Science.gov

Sample records for assessing human risks

  1. Assessing Human Health Risk from Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA protects human health and the environment by evaluating the risk associated with pesticides before allowing them to be used in the United States. Learn about the tools and processes used in risk assessment for pesticides.

  2. Revised Human Health Risk Assessment on Chlorpyrifos

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We have revised our human health risk assessment and drinking water exposure assessment for chlorpyrifos that supported our October 2015 proposal to revoke all food residue tolerances for chlorpyrifos. Learn about the revised analysis.

  3. NASA Human System Risk Assessment Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francisco, D.; Romero, E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA utilizes an evidence based system to perform risk assessments for the human system for spaceflight missions. The center of this process is the multi-disciplinary Human System Risk Board (HSRB). The HSRB is chartered from the Chief Health and Medical Officer (OCHMO) at NASA Headquarters. The HSRB reviews all human system risks via an established comprehensive risk and configuration management plan based on a project management approach. The HSRB facilitates the integration of human research (terrestrial and spaceflight), medical operations, occupational surveillance, systems engineering and many other disciplines in a comprehensive review of human system risks. The HSRB considers all factors that influence human risk. These factors include pre-mission considerations such as screening criteria, training, age, sex, and physiological condition. In mission factors such as available countermeasures, mission duration and location and post mission factors such as time to return to baseline (reconditioning), post mission health screening, and available treatments. All of the factors influence the total risk assessment for each human risk. The HSRB performed a comprehensive review of all potential inflight medical conditions and events and over the course of several reviews consolidated the number of human system risks to 30, where the greatest emphasis is placed for investing program dollars for risk mitigation. The HSRB considers all available evidence from human research and, medical operations and occupational surveillance in assessing the risks for appropriate mitigation and future work. All applicable DRMs (low earth orbit for 6 and 12 months, deep space for 30 days and 1 year, a lunar mission for 1 year, and a planetary mission for 3 years) are considered as human system risks are modified by the hazards associated with space flight such as microgravity, exposure to radiation, distance from the earth, isolation and a closed environment. Each risk has a summary

  4. TOXICOGENOMICS AND HUMAN DISEASE RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory


    Toxicogenomics and Human Disease Risk Assessment.

    Complete sequencing of human and other genomes, availability of large-scale gene
    expression arrays with ever-increasing numbers of genes displayed, and steady
    improvements in protein expression technology can hav...

  5. New approaches in human health risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    Abass, Khaled; Carlsen, Anders; Rautio, Arja

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the precise impact of environmental pollutants on human health are difficult to undertake and interpret, because many genetic and environmental factors influence health at the same time and to varying degrees. Our chapter in the AMAP report was based on new approaches to describe risks and future needs. In this paper, we will introduce the issues associated with risk assessment of single chemicals, and present suggestions for future studies as well as a summary of lessons learned during the health-related parts of the European Union-funded FP7 project ArcRisk (Arctic Health Risks: Impacts on health in the Arctic and Europe owing to climate-induced changes in contaminant cycling, 2009–2014; www.arcrisk.eu). PMID:27974141

  6. Improving environmental risk assessment of human pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Ågerstrand, Marlene; Berg, Cecilia; Björlenius, Berndt; Breitholtz, Magnus; Brunström, Björn; Fick, Jerker; Gunnarsson, Lina; Larsson, D G Joakim; Sumpter, John P; Tysklind, Mats; Rudén, Christina

    2015-05-05

    This paper presents 10 recommendations for improving the European Medicines Agency's guidance for environmental risk assessment of human pharmaceutical products. The recommendations are based on up-to-date, available science in combination with experiences from other chemical frameworks such as the REACH-legislation for industrial chemicals. The recommendations concern: expanding the scope of the current guideline; requirements to assess the risk for development of antibiotic resistance; jointly performed assessments; refinement of the test proposal; mixture toxicity assessments on active pharmaceutical ingredients with similar modes of action; use of all available ecotoxicity studies; mandatory reviews; increased transparency; inclusion of emission data from production; and a risk management option. We believe that implementation of our recommendations would strengthen the protection of the environment and be beneficial to society. Legislation and guidance documents need to be updated at regular intervals in order to incorporate new knowledge from the scientific community. This is particularly important for regulatory documents concerning pharmaceuticals in the environment since this is a research field that has been growing substantially in the last decades.

  7. NEUROBEHAVIORAL TESTING IN HUMAN RISK ASSESSMENT

    PubMed Central

    Rohlman, Diane S.; Lucchini, Roberto; Anger, W. Kent; Bellinger, David C.; van Thriel, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Neurobehavioral tests are being increasingly used in human risk assessment and there is a strong need for guidance. The field of neurobehavioral toxicology has evolved from research which initially focused on using traditional neuropsychological tests to identify “abnormal cases” to include methods used to detect sub-clinical deficits, to further incorporate the use of neurosensory assessment, and to expand testing from occupational populations to vulnerable populations including older adults and children. Even as exposures in the workplace are reduced, they have been increasing in the environment and research on exposure has now expanded to cross the entire lifetime. These neurobehavioral methods are applied in research and the findings used for regulatory purposes to develop preventative action for exposed populations. This paper reflects a summary of the talks presented at the symposium presented at the 11th meeting of the International Neurotoxicology Association. PMID:18539229

  8. Human Health Toxicity Values in Superfund Risk Assessments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This memorandum revises the hierarchy of human health toxicity values generally recommended for use inr isk assessments, originally presented in Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund Volume I, Part A.

  9. THE ROLE OF EXPOSURE ANALYSIS IN HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will cover the basic methodologies used for assessing human exposures to environmental pollutants, and some of the scientific challenges involved in conducting exposure and risk assessments in support of regulatory evaluations.

  10. Risk Assessment for Human Immunodeficiency Virus among Pregnant Hispanic Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, David K.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Assessed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk status of pregnant Hispanic adolescents in New York City. One-third of 87 adolescents were identified as being at increased risk for HIV infection. Sexual risk-taking behavior was most common factor that increased HIV risk. Birthplace and nationality were significantly associated with HIV risk…

  11. Risk Assessment: Perchloroethylene Dry Cleaners Refined Human Health Risk Characterization

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This November 2005 memo and appendices describe the methods by which EPA conducted its refined risk assessment of the Major Source and Area Source facilities within the perchloroethylene (perc) dry cleaners source category.

  12. Assessing human health risk in the USDA forest service

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel, D.R.

    1990-12-31

    This paper identifies the kinds of risk assessments being done by or for the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service. Summaries of data sources currently in use and the pesticide risk assessments completed by the agency or its contractors are discussed. An overview is provided of the agency`s standard operating procedures for the conduct of toxicological, ecological, environmental fate, and human health risk assessments.

  13. Incorporating Human Interindividual Biotransformation Variance in Health Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The protection of sensitive individuals within a population dictates that measures other than central tendencies be employed to estimate risk. The refinement of human health risk assessments for chemicals metabolized by the liver to reflect data on human variability can be accom...

  14. INCORPORATING HUMAN INTERINDIVIDUAL BIOTRANSFORMATION VARIANCE IN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The protection of sensitive individuals within a population dictates that measures other than central tendencies be employed to estimate risk. The refinement of human health risk assessments for chemicals metabolized by the liver to reflect data on human variability can be accom...

  15. TOXICOPROTEOMICS AND ITS APPLICATION TO HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans are exposed to a variety of environmental toxicants, and this together with a large number of interacting factors can contribute to an individual's risk for health. To understand the toxic mechanisms and/or modes of action for human health risk assessment, molecular charac...

  16. Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment to Inform Decision Making

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of this document is to describe a Framework for conducting human health risk assessments that are responsive to the needs of decision‐making processes in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

  17. 76 FR 52945 - Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... AGENCY Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment... availability of the chlorpyrifos registration review; preliminary human health risk assessment. This document... for the chlorpyrifos reregistration review, preliminary human health risk assessment, established...

  18. Clean Slate transportation and human health risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    Public concern regarding activities involving radioactive material generally focuses on the human health risk associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. This report describes the results of a risk analysis conducted to evaluate risk for excavation, handling, and transport of soil contaminated with transuranics at the Clean Slate sites. Transportation risks were estimated for public transport routes from the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) to the Envirocore disposal facility or to the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for both radiological risk and risk due to traffic accidents. Human health risks were evaluated for occupational and radiation-related health effects to workers. This report was generated to respond to this public concern, to provide an evaluation of the risk, and to assess feasibility of transport of the contaminated soil for disposal.

  19. A 21st Century Roadmap for Human Health Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    For decades human health risk assessment has depended primarily on animal testing to predict adverse effects in humans, but that paradigm has come under question because of calls for more accurate information, less use of animals, and more efficient use of resources. Moreover, t...

  20. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in urban stormwater.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yukun; Egodawatta, Prasanna; McGree, James; Liu, An; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-07-01

    Toxic chemical pollutants such as heavy metals (HMs) are commonly present in urban stormwater. These pollutants can pose a significant risk to human health and hence a significant barrier for urban stormwater reuse. The primary aim of this study was to develop an approach for quantitatively assessing the risk to human health due to the presence of HMs in stormwater. This approach will lead to informed decision making in relation to risk management of urban stormwater reuse, enabling efficient implementation of appropriate treatment strategies. In this study, risks to human health from heavy metals were assessed as hazard index (HI) and quantified as a function of traffic and land use related parameters. Traffic and land use are the primary factors influencing heavy metal loads in the urban environment. The risks posed by heavy metals associated with total solids and fine solids (<150μm) were considered to represent the maximum and minimum risk levels, respectively. The study outcomes confirmed that Cr, Mn and Pb pose the highest risks, although these elements are generally present in low concentrations. The study also found that even though the presence of a single heavy metal does not pose a significant risk, the presence of multiple heavy metals could be detrimental to human health. These findings suggest that stormwater guidelines should consider the combined risk from multiple heavy metals rather than the threshold concentration of an individual species. Furthermore, it was found that risk to human health from heavy metals in stormwater is significantly influenced by traffic volume and the risk associated with stormwater from industrial areas is generally higher than that from commercial and residential areas.

  1. A 21st century roadmap for human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Pastoor, Timothy P; Bachman, Ammie N; Bell, David R; Cohen, Samuel M; Dellarco, Michael; Dewhurst, Ian C; Doe, John E; Doerrer, Nancy G; Embry, Michelle R; Hines, Ronald N; Moretto, Angelo; Phillips, Richard D; Rowlands, J Craig; Tanir, Jennifer Y; Wolf, Douglas C; Boobis, Alan R

    2014-08-01

    The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI)-coordinated Risk Assessment in the 21st Century (RISK21) project was initiated to develop a scientific, transparent, and efficient approach to the evolving world of human health risk assessment, and involved over 120 participants from 12 countries, 15 government institutions, 20 universities, 2 non-governmental organizations, and 12 corporations. This paper provides a brief overview of the tiered RISK21 framework called the roadmap and risk visualization matrix, and articulates the core principles derived by RISK21 participants that guided its development. Subsequent papers describe the roadmap and matrix in greater detail. RISK21 principles include focusing on problem formulation, utilizing existing information, starting with exposure assessment (rather than toxicity), and using a tiered process for data development. Bringing estimates of exposure and toxicity together on a two-dimensional matrix provides a clear rendition of human safety and risk. The value of the roadmap is its capacity to chronicle the stepwise acquisition of scientific information and display it in a clear and concise fashion. Furthermore, the tiered approach and transparent display of information will contribute to greater efficiencies by calling for data only as needed (enough precision to make a decision), thus conserving animals and other resources.

  2. Human monitoring of phthalates and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hyun Jung; Lee, Byung Mu

    2005-08-27

    Some phthalates, such as di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and their metabolites are suspected of producing teratogenic and endocrino-disrupting effects. In this study, urinary levels of phthalates (DEHP, DBP, diethyl phthalate (DEP), butylbenzyl phthalate BBP), and monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, a major metabolite of DEHP) were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in human populations (women [hospital visitors], n = 150, and children, n = 150). Daily exposure level of DEHP in children was estimated to be 12.4 microg/kg body weight/d (male 9.9 microg/kg body weight/d, female 17.8 microg/kg body weight/d), but, in women was estimated to be 41.7 microg/kg body weight/d, which exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI, 37 microg/kg body weight/day) level established by the European Union (EU) Scientific Committee for Toxicity, Ecotoxicity, and the Environment (SCTEE) based on reproductive toxicity. Based on these data, hazard indices (HIs) were calculated to be 1.12 (41.7/37 TDI) for women and 0.33 (12.4/37 TDI) for children, respectively. These data suggest that Koreans (women and children) were exposed to significant levels of phthalates, which should be reduced to as low a level as technologically feasible to protect Koreans from the exposure to toxic phthalates.

  3. Toxicogenomic profiling of chemically exposed humans in risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    McHale, Cliona M.; Zhang, Luoping; Hubbard, Alan E.; Smith, Martyn T.

    2010-01-01

    Gene-environment interactions contribute to complex disease development. The environmental contribution, in particular low-level and prevalent environmental exposures, may constitute much of the risk and contribute substantially to disease. Systematic risk evaluation of the majority of human chemical exposures, has not been conducted and is a goal of regulatory agencies in the U.S. and worldwide. With the recent recognition that toxicological approaches more predictive of effects in humans are required for risk assessment, in vitro human cell line data as well as animal data are being used to identify toxicity mechanisms that can be translated into biomarkers relevant to human exposure studies. In this review, we discuss how data from toxicogenomic studies of exposed human populations can inform risk assessment, by generating biomarkers of exposure, early effect, and/or susceptibility, elucidating mechanisms of action underlying exposure-related disease, and detecting response at low doses. Good experimental design incorporating precise, individual exposure measurements, phenotypic anchors (pre-disease or traditional toxicological markers), and a range of relevant exposure levels, is necessary. Further, toxicogenomic studies need to be designed with sufficient power to detect true effects of the exposure. As more studies are performed and incorporated into databases such as the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) and Chemical Effects in Biological Systems (CEBS), data can be mined for classification of newly tested chemicals (hazard identification), and, for investigating the dose-response, inter-relationship among, genes, environment and disease in a systems biology approach (risk characterization). PMID:20382258

  4. Humans vs Hardware: The Unique World of NASA Human System Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anton, W.; Havenhill, M.; Overton, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Understanding spaceflight risks to crew health and performance is a crucial aspect of preparing for exploration missions in the future. The research activities of the Human Research Program (HRP) provide substantial evidence to support most risk reduction work. The Human System Risk Board (HSRB), acting on behalf of the Office of Chief Health and Medical Officer (OCHMO), assesses these risks and assigns likelihood and consequence ratings to track progress. Unfortunately, many traditional approaches in risk assessment such as those used in the engineering aspects of spaceflight are difficult to apply to human system risks. This presentation discusses the unique aspects of risk assessment from the human system risk perspective and how these limitations are accommodated and addressed in order to ensure that reasonable inputs are provided to support the OCHMO's overall risk posture for manned exploration missions.

  5. Assessments of direct human exposure: the approach of EU risk assessments compared to scenario-based risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Wormuth, Matthias; Demou, Evangelia; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2007-08-01

    The awareness of potential risks emerging from the use of chemicals in all parts of daily life has increased the need for risk assessments that are able to cover a high number of exposure situations and thereby ensure the safety of workers and consumers. In the European Union (EU), the practice of risk assessments for chemicals is laid down in a Technical Guidance Document; it is designed to consider environmental and human occupational and residential exposure. Almost 70 EU risk assessment reports (RARs) have been finalized for high-production-volume chemicals during the last decade. In the present study, we analyze the assessment of occupational and consumer exposure to trichloroethylene and phthalates presented in six EU RARs. Exposure scenarios in these six RARs were compared to scenarios used in applications of the scenario-based risk assessment approach to the same set of chemicals. We find that scenarios used in the selected EU RARs to represent typical exposure situations in occupational or private use of chemicals and products do not necessarily represent worst-case conditions. This can be due to the use of outdated information on technical equipment and conditions in workplaces or omission of pathways that can cause consumer exposure. Considering the need for exposure and risk assessments under the new chemicals legislation of the EU, we suggest that a transparent process of collecting data on exposure situations and of generating representative exposure scenarios is implemented to improve the accuracy of risk assessments. Also, the data sets used to assess human exposure should be harmonized, summarized in a transparent fashion, and made accessible for all risk assessors and the public.

  6. Advancing human health risk assessment: Integrating recent advisory committee recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Richard A.; Haber, Lynne T.; Pottenger, Lynn H.; Bredfeldt, Tiffany; Fenner-Crisp, Penelope A.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last dozen years, many national and international expert groups have considered specific improvements to risk assessment. Many of their stated recommendations are mutually supportive, but others appear conflicting, at least in an initial assessment. This review identifies areas of consensus and difference and recommends a practical, biology-centric course forward, which includes: (1) incorporating a clear problem formulation at the outset of the assessment with a level of complexity that is appropriate for informing the relevant risk management decision; (2) using toxicokinetics and toxicodynamic information to develop Chemical Specific Adjustment Factors (CSAF); (3) using mode of action (MOA) information and an understanding of the relevant biology as the key, central organizing principle for the risk assessment; (4) integrating MOA information into dose–response assessments using existing guidelines for non-cancer and cancer assessments; (5) using a tiered, iterative approach developed by the World Health Organization/International Programme on Chemical Safety (WHO/IPCS) as a scientifically robust, fit-for-purpose approach for risk assessment of combined exposures (chemical mixtures); and (6) applying all of this knowledge to enable interpretation of human biomonitoring data in a risk context. While scientifically based defaults will remain important and useful when data on CSAF or MOA to refine an assessment are absent or insufficient, assessments should always strive to use these data. The use of available 21st century knowledge of biological processes, clinical findings, chemical interactions, and dose–response at the molecular, cellular, organ and organism levels will minimize the need for extrapolation and reliance on default approaches. PMID:23844697

  7. Development of human epithelial cell systems for radiation risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. H.; Craise, L. M.

    1994-10-01

    The most important health effect of space radiation for astronauts is cancer induction. For radiation risk assessment, an understanding of carcinogenic effect of heavy ions in human cells is most essential. In our laboratory, we have successfully developed a human mammary epithelial cell system for studying the neoplastic transformation in vitro. Growth variants were obtained from heavy ion irradiated immortal mammary cell line. These cloned growth variants can grow in regular tissue culture media and maintain anchorage dependent growth and density inhibition property. Upon further irradiation with high-LET radiation, transformed foci were found. Experimental results from these studies suggest that multiexposure of radiation is required to induce neoplastic transformation of human epithelial cells. This multihits requirement may be due to high genomic stability of human cells. These growth variants can be useful model systems for space flight experiments to determine the carcinogenic effect of space radiation in human epithelial cells.

  8. Development of human epithelial cell systems for radiation risk assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, C. H.; Craise, L. M.

    1994-01-01

    The most important health effect of space radiation for astronauts is cancer induction. For radiation risk assessment, an understanding of carcinogenic effect of heavy ions in human cells is most essential. In our laboratory, we have successfully developed a human mammary epithelial cell system for studying the neoplastic transformation in vitro. Growth variants were obtained from heavy ion irradiated immortal mammary cell line. These cloned growth variants can grow in regular tissue culture media and maintain anchorage dependent growth and density inhibition property. Upon further irradiation with high-Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiation, transformed foci were found. Experimental results from these studies suggest that multiexposure of radiation is required to induce neoplastic tranformation of human epithelial cells. This multihits requirement may be due to high genomic stability of human cells. These growth variants can be useful model systems for space flight experiments to determine the carcinogenic effect of space radiation in human epithelial cells.

  9. Human Health Risk Assessment Research Strategy. External Review Draft.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-02-01

    magnitude greater than the environmental exposure for which estimates of risk are 5 being made, as well as from test animals to humans. The uncertainties in...such extrapolations are 6 considerable and represent major problems facing the risk assessor. 7 Extrapolation from animal data to estimate human...risks involves a variety of assumptions 8 about interspecies differences between animals and humans. 9 Extrapolation from high to low dose from either

  10. Characterization of Evidence for Human System Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, S. L.; Van Baalen, M.; Rossi, M.; Riccio, G.; Romero, E.; Francisco, D.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the kinds of evidence available and using the best evidence to answer a question is critical to evidenced-based decision-making, and it requires synthesis of evidence from a variety of sources. Categorization of human system risks in spaceflight, in particular, focuses on how well the integration and interpretation of all available evidence informs the risk statement that describes the relationship between spaceflight hazards and an outcome of interest. A mature understanding and categorization of these risks requires: 1) sufficient characterization of risk, 2) sufficient knowledge to determine an acceptable level of risk (i.e., a standard), 3) development of mitigations to meet the acceptable level of risk, and 4) identification of factors affecting generalizability of the evidence to different design reference missions. In the medical research community, evidence is often ranked by increasing confidence in findings gleaned from observational and experimental research (e.g., "levels of evidence"). However, an approach based solely on aspects of experimental design is problematic in assessing human system risks for spaceflight. For spaceflight, the unique challenges and opportunities include: (1) The independent variables in most evidence are the hazards of spaceflight, such as space radiation or low gravity, which cannot be entirely duplicated in terrestrial (Earth-based) analogs, (2) Evidence is drawn from multiple sources including medical and mission operations, Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH), spaceflight research (LSDA), and relevant environmental & terrestrial databases, (3) Risk metrics based primarily on LSAH data are typically derived from available prevalence or incidence data, which may limit rigorous interpretation, (4) The timeframe for obtaining adequate spaceflight sample size (n) is very long, given the small population, (5) Randomized controlled trials are unattainable in spaceflight, (6) Collection of personal and

  11. HUMAN AND ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ASSOCIATIONS AMONH HUMAN HEALTH, ECOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    While all life is affected by the quality of the environment, environmental risk factors for human and wildlife health are typically assessed using independent processes that are dissimilar in scale and scope. However, the integrated analysis of human, ecological, and environmen...

  12. HUMAN AND ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ASSOCIATIONS AMONG HUMAN HEALTH, ECOLOGICAL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    While all life is affected by the quality of the environment, environmental risk factors for human and wildlife health are typically assessed using independent processes that are dissimilar in scale and scope. However, the integrated analysis of human, ecological, and environmen...

  13. HUMAN AND ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ASSOCIATIONS AMONG HUMAN HEALTH, ECOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    While all life is affected by the quality of the environment, environmental risk factors for human and wildlife health are typically assessed using independent processes that are dissimilar in scale and scope. However, the integrated analysis of human, ecological, and environmen...

  14. Human health risk assessment from arsenic exposures in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Tijo; Dubey, Brajesh; McBean, Edward A

    2015-09-15

    High arsenic exposures, prevalent through dietary and non-dietary sources in Bangladesh, present a major health risk to the public. A quantitative human health risk assessment is described as a result of arsenic exposure through food and water intake, tea intake, accidental soil ingestion, and chewing of betel quid, while people meet their desirable dietary intake requirements throughout their lifetime. In evaluating the contribution of each intake pathway to average daily arsenic intake, the results show that food and water intake combined, makes up approximately 98% of the daily arsenic intake with the balance contributed to by intake pathways such as tea consumption, soil ingestion, and quid consumption. Under an exposure scenario where arsenic concentration in water is at the WHO guideline (0.01 mg/L), food intake is the major arsenic intake pathway ranging from 67% to 80% of the average daily arsenic intake. However, the contribution from food drops to a range of 29% to 45% for an exposure scenario where arsenic in water is at the Bangladesh standard (0.05 mg/L). The lifetime excess risk of cancer occurrence from chronic arsenic exposure, considering a population of 160 million people, based on an exposure scenario with 85 million people at the WHO guideline value and 75 million people at the Bangladesh standard, and assuming that 35 million people are associated with a heavy activity level, is estimated as 1.15 million cases.

  15. Reproducibility and Transparency of Omics Research - Impacts on Human Health Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Omics technologies are becoming more widely used in toxicology, necessitating their consideration in human health hazard and risk assessment programs. Today, risk assessors in the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Toxicologi...

  16. Human Health Risk Assessment Calculator. In: SMARTe20ll, EPA/600/C-10/007

    EPA Science Inventory

    This calculator is aimed at supporting a human health risk assessment. Risk scenarios can be built by combining various health effects, exposure pathways, exposure parameters, and analytes. Scenario risk are calculated for each exposure pathway and analyte combination. The out...

