio [OR] = 15.237; CI: 3.612-64.276). Therefore, mean urinary mercury levels of health care workers were low. Exposure to dental amalgam is not associated with high mercury exposure. However, usage of cosmetic products containing mercury and high seafood consumption may lead to the increase of exposure to mercury. Exposure to the high levels of mercury from dental amalgam can lead to serious health effects among the dental health care workers. Nationwide chronic mercury exposure among dental personnel was assessed through

  12. A Preliminary Community-Based Occupational Health Survey of Black Hair Salon Workers in South Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Adewumi-Gunn, Teniope A; Ponce, Esmeralda; Flint, Nourbese; Robbins, Wendie

    2016-11-01

    Black hair-salon workers face serious health hazards from the product they use on clients and other health hazards at their work. Currently there is a significant research gap in understanding the prevalence of workplace related exposures and health outcomes. The primary objective of this study was to gather preliminary data on workplace exposures and health outcomes of hair care workers in South Los Angeles. We conducted 22 surveys of salon workers at 16 salons. The results suggest the need for proper health and safety training within the salon worker community, specifically around chemical hair services. The results also suggest ergonomic workstation assessments and recommendations would be beneficial to reduce musculoskeletal disorders. Willingness of stylists to learn more about workplace hazards and how to mitigate their risks was high. Our findings indicate the need for a larger community based participatory research study on the workplace exposures of Black salon workers.

  13. Quality of life in health care workers with latex allergy.

    PubMed

    Power, Susan; Gallagher, John; Meaney, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to latex gloves and glove powder makes health care workers (HCWs) particularly susceptible to developing an allergy to latex. To assess the impact on the quality of life (QOL) of HCWs who are allergic to latex products before removal from latex exposure and after removal from exposure. We studied 39 latex allergic HCWs from the Health & Safety Executive south area. Twenty-nine attended for an assessment with the occupational physician and were asked to fill out a questionnaire. Spirometry, immunoglobulin E levels and latex radioallergosorbent test levels were measured. In total, 29/39 (74%) of patients responded. All of the participants had a type 1 allergy to latex. All individuals reported a significant improvement of symptoms once latex was removed from their working environment. Of those that reported skin complaints, 83% reported that their skin no longer had an impact on their QOL once latex was removed. Over 90% (n = 26) of all participants stated that their eye/nose symptoms had no longer an impact on their QOL and 86% (n = 25) of all participants stated that their respiratory symptoms had no impact on their QOL following the removal of latex from their working environment. Overall, 45% of the respondents had changed jobs: 61% of this group changed to a completely nonclinical post. On average, 86% of latex allergic HCWs reported that their QOL had improved significantly since their removal from latex. In employees who are latex allergic/sensitized, taking latex avoidance measures results in cessation or diminution of symptoms.

  14. Quality of routine health data collected by health workers using smartphone at primary health care in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Medhanyie, Araya Abrha; Spigt, Mark; Yebyo, Henock; Little, Alex; Tadesse, Kidane; Dinant, Geert-Jan; Blanco, Roman

    2017-05-01

    Mobile phone based applications are considered by many as potentially useful for addressing challenges and improving the quality of data collection in developing countries. Yet very little evidence is available supporting or refuting the potential and widely perceived benefits on the use of electronic forms on smartphones for routine patient data collection by health workers at primary health care facilities. A facility based cross sectional study using a structured paper checklist was prepared to assess the completeness and accuracy of 408 electronic records completed and submitted to a central database server using electronic forms on smartphones by 25 health workers. The 408 electronic records were selected randomly out of a total of 1772 maternal health records submitted by the health workers to the central database over a period of six months. Descriptive frequencies and percentages of data completeness and error rates were calculated. When compared to paper records, the use of electronic forms significantly improved data completeness by 209 (8%) entries. Of a total 2622 entries checked for completeness, 2602 (99.2%) electronic record entries were complete, while 2393 (91.3%) paper record entries were complete. A very small percentage of error rates, which was easily identifiable, occurred in both electronic and paper forms although the error rate in the electronic records was more than double that of paper records (2.8% vs. 1.1%). More than half of entry errors in the electronic records related to entering a text value. With minimal training, supervision, and no incentives, health care workers were able to use electronic forms for patient assessment and routine data collection appropriately and accurately with a very small error rate. Minimising the number of questions requiring text responses in electronic forms would be helpful in minimizing data errors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Feasibility of Workplace Health Promotion for Restaurant Workers, Seattle, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Hammerback, Kristen; Harris, Jeffrey R.; Hannon, Peggy A.; Parrish, Amanda T.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Restaurant workers are a large population at high risk for tobacco use, physical inactivity, and influenza. They are difficult to reach with health care interventions and may be more accessible through workplaces, yet few studies have explored the feasibility of workplace health promotion in this population. This study sought to identify barriers and facilitators to promotion of tobacco cessation, physical activity, and influenza vaccination in restaurants. Methods Moderators conducted 7 focus groups, 3 with restaurant owners and managers, 2 with English-speaking workers, and 2 with Spanish-speaking workers. All groups were recorded, and recordings were transcribed and uploaded to qualitative-analysis software. Two researchers coded each transcript independently and analyzed codes and quotations for common themes. Results Seventy people from the restaurant industry participated. Barriers to workplace health promotion included smoking-break customs, little interest in physical activity outside of work, and misinformation about influenza vaccinations. Facilitators included creating and enforcing equitable break policies and offering free, on-site influenza vaccinations. Spanish-speakers were particularly amenable to vaccination, despite their perceptions of low levels of management support for health promotion overall. Owners required a strong business case to consider investing in long-term prevention for their employees. Conclusion Tobacco cessation and influenza vaccinations are opportunities for health promotion among restaurant workers, whereas physical activity interventions face greater challenges. Promotion of equitable breaks, limited smoking-break policies, and free, on-site influenza vaccinations could improve health for restaurant workers, who often do not have health insurance. Workplace interventions may be particularly important for Hispanic workers who have additional access barriers. PMID:26447549

  16. Feasibility of Workplace Health Promotion for Restaurant Workers, Seattle, 2012.

    PubMed

    Allen, Claire L; Hammerback, Kristen; Harris, Jeffrey R; Hannon, Peggy A; Parrish, Amanda T

    2015-10-08

    Restaurant workers are a large population at high risk for tobacco use, physical inactivity, and influenza. They are difficult to reach with health care interventions and may be more accessible through workplaces, yet few studies have explored the feasibility of workplace health promotion in this population. This study sought to identify barriers and facilitators to promotion of tobacco cessation, physical activity, and influenza vaccination in restaurants. Moderators conducted 7 focus groups, 3 with restaurant owners and managers, 2 with English-speaking workers, and 2 with Spanish-speaking workers. All groups were recorded, and recordings were transcribed and uploaded to qualitative-analysis software. Two researchers coded each transcript independently and analyzed codes and quotations for common themes. Seventy people from the restaurant industry participated. Barriers to workplace health promotion included smoking-break customs, little interest in physical activity outside of work, and misinformation about influenza vaccinations. Facilitators included creating and enforcing equitable break policies and offering free, on-site influenza vaccinations. Spanish-speakers were particularly amenable to vaccination, despite their perceptions of low levels of management support for health promotion overall. Owners required a strong business case to consider investing in long-term prevention for their employees. Tobacco cessation and influenza vaccinations are opportunities for health promotion among restaurant workers, whereas physical activity interventions face greater challenges. Promotion of equitable breaks, limited smoking-break policies, and free, on-site influenza vaccinations could improve health for restaurant workers, who often do not have health insurance. Workplace interventions may be particularly important for Hispanic workers who have additional access barriers.

  17. Effects of office innovation on office workers' health and performance.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Eline M; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Sluiter, Judith K

    2009-09-01

    The implementation of an innovative office concept (e.g. open-plan, flexible workplaces and a paperless office concept) on health and productivity among office workers was evaluated with questionnaires of 138 workers at baseline and 6 and 15 months afterwards. Work-related fatigue, general health, change in health status, upper extremity complaints and perceived productivity were outcomes. No short-term significant differences were found in most outcomes except for quantity of performed work (decrease from 96% to 92%, p = 0.008). In the long-term, no significant differences were found in most outcomes except for an increase in general health (p = 0.011) and a decrease in prevalences of upper extremity complaints (33% to 22%, p = 0.021). Perceived productivity increased significantly 15 months after the implementation. It is concluded that innovative office concepts had no or limited effects on work-related fatigue, health changes and productivity but some positive effects on workers' general health and upper extremity complaints in the long term. Office innovation is being administered often but up to now seldom evaluated on workers' health and productivity.

  18. Health workers' perceptions of obstetric critical incident audit in Thyolo District, Malawi.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Wouter; van den Akker, Thomas; Mwagomba, Beatrice; Khukulu, Rex; van Elteren, Marianne; van Roosmalen, Jos

    2011-10-01

    To assess perceptions held by health workers in a Malawian district about obstetric critical incident audit. Insight into factors contributing to participation and endorsement may help to improve the audit process and reduce facility-based maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. This study involves semi-structured interviews with 25 district health workers, a focus group discussion and observation of audit sessions in health facilities in Thyolo District, Malawi, between August 2009 and January 2010. Data were analysed with maxqda 2010. Findings were categorized into four major areas: (i) general knowledge of audit, (ii) participation in local audit and feedback sessions, (iii) the ability to reproduce the local audit cycle and (iv) effects and outcomes of audit and feedback. All health workers were familiar with the concept of audit and could reproduce the local cycle. Most health workers classified audit as an instructive and helpful tool to improve the quality of their work, provided that it is performed in a manner that enhances motivation and on-the-job learning. Contradictory to recent reports from other African settings, which showed negative effects of audit on health workers' motivation, staff in this district considered audit and feedback valuable tools to enhance the quality of the care they provide. Audit has become part of the professional routine in the district, and its educational value was considered its most important appeal. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Social determinants of the use of health services among a public university workers.

    PubMed

    Pavão, Ana Luiza Braz; Coeli, Cláudia Medina; Lopes, Cláudia de Souza; Faerstein, Eduardo; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Chor, Dóra

    2012-02-01

    To analyze the use of health services and socioeconomic status among a public university workers. A cross-sectional study with 759 workers at a Brazilian public university who reported health-related restrictions of their usual activities in the previous 14 days, was carried out. Data were supplied by the 2001 cohort of the "Pró-Saúde Study" in Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. Health services use was assessed with a proxy for "seeking health care" and according to the type of service. The presence of additional variation in morbidity was verified by time restriction. Schooling, income and occupation markers were analyzed, and crude and adjusted proportion ratios of use and types of service were calculated. The occupation level was the indicator of the greatest inequality in health services use. After adjustments for gender, age and the other socioeconomic status markers, the ratio of the proportion of health care use was 1.31 for manual workers (95%CI: 1.11;1.55) and 1.21 for non-manual workers (95%CI: 1.06;1.37) compared to the reference category of professionals. A pattern of social inequality was identified in health services use. Even after an adjustment for health need, the pattern favored individuals with lower socioeconomic status, particularly for the occupation marker. Remaining differences in individual morbidities do not explain this finding. Rather, occupational factors may exert a greater influence on health services use in this population.

  20. Attitudes towards mental health and help-seeking in railway workers.

    PubMed

    Sage, C A M; Brooks, S K; Jones, N; Greenberg, N

    2016-03-01

    TRiM (Trauma Risk Management) has been shown to improve mental health and attitudes towards mental health in high-risk occupational groups; however, there has been no research into how TRiM might work for railway workers. To assess whether attending a TRiM training course alters mental health and attitudes to mental health-related help-seeking in railway workers. Workers completed a survey assessing mental health and attitudes towards mental health and help-seeking, before and after a 2-day TRiM course; follow-up questionnaires were administered 4 months post-course. Fifty railway employees completed the questionnaires. Post-course scores for cohesion and mental health peer literacy (i.e. feeling able to recognize and discuss mental health symptoms with colleagues) and some aspects of stigma significantly improved, while there were non-significant improvements in common mental disorder and post-traumatic stress symptoms. The response rate for completing follow-up surveys was small (n = 8) but results from these subjects suggested mental health peer literacy scores remained significantly improved. This study provides a useful insight into attitudes of railway workers regarding stigma and their confidence in discussing trauma-related mental health. Significant improvements in cohesion and mental health peer literacy along with the general improvement in scores post-TRiM course provide some evidence of the potential benefits of TRiM training in railway workers. Follow-up results have limited reliability due to the small number of responders but suggest possible long-term benefits of attending a TRiM course. Further research is required to confirm this finding. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Gathering Occupational Health Data from Informal Workers: The Brazilian Experience.

    PubMed

    Santana, Vilma Sousa; Ferrite, Silvia; Galdino, Adriana; Peres Moura, Maria Cláudia; Machado, Jorge Mesquita Huet

    2016-08-01

    This study describes how occupational health data have been gathered by the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) to provide morbidity and mortality estimates for formal and informal workers. In 2007, data on work-related diseases and injuries was incorporated into the compulsory notification system (SINAN) and analyzed by the SUS occupational health service network, which covers all Brazilian states. However, this work has not been fully implemented, resulting in the large-scale undercounting and underreporting of cases, particularly in relation to informal workers. This is suggestive of barriers that prevent access to services and good quality health care. The inclusion of work-related diseases and injuries in SINANs appears to be a feasible strategy for the collection of useful data for the surveillance of the entire universe of workers, particularly in countries where informal workers prevail within the labor force. Attention needs to be paid to the disparities in access and quality that affect low-paid, informal workers. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Remapping worker citizenship in contemporary occupational health and safety regimes.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The article draws on the rapidly growing field of citizenship studies to map and explore the dynamics of contemporary occupational health and safety (OHS) regulation. Using two key dimensions of OHS regulation (protection and participation), the author constructs four ideal types of worker citizenship (market, public, private industrial, and public industrial citizens). Historically, workers have been written into OHS regulatory regimes in each of these ways. Most recently lawmakers have created a new species of OHS regimes, best described as mandated partial self-regulation. Its distinguishing characteristic is its flexibility, such that worker citizenship can take on any of the forms previously described, often without changing the statutory framework. Using Ontario as an example, the study finds that in the late 20th century, workers made significant strides toward public industrial citizenship and, surprisingly, even under a neoconservative government, workers successfully defended their participatory rights and saw their right to protection modestly strengthened through increased enforcement. The conditions under which this regime operates, however, constantly threaten to undermine the efficacy of worker participation rights and to weaken the enforcement effort. Some suggestions are made about using a citizenship discourse to revitalize the worker OHS movement and strengthen OHS rights.

  3. Prevalence of latex hypersensitivity among health care workers in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Shahnaz, M; Azizah, M R; Hasma, H; Mok, K L; Yip, E; Ganesapillai, T; Suraiya, H; Nasuruddin, B A

    1999-03-01

    Health care workers have been reported to constitute one of the few high-risk groups related to IgE-mediated hypersensitivity associated with the use of latex products. This paper describes the first ever study of prevalence carried out in Malaysia among these workers. One hundred and thirty health care personnel from Hospital Kuala Lumpur were skin tested. Extracts used were prepared from seven different brands of natural rubber latex gloves with varying levels of extractable protein (EPRRIM). Out of the 130 volunteers, 4 (3.1%) had positive skin test to latex with extracts with high levels of EPRRIM (> 0.7 mg/g). The prevalence among the Malaysian health care workers can be considered to be low in comparison to that of some consumer countries as the USA which reported a prevalence of as high as 16.9%.