  17. Significance of rat mammary tumors for human risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Russo, Jose

    2015-02-01

    We have previously indicated that the ideal animal tumor model should mimic the human disease. This means that the investigator should be able to ascertain the influence of host factors on the initiation of tumorigenesis, mimic the susceptibility of tumor response based on age and reproductive history, and determine the response of the tumors induced to chemotherapy. The utilization of experimental models of mammary carcinogenesis in risk assessment requires that the influence of ovarian, pituitary, and placental hormones, among others, as well as overall reproductive events are taken into consideration, since they are important modifiers of the susceptibility of the organ to neoplastic development. Several species, such as rodents, dogs, cats, and monkeys, have been evaluated for these purposes; however, none of them fulfills all the criteria specified previously. Rodents, however, are the most widely used models; therefore, this work will concentrate on discussing the rat rodent model of mammary carcinogenesis.

  18. Human tissue monitoring and specimen banking: opportunities for exposure assessment, risk assessment, and epidemiologic research.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, L W; Griffith, J; Zenick, H; Hulka, B S

    1995-01-01

    A symposium on Human Tissue Monitoring and Specimen Banking: Opportunities for Exposure Assessment, Risk Assessment, and Epidemiologic Research was held from 30 March to 1 April 1993 in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. There were 117 registered participants from 18 states and 5 foreign countries. The first 2 days featured 21 invited speakers from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, various other government agencies, and universities in the United States, Canada, Germany, and Norway. The speakers provided a state-of-the-art overview of human exposure assessment techniques (especially applications of biological markers) and their relevance to human tissue specimen banking. Issues relevant to large-scale specimen banking were discussed, including program design, sample design, data collection, tissue collection, and ethical ramifications. The final group of presentations concerned practical experiences of major specimen banking and human tissue monitoring programs in the United States and Europe. The symposium addressed the utility and research opportunities afforded by specimen banking programs for future research needs in the areas of human exposure assessment, risk assessment, and environmental epidemiology. The third day of the symposium consisted of a small workshop convened to discuss and develop recommendations to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regarding applications and utility of large-scale specimen banking, biological monitoring, and biological markers for risk assessment activities. PMID:7635108

  19. About the Human Health Risk Assessment Research (HHRA) Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The HHRA Research Program plays a unique role in serving the needs of the Agency, as well as the broader risk assessment/management community, by identifying, evaluating, synthesizing and integrating scientific information on chemical mixtures.

  20. Human Health Risk Assessment of Trichloroethylene from Industrial Complex A

    PubMed Central

    Sin, Saemi

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the human health risks of trichloroethylene from Industrial Complex A. The excessive carcinogenic risks for central tendency exposure were 1.40 × 10?5 for male and female residents in the vicinity of Industrial Complex A. The excessive cancers risk for reasonable maximum exposure were 2.88 × 10?5 and 1.97 × 10?5 for males and females, respectively. These values indicate that there are potential cancer risks for exposure to these concentrations. The hazard index for central tendency exposure to trichloroethylene was 1.71 for male and female residents. The hazard indexes for reasonable maximum exposure were 3.27 and 2.41 for males and females, respectively. These values were over one, which is equivalent to the threshold value. This result showed that adverse cancer and non-cancer health effects may occur and that some risk management of trichloroethylene from Industrial Complex A was needed. PMID:24278607

  1. Evaluating uncertainty to strengthen epidemiologic data for use in human health risk assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: There is a recognized need to improve the application of epidemiologic data in human health risk assessment especially for understanding and characterizing risks from environmental and occupational exposures. While most epidemiologic studies result in uncertainty, tec...

  2. Risk Assessment: Evidence Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.

    2007-01-01

    Human systems PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment: a) Provides quantitative measures of probability, consequence, and uncertainty; and b) Communicates risk and informs decision-making. Human health risks rated highest in ISS PRA are based on 1997 assessment of clinical events in analog operational settings. Much work remains to analyze remaining human health risks identified in Bioastronautics Roadmap.

  3. A global human health risk assessment for Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5).

    PubMed

    Franzen, Allison; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Greene, Tracy; Plotzke, Kathy; Gentry, Robinan

    2016-02-01

    Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) is a low-molecular-weight cyclic siloxane used primarily as an intermediate in the production of several widely-used industrial and consumer products and intentionally added to consumer products, personal products and some dry cleaning solvents. The global use requires consideration of consumer use information and risk assessment requirements from various sources and authoritative bodies. A global "harmonized" risk assessment was conducted to meet requirements for substance-specific risk assessments conducted by regulatory agencies such as USEPA's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), Health Canada and various independent scientific committees of the European Commission, as well as provide guidance for chemical safety assessments under REACH in Europe, and other relevant authoritative bodies. This risk assessment incorporates global exposure information combined with a Monte Carlo analysis to determine the most significant routes of exposure, utilization of a multi-species, multi-route physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to estimate internal dose metrics, benchmark modeling to determine a point of departure (POD), and a margin of safety (MOS) evaluation to compare the estimates of intake with the POD. Because of the specific pharmacokinetic behaviors of D5 including high lipophilicity, high volatility with low blood-to-air partition coefficients and extensive metabolic clearance that regulate tissue dose after exposure, the use of a PBPK model was essential to provide a comparison of a dose metric that reflects these processes. The characterization of the potential for adverse effects after exposure to D5 using a MOS approach based on an internal dose metric removes the subjective application of uncertainty factors that may be applied across various regulatory agencies and allows examination of the differences between internal dose metrics associated with exposure and those associated with adverse effects.

  4. Probabilistic integrated risk assessment of human exposure risk to environmental bisphenol A pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Fu, Keng-Yen; Cheng, Yi-Hsien; Chio, Chia-Pin; Liao, Chung-Min

    2016-10-01

    Environmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure has been linked to a variety of adverse health effects such as developmental and reproductive issues. However, establishing a clear association between BPA and the likelihood of human health is complex yet fundamentally uncertain. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential exposure risks from environmental BPA among Chinese population based on five human health outcomes, namely immune response, uterotrophic assay, cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, and behavior change. We addressed these health concerns by using a stochastic integrated risk assessment approach. The BPA dose-dependent likelihood of effects was reconstructed by a series of Hill models based on animal models or epidemiological data. We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model that allows estimation of urinary BPA concentration from external exposures. Here we showed that the daily average exposure concentrations of BPA and urinary BPA estimates were consistent with the published data. We found that BPA exposures were less likely to pose significant risks for infants (0-1 year) and adults (male and female >20 years) with <10(-6)-fold increase in uterus weight and immune response outcomes, respectively. Moreover, our results indicated that there was 50 % risk probability that the response outcomes of CVD, diabetes, and behavior change with or without skin absorption would increase 10(-4)-10(-2)-fold. We conclude that our approach provides a powerful tool for tracking and managing human long-term BPA susceptibility in relation to multiple exposure pathways, and for informing the public of the negligible magnitude of environmental BPA pollution impacts on human health.

  5. Depleted uranium human health risk assessment, Jefferson Proving Ground, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.

    1994-04-29

    The risk to human health from fragments of depleted uranium (DU) at Jefferson Proving Ground (JPG) was estimated using two types of ecosystem pathway models. A steady-state, model of the JPG area was developed to examine the effects of DU in soils, water, and vegetation on deer that were hunted and consumed by humans. The RESRAD code was also used to estimate the effects of farming the impact area and consuming the products derived from the farm. The steady-state model showed that minimal doses to humans are expected from consumption of deer that inhabit the impact area. Median values for doses to humans range from about 1 mrem ({plus_minus}2.4) to 0.04 mrem ({plus_minus}0.13) and translate to less than 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} detriments (excess cancers) in the population. Monte Carlo simulation of the steady-state model was used to derive the probability distributions from which the median values were drawn. Sensitivity analyses of the steady-state model showed that the amount of DU in airborne dust and, therefore, the amount of DU on the vegetation surface, controlled the amount of DU ingested by deer and by humans. Human doses from the RESRAD estimates ranged from less than 1 mrem/y to about 6.5 mrem/y in a hunting scenario and subsistence fanning scenario, respectively. The human doses exceeded the 100 mrem/y dose limit when drinking water for the farming scenario was obtained from the on-site aquifer that was presumably contaminated with DU. The two farming scenarios were unrealistic land uses because the additional risk to humans due to unexploded ordnance in the impact area was not figured into the risk estimate. The doses estimated with RESRAD translated to less than 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} detriments to about 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} detriments. The higher risks were associated only with the farming scenario in which drinking water was obtained on-site.

  6. Addressing Human Variability in Next-Generation Human Health Risk Assessments of Environmental Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Bois, Frederic Y.; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Hattis, Dale; Rusyn, Ivan; Guyton, Kathryn Z.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Characterizing variability in the extent and nature of responses to environmental exposures is a critical aspect of human health risk assessment. Objective: Our goal was to explore how next-generation human health risk assessments may better characterize variability in the context of the conceptual framework for the source-to-outcome continuum. Methods: This review was informed by a National Research Council workshop titled “Biological Factors that Underlie Individual Susceptibility to Environmental Stressors and Their Implications for Decision-Making.” We considered current experimental and in silico approaches, and emerging data streams (such as genetically defined human cells lines, genetically diverse rodent models, human omic profiling, and genome-wide association studies) that are providing new types of information and models relevant for assessing interindividual variability for application to human health risk assessments of environmental chemicals. Discussion: One challenge for characterizing variability is the wide range of sources of inherent biological variability (e.g., genetic and epigenetic variants) among individuals. A second challenge is that each particular pair of health outcomes and chemical exposures involves combinations of these sources, which may be further compounded by extrinsic factors (e.g., diet, psychosocial stressors, other exogenous chemical exposures). A third challenge is that different decision contexts present distinct needs regarding the identification—and extent of characterization—of interindividual variability in the human population. Conclusions: Despite these inherent challenges, opportunities exist to incorporate evidence from emerging data streams for addressing interindividual variability in a range of decision-making contexts. PMID:23086705

  7. Human health risk assessment from the presence of human pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Virginia L; Binks, Stephen P; Olson, Michael J

    2009-02-01

    Assessments for potential impact to human health from environmental exposures were carried out for 44 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) marketed by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), representing approximately 22 general pharmacological classes exhibiting a broad spectrum of therapeutic activities. These assessments use the considerable amount of information available on the human pharmacology and toxicology of the APIs to develop acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) which are believed to be without pharmacological or toxicological effect. With the exception of the anti-cancer drugs and some antibiotics, the minimum dose producing the intended therapeutic effect was typically used as the point of departure for calculation of ADIs. The ADI values were used to generate predicted no effect concentrations from environmental exposure for human health (PNEC(HH)s) from drinking water or fish consumption. These PNECs were compared to predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) calculated using the regional assessment models PhATE for North America and GREAT-ER for Europe. Risk was characterized by calculating the ratio of the 90th percentile PECs to the PNEC(HH)s. For the APIs reported here, these ratios are less than one for all of the compounds, varying from 7x10(-2) to 6x10(-11), indicating that based upon currently available data, these compounds do not appear to pose an appreciable risk to human health from potential environmental exposure from drinking water and fish consumption.

  8. Human health risk assessment related to contaminated land: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Swartjes, F A

    2015-08-01

    Exposure of humans to contaminants from contaminated land may result in many types of health damage ranging from relatively innocent symptoms such as skin eruption or nausea, on up to cancer or even death. Human health protection is generally considered as a major protection target. State-of-the-art possibilities and limitations of human health risk assessment tools are described in this paper. Human health risk assessment includes two different activities, i.e. the exposure assessment and the hazard assessment. The combination of these is called the risk characterization, which results in an appraisal of the contaminated land. Exposure assessment covers a smart combination of calculations, using exposure models, and measurements in contact media and body liquids and tissue (biomonitoring). Regarding the time frame represented by exposure estimates, biomonitoring generally relates to exposure history, measurements in contact media to actual exposures, while exposure calculations enable a focus on exposure in future situations. The hazard assessment, which is different for contaminants with or without a threshold for effects, results in a critical exposure value. Good human health risk assessment practice accounts for tiered approaches and multiple lines of evidence. Specific attention is given here to phenomena such as the time factor in human health risk assessment, suitability for the local situation, background exposure, combined exposure and harmonization of human health risk assessment tools.

  9. Use of mechanistic data in assessing human risks from exposure to particles.

    PubMed Central

    McClellan, R O

    1997-01-01

    The ultimate goal of toxicologic investigations of both natural and man-made fibrous and nonfibrous particles is to provide essential input for the assessment of potential human risks from exposure to these materials. The development of risk assessment procedures for airborne particles has evolved over the years. The earliest assessments for naturally occurring materials used direct human observations and incorporated safety factors to arrive at allowable human exposures. More recently, there has been a need to assess the potential risk associated with production and use of certain man-made materials for which human data are not available or are inadequate. For these materials, it has been necessary to assess human risks using data obtained from studies conducted in laboratory animals and with cells or tissues. During the last several decades, it has been suggested that data on the mechanisms by which particles cause disease could be used to reduce the uncertainty in estimates of human risks of particle exposures. This article provides comments on the use of mechanistic data in the risk assessment process and suggestions for increasing the successful development and use of mechanistic data in risk assessments conducted in the future. PMID:9400751

  10. Waste area Grouping 2 Phase I task data report: Human health risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Purucker, S.T.; Douthat, D.M.

    1996-06-01

    This report is one of five reports issued in 1996 that provide follow- up information to the Phase 1 Remedial Investigation (RI) Report for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The five reports address areas of concern that could cause potential human health risk and ecological risk within WAG2 at ORNL. The purpose of this report is to present a summary of the human health risk assessment results based on the data collected for the WAG 2 Phase 1 RI. Estimates of risk are provided based on measured concentrations in the surface water, floodplain soil, and sediment of White Oak Creek, Melton Branch, and their tributaries. The human health risk assessment methodology used in this risk assessment is based on Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS). First, the data for the different media are elevated to determine usability for risk assessment. Second, through the process of selecting chemicals of potential concern (COPCs), contaminants to be considered in the risk assessment are identified for each assessment of exposure potential is performed, and exposure pathways are identified. Subsequently, exposure is estimated quantitatively, and the toxicity of each of the COPCs is determined. The results of these analyses are combined and summarized in a risk characterization.

  11. Human Health Risk Assessment Strategic Research Action Plan 2012-2016

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document outlines the strategic plan for EPA’s Human Health Risk Assessment research efforts, and how they support and are integrated into the overall research portfolio of the Agency’s Office of Research and Development.

  12. 78 FR 61365 - Assessment of the Risk of Human Salmonellosis Associated With the Consumption of Tree Nuts...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Assessment of the Risk of Human Salmonellosis Associated... entitled ``Assessment of the Risk of Human Salmonellosis Associated With the Consumption of Tree Nuts... of the risk of human salmonellosis associated with the consumption of tree nuts. We are taking...

  13. QUANTITATIVE TOXICOPROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF CARCINOGEN-TREATED ANIMAL TISSUES AND HUMAN CELLS FOR HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans are exposed to a variety of environmental toxicants, and this together with a large number of interacting factors can contribute to an individual's risk for health. To understand the toxic mechanisms and/or modes of action for human health risk assessment, molecular charac...

  14. Human pharmaceuticals in US surface waters: a human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Bradley W; Hayes, Eileen P; Fiori, Janice M; Mastrocco, Frank J; Roden, Nicholas M; Cragin, David; Meyerhoff, Roger D; D'Aco, Vincent J; Anderson, Paul D

    2005-08-01

    The detection of low levels of pharmaceuticals in rivers and streams, drinking water, and groundwater has raised questions as to whether these levels may affect human health. This report presents human health risk assessments for 26 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and/or their metabolites, representing 14 different drug classes, for which environmental monitoring data are available for the United States. Acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) are derived using the considerable data that are available for APIs. The resulting ADIs are designed to protect potentially exposed populations, including sensitive sub-populations. The ADIs are then used to estimate predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) for two sources of potential human exposure: drinking water and fish ingestion. The PNECs are compared to measured environmental concentrations (MECs) from the published literature and to maximum predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) generated using the PhATE model. The PhATE model predictions are made under conservative assumptions of low river flow and no depletion (i.e., no metabolism, no removal during wastewater or drinking water treatment, and no instream depletion). Ratios of MECs to PNECs are typically very low and consistent with PEC to PNEC ratios. For all 26 compounds, these low ratios indicate that no appreciable human health risk exists from the presence of trace concentrations of these APIs in surface water and drinking water.

  15. Assessment of regional human health risks from lead contamination in Yunnan province, southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Cheng, Hongguang; Liu, Xuelian; Xie, Jing; Li, Qian; Zhou, Tan

    2015-01-01

    Identification and management the 'critical risk areas' where hotspot lead exposures are a potential risk to human health, become a major focus of public health efforts in China. But the knowledge of health risk assessment of lead pollution at regional and national scales is still limited in China. In this paper, under the guidance of 'sources-pathways-receptors' framework, regional human health risk assessment model for lead contamination was developed to calculate the population health risk in Yunnan province. And the cluster and AHP (analytic hierarchy process) analysis was taken to classify and calculate regional health risk and the decomposition of the regional health risk in the greatest health risk region, respectively. The results showed that Yunnan province can be divided into three areas. The highest health risk levels, located in northeastern Yunnan, including Kunming, Qujing, Zhaotong region. In those regions, lead is present at high levels in air, food, water and soil, and high population density which pose a high potential population risk to the public. The current study also reveals that most regional health risk was derived from the child receptors (age above 3 years) 4.3 times than the child receptors (age under 3 years), and ingestion of lead-contaminated rice was found to be the most significant contributor to the health risk (accounting for more than 49% health risk of total). This study can provide a framework for regional risk assessment in China and highlighted some indicators and uncertainties.

  16. A Stochastic Approach To Human Health Risk Assessment Due To Groundwater Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros, F. P.; Rubin, Y.

    2006-12-01

    We present a probabilistic framework to addressing adverse human health effects due to groundwater contamination. One of the main challenges in health risk assessment is in relating it to subsurface data acquisition and to improvement in our understanding of human physiological responses to contamination. In this paper we propose to investigate this problem through an approach that integrates flow, transport and human health risk models with hydrogeological characterization. A human health risk cumulative distribution function is analytically developed to account for both uncertainty and variability in hydrogeological as well as human physiological parameters. With our proposed approach, we investigate under which conditions the reduction of uncertainties from flow physics, human physiology and exposure related parameters might contribute to a better understanding of human health risk assessment. Results indicate that the human health risk cumulative distribution function is sensitive to physiological parameters at low risk values associated with longer travel times. The results show that the worth of hydrogeological characterization in human health risk is dependent on the residence time of the contaminant plume in the aquifer and on the exposure duration of the population to certain chemicals.

  17. Framework for integrating human and animal data in chemical risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, Karlene S; Robert Schnatter, A; Travis, Kim Z; Swaen, Gerard M H; Pallapies, Dirk; Money, Chris; Priem, Peter; Vrijhof, Henk

    2012-03-01

    Although regulatory agencies formally encourage the integration of all available data in chemical risk assessment, consistent implementation of this practice has been constrained by the lack of a clear, systematic method for doing so. In this paper, we describe a methodology for evaluating, classifying and integrating human and animal data into the risk assessment process that incorporates: (1) a balanced appraisal of human and animal data, (2) relevance to different stages of the risk assessment process, and (3) accommodation for different data quality requirements. The proposed framework offers a flexible, step-wise approach for determining which set of available data best support the chemical risk assessment that involves the rating and relative ranking of human and animal data quality. The evaluation of human data incorporates seven data quality elements, nature and specificity of the lead effect; evaluation of animal data incorporates data quality and relevance to humans. Results of simulations with selected chemicals previously evaluated in a formal risk assessment generally agreed with existing regulatory guidance. Application of the proposed framework across a wider range of chemical agents will improve transparency of the risk assessment process and validity of results, while informing continuous refinements to this evolving methodology.

  18. 76 FR 30705 - Problem Formulation for Human Health Risk Assessments of Pathogens in Land-Applied Biosolids

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... AGENCY Problem Formulation for Human Health Risk Assessments of Pathogens in Land-Applied Biosolids... the availability of a final report titled, ``Problem Formulation for Human Health Risk Assessments of..., contractors, or other parties interested in conducting microbial risk assessments on land- applied...

  19. Risk assessment in regulatory policy making for human and veterinary public health.

    PubMed

    Lathers, Claire M

    2002-08-01

    Risk assessment is the method of systematically identifying and assessing factors that influence the probability and consequences of a negative event occurring. One responsibility of veterinary medicine is to protect animal and human health. Food animal production uses antibiotics to enhance production. Regulators evaluate new production technology to ensure animal safety and safe, edible products and to make public policy decisions by assessing risks/benefits. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Veterinary Medicine's (CVM's) first risk assessment addressed the potential human health impact of campylobacter effects associated with the use of fluoroquinolines in food-producing animals. CVM used the Monte Carlo method to estimate risk byprobability distributions that reflect the uncertainty and variability in the data used for the assessment. Enterococci faecium is a species more likely to be resistant to antibiotics of last resort. Effective control of multidrug-resistant enterococci will requirea better understanding of the transfer of E. faeciumfrom animals to humans and the interaction between E. faecium, the hospital environment, and humans; prudent antibiotic use; better contact isolation in hospitals; and better surveillance. CVM will model these factors in a second, more complex risk assessment designed to examine the indirect transfer of resistance from animals to humans. Use of risk assessments allows researchers, the industry, regulatory authorities, and educators to make better policy decisions regarding antimicrobial use in food animals and humans and the development of resistance. Today the question of whether the use of antimicrobials for growth enhancement infood animals should or should not be terminated for the benefit of human health remains unresolved.

  20. Risk assessment of oil and gas well drilling activities in Iran - a case study: human factors.

    PubMed

    Amir-Heidari, Payam; Farahani, Hadi; Ebrahemzadih, Mehrzad

    2015-01-01

    Oil and gas well drilling activities are associated with numerous hazards which have the potential to cause injury or harm for people, property and the environment. These hazards are also a threat for the reputation of drilling companies. To prevent accidents and undesired events in drilling operations it is essential to identify, evaluate, assess and control the attendant risks. In this work, a structured methodology is proposed for risk assessment of drilling activities. A case study is performed to identify, analyze and assess the risks arising from human factors in one of the on shore drilling sites in southern Iran. A total of 17 major hazards were identified and analyzed using the proposed methodology. The results showed that the residual risks of 100% of these hazards were in the acceptable or transitional zone, and their levels were expected to be lowered further by proper controls. This structured methodology may also be used in other drilling sites and companies for assessing the risks.

  1. Modelling the species jump: towards assessing the risk of human infection from novel avian influenzas.

    PubMed

    Hill, A A; Dewé, T; Kosmider, R; Von Dobschuetz, S; Munoz, O; Hanna, A; Fusaro, A; De Nardi, M; Howard, W; Stevens, K; Kelly, L; Havelaar, A; Stärk, K

    2015-09-01

    The scientific understanding of the driving factors behind zoonotic and pandemic influenzas is hampered by complex interactions between viruses, animal hosts and humans. This complexity makes identifying influenza viruses of high zoonotic or pandemic risk, before they emerge from animal populations, extremely difficult and uncertain. As a first step towards assessing zoonotic risk of influenza, we demonstrate a risk assessment framework to assess the relative likelihood of influenza A viruses, circulating in animal populations, making the species jump into humans. The intention is that such a risk assessment framework could assist decision-makers to compare multiple influenza viruses for zoonotic potential and hence to develop appropriate strain-specific control measures. It also provides a first step towards showing proof of principle for an eventual pandemic risk model. We show that the spatial and temporal epidemiology is as important in assessing the risk of an influenza A species jump as understanding the innate molecular capability of the virus. We also demonstrate data deficiencies that need to be addressed in order to consistently combine both epidemiological and molecular virology data into a risk assessment framework.

  2. INTEGRATION OF HUMAN HEALTH AND ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The WHO International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) have developed a collaborative partnership to foster integration of assessment approaches to evaluate ...

  3. GM Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrow, Penny A. C.

    GM risk assessments play an important role in the decision-making process surrounding the regulation, notification and permission to handle Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Ultimately the role of a GM risk assessment will be to ensure the safe handling and containment of the GMO; and to assess any potential impacts on the environment and human health. A risk assessment should answer all ‘what if’ scenarios, based on scientific evidence.

  4. USDOE study: Human health and ecological risk assessment for produced water discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Meinhold, A.F.; Holtzman, S.; DePhillips, M.; Hamilton, L.D.

    1994-12-31

    Produced water generated during the production of oil and gas can contain high concentrations of radionuclides, organics and heavy metals. There are concerns about potential human health and ecological impacts from the discharge of these contaminants to the Gulf of Mexico. Data collected in the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) field study are being used in a series of human health and ecological risk assessments. These assessments will support scientifically-based regulation and risk management. This presentation: summarizes risk assessments performed for produced water discharges; describes how uncertainties in these assessments are guiding data collection efforts in the USDOE field study; and outlines ongoing risk assessment studies. In these studies, risk assessment is treated as an iterative process. An initial screening-level assessment is performed to identify important contaminants, transport and exposure pathways, and parameters. These intermediate results are used to guide data collection efforts and refinements to the analysis. At this stage in the analysis, risk is described in terms of probabilities; the uncertainties in each measured or modeled parameter are considered explicitly.

  5. Mining the potential interrelationships between human health and ecological risk assessments of metal-contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect

    Appling, J.W.

    1994-12-31

    Conservative approaches to human health or ecological risk assessment often result in evaluations that indicate a risk at metal concentrations near or below background levels. This presents a complex dilemma to regulators, responsible parties, and the public: How can risk be more realistically estimated so that the public is not unnecessarily alarmed into thinking normal exposures pose abnormal risk, and site remediation can be responsible yet cost-effective? One answer is using-ecological and human health studies together to improve the quality of both types of assessments. Mammalian herbivores and roving children are good spatial and temporal integrators of exposure; biomarkers or Monte Carlo-based models of exposure to herbivores can support realistic estimates of exposure to children. Reduced bioavailability of metals in soils at mining sites is well recognized for many metals and is amenable to study in ecological species; such studies reduce the overestimate of risk to humans through direct contact or exposure via the food chain. Recent and current human health studies of lead and arsenic bioavailability also support ecological assessments. Mixtures of metals pose special challenges because of the potential for antagonistic, additive, or synergistic effects with respect to bioavailability, absorption, distribution, excretion, toxic effects and nutritional or physiological essentiality. Combining results from pharmacokinetic, mechanistic, and environmental studies of mixtures enhances the predictive abilities of risk assessments.

  6. A review of human biomonitoring data used in regulatory risk assessment under Canada's Chemicals Management Program.

    PubMed

    Zidek, Angelika; Macey, Kristin; MacKinnon, Leona; Patel, Mikin; Poddalgoda, Devika; Zhang, Yi

    2016-10-21

    As a part of the Chemicals Management Plan launched in 2006, the Government of Canada is assessing and managing, where appropriate, the potential health and ecological risks associated with approximately 4300 substances under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (1999). Since that time, nearly 3000 substances have been assessed, with human biomonitoring (HBM) data playing an increasingly important role for some substances. Case studies are presented, including both inorganic and organic substances (i.e., selenium, triclosan, phthalates), which highlight the impact and overall role HBM has had in regulatory decision making in Canada for these three substances as well as criteria used in the application of HBM data in human health risk assessment. An overview of its limitations in terms of how and when HBM data can be applied, when assessing human health in a regulatory setting, is discussed as well as the role HBM data can play in priority setting.

  7. Cytogenetic monitoring of human populations at risk in Egypt: role of cytogenetic data in cancer risk assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, W A

    1991-01-01

    Somatic mutation plays a critical role in carcinogenesis. Numerous environmental agents can increase the probability that somatic mutation will occur. The use of genotoxicity testing is essential for assessing potential human toxicity so that hazards can be prevented. Cytogenetic monitoring of human populations exposed to chemicals has proved to be a useful tool for detecting the chemical mutagenic effects. Cytogenetic analyses of human chromosomes in peripheral lymphocytes allows direct detection of mutation in somatic cells. Different methods can be used for chromosomal analysis (conventional chromosomal analysis, sister chromatid exchange, micronucleus frequency detection). Micronucleus frequency can be detected either in peripheral blood lymphocytes or in exfoliated cells. Different examples of human population studies are presented. Several problems that are found in biomonitoring studies are discussed. These studies should help us learn about individual exposure assessment and biologically relevant doses, leading to quantitative assessment of human cancer risks. PMID:1820285

  8. GM Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Penny A C

    2009-01-01

    GM risk assessments play an important role in the decision-making process surrounding the regulation, notification and permission to handle Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Ultimately the role of a GM risk assessment will be to ensure the safe handling and containment of the GMO; and to assess any potential impacts on the environment and human health. A risk assessment should answer all 'what if' scenarios, based on scientific evidence. This chapter sets out to provide researchers with helpful guidance notes on producing their own GM risk assessment. While reference will be made to UK and EU regulations, the underlying principles and points to consider are generic to most countries.

  9. Analytic concepts for assessing risk as applied to human space flight

    SciTech Connect

    Garrick, B.J.

    1997-04-30

    Quantitative risk assessment (QRA) principles provide an effective framework for quantifying individual elements of risk, including the risk to astronauts and spacecraft of the radiation environment of space flight. The concept of QRA is based on a structured set of scenarios that could lead to different damage states initiated by either hardware failure, human error, or external events. In the context of a spacecraft risk assessment, radiation may be considered as an external event and analyzed in the same basic way as any other contributor to risk. It is possible to turn up the microscope on any particular contributor to risk and ask more detailed questions than might be necessary to simply assess safety. The methods of QRA allow for as much fine structure in the analysis as is desired. For the purpose of developing a basis for comprehensive risk management and considering the tendency to {open_quotes}fear anything nuclear,{close_quotes} radiation risk is a prime candidate for examination beyond that necessary to answer the basic question of risk. Thus, rather than considering only the customary damage states of fatalities or loss of a spacecraft, it is suggested that the full range of damage be analyzed to quantify radiation risk. Radiation dose levels in the form of a risk curve accomplish such a result. If the risk curve is the complementary cumulative distribution function, then it answers the extended question of what is the likelihood of receiving a specific dose of radiation or greater. Such results can be converted to specific health effects as desired. Knowing the full range of the radiation risk of a space mission and the contributors to that risk provides the information necessary to take risk management actions [operational, design, scheduling of missions around solar particle events (SPE), etc.] that clearly control radiation exposure.

  10. Should the scope of human mixture risk assessment span legislative/regulatory silos for chemicals?

    PubMed

    Evans, Richard M; Martin, Olwenn V; Faust, Michael; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Current chemicals regulation operates almost exclusively on a chemical-by-chemical basis, however there is concern that this approach may not be sufficiently protective if two or more chemicals have the same toxic effect. Humans are indisputably exposed to more than one chemical at a time, for example to the multiple chemicals found in food, air and drinking water, and in household and consumer products, and in cosmetics. Assessment of cumulative risk to human health and/or the environment from multiple chemicals and routes can be done in a mixture risk assessment (MRA). Whilst there is a broad consensus on the basic science of mixture toxicology, the path to regulatory implementation of MRA within chemical risk assessment is less clear. In this discussion piece we pose an open question: should the scope of human MRA cross legislative remits or 'silos'? We define silos as, for instance, legislation that defines risk assessment practice for a subset of chemicals, usually on the basis of substance/product, media or process orientation. Currently any form of legal mandate for human MRA in the EU is limited to only a few pieces of legislation. We describe two lines of evidence, illustrated with selected examples, that are particularly pertinent to this question: 1) evidence that mixture effects have been shown for chemicals regulated in different silos and 2) evidence that humans are co-exposed to chemicals from different silos. We substantiate the position that, because there is no reason why chemicals allocated to specific regulatory silos would have non-overlapping risk profiles, then there is also no reason to expect that MRA limited only to chemicals within one silo can fully capture the risk that may be present to human consumers. Finally, we discuss possible options for implementation of MRA and we hope to prompt wider discussion of this issue.

  11. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENTS - RESIDUAL RISK ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This source category previously subjected to a technology-based standard will be examined to determine if health or ecological risks are significant enough to warrant further regulation for Coke Ovens. These assesments utilize existing models and data bases to examine the multi-media and multi-pollutant impacts of air toxics emissions on human health and the environment. Details on the assessment process and methodologies can be found in EPA's Residual Risk Report to Congress issued in March of 1999 (see web site). To assess the health risks imposed by air toxics emissions from Coke Ovens to determine if control technology standards previously established are adequately protecting public health.

  12. Critical elements for human health risk assessment of less than lifetime exposures.

    PubMed

    Geraets, Liesbeth; Nijkamp, Monique M; Ter Burg, Wouter

    2016-11-01

    Less than lifetime exposure has confronted risk assessors as to how to interpret the risks for human health in case a chronic health-based limit is exceeded. Intermittent, fluctuating and peak exposures do not match with the basis of the chronic limit values possibly leading to conservative outcomes. This paper presents guidance on how to deal with human risk assessment of less than lifetime exposure. Important steps to be considered are characterization of the human exposure situation, evaluation whether the human less than lifetime exposure scenario corresponds to a non-chronic internal exposure: toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic considerations, and, finally, re-evaluation of the risk assessment. Critical elements for these steps are the mode of action, Haber's rule, and toxicokinetics (ADME) amongst others. Previous work for the endpoints non-genotoxic carcinogenicity and developmental toxicity is included in the guidance. The guidance provides a way to consider the critical elements, without setting default factors to correct for the less than lifetime exposure in risk assessment.

  13. 78 FR 38315 - Registration Review; Draft Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessments; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and the procedural regulations for registration review at.... The Agency has conducted a human health risk assessment for both dietary (food and drinking water) and... dietary (food and drinking water), residential and occupational exposure pathways. An addendum to the...

  14. Human health risk assessment (HHRA) for environmental development and transfer of antibiotic resistance

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objective: Here we present possible approaches and identify research needs to enable human health risk assessments that focus on the role the environment plays in antibiotic treatment failure of patients. Methods: The authors participated in a workshop sub-committee to define t...

  15. The Basics of Risk Assessment to Protect Human Health and the Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk assessment is the evaluation to determine the chance of harmful effects to human health or ecological systems resulting from exposure to an environmental stressor. A stressor is any physical, chemical, or biological entity that can induce an adverse response. Stressors may a...

  16. The Stoplight Task: A Procedure for Assessing Risk Taking in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Mark P.; Greenwald, Mark K.; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn

    2006-01-01

    The Stoplight Task, a procedure involving a computer analog of a stoplight, was evaluated for assessing risk taking in humans. Seventeen participants earned points later exchangeable for money by completing a response requirement before the red light appeared on a simulated traffic light. The green light signaled to start responding; it changed to…

  17. USING PROTEOMICS TO IMPROVE RISK ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL AGENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using Proteomics to Improve Risk Assessment of Human Exposure to Environmental Agents.
    Authors: Witold M. Winnik
    Key Words (4): Proteomics, LC/MS, Western Blots, 1D and 2D gel electrophoresis, toxicity

    The goal of this project is to use proteomics for the character...

  18. The Use of Biomonitoring Data in Exposure and Human Health Risk Assessment: BENZENE CASE STUDY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    HESI Biomonitoring Technical Committee A framework of "Common Criteria" (i.e., a series of questions) has been developed to inform the use and evaluation of biomonitoring data in the context of human exposure and risk assessment (Albertini et al., 2006). The data-rich chemical b...

  19. Cumulative effects of anti-androgenic chemical mixtures and their relevance to human health risk assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Kembra L. Howdeshell and L. Earl Gray, Jr.Toxicological studies of defined chemical mixtures assist human health risk assessment by characterizing the joint action of chemicals. This presentation will review the effects of anti-androgenic chemical mixtures on reproductive tract d...

  20. A Model-based Framework for Risk Assessment in Human-Computer Controlled Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatanaka, Iwao

    2000-01-01

    The rapid growth of computer technology and innovation has played a significant role in the rise of computer automation of human tasks in modem production systems across all industries. Although the rationale for automation has been to eliminate "human error" or to relieve humans from manual repetitive tasks, various computer-related hazards and accidents have emerged as a direct result of increased system complexity attributed to computer automation. The risk assessment techniques utilized for electromechanical systems are not suitable for today's software-intensive systems or complex human-computer controlled systems. This thesis will propose a new systemic model-based framework for analyzing risk in safety-critical systems where both computers and humans are controlling safety-critical functions. A new systems accident model will be developed based upon modem systems theory and human cognitive processes to better characterize system accidents, the role of human operators, and the influence of software in its direct control of significant system functions. Better risk assessments will then be achievable through the application of this new framework to complex human-computer controlled systems.

  1. Technical guide for applications of gene expression profiling in human health risk assessment of environmental chemicals.

    PubMed

    Bourdon-Lacombe, Julie A; Moffat, Ivy D; Deveau, Michelle; Husain, Mainul; Auerbach, Scott; Krewski, Daniel; Thomas, Russell S; Bushel, Pierre R; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole L

    2015-07-01

    Toxicogenomics promises to be an important part of future human health risk assessment of environmental chemicals. The application of gene expression profiles (e.g., for hazard identification, chemical prioritization, chemical grouping, mode of action discovery, and quantitative analysis of response) is growing in the literature, but their use in formal risk assessment by regulatory agencies is relatively infrequent. Although additional validations for specific applications are required, gene expression data can be of immediate use for increasing confidence in chemical evaluations. We believe that a primary reason for the current lack of integration is the limited practical guidance available for risk assessment specialists with limited experience in genomics. The present manuscript provides basic information on gene expression profiling, along with guidance on evaluating the quality of genomic experiments and data, and interpretation of results presented in the form of heat maps, pathway analyses and other common approaches. Moreover, potential ways to integrate information from gene expression experiments into current risk assessment are presented using published studies as examples. The primary objective of this work is to facilitate integration of gene expression data into human health risk assessments of environmental chemicals.

  2. Priority setting for risk assessment--the benefit of human experience.

    PubMed

    Alonzo, Cristina; Laborde, Amalia

    2005-09-01

    The chemical risk assessment process plays an essential role in the potential human health risk evaluation. Setting priorities for this purpose is critical for better use of the available human and material resources. It has been generally accepted that all new chemicals require safety evaluation before manufacture and sale. This is a difficult task due to the large number of chemicals directly consumed by man, as well as those that are widely used. At present, more than 50% of chemicals do not have the minimum data requirements for risk assessment. Production and release volumes are well-established prioritization criteria, although volume itself does not directly reflect the likelihood of human exposure. This quantitative approach applied in setting priorities may be influenced by human experience. Human data provided by epidemiological investigations have been accepted as the most credible evidence for human toxicity although analytical studies are expensive and require long-term follow up. Unfortunately, some epidemiological studies continue to have difficulties with exposure documentation, controlling bias and confounding, and are not able to provide predictions of risk until humans are exposed. Clinical toxicology services and Poison Centres around the world accumulate a great amount of toxicological-related information that may contribute to the evidence-based medicine and research and so collaborate with all the risk assessment disciplines. The information obtained from these services and centers has the potential to prioritize existing chemical assessment processes or to influence scheduling of classes of chemicals. Prioritization process may be improved by evaluating Poisons Centres statistics about frequency of cases, severity of effects, detection of unusual circumstances of exposure, as well as vulnerable sub-populations. International efforts for the harmonization of these data offer a useful tool to take advantage of this global information. Case

  3. Priority setting for risk assessment-The benefit of human experience

    SciTech Connect

    Alonzo, Cristina . E-mail: aloncris@adinet.com.uy; Laborde, Amalia

    2005-09-01

    The chemical risk assessment process plays an essential role in the potential human health risk evaluation. Setting priorities for this purpose is critical for better use of the available human and material resources. It has been generally accepted that all new chemicals require safety evaluation before manufacture and sale. This is a difficult task due to the large number of chemicals directly consumed by man, as well as those that are widely used. At present, more than 50% of chemicals do not have the minimum data requirements for risk assessment. Production and release volumes are well-established prioritization criteria, although volume itself does not directly reflect the likelihood of human exposure. This quantitative approach applied in setting priorities may be influenced by human experience. Human data provided by epidemiological investigations have been accepted as the most credible evidence for human toxicity although analytical studies are expensive and require long-term follow up. Unfortunately, some epidemiological studies continue to have difficulties with exposure documentation, controlling bias and confounding, and are not able to provide predictions of risk until humans are exposed. Clinical toxicology services and Poison Centres around the world accumulate a great amount of toxicological-related information that may contribute to the evidence-based medicine and research and so collaborate with all the risk assessment disciplines. The information obtained from these services and centers has the potential to prioritize existing chemical assessment processes or to influence scheduling of classes of chemicals. Prioritization process may be improved by evaluating Poisons Centres statistics about frequency of cases, severity of effects, detection of unusual circumstances of exposure, as well as vulnerable sub-populations. International efforts for the harmonization of these data offer a useful tool to take advantage of this global information. Case

  4. A Framework for Assessing Uncertainty Associated with Human Health Risks from MSW Landfill Leachate Contamination.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Harshit; Karmakar, Subhankar; Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, Jitendra

    2016-09-24

    Landfilling is a cost-effective method, which makes it a widely used practice around the world, especially in developing countries. However, because of the improper management of landfills, high leachate leakage can have adverse impacts on soils, plants, groundwater, aquatic organisms, and, subsequently, human health. A comprehensive survey of the literature finds that the probabilistic quantification of uncertainty based on estimations of the human health risks due to landfill leachate contamination has rarely been reported. Hence, in the present study, the uncertainty about the human health risks from municipal solid waste landfill leachate contamination to children and adults was quantified to investigate its long-term risks by using a Monte Carlo simulation framework for selected heavy metals. The Turbhe sanitary landfill of Navi Mumbai, India, which was commissioned in the recent past, was selected to understand the fate and transport of heavy metals in leachate. A large residential area is located near the site, which makes the risk assessment problem both crucial and challenging. In this article, an integral approach in the form of a framework has been proposed to quantify the uncertainty that is intrinsic to human health risk estimation. A set of nonparametric cubic splines was fitted to identify the nonlinear seasonal trend in leachate quality parameters. LandSim 2.5, a landfill simulator, was used to simulate the landfill activities for various time slices, and further uncertainty in noncarcinogenic human health risk was estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation followed by univariate and multivariate sensitivity analyses.

  5. Monte Carlo Simulation of Spacecraft Particle Detectors to Assess the True Human Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, Patrick M.

    2002-01-01

    Particle detectors (DOSTEL, CPDS, and TEPC) measure the energy deposition spectrum inside earth orbiting - manned spacecraft (shuttle, space station). These instruments attempt to emulate the deposition of energy in human tissue to evaluate the health risk. However, the measurements are often difficult to relate to tissue equivalent because nuclear fragmentation (internuclear cascade/evaporation), energy-loss straggling, heavy ions, spacecraft shielding and detector geometry/orientation, and coincidence thresholds significantly affect the measured spectrum. 'A le have developed a high fidelity Monte Carlo model addressing each of these effects that significantly improves interpretation of these instruments and the resulting assessment of radiation risk to humans.

  6. Quantitative Risk Assessment of Human Trichinellosis Caused by Consumption of Pork Meat Sausages in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Sequeira, G J; Zbrun, M V; Soto, L P; Astesana, D M; Blajman, J E; Rosmini, M R; Frizzo, L S; Signorini, M L

    2016-03-01

    In Argentina, there are three known species of genus Trichinella; however, Trichinella spiralis is most commonly associated with domestic pigs and it is recognized as the main cause of human trichinellosis by the consumption of products made with raw or insufficiently cooked pork meat. In some areas of Argentina, this disease is endemic and it is thus necessary to develop a more effective programme of prevention and control. Here, we developed a quantitative risk assessment of human trichinellosis following pork meat sausage consumption, which may be used to identify the stages with greater impact on the probability of acquiring the disease. The quantitative model was designed to describe the conditions in which the meat is produced, processed, transported, stored, sold and consumed in Argentina. The model predicted a risk of human trichinellosis of 4.88 × 10(-6) and an estimated annual number of trichinellosis cases of 109. The risk of human trichinellosis was sensitive to the number of Trichinella larvae that effectively survived the storage period (r = 0.89), the average probability of infection (PPinf ) (r = 0.44) and the storage time (Storage) (r = 0.08). This model allowed assessing the impact of different factors influencing the risk of acquiring trichinellosis. The model may thus help to select possible strategies to reduce the risk in the chain of by-products of pork production.

  7. Rethinking risk assessment for emerging technology first-in-human trials.

    PubMed

    Genske, Anna; Engel-Glatter, Sabrina

    2016-03-01

    Recent progress in synthetic biology (SynBio) has enabled the development of novel therapeutic opportunities for the treatment of human disease. In the near future, first-in-human trials (FIH) will be indicated. FIH trials mark a key milestone in the translation of medical SynBio applications into clinical practice. Fostered by uncertainty of possible adverse events for trial participants, a variety of ethical concerns emerge with regards to SynBio FIH trials, including 'risk' minimization. These concerns are associated with any FIH trial, however, due to the novelty of the approach, they become more pronounced for medical applications of emerging technologies (emTech) like SynBio. To minimize potential harm for trial participants, scholars, guidelines, regulations and policy makers alike suggest using 'risk assessment' as evaluation tool for such trials. Conversely, in the context of emTech FIH trials, we believe it to be at least questionable to contextualize uncertainty of potential adverse events as 'risk' and apply traditional risk assessment methods. Hence, this issue needs to be discussed to enable alterations of the evaluation process before the translational phase of SynBio applications begins. In this paper, we will take the opportunity to start the debate and highlight how a misunderstanding of the concept of risk, and the possibilities and limitations of risk assessment, respectively, might impair decision-making by the relevant regulatory authorities and research ethics committees, and discuss possible solutions to tackle the issue.

  8. A human dietary risk assessment associated with glycoalkaloid responses of potato to Colorado potato beetle defoliation.

    PubMed

    Dinkins, Courtney L Pariera; Peterson, Robert K D

    2008-08-01

    A quantitative human dietary risk assessment was conducted using the glycoalkaloid concentrations measured from tubers of plants defoliated by Colorado potato beetles and undefoliated (control). There was a significantly greater production of glycoalkaloids for defoliated plants compared to control plants for both skin and inner tissue of tubers. The dietary risk posed to different human subgroups associated with the consumption of potatoes was estimated for the 50th, 95th, and 99.9th percentile US national consumption values. Exposures were compared to a toxic threshold of 1.0mg/kg body weight. Defoliation by Colorado potato beetles increased dietary risk by approximately 48%. Glycoalkaloid concentrations within the inner tissue of tubers, including undefoliated controls, exceeded the toxic threshold for all human subgroups at less than the 99.9th percentile of exposure, but not the 95th percentile.

  9. Aggregate human health risk assessment from dust of daily life in the urban environment of Beijing.

    PubMed

    Xu, L Y; Shu, X

    2014-04-01

    Because of the high emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into the environment by the increasing number of vehicles in Beijing and the absorption of these PAHs onto particulates, the performance of a preliminary health risk assessment of the aggregate exposure to PAHs of urban citizens in daily life is very important. Urban dust can be used to examine the aggregation of atmospheric particulates from local pollution sources over a long time period and the direct exposure of the urban human population. The environment's correlative with clothing, dining, residing, and traveling in urban daily life was assessed using exposure-receptor-oriented analysis. The multipathway exposure model was used to simulate the lifetime exposure of a female citizen to PAHs in dust. All of the PAH concentrations in dust for each behavior and its correlative environment in Beijing were acceptable because all of the carcinogenic risks of PAHs in the dust were approximately 1.0 × 10(-6). The dominant induced carcinogenic risks in the dust were Benzo(a)pyrene and Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene. The main carcinogenic risk routes for humans were dermal contact and oral intake, which contributed on average 99.78% of the risk. Indoor risk is especially important, as the decoration and height within the building were important impact factors for carcinogenic risk induced by indoor PAHs. For people living in an urban area, a healthy lifestyle includes less decoration per room, living on a low floor, wearing a respirator, and reducing exposed skin area when traveling.

  10. Assessing risks for integrated water resource management: coping with uncertainty and the human factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polo, M. J.; Aguilar, C.; Millares, A.; Herrero, J.; Gómez-Beas, R.; Contreras, E.; Losada, M. A.

    2014-09-01

    Risk assessment for water resource planning must deal with the uncertainty associated with excess/scarcity situations and their costs. The projected actions for increasing water security usually involve an indirect "call-effect": the territory occupation/water use is increased following the achieved protection. In this work, flood and water demand in a mountainous semi-arid watershed in southern Spain are assessed by means of the stochastic simulation of extremes, when this human factor is/is not considered. The results show how not including this call-effect induced an underestimation of flood risk after protecting the floodplain of between 35 and 78 % in a 35-year planning horizon. Similarly, the pursued water availability of a new reservoir resulted in a 10-year scarcity risk increase up to 38 % when the trend of expanding the irrigated area was included in the simulations. These results highlight the need for including this interaction in the decision-making assessment.