  4. Lay Worker Health Literacy: A Concept Analysis and Operational Definition.

    PubMed

    Cadman, Kathleen Paco

    2017-04-13

    The concept of lay worker health literacy is created by concurrently analyzing and synthesizing two intersecting concepts, lay workers and health literacy. Articulation of this unique intersection is the result of implementing a simplified Wilson's Concept Analysis Procedure. This process incorporates the following components: a) selecting a concept, b) determining the aims/purposes of analysis, c) identifying all uses of the concept, d) determining defining attributes, e) identifying a model case, f) identifying borderline, related, contrary, and illegitimate cases, g) identifying antecedents and consequences, and h) defining empirical referents. Furthermore, as current literature provides no operational definition for lay worker health literacy, one is created to contribute cohesion to the concept. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Limited English proficiency workers. Health and safety education.

    PubMed

    Hong, O S

    2001-01-01

    1. As the population of adults with limited English proficiency plays an increasingly important role in the United States workplaces, there has been a growing recognition that literacy and limited English skills affect health and safety training programs. 2. Several important principles can be used as the underlying framework to guide teaching workers with limited English proficiency: clear and vivid way of teaching; contextual curriculum based on work; using various teaching methods; and staff development. 3. Two feasible strategies were proposed to improve current situation in teaching health and safety to workers with limited English proficiency in one company: integrating safety and health education with ongoing in-house ESL instruction and developing a multilingual video program. 4. Successful development and implementation of proposed programs requires upper management support, workers' awareness and active participation, collaborative teamwork, a well structured action plan, testing of pilot program, and evaluation.

  6. Occupational asthma due to latex in health care workers.

    PubMed Central

    Ho, A.; Chan, H.; Tse, K. S.; Chan-Yeung, M.

    1996-01-01

    Immediate hypersensitivity reactions ranging from mild urticaria to life threatening anaphylaxis after exposure to natural rubber latex have been reported frequently in health care workers while occupational asthma due to latex exposure is less well studied. The results of specific challenge tests and immunological tests in four health care workers with work related respiratory and skin disorders induced by the use of latex gloves are described. Occupational asthma was confirmed in three subjects by specific challenge tests. All had a positive skin test reaction to the latex extract; specific IgE antibodies were detected in only one subject. The fourth subject had a negative specific inhalation and skin test reaction to the latex extract. Peak expiratory flow monitoring at work and away from work showed a pattern consistent with work related asthma. These findings confirm that latex is a cause of occupational asthma in health care workers. PMID:8994533

  7. Evaluating health worker performance in Benin using the simulated client method with real children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The simulated client (SC) method for evaluating health worker performance utilizes surveyors who pose as patients to make surreptitious observations during consultations. Compared to conspicuous observation (CO) by surveyors, which is commonly done in developing countries, SC data better reflect usual health worker practices. This information is important because CO can cause performance to be better than usual. Despite this advantage of SCs, the method’s full potential has not been realized for evaluating performance for pediatric illnesses because real children have not been utilized as SCs. Previous SC studies used scenarios of ill children that were not actually brought to health workers. During a trial that evaluated a quality improvement intervention in Benin (the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness [IMCI] strategy), we conducted an SC survey with adult caretakers as surveyors and real children to evaluate the feasibility of this approach and used the results to assess the validity of CO. Methods We conducted an SC survey and a CO survey (one right after the other) of health workers in the same 55 health facilities. A detailed description of the SC survey process was produced. Results of the two surveys were compared for 27 performance indicators using logistic regression modeling. Results SC and CO surveyors observed 54 and 185 consultations, respectively. No serious problems occurred during the SC survey. Performance levels measured by CO were moderately higher than those measured by SCs (median CO – SC difference = 16.4 percentage-points). Survey differences were sometimes much greater for IMCI-trained health workers (median difference = 29.7 percentage-points) than for workers without IMCI training (median difference = 3.1 percentage-points). Conclusion SC surveys can be done safely with real children if appropriate precautions are taken. CO can introduce moderately large positive biases, and these biases might be greater for health

  8. Improving Human Resources for Health means Retaining Health-Workers: Application of the WHO-Recommendations for the Retention of Health-Workers in Rural Northern-Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Afenyadu, Godwin Y; Adegoke, Adetoro A; Findley, Sally

    2017-01-01

    Nigeria is one of 57 countries with critical shortage of health workers (HWs). Strategies to increase and equitably distribute HWs are critical to the achievement of Health Millennium/Sustainable Development Goals. We describe how three Northern Nigeria states adapted World Health Organisation (WHO)-recommended incentives to attract, recruit, and retain midwives. Secondary analysis of data from two surveys assessing midwife motivation, retention, and attrition in Northern Nigeria; and expert consultations. Midwives highlighted financial and non-financial incentives as key factors in their decisions to renew their contracts. Their perspectives informed the consensus positions of health managers, policymakers and heads of institutions, and led to the adaptation of the WHO recommendations into appropriate state-specific incentive packages. The feedback from midwives combined with an expert consultation approach allowed stakeholders to consider and use available evidence to select appropriate incentive packages that offer the greatest potential for helping to address inadequate numbers of rural midwives.

  9. Adverse Health Problems Among Municipality Workers in Alexandria (Egypt)

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Wahab, Ekram W.; Eassa, Safaa M.; Lotfi, Sameh E.; El Masry, Sanaa A.; Shatat, Hanan Z.; Kotkat, Amira M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Solid waste management has emerged as an important human and environmental health issue. Municipal solid waste workers (MSWWs) are potentially exposed to a variety of occupational biohazards and safety risks. The aim of this study was to describe health practices and safety measures adopted by workers in the main municipal company in Alexandria (Egypt) as well as the pattern of the encountered work related ill health. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between January and April 2013. We interviewed and evaluated 346 workers serving in about 15 different solid waste management activities regarding personal hygiene, the practice of security and health care measures and the impact of solid waste management. Results: Poor personal hygiene and self-care, inadequate protective and safety measures for potentially hazardous exposure were described. Impact of solid waste management on health of MSWWs entailed high prevalence of gastrointestinal, respiratory, skin and musculoskeletal morbidities. Occurrence of accidents and needle stick injuries amounted to 46.5% and 32.7% respectively. The risk of work related health disorders was notably higher among workers directly exposed to solid waste when compared by a group of low exposure potential particularly for diarrhea (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-3.8), vomiting (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.1-6.6), abdominal colic (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1-3.2), dysentery (OR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.3-10), dyspepsia (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1-3), low back/sciatic pain (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.8-7), tinnitus (OR = 6.2, 95% CI = 0.3-122) and needle stick injury (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 2.1-5.5). Conclusions: Workers exposed to solid waste exhibit significant increase in risk of ill health. Physician role and health education could be the key to assure the MSWWs health safety. PMID:24932385

  10. Non-specialist health worker interventions for mental health care in low- and middle- income countries

    PubMed Central

    van Ginneken, Nadja; Tharyan, Prathap; Lewin, Simon; Rao, Girish N; Romeo, Renee; Patel, Vikram

    2012-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: Overall objective In order to assess the impact of delivery by non-specialist health workers (NSHWs) and other professionals with health roles (OPHRs) on the effectiveness of mental healthcare interventions in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs), we will specifically analyse the effectiveness of NSHWs and OPHRS in delivering acute mental health interventions; as well as the effectiveness of NSHWs and OPHRs in delivering long term follow-up and rehabilitation for people with mental disorders; and the effect of the detection of mental disorders by NSHWs and OPHRs on patient and health delivery outcomes. For each of these objectives we will examine the current evidence for the impact of delivery by NSHWs and OPHRs on the resource use and costs associated with mental healthcare provision in LMICs. PMID:24143128

  11. Improving the quality of workers' compensation health care delivery: the Washington State Occupational Health Services Project.

    PubMed

    Wickizer, T M; Franklin, G; Plaeger-Brockway, R; Mootz, R D

    2001-01-01

    Health and Education; (2) design feasible methods of monitoring patient outcomes and satisfaction with the centers and with the providers working with them in order to assess their effectiveness and value; (3) establish incentives for improved outcomes and worker and employer satisfaction through formal agreements with the centers and providers; and (4) develop quality indicators for the three targeted conditions (low back sprain, carpal tunnel syndrome, and fractures) that serve as the basis for both quality improvement processes and performance-based contracting. What lessons or insights does our experience offer thus far? The primary lesson is the importance of making effective partnerships and collaborations. Our policy and research activities have benefited significantly from the positive relationship the DLI established with the practice community through the Washington State Medical and Chiropractic Associations and from the DLI's close association with the Healthcare Subcommittee of the Workers' Compensation Advisory Committee. This committee is established by state regulation and serves as a forum for dialogue between the committee and the employer and labor communities. Our experience thus underscores the importance of establishing broad-based support for delivery system innovations. Our research activities have also benefited from the close collaboration between DLI program staff and UW health services researchers. The DLI staff brought important program and policy experience, along with an appreciation of the context and environment within which the research, policy, and R&D activities were conducted. The UW research team brought scientific rigor and methodological expertise to the design and implementation of the research and policy activities. In Washington State, the DLI represents a "single payer" for the purposes of workers' compensation. As discussed earlier, Washington State, along with five other states, has a state-fund system that requires all

  12. Allied Health Workers in Pediatric Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Academy of Pediatrics, Evanston, IL.

    Registered nurses and other health personnel have contributed significantly to the delivery of health care in the area of pediatrics but generally physicians have retained for themselves the responsibilty of providing child health supervision, diagnosing disease, determining therapy, and providing counsel in behavioral problems. A survey of the…

  13. Do declination statements increase health care worker influenza vaccination rates?

    PubMed

    Talbot, Thomas R

    2009-09-01

    In response to health care worker influenza vaccination rates that are below desired targets, strategies designed to stimulate vaccination have been proposed, including the use of declination statements for those refusing vaccination. The impact of these statements has not been thoroughly investigated and may be affected by their specific language and context. This review examines the available data on the use and impact of declination statements to increase health care worker vaccination rates and notes some potential pitfalls and issues that may arise with their use.

  14. CANISTER HANDLING FACILITY WORKER DOSE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    D.T. Dexheimer

    2004-02-27

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel working in the Canister Handling Facility (CHF) performing operations to receive transportation casks, transfer wastes, prepare waste packages, perform associated equipment maintenance. The specific scope of work contained in this calculation covers individual worker group doses on an annual basis, and includes the contributions due to external and internal radiation. The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the CHF and provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application.

  15. Biologically Hazardous Agents at Work and Efforts to Protect Workers' Health: A Review of Recent Reports

    PubMed Central

    Rim, Kyung-Taek; Lim, Cheol-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Because information on biological agents in the workplace is lacking, biological hazard analyses at the workplace to securely recognize the harmful factors with biological basis are desperately needed. This review concentrates on literatures published after 2010 that attempted to detect biological hazards to humans, especially workers, and the efforts to protect them against these factors. It is important to improve the current understanding of the health hazards caused by biological factors at the workplace. In addition, this review briefly describes these factors and provides some examples of their adverse health effects. It also reviews risk assessments, protection with personal protective equipment, prevention with training of workers, regulations, as well as vaccinations. PMID:25180133

  16. Improving occupational health care for construction workers: a process evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluate the process of a job-specific workers’ health surveillance (WHS) in improving occupational health care for construction workers. Methods From January to July 2012 were 899 bricklayers and supervisors invited for the job-specific WHS at three locations of one occupational health service throughout the Netherlands. The intervention aimed at detecting signs of work-related health problems, reduced work capacity and/or reduced work functioning. Measurements were obtained using a recruitment record and questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. The process evaluation included the following: reach (attendance rate), intervention dose delivered (provision of written recommendations and follow-up appointments), intervention dose received (intention to follow-up on advice directly after WHS and remembrance of advice three months later), and fidelity (protocol adherence). The workers scored their increase in knowledge from 0–10 with regard to health status and work ability, their satisfaction with the intervention and the perceived (future) effect of such an intervention. Program implementation was defined as the mean score of reach, fidelity, and intervention dose delivered and received. Results Reach was 9% (77 workers participated), fidelity was 67%, the intervention dose delivered was 92 and 63%, and the intervention dose received was 68 and 49%. The total programme implementation was 58%. The increases in knowledge regarding the health status and work ability of the workers after the WHS were graded as 7.0 and 5.9, respectively. The satisfaction of the workers with the entire intervention was graded as 7.5. The perceived (future) effects on health status were graded as 6.3, and the effects on work ability were graded with a 5.2. The economic recession affected the workers as well as the occupational health service that enacted the implementation. Conclusions Programme implementation was acceptable. Low reach, limited protocol adherence and

  17. Fear of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) among Health Care Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Kwong-Lo, Rosalie S. Y.; Mak, Christine W. Y.; Wong, Joe S.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined fear related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) among 2 samples of hospital staff in Hong Kong. Sample 1 included health care workers (n = 82) and was assessed during the peak of the SARS epidemic. Sample 2 included hospital staff who recovered from SARS (n = 97). The results show that participants in…

  18. Bilingual Vocational Training for Health Care Workers: A Guide for Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Career Resources Development Center, Inc., San Francisco, CA.

    A model for bilingual vocational training of health care workers, designed for immigrants and refugees with limited English skills, is presented. The model's seven components include: recruitment; intake assessment; adapted vocational instruction; Vocational English as a Second Language (VESL); counseling and support services; job development and…

  19. Fear of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) among Health Care Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Kwong-Lo, Rosalie S. Y.; Mak, Christine W. Y.; Wong, Joe S.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined fear related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) among 2 samples of hospital staff in Hong Kong. Sample 1 included health care workers (n = 82) and was assessed during the peak of the SARS epidemic. Sample 2 included hospital staff who recovered from SARS (n = 97). The results show that participants in…

  20. DRY TRANSFER FACILITY WORKER DOSE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    J.S. Tang

    2004-09-23

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel working in the Dry Transfer Facility No.1 (DTF-1) performing operations to receive transportation casks, transfer wastes, prepare waste packages, and ship out loaded waste packages and empty casks. Doses received by workers due to maintenance operations are also included in this revision. The specific scope of work contained in this calculation covers both collective doses and individual worker group doses on an annual basis, and includes the contributions due to external and internal radiation from normal operation, excluding the remediation area of the building. The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the DTF-1 and to provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application. The calculations contained in this document were developed by Environmental and Nuclear Engineering of the Design and Engineering Organization and are intended solely for the use of the Design and Engineering Organization in its work regarding facility operation. Yucca Mountain Project personnel from the Environmental and Nuclear Engineering should be consulted before use of the calculations for purposes other than those stated herein or use by individuals other than authorized personnel in the Environmental and Nuclear Engineering.

  1. Health surveillance study of workers who manufacture multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Seong; Choi, Young Chul; Shin, Jae Hoon; Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Yurim; Park, So Young; Baek, Jin Ee; Park, Jung Duck; Ahn, Kangho; Yu, Il Je

    2015-01-01

    While many in vivo and in vitro toxicology studies of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have already indicated that exposure to MWCNTs can potentially induce health effects in humans, the actual health effects of MWCNTs among exposed workers are not yet known. Moreover, the levels of exposure and internal doses of MWCNTs are becoming more and more important for estimating the health effects resulting from exposure to MWCNTs. However, information on biomonitoring and exposure to MWCNTs remains limited. Therefore, the authors conducted a health surveillance study in a workplace that manufactures MWCNTs, including assessment of the personal and area exposure levels to MWCNTs, a walk-through evaluation of the manufacturing process, and collection of blood and exhaled breath condensates (EBCs) from the MWCNT manufacturing and office workers. In addition, a pulmonary function test was also conducted on the MWCNT manufacturing workers (9) and office workers (4). The worker exposure to elemental carbon was found to be 6.2-9.3 μg/m(3) in the personal samplings and 5.5-7.3 μg/m(3) in the area samplings. Notwithstanding, the workers exhibited a normal range of hematology and blood biochemistry values and normal lung function parameters. When analyzing the EBCs, the malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (4-HHE) and n-hexanal levels in the MWCNT manufacturing workers were significantly higher than those in the office workers. The MDA and n-hexanal levels were also significantly correlated with the blood molybdenum concentration, suggesting MDA, n-hexanal and molybdenum as useful biomarkers of MWCNT exposure.