  11. Human health risk assessment for off-shore media at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, E.

    1995-12-31

    A human health risk assessment for off-shore media was performed at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, Kittery, Maine. The purpose was to determine whether any potential human health risks could be posed by exposures to the estuary. Included in the study were the evaluations of potential risks existing from human exposures to surface water and sediment, as well as potential risks posed by ingestion of various species of fish and shellfish which are caught commercially and recreationally in the estuary. Three species were chosen for study. They were lobsters, mussels, and flounder. The USEPA prescribed protocols for performing human health risk assessments under CERCLA and RCRA were followed to estimate risks associated with ingestion of these species caught in the lower estuary, in the vicinity of the Shipyard. USEPA required the evaluation of two potential seafood ingestion scenarios recreational fishermen and subsistence fishermen. The results indicated that the USEPA risk target of 10{sup {minus}6} for carcinogens or the hazard index of one was exceeded in at least one species for the subsistence ingestion scenario for some inorganics and organic compounds. Based on these results, it was necessary to propose Media Protection Standards in the biota, which would represent the USEPA target risk level for carcinogens and noncarcinogens, as potential cleanup targets. In performing this task, a review of regional background levels for these chemicals found in biota throughout the Great Bay Estuarine System, at locations removed from the Shipyard, was performed. Also examined were regional Maine data from the NOAA Mussel Watch Program. Biota concentrations near the Shipyard were found to be within the range of biota concentrations for most of these chemicals throughout the region, suggesting possible multiple, non-point sources for the contaminants found in seafood throughout the region.

  12. Combining risk assessment and epidemiological risk factors to elucidate the sources of human E. coli O157 infection.

    PubMed

    Rotariu, O; Ogden, I D; MacRitchie, L; Forbes, K J; Williams, A P; Cross, P; Hunter, C J; Teunis, P F M; Strachan, N J C

    2012-08-01

    E. coli O157 can be transmitted to humans by three primary (foodborne, environmental, waterborne) and one secondary (person-to-person transmission) pathways. A regression model and quantitative microbiological risk assessments (QMRAs) were applied to determine the relative importance of the primary transmission pathways in NE Scotland. Both approaches indicated that waterborne infection was the least important but it was unclear whether food or the environment was the main source of infection. The QMRAs over-predicted the number of cases by a factor of 30 and this could be because all E. coli O157 strains may not be equally infective and/or the level of infectivity in the dose-response model was too high. The efficacy of potential risk mitigation strategies to reduce human exposure to E. coli O157 using QMRAs was simulated. Risk mitigation strategies focusing on food and environment are likely to have the biggest impact on infection figures.

  13. Biosafety Risk Assessment Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, Susan Adele; Gaudioso, Jennifer M.; Salerno, Reynolds Mathewson; Wagner, Stefan M.; Shigematsu, Mika; Risi, George; Kozlovac, Joe; Halkjaer-Knudsen, Vibeke; Prat, Esmeralda

    2010-10-01

    Laboratories that work with biological agents need to manage their safety risks to persons working the laboratories and the human and animal community in the surrounding areas. Biosafety guidance defines a wide variety of biosafety risk mitigation measures, which include measures which fall under the following categories: engineering controls, procedural and administrative controls, and the use of personal protective equipment; the determination of which mitigation measures should be used to address the specific laboratory risks are dependent upon a risk assessment. Ideally, a risk assessment should be conducted in a manner which is standardized and systematic which allows it to be repeatable and comparable. A risk assessment should clearly define the risk being assessed and avoid over complication.

  14. An Environmental Risk Assessment for Human-Use Trimethoprim in European Surface Waters.

    PubMed

    Straub, Jürg Oliver

    2013-03-18

    An environmental risk assessment (ERA) for the aquatic compartment in Europe from human use was developed for the old antibiotic Trimethoprim (TMP), comparing exposure and effects. The exposure assessment is based on European risk assessment default values on one hand and is refined with documented human use figures in Western Europe from IMS Health and measured removal in wastewater treatment on the other. The resulting predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) are compared with measured environmental concentrations (MECs) from Europe, based on a large dataset incorporating more than 1800 single MECs. On the effects side, available chronic ecotoxicity data from the literature were complemented by additional, new chronic results for fish and other organisms. Based on these data, chronic-based deterministic predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) were derived as well as two different probabilistic PNEC ranges. The ERA compares surface water PECs and MECs with aquatic PNECs for TMP. Based on all the risk characterization ratios (PEC÷PNEC as well as MEC÷PNEC) and risk graphs, there is no significant risk to surface waters.

  15. An Environmental Risk Assessment for Human-Use Trimethoprim in European Surface Waters

    PubMed Central

    Straub, Jürg Oliver

    2013-01-01

    An environmental risk assessment (ERA) for the aquatic compartment in Europe from human use was developed for the old antibiotic Trimethoprim (TMP), comparing exposure and effects. The exposure assessment is based on European risk assessment default values on one hand and is refined with documented human use figures in Western Europe from IMS Health and measured removal in wastewater treatment on the other. The resulting predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) are compared with measured environmental concentrations (MECs) from Europe, based on a large dataset incorporating more than 1800 single MECs. On the effects side, available chronic ecotoxicity data from the literature were complemented by additional, new chronic results for fish and other organisms. Based on these data, chronic-based deterministic predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) were derived as well as two different probabilistic PNEC ranges. The ERA compares surface water PECs and MECs with aquatic PNECs for TMP. Based on all the risk characterization ratios (PEC÷PNEC as well as MEC÷PNEC) and risk graphs, there is no significant risk to surface waters. PMID:27029296

  16. Pharmaceuticals in Tap Water: Human Health Risk Assessment and Proposed Monitoring Framework in China

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Ho Wing; Jin, Ling; Wei, Si; Tsui, Mirabelle Mei Po; Zhou, Bingsheng; Jiao, Liping; Cheung, Pak Chuen; Chun, Yiu Kan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pharmaceuticals are known to contaminate tap water worldwide, but the relevant human health risks have not been assessed in China. Objectives: We monitored 32 pharmaceuticals in Chinese tap water and evaluated the life-long human health risks of exposure in order to provide information for future prioritization and risk management. Methods: We analyzed samples (n = 113) from 13 cities and compared detected concentrations with existing or newly-derived safety levels for assessing risk quotients (RQs) at different life stages, excluding the prenatal stage. Results: We detected 17 pharmaceuticals in 89% of samples, with most detectable concentrations (92%) at < 50 ng/L. Caffeine (median–maximum, nanograms per liter: 24.4–564), metronidazole (1.8–19.3), salicylic acid (16.6–41.2), clofibric acid (1.2–3.3), carbamazepine (1.3–6.7), and dimetridazole (6.9–14.7) were found in ≥ 20% of samples. Cities within the Yangtze River region and Guangzhou were regarded as contamination hot spots because of elevated levels and frequent positive detections. Of the 17 pharmaceuticals detected, 13 showed very low risk levels, but 4 (i.e., dimetridazole, thiamphenicol, sulfamethazine, and clarithromycin) were found to have at least one life-stage RQ ≥ 0.01, especially for the infant and child life stages, and should be considered of high priority for management. We propose an indicator-based monitoring framework for providing information for source identification, water treatment effectiveness, and water safety management in China. Conclusion: Chinese tap water is an additional route of human exposure to pharmaceuticals, particularly for dimetridazole, although the risk to human health is low based on current toxicity data. Pharmaceutical detection and application of the proposed monitoring framework can be used for water source protection and risk management in China and elsewhere. PMID:23665928

  17. Human and animal health risk assessments of chemicals in the food chain: Comparative aspects and future perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Dorne, J.L.C.M.; Fink-Gremmels, J.

    2013-08-01

    Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. - Highlights: ► Principles of human and animal health risk assessment. ► Data gaps for each step of animal health risk assessment. ► Implications of animal risk assessment on human risk assessment. ► Future perspectives on chemical risk assessment.

  18. Lung dosimetry and risk assessment of nanoparticles: Evaluating and extending current models in rats and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Kuempel, E.D.; Tran, C.L.; Castranova, V.; Bailer, A.J.

    2006-09-15

    Risk assessment of occupational exposure to nanomaterials is needed. Human data are limited, but quantitative data are available from rodent studies. To use these data in risk assessment, a scientifically reasonable approach for extrapolating the rodent data to humans is required. One approach is allometric adjustment for species differences in the relationship between airborne exposure and internal dose. Another approach is lung dosimetry modeling, which provides a biologically-based, mechanistic method to extrapolate doses from animals to humans. However, current mass-based lung dosimetry models may not fully account for differences in the clearance and translocation of nanoparticles. In this article, key steps in quantitative risk assessment are illustrated, using dose-response data in rats chronically exposed to either fine or ultrafine titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), carbon black (CB), or diesel exhaust particulate (DEP). The rat-based estimates of the working lifetime airborne concentrations associated with 0.1% excess risk of lung cancer are approximately 0.07 to 0.3 mg/m{sup 3} for ultrafine TiO{sub 2}, CB, or DEP, and 0.7 to 1.3 mg/m{sup 3} for fine TiO{sub 2}. Comparison of observed versus model-predicted lung burdens in rats shows that the dosimetry models predict reasonably well the retained mass lung burdens of fine or ultrafine poorly soluble particles in rats exposed by chronic inhalation. Additional model validation is needed for nanoparticles of varying characteristics, as well as extension of these models to include particle translocation to organs beyond the lungs. Such analyses would provide improved prediction of nanoparticle dose for risk assessment.

  19. Human health risk assessment of carbamazepine in surface waters of North America and Europe.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Virginia L; Perino, Christopher; D'Aco, Vincent J; Hartmann, Andreas; Bechter, Rudolf

    2010-04-01

    A human health risk assessment was carried out for environmental exposures to carbamazepine (CBZ) and its major human metabolites, carbamazepine diol (CBZ-DiOH) and carbamazepine N-glucuronide (CBZ-N-Glu). Carbamazepine is an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) used worldwide as a medicine for treating epileptic seizures and trigeminal neuralgia. Carbamazepine tends to be detected in surface water more frequently, and at relatively higher concentrations, than most other APIs. Predicted no effect levels (PNECs) for CBZ and its major human metabolites were developed for surface waters to be protective of human health from environmental exposures from drinking water and fish consumption. These PNECs were compared to both measured (MEC) and predicted (PEC) environmental concentrations for North America and Europe. PECs were calculated using the geo-referenced models PhATE for North America and GREAT-ER for Europe. The combined PNEC for drinking water and fish consumption for CBZ is 226,000ng/L. Ninetieth percentile MECs ranged from 150 to 220ng/L, while 90th percentile PECs ranged from 333 to 658ng/L. Calculated margins of safety (MOS) therefore range from 340 to 1500. MOS for the major metabolites are significantly higher. This assessment indicates that CBZ and its major metabolites have high MOS (>1) and thus should have no appreciable risk to human health through environmental exposures based on available human data.

  20. Comparative pathophysiology, toxicology, and human cancer risk assessment of pharmaceutical-induced hibernoma

    SciTech Connect

    Radi, Zaher; Bartholomew, Phillip; Elwell, Michael; Vogel, W. Mark

    2013-12-15

    In humans, hibernoma is a very rare, benign neoplasm of brown adipose tissue (BAT) that typically occurs at subcutaneous locations and is successfully treated by surgical excision. No single cause has been accepted to explain these very rare human tumors. In contrast, spontaneous hibernoma in rats is rare, often malignant, usually occurs in the thoracic or abdominal cavity, and metastases are common. In recent years, there has been an increased incidence of spontaneous hibernomas in rat carcinogenicity studies, but overall the occurrence remains relatively low and highly variable across studies. There have only been four reported examples of pharmaceutical-induced hibernoma in rat carcinogenicity studies. These include phentolamine, an alpha-adrenergic antagonist; varenicline, a nicotine partial agonist; tofacitinib, a Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor; and hydromorphone, an opiod analgesic. Potential non-genotoxic mechanisms that may contribute to the pathogenesis of BAT activation/proliferation and/or subsequent hibernoma development in rats include: (1) physiological stimuli, (2) sympathetic stimulation, (3) peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonism, and/or (4) interference or inhibition of JAK/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling. The evaluation of an apparent increase of hibernoma in rats from 2-year carcinogenicity studies of novel pharmaceutical therapeutics and its relevance to human safety risk assessment is complex. One should consider: the genotoxicity of the test article, dose/exposure and safety margins, and pathophysiologic and morphologic differences and similarities of hibernoma between rats and humans. Hibernomas observed to date in carcinogenicity studies of pharmaceutical agents do not appear to be relevant for human risk at therapeutic dosages. - Highlights: • Highly variable incidence of spontaneous hibernoma in carcinogenicity studies • Recent increase in the spontaneous incidence of hibernomas

  1. Quantitative risk assessment of human salmonellosis in Canadian broiler chicken breast from retail to consumption.

    PubMed

    Smadi, Hanan; Sargeant, Jan M

    2013-02-01

    The current quantitative risk assessment model followed the framework proposed by the Codex Alimentarius to provide an estimate of the risk of human salmonellosis due to consumption of chicken breasts which were bought from Canadian retail stores and prepared in Canadian domestic kitchens. The model simulated the level of Salmonella contamination on chicken breasts throughout the retail-to-table pathway. The model used Canadian input parameter values, where available, to represent risk of salmonellosis. From retail until consumption, changes in the concentration of Salmonella on each chicken breast were modeled using equations for growth and inactivation. The model predicted an average of 318 cases of salmonellosis per 100,000 consumers per year. Potential reasons for this overestimation were discussed. A sensitivity analysis showed that concentration of Salmonella on chicken breasts at retail and food hygienic practices in private kitchens such as cross-contamination due to not washing cutting boards (or utensils) and hands after handling raw meat along with inadequate cooking contributed most significantly to the risk of human salmonellosis. The outcome from this model emphasizes that responsibility for protection from Salmonella hazard on chicken breasts is a shared responsibility. Data needed for a comprehensive Canadian Salmonella risk assessment were identified for future research.

  2. Framework for Metals Risk Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Framework for Metals Risk Assessment is a science-based document that addresses the special attributes and behaviors of metals and metal compounds to be considered when assessing their human health and ecological risks.

  3. Aquatic environmental risk assessment for human use of the old antibiotic sulfamethoxazole in Europe.

    PubMed

    Straub, Jürg Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is an old sulfonamide antibiotic that was launched first in combination with trimethoprim in 1969 by F.Hoffmann-La Roche. Although sales figures for SMX have been declining over the past 20 yr, the compound is still widely used; moreover, many measured environmental concentrations (MECs) are available from Europe, the United States, Asia, Australia, and Africa. To assess aquatic risks of SMX in Europe, the exposure of European surface waters was predicted based on actual sales figures from IMS Health, incorporating environmental fate data on one side, and based on collated MECs representing more than 5500 single measurements in Europe on the other. Environmental effects were assessed using chronic and subchronic ecotoxicity data for 16 groups of aquatic organisms, from periphyton communities to cyanobacteria, algae, higher plants, various invertebrates, and vertebrates. Predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) were derived using both deterministic and probabilistic methodology. The predicted environmental concentration (PEC)/PNEC and MEC/PNEC comparisons overall showed no appreciable risk, except in a low incidence (<0.55%) of cases in which exceptionally high MECs led to MEC/PNEC risk characterization ratios greater than 1. The PNECs derived in the present study can be used to extend aquatic environmental risk assessment for SMX to other continents. No risk appears for indirect human exposure to SMX via the environment.

  4. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their Bioaccessibility in Meat: a Tool for Assessing Human Cancer Risk.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, Elliyana Nadia; Hajeb, Parvaneh; Selamat, Jinap; Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are primarily formed as a result of thermal treatment of food, especially barbecuing or grilling. Contamination by PAHs is due to generation by direct pyrolysis of food nutrients and deposition from smoke produced through incomplete combustion of thermal agents. PAHs are ubiquitous compounds, well-known to be carcinogenic, which can reach the food in different ways. As an important human exposure pathway of contaminants, dietary intake of PAHs is of increasing concern for assessing cancer risk in the human body. In addition, the risks associated with consumption of barbecued meat may increase if consumers use cooking practices that enhance the concentrations of contaminants and their bioaccessibility. Since total PAHs always overestimate the actual amount that is available for absorption by the body, bioaccessibility of PAHs is to be preferred. Bioaccessibility of PAHs in food is the fraction of PAHs mobilized from food matrices during gastrointestinal digestion. An in vitro human digestion model was chosen for assessing the bioaccessibility of PAHs in food as it offers a simple, rapid, low cost alternative to human and animal studies; providing insights which may not be achievable in in vivo studies. Thus, this review aimed not only to provide an overview of general aspects of PAHs such as the formation, carcinogenicity, sources, occurrence, and factors affecting PAH concentrations, but also to enhance understanding of bioaccessibility assessment using an in vitro digestion model.

  5. An overview of the evolution of human reliability analysis in the context of probabilistic risk assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    Bley, Dennis C.; Lois, Erasmia; Kolaczkowski, Alan M.; Forester, John Alan; Wreathall, John; Cooper, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Since the Reactor Safety Study in the early 1970's, human reliability analysis (HRA) has been evolving towards a better ability to account for the factors and conditions that can lead humans to take unsafe actions and thereby provide better estimates of the likelihood of human error for probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of recent reviews of operational events and advances in the behavioral sciences that have impacted the evolution of HRA methods and contributed to improvements. The paper discusses the importance of human errors in complex human-technical systems, examines why humans contribute to accidents and unsafe conditions, and discusses how lessons learned over the years have changed the perspective and approach for modeling human behavior in PRAs of complicated domains such as nuclear power plants. It is argued that it has become increasingly more important to understand and model the more cognitive aspects of human performance and to address the broader range of factors that have been shown to influence human performance in complex domains. The paper concludes by addressing the current ability of HRA to adequately predict human failure events and their likelihood.

  6. Bottom-up and top-down integration of human and ecological risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Suter, Glenn W

    The World Health Organization has published a framework for integrating human health and ecological risk assessments, and many others have argued for greater integration of health and environmental concerns in assessments. However, those who argue for integration do not agree on the expected benefits. This article provides a conceptual organization of the rationale for integration. The bottom-up line of argument begins with the premise that the mechanisms of transport, fate, exposure, and effects of chemicals on humans and nonhuman organisms are largely common. Therefore, integrated assessment should be more efficient and should employ the highest quality of science. The top-down line of argument begins with the premise that humans are organisms that reside in ecosystems. Therefore, changes in the environment imply changes in human health and welfare. These include changes in the many services of nature that contribute to human health, such as air and water purification, sentinel functions, and provision of recreation and food supplies. They also include the direct health benefits that have been associated with exposure of humans to plants, animals, and natural ecosystems. Integration should proceed from both the top and bottom.

  7. Nitrate and nitrite in the diet: how to assess their benefit and risk for human health.

    PubMed

    Habermeyer, Michael; Roth, Angelika; Guth, Sabine; Diel, Patrick; Engel, Karl-Heinz; Epe, Bernd; Fürst, Peter; Heinz, Volker; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Joost, Hans-Georg; Knorr, Dietrich; de Kok, Theo; Kulling, Sabine; Lampen, Alfonso; Marko, Doris; Rechkemmer, Gerhard; Rietjens, Ivonne; Stadler, Richard H; Vieths, Stefan; Vogel, Rudi; Steinberg, Pablo; Eisenbrand, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate is a natural constituent of the human diet and an approved food additive. It can be partially converted to nitrogen monoxide, which induces vasodilation and thereby decreases blood pressure. This effect is associated with a reduced risk regarding cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Moreover, dietary nitrate has been associated with beneficial effects in patients with gastric ulcer, renal failure, or metabolic syndrome. Recent studies indicate that such beneficial health effects due to dietary nitrate may be achievable at intake levels resulting from the daily consumption of nitrate-rich vegetables. N-nitroso compounds are endogenously formed in humans. However, their relevance for human health has not been adequately explored up to now. Nitrate and nitrite are per se not carcinogenic, but under conditions that result in endogenous nitrosation, it cannot be excluded that ingested nitrate and nitrite may lead to an increased cancer risk and may probably be carcinogenic to humans. In this review, the known beneficial and detrimental health effects related to dietary nitrate/nitrite intake are described and the identified gaps in knowledge as well as the research needs required to perform a reliable benefit/risk assessment in terms of long-term human health consequences due to dietary nitrate/nitrite intake are presented.

  8. Probabilistic Human Health Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures: Hydro-Toxicological Interactions and Controlling Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henri, C.; Fernandez-Garcia, D.; de Barros, F.

    2014-12-01

    Improper disposals of hazardous wastes in most industrial countries give rise to severe groundwater contamination problems that can lead to adverse health effects in humans. Therefore risk assessment methods play an important role in population protection by (1) quantifying the impact on human health of an aquifer contamination and (2) aiding the decision making process of to better manage our groundwater resources. Many reactive components such as chlorinated solvent or nitrate potentially experience attenuation processes under common geochemical conditions. Based on this, monitored natural attenuation has become nowadays an attractive remediation solution. However, in some cases, intermediate degradation products can constitute noxious chemical compounds before reaching a harmless chemical form. In these cases, the joint effect of advection-dispersion transport and the species-dependent kinetic reactions and toxicity will dictate the relative importance of the degradation byproducts to the total risk. This renders the interpretation of risk a non-trivial task. In this presentation, we quantify, through a probabilistic framework, the human health risk posed by a chemical mixture in a heterogeneous aquifer. This work focuses on a Perchloroethylene contamination problem followed by the first-order production/biodegradation of its daughter species Trichloroethylene, Dichloroethylene and Vinyl Chlorine that is known to be highly toxic. Uncertainty on the hydraulic conductivity field is considered through a Monte Carlo scheme. A comparative description of human health risk metrics as a function of aquifer heterogeneity and contaminant injection mode is provided by means of a spatial characterization of the lower-order statistical moments and empirical probability density functions of both individual and total risks. Interestingly, we show that the human health risk of a chemical mixture is mainly controlled by a modified Damköhler number that express the joint effect

  9. A quantitative methodology to assess the risks to human health from CO 2 leakage into groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siirila, Erica R.; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K.; Maxwell, Reed M.; McCray, John E.

    2012-02-01

    Leakage of CO 2 and associated gases into overlying aquifers as a result of geologic carbon capture and sequestration may have adverse impacts on aquifer drinking-water quality. Gas or aqueous-phase leakage may occur due to transport via faults and fractures, through faulty well bores, or through leaky confining materials. Contaminants of concern include aqueous salts and dissolved solids, gaseous or aqueous-phase organic contaminants, and acidic gas or aqueous-phase fluids that can liberate metals from aquifer minerals. Here we present a quantitative risk assessment framework to predict potential human health risk from CO 2 leakage into drinking water aquifers. This framework incorporates the potential release of CO 2 into the drinking water aquifer; mobilization of metals due to a decrease in pH; transport of these metals down gradient to municipal receptors; distributions of contaminated groundwater to multiple households; and exposure and health risk to individuals using this water for household purposes. Additionally, this framework is stochastic, incorporates detailed variations in geological and geostatistical parameters and discriminates between uncertain and variable parameters using a two-stage, or nested, Monte Carlo approach. This approach is demonstrated using example simulations with hypothetical, yet realistic, aquifer characteristics and leakage scenarios. These example simulations show a greater risk for arsenic than for lead for both cancer and non-cancer endpoints, an unexpected finding. Higher background groundwater gradients also yield higher risk. The overall risk and the associated uncertainty are sensitive to the extent of aquifer stratification and the degree of local-scale dispersion. These results all highlight the importance of hydrologic modeling in risk assessment. A linear relationship between carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risk was found for arsenic and suggests action levels for carcinogenic risk will be exceeded in exposure

  10. Modeling and Quantification of Team Performance in Human Reliability Analysis for Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. JOe; Ronald L. Boring

    2014-06-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) are important technical contributors to the United States (U.S.) Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC) risk-informed and performance based approach to regulating U.S. commercial nuclear activities. Furthermore, all currently operating commercial NPPs in the U.S. are required by federal regulation to be staffed with crews of operators. Yet, aspects of team performance are underspecified in most HRA methods that are widely used in the nuclear industry. There are a variety of "emergent" team cognition and teamwork errors (e.g., communication errors) that are 1) distinct from individual human errors, and 2) important to understand from a PRA perspective. The lack of robust models or quantification of team performance is an issue that affects the accuracy and validity of HRA methods and models, leading to significant uncertainty in estimating HEPs. This paper describes research that has the objective to model and quantify team dynamics and teamwork within NPP control room crews for risk informed applications, thereby improving the technical basis of HRA, which improves the risk-informed approach the NRC uses to regulate the U.S. commercial nuclear industry.