  2. Pesticide use, alternatives and workers' health in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Alexander, R; Anderson, P K

    1984-01-01

    Cuba provides a unique example of a country that is actively implementing a program to reduce its dependence on pesticides. This paper addresses Cuba's current efforts to develop and implement alternatives to pesticides and legislation to limit exposure and protect workers in the interim. In 1980 Cuba embarked on a national program to utilize alternatives to chemical pest control. This three-part program includes expansion of knowledge of Cuban agro-ecology in order to implement cultural control practices; research and implementation on biological control of pests; and research on plant resistance and development of resistant crop varieties. To date, the program has enabled Cuba to reduce pesticide usage in sugar cane, citrus, tobacco, corn, and vegetable crops, among others. While alternatives to chemical pest control are being developed, the Cubans are paying special attention to regulating pesticide use and the safety of workers and members of the public exposed to toxic chemicals. In addition to the Resolution on Health and Safety (1967) and the Safety and Health Law (1978) which cover all workers, including Cuba's 250,000 agricultural workers, the Ministry of Public Health promulgated Resolution 335 in 1967. This resolution addresses requirements and administration of structural pest control, production, importation, transport and storage of pesticides, as well as requirements for worker contact with pesticides, pesticides for domestic use, aerial application of pesticides, and violations of the regulations. The paper concludes with a description of how the system works on the provincial level, as exemplified by Villa Clara, and the steps that have been taken to eliminate worker exposure to pesticides, to utilize pesticides which pose less of a hazard to workers, and to assure early detection of ill effects.

  3. [A health survey in the workers of municipality].

    PubMed

    Göktalay, Tuğba; Şakar Coşkun, Ayşın; Havlucu, Yavuz; Akdemir, Selim Erkan; Datlı, Utku; Gümeli, Filiz; Yorgancıoğlu, Arzu

    2013-01-01

    Internal and external air pollution that is gradually increasing due to urbanization and industrialization has a negative impact on the lung health. A health survey has been applied to evaluate the respiratory symptoms, respiration functions and smoking habbits of the workers of Izmir Konak Municipality whom have been reported to have a high rate of smoking habbit and be affected by the external air pollution due to their being working in the field by the Municipality's doctor. Questionnaire that are composed of the topics of work anamnesis, environmental anamnesis, curriculum vitae, symptoms (coughing, sputum, wheezing, dyspnea, hemoptysis) and smoking have been executed to 301 workers by face to face interview and their chest X-rays have been reviewed. Dyspnea on exertion, sputum in the morning, wheezing and morning cough have been the most frequently observed complaints (respectively 37.2%, 32.2%, 27.9% and 24.9%). Sanitary workers have reported sputum in the morning more while maintanance shop workers have reported wheezing more (p values respectively 0.009, 0.008). No significance has been observed while the workers are evaluated one by one regarding to their work groups. No significant difference was identified between the addiction of smoking and nicotin addiction or pulmonary function test and chest X-rays (p> 0.05) but active smoking was much more seen in drivers (p= 0.047). Although working on the hazardous work branch does not institute a sharp distinction, it becomes significant to trace and lead the workers in order to obtain their lung health protection in long term. Informing and influencing the workers about the harms of smoking and the ways to quit has been the most considerable acquisition of this survey.

  4. Professional competencies and training needs of professional social workers in integrated behavioral health in primary care.

    PubMed

    Horevitz, Elizabeth; Manoleas, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act has led to a widespread movement to integrate behavioral health services into primary care settings. Integrated behavioral health (IBH) holds promise for treating mild to moderate psychiatric disorders in a manner that more fully addresses the biopsychosocial spectrum of needs of individuals and families in primary care, and for reducing disparities in accessing behavioral health care. For behavioral health practitioners, IBH requires a shift to a brief, outcome-driven, and team-based model of care. Despite the fact that social workers comprise the majority of behavioral health providers in IBH settings, little research has been done to assess the extent to which social workers are prepared for effective practice in fast-paced primary care. We conducted a survey of social workers (N = 84) in IBH settings to assess the following: (1) Key competency areas for social work practice in IBH settings and (2) Self-rated preparedness for effective practice in IBH settings. Online snowball sampling methods were used over a period of 1 month. Results indicate that social workers feel prepared for general practice in IBH settings, but would benefit from additional training in IBH-specific competency areas identified in the survey. Findings can help guide social work training to improve workforce preparedness for practice in IBH settings in the wake of health care reform.

  5. Health risks for marine mammal workers.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Tania D; Ziccardi, Michael H; Gulland, Frances M D; Yochem, Pamela K; Hird, David W; Rowles, Teresa; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2008-08-19

    Marine mammals can be infected with zoonotic pathogens and show clinical signs of disease, or be asymptomatic carriers of such disease agents. While isolated cases of human disease from contact with marine mammals have been reported, no evaluation of the risks associated with marine mammal work has been attempted. Therefore, we designed a survey to estimate the risk of work-related injuries and illnesses in marine mammal workers and volunteers. The 17-question survey asked respondents to describe their contact with marine mammals, injuries sustained, and/or illnesses acquired during their period of marine mammal exposure. Most respondents, 88% (423/483), were researchers and rehabilitators. Of all respondents, 50% (243/483) reported suffering an injury caused by a marine mammal, and 23% (110/483) reported having a skin rash or reaction. Marine mammal work-related illnesses commonly reported included: 'seal finger' (Mycoplasma spp. or Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae), conjunctivitis, viral dermatitis, bacterial dermatitis, and non-specific contact dermatitis. Although specific diagnoses could not be confirmed by a physician through this study, severe illnesses were reported and included tuberculosis, leptospirosis, brucellosis, and serious sequelae to seal finger. Risk factors associated with increased odds of injury and illness included prolonged and frequent exposure to marine mammals; direct contact with live marine mammals; and contact with tissue, blood, and excretions. Diagnosis of zoonotic disease was often aided by veterinarians; therefore, workers at risk should be encouraged to consult with a marine mammal veterinarian as well as a physician, especially if obtaining a definitive diagnosis for an illness becomes problematic.

  6. [Risk Society and inequalities in the health of workers].

    PubMed

    Tamez-González, Silvia; Pérez-Domínguez, Josué F

    2012-06-01

    This is a reflection on the current health situation of workers, as well as a reflection on the characteristics of their care system in the context of a globalized world. In order to present this reflection, the first part is focused on the discussion of the main concepts of globalization and risk society. On the second part, and according to the conceptual framework established on the first part, a statistical perspective of workers' health around the world is suggested, emphasizing on the existing inequity between thought-to-be developed world and the developing or poor countries. On the next part, a discussion related to health insurance systems and their incompetence to tackle efficiently workers' health outcomes is established. On the final part, a reflection on the need to reframe the approach and action strategies for improving health status of workers and their families is suggested; this part of the reflection is focused on the recovery of "good life" and human sense of life.

  7. Assessing Depression in Latency-Age Children: A Guide for School Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolley, Michael E.; Curtis, Hannah W.

    2007-01-01

    Schools are a primary setting for the provision of services to children with social, emotional, and behavioral problems. School social workers serve a vital role in identifying, assessing, serving, and referring students suffering from myriad mental health problems, including depression. Starting with a discussion of gathering valid assessment…

  8. The Choice Project: Peer Workers Promoting Shared Decision Making at a Youth Mental Health Service.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Magenta Bender; Batchelor, Samantha; Dimopoulos-Bick, Tara; Howe, Deb

    2017-08-01

    In youth mental health services, consumer participation is essential, but few implementation strategies exist to engage young consumers. This project evaluated an intervention implemented in an Australian youth mental health service that utilized peer workers to promote shared decision making via an online tool. All new clients ages 16-25 were invited to participate in this nonrandomized comparative study, which used a historical comparison group (N=80). Intervention participants (N=149) engaged with a peer worker and used the online tool before and during their intake assessment. Pre- and postintake data were collected for both groups; measures included decisional conflict, perceived shared decision making, and satisfaction. A series of paired t tests, analyses of variance, and multiple regressions were conducted to assess differences in scores across intervention and comparison groups and pre- and postintake assessments. Ratings of perceived shared decision making with intake workers were higher in the intervention group than in the comparison group (p=.015). In both groups, decisional conflict scores were significantly lower after the intake assessment (p<.001 for both groups). Both perceived shared decision making and lower decisional conflict were associated with satisfaction (p<.015). Young people who participated in an intervention that combined peer work and shared decision making reported feeling more involved in their assessment. Feeling involved and having lower decisional conflict after seeing an intake worker were important for client satisfaction. These findings demonstrate the importance of both peer work and shared decision making for promoting optimal outcomes in youth mental health services.

  9. How lay health workers tailor in effective health behaviour change interventions: a protocol for a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hodgins, Faith; Gnich, Wendy; Ross, Alastair J; Sherriff, Andrea; Worlledge-Andrew, Heather

    2016-06-16

    Lay health workers (LHWs) are utilised as a channel of delivery in many health interventions. While they have no formal professional training related to their role, they utilise their connections with the target group or community in order to reach individuals who would not normally readily engage with health services. Lay health worker programmes are often based on psychological theories of behaviour change that point to 'tailoring to individuals' needs or characteristics' as key to success. Although lay health workers have been shown to be effective in many contexts, there is, as yet, little clarity when it comes to how LHWs assess individuals' needs in order to tailor their interventions. This study aims to develop a better understanding of the effective implementation of tailoring in lay health worker interventions by appraising evidence and synthesising studies that report evaluations of tailored interventions. Health and psychology electronic databases (EMBASE, CINAHL, MEDLINE and PsycINFO) will be searched. Reference lists of included studies will also be searched. For articles that are deemed to be potentially relevant, we will employ a 'cluster searching' technique in order to identify all published papers related to a relevant intervention. Cluster searching will be undertaken in an effort to maximise the breadth and depth of description of the intervention. Quantitative studies will be assessed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies, developed by the Effective Public Health Practice Project, ON, Canada. Qualitative studies will be assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklist for qualitative research. Sythesising the data will enable the development of a taxonomy of strategies for the criteria used for individual assessment of recipients' needs and the ways in which messages or actions are tailored to these individual criteria by LHWs. This systematic review focuses specifically on how health promotion and

  10. Promotores de salud and community health workers: an annotated bibliography.

    PubMed

    WestRasmus, Emma K; Pineda-Reyes, Fernando; Tamez, Montelle; Westfall, John M

    2012-01-01

    For underserved and disenfranchised communities in the United States, affordable, effective health care can be nearly inaccessible, which often leads to the exclusion of these communities from relevant medical information and care. Barriers to care are especially salient in minority communities, where language, traditions and customs, socioeconomics, and access to education can serve as additional roadblocks to accessing health care information and services. These factors have contributed to a national health disparity crisis that unnecessarily places some communities in a vulnerable position without adequate prevention and treatment opportunities. One solution to the exclusion some communities face in the health care system may be the promotores de salud (PdS)/community health worker (CHW), an approach to culturally competent health care delivery whose popularity in the mainstream health care system has been steadily growing in recent decades. Known by a wide variety of names and broad in the spectrum of health issues they address, the PdS/CHW serves as cultural brokers between their own community and the formal health care system and can play a crucial role in promoting health and wellness within their community. This annotated bibliography was created to educate the reader about the history, definition, key features, utility, outcomes, and broad potential of the CHW approach in a variety of populations. Intended to serve as a reference point to a vast body of information on the CHW/PdS approach, this document is a resource for those wishing to effect change in the disparities within the health care system, and to improve the access to, quality, and cost of health care for underserved patients and their communities. Promotores de Salud is a Spanish term that translates to Health Promoter. A female health worker may be referred to as a Promotora, a male as a Promotor, and the plural of both is Promotores. For the purposes of this bibliography, the terms community

  11. Recruitment and retention of mental health workers in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Jack, Helen; Canavan, Maureen; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Taylor, Lauren; Bradley, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The lack of trained mental health workers is a primary contributor to the mental health treatment gap worldwide. Despite the great need to recruit and retain mental health workers in low-income countries, little is known about how these workers perceive their jobs and what drives them to work in mental health care. Using qualitative interviews, we aimed to explore factors motivating mental health workers in order to inform interventions to increase recruitment and retention. We conducted 28 in-depth, open-ended interviews with staff in Ghana's three public psychiatric hospitals. We used the snowballing method to recruit participants and the constant comparative method for qualitative data analysis, with multiple members of the research team participating in data coding to enhance the validity and reliability of the analysis. The use of qualitative methods allowed us to understand the range and depth of motivating and demotivating factors. Respondents described many factors that influenced their choice to enter and remain in mental health care. Motivating factors included 1) desire to help patients who are vulnerable and in need, 2) positive day-to-day interactions with patients, 3) intellectual or academic interest in psychiatry or behavior, and 4) good relationships with colleagues. Demotivating factors included 1) lack of resources at the hospital, 2) a rigid supervisory hierarchy, 3) lack of positive or negative feedback on work performance, and 4) few opportunities for career advancement within mental health. Because many of the factors are related to relationships, these findings suggest that strengthening the interpersonal and team dynamics may be a critical and relatively low cost way to increase worker motivation. The data also allowed us to highlight key areas for resource allocation to improve both recruitment and retention, including risk pay, adequate tools for patient care, improved hospital work environment, and stigma reduction efforts.

  12. Recruitment and Retention of Mental Health Workers in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Helen; Canavan, Maureen; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Taylor, Lauren; Bradley, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The lack of trained mental health workers is a primary contributor to the mental health treatment gap worldwide. Despite the great need to recruit and retain mental health workers in low-income countries, little is known about how these workers perceive their jobs and what drives them to work in mental health care. Using qualitative interviews, we aimed to explore factors motivating mental health workers in order to inform interventions to increase recruitment and retention. Methods We conducted 28 in-depth, open-ended interviews with staff in Ghana’s three public psychiatric hospitals. We used the snowballing method to recruit participants and the constant comparative method for qualitative data analysis, with multiple members of the research team participating in data coding to enhance the validity and reliability of the analysis. The use of qualitative methods allowed us to understand the range and depth of motivating and demotivating factors. Results Respondents described many factors that influenced their choice to enter and remain in mental health care. Motivating factors included 1) desire to help patients who are vulnerable and in need, 2) positive day-to-day interactions with patients, 3) intellectual or academic interest in psychiatry or behavior, and 4) good relationships with colleagues. Demotivating factors included 1) lack of resources at the hospital, 2) a rigid supervisory hierarchy, 3) lack of positive or negative feedback on work performance, and 4) few opportunities for career advancement within mental health. Conclusions Because many of the factors are related to relationships, these findings suggest that strengthening the interpersonal and team dynamics may be a critical and relatively low cost way to increase worker motivation. The data also allowed us to highlight key areas for resource allocation to improve both recruitment and retention, including risk pay, adequate tools for patient care, improved hospital work environment

  13. [Female health workers: lifestyle, work, and psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Noriega, Mariano; Gutiérrez, Guadalupe; Méndez, Ignacio; Pulido, Margarita

    2004-01-01

    The relationships were studied between daily life, work, and mental disorders in female health workers from the Mexican Health Insurance Institute. The study sample (n = 170) included female physicians, nurses, laboratory workers, and medical assistants. Primary data were obtained through an interview which had been previously validated in a population of workers in Mexico. Relationships were found between mental disorders and all facets of women's lives. In relation to the domestic environment, women with higher rates of mental disorders were those who were mothers, had more children, did not have household help, and had husbands or partners. Prevalence of mental disorders in relation to paid work was associated with the length of the workday, absenteeism, and lack of job content. Skills development, job satisfaction, and creativity had a "protective" or preventive effect against mental disorders and fatigue. The main risks and conditions that functioned as stressors were heat, noise, physical effort, awkward positions, and intense, repetitive work.