  11. Cumulative effects of antiandrogenic chemical mixtures and their relevance to human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Howdeshell, Kembra L; Hotchkiss, Andrew K; Gray, L Earl

    2016-11-19

    Toxicological studies of defined chemical mixtures assist human health risk assessment by establishing how chemicals interact with one another to induce an effect. This paper reviews how antiandrogenic chemical mixtures can alter reproductive tract development in rats with a focus on the reproductive toxicant phthalates. The reviewed studies compare observed mixture data to mathematical mixture model predictions based on dose addition or response addition to determine how the individual chemicals in a mixture interact (e.g., additive, greater, or less than additive). Phthalate mixtures were observed to act in a dose additive manner based on the relative potency of the individual phthalates to suppress fetal testosterone production. Similar dose additive effects have been reported for mixtures of phthalates with antiandrogenic pesticides of differing mechanisms of action. Overall, data from these phthalate experiments in rats can be used in conjunction with human biomonitoring data to determine individual hazard indices, and recent cumulative risk assessments in humans indicate an excess risk to antiandrogenic chemical mixtures that include phthalates only or phthalates in combination with other antiandrogenic chemicals.

  12. Concerns about the widespread use of rodent models for human risk assessments of endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed

    Habert, René; Muczynski, Vincent; Grisin, Tiphany; Moison, Delphine; Messiaen, Sébastien; Frydman, René; Benachi, Alexandra; Delbes, Géraldine; Lambrot, Romain; Lehraiki, Abdelali; N'tumba-Byn, Thierry; Guerquin, Marie-Justine; Levacher, Christine; Rouiller-Fabre, Virginie; Livera, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Fetal testis is a major target of endocrine disruptors (EDs). During the last 20 years, we have developed an organotypic culture system that maintains the function of the different fetal testis cell types and have used this approach as a toxicological test to evaluate the effects of various compounds on gametogenesis and steroidogenesis in rat, mouse and human testes. We named this test rat, mouse and human fetal testis assay. With this approach, we compared the effects of six potential EDs ((mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), cadmium, depleted uranium, diethylstilboestrol (DES), bisphenol A (BPA) and metformin) and one signalling molecule (retinoic acid (RA)) on the function of rat, mouse and human fetal testis at a comparable developmental stage. We found that the response is similar in humans and rodents for only one third of our analyses. For instance, RA and MEHP have similar negative effects on gametogenesis in the three species. For another third of our analyses, the threshold efficient concentrations that disturb gametogenesis and/or steroidogenesis differ as a function of the species. For instance, BPA and metformin have similar negative effects on steroidogenesis in human and rodents, but at different threshold doses. For the last third of our analyses, the qualitative response is species specific. For instance, MEHP and DES affect steroidogenesis in rodents, but not in human fetal testis. These species differences raise concerns about the extrapolation of data obtained in rodents to human health risk assessment and highlight the need of rigorous comparisons of the effects in human and rodent models, when assessing ED risk.

  13. An assessment of the risk significance of human errors in selected PSAs and operating events

    SciTech Connect

    Palla, R.L. Jr.; El-Bassioni, A. . Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation); Higgins, J. )

    1991-01-01

    Sensitivity studies based on Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs) for a pressurized water reactor and a boiling water reactor are described. In each case human errors modeled in the PSAs were categorized according to such factors as error type, location, timing, and plant personnel involved. Sensitivity studies were then conducted by varying the error rates in each category and evaluating the corresponding change in total core damage frequency and accident sequence frequency. Insights obtained are discussed and reasons for differences in risk sensitivity between plants are explored. A separate investigation into the role of human error in risk-important operating events is also described. This investigation involved the analysis of data from the USNRC Accident Sequence Precursor program to determine the effect of operator-initiated events on accident precursor trends, and to determine whether improved training can be correlated to current trends. The findings of this study are also presented. 5 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Toxicovigilance: A new approach for the hazard identification and risk assessment of toxicants in human beings

    SciTech Connect

    Descotes, Jacques . E-mail: jacques-georges.descotes@chu-lyon.fr; Testud, Francois

    2005-09-01

    The concept of toxicovigilance encompasses the active detection, validation and follow-up of clinical adverse events related to toxic exposures in human beings. Poison centers are key players in this function as poisoning statistics are essential to define the cause, incidence and severity of poisonings occurring in the general population. In addition, the systematic search for unexpected shifts in the recorded causes of poisonings, e.g., following the introduction of a new product, or change in the formulation or recommended use of an old product, allows for a rapid detection of potential adverse health consequences and the implementation of preventive or corrective measures. However, toxicovigilance is genuinely a medical and not only a statistical approach of human toxicity issues. In contrast to epidemiology, toxicovigilance is based on the in-depth medical assessment of acute or chronic intoxications on an individual basis, which requires detailed information that poison centers can rarely obtain via emergency telephone calls and that epidemiologists cannot collect or process. Validation of this medical information must primarily be based on toxicological expertise to help identify causal links between otherwise unexplained pathological conditions and documented toxic exposures. Thus, toxicovigilance can contribute to hazard identification and risk assessment by providing medically validated data which are often overlooked in the process of risk assessment. So far, very few structured toxicovigilance systems have been set up and hopefully national and international initiatives will bridge this gap in our knowledge of the toxicity of many chemicals and commercial products in human beings.

  15. Human Risk Assessment and Its Application to Nanotechnology: A Challenge for Assessors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emond, C.; Britos, T. N.

    2015-05-01

    Scientific literature suggests that exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) might be associated with adverse health effects. A well-developed human risk assessment (HRA) that applies to NPs has never been established and optimized-until now. Furthermore, no government regulations are in place that establish what is considered to be an adequate and secure level of exposure and supported by a strong scientific approach for nanotechnology. It is important to implement the HRA to ensure that workers producing NPs, users of NPs and the general population are protected from deleterious issues related to NPs. In this work, a methodology is described based on the HRA. An effort is required during synthesis before the commercialization phase to evaluate the results of a systematic and rigorous assessment because this could significantly reduce the health risks of those exposed to NPs, including workers and the population.

  16. Assessment of the long-term risks of inadvertent human intrusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wuschke, D.M. )

    1993-01-01

    Canada has conducted an extensive research program on the safe disposal of nuclear fuel wastes. The program has focused on the concept of disposal of spent fuel in durable containers in an engineered facility, or vault, 500 to 1000 m deep in intrusive igneous rock in the Canadian Shield. An essential goal of this program has been to develop and demonstrate a methodology to evaluate the performance of the facility against safety criteria established by Canada's regulatory agency, the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). These criteria are expressed in terms of risk, where risk is defined as the sum over all significant scenarios of the product of the probability of the scenario, the magnitude of the resultant dose, and the probability of a health effect per unit dose. This paper describes the methodology developed to assess the long-term risk from inadvertent human intrusion into such a facility and the results of its application to a conceptual design of such a facility.

  17. Vehicle Shield Optimization and Risk Assessment for Future Human Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nounu, Hatem N.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    As the focus of future human space missions shifts to destinations beyond low Earth orbit such as Near Earth Objects (NEO), the moon, or Mars, risks associated with extended stay in hostile radiation environment need to be well understood and assessed. Since future spacecrafts designs and shapes are evolving continuous assessments of shielding and radiation risks are needed. In this study, we use a predictive software capability that calculates risks to humans inside a spacecraft prototype that builds on previous designs. The software uses CAD software Pro/Engineer and Fishbowl tool kit to quantify radiation shielding provided by the spacecraft geometry by calculating the areal density seen at a certain point, dose point, inside the spacecraft. Shielding results are used by NASA-developed software, BRYNTRN, to quantify organ doses received in a human body located in the vehicle in case of solar particle event (SPE) during such prolonged space missions. Organ doses are used to quantify risks on astronauts health and life using NASA Space Cancer Model. The software can also locate shielding weak points-hotspots-on the spacecraft s outer surface. This capability is used to reinforce weak areas in the design. Results of shielding optimization and risk calculation on an exploration vehicle design for missions of 6 months and 30 months are provided in this study. Vehicle capsule is made of aluminum shell that includes main cabin and airlock. The capsule contains 5 sets of racks that surround working and living areas. Water shelter is provided in the main cabin of the vehicle to enhance shielding in case of SPE.

  18. Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment Work Plan Mud Pit Release Sites, Amchitka Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2001-03-12

    This Work Plan describes the approach that will be used to conduct human health and ecological risk assessments for Amchitka Island, Alaska, which was utilized as an underground nuclear test site between 1965 and 1971. During this period, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (now the U.S. Department of Energy) conducted two nuclear tests (known as Long Shot and Milrow) and assisted the U.S. Department of Defense with a third test (known as Cannikin). Amchitka Island is approximately 42 miles long and located 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska, in the western end of the Aleutian Island archipelago in a group of islands known as the Rat Islands. Historically including deep drilling operations required large volumes of drilling mud, a considerable amount of which was left on the island in exposed mud pits after testing was completed. Therefore, there is a need for drilling mud pit remediation and risk assessment of historical mud pit releases. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the constituents in soil, surface water, and sediment at these former testing sites. Its goal is the collection of data in sufficient quantity and quality to determine current site conditions, support a risk assessment for the site surfaces, and evaluate what further remedial action is required to achieve permanent closure of these three sites that will protect both human health and the environment. Suspected compounds of potential ecological concern for investigative analysis at these sites include diesel-range organics, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, volatile organic compounds, and chromium. The results of these characterizations and risk assessments will be used to evaluate corrective action alternatives to include no further action, the implementation of institutional controls, capping on site, or off-sit e

  19. Human exposure to trace elements through the skin by direct contact with clothing: Risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Rovira, Joaquim; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L.

    2015-07-15

    Metals in textile products and clothing are used for many purposes, such as metal complex dyes, pigments, mordant, catalyst in synthetic fabrics manufacture, synergists of flame retardants, antimicrobials, or as water repellents and odour-preventive agents. When present in textile materials, heavy metals may mean a potential danger to human health. In the present study, the concentrations of a number of elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn) were determined in skin-contact clothes. Analysed clothes were made of different materials, colours, and brands. Interestingly, we found high levels of Cr in polyamide dark clothes (605 mg/kg), high Sb concentrations in polyester clothes (141 mg/kg), and great Cu levels in some green cotton fabrics (around 280 mg/kg). Dermal contact exposure and human health risks for adult males, adult females, and for <1-year-old children were assessed. Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks were below safe (HQ<1) and acceptable (<10{sup −6}) limits, respectively, according to international standards. However, for Sb, non-carcinogenic risk was above 10% of the safety limit (HQ>0.1) for dermal contact with clothes. - Highlights: • We determined in skin-contact clothes the concentrations of a number of metals. • Dermal contact exposure and health risks for adults and for 1-year-old children were assessed. • Carcinogenic risks were considered as acceptable (<10{sup −6}). • For non-carcinogenic risks, only Sb exceeded a 10% of the HQ for dermal contact with clothes.

  20. Uncertainties in human health risk assessment of environmental contaminants: A review and perspective.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhaomin; Liu, Yanju; Duan, Luchun; Bekele, Dawit; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-12-01

    Addressing uncertainties in human health risk assessment is a critical issue when evaluating the effects of contaminants on public health. A range of uncertainties exist through the source-to-outcome continuum, including exposure assessment, hazard and risk characterisation. While various strategies have been applied to characterising uncertainty, classical approaches largely rely on how to maximise the available resources. Expert judgement, defaults and tools for characterising quantitative uncertainty attempt to fill the gap between data and regulation requirements. The experiences of researching 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) illustrated uncertainty sources and how to maximise available information to determine uncertainties, and thereby provide an 'adequate' protection to contaminant exposure. As regulatory requirements and recurring issues increase, the assessment of complex scenarios involving a large number of chemicals requires more sophisticated tools. Recent advances in exposure and toxicology science provide a large data set for environmental contaminants and public health. In particular, biomonitoring information, in vitro data streams and computational toxicology are the crucial factors in the NexGen risk assessment, as well as uncertainties minimisation. Although in this review we cannot yet predict how the exposure science and modern toxicology will develop in the long-term, current techniques from emerging science can be integrated to improve decision-making.

  1. Assessing interventions by quantitative risk assessment tools to reduce the risk of human salmonellosis from fresh minced pork meat in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Delhalle, L; Saegerman, C; Messens, W; Farnir, F; Korsak, N; Van der Stede, Y; Daube, G

    2009-11-01

    The risk of human salmonellosis through the consumption of minced pork meat in Belgium was assessed via a modular risk model covering pork meat production from lairage to human consumption. The main goal of the model was to give concrete options to reduce effectively the risk of human salmonellosis through the consumption of minced pork meat. These options (scenarios) were elaborated with reference to the international situation and the literature to give concrete and realistic possibilities for improving the microbiological quality of pork meat and to reduce the number of human salmonellosis cases per year in Belgium. The model estimates 15,376 cases of human salmonellosis per year in Belgium due to the consumption of minced pork meat. The results of the scenarios showed that the risk of human salmonellosis could be significantly reduced by efforts all along the pork meat production chain but also by efforts made by consumers. The responsibility of food business operators for the pork meat production chain is high in relation to the microbiological quality of meat delivery, especially at the slaughterhouse. Consumers also need to be aware of good hygiene practices during preparation of the meat at home. Cross-contamination with raw food can be avoided by changing the habits and the behavior of the household cook. The results of these scenarios would be useful for the food business operators involved in the pork meat chain and for public health authorities.

  2. Trace elements contamination and human health risk assessment in drinking water from Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shao-You; Zhang, Hui-Min; Sojinu, Samuel O; Liu, Gui-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Qing; Ni, Hong-Gang

    2015-01-01

    The levels of seven essential trace elements (Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, and Mo) and six non-essential trace elements (Cr, As, Cd, Sb, Hg, and Pb) in a total of 89 drinking water samples collected in Shenzhen, China were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in the present study. Both the essential and non-essential trace elements were frequently detectable in the different kinds of drinking waters assessed. Remarkable temporal and spatial variations were observed among most of the trace elements in the tap water collected from two tap water treatment plants. Meanwhile, potential human health risk from these non-essential trace elements in the drinking water for local residents was also assessed. The median values of cancer risks associated with exposure to carcinogenic metals via drinking water consumption were estimated to be 6.1 × 10(-7), 2.1 × 10(-8), and 2.5 × 10(-7) for As, Cd, and Cr, respectively; the median values of incremental lifetime for non-cancer risks were estimated to be 6.1 × 10(-6), 4.4 × 10(-5), and 2.2 × 10(-5) for Hg, Pb, and Sb, respectively. The median value of total incremental lifetime health risk induced by the six non-essential trace elements for the population was 3.5 × 10(-5), indicating that the potential health risks from non-carcinogenic trace elements in drinking water also require some attention. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the most important factor for health risk assessment should be the levels of heavy metal in drinking water.

  3. Novel Threat-risk Index Using Probabilistic Risk Assessment and Human Reliability Analysis - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    George A. Beitel

    2004-02-01

    In support of a national need to improve the current state-of-the-art in alerting decision makers to the risk of terrorist attack, a quantitative approach employing scientific and engineering concepts to develop a threat-risk index was undertaken at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). As a result of this effort, a set of models has been successfully integrated into a single comprehensive model known as Quantitative Threat-Risk Index Model (QTRIM), with the capability of computing a quantitative threat-risk index on a system level, as well as for the major components of the system. Such a threat-risk index could provide a quantitative variant or basis for either prioritizing security upgrades or updating the current qualitative national color-coded terrorist threat alert.

  4. A human health risk assessment of boron (boric acid and borax) in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Murray, F J

    1995-12-01

    A human health risk assessment was conducted to derive an appropriate safe exposure level in drinking water of inorganic boron-containing compounds (boric acid and borax). Several regulatory agencies have set or plan to set drinking water guidelines or standards for boron (B). Recent publication of reproductive and developmental toxicity studies by the National Toxicology Program prompted this risk assessment, along with the understanding that boron may be nutritionally essential. A rat developmental toxicity study with a NOAEL of 9.6 mg B/kg/day was selected as the pivotal study on which to base this risk assessment, since it represents the most sensitive endpoint of toxicity. A detailed evaluation of these and other studies allowed modifications of the default values for uncertainty factors to account for the pharmacokinetic similarities among species, the lack of metabolism of inorganic boron-containing compounds, the similarity of the toxicity profile across species, the quality of the toxicological database, and other factors according to the approach described by Renwick previously. Benchmark dose calculations were performed, and the results were in close agreement with the NOAEL selected for this risk assessment. The Reference Dose was calculated to be 0.3 mg B/kg/day, resulting in an acceptable daily intake of 18 mg B/day. Considering that the U.S. average dietary intake of boron is 1.5 mg B/day, 16.5 mg B/day could be available for drinking water or other exposures, if any. A preliminary review of boron data in the National Inorganic Radionuclide Survey by the EPA indicates the median boron level in U.S. drinking water supplies to be 0.031 mg B/liter, and most exposures are less than 2.44 mg B/liter (99th percentile). It is concluded that boron in U.S. drinking water would not be expected to pose any health risk to the public.

  5. A Bayesian Approach to Integrated Ecological and Human Health Risk Assessment for the South River, Virginia Mercury-Contaminated Site.

    PubMed

    Harris, Meagan J; Stinson, Jonah; Landis, Wayne G

    2017-01-25

    We conducted a regional-scale integrated ecological and human health risk assessment by applying the relative risk model with Bayesian networks (BN-RRM) to a case study of the South River, Virginia mercury-contaminated site. Risk to four ecological services of the South River (human health, water quality, recreation, and the recreational fishery) was evaluated using a multiple stressor-multiple endpoint approach. These four ecological services were selected as endpoints based on stakeholder feedback and prioritized management goals for the river. The BN-RRM approach allowed for the calculation of relative risk to 14 biotic, human health, recreation, and water quality endpoints from chemical and ecological stressors in five risk regions of the South River. Results indicated that water quality and the recreational fishery were the ecological services at highest risk in the South River. Human health risk for users of the South River was low relative to the risk to other endpoints. Risk to recreation in the South River was moderate with little spatial variability among the five risk regions. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis identified stressors and other parameters that influence risk for each endpoint in each risk region. This research demonstrates a probabilistic approach to integrated ecological and human health risk assessment that considers the effects of chemical and ecological stressors across the landscape.

  6. Human health risk assessment of nitrosamines and nitramines for potential application in CO2 capture.

    PubMed

    Ravnum, S; Rundén-Pran, E; Fjellsbø, L M; Dusinska, M

    2014-07-01

    Emission and accumulation of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere exert an environmental and climate change challenge. An attempt to deal with this challenge is made at Mongstad by application of amines for CO2 capture and storage (CO2 capture Mongstad (CCM) project). As part of the CO2 capture process, nitrosamines and nitramines may be emitted. Toxicological testing of nitrosamines and nitramines indicate a genotoxic potential of these substances. Here we present a risk characterization and assessment for five nitrosamines (N-Nitrosodi-methylamine (NDMA) N-Nitrosodi-ethylamine (NDEA), N-Nitroso-morpholine (NNM), N-Nitroso-piperidine (NPIP), and Dinitroso-piperazine (DNP)) and two nitramines (N-Methyl-nitramine (NTMA), Dimethyl-nitramine (NDTMA)), which are potentially emitted from the CO2 capture plant (CCP). Human health risk assessment of genotoxic non-threshold substances is a heavily debated topic, and no consensus methodology exists internationally. Extrapolation modeling from high-dose animal exposures to low-dose human exposures can be crucial for the final risk calculation. In the work presented here, different extrapolation models are discussed, and suggestions on applications are given. Then, preferred methods for calculating derived minimal effect level (DMEL) are presented with the selected nitrosamines and nitramines.

  7. Identification of potentially hazardous human gene products in GMO risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Bergmans, Hans; Logie, Colin; Van Maanen, Kees; Hermsen, Harm; Meredyth, Michelle; Van Der Vlugt, Cécile

    2008-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), e.g. viral vectors, could threaten the environment if by their release they spread hazardous gene products. Even in contained use, to prevent adverse consequences, viral vectors carrying genes from mammals or humans should be especially scrutinized as to whether gene products that they synthesize could be hazardous in their new context. Examples of such potentially hazardous gene products (PHGPs) are: protein toxins, products of dominant alleles that have a role in hereditary diseases, gene products and sequences involved in genome rearrangements, gene products involved in immunomodulation or with an endocrine function, gene products involved in apoptosis, activated proto-oncogenes. For contained use of a GMO that carries a construct encoding a PHGP, the precautionary principle dictates that safety measures should be applied on a "worst case" basis, until the risks of the specific case have been assessed. The potential hazard of cloned genes can be estimated before empirical data on the actual GMO become available. Preliminary data may be used to focus hazard identification and risk assessment. Both predictive and empirical data may also help to identify what further information is needed to assess the risk of the GMO. A two-step approach, whereby a PHGP is evaluated for its conceptual dangers, then checked by data bank searches, is delineated here.

  8. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment in Occupational Settings Applied to the Airborne Human Adenovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Carducci, Annalaura; Donzelli, Gabriele; Cioni, Lorenzo; Verani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) methodology, which has already been applied to drinking water and food safety, may also be applied to risk assessment and management at the workplace. The present study developed a preliminary QMRA model to assess microbial risk that is associated with inhaling bioaerosols that are contaminated with human adenovirus (HAdV). This model has been applied to air contamination data from different occupational settings, including wastewater systems, solid waste landfills, and toilets in healthcare settings and offices, with different exposure times. Virological monitoring showed the presence of HAdVs in all the evaluated settings, thus confirming that HAdV is widespread, but with different average concentrations of the virus. The QMRA results, based on these concentrations, showed that toilets had the highest probability of viral infection, followed by wastewater treatment plants and municipal solid waste landfills. Our QMRA approach in occupational settings is novel, and certain caveats should be considered. Nonetheless, we believe it is worthy of further discussions and investigations. PMID:27447658

  9. Interim Response Action Basin F Liquid Incineration Project Final Draft Human Health Risk Assessment. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    91222R02 2ND COPY Interim Response Action Basin F Liquid Incineration Project FINAL DRAFT HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT V olumne I Preplaced Remedial...The Use of OELs and NAAQSs for Calculating Inhalation RfJ)s 9-13 9.4.2.2 Adjustments to Inhalation RfDs 9-14 793C/FM V 7/22/91 TABLE OF CONTENTS...HENDERSON RTHOL THOL HAZELTIN A I LE-- f V , Rocky Mountain WELB DA Arsenal A"ADA AA -AIL- VIM IT RUM Doi T p- 0 Denver kl& MOR SHER DAN r go, "- V

  10. Risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, T.K.

    1993-01-01

    The chance of developing cancer from exposure to chemicals in the environment is calculated based on statistical evidence, but the task is a complex one that stirs much debate. There are as many as 2,000 substances that various groups have labeled as suspect, probable or definite human carcinogens. Only 23 substances, including aflatoxin, asbestos, vinyl chloride and benzene, have been proven through human epidemiological studies to increase cancer rates. The remainder received their carcinogenic classification based on animal studies. Animal testing usually involves feeding rats or mice extremely high doses of a substance, often the maximum amount they can tolerate without dying directly from toxicity. This approach ensures maximum sensitivity to potential carcinogenic effects and minimizes the number of lab animals required for such studies. Exposing them to levels similar to what humans experience would require millions of test animals. With few exceptions, no one denies trace exposure levels exist for most chemicals, below which no toxic effects occur in any individual. However, statistical evidence from human epidemiological studies is inadequate to detect small increases in mortality. Although animal studies are more sensitive to carcinogenic effects because of the high doses involved, they are inadequate to explain what occurs at much lower doses common in the real world. Human epidemiological studies, for example, show no evidence of increased cancer from many products containing minute quantities of substances known to cause cancer in lab animals.

  11. Human and animal health risk assessments of chemicals in the food chain: comparative aspects and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Dorne, J L C M; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2013-08-01

    Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field.

  12. A quantitative methodology to assess the risks to human health from CO2 leakage into groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siirila, E.; Sitchler, A.; Maxwell, R. M.; McCray, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    Leakage of CO2 and associated gases into overlying aquifers as a result of geologic carbon capture and sequestration may have adverse impacts on aquifer drinking-water quality. Gas or aqueous-phase leakage may occur due to transport via faults and fractures, through faulty well bores, or through leaky confining materials. Contaminants of concern include aqueous salts and dissolved solids, gaseous or aqueous-phase organic contaminants, and acidic gas or aqueous-phase fluids that can liberate metals from aquifer minerals. Here we present a quantitative risk assessment framework to predict potential human health risk from CO2 leakage into drinking water aquifers. This framework incorporates the potential release of CO2 into the drinking water aquifer; mobilization of metals due to a decrease in pH; transport of these metals down gradient to municipal receptors; distributions of contaminated groundwater to multiple households; and exposure and health risk to individuals using this water for household purposes. Additionally, this framework is stochastic, incorporates detailed variations in geological and geostatistical parameters and discriminates between uncertain and variable parameters using a two-stage, or nested, Monte Carlo approach. This approach is demonstrated using example simulations with hypothetical, yet realistic, aquifer characteristics and leakage scenarios. These example simulations show a greater risk for arsenic than for lead for both cancer and non-cancer endpoints, an unexpected finding given greater toxicity of lead at lower doses than arsenic. It was also found that higher background groundwater gradients also yield higher risk. The overall risk and the associated uncertainty are sensitive to the extent of aquifer stratification and the degree of local-scale dispersion. These results all highlight the importance of hydrologic modeling in risk assessment. A linear relationship between carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risk was found for arsenic and

  13. Human exposure to trace elements through the skin by direct contact with clothing: Risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Rovira, Joaquim; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2015-07-01

    Metals in textile products and clothing are used for many purposes, such as metal complex dyes, pigments, mordant, catalyst in synthetic fabrics manufacture, synergists of flame retardants, antimicrobials, or as water repellents and odour-preventive agents. When present in textile materials, heavy metals may mean a potential danger to human health. In the present study, the concentrations of a number of elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn) were determined in skin-contact clothes. Analysed clothes were made of different materials, colours, and brands. Interestingly, we found high levels of Cr in polyamide dark clothes (605 mg/kg), high Sb concentrations in polyester clothes (141 mg/kg), and great Cu levels in some green cotton fabrics (around 280 mg/kg). Dermal contact exposure and human health risks for adult males, adult females, and for <1-year-old children were assessed. Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks were below safe (HQ<1) and acceptable (<10(-6)) limits, respectively, according to international standards. However, for Sb, non-carcinogenic risk was above 10% of the safety limit (HQ>0.1) for dermal contact with clothes.

  14. A probabilistic model for silver bioaccumulation in aquatic systems and assessment of human health risks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warila, James; Batterman, Stuart; Passino-Reader, Dora R.

    2001-01-01

    Silver (Ag) is discharged in wastewater effluents and is also a component in a proposed secondary water disinfectant. A steady-state model was developed to simulate bioaccumulation in aquatic biota and assess ecological and human health risks. Trophic levels included phytoplankton, invertebrates, brown trout, and common carp. Uptake routes included water, food, or sediment. Based on an extensive review of the literature, distributions were derived for most inputs for use in Monte Carlo simulations. Three scenarios represented ranges of dilution and turbidity. Compared with the limited field data available, median estimates of Ag in carp (0.07-2.1 Iμg/g dry weight) were 0.5 to 9 times measured values, and all measurements were within the predicted interquartile range. Median Ag concentrations in biota were ranked invertebrates > phytoplankton > trout > carp. Biotic concentrations were highest for conditions of low dilution and low turbidity. Critical variables included Ag assimilation eficiency, specific feeding rate, and the phytoplankton bioconcentration factor. Bioaccumulation of Ag seems unlikely to result in txicity to aquatic biota and humans consuming fish. Although the highest predicted Ag concentrations in water (>200 ng/L) may pose chronic risks to early survival and development of salmonids and risks of argyria to subsistence fishers, these results occur under highly conservative conditions.

  15. Characterization of the human kinetic adjustment factor for the health risk assessment of environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    Valcke, Mathieu; Krishnan, Kannan

    2014-03-01

    A default uncertainty factor of 3.16 (√10) is applied to account for interindividual variability in toxicokinetics when performing non-cancer risk assessments. Using relevant human data for specific chemicals, as WHO/IPCS suggests, it is possible to evaluate, and replace when appropriate, this default factor by quantifying chemical-specific adjustment factors for interindividual variability in toxicokinetics (also referred to as the human kinetic adjustment factor, HKAF). The HKAF has been determined based on the distributions of pharmacokinetic parameters (e.g., half-life, area under the curve, maximum blood concentration) in relevant populations. This article focuses on the current state of knowledge of the use of physiologically based algorithms and models in characterizing the HKAF for environmental contaminants. The recent modeling efforts on the computation of HKAF as a function of the characteristics of the population, chemical and its mode of action (dose metrics), as well as exposure scenario of relevance to the assessment are reviewed here. The results of these studies, taken together, suggest the HKAF varies as a function of the sensitive subpopulation and dose metrics of interest, exposure conditions considered (route, duration, and intensity), metabolic pathways involved and theoretical model underlying its computation. The HKAF seldom exceeded the default value of 3.16, except in very young children (i.e., <≈ 3 months) and when the parent compound is the toxic moiety. Overall, from a public health perspective, the current state of knowledge generally suggest that the default uncertainty factor is sufficient to account for human variability in non-cancer risk assessments of environmental contaminants.

  16. Human Health Risk Assessment Strategic Research Action Plan 2016-2019

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has designed the HHRA program to develop and apply state-of-the-science risk assessment methods to estimate risks from exposures to individual chemicals, chemical mixtures, and mixtures of chemical of chemicals and non-chemical stressors.

  17. The use of biomonitoring data in exposure and human health risk assessment: benzene case study

    PubMed Central

    Angerer, Juergen; Boogaard, Peter J.; Hughes, Michael F.; O’Lone, Raegan B.; Robison, Steven H.; Robert Schnatter, A.

    2013-01-01

    A framework of “Common Criteria” (i.e. a series of questions) has been developed to inform the use and evaluation of biomonitoring data in the context of human exposure and risk assessment. The data-rich chemical benzene was selected for use in a case study to assess whether refinement of the Common Criteria framework was necessary, and to gain additional perspective on approaches for integrating biomonitoring data into a risk-based context. The available data for benzene satisfied most of the Common Criteria and allowed for a risk-based evaluation of the benzene biomonitoring data. In general, biomarker (blood benzene, urinary benzene and urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid) central tendency (i.e. mean, median and geometric mean) concentrations for non-smokers are at or below the predicted blood or urine concentrations that would correspond to exposure at the US Environmental Protection Agency reference concentration (30 µg/m3), but greater than blood or urine concentrations relating to the air concentration at the 1 × 10−5 excess cancer risk (2.9 µg/m3). Smokers clearly have higher levels of benzene exposure, and biomarker levels of benzene for non-smokers are generally consistent with ambient air monitoring results. While some biomarkers of benzene are specific indicators of exposure, the interpretation of benzene biomonitoring levels in a health-risk context are complicated by issues associated with short half-lives and gaps in knowledge regarding the relationship between the biomarkers and subsequent toxic effects. PMID:23346981

  18. Multipathway human health risk assessment concerning air emissions from combustion of Orimulsion fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Teaf, C.M.; Coleman, R.M.; Manning, M.J.; Covert, D.J.; Phelps, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    A multipathway human health risk assessment was conducted concerning air emissions from the combustion of Orimulsion. Exposure was considered for nearby residents who might be exposed by oral, dermal or inhalation pathways, including ingestion of analytes that may be present in meat and agricultural products from nearby areas. Occupational exposure were evaluated via the same intake pathways, except for potential ingestion of food products. Pathways included airborne exposures, deposition on crops, exposures to soils, and uptake by livestock and plants. Livestock intake included ingestion of analytes retained by plants and inhalation of soil-bound particulates. Analytes of potential concern included compounds identified as combustion products of the orimulsion fuel. Air concentrations of analytes, and the areal distribution of these concentrations resulting from stack emissions, were predicted using transport and deposition models. A worst cast scenario for air and cumulative soil concentrations was considered to represent the entire facility project lifetime (20 years) for dry deposition as well as predicted air concentrations occurring at continuous 100% facility operating capacity. Potential exposures to sulfuric acid mist and lead were shown to be much less than levels protective of human populations. Based upon the airborne emissions estimates and the deposition estimates for other constituents of interest, as well as the strongly conservative estimates of the potential for human intake, local health risks contributed from the combustion of Orimulsion fuel at the facility were judged to be negligible.

  19. Human health risk assessment of groundwater in Hetao Plain (Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yilong; Ma, Rong; Li, Zhenghong

    2014-08-01

    Groundwater quality significantly affects public health. In order to better understand groundwater suitability, a total of 887 shallow groundwater samples were collected from the Hetao Plain (HP), Inner Mongolia, China; the maximum and minimum health guideline values of each element were established in this work. Subsequently, the desirability functions (DFs) theory was employed to evaluate the human health risk of groundwater. The results indicate that 780 of the samples were unsuitable for drinking purposes due to the iron, total dissolved solids (TDS), arsenic, strontium, fluoride, and manganese concentrations present, all of which exceeded their maximum guideline value (MaGV). Only 107 samples were suitable for drinking use; however, these samples also have adverse effects on human health to some extent, due to the extremely lower concentrations of nutrient elements and existence of non-nutrient elements. Based on the observed results, groundwater that is unsuitable for drinking use must undergo bacteriological treatment prior to consumption. It was necessary for residents in the western, central, and northeastern parts of the study area are required to be supplied with certain nutrient elements, such as iron, iodine, molybdenum, manganese, and lithium. According to the human health risk assessment of groundwater, the general public can safely and reasonably consume the groundwater for drinking, agriculture irrigation, and industrial purposes.

  20. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in a replaced urban industrial area of Qingdao, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhongshuo; Li, Jinjun; Pan, Yuying; Chai, Xiaoli

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was risk characterization of a replaced urban industrial land located north of Qingdao, in relation to heavy metals values. Soil concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, and Zn were analyzed. It was observed that the components of Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, and Zn are about 2.22, 8.07, 4.70, 6.81, 2.65, and 3.0-folds, respectively, when compared with the local natural background values in Qingdao. The spatial distribution of heavy metals indicated that these hotspots for Cr and Zn located in the southwestern part, Ni and Cd in the middle of the south area, Pb in the northwest, and Cu in the middle of the east area. The values of pollution index and Nemerow integrated pollution index revealed that 100 % of soil samples were moderately or heavily contaminated by six heavy metals. From these results, human health risk assessment for sensitive population was performed according to two different land uses. For non-carcinogenic risk, the direct oral ingestion appeared to be the main exposure pathway followed by dermal and inhalation absorption. The HI values of Pb and Cr characterized for children were larger than 1, while HI values of each metal for adults in two scenarios were lower than 1. Besides, carcinogenic risk from inhalation exposure to Cr for children and adults in two scenarios all exceeded the safety limit.

  1. Deoxynivalenol Exposure in Norway, Risk Assessments for Different Human Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Sundheim, Leif; Lillegaard, Inger Therese; Fæste, Christiane Kruse; Brantsæter, Anne-Lise; Brodal, Guro; Eriksen, Gunnar Sundstøl

    2017-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most common mycotoxin in Norwegian cereals, and DON is detected in most samples of crude cereal grain and cereal food commodities such as flour, bran, and oat flakes. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety assessed the risk for adverse effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) in different age groups of the domestic population. This review presents the main results from the risk assessment, supplemented with some recently published data. Impairment of the immune system together with reduced feed intake and weight gain are the critical effects of DON in experimental animals on which the current tolerable daily intake was established. Based on food consumption and occurrence data, the mean exposure to DON in years with low and high levels of DON in the flour, respectively, were in the range of or up to two times the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) in 1-year-old infants and 2-year-old children. In years with high mean DON concentration, the high (95th-percentile) exposure exceeded the TDI by up to 3.5 times in 1-, 2- , 4-, and 9-year-old children. The assessment concluded that exceeding the TDI in infants and children is of concern. The estimated dietary DON intakes in adolescent and adult populations are in the range of the TDI or below, and are not a health concern. Acute human exposure to DON is not of concern in any age group. PMID:28165414

  2. Coastal erosion risk assessment using natural and human factors in different scales.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrakis, George; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Climate change, including sea-level rise and increasing storms, raise the threats of coastal erosion. Mitigating and adapting to coastal erosion risks in areas of human interest, like urban areas, culture heritage sites, and areas of economic interest, present a major challenge for society. In this context, decision making needs to be based in reliable risk assessment that includes environmental, social and economic factors. By integrating coastal hazard and risk assessments maps into coastal management plans, risks in areas of interest can be reduced. To address this, the vulnerability of the coast to sea level rise and associated erosion, in terms of expected land loss and socioeconomic importance need to be identified. A holistic risk assessment based in environmental, socioeconomic and economics approach can provide managers information how to mitigate the impact of coastal erosion and plan protection measures. Such an approach needs to consider social, economic and environmental factors, which interactions can be better assessed when distributed and analysed along the geographical space. In this work, estimations of climate change impact to coastline are based on a combination of environmental and economic data analysed in a GIS database. The risk assessment is implemented through the estimation of the vulnerability and exposure variables of the coast in two scales. The larger scale estimates the vulnerability in a regional level, with the use environmental factors with the use of CVI. The exposure variable is estimated by the use of socioeconomic factors. Subsequently, a smaller scale focuses on highly vulnerable beaches with high social and economic value. The vulnerability assessment of the natural processes to the environmental characteristics of the beach is estimated with the use of the Beach Vulnerability Index. As exposure variable, the value of beach width that is capitalized in revenues is implemented through a hedonic pricing model. In this

  3. Ozone Risk Assessment Utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Whitfield, R. G.; Jusko, M. J.; Clemmons, M. A.

    1999-08-10

    ORAMUS is a user-friendly, menu-driven software system that calculates and displays user-selected risk estimates for health effects attributable to short-term exposure to tropospheric ozone. Inputs to the risk assessment are estimates of exposure to ozone and exposure-response relationships to produce overall risk estimates in the form of probability distributions. Three fundamental models are included: headcount risk, benchmark risk, and hospital admissions. Exposure-response relationships are based on results of controlled human exposure studies. Exposure estimates are based on the EPA''s probabilistic national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) exposure model, pNEM/Osub3, which simulates air quality associated with attainment of alternative NAAQS. Using ORAMUS, risk results for 27 air quality scenarios, air quality in 9 urban areas, 33 health endpoints, and 4 chronic health endpoints can be calculated.

  4. Comparative pathophysiology, toxicology, and human cancer risk assessment of pharmaceutical-induced hibernoma.

    PubMed

    Radi, Zaher; Bartholomew, Phillip; Elwell, Michael; Vogel, W Mark

    2013-12-15

    In humans, hibernoma is a very rare, benign neoplasm of brown adipose tissue (BAT) that typically occurs at subcutaneous locations and is successfully treated by surgical excision. No single cause has been accepted to explain these very rare human tumors. In contrast, spontaneous hibernoma in rats is rare, often malignant, usually occurs in the thoracic or abdominal cavity, and metastases are common. In recent years, there has been an increased incidence of spontaneous hibernomas in rat carcinogenicity studies, but overall the occurrence remains relatively low and highly variable across studies. There have only been four reported examples of pharmaceutical-induced hibernoma in rat carcinogenicity studies. These include phentolamine, an alpha-adrenergic antagonist; varenicline, a nicotine partial agonist; tofacitinib, a Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor; and hydromorphone, an opiod analgesic. Potential non-genotoxic mechanisms that may contribute to the pathogenesis of BAT activation/proliferation and/or subsequent hibernoma development in rats include: (1) physiological stimuli, (2) sympathetic stimulation, (3) peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonism, and/or (4) interference or inhibition of JAK/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling. The evaluation of an apparent increase of hibernoma in rats from 2-year carcinogenicity studies of novel pharmaceutical therapeutics and its relevance to human safety risk assessment is complex. One should consider: the genotoxicity of the test article, dose/exposure and safety margins, and pathophysiologic and morphologic differences and similarities of hibernoma between rats and humans. Hibernomas observed to date in carcinogenicity studies of pharmaceutical agents do not appear to be relevant for human risk at therapeutic dosages.

  5. Integrating mechanistic and polymorphism data to characterize human genetic susceptibility for environmental chemical risk assessment in the 21st century

    EPA Science Inventory

    Response to environmental chemicals can vary widely among individuals and between population groups. In human health risk assessment, data on susceptibility can be utilized by deriving risk levels based on a study of a susceptible population and/or an uncertainty factor may be ap...

  6. Promoting Service User Inclusion in Risk Assessment and Management: A Pilot Project Developing a Human Rights-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhill, Beth; Whitehead, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Recent reports highlight the extent to which many people with learning disabilities are not afforded access to their basic human rights. In addition, traditional approaches to risk management often focus on professional assessments of risks and challenging behaviour and exclude service user perspectives. In this paper, we outline what we believe…

  7. Human Mitochondrial DNA and Endogenous Bacterial Surrogates for Risk Assessment of Graywater Reuse

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous graywater risk assessment studies have focused on fecal contamination, yet the low density of fecal indicators may not provide the most useful approach to assess pathogen removal during graywater treatment. In this study, we employed high throughput bacterial sequencing ...

  8. Parameters for Pesticide QSAR and PBPK/PD Models to inform Human Risk Assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) modeling has emerged as an important computational approach supporting quantitative risk assessment of agrochemicals. However, before complete regulatory acceptance of this tool, an assessment of assets and liabi...

  9. GM risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, P A C

    2010-03-01

    GM risk assessments (GMRAs) play an important role in the decision-making process surrounding the regulation, notification and permission to handle Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Ultimately the role of each GMRA will be able to ensure the safe handling and containment of the GMO; and to asses any potential impacts on the environment and human health. A risk assessment should answer all "what if" scenarios, based on scientific evidence. This article sets out to provide researchers with helpful guidance notes on producing their own GMRA. While reference is made to UK and EU regulations, the underlying principles and points to consider are generic to most countries.

  10. Risk assessment of human health from exposure to the discharged ballast water after full-scale electrolysis treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nahui; Wang, Yidan; Xue, Junzeng; Yuan, Lin; Wang, Qiong; Liu, Liang; Wu, Huixian; Hu, Kefeng

    2016-06-01

    The presence of disinfection by-products (DBPs) releasing from ballast water management systems (BWMS) can cause a possible adverse effects on humans. The objectives of this study were to compute the Derived No Effect Levels (DNELs) for different exposure scenarios and to compare these levels with the exposure levels from the measured DBPs in treated ballast water. The risk assessment showed that when using animal toxicity data, all the DNELs values were approximately 10(3)-10(12) times higher than the exposure levels of occupational and general public exposure scenarios, indicating the level of risk was low (risk characterization ratios (RCRs) < 1). However, when using human data, the RCRs were higher than 1 for dichlorobromomethane and trichloromethane, indicating that the risk of adverse effects on human were significant. This implies that there are apparent discrepancies between risk characterization from animal and human data, which may affect the overall results. We therefore recommend that when appropriate, human data should be used in risk assessment as much as possible, although human data are very limited. Moreover, more appropriate assessment factors can be considered to be employed in estimating the DNELs for human when the animal data is selected as the dose descriptors.

  11. Risk assessment of the amnesic shellfish poison, domoic acid, on animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K Prem; Kumar, Sreeletha Prem; Nair, G Achuthan

    2009-05-01

    Risk assessment of the amnesic shellfish poison, domoic acid, a potent neurotoxin, is evaluated based on its current knowledge and its harmful effects, and is presented under four headings, viz., (1) hazard identification, (2) dose response assessment, (3) exposure assessment and (4) risk characterization. Domoic acid binds the glutamate receptor site of the central nervous system (CNS) of humans and causes depolarization of neurons and an increase in cellularcalcium. In nature, domoic acid is produced by the algae, Pseudonitzschia spp. and they enter into the body of shellfish through their consumption. This toxin is reported to cause gastroenteritis, renal insufficiency confusion and memory loss in humans, since it affects the hippocampus of the brain. In rats, intraperitonial and oral administration of domoic acid result in scratching, tremor and convulsions, and in monkeys, the toxic symptoms like mastication, salivation, projectile vomiting, weakness, teeth grinding and lethargy are apparent. The no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) in animals reveals that pure toxin is more effective than those isolated from shellfish. Based on LD50 values, it is found that intraperitonial administration of this toxin in animals is 31 fold more effective than oral administration. Low levels of domoic acid (0.20-0.75 ppm) show no toxic symptoms in non-human primates, but clinical effects are apparent in them and in humans, at a concentration of 1.0 ppm. The tolerable daily intake (TDI) of domoic acid for humans is calculated as 0.075 ppm, whereas for razor clams and crabs, the TDI are 19.4 and 31.5 ppm respectively. The hazard quotient (HQ) is found to be 2. Being an irreversible neurotoxin, domoic acid has severe public health implications. Death occurs in those above 68 years old. In order to ensure adequate protection to public health, the concentration of domoic acid in shellfish and shellfish parts at point of sale shall not exceed the current permissible limit of 20

  12. 78 FR 42963 - Assessment of the Risk of Human Salmonellosis Associated With the Consumption of Tree Nuts...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Assessment of the Risk of Human Salmonellosis Associated With the Consumption of Tree Nuts; Request for Comments, Scientific Data and Information AGENCY: Food... information. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is requesting comments and scientific...

  13. The Integrated Medical Model - A Risk Assessment and Decision Support Tool for Human Space Flight Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerstman, Eric; Minard, Charles G.; Saile, Lynn; FreiredeCarvalho, Mary; Myers, Jerry; Walton, Marlei; Butler, Douglas; Lopez, Vilma

    2010-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a decision support tool that is useful to space flight mission planners and medical system designers in assessing risks and optimizing medical systems. The IMM employs an evidence-based, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) approach within the operational constraints of space flight.

  14. The Integrated Medical Model: A Risk Assessment and Decision Support Tool for Human Space Flight Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerstman, Eric L.; Minard, Charles; FreiredeCarvalho, Mary H.; Walton, Marlei E.; Myers, Jerry G., Jr.; Saile, Lynn G.; Lopez, Vilma; Butler, Douglas J.; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Integrated Medical Model (IMM) and its use as a risk assessment and decision support tool for human space flight missions. The IMM is an integrated, quantified, evidence-based decision support tool useful to NASA crew health and mission planners. It is intended to assist in optimizing crew health, safety and mission success within the constraints of the space flight environment for in-flight operations. It uses ISS data to assist in planning for the Exploration Program and it is not intended to assist in post flight research. The IMM was used to update Probability Risk Assessment (PRA) for the purpose of updating forecasts for the conditions requiring evacuation (EVAC) or Loss of Crew Life (LOC) for the ISS. The IMM validation approach includes comparison with actual events and involves both qualitative and quantitaive approaches. The results of these comparisons are reviewed. Another use of the IMM is to optimize the medical kits taking into consideration the specific mission and the crew profile. An example of the use of the IMM to optimize the medical kits is reviewed.

  15. Significance of metabolites in the environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals consumed by human.

    PubMed

    Han, Eun Jeong; Lee, Dong Soo

    2017-03-17

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the significance of metabolites to the ERA of human pharmaceuticals. The predicted exposure concentrations (PECs) in surface water were estimated for a total of 24 selected active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and their metabolites using a life cycle based emission estimation model combined with a multimedia fate model with Monte-Carlo calculations. With the eco-toxicity data, the hazard quotients (HQs) of the metabolites were compared with those of individual parents alone. The results showed that PEC or toxicity or both of the metabolites was predicted to be higher than that of their parent APIs, which resulted in a total of 18 metabolites (from 12 parents) that have greater HQs than their parents. This result clearly demonstrated that some metabolites may potentially pose greater risk than their parent APIs in the water environment. Therefore, significance of metabolites should be carefully evaluated for monitoring strategy, priority setting, and scoping of the environmental risk assessment of APIs. The method used in the present work may serve as a pragmatic approach for the purpose of preliminary screening or priority setting of environmental risk posed by both APIs and their metabolites.