  14. An economic analysis of varicella vaccination for health care workers.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, A. M.; Fenn, P.; Weinberg, J.; Miller, E.; McGuire, A.

    1997-01-01

    A simulation model was constructed to assess the relative costs and cost-effectiveness of different screening and vaccination strategies for dealing with hospital incidents of varicella exposure, compared with current policies, using data from published sources and a hospital survey. The mean number of incidents per hospital year was 3.9, and the mean annual cost of managing these incidents was pounds 5170. Vaccination of all staff would reduce annual incidents to 2.2 at a net cost of pounds 48,900 per incident averted. Screening all staff for previous varicella, testing those who are uncertain or report no previous varicella, and vaccinating those who test negative for VZV antibodies, reduces annual incidents to 2.3 and gives net savings of pounds 440 per incident averted. Sensitivity analyses do not greatly alter the ranking of the options. Some form of VZV vaccination strategy for health care workers may well prove a cost-effective use of health care resources. PMID:9363019

  15. Assessment of Tribal Bison Worker Hazards Using Trusted Research Facilitators.

    PubMed

    Duysen, Ellen; Irvine, Kelsey; Yoder, Aaron; Topliff, Christina; Kelling, Clayton; Rajaram, Shireen

    2017-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the most hazardous industries in the United States. Within agriculture, livestock handling is particularly dangerous. While injury and fatality rates for bison handlers have not been reported, workers in many of the newly established tribal bison herds have limited safety training and animal handling experience, making this a vulnerable workforce. Veterinarians and herd managers, working with tribal bison herds, recognized the need for improvement in the working environment and for worker safety training. In response, partnerships were established and a pilot project was developed in order to characterize risks and hazards associated with bison handling under contemporary reservation field conditions. Individuals and organizations working as change agents included veterinarians at the University of Nebraska - Lincoln School of Veterinary Medicine, a tribal advocacy organization, the Intertribal Buffalo Council and researchers at the Central States Center for Agricultural Safety and Health at the University of Nebraska Medical Center. This is a mixed-methods study and data were gathered through closed and open-ended questions pertaining to bison worker safety hazards. A veterinarian gathered data through observational safety audits at bison herding locations. American Indian bison herd managers completed surveys using a convenience sampling method. Findings indicate that the most common worker safety risks are associated with the use of high-stress handling methods and substandard facilities and equipment. Adverse environmental conditions also contribute to worker health risks. Most common causes of injuries included those caused by equipment and tools, adverse weather, and direct contact with animals. This collaborative research study contributes to a better understanding of hazards faced by tribal bison workers. Findings from this research influenced the ITBC in their decision to add worker safety and health training to the agenda of their

  16. The Invisible Worker: Highlights of the Ohio Migrant Farm Worker Safety Needs Assessment. Working Paper Series WP-024.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Thomas L.; Isaacs, Linda K.

    The Ohio Migrant Farm Worker Safety Needs Assessment was conducted to obtain baseline data on why migrant farm workers are at high risk of injury and illness in Ohio. First, 106 migrant farm workers were interviewed at clinics, labor camps, and job sites. Information concerning demographics, safety training, and incidence of occupational injury…

  17. The Health Condition of Migrant Farm Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Edgar

    This report examines information about the health status of migrant farmworkers, including specific issues related to migrant health services in Michigan. Despite the high rate of families with two wage earners, one-half of migrant farmworker families have incomes below the poverty level. Poverty is associated with poor nutrition and sanitation,…

  18. Cholinesterase assessment as a result of fenitrothion exposure: a survey in a group of public health workers exposed to an organophosphorus pesticide.

    PubMed

    Fakhri, Z I

    1993-11-01

    Antimalarial spraying activities are very important for the malaria control programme in Central Region, Sudan. Fenitrothion, an organophosphorus pesticide, is used for that purpose. A survey of 17 spraying group workers plus three controls was carried out. Whole blood cholinesterase determination was done using the Tintometric method. The maximum and minimum temperatures recorded on the days of the survey were 99 and 78 degrees F respectively. The relative humidity ranged between 82 and 40 per cent in the morning and afternoon respectively. Cholinesterase levels were measured on two pre-start days and then pre- and post-exposure levels were determined on 13 days of a 42 day spraying campaign. On 11 out of the 13 days, cholinesterase levels showed a significant drop. The cholinesterase levels of some members of the spraying team decreased by 25 per cent, 37.5 per cent or 50 per cent which were considered as slight-moderate, moderate-pronounced and pronounced inhibition, respectively.

  19. U.S. Department of Energy, Illness and Injury Surveillance Program, Worker Health Summary, 1995-2004

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Illness and Injury Surveillance Program has created an opportunity to assess illness and injury rates and patterns among workers at participating sites for well over a decade. The Worker Health Summary introduces an additional perspective on worker health with the introduction of analyses comparing the experience of sites in different program offices and a focus on time trends covering a decade of worker illness and injury experience. These analyses by program office suggest that illness and injury patterns among National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) workers diverge in many ways from those seen among Environmental Management (EM) and Science workers for reasons not yet understood. These differences will receive further investigation in future special focus studies, as will other findings of interest. With the time depth now available in our data, the Worker Health Summary reveals an additional nuance in worker health trends: changing health patterns in a specialized and skilled but aging work force. Older workers are becoming an increasing percentage of the work force, and their absence rates for diseases such as diabetes and hypertension are increasing as well. The impact of these emerging health issues, if properly addressed, can be managed to maintain or even enhance worker health and productivity. Prevention strategies designed to reduce the toll of these health conditions appear warranted, and this report gives us an indication of where to focus them. The analyses that follow reflect the Illness and Injury Surveillance Program’s continued commitment to apply a public health perspective in protecting the health of DOE’s work force.

  20. Advancing the framework for considering the effects of climate change on worker safety and health

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, P.A.; Bhattacharya, A.; Butler, C.R.; Chun, H.K.; Jacklitsch, B.; Jacobs, T.; Kiefer, M.; Lincoln, J.; Pendergrass, S.; Shire, J.; Watson, J.; Wagner, G.R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In 2009, a preliminary framework for how climate change could affect worker safety and health was described. That framework was based on a literature search from 1988–2008 that supported seven categories of climate-related occupational hazards: (1) increased ambient temperature; (2) air pollution; (3) ultraviolet radiation exposure; (4) extreme weather; (5) vector-borne diseases and expanded habitats; (6) industrial transitions and emerging industries; and (7) changes in the built environment. This article reviews the published literature from 2008–2014 in each of the seven categories. Additionally, three new topics related to occupational safety and health are considered: mental health effects, economic burden, and potential worker safety and health impacts associated with the nascent field of climate intervention (geoengineering). Beyond updating the literature, this article also identifies key priorities for action to better characterize and understand how occupational safety and health may be associated with climate change events and ensure that worker health and safety issues are anticipated, recognized, evaluated, and mitigated. These key priorities include research, surveillance, risk assessment, risk management, and policy development. Strong evidence indicates that climate change will continue to present occupational safety and health hazards, and this framework may be a useful tool for preventing adverse effects to workers. PMID:27115294

  1. Advancing the framework for considering the effects of climate change on worker safety and health.

    PubMed

    Schulte, P A; Bhattacharya, A; Butler, C R; Chun, H K; Jacklitsch, B; Jacobs, T; Kiefer, M; Lincoln, J; Pendergrass, S; Shire, J; Watson, J; Wagner, G R

    2016-11-01

    In 2009, a preliminary framework for how climate change could affect worker safety and health was described. That framework was based on a literature search from 1988-2008 that supported seven categories of climate-related occupational hazards: (1) increased ambient temperature; (2) air pollution; (3) ultraviolet radiation exposure; (4) extreme weather; (5) vector-borne diseases and expanded habitats; (6) industrial transitions and emerging industries; and (7) changes in the built environment. This article reviews the published literature from 2008-2014 in each of the seven categories. Additionally, three new topics related to occupational safety and health are considered: mental health effects, economic burden, and potential worker safety and health impacts associated with the nascent field of climate intervention (geoengineering). Beyond updating the literature, this article also identifies key priorities for action to better characterize and understand how occupational safety and health may be associated with climate change events and ensure that worker health and safety issues are anticipated, recognized, evaluated, and mitigated. These key priorities include research, surveillance, risk assessment, risk management, and policy development. Strong evidence indicates that climate change will continue to present occupational safety and health hazards, and this framework may be a useful tool for preventing adverse effects to workers.

  2. Health beliefs and breast cancer screening behaviors among female health workers in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Canbulat, Nejla; Uzun, Ozge

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate health beliefs and breast cancer screening behaviors in female health workers in Turkey. This descriptive study was conducted in various health centers located in Erzurum, Turkey. The sample consisted of 268 female health workers (physicians, n=51; nurses, n=169; and midwives, n=48). Data were collected by using a self-administered questionnaire and the Turkish version of Champion's Health Belief Model Scales (CHBMS). The mean age of participants was 31.31 (S.D.=6.89), and 49.9% of them were married. It was found that only 21.9% of the female health workers performed breast self-examination (BSE) regularly, and 12.5% of them had a mammogram. Physicians' health motivation and BSE self-efficacy perceptions were higher than the nurses and midwives. Susceptibility, health motivation to BSE, BSE benefits, BSE self-efficacy perceptions of female health workers who performed BSE were significantly higher than those who did not, and a result indicating that positive health beliefs are effective in stimulating performance of BSE of female health workers. Among the variables related with mammography, only susceptibility perceptions of female health workers who had a mammogram was significantly higher than those who had not had a mammogram.

  3. WHISPER or SHOUT study: protocol of a cluster-randomised controlled trial assessing mHealth sexual reproductive health and nutrition interventions among female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ampt, Frances H; Mudogo, Collins; Gichangi, Peter; Lim, Megan S C; Manguro, Griffins; Chersich, Matthew; Jaoko, Walter; Temmerman, Marleen; Laini, Marilyn; Comrie-Thomson, Liz; Stoové, Mark; Agius, Paul A; Hellard, Margaret; L'Engle, Kelly; Luchters, Stanley

    2017-08-18

    New interventions are required to reduce unintended pregnancies among female sex workers (FSWs) in low- and middle-income countries and to improve their nutritional health. Given sex workers' high mobile phone usage, repeated exposure to short messaging service (SMS) messages could address individual and interpersonal barriers to contraceptive uptake and better nutrition. In this two-arm cluster randomised trial, each arm constitutes an equal-attention control group for the other. SMS messages were developed systematically, participatory and theory-driven and cover either sexual and reproductive health (WHISPER) or nutrition (SHOUT). Messages are sent to participants 2-3 times/week for 12 months and include fact-based and motivational content as well as role model stories. Participants can send reply texts to obtain additional information. Sex work venues (clusters) in Mombasa, Kenya, were randomly sampled with a probability proportionate to venue size. Up to 10 women were recruited from each venue to enrol 860 women. FSWs aged 16-35 years, who owned a mobile phone and were not pregnant at enrolment were eligible. Structured questionnaires, pregnancy tests, HIV and syphilis rapid tests and full blood counts were performed at enrolment, with subsequent visits at 6 and 12 months. The primary outcomes of WHISPER and SHOUT are unintended pregnancy incidence and prevalence of anaemia at 12 months, respectively. Each will be compared between study groups using discrete-time survival analysis. Contamination may occur if participants discuss their intervention with those in the other trial arm. This is mitigated by cluster recruitment and only sampling a small proportion of sex work venues from the sampling frame. The design allows for the simultaneous testing of two independent mHealth interventions for which messaging frequency and study procedures are identical. This trial may guide future mHealth initiatives and provide methodological insights into use of reciprocal

  4. Critical Incident Stress Debriefing for Health Care Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Pamela S.

    1994-01-01

    Describes Critical Incident Stress Debriefing process (CISD) as model designed to mitigate impact of life-threatening crises on health care workers, to facilitate their return to routine functioning, and to prevent pathological responses to trauma that is inherent aspect of their profession. Examines development of CISD and explores its…

  5. Pandemic influenza: antiviral preparedness and health care workers.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Ruth B; Benitez, John G; D'Angelo, Anne; Tyo, Kathee

    2010-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the preparedness for pandemic influenza of hospitals, in terms of amount of antiviral drugs on hand and employee vaccination rates, in the Finger Lakes region (FLR) of western New York. A survey of the 17 FLR hospitals was conducted via e-mail during the period of June 2007 to August 2007. A total of 13 of 17 hospitals responded for a response rate of 76.5%. Only 23.1% of responding hospitals stockpile antiviral drugs. Vaccination rates for personnel with patient contact ranged from 36.8% to 76.1%. Hospitals in the FLR have insufficient quantities of antiviral agents stockpiled to provide for the protection of health care workers, and influenza vaccination rates for health care workers are low. To ensure that a high level of care is maintained during a pandemic, health care workers need to be provided with appropriate protection. This can be accomplished if hospitals stockpile antiviral agents designated for the treatment and prophylaxis of health care workers with patient contact and their families.

  6. Aragon workers' health study - design and cohort description

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spain, a Mediterranean country with relatively low rates of coronary heart disease, has a high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and is experiencing a severe epidemic of overweight/obesity. We designed the Aragon Workers' Health Study (AWHS) to characterize the factors associated...

  7. Guidelines for Training Community Health Workers in Nutrition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This task-oriented manual for the training of community health workers in nutrition presents information and instructions in two parts. The first part consists of three chapters. The first chapter introduces the guidelines; the second deals with teaching skills and is intended to improve teaching. The third chapter presents some basic facts about…

  8. Guidelines for Training Community Health Workers in Nutrition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This task-oriented manual for the training of community health workers in nutrition presents information and instructions in two parts. The first part consists of three chapters. The first chapter introduces the guidelines; the second deals with teaching skills and is intended to improve teaching. The third chapter presents some basic facts about…

  9. Stress, burnout, and job dissatisfaction in mental health workers.

    PubMed

    Rössler, Wulf

    2012-11-01

    As the industrial world has transformed toward a service economy, a particular interest has developed in mental health problems at the workplace. The risk for burnout is significantly increased in certain occupations, notably for health care workers. Beyond the effects of an extensive workload, many working hours, or long night shifts, the medical field has specific stressors. Physicians work in emotionally demanding environments with patients, families, or other medical staff. They must make quick decisions while faced with a quite frequent information overload. All of these stressors have to be weighed against a rapidly changing organizational context within medicine. Today, economics objectives have priority over medical values in health care. In principal, mental health workers should experience similar work stressors and the same contextual factors as health professionals from other medical disciplines. However, several studies have identified stressors that are unique to the psychiatric profession. These challenges range from the stigma of this profession, to particularly demanding relationships with patients and difficult interactions with other mental health professionals as part of multidisciplinary teams to personal threats from violent patients. Other sources of stress are a lack of positive feedback, low pay, and a poor work environment. Finally, patient suicide is a major stressor, upon which a majority of mental health workers report post-traumatic stress symptoms.

  10. Community Health Workers Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Bingaman, Jeff [D-NM

    2009-01-26

    Senate - 01/26/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. 76 FR 52329 - Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health: Notice of Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health... October 6, 1972, that the Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health, Department of Health and Human.... Theodore Katz, Designated Federal Officer, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health, Department of...