  16. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in mollusca species and assessment of potential risks to human health.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Maha Ahmed Mohamed

    2013-05-01

    Along the Alexandria coast of the Egyptian Mediterranean Sea, five edible species of bivalve molluscs and one gastropoda species (Mactra coralline, Ruditapes decussates, Paphia undulate, Venerupis rhomboids, Crista pectinata and Coralliophila meyendorffi) were analyzed for content of metals (Cadmium, Chromium, Lead, Cobalt and Nickel) in the muscle and in the sediments where they live. The potential health risks of metals to humans via consumption of seafood were assessed by estimated daily intake and target hazard quotient. Significant positive correlations (p < 0.05) were obtained between tissue concentrations for all pairs of metals, with the exception of Cadmium. Significant positive correlations were also obtained for the concentrations of Cd and Ni in tissues of all studied species relative to their concentrations in surface sediments. However, correlations between tissue and sediment concentrations for Chromium, Lead and Cobalt were negative. Ruditapes decussates and C. meyendorffi had the highest values for the summed target hazard quotient and may pose a potential risk to local inhabitants through their consumption in the diet. The potential risk would arise from exposure to high tissue concentrations of Cd and Pb, which exceeded published guidelines for safety of seafood products in some cases. Chromium contributed a considerable fraction of the total target hazard quotient for all metals combined, but did not exceed the published guidelines. Cobalt and Ni did not contribute greatly overall to the target hazard quotient, except in the case of Ni in V. rhomboids.

  17. Environmental risk assessment of medicinal products for human use according to European Commission recommendations.

    PubMed

    Huschek, Gerd; Hansen, Peter D; Maurer, Hans H; Krengel, Dietmar; Kayser, Anja

    2004-06-01

    Presented here, based on new recommendations of the European Commission, is an environmental risk assessment (ERA) of a selected group of pharmaceuticals for Phase I, environmental exposure assessment, and Phase II Tier A, initial environmental fate and effect analysis. This pharmaceutical group is composed of the 111 highest-selling human drug substances that have annual sales in Germany of more than 5,000 kg. The data required for this ERA came from analyzing: (1) sales annually (in kg or IU) of the 2671 active pharmaceutical drug substances (2001) on the German market in all medicinal products sold by pharmacies (with and without prescriptions) and used in hospitals in 1996-2001; (2) the use pattern of drug substances as categorized according to Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification indexes ATC3 and ATC7; (3) data for excretion, toxicity, and metabolites of the 111 selected human drug substances; (4) the physicochemical properties of these substances; and (5) the degradability of selected drug substances in sewage treatment plants (STPs) by using a validated and accredited liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method. A correction factor for the pharmaceutical therapeutic (PT) activity of metabolites, the PT(Index) (excretion rate/100) for drug substances and PT active metabolites was established to refine the predicted environmental concentration (PEC(SURFACEWATER)). A refinement of the PEC(SURFACEWATER) was carried out with the market penetration factor of the human drug substances in Germany. In addition, for effect analysis the predicted no-effects concentration (PNEC) was calculated using assessment factors. The estimated PEC results were validated with the exposure results of effluents of the STPs. All results on ERA of drug substances have been documented in a Microsoft Access 2000 database.

  18. Hepatitis Risk Assessment

    MedlinePlus

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Hepatitis Risk Assessment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Viral Hepatitis. ... you at risk? Take this 5 minute Hepatitis Risk Assessment developed by the CDC and get a personalized ...

  19. A model for assessing the risk of human trafficking on a local level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colegrove, Amanda

    Human trafficking is a human rights violation that is difficult to quantify. Models for estimating the number of victims of trafficking presented by previous researchers depend on inconsistent, poor quality data. As an intermediate step to help current efforts by nonprofits to combat human trafficking, this project presents a model that is not dependent on quantitative data specific to human trafficking, but rather profiles the risk of human trafficking at the local level through causative factors. Businesses, indicated by the literature, were weighted based on the presence of characteristics that increase the likelihood of trafficking in persons. The mean risk was calculated by census tract to reveal the multiplicity of risk levels in both rural and urban settings. Results indicate that labor trafficking may be a more diffuse problem in Missouri than sex trafficking. Additionally, spatial patterns of risk remained largely the same regardless of adjustments made to the model.

  20. Human Health Risk Assessment of Pharmaceuticals in Water: Issues and Challenges Ahead

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arun; Chang, Biao; Xagoraraki, Irene

    2010-01-01

    This study identified existing issues related to quantitative pharmaceutical risk assessment (QPhRA, hereafter) for pharmaceuticals in water and proposed possible solutions by analyzing methodologies and findings of different published QPhRA studies. Retrospective site-specific QPhRA studies from different parts of the world (U.S.A., United Kingdom, Europe, India, etc.) were reviewed in a structured manner to understand different assumptions, outcomes obtained and issues, identified/addressed/raised by the different QPhRA studies. Till date, most of the published studies have concluded that there is no appreciable risk to human health during environmental exposures of pharmaceuticals; however, attention is still required to following identified issues: (1) Use of measured versus predicted pharmaceutical concentration, (2) Identification of pharmaceuticals-of-concern and compounds needing special considerations, (3) Use of source water versus finished drinking water-related exposure scenarios, (4) Selection of representative exposure routes, (5) Valuation of uncertainty factors, and (6) Risk assessment for mixture of chemicals. To close the existing data and methodology gaps, this study proposed possible ways to address and/or incorporation these considerations within the QPhRA framework; however, more research work is still required to address issues, such as incorporation of short-term to long-term extrapolation and mixture effects in the QPhRA framework. Specifically, this study proposed a development of a new “mixture effects-related uncertainty factor” for mixture of chemicals (i.e., mixUFcomposite), similar to an uncertainty factor of a single chemical, within the QPhRA framework. In addition to all five traditionally used uncertainty factors, this uncertainty factor is also proposed to include concentration effects due to presence of different range of concentration levels of pharmaceuticals in a mixture. However, further work is required to determine

  1. Building a Human Health Risk Assessment Ontology (RsO): A Proposed Framework.

    PubMed

    McKone, Thomas E; Feng, Lydia

    2015-11-01

    Over the last decade the health and environmental research communities have made significant progress in collecting and improving access to genomic, toxicology, exposure, health, and disease data useful to health risk assessment. One of the barriers to applying these growing volumes of information in fields such as risk assessment is the lack of informatics tools to organize, curate, and evaluate thousands of journal publications and hundreds of databases to provide new insights on relationships among exposure, hazard, and disease burden. Many fields are developing ontologies as a way of organizing and analyzing large amounts of complex information from multiple scientific disciplines. Ontologies include a vocabulary of terms and concepts with defined logical relationships to each other. Building from the recently published exposure ontology and other relevant health and environmental ontologies, this article proposes an ontology for health risk assessment (RsO) that provides a structural framework for organizing risk assessment information and methods. The RsO is anchored by eight major concepts that were either identified by exploratory curations of the risk literature or the exposure-ontology working group as key for describing the risk assessment domain. These concepts are: (1) stressor, (2) receptor, (3) outcome, (4) exposure event, (5) dose-response approach, (6) dose-response metric, (7) uncertainty, and (8) measure of risk. We illustrate the utility of these concepts for the RsO with example curations of published risk assessments for ionizing radiation, arsenic in drinking water, and persistent pollutants in salmon.

  2. Human health risk assessment due to global warming--a case study of the Gulf countries.

    PubMed

    Husain, Tahir; Chaudhary, Junaid Rafi

    2008-12-01

    Accelerated global warming is predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC) due to increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The climate changes are anticipated to have a long-term impact on human health, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, water resources and vegetation. Due to rising sea levels, low lying coastal regions will be flooded, farmlands will be threatened and scarcity of fresh water resources will be aggravated. This will in turn cause increased human suffering in different parts of the world. Spread of disease vectors will contribute towards high mortality, along with the heat related deaths. Arid and hot climatic regions will face devastating effects risking survival of the fragile plant species, wild animals, and other desert ecosystems. The paper presents future changes in temperature, precipitation and humidity and their direct and indirect potential impacts on human health in the coastal regions of the Gulf countries including Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and Bahrain. The analysis is based on the long-term changes in the values of temperature, precipitation and humidity as predicted by the global climatic simulation models under different scenarios of GHG emission levels. Monthly data on temperature, precipitation, and humidity were retrieved from IPCC databases for longitude 41.25 degrees E to 61.875 degrees E and latitude 9.278 degrees N to 27.833 degrees N. Using an average of 1970 to 2000 values as baseline, the changes in the humidity, temperature and precipitation were predicted for the period 2020 to 2050 and 2070 to 2099. Based on epidemiological studies on various diseases associated with the change in temperature, humidity and precipitation in arid and hot regions, empirical models were developed to assess human health risk in the Gulf region to predict elevated levels of diseases and mortality rates under different emission scenarios as developed by the IPCC.The preliminary assessment indicates

  3. Are we ready to consider transgenerational epigenetic effects in human health risk assessment?

    PubMed

    Alyea, Rebecca A; Gollapudi, B Bhaskar; Rasoulpour, Reza J

    2014-04-01

    Recently, there has been a growing concern that chemically or nutritionally mediated epigenetic changes might lead to adverse health outcomes. The natural question is whether the existing chemical safety assessment paradigm is or is not protective of epigenetic-mediated effects, and if there is a need to incorporate new endpoints to specifically address epigenetics. Of particular interest are transgenerational epigenetic effects, which can be passed on through multiple generations. To investigate these questions, a comparison was performed between OECD guideline rat toxicology studies versus several rat transgenerational epigenetic studies. This analysis focused on vinclozolin owing to the availability of a comprehensive suite of dose-response data (NOAEL, reference dose, and human exposure estimates) for both conventional and epigenetic endpoints. This analysis revealed that vinclozolin transgenerational effects were demonstrated at a dose level (100 mg/kg/day) that was: (1) ∼40-fold higher than the overall lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) from rat guideline studies, (2) ∼80-fold higher than the lowest NOAEL from rat guideline studies, (3) ∼80,000-fold higher than the reference dose for the molecule, and (4) ∼1.2-million fold above human exposure estimates. Through this analysis, we conclude that additional research across a spectrum of doses is necessary to elucidate the interplay between epigenetics and apical endpoints before considering epigenetics in human health risk assessment. Therefore, we recommend focusing future research toward (1) examining for potential causal relationships between epigenetic alterations and adverse apical endpoints, and (2) understanding the dose-response relationship of these causal epigenetic alterations when compared with those of the apical endpoints.

  4. Assessing the Risk of Antibiotic Resistance Transmission from the Environment to Humans: Non-Direct Proportionality between Abundance and Risk.

    PubMed

    Manaia, Célia M

    2017-03-01

    The past decade has witnessed a burst of study regarding antibiotic resistance in the environment, mainly in areas under anthropogenic influence. Therefore, impacts of the contaminant resistome, that is, those related to human activities, are now recognized. However, a key issue refers to the risk of transmission of resistance to humans, for which a quantitative model is urgently needed. This opinion paper makes an overview of some risk-determinant variables and raises questions regarding research needs. A major conclusion is that the risks of transmission of antibiotic resistance from the environment to humans must be managed under the precautionary principle, because it may be too late to act if we wait until we have concrete risk values.

  5. The EPA's Human Exposure Research Program for Assessing Cumulative Risk in Communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Communities are faced with challenges in identifying and prioritizing environmental issues, taking actions to reduce their exposures, and determining their effectiveness for reducing human health risks. Additional challenges include determining what scientific tools are available...

  6. Risk assessment for human health and terrestrial ecosystem under chronic radioactive pollution near regional radioactive waste storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrentyeva, G. V.; Katkova, M. N.; Shoshina, R. R.; Synzynys, B. I.

    2017-01-01

    An impact of the radioactive waste storage facility at the regional population was assessed under supervision of IAEA. It was made in accordance with the methodology for assessment of doses and risks to human storage using different scenarios of radionuclides releases into the environment. The following scenarios were considered: leakage of fluid, resuspension of dust, fire, flooding. Thy evaluation of radiation doses received and the risks to the human showed that the risk has been acceptable for all scenarios. An approach for an ecological risk assessment for terrestrial ecosystem is presented as five modules: selection of the ecosystem-receptor of radiation effects; determination of reference species of living organisms and their survival indices; the critical load as an absorbed dose rate is calculated from the dependence between the absorbed Sr-90 radiation dose rate and the coefficient of radioactive strontium accumulation in mollusc shells; the critical dose; risk is assessed from a part of the ecosystem territory with increased mollusc loading; uncertainties appeared at each stage of risk assessment are characterized. The risk of exposure to the repository on the ecosystem should be characterized as unacceptable.

  7. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in cosmetics in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nduka, John K; Odiba; Orisakwe, Orish E; Ukaebgu, Linda D; Sokaibe, Chinwetuto; Udowelle, Nnaemeka A

    2015-01-01

    Forty two different cosmetics were purchased from supermarkets and cosmetic shops within Unitsha Main Market and Eke-Awka markets in Anambra, Nigeria. Of the cosmetics, 16% were locally manufactured in Nigeria while 83.33% were imported into Nigeria. The cosmetics were ashed before digestion and filtration. The filtrates were assayed for lead, cadmium, manganese, nickel, chromium, mercury, and arsenic with atomic absorption spectrophotometry at 205 Å. The health risk assessment methods developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency were employed to explore the potential human health risk of heavy metals in cosmetics. About 61.91% of the cosmetic samples contained lead with concentration in the range of 0.10-42.12 mg/kg. Cadmium levels of the cosmetics ranged from 0.01 to 1.32 mg/kg, manganese from 0.02 to 67.65 mg/kg, nickel from 0.05 to 17.34 mg/kg, chromium from 0.11 to 9.81 mg/kg, mercury from 0.003 to 0.07 mg/kg, and arsenic from 0.002 to 0.005 mg/kg. Although the target hazard quotients and the hazard indices suggest a measure of safety, cosmetics may add to the body burden of potential toxic metals after chronic exposure.

  8. Human health risk assessment of dissolved metals in groundwater and surface waters in the Melen watershed, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Çelebi, Ahmet; Sengörür, Bülent; Kløve, Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    Determination of metal risk levels in potable water and their effects on human health are vital in assessment of water resources. Risk assessment of metals to human health in a watershed, which has not been studied before, is the main objective of the present study. Surface and groundwater sampling was carried out between September 2010 and August 2011 in the Melen Watershed, Turkey, an important drinking water resource for millions of people. Metals were analyzed in the laboratory using inductively coupled plasma. Of the 26 different metals monitored, Al, B, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo and V were found in surface water and As, B, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, V and Zn in groundwater. In groundwater, unitless hazard quotient (HQ) values were 6 for As, 2.7 for Mn and 1 for Zn, while in surface water all metals were below the risk level (HQ < 1). The ingestion risk was found to be higher than the dermal uptake risk. Arsenic mean concentration was observed to be 0.044 mg/L in groundwater. The As carcinogenic risk (CR) value was higher than the internationally accepted risk level (10(-4)) and with maximum ingestion of groundwater the carcinogenic risk was found to be higher in adults than children. These results show that even unpolluted watersheds can pose a risk to human health and that potential carcinogenic impacts should receive more attention.

  9. Environmental risk assessment of six human pharmaceuticals: are the current environmental risk assessment procedures sufficient for the protection of the aquatic environment?

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Benoît; Mons, Raphael; Vollat, Bernard; Fraysse, Benoît; Paxéus, Nicklas; Lo Giudice, Roberto; Pollio, Antonino; Garric, Jeanne

    2004-05-01

    In this study, exposure and ecotoxicity data of six human pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, clofibric acid, diclofenac, ofloxacin, propranolol, and sulfamethoxazole) were collected, including our own experimental data and literature data. From this data collection, the two-tiered European draft guideline on the environmental risk assessment of human pharmaceuticals was tested. Measured environmental concentrations in effluents from France and in effluents and surface waters from Germany were compared to the predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) in both countries. In a similar manner, predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) derived from acute data and PNECs derived from chronic data were estimated for each pharmaceutical and corresponding PEC/PNEC ratios then were compared in both countries. Globally, results demonstrated that all environmental concentrations (predicted or measured) for each considered pharmaceutical exceeded the 10-ng/L cutoff value, which requires the implementation of the second-tier assessment based on ecotoxicity data. Moreover, the six pharmaceuticals showed a relatively limited acute toxicity, and carbamazepine and propranolol were inaccurately identified as having negligible risks under the current European draft procedure. Such results lead to discussion of the actual procedure on pharmaceuticals, especially on the need of appropriate ecotoxicity tests.

  10. Parameters for Pyrethroid Insecticide QSAR and PBPK/PD Models for Human Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This pyrethroid insecticide parameter review is an extension of our interest in developing quantitative structure–activity relationship–physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (QSAR-PBPK/PD) models for assessing health risks, which interest started with the organoph...

  11. Biomarkers of benzene exposure and their interpretation for human health risk assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human biomarkers of exposure such as parent or metabolite concentrations in blood or urine are often reported without any context to the sources of exposure or the implications for human risk. The Biomonitoring Technical Committee of the International Life Sciences Institute/Huma...

  12. Mercury contamination in fish from gold mining areas in Indonesia and human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Castilhos, Zuleica C; Rodrigues-Filho, Saulo; Rodrigues, Ana Paula C; Villas-Bôas, Roberto C; Siegel, Shefa; Veiga, Marcello M; Beinhoff, Christian

    2006-09-01

    This study investigates the effects on fish and assesses human health hazards from mercury released in two gold mining areas in Indonesia: Tatelu (North Sulawesi Province) and Galangan (Katingan District, Central Kalimatan Province). In Tatelu, 154 fish specimens of 10 freshwater species were collected, as well as five marine species from the fish market. The mean concentration of total mercury in muscles of freshwater fish from this area was 0.58+/-0.44 microg/g, with more than 45% of fish having Hg levels above the WHO guideline for human consumption of 0.5 microg/g. In Galangan, where 263 fish specimens of 25 species were collected, the total mercury in muscles averaged 0.25+/-0.69 microg/g. Excluding data from flooded open pits in sub-area P4, mean Hg levels in fish from Galangan were 2 to 4 times lower than 0.5 microg/g, while fewer than 10% of fish from Galangan exceeded WHO guidelines. The Hazard Quotient (HQ) was applied to both areas to determine the threat of MeHg exposure for communities in both areas. The HQ is a risk assessment indicator which defines the ratio of exposure level to a single substance in relation to a reference dose. Samples from Tatelu (excluding marine species) had an HQ above one, while those from Galangan resulted in values of 2.4 for the whole area and 9.9 for sub-area P4, pointing to potentially harmful fish consumption for the local population. By using the single-compartment model to estimate mercury levels in blood and hair from daily intake dose, sub-area P4 showed the highest levels, higher than the upper limit guideline for pregnant women, but still lower than threshold levels associated with observed clinical effects.

  13. Integrating mechanistic and polymorphism data to characterize human genetic susceptibility for environmental chemical risk assessment in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Mortensen, Holly M.; Euling, Susan Y.

    2013-09-15

    Response to environmental chemicals can vary widely among individuals and between population groups. In human health risk assessment, data on susceptibility can be utilized by deriving risk levels based on a study of a susceptible population and/or an uncertainty factor may be applied to account for the lack of information about susceptibility. Defining genetic susceptibility in response to environmental chemicals across human populations is an area of interest in the NAS' new paradigm of toxicity pathway-based risk assessment. Data from high-throughput/high content (HT/HC), including -omics (e.g., genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) technologies, have been integral to the identification and characterization of drug target and disease loci, and have been successfully utilized to inform the mechanism of action for numerous environmental chemicals. Large-scale population genotyping studies may help to characterize levels of variability across human populations at identified target loci implicated in response to environmental chemicals. By combining mechanistic data for a given environmental chemical with next generation sequencing data that provides human population variation information, one can begin to characterize differential susceptibility due to genetic variability to environmental chemicals within and across genetically heterogeneous human populations. The integration of such data sources will be informative to human health risk assessment.

  14. Human health risk assessment of chlorinated disinfection by-products in drinking water using a probabilistic approach.

    PubMed

    Hamidin, Nasrul; Yu, Qiming Jimmy; Connell, Des W

    2008-07-01

    The presence of chlorinated disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water is a public health issue, due to their possible adverse health effects on humans. To gauge the risk of chlorinated DBPs on human health, a risk assessment of chloroform (trichloromethane (TCM)), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM), bromoform (tribromomethane (TBM)), dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) in drinking water was carried out using probabilistic techniques. Literature data on exposure concentrations from more than 15 different countries and adverse health effects on test animals as well as human epidemiological studies were used. The risk assessment showed no overlap between the highest human exposure dose (EXP(D)) and the lowest human equivalent dose (HED) from animal test data, for TCM, BDCM, DBCM, TBM, DCAA and TCAA. All the HED values were approximately 10(4)-10(5) times higher than the 95th percentiles of EXP(D). However, from the human epidemiology data, there was a positive overlap between the highest EXP(D) and the lifetime average daily doses (LADD(H)) for TCM, BDCM, DCAA and TCAA. This suggests that there are possible adverse health risks such as a small increased incidence of cancers in males and developmental effects on infants. However, the epidemiological data comprised several risk factors and exposure classification levels which may affect the overall results.

  15. The influence of spatial resolution on human health risk co-benefit estimates for global climate policy assessments.

    PubMed

    Shih, Hsiu-Ching; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Ma, Hwong-wen

    2015-03-15

    Assessment of the ability of climate policies to produce desired improvements in public health through co-benefits of air pollution reduction can consume resources in both time and research funds. These resources increase significantly as the spatial resolution of models increases. In addition, the level of spatial detail available in macroeconomic models at the heart of climate policy assessments is much lower than that available in traditional human health risk modeling. It is therefore important to determine whether increasing spatial resolution considerably affects risk-based decisions; which kinds of decisions might be affected; and under what conditions they will be affected. Human health risk co-benefits from carbon emissions reductions that bring about concurrent reductions in Particulate Matter (PM10) emissions is therefore examined here at four levels of spatial resolution (Uniform Nation, Uniform Region, Uniform County/city, Health Risk Assessment) in a case study of Taiwan as one of the geographic regions of a global macroeceonomic model, with results that are representative of small, industrialized nations within that global model. A metric of human health risk mortality (YOLL, years of life lost in life expectancy) is compared under assessments ranging from a "uniform simulation" in which there is no spatial resolution of changes in ambient air concentration under a policy to a "highly spatially resolved simulation" (called here Health Risk Assessment). PM10 is chosen in this study as the indicator of air pollution for which risks are assessed due to its significance as a co-benefit of carbon emissions reductions within climate mitigation policy. For the policy examined, the four estimates of mortality in the entirety of Taiwan are 747 YOLL, 834 YOLL, 984 YOLL and 916 YOLL, under Uniform Taiwan, Uniform Region, Uniform County and Health Risk Assessment respectively; or differences of 18%, 9%, 7% if the HRA methodology is taken as the baseline. While

  16. Interim response action basin F liquid incineration project final draft human health risk assessment. Volume 1. Final draft report

    SciTech Connect

    1991-07-01

    This document is a comprehensive, multiple exposure pathway, human health risk assessment prepared for the proposed Basin F Liquid Incineration Project. The submerged quench incinerator will treat Basin F liquid and hydrazine rinse water. The objective of the risk assessment is to establish chemical emission limits which are protective of human health. Average and maximum lifetime daily intakes were calculated for adults, children, and infants in four maximum exposure scenarios under base case and sensitivity case emissions condition. It was concluded that the incineration facility poses neither carcinogenic nor noncarcinogenic risk to any sensitive population. The assessment is divided into: (1) Incineration facility description; (2) Description of surrounding area; (3) Process of pollutant identification and selection; and (4) Determination of emission rates from incineration facility.

  17. Implications of global climate change for the assessment and management of human health risks of chemicals in the natural environment.

    PubMed

    Balbus, John M; Boxall, Alistair B A; Fenske, Richard A; McKone, Thomas E; Zeise, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change (GCC) is likely to alter the degree of human exposure to pollutants and the response of human populations to these exposures, meaning that risks of pollutants could change in the future. The present study, therefore, explores how GCC might affect the different steps in the pathway from a chemical source in the environment through to impacts on human health and evaluates the implications for existing risk-assessment and management practices. In certain parts of the world, GCC is predicted to increase the level of exposure of many environmental pollutants due to direct and indirect effects on the use patterns and transport and fate of chemicals. Changes in human behavior will also affect how humans come into contact with contaminated air, water, and food. Dietary changes, psychosocial stress, and coexposure to stressors such as high temperatures are likely to increase the vulnerability of humans to chemicals. These changes are likely to have significant implications for current practices for chemical assessment. Assumptions used in current exposure-assessment models may no longer apply, and existing monitoring methods may not be robust enough to detect adverse episodic changes in exposures. Organizations responsible for the assessment and management of health risks of chemicals therefore need to be more proactive and consider the implications of GCC for their procedures and processes.