  12. Community health workers: social justice and policy advocates for community health and well-being.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Leda M; Martinez, Jacqueline

    2008-01-01

    Community health workers are resources to their communities and to the advocacy and policy world on several levels. Community health workers can connect people to health care and collect information relevant to policy. They are natural researchers who, as a result of direct interaction with the populations they serve, can recount the realities of exclusion and propose remedies for it. As natural researchers, they contribute to best practices while informing public policy with the information they can share. In this light, community health workers may also be advocates for social justice.

  13. Musculoskeletal symptoms associated with posterior load carriage: An assessment of manual material handling workers in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Muslim, Khoirul; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2015-06-05

    Concerns have been raised regarding the high prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) among manual material handling (MMH) workers. However, limited investigations have been undertaken among one large group of workers using a particular MMH method called posterior load carriage (PLC). This is typically done without the use of a backpack in developing countries, and involves exposure to known risk factors for MSS such as heavy loads, non-neutral postures, and high levels of repetition. To 1) determine the types and prevalence of MSS among PLC workers and the impacts of these MSS on workers, 2) explore job demands potentially contributing to MSS, and (3) obtain input from workers regarding possible improvements to facilitate future interventions. Structured interview applied to 108 workers to assess PLC worker characteristics and job demands in eight cities in Indonesia. MSS were reported in all anatomical regions evaluated, with symptoms most commonly reported at the lower back (72.2%), feet (69.4%), knees (64%), shoulders (47.2%), and neck (41.7%). Logistic regression indicated that MSS in the lower back were associated with longer work hours/day, MSS in the hands were associated with load mass, and MSS in the ankles/feet were associated with stature and load carriage frequency. MSS were reported to interfere with daily activity, but only few workers sought medical treatment. Possible improvements included the use of a belt, hook, or backpack/frame, and changes in the carriage method. The study suggests that PLC workers incur a relatively high MSS burden. Future studies are needed to develop and evaluate practical interventions and specific guidelines to improve working conditions and occupational health and safety for PLC workers.

  14. Jewish Israeli social workers' responses to ethnic health inequality.

    PubMed

    Baum, Nehami

    2013-04-01

    In this study I explored the perceptions and responses of Jewish Israeli social workers to the health inequalities facing their Arab clients. Findings drawn from face-to-face, in-depth interviews with 26 Jewish Israeli social workers employed in the health field show that they were highly aware of the health inequalities. Although they uniformly insisted that there was no discrimination in the hospitals where they were employed, they observed extensive structural and individual discrimination outside the hospital and linguistic and sociocultural impediments to health equality within it. The discrimination provoked feelings of anger and moral outrage, guilt, and shame. Both the discrimination and the linguistic and sociocultural impediments filled them with frustration and led them, both individually and in concert with colleagues, to try to alleviate, circumvent, correct, or compensate for the impediments. Suggestions are made for practice and further research.

  15. The national mobile health worker project in England.

    PubMed

    Drayton, Kathryn; Robinson, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Community services provide essential care to many, often vulnerable, people, families and communities along the spectrum from health promotion to end of life care. The Mobile Health Worker Project is part of a larger project, the Transforming Community Services programme, which was established to support providers make changes to service provision that would provide better health outcomes, as well as increasing efficiency through the use of technology. This paper draws on the results of the two phase Mobile Health Worker project which involved 11 sites around England, the aim of which was to understand the requirements of mobile working. The results demonstrate that increased productivity and efficiency can be achieved by making changes to working processes. The project also provides guidance to increase the rate of mobile working adoption by providing a solid economic basis for investment in and deployment of mobile solutions to community organisations.

  16. Workplace threats to health and job turnover among women workers.

    PubMed

    Gucer, Patricia W; Oliver, Marc; McDiarmid, Melissa

    2003-07-01

    Is job turnover related to concern about workplace health risks? Using data from a national sample of working women, we examined the relationships among workplace risk communications, worker concerns about workplace threats from hazardous substances, indoor air quality, and job change. Eight percent reported changing a job as a result of concern over workplace threats to health. Previous workplace injury predicted concern about hazardous materials and indoor air quality as well as job change, but employer communication about workplace health risks was associated with less job change and less concern about indoor air quality. Women worry about workplace threats to their health enough to change their jobs, but employers may have the power to cut turnover costs and reduce disruption to workers' lives through the use of risk communication programs.

  17. Implementation of a National Workplace Wellness Program for Health Workers in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Ledikwe, Jenny H.; Semo, Bazghina-werq; Sebego, Miram; Mpho, Maureen; Mothibedi, Heather; Mawandia, Shreshth; O’Malley, Gabrielle

    2017-01-01

    The Botswana workplace wellness program (WWP) for health care workers (HCWs) was initiated in 2007. WWP implementation was assessed using a sequential, explanatory, mixed methods design including a national implementation assessment (27 health districts) and in-depth interviews (n = 38). Level of implementation varied across districts with health screening, therapeutic recreation, and health promotion implemented more frequently than occupational health activities and psychosocial services. Facilitators to WWP implementation included establishment of a dedicated, diverse WWP committee; provision of administrative support, and integration of activities into organizational culture. Barriers included competing priorities related to delivery of health services to clients, limited technical ability to deliver occupation health activities and psychosocial support, receipt of health services from colleagues, and limited appreciation for personal wellness by some HCWs. Ensuring the well-being of HCWs is critical in reaching international health goals. PMID:28742763

  18. Implementation of a National Workplace Wellness Program for Health Workers in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Ledikwe, Jenny H; Semo, Bazghina-Werq; Sebego, Miram; Mpho, Maureen; Mothibedi, Heather; Mawandia, Shreshth; O'Malley, Gabrielle

    2017-09-01

    : The Botswana workplace wellness program (WWP) for health care workers (HCWs) was initiated in 2007. WWP implementation was assessed using a sequential, explanatory, mixed methods design including a national implementation assessment (27 health districts) and in-depth interviews (n = 38). Level of implementation varied across districts with health screening, therapeutic recreation, and health promotion implemented more frequently than occupational health activities and psychosocial services. Facilitators to WWP implementation included establishment of a dedicated, diverse WWP committee; provision of administrative support, and integration of activities into organizational culture. Barriers included competing priorities related to delivery of health services to clients, limited technical ability to deliver occupation health activities and psychosocial support, receipt of health services from colleagues, and limited appreciation for personal wellness by some HCWs. Ensuring the well-being of HCWs is critical in reaching international health goals.

  19. The association of health risks with workers' compensation costs.

    PubMed

    Musich, S; Napier, D; Edington, D W

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between health risks and workers' compensation (WC) costs. The 4-year study used Health Risk Appraisal data and focused on 1996-to-1999 WC costs among Xerox Corporation's long-term employees. High WC costs were related to individual health risks, especially Health Age Index (a measure of controllable risks), smoking, poor physical health, physical inactivity, and life dissatisfaction. WC costs increased with increasing health risk status (low-risk to medium-risk to high-risk). Low-risk employees had the lowest costs. In this population, 85% of WC costs could be attributed to excess risks (medium- or high-risk) or non-participation. Among those with claims, a savings of $1238 per person per year was associated with Health Risk Appraisal participation. Addressing WC costs by focusing on employee health status provides an important additional strategy for health promotion programs.

  20. Intimate partner violence and primary health care workers: screening and management.

    PubMed

    Fawole, Olufunmilao I; Yusuf, Bidemi O; Dairo, Magbagbeola D; Fatiregun, Akinola

    2010-06-01

    To assess knowledge, attitude and management practices on intimate partner violence (IPV) in primary care practice and determine barriers to screening, safety concerns and prior training of health workers. Self administered questionnaire interview of 298 health workers from 104 health facilities in the 33 local government areas of Oyo state. Health workers underestimated IPV, 80% estimated that less than 10% of women in their practice experience violence. Only 35% (105) screened routinely for IPV, while 43% (129) had ever identified a victim. Response of health workers when they found oppressed women were often (64.5%) limited to treatment of injuries. Many (66.1%) believed it was an intrusion into patient's private life to inquire about violence. Ninety per cent (270) expressed concern for their personal safety if they were to discuss with the oppressed or perpetrators. Many (74.8%) believed that they could assist men who perpetrate violence, while 92.3% believed they could assist abused women. Only 18.8% (56) had ever received training on violence. Health workers with previous training on IPV were three times more likely to screen (AOR 2.66; 95%CI: 1.52-4.63), while the more senior cadre were more likely (AOR 1.62; 95% CI: 1.13-2.81) to have identified an oppressed woman. Although not significant, females had better knowledge and attitudes than men (OR 0.67; 0.96-2.94 and 0.78; 0.44-1.40). Health workers were willing to discuss IPV, but lacked fundamental knowledge on IPV. Training efforts that focus on screening and comprehensive management are urgently required.

  1. Influence of musculoskeletal pain on workers' ergonomic risk-factor assessments.

    PubMed

    Chiasson, Marie-Ève; Imbeau, Daniel; Major, Judy; Aubry, Karine; Delisle, Alain

    2015-07-01

    This study compares the ergonomic risk-factor assessments of workers with and without musculoskeletal pain. A questionnaire on the musculoskeletal pain experienced in various body regions during the 12 months and seven days preceding the data collection was administered to 473 workers from three industrial sectors. The Ergonomic Workplace Analysis method, developed by the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH), was then used by the workers and an ergonomics expert to assess the workstations. The ergonomic quality of the workstations and the need for change were also assessed by the expert and the workers at the workstation, using visual analog scales (VAS). Results show that the workers in this study were exposed to significant musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risk factors, according to the FIOH assessment and the high percentages of reported pain. The results also show that those who reported pain in the seven days prior to the assessment evaluated their workstations more negatively than subjects who reported no pain, while the expert found no difference between the two groups' exposure to MSD risk factors.

  2. A retrospective cohort study among iron-steel workers in Anshan, China: exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Pan, Guowei; Tanaka, Chieko; Feng, Yiping; Yu, Lianzheng; Liu, Tiefu; Liu, Liming; Hanaoka, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Ken

    2006-09-01

    Although adequate assessment of exposure is needed in epidemiological studies among foundry workers, previous studies are often lacking in this aspect. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of a Chinese iron and steel company with a 14-yr follow up during 1980-1993. Exposure assessment was performed for a single job, i.e., the current job for the active worker and the longest job for the retired or deceased worker as of the end of the follow-up, which was allocated as the surrogate of lifetime job and was applied to a job-exposure matrix. Of the 147,062 cohort members, 52,394 males (43%) and 5,291 females (21%) were exposed to any of 15 hazardous factors such as dust, silica, PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), CO (carbon monoxide) and heat. In 2,104 randomly selected samples, the exposure assessment of exposed workers based on a single job was found to be 12-14% lower than the real situation. This study suggests that the exposure assessment is valuable in evaluating the health effects among the foundry workers, despite some limitations such as underestimation of exposure assessment and the lack of data regarding smoking and drinking habits.

  3. Toxicology primer: understanding workplace hazards and protecting worker health.

    PubMed

    Arble, Janice

    2004-06-01

    Hazardous substances are ubiquitous in the environment and common in industrialized societies. Serious harm can occur with sufficient exposures under certain conditions. However, much harm can be avoided if hazardous substances are handled with respect and appreciation for their use and potential. Occupational health nurses must be aware of potential hazards to employees in the work environment and apply scientific principles to their practice of promoting worker safety and health.

  4. Balancing workload, motivation and job satisfaction in Rwanda: assessing the effect of adding family planning service provision to community health worker duties.

    PubMed

    Chin-Quee, Dawn; Mugeni, Cathy; Nkunda, Denis; Uwizeye, Marie Rose; Stockton, Laurie L; Wesson, Jennifer

    2016-01-06

    Task shifting from higher cadre providers to CHWs has been widely adopted to address healthcare provider shortages, but the addition of any service can potentially add to an already considerable workload for CHWs. Objective measures of workload alone, such as work-related time and travel may not reflect howCHWs actually perceive and react to their circumstances. This study combined perception and objectivemeasures of workload to examine their effect on quality of services, worker performance, and job and clientsatisfaction. Three hundred eighty-three CHWs from control and intervention districts, where the intervention group was trained to provide contraceptive resupply, completed diaries of work-related activities for one month. Interviews were also conducted with a subset of CHWs and their clients. CHW diaries did not reveal significant differences between intervention and control groups in time spent on service provision or travel. Over 90% of CHWs reported workload manageability, job satisfaction, and motivation to perform their jobs. Clients were highly satisfied with CHW services and most stated preference for future services from CHWs. The study demonstrated that adding resupply of hormonal contraceptives to CHWs' tasks would not place undue burden on them. Accordingly, the initiative was scaled up in all 30 districts in the country.

  5. Job satisfaction and motivation of health workers in public and private sectors: cross-sectional analysis from two Indian states

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    -financial motivators such as working environment and skill development opportunities. But managers also need to focus on the importance of locally assessing conditions and managing incentives to ensure health workers are motivated in their work. PMID:21108833

  6. Determinants and consequences of health worker motivation in hospitals in Jordan and Georgia.

    PubMed

    Franco, Lynne Miller; Bennett, Sara; Kanfer, Ruth; Stubblebine, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Health worker motivation reflects the interactions between workers and their work environment. Because of the interactive nature of motivation, local organizational and broader sector policies have the potential to affect motivation of health workers, either positively or negatively, and as such to influence health system performance. Yet little is known about the key determinants and outcomes of motivation in developing and transition countries. This exploratory research, unique in its broader study of a whole range of motivational determinants and outcomes, was conducted in two hospitals in Jordan and two in Georgia. Three complementary approaches to data collection were used: (1) a contextual analysis; (2) a qualitative 360-degree assessment; and (3) a quantitative in-depth analysis focused on the individual determinants and outcomes of the worker's motivational process. A wide range of psychometric scales was used to assess personality differences, perceived contextual factors and motivational outcomes (feelings, thoughts and behaviors) on close to 500 employees in each country. Although Jordan and Georgia have very different cultural and socio-economic environments, the results from these two countries exhibited many similarities among key determinants: self-efficacy, pride, management openness, job properties, and values had significant effects on motivational outcomes in both countries. Where results were divergent, differences between the two countries highlight the importance of local culture on motivational issues, and the need to tailor motivational interventions to the specific issues related to particular professional or other groupings in the workforce. While workers themselves state that financial reward is critical for their work satisfaction, the data suggest a number of non-financial interventions that may be more effective means to improve worker motivation. This research highlights the complexity of worker motivation, and the need for a more

  7. Retrospective exposure assessment to airborne asbestos among power industry workers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A method of individually assessing former exposure to asbestos fibres is a precondition of risk-differentiated health surveillance. The main aims of our study were to assess former levels of airborne asbestos exposure in the power industry in Germany and to propose a basic strategy for health surveillance and the early detection of asbestos related diseases. Methods Between March 2002 and the end of 2006, we conducted a retrospective questionnaire based survey of occupational tasks and exposures with airborne asbestos fibres in a cohort of 8632 formerly asbestos exposed power industry workers. The data on exposure and occupation were entered into a specially designed computer programme, based on ambient monitoring of airborne asbestos fibre concentrations. The cumulative asbestos exposure was expressed as the product of the eight-hour time weighted average and the total duration of exposure in fibre years (fibres/cubic centimetre-years). Results Data of 7775 (90% of the total) participants working in installations for power generation, power distribution or gas supply could be evaluated. The power generation group (n = 5284) had a mean age of 56 years, were exposed for 20 years and had an average cumulative asbestos exposure of 42 fibre years. The occupational group of "metalworkers" (n = 1600) had the highest mean value of 79 fibre years. The corresponding results for the power distribution group (n = 2491) were a mean age of 45 years, a mean exposure duration of 12 years and an average cumulative asbestos exposure of only 2.5 fibre years. The gas supply workers (n = 512) had a mean age of 54 years and a mean duration of exposure of 15 years. Conclusions While the surveyed cohort as a whole was heavily exposed to asbestos dust, the power distribution group had a mean cumulative exposure of only 6% of that found in the power generation group. Based on the presented data, risk-differentiated disease surveillance focusing on metalworkers and electricians

  8. Poor retention does not have to be the rule: retention of volunteer community health workers in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Ludwick, Teralynn; Brenner, Jennifer L; Kyomuhangi, Teddy; Wotton, Kathryn A; Kabakyenga, Jerome Kahuma

    2014-01-01

    Globally, health worker shortages continue to plague developing countries. Community health workers are increasingly being promoted to extend primary health care to underserved populations. Since 2004, Healthy Child Uganda (HCU) has trained volunteer community health workers in child health promotion in rural southwest Uganda. This study analyses the retention and motivation of volunteer community health workers trained by HCU. It presents retention rates over a 5-year period and provides insight into volunteer motivation. The findings are based on a 2010 retrospective review of the community health worker registry and the results of a survey on selection and motivation. The survey was comprised of qualitative and quantitative questions and verbally administered to a convenience sample of project participants. Between February 2004 and July 2009, HCU trained 404 community health workers (69% female) in 175 villages. Volunteers had an average age of 36.7 years, 4.9 children and some primary school education. Ninety-six per cent of volunteer community health workers were retained after 1 year (389/404), 91% after 2 years (386/404) and 86% after 5 years (101/117). Of the 54 ‘dropouts’, main reasons cited for discontinuation included ‘too busy’ (12), moved (11), business/employment (8), death (6) and separation/divorce (6). Of 58 questionnaire respondents, most (87%) reported having been selected at an inclusive community meeting. Pair-wise ranking was used to assess the importance of seven ‘motivational factors’ among respondents. Those highest ranked were ‘improved child health’, ‘education/training’ and ‘being asked for advice/assistance by peers’, while the modest ‘transport allowance’ ranked lowest. Our findings suggest that in our rural, African setting, volunteer community health workers can be retained over the medium term. Community health worker programmes should invest in community involvement in selection, quality training

  9. Listening to mental health workers' experiences: factors influencing their work with women who disclose sexual assault.

    PubMed

    McLindon, Elizabeth; Harms, Louise

    2011-02-01

    Women are overrepresented within mental health service-use statistics, and a disproportionate number of them have experienced sexual assault. While mental health workers are often the first point of contact between these women and the mental health system, within the research to date, women have often reported a negative experience of disclosing sexual assault to these workers. This article presents findings from an exploratory Australian study. The aim of the study was to explore factors that influenced how mental health Crisis Assessment and Treatment Service (CATS) workers respond to women who disclose sexual assault in crisis service settings. Fifteen CATS workers were surveyed and the predominantly qualitative data were then analysed using thematic analysis. This article presents two key findings: (i) the majority of participants had not experienced adequate sexual assault training, and seven of the 15 did not feel well equipped to respond to a disclosure of sexual assault; and (ii) they rarely consulted or referred women to specialist sexual assault services, despite recognizing the significant impact of sexual assault on mental health functioning. Recommendations are made for training and increased communication between mental health and sexual assault service systems to ensure better outcomes for women.

  10. Influence of occupational stress on mental health among Chinese off-shore oil workers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Qing; Wong, Tze-Wai; Yu, Tak-Sun

    2009-09-01

    To explore the influence of occupational stress on mental health in off-shore oil production. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 561 Chinese off-shore oil workers. The workers were invited to fill in a self-administered questionnaire exploring their socio-demographic characteristics, occupational stress levels, and 12-item general health questionnaire. A hierarchical multiple regression procedure was used to assess the effects of occupational stress on mental health. After controlling for age, educational level, marital status and years of off-shore work, poor mental health was found to have a significant positive association with seven of the nine identified sources of occupational stress. They were: conflict between job and family/social life, poor development of career and achievement at work, safety problems at work, management problems and poor relationship with others at work, poor physical environment of the work place, uncomfortable ergonomic factors at work, and poor organizational structure at work. All of these occupational stress sources together explained 19.9% of the total variance. The results confirmed that occupational stress was a major risk factor for poor mental health among Chinese off-shore oil workers. Reducing or eliminating occupational stressors at work would benefit workers' mental health.

  11. U.S. Department of Energy Illness, and Injury Surveillance Program, Worker Health At A Glance, 1995-2004

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Illness and Injury Surveillance Program (IISP) has monitored the health of contractor workers at selected DOE sites since 1990. For the first time, the IISP has sufficient data to describe, in a collective manner, the health trends occurring among workers at a number of DOE sites during a 10-year period. This brief report and the more detailed Worker Health Summary assess illness and injury trends of DOE workers according to gender, age, occupational group, and program office over the 10-year period, 1995 through 2004. During this time, over 137,000 individual contractor workers were employed at the 15 DOE sites participating in the IISP.

  12. Job Demands and Worker Health. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, John R., Jr.; And Others

    Seventeen years ago a group of researchers at the University of Michigan became interested in the possibility that occupational health may be determined by psychological as well as physical hazards in the work environment. This symposium reports on current work in testing a unified theory of the effects of psychosocial stresses on mental and…

  13. Community Health Workers Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Bingaman, Jeff [D-NM

    2009-01-26

    01/26/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (text of measure as introduced: CR S836-838) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Aligning Provider Team Members With Polyvalent Community Health Workers.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Beth A; Davis, Sheila; Kulbok, Pamela; Frank-Lightfoot, Loraine; Sgarlata, Lisa; Poree, Shawanda

    2015-01-01

    In light of the fragmentation of health care services and the need for health promotion and disease prevention, it is time to consider the important role community health workers (CHWs) could play as part of the health care team. Globally, CHWs tend to focus on a single patient condition, resulting in fragmented, uncoordinated health care services. Polyvalent (or multimodal) CHWs can provide a comprehensive, patient-centric range of care coordination services with other members of the health care team, ultimately improving patient outcomes and decreasing the cost of care. The potential benefits of the polyvalent CHW to the health care team are not widely understood in the United States. To fill this knowledge gap, a toolkit for nurse leaders in mainstream health care settings was created. The toolkit outlines the key elements essential to a successful CHW program and offers strategies for navigating the various challenges involved when integrating this new role into existing models of care.

  15. Level of Integration of Community Health Workers in Missouri Health Systems.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Darson; Visker, Joseph; Cox, Carol; Banez, J Christian; Wang, Anna

    2016-11-16

    The purpose of this study was to describe the level of integration of community health workers (CHWs) into Missouri public healthcare systems using a cross-sectional survey research design. Representatives of all Missouri Local Public Health Agencies, Rural Health Clinics, and Federally Qualified Health Centers were pre-contacted by telephone to provide the electronic mail of the most knowledgeable person in the facility/location to complete a brief electronic survey on their use of CHWs. 103 representatives of the 273 (37.7% response rate) contacted from the health systems completed the Profile of Community Health Workers in Missouri Health Systems to assess role, professional development, and information needs of CHWs used in the key informants' agencies. An Abridged Survey was created for participants who responded to the survey but indicated that CHWs were not currently working for their organization. Descriptive statistics and measures of central tendency were computed. Only 16% (16/103) of participants noted that CHWs were employed in their organizations; and most CHWs connected people with services, served low-income and rural populations, and addressed heart disease issues. Participants who did not currently employ CHWs indicated they did not anticipate needing them in the near future. Of those utilizing CHWs, most perceived CHWs have a vital role in healthcare (M = 4.27/5.0, SD = 0.64) but securing sustainable funding for CHWs was challenging (M = 4.18/5.0, SD = 0.87). Utilization of CHWs in Missouri healthcare systems is limited. If their role in Missouri healthcare systems is to expand, a campaign to educate on their role and value is needed.

  16. Biological monitoring of toxic metals - steel workers respiratory health survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, T.; Almeida, A. Bugalho de; Alves, L.; Freitas, M. C.; Moniz, D.; Alvarez, E.; Monteiro, P.; Reis, M.

    1999-04-01

    The aim of this work is to search for respiratory system aggressors to which workers are submitted in their labouring activity. Workers from one sector of a steel plant in Portugal, Siderurgia Nacional (SN), were selected according to the number of years of exposure and labouring characteristics. The work reports on blood elemental content alterations and lung function tests to determine an eventual bronchial hyper-reactivity. Aerosol samples collected permit an estimate of indoor air quality and airborne particulate matter characterisation to further check whether the elemental associations and alterations found in blood may derive from exposure. Blood and aerosol elemental composition was determined by PIXE and INAA. Respiratory affections were verified for 24% of the workers monitored. There are indications that the occurrence of affections can be associated with the total working years. The influence of long-term exposure, health status parameters, and lifestyle factors in blood elemental variations found was investigated.

  17. Revised Methods for Worker Risk Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is updating and changing the way it approaches pesticide risk assessments. This new approach will result in more comprehensive and consistent evaluation of potential risks of food use pesticides, non-food use pesticides, and occupational exposures.

  18. The motivation and mental health of sex workers.

    PubMed

    Chudakov, Bella; Ilan, Keren; Belmaker, R H; Cwikel, Julie

    2002-01-01

    Commercial sex work presents specific mental health concerns. We aimed to study motivation for sex work and mental health issues in a sample of such women. We contacted 55 consenting women through organized brothels and interviewed them using the Farley questionnaire and screening items for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Eighty-two percent of the women had arrived illegally and had been "trafficked." All but 2 were engaged voluntarily in sex work. Seventeen percent met criteria for PTSD, and 19% were likely to be clinically depressed. We present representative case histories. Availability of mental health treatment for workers in the sex industry could improve compliance with HIV prevention programs and enlarge options for women to leave the sex industry. We observed that stereotypes of sex workers as either always having histories of childhood abuse or as being always "happy hookers" were incorrect.

  19. Awareness of rabies prevention and control measures among public health workers in Northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, A K T; Nguyen, H T T; Pham, T N; Hoang, T V; Olowokure, B

    2015-12-01

    To assess and compare rabies related knowledge and awareness of public health workers at provincial and district levels in the seven provinces with the highest number of deaths from human rabies in northern Vietnam. A cross-sectional study. A survey was administered to a convenience sample of public health workers attending four workshops on rabies disease, control and prevention between 16 October and 21 November, 2012. Total knowledge scores (maximum 38 points) were categorized into: 'high' (>30 points) 'moderate' (21-30) and 'low' (<21). The Chi-square test was used to evaluate the statistical significance of the differences in responses between the respondents. Of the 105 public health workers attending the workshops: 57% were male; 76% worked at the district level compared with 24% who worked at provincial level; and 45% had worked in rabies control for <1 year compared with 11% who had worked in rabies control for >5 years. Overall knowledge was patchy and ranked as 'moderate'. Important gaps in knowledge were identified particularly in relation to indications for rabies vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin, and routes of exposure to rabies virus. One in ten respondents did not know that rabies virus could be transmitted by the bite of an infected animal. When examining the overall mean knowledge scores, marginally significant differences were identified. The average scores for district level health workers (DLHW) and provincial level health workers (PLHW) were 28 ± 3 and 29 ± 3 points respectively (p = 0.098), which fell within the study definition of 'moderate' knowledge. In contrast, when 'high' knowledge scores were compared, a significantly greater proportion of PLHW achieved >30 points compared to DLHW (44.0% vs 22.5%, p = 0.044). Important gaps in knowledge and awareness of public health workers were identified particularly in relation to routes of exposure to rabies virus and indications for rabies vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin. Overall, comparison

  20. Community health workers and medicaid managed care in New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Diane; Saavedra, Patricia; Sun, Eugene; Stageman, Ann; Grovet, Dodie; Alfero, Charles; Maynes, Carmen; Skipper, Betty; Powell, Wayne; Kaufman, Arthur

    2012-06-01

    We describe the impact of community health workers (CHWs) providing community-based support services to enrollees who are high consumers of health resources in a Medicaid managed care system. We conducted a retrospective study on a sample of 448 enrollees who were assigned to field-based CHWs in 11 of New Mexico's 33 counties. The CHWs provided patients education, advocacy and social support for a period up to 6 months. Data was collected on services provided, and community resources accessed. Utilization and payments in the emergency department, inpatient service, non-narcotic and narcotic prescriptions as well as outpatient primary care and specialty care were collected on each patient for a 6 month period before, for 6 months during and for 6 months after the intervention. For comparison, data was collected on another group of 448 enrollees who were also high consumers of health resources but who did not receive CHW intervention. For all measures, there was a significant reduction in both numbers of claims and payments after the community health worker intervention. Costs also declined in the non-CHW group on all measures, but to a more modest degree, with a greater reduction than in the CHW group in use of ambulatory services. The incorporation of field-based, community health workers as part of Medicaid managed care to provide supportive services to high resource-consuming enrollees can improve access to preventive and social services and may reduce resource utilization and cost.

  1. An integrated comprehensive occupational surveillance system for health care workers.

    PubMed

    Dement, John M; Pompeii, Lisa A; Østbye, Truls; Epling, Carol; Lipscomb, Hester J; James, Tamara; Jacobs, Michael J; Jackson, George; Thomann, Wayne

    2004-06-01

    Workers in the health care industry may be exposed to a variety of work-related stressors including infectious, chemical, and physical agents; ergonomic hazards; psychological hazards; and workplace violence. Many of these hazards lack surveillance systems to evaluate exposures and health outcomes. The development and implementation of a comprehensive surveillance system within the Duke University Health System (DUHS) that tracks occupational exposures and stressors as well as injuries and illnesses among a defined population of health care workers (HCWs) is presented. Human resources job and work location data were used to define the DUHS population at risk. Outcomes and exposure data from existing occupational health and safety programs, health promotion programs, and employee health insurance claims, were linked with human resources data and de-identified to create the Duke Health and Safety Surveillance System (DHSSS). The surveillance system is described and four examples are presented demonstrating how the system has successfully been used to study consequences of work-related stress, hearing conservation program evaluation, risk factors for back pain and inflammation, and exposures to blood and body fluids (BBF). Utilization of existing data, often collected for other purposes, can be successfully integrated and used for occupational health surveillance monitoring of HCWs. Use of the DHSSS for etiologic studies, benchmarking, and intervention program evaluation are discussed. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. The Latino Migrant Worker HIV Prevention Program: building a community partnership through a community health worker training program.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Jesús; Silva-Suarez, Georgina; Serna, Claudia A; De La Rosa, Mario

    2012-01-01

    There is limited information on the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on Latino migrant workers (LMWs), although available data indicate that this community is being disproportionally affected. The need for prevention programs that address the specific needs of LMWs is becoming well recognized. HIV prevention interventions that train and employ community health workers are a culturally appropriate way to address the issues of community trust and capacity building in this community. This article describes the Latino Migrant Worker HIV Prevention Program and its efforts to train and engage community health workers in the prevention of HIV among LMWs in South Florida.

  3. Associations between Dietary Factors and Self-Reported Physical Health in Chinese Scientific Workers.

    PubMed

    Gong, Qian-fen; Tu, Ling; Zhou, Liang; Chen, Hong

    2015-12-18

    Scientific workers play an important role in the development of science and technology. However, evidence is lacking with regard to the associations between their dietary factors and their health-related quality of life (HRQOL). A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 775 scientific workers from multiple universities and institutes in the Southwest region of China. A self-administered food-frequency questionnaire was used to collect the food consumption information, and the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey was used to assess physical HRQOL. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with scientific workers' HRQOL. Physical HRQOL was negatively associated with age and intake of fresh pork (fat) and animal viscera, whereas consumption of vegetables, fruits, refined cereals and dairy products were positively correlated with physical HRQOL. Participants with daily intake of vegetable oils or mixed oils showed higher physical HRQOL scores than those with intake of animal oils. Dietary habits are closely associated with the physical HRQOL of scientific workers. The dietary patterns that had more vegetables and fruits, less fresh pork (fat) and animal viscera, and used vegetable oils during cooking corresponded to higher physical HRQOL scores. These findings are important for planning dietary strategies to improve physical health in scientific workers.

  4. Integrated Worker Radiation Dose Assessment for the K Basins

    SciTech Connect

    NELSON, J.V.

    1999-10-27

    This report documents an assessment of the radiation dose workers at the K Basins are expected to receive in the process of removing spent nuclear fuel from the storage basins. The K Basins (K East and K West) are located in the Hanford 100K Area.

  5. Aragon workers' health study--design and cohort description.

    PubMed

    Casasnovas, José A; Alcaide, Victor; Civeira, Fernando; Guallar, Eliseo; Ibañez, Borja; Borreguero, Jesús Jiménez; Laclaustra, Martin; León, Montserrat; Peñalvo, José Luis; Ordovás, José M; Pocovi, Miguel; Sanz, Ginés; Fuster, Valentín

    2012-06-19

    Spain, a Mediterranean country with relatively low rates of coronary heart disease, has a high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and is experiencing a severe epidemic of overweight/obesity. We designed the Aragon Workers' Health Study (AWHS) to characterize the factors associated with metabolic abnormalities and subclinical atherosclerosis in a middle aged population in Spain free of clinical cardiovascular disease. The objective of this paper is to describe the study design, aims and baseline characteristics of participants in the AWHS. Longitudinal cohort study based on the annual health exams of 5,400 workers of a car assembly plant in Figueruelas (Zaragoza, Spain). Study participants were recruited during a standardized clinical exam in 2009-2010 (participation rate 95.6%). Study participants will undergo annual clinical exams and laboratory assays, and baseline and triennial collection of biological materials for biobanking and cardiovascular imaging exams (carotid, femoral and abdominal ultrasonography, coronary calcium score, and ankle-arm blood pressure index). Participants will be followed-up for 10 years. The average (SD) age, body mass index, and waist circumference were 49.3 (8.7) years, 27.7 (3.6) kg/m² and 97.2 (9.9) cm, respectively, among males (N = 5,048), and 40.8 (11.6) years, 24.4 (3.8) kg/m², and 81.9 (9.9) cm, among females (N = 351). The prevalence of overweight, obesity, current smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes were 55.0, 23.1, 37.1, 40.3, 75.0, and 7.4%, respectively, among males, and 23.7, 8.3, 45.0, 12.1, 59.5, and 0.6%, respectively, among females. In the initial 587 study participants who completed all imaging exams (94.5% male), the prevalence of carotid plaque, femoral plaque, coronary calcium score >1 to 100, and coronary calcium score >100 was 30.3, 56.9, 27.0, and 8.8%, respectively. 67.7% of study participants had at least one plaque in the carotid or femoral arteries

  6. Exploring the migration decisions of health workers and trainees from Africa: a meta-ethnographic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Blacklock, C; Ward, A M; Heneghan, C; Thompson, M

    2014-01-01

    The migration of healthcare workers from Africa depletes countries already suffering from substantial staffing shortages and considerable disease burdens. The recruitment of such individuals by high income countries has been condemned by the World Health Organisation. However, understanding the reasons why healthcare workers migrate is essential, in order to attempt to alter migration decisions. We aimed to systematically analyse factors influencing healthcare workers' decisions to migrate from Africa. We systematically searched CINAHL (1980-Nov 2010), Embase (1980-Nov 2010), Global Health (1973-Nov 2010) and Medline (1950-Nov 2010) for qualitative studies of healthcare workers from Africa which specifically explored views about migration. Two reviewers identified articles, extracted data and assessed quality of included studies. Meta-ethnography was used to synthesise new lines of understanding and meaning from the data. The search identified 1203 articles from which we included six studies of healthcare workers trained in seven African countries, namely doctors or medical students (two studies), nurses (three), and pharmacy students (one study). Using meta-ethnographic synthesis we produced six lines of argument relating to the migration decisions of healthcare workers: 1) Struggle to realise unmet material expectations of self, family and society, 2) Strain and emotion, interpersonal discord, and insecurity in workplace, 3) Fear from threats to personal or family safety, in and out of workplace, 4) Absence of adequate professional support and development, 5) Desire for professional prestige and respect, 6) Conviction that hopes and goals for the future will be fulfilled overseas. We conclude that a complex interaction of factors contribute to the migration decisions of healthcare workers from Africa. Some of the factors identified are more amenable to change than others, and addressing these may significantly affect migration decisions of African healthcare

  7. Development of Oral Health Training for Rural and Remote Aboriginal Health Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacza, Tom; Steele, Lesley; Tennant, Marc

    2001-01-01

    A culturally appropriate oral health training course tailored to the needs of rural Aboriginal health workers was developed in Western Australia. The course is taught in three modules ranging from introductory material to comprehensive practical and theoretical knowledge of basic dental health care. The program encourages Aboriginal health workers…

  8. Oral health knowledge of health care workers in special children’s center

    PubMed Central

    Wyne, Amjad; Hammad, Nouf; Splieth, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the oral health knowledge of health care workers in special children’s center. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect following information: demographics, oral hygiene practices, importance of fluoride, dental visits, cause of tooth decay, gingival health, and sources of oral health information. The study was conducted at Riyadh Center for Special Children in Riyadh City from December 2013 to May 2014. Results: All 60 health care workers in the center completed the questionnaire. A great majority (95%) of the workers brushed their teeth twice or more daily. More than two-third (71.7%) of the workers knew that fluoride helps in caries prevention. One in five (21.7%) workers thought that a dental visit only becomes necessary in case of a dental problem. Similarly, 13.3% of the workers thought to “wait till there is some pain in case of a dental cavity” before seeking dental treatment. The workers ranked soft drinks/soda (98.3%), flavored fizzy drinks (60%) and sweetened/flavored milks (43.3%) as top three cariogenic drinks. A great majority (95%) of the workers correctly responded that blood on toothbrush most probably is a sign of “gum disease”. Dentists (50%) and media (45%) were the main source of their oral health information. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in workers’ response in relation to their specific job. Conclusion: The special health care workers in the disabled children’s center generally had satisfactory oral health knowledge and practices. PMID:25878636

  9. Workers' Health Surveillance in the Meat Processing Industry: Work and Health Indicators Associated with Work Ability.

    PubMed

    van Holland, Berry J; Soer, Remko; de Boer, Michiel R; Reneman, Michiel F; Brouwer, Sandra

    2015-09-01

    Workers' health surveillance (WHS) programs commonly measure a large number of indicators addressing health habits and health risks. Recently, work ability and functional capacity have been included as important risk measures in WHS. In order to address work ability appropriately, knowledge of associations with work and health measures is necessary. The objective of this study was to evaluate which of the factors measured in a WHS are independently associated with work ability in a group of meat processing workers. A cross-sectional study was performed in a large meat processing company in The Netherlands. Data were collected during a WHS between February 2012 and March 2014. Personal characteristics, health habits and health-risk indicators, functional capacity, and work-related factors were measured. Work ability was measured with the Work Ability Index and was used as dependent variable. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted, a receiver operating characteristic curve was constructed and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Data sets from 230 employees were used for analyses. The average age was 53 years and the average work ability index score was 39.3. In the final multivariable model age (OR 0.94), systolic blood pressure (OR 1.03), need for recovery (OR 0.56), and overhead work capacity (OR 3.95) contributed significantly. The AUC for this model was 0.81 (95% CI 0.75-0.86). Findings from the current study indicate that multifactorial outcomes (age, systolic blood pressure, need for recovery, and overhead work capacity) from a WHS were independently associated with work ability. These factors can be used to assess employees at risk for low work ability and might provide directions for interventions.

  10. Health worker perceptions of integrating mobile phones into community case management of malaria in Saraya, Senegal.

    PubMed

    Blanas, Demetri A; Ndiaye, Youssoupha; MacFarlane, Matthew; Manga, Isaac; Siddiqui, Ammar; Velez, Olivia; Kanter, Andrew S; Nichols, Kim; Hennig, Nils

    2015-05-01

    Although community case management of malaria increases access to life-saving care in isolated settings, it contends with many logistical challenges. Mobile phone health information technology may present an opportunity to address a number of these barriers. Using the wireless adaptation of the technology acceptance model, this study assessed availability, ease of use, usefulness, and job relevance of mobile phones by health workers in Saraya, Senegal. This study conducted seven key informant interviews with government health workers, and three focus groups and 76 surveys with lay health workers. Principal findings included that mobile phones are already widely available and used, and that participants valued using phones to address training, stock management, programme reporting, and transportation challenges. By documenting widespread use of mobile phones and health worker perceptions of their most useful applications, this paper provides a framework for their integration into the community case management of malaria programme in Saraya, Senegal. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Integration of Oral Health into Primary Health Care System: Views of Primary Health Care Workers in Lagos State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ogunbodede, Eyitope; Adeniyi, Abiola

    2014-01-01

    The limited access to oral health care in developing countries can be greatly improved by integrating oral health into the Primary Health Care (PHC) system. This study was designed to assess the views of PHC workers on integrating oral health care into the PHC system. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted in two selected local government areas of Lagos State. The instrument contained three sections assessing sociodemographic features, knowledge of common oral diseases and views on integration of oral health into PHC respectively. The mean knowledge score was 7.75 (SD=±1.81), while 60.4% of the respondents had average knowledge scores. Educational status (P=0.018) and designation (P=0.033) were significantly related to the mean knowledge scores. There was no significant difference in the oral health knowledge of the various cadres (P=0.393). Majority (85.4%) of the respondents were willing to include oral health education in their job schedule and 82% believed they needed more training on oral health. The knowledge of the respondents on the causes of the common oral diseases was deficient. Oral health education should be included in the future curriculum of these personnel. PMID:28299117

  12. Is the Authoritarian Trait in Mental Health Workers a Significant Predictor Variable of Patient Assault?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safian-Rush, Donna

    Mental health workers may be assaulted by their violent patients. A study was conducted to examine one predictor variable of aggressive behavior in patients. It was hypothesized that authoritarian traits in the mental health worker could result in more assaults against the mental health worker by patients. Participants (N=32) were mental health…

  13. Communication Methods for Health Workers To Use When Teaching in the Third World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christopher P.

    This paper addresses the training of health workers to become more effective communicators and teachers in third world countries. The first part introduces the health worker to the traditional medicine and cultural beliefs of third world people. Part two on educational psychology deals with helping the health worker manage people's resistance to…

  14. 10 CFR 851.11 - Development and approval of worker safety and health program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Development and approval of worker safety and health program. 851.11 Section 851.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKER SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM Program Requirements § 851.11 Development and approval of worker safety and health program. (a) Preparation and...

  15. 10 CFR 851.11 - Development and approval of worker safety and health program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Development and approval of worker safety and health program. 851.11 Section 851.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKER SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM Program Requirements § 851.11 Development and approval of worker safety and health program. (a) Preparation and...

  16. 10 CFR 851.11 - Development and approval of worker safety and health program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Development and approval of worker safety and health program. 851.11 Section 851.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKER SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM Program Requirements § 851.11 Development and approval of worker safety and health program. (a) Preparation and...

  17. Is the Authoritarian Trait in Mental Health Workers a Significant Predictor Variable of Patient Assault?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safian-Rush, Donna

    Mental health workers may be assaulted by their violent patients. A study was conducted to examine one predictor variable of aggressive behavior in patients. It was hypothesized that authoritarian traits in the mental health worker could result in more assaults against the mental health worker by patients. Participants (N=32) were mental health…

  18. Meeting the health information needs of health workers: what have we learned?

    PubMed

    D'Adamo, Margaret; Short Fabic, Madeleine; Ohkubo, Saori

    2012-01-01

    The information challenges facing health workers worldwide include lack of routine systems for seeking and sharing information, lack of high-quality and current health information, and lack of locally relevant materials and tools. This issue of Journal of Health Communication presents three studies of health information needs in India, Senegal, and Malawi that demonstrate these information challenges, provide additional insight, and describe innovative strategies to improve knowledge and information sharing. Results confirm that health workers' information needs differ on the basis of the level of the health system in which a health worker is located, regardless of country or cultural context. Data also reveal that communication channels tailored to health workers' needs and preferences are vital for improving information access and knowledge sharing. Meetings remain the way that most health workers communicate with each other, although technical working groups, professional associations, and networks also play strong roles in information and knowledge sharing. Study findings also confirm health workers' need for up-to-date, simple information in formats useful for policy development, program management, and service delivery. It is important to note that data demonstrate a persistent need for a variety of information types--from research syntheses, to job aids, to case studies--and suggest the need to invest in multifaceted knowledge management systems and approaches that take advantage of expanding technology, especially mobile phones; support existing professional and social networks; and are tailored to the varying needs of health professionals across health systems. These common lessons can be universally applied to expand health workers' access to reliable, practical, evidence-based information.

  19. [Health profile of Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social workers].

    PubMed

    Velasco-Contreras, María Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    To determine the association between risk factors, dietary habits, physical activity, alcohol and tobacco consumption, in the presence of obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, liver cirrhosis, and cancer, in health care workers (and other categories of employees) of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). From March to December 2009, 20,000 surveys were conducted among randomly selected workers on 35 IMSS delegations. The variables of the study included affiliation, sex, age employment status, registration of known diseases, smoking, nicotine addiction, risk drinking, alcohol addiction, eating and exercise habits. Workers with poor eating habits, sedentary lifestyle smoking and alcohol abuse are more frequently exposed to the presence of obesity, hypertension and diabetes mellitus and these in turn to cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, myocardial infarction, cerebral vascular disease and liver cirrhosis. This study shows that IMSS workers have a high exposure to risk factors associated with the presence of chronic diseases and their complications. It is necessary to enable them to improve significantly their health profile.

  20. Health workers who ask about social determinants of health are more likely to report helping patients: Mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Naz, Anila; Rosenberg, Ellen; Andersson, Neil; Labonté, Ronald; Andermann, Anne

    2016-11-01

    To assess the feasibility of implementing a clinical decision aid called the CLEAR Toolkit that helps front-line health workers ask their patients about social determinants of health, refer to local support resources, and advocate for wider social change. A mixed-methods study using quantitative (online self-completed questionnaires) and qualitative (in-depth interviews, focus groups, and key informant interviews) methods. A large, university-affiliated family medicine teaching centre in Montreal, Que, serving one of the most ethnically diverse populations in Canada. Fifty family doctors and allied health workers responded to the online survey (response rate of 50.0%), 15 completed in-depth interviews, 14 joined 1 of 2 focus groups, and 3 senior administrators participated in key informant interviews. Our multimethod approach included an online survey of front-line health workers to assess current practices and collect feedback on the tool kit; in-depth interviews to understand why they consider certain patients to be more vulnerable and how to help such patients; focus groups to explore barriers to asking about social determinants of health; and key informant interviews with high-level administrators to identify organizational levers for changing practice. Senior administrators consider asking about social determinants to be part of the mandate of health workers. However, barriers perceived by front-line clinicians include insufficient training in social history taking, uncertainty about how to address these issues in clinical practice, and a lack of knowledge of local referral resources. Health workers with specific ways of asking patients about their social challenges were more likely to report having helped their patients as compared with those who did not know how to ask (93.8% vs 52.9%; P = .003). While health workers recognize the importance of social determinants, many are unsure how to ask about these often sensitive issues or where to refer patients. The

  1. Design of an interactive medical guideline application for community health workers.

    PubMed

    Karlen, Walter; Scheffer, Cornie

    2014-01-01

    Clinical guidelines, such as the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI), are used worldwide to support community health workers in the assessment of severely ill children. These guidelines are distributed in paper form, complicating their use at the point-of-care. We have developed a framework for building advanced clinical guideline applications for the Android mobile phone OS. The framework transfers clinical guidelines into a flexible and interactive electronic format using an XML interpreter. The resulting application supports intuitive navigation of guidelines while assessing the patient, easy integration of patient management tools, and logging of performed assessments and treatments. The novel approach transforms clinical guidelines from a mere paper dictionary into a working tool that integrates into the daily workflow of community health workers and simplifies their task at the care and administrative levels.

  2. Association between V̇O2max, handgrip strength, and musculoskeletal pain among construction and health care workers.

    PubMed

    Moberg, Lene Lehmann; Lunde, Lars-Kristian; Koch, Markus; Tveter, Anne Therese; Veiersted, Kaj Bo

    2017-03-21

    Construction and health care workers have a high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders, and they are assumed to have physically demanding jobs. Profession- and gender-specific associations between individual capacity and musculoskeletal pain have not been sufficiently investigated. The main aim of this study was to examine the association between individual capacity (maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) and handgrip strength) and musculoskeletal pain among construction and health care workers. This cross-sectional study examined 137 construction and health care workers (58 women and 79 men) with a mean age of 41.8 years (standard deviation 12). Aerobic capacity was indirectly assessed by the Åstrand cycle test, and strength was assessed by a handgrip test. Musculoskeletal pain was described by total pain, divided into neck, shoulder, and low back pain, during the last 12 months, and it was dichotomized in below or above 30 days. Logistic regression was used to analyse the associations between V̇O2max, strength, and musculoskeletal pain in the total study sample and separately for construction and health care workers. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and selected mechanical and psychosocial factors. Every second participant (51.8%) reported pain in either neck, shoulders or low back for more than 30 days during the last 12 months. Among the health care workers, a small but significant association was found between a high V̇O2max, high handgrip strength, and a low level of musculoskeletal pain. No association was found for the construction workers. An association between V̇O2max, handgrip strength, and musculoskeletal pain was found for health care workers but not for construction workers. These results indicate that activities promoting individual capacity may reduce musculoskeletal pain for health care workers.

  3. Onboard System Health Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Tom; Cunningham, Harry

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion of onboard system health assessment are presented. Success of the space station program will be measured by how well it addresses the basic requirements for (1) maintaining the orbiting Space Station Freedom fully operational for its projected life of thirty years, and (2) the cost-effective execution of the overall space station program. Onboard system health assessment must provide complete and thorough testing capabilities along with effective associated redundancy/fault management.

  4. Knowledge of Rabies Prevention in Vietnamese Public Health and Animal Health Workers.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, K A T; Nguyen, H T T; Pham, T N; Van, K D; Hoang, T V; Olowokure, B

    2016-11-01

    Rabies is an invariably fatal, but preventable zoonotic disease. Despite a national programme for its prevention and control, the number of rabies associated deaths in Vietnam has increased in recent years. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in 2012 to assess and compare the knowledge, awareness and practices of 189 public health workers (PHW) and animal health workers (AHW) attending a joint training course for professionals from provinces in northern Vietnam with the highest number of deaths from rabies. Questionnaires facilitating self-evaluation were provided, and total knowledge scores were calculated (maximum 38 points) and categorized into: 'high' (>30 points), 'moderate' (21-30) and 'low' (<21). The response rate was 100%, and among the 189 participants, 56% were PHW compared to 44% who were AHW. Although most respondents knew rabies could be transmitted through the bite of an animal, most commonly a dog, and that rabies is a preventable disease, significant differences between groups were identified. Major areas included poor knowledge of common rabies reservoirs, wound management and guidance on post-exposure prophylaxis. Overall, the total mean knowledge scores for PHW was significantly higher (P = 0.011) compared to those for AHW, but both scores fell within the 'moderate' knowledge range. However, proportionately more PHW than AHW achieved 'high' knowledge scores (P = 0.0098). To our knowledge this is the first published study to simultaneously assess the knowledge and awareness of animal health and public health professionals attending joint training activities aimed at strengthening rabies prevention and control. To ensure effective prevention and control of rabies requires that AHW and PHW not only coordinate and collaborate, but have a common knowledge and understanding of rabies prevention and control measures. This study provides important baseline data in a relatively unexplored area of research that can focus future interventions and

  5. Worker health and safety and climate change in the Americas: issues and research needs

    PubMed Central

    Kiefer, Max; Rodríguez-Guzmán, Julietta; Watson, Joanna; van Wendel de Joode, Berna; Mergler, Donna; da Silva, Agnes Soares

    2016-01-01

    SYNOPSIS This report summarizes and discusses current knowledge on the impact that climate change can have on occupational safety and health (OSH), with a particular focus on the Americas. Worker safety and health issues are presented on topics related to specific stressors (e.g., temperature extremes), climate associated impacts (e.g., ice melt in the Arctic), and a health condition associated with climate change (chronic kidney disease of non-traditional etiology). The article discusses research needs, including hazards, surveillance, and risk assessment activities to better characterize and understand how OSH may be associated with climate change events. Also discussed are the actions that OSH professionals can take to ensure worker health and safety in the face of climate change. PMID:27991978

  6. Worker health and safety and climate change in the Americas: issues and research needs.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Max; Rodríguez-Guzmán, Julietta; Watson, Joanna; van Wendel de Joode, Berna; Mergler, Donna; da Silva, Agnes Soares

    2016-09-01

    SYNOPSIS This report summarizes and discusses current knowledge on the impact that climate change can have on occupational safety and health (OSH), with a particular focus on the Americas. Worker safety and health issues are presented on topics related to specific stressors (e.g., temperature extremes), climate associated impacts (e.g., ice melt in the Arctic), and a health condition associated with climate change (chronic kidney disease of non-traditional etiology). The article discusses research needs, including hazards, surveillance, and risk assessment activities to better characterize and understand how OSH may be associated with climate change events. Also discussed are the actions that OSH professionals can take to ensure worker health and safety in the face of climate change.

  7. Effect of Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) on health worker performance in Northeast-Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amaral, João; Gouws, Eleanor; Bryce, Jennifer; Leite, Alvaro Jorge Madeiro; Cunha, Antonio Ledo Alves da; Victora, Cesar G

    2004-01-01

    A multi-country evaluation is being carried out in Brazil and four other countries to determine the effectiveness, cost, and impact of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI). We examine the effect of IMCI on the quality of health care provided to children under five visiting health facilities. A health facility survey was conducted at 24 facilities (12 with IMCI) in each of four States in the Northeast. We assessed the quality of care provided to children between 2 months and 5 years attending the facilities. Health workers trained in IMCI provided significantly better care than those not trained. Significant differences between health workers who were trained or not trained in IMCI were found in the assessment of the child, disease classification, treatment, and caretaker communication. Nurses trained in IMCI performed as well as, and sometimes better than, medical officers trained in IMCI. We conclude that while there is room for further improvement, IMCI case management training significantly improves health worker performance, and that parts of Brazil that have not yet introduced IMCI should be encouraged to do so.

  8. 75 FR 6031 - Policy Paper on Revised Risk Assessment Methods for Workers, Children of Workers in Agricultural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... Fields, and Pesticides with No Food Uses; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Assessment Methods for Workers, Children of Workers in Agricultural Fields, and Pesticides with No Food Uses,'' that describes how the Agency plans to use revised methods in conducting risk assessments for pesticide...

  9. The Comprehensive Health Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastern Iowa Community Coll. District, Davenport.

    This report contains information from a fall 1991 health occupations assessment of 1,021 health-related employers in Eastern Iowa and the Illinois Quad Cities area. Twelve chapters present comprehensive results of all surveys; results of 10 labor market survey instruments developed for chiropractic offices, dentists' offices, emergency medical…

  10. Public sector antiretroviral treatment programme in South Africa: health care workers' attention to mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Pappin, Michele; Wouters, Edwin; Booysen, Frederik L R; Lund, Crick

    2015-01-01

    Although there is a high prevalence of anxiety and depression amongst people receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART), many patients are not screened, diagnosed or referred for mental health problems. This study aims to determine whether public sector health care workers in South Africa observe, screen, diagnose and refer ART patients that show symptoms of common mental disorders. It also aims to ascertain the extent of mental health training received by public sector health care workers working in ART. The study was cross-sectional in design. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 40 nurses and structured interviews were conducted with 23 lay workers across the five districts in the Free State between July 2009 and October 2009. STATA version 12 was used to perform statistical data analysis. The health care workers reported observing a high frequency of symptoms of common mental disorders among public sector ART patients. While 70% of nurses screened and diagnosed, only 40% of lay workers screened and diagnosed patients on ART for a mental disorder. Health care workers who had received training in mental health were more likely to screen or diagnose a mental disorder, but only 14% of the workers had received such training. We recommend that health care workers should receive task-specific training to screen and/or diagnose patients on ART for common mental disorders using the guidelines of the South African HIV Clinicians Society. A positive diagnosis should be referred to a health care practitioner for appropriate evidence-based treatment in the form of medication or psychotherapy.

  11. Task sharing in rural Haiti: Qualitative assessment of a brief, structured training with and without apprenticeship supervision for community health workers

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Kristen E; Kaiser, Bonnie N; Hagaman, Ashley K; Wagenaar, Bradley H; Therosme, Tatiana P; Kohrt, Brandon A

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing support for supervision after task sharing trainings in humanitarian settings, there is limited research on the experience of trainees in apprenticeship and other supervision approaches. Studying apprenticeships from trainees’ perspectives is crucial to refine supervision and enhance motivation for service implementation. The authors implemented a multi-stage, transcultural adaptation for a pilot task sharing training in Haiti entailing three phases: 1) literature review and qualitative research to adapt a mental health and psychosocial support training; 2) implementation and qualitative process evaluation of a brief, structured group training; and 3) implementation and qualitative evaluation of an apprenticeship training, including a two year follow-up of trainees. Structured group training revealed limited knowledge acquisition, low motivation, time and resource constraints on mastery, and limited incorporation of skills into practice. Adding an apprenticeship component was associated with subjective clinical competency, increased confidence regarding utilising skills, and career advancement. Qualitative findings support the added value of apprenticeship according to trainees. PMID:26190953

  12. Perceived job insecurity and worker health in the United States.

    PubMed

    Burgard, Sarah A; Brand, Jennie E; House, James S

    2009-09-01

    Economic recessions, the industrial shift from manufacturing toward service industries, and rising global competition have contributed to uncertainty about job security, with potential consequences for workers' health. To address limitations of prior research on the health consequences of perceived job insecurity, we use longitudinal data from two nationally-representative samples of the United States population, and examine episodic and persistent perceived job insecurity over periods of about three years to almost a decade. Results show that persistent perceived job insecurity is a significant and substantively important predictor of poorer self-rated health in the American's Changing Lives (ACL) and Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) samples, and of depressive symptoms among ACL respondents. Job losses or unemployment episodes are associated with perceived job insecurity, but do not account for its association with health. Results are robust to controls for sociodemographic and job characteristics, negative reporting style, and earlier health and health behaviors.

  13. Izabel dos Santos and the training of the health workers.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Carlos Henrique Assunção

    2015-06-01

    This article discusses the career of Izabel dos Santos (1927-2010) as a means of examining the connections between health schools and agendas in contemporary Brazil. The article highlights dos Santos's training and her work in the Serviço Especial de Saúde Pública (SESP- Special Public Health Service), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and in the formulation and implementation of national training programs for human resources within the area of health from the late 1970s onwards. The article highlights dos Santos's central role in the formulation and implementation of training policies for health workers, especially nursing technicians and assistants, and demonstrates how she occupies an important place in the history of Brazilian public health.

  14. Sub-Saharan Africa: beyond the health worker migration crisis?

    PubMed

    Connell, John; Zurn, Pascal; Stilwell, Barbara; Awases, Magda; Braichet, Jean-Marc

    2007-05-01

    Migration of skilled health workers from sub-Saharan African countries has significantly increased in this century, with most countries becoming sources of migrants. Despite the growing problem of health worker migration for the effective functioning of health care systems there is a remarkable paucity and incompleteness of data. Hence, it is difficult to determine the real extent of migration from, and within, Africa, and thus develop effective forecasting or remedial policies. This global overview and the most comprehensive data indicate that the key destinations remain the USA and the UK, and that major sources are South Africa and Nigeria, but in both contexts there is now greater diversity. Migrants move primarily for economic reasons, and increasingly choose health careers because they offer migration prospects. Migration has been at considerable economic cost, it has depleted workforces, diminished the effectiveness of health care delivery and reduced the morale of the remaining workforce. Countries have sought to implement national policies to manage migration, mitigate its harmful impacts and strengthen African health care systems. Recipient countries have been reluctant to establish effective ethical codes of recruitment practice, or other forms of compensation or technology transfer, hence migration is likely to increase further in the future, diminishing the possibility of achieving the United Nations millennium development goals and exacerbating existing inequalities in access to adequate health care.

  15. The health information seeking behaviour and needs of community health workers in Chandigarh in Northern India.

    PubMed

    Raj, Sonika; Sharma, Vijay Lakshmi; Singh, Amarjeet; Goel, Sonu

    2015-06-01

    This article represents two-firsts for the feature--it is the first to report on a study outside the UK and the first to examine the health information needs of community health workers. Sonika Raj is pursuing PhD at the Centre for Public Health, Panjab University, Chandigarh, in India and she conducted her research in Chandigarh. The article outlines the important role that health workers at community level play in determining health outcomes in the developing world, including Chandigarh. It demonstrates that while those workers recognise their information needs, there are many issues affecting their ability to access health information effectively, not least their limited access to appropriate technology and training. AM. © 2015 Health Libraries Group.

  16. New systems of work organization and workers' health.

    PubMed

    Kompier, Michiel A J

    2006-12-01

    This paper aims at identifying major changes in and around work organizations, their effects upon job characteristics and the health and well-being of today's employees, and related research challenges. Increased internationalization and competition, increased utilization of information and communication technology, the changing workforce configuration, and flexibility and new organizational practices are considered. As work has changed from physical to mental in nature, job characteristics have changed significantly. Meanwhile work and family life have blended. New systems of work organization have become more prevalent, but they do not represent a radical change across the whole economy. New practices may have an adverse impact upon job characteristics, but their effects depend on their design, implementation, and management. Research recommendations include improved monitoring of changes in work organization and studies into their health and safety consequences, intervention studies, studies into the motivating potential of modern work practices, studies of marginalized workers and workers in less developed countries, and "mechanism studies".

  17. A Multifaceted Intervention to Improve Health Worker Adherence to Integrated Management of Childhood Illness Guidelines in Benin

    PubMed Central

    Onikpo, Faustin; Lama, Marcel; Osterholt, Dawn M.; Rowe, Samantha Y.; Deming, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated an intervention to support health workers after training in Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI), a strategy that can improve outcomes for children in developing countries by encouraging workers' use of evidence-based guidelines for managing the leading causes of child mortality. Methods. We conducted a randomized trial in Benin. We administered a survey in 1999 to assess health care quality before IMCI training. Health workers then received training plus either study supports (job aids, nonfinancial incentives, and supervision of workers and supervisors) or usual supports. Follow-up surveys conducted in 2001 to 2004 assessed recommended treatment, recommended or adequate treatment, and an index of overall guideline adherence. Results. We analyzed 1244 consultations. Performance improved in both intervention and control groups, with no significant differences between groups. However, training proceeded slowly, and low-quality care from health workers without IMCI training diluted intervention effects. Per-protocol analyses revealed that workers with IMCI training plus study supports provided better care than did those with training plus usual supports (27.3 p