  18. IMPLICATIONS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE FOR THE ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF HUMAN HEALTH RISKS OF CHEMICALS IN THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT

    PubMed Central

    Balbus, John M; Boxall, Alistair BA; Fenske, Richard A; McKone, Thomas E; Zeise, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change (GCC) is likely to alter the degree of human exposure to pollutants and the response of human populations to these exposures, meaning that risks of pollutants could change in the future. The present study, therefore, explores how GCC might affect the different steps in the pathway from a chemical source in the environment through to impacts on human health and evaluates the implications for existing risk-assessment and management practices. In certain parts of the world, GCC is predicted to increase the level of exposure of many environmental pollutants due to direct and indirect effects on the use patterns and transport and fate of chemicals. Changes in human behavior will also affect how humans come into contact with contaminated air, water, and food. Dietary changes, psychosocial stress, and coexposure to stressors such as high temperatures are likely to increase the vulnerability of humans to chemicals. These changes are likely to have significant implications for current practices for chemical assessment. Assumptions used in current exposure-assessment models may no longer apply, and existing monitoring methods may not be robust enough to detect adverse episodic changes in exposures. Organizations responsible for the assessment and management of health risks of chemicals therefore need to be more proactive and consider the implications of GCC for their procedures and processes. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2013;32:62–78. © 2012 SETAC PMID:23147420

  19. Risk Assessment: A Quantitative Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baert, K.; Francois, K.; de Meulenaer, B.; Devlieghere, F.

    A risk can be defined as a function of the probability of an adverse health effect and the severity of that effect, consequential to a hazard in food (Codex Alimentarius, 1999) . During a risk assessment, an estimate of the risk is obtained. The goal is to estimate the likelihood and the extent of adverse effects occurring to humans due to possible exposure(s) to hazards. Risk assessment is a scientifically based process consisting of the following steps: (1) hazard identification, (2) hazard characterization, (3) exposure assessment and (4) and risk characterization (Codex Alimentarius, 1999).

  20. Enteric Viruses of Humans and Animals in Aquatic Environments: Health Risks, Detection, and Potential Water Quality Assessment Tools

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Theng-Theng; Lipp, Erin K.

    2005-01-01

    Waterborne enteric viruses threaten both human and animal health. These pathogens are host specific and cause a wide range of diseases and symptoms in humans or other animals. While considerable research has documented the risk of enteric viruses to human health from contact with contaminated water, the current bacterial indicator-based methods for evaluation of water quality are often ineffectual proxies for pathogenic viruses. Additionally, relatively little work has specifically investigated the risk of waterborne viruses to animal health, and this risk currently is not addressed by routine water quality assessments. Nonetheless, because of their host specificity, enteric viruses can fulfill a unique role both for assessing health risks and as measures of contamination source in a watershed, yet the use of animal, as well as human, host-specific viruses in determining sources of fecal pollution has received little attention. With improved molecular detection assays, viruses from key host groups can be targeted directly using PCR amplification or hybridization with a high level of sensitivity and specificity. A multispecies viral analysis would provide needed information for controlling pollution by source, determining human health risks based on assessments of human virus loading and exposure, and determining potential risks to production animal health and could indicate the potential for the presence of other zoonotic pathogens. While there is a need to better understand the prevalence and environmental distribution of nonhuman enteric viruses, the development of improved methods for specific and sensitive detection will facilitate the use of these microbes for library-independent source tracking and water quality assessment tools. PMID:15944460

  1. Human health risk and exposure assessment of chromium (VI) in tap water.

    PubMed

    Paustenbach, Dennis J; Finley, Brent L; Mowat, Fionna S; Kerger, Brent D

    2003-07-25

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] has been detected in groundwater across the United States due to industrial and military operations, including plating, painting, cooling-tower water, and chromate production. Because inhalation of Cr(VI) can cause lung cancer in some persons exposed to a sufficient airborne concentration, questions have been raised about the possible hazards associated with exposure to Cr(VI) in tap water via ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Although ingested Cr(VI) is generally known to be converted to Cr(III) in the stomach following ingestion, prior to the mid-1980s a quantitative analysis of the reduction capacity of the human stomach had not been conducted. Thus, risk assessments of the human health hazard posed by contaminated drinking water contained some degree of uncertainty. This article presents the results of nine studies, including seven dose reconstruction or simulation studies involving human volunteers, that quantitatively characterize the absorbed dose of Cr(VI) following contact with tap water via all routes of exposure. The methodology used here illustrates an approach that permits one to understand, within a very narrow range, the possible intake of Cr(VI) and the associated health risks for situations where little is known about historical concentrations of Cr(VI). Using red blood cell uptake and sequestration of chromium as an in vivo metric of Cr(VI) absorption, the primary conclusions of these studies were that: (1) oral exposure to concentrations of Cr(VI) in water up to 10 mg/L (ppm) does not overwhelm the reductive capacity of the stomach and blood, (2) the inhaled dose of Cr(VI) associated with showering at concentrations up to 10 mg/L is so small as to pose a de minimis cancer hazard, and (3) dermal exposures to Cr(VI) in water at concentrations as high as 22 mg/L do not overwhelm the reductive capacity of the skin or blood. Because Cr(VI) in water appears yellow at approximately 1-2 mg/L, the studies represent

  2. Exploration Health Risks: Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer; Charles, John; Hayes, Judith; Wren, Kiley

    2006-01-01

    Maintenance of human health on long-duration exploration missions is a primary challenge to mission designers. Indeed, human health risks are currently the largest risk contributors to the risks of evacuation or loss of the crew on long-duration International Space Station missions. We describe a quantitative assessment of the relative probabilities of occurrence of the individual risks to human safety and efficiency during space flight to augment qualitative assessments used in this field to date. Quantitative probabilistic risk assessments will allow program managers to focus resources on those human health risks most likely to occur with undesirable consequences. Truly quantitative assessments are common, even expected, in the engineering and actuarial spheres, but that capability is just emerging in some arenas of life sciences research, such as identifying and minimize the hazards to astronauts during future space exploration missions. Our expectation is that these results can be used to inform NASA mission design trade studies in the near future with the objective of preventing the higher among the human health risks. We identify and discuss statistical techniques to provide this risk quantification based on relevant sets of astronaut biomedical data from short and long duration space flights as well as relevant analog populations. We outline critical assumptions made in the calculations and discuss the rationale for these. Our efforts to date have focussed on quantifying the probabilities of medical risks that are qualitatively perceived as relatively high risks of radiation sickness, cardiac dysrhythmias, medically significant renal stone formation due to increased calcium mobilization, decompression sickness as a result of EVA (extravehicular activity), and bone fracture due to loss of bone mineral density. We present these quantitative probabilities in order-of-magnitude comparison format so that relative risk can be gauged. We address the effects of

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF 3-D COMPUTER MODELS OF HUMAN LUNG MORPHOLOGY FOR IMPROOVED RISK ASSESSMENT OF INHALED PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    DEVELOPMENT OF 3-D COMPUTER MODELS OF HUMAN LUNG MORPHOLOGY FOR IMPROVED RISK ASSESSMENT OF INHALED PARTICULATE MATTER

    Jeffry D. Schroeter, Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599; Ted B. Martonen, ETD, NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC 27711; Do...

  4. CONTROLLED DIESEL EXPOSURES: INTER-PHASING HUMAN AND ANIMAL STUDIES AND THEIR USE IN THE RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Controlled diesel exposures: Inter-phasing human and animal studies and their use in the risk assessment process.
    Michael C. Madden, US EPA.

    Particulate matter (PM) has been reported to be associated with health effects (e.g., premature deaths, hospitalizations, lung ...

  5. Risk assessment of diesel exhaust and lung cancer: combining human and animal studies after adjustment for biases in epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Risk assessment requires dose-response data for the evaluation of the relationship between exposure to an environmental stressor and the probability of developing an adverse health effect. Information from human studies is usually limited and additional results from animal studies are often needed for the assessment of risks in humans. Combination of risk estimates requires an assessment and correction of the important biases in the two types of studies. In this paper we aim to illustrate a quantitative approach to combining data from human and animal studies after adjusting for bias in human studies. For our purpose we use the example of the association between exposure to diesel exhaust and occurrence of lung cancer. Methods Firstly, we identify and adjust for the main sources of systematic error in selected human studies of the association between occupational exposure to diesel exhaust and occurrence of lung cancer. Evidence from selected animal studies is also accounted for by extrapolating to average ambient, occupational exposure concentrations of diesel exhaust. In a second stage, the bias adjusted effect estimates are combined in a common effect measure through meta-analysis. Results The random-effects pooled estimate (RR) for exposure to diesel exhaust vs. non-exposure was found 1.37 (95% C.I.: 1.08-1.65) in animal studies and 1.59 (95% C.I.: 1.09-2.10) in human studies, whilst the overall was found equal to 1.49 (95% C.I.: 1.21-1.78) with a greater contribution from human studies. Without bias adjustment in human studies, the pooled effect estimate was 1.59 (95% C.I.: 1.28-1.89). Conclusions Adjustment for the main sources of uncertainty produced lower risk estimates showing that ignoring bias leads to risk estimates potentially biased upwards. PMID:21481231

  6. Risk assessment of coccidostatics during feed cross-contamination: animal and human health aspects.

    PubMed

    Dorne, J L C M; Fernández-Cruz, M L; Bertelsen, U; Renshaw, D W; Peltonen, K; Anadon, A; Feil, A; Sanders, P; Wester, P; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2013-08-01

    Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin and semduramicin) or non-ionophoric (robenidine, decoquinate, nicarbazin, diclazuril, and halofuginone) substances. Coccidiostats are used as feed additives, mixed upon request into the compounded feed. During the technical process of commercial feed production, cross-contamination of feed batches can result in the exposure of non-target animals and induce adverse health effects in these animals due to a specific sensitivity of mammalian species as compared to poultry. Residue formation in edible tissues of non-target species may result in unexpected human exposure through the consumption of animal products. This review presents recent risk assessments performed by the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The health risk to non-target species that would result from the consumption of cross-contaminated feed with coccidostats at levels of 2, 5 or 10% was found to be negligible for most animal species with the exception of salinomycin and monensin in horses because of the particular sensitivity for which toxicity may occur when cross-contamination exceeds 2% and 5% respectively. Kinetic data and tissue analyses showed that residues of coccidiostats may occur in the liver and eggs in some cases. However, the level of residues of each coccidiostat in edible animal tissues remained sufficiently low that the aggregate exposure of consumers would not exceed the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each coccidiostat. It could be concluded that technical cross-contamination of animal feeds would not be expected to

  7. Risk assessment of coccidostatics during feed cross-contamination: Animal and human health aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Dorne, J.L.C.M.; Fernández-Cruz, M.L.; Bertelsen, U.; Renshaw, D.W.; Peltonen, K.; Anadon, A.; Feil, A.; Sanders, P.; Wester, P.; Fink-Gremmels, J.

    2013-08-01

    Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin and semduramicin) or non-ionophoric (robenidine, decoquinate, nicarbazin, diclazuril, and halofuginone) substances. Coccidiostats are used as feed additives, mixed upon request into the compounded feed. During the technical process of commercial feed production, cross-contamination of feed batches can result in the exposure of non-target animals and induce adverse health effects in these animals due to a specific sensitivity of mammalian species as compared to poultry. Residue formation in edible tissues of non-target species may result in unexpected human exposure through the consumption of animal products. This review presents recent risk assessments performed by the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The health risk to non-target species that would result from the consumption of cross-contaminated feed with coccidostats at levels of 2, 5 or 10% was found to be negligible for most animal species with the exception of salinomycin and monensin in horses because of the particular sensitivity for which toxicity may occur when cross-contamination exceeds 2% and 5% respectively. Kinetic data and tissue analyses showed that residues of coccidiostats may occur in the liver and eggs in some cases. However, the level of residues of each coccidiostat in edible animal tissues remained sufficiently low that the aggregate exposure of consumers would not exceed the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each coccidiostat. It could be concluded that technical cross-contamination of animal feeds would not be expected to

  8. Drug-induced cholestasis risk assessment in sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Oorts, Marlies; Baze, Audrey; Bachellier, Philippe; Heyd, Bruno; Zacharias, Thomas; Annaert, Pieter; Richert, Lysiane

    2016-08-01

    Drug-induced cholestasis (DIC) is recognized as one of the prime mechanisms for DILI. Hence, earlier detection of drug candidates with cholestatic signature is crucial. Recently, we introduced an in vitro model for DIC and evaluated its performance with several cholestatic drugs. We presently expand on the validation of this model by 14 training compounds (TCs) of the EU-EFPIA IMI project MIP-DILI. Several batches of human hepatocytes in sandwich-culture were qualified for DIC assessment by verifying the bile acid-dependent increase in sensitivity to the toxic effects of cyclosporin A. The cholestatic potential of the TCs was expressed by determining the drug-induced cholestasis index (DICI). A safety margin (SM) was calculated as the ratio of the lowest TC concentration with a DICI≤0.80 to the Cmax,total. Nefazodone, bosentan, perhexiline and troglitazone were flagged for cholestasis (SM<30). The hepatotoxic (but non-cholestatic) compounds, amiodarone, diclofenac, fialuridine and ximelagatran, and all non-hepatotoxic compounds were cleared as "safe" for DIC. Tolcapone and paracetamol yielded DICI-based SM values equal to or higher than those based on cytotoxicity, thus excluding DIC as a DILI mechanism. This hepatocyte-based in vitro assay provides a unique tool for early and reliable identification of drug candidates with cholestasis risk.

  9. Assessing risk to human health from tropical leafy vegetables grown on contaminated urban soils.

    PubMed

    Nabulo, G; Young, S D; Black, C R

    2010-10-15

    Fifteen tropical leafy vegetable types were sampled from farmers' gardens situated on nine contaminated sites used to grow vegetables for commercial or subsistence consumption in and around Kampala City, Uganda. Trace metal concentrations in soils were highly variable and originated from irrigation with wastewater, effluent discharge from industry and dumping of solid waste. Metal concentrations in the edible shoots of vegetables also differed greatly between, and within, sites. Gynandropsis gynandra consistently accumulated the highest Cd, Pb and Cu concentrations, while Amaranthus dubius accumulated the highest Zn concentration. Cadmium uptake from soils with contrasting sources and severity of contamination was consistently lowest in Cucurbita maxima and Vigna unguiculata, suggesting these species were most able to restrict Cd uptake from contaminated soil. Concentrations of Pb and Cr were consistently greater in unwashed, than in washed, vegetables, in marked contrast to Cd, Ni and Zn. The risk to human health, expressed as a 'hazard quotient' (HQ(M)), was generally greatest for Cd, followed successively by Pb, Zn, Ni and Cu. Nevertheless, it was apparent that urban cultivation of leafy vegetables could be safely pursued on most sites, subject to site-specific assessment of soil metal burden, judicious choice of vegetable types and adoption of washing in clean water prior to cooking.

  10. Cyanobacterial toxins: removal during drinking water treatment, and human risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Hitzfeld, B C; Höger, S J; Dietrich, D R

    2000-03-01

    Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) produce toxins that may present a hazard for drinking water safety. These toxins (microcystins, nodularins, saxitoxins, anatoxin-a, anatoxin-a(s), cylindrospermopsin) are structurally diverse and their effects range from liver damage, including liver cancer, to neurotoxicity. The occurrence of cyanobacteria and their toxins in water bodies used for the production of drinking water poses a technical challenge for water utility managers. With respect to their removal in water treatment procedures, of the more than 60 microcystin congeners, microcystin-LR (L, L-leucine; R, L-arginine) is the best studied cyanobacterial toxin, whereas information for the other toxins is largely lacking. In response to the growing concern about nonlethal acute and chronic effects of microcystins, the World Health Organization has recently set a new provisional guideline value for microcystin-LR of 1.0 microg/L drinking water. This will lead to further efforts by water suppliers to develop effective treatment procedures to remove these toxins. Of the water treatment procedures discussed in this review, chlorination, possibly micro-/ultrafiltration, but especially ozonation are the most effective in destroying cyanobacteria and in removing microcystins. However, these treatments may not be sufficient during bloom situations or when a high organic load is present, and toxin levels should therefore be monitored during the water treatment process. In order to perform an adequate human risk assessment of microcystin exposure via drinking water, the issue of water treatment byproducts will have to be addressed in the future.

  11. Assessment of the human health risks posed by exposure to chromium-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, P.J.; Meyer, D.M.; Sauer, M.M.; Paustenbach, D.J. )

    1991-02-01

    Millions of tons of chromite-ore processing residue have been used as fill in various locations in northern New Jersey and elsewhere in the United States. The primary toxicants in the residue are trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). The hazard posed by Cr(III) is negligible due to its low acute and chronic toxicity. In contrast, Cr(VI) is a human carcinogen following inhalation of high concentrations. It can also cause allergic contact dermatitis. This evaluation addresses a residential site where the arithmetic mean (x) and geometric mean (gm) concentrations of Cr(III) in soil were 2879 and 1212 mg/kg (ppm). The mean concentrations of Cr(VI) were 180 and 4 mg/kg, respectively. The uptake (absorbed dose) of Cr(III) via soil ingestion, consumption of homegrown vegetables, and ingestion of inspired particles was determined. The uptake of Cr(VI) via dermal absorption from contact with surface soil and building wall surfaces, as well as inhalation, was also evaluated. The techniques used in this assessment are applicable for evaluating the human health risks posed by any residential site having contaminated soil. The potential for both sensitized and unsensitized persons to develop allergic contact dermatitis due to exposure to soil contaminated at these levels was found to be negligible. The estimated average daily dose (ADD) via ingestion and dermal absorption for the maximally exposed individual (MEI) was about 1500- and 40-fold below the EPA reference dose (RfD) for Cr(III) and Cr(VI), respectively. It was shown that for residential sites, the most important route of exposure to Cr(III) was incidental soil ingestion. Although not relevant to these sites specifically, if garden vegetables could be successfully grown in these soils, then they would probably be the predominant source of uptake of Cr(III). 163 refs.

  12. Lessons learned: Needs for improving human health risk assessment at USDOE Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Rowe, M.D.; Daniels, J.I.; Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1993-09-01

    Realistic health risk assessments were performed in a pilot study of three U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) sites. These assessments, covering a broad spectrum of data and methods, were used to identify needs for improving future health risk assessments at USDOE sites. Topics receiving specific recommendations for additional research include: choice of distributions for Monte Carlo simulation; estimation of risk reduction; analysis of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Database on food and nutrient intakes; investigations on effects of food processing on contaminant levels; background food and environmental concentrations of contaminants; method for handling exposures to groundwater plumes, methods for analyzing less than lifetime exposure to carcinogens; and improvement of bioaccumulation factors.

  13. Quantitative risk assessment for human salmonellosis through the consumption of pork sausage in Porto Alegre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mürmann, Lisandra; Corbellini, Luis Gustavo; Collor, Alexandre Ávila; Cardoso, Marisa

    2011-04-01

    A quantitative microbiology risk assessment was conducted to evaluate the risk of Salmonella infection to consumers of fresh pork sausages prepared at barbecues in Porto Alegre, Brazil. For the analysis, a prevalence of 24.4% positive pork sausages with a level of contamination between 0.03 and 460 CFU g(-1) was assumed. Data related to frequency and habits of consumption were obtained by a questionnaire survey given to 424 people. A second-order Monte Carlo simulation separating the uncertain parameter of cooking time from the variable parameters was run. Of the people interviewed, 87.5% consumed pork sausage, and 85.4% ate it at barbecues. The average risk of salmonellosis per barbecue at a minimum cooking time of 15.6 min (worst-case scenario) was 6.24 × 10(-4), and the risk assessed per month was 1.61 × 10(-3). Cooking for 19 min would fully inactivate Salmonella in 99.9% of the cases. At this cooking time, the sausage reached a mean internal temperature of 75.7°C. The results of the quantitative microbiology risk assessment revealed that the consumption of fresh pork sausage is safe when cooking time is approximately 19 min, whereas undercooked pork sausage may represent a nonnegligible health risk for consumers.

  14. Chapter 6: Ecotoxicology, Environmental Risk Assessment & Potential Impact on Human Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter examines potential risks posed by pharmaceuticals present in the aquatic environment to humans and aquatic life. We begin by describing the mechanisms by which pharmaceuticals enter the vertebrate body, produce effects and leave the body. Then we describe theoretical...

  15. Assessment of risks to human reproduction and to development of the human conceptus from exposure to environmental substances

    SciTech Connect

    Galbraith, W.M.; Voytek, P.; Ryon, M.G.

    1982-02-01

    The Offices of Health Research and of Health and Environmental Assessment within the Office of Research and Development sponsored a conference to produce a technical document on the current status of risk assessment methodologies for teratogenic and other reproductive effects. The conference brought together scientists knowledgeable in reproductive biology and teratology to discuss techniques and concepts pertinent to developing risk assessment methodologies. The document is divided into three main subject areas: assessment of toxicity to female reproduction, assessment of toxicity to male reproduction, and assessment of toxicity to the conceptus. There are three supplemental parts: pharmacokinetics and epidemiologic considerations, which are common to all toxicological assessments, and a special section on the behavioral aspects of sexual development. The specific areas addressed are the potential adverse effects on the female and male reproductive systems as well as adverse effects on the developing conceptus. A broad range of problems and effects are discussed, including infertility, early resorption of the conceptus, and possible behavioral disorders producted by subtle changes in the biochemical environment of the fetus. Suggestions are given for improvement in standard toxicological protocols for evaluation of reproductive risks, identifies new concepts and procedures that can be immediately applicable, and designates those that need further expansion and development through research. Included is a discussion on the predictive ability of the tests in estimating risk.

  16. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: MAGNETIC TAPE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Magnetic Tape Manufacturing source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Magnetic Tape Manufacturing source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  17. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ETHYLENE OXIDE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  18. A probabilistic modeling approach to assess human inhalation exposure risks to airborne aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Chung-Min; Chen, Szu-Chieh

    To assess how the human lung exposure to airborne aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1) during on-farm activities including swine feeding, storage bin cleaning, corn harvest, and grain elevator loading/unloading, we present a probabilistic risk model, appraised with empirical data. The model integrates probabilistic exposure profiles from a compartmental lung model with the reconstructed dose-response relationships based on an empirical three-parameter Hill equation model, describing AFB 1 cytotoxicity for inhibition response in human bronchial epithelial cells, to quantitatively estimate the inhalation exposure risks. The risk assessment results implicate that exposure to airborne AFB 1 may pose no significance to corn harvest and grain elevator loading/unloading activities, yet a relatively high risk for swine feeding and storage bin cleaning. Applying a joint probability function method based on exceedence profiles, we estimate that a potential high risk for the bronchial region (inhibition=56.69% with 95% confidence interval (CI): 35.05-72.87%) and bronchiolar region (inhibition=44.93% with 95% CI: 21.61 - 66.78%) is alarming during swine feeding activity. We parameterized the proposed predictive model that should encourage a risk-management framework for discussion of carcinogenic risk in occupational settings where inhalation of AFB 1-contaminated dust occurs.

  19. Screening Assessment of Potential Human-Health Risk from Future Natural-Gas Drilling Near Project Rulison in Western Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels Jeffrey I.,Chapman Jenny B.

    2012-01-01

    The Project Rulison underground nuclear test was conducted in 1969 at a depth of 8,400 ft in the Williams Fork Formation of the Piceance Basin, west-central Colorado (Figure 1). The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) is the steward of the site. Their management is guided by data collected from past site investigations and current monitoring, and by the results of calculations of expected behavior of contaminants remaining in the deep subsurface. The purpose of this screening risk assessment is to evaluate possible health risks from current and future exposure to Rulison contaminants so the information can be factored into LM's stewardship decisions. For example, these risk assessment results can inform decisions regarding institutional controls at the site and appropriate monitoring of nearby natural-gas extraction activities. Specifically, the screening risk analysis can provide guidance for setting appropriate action levels for contaminant monitoring to ensure protection of human health.

  20. XENOBIOTIC METABOLISM RESEARCH AND ITS APPLICATION TO HUMAN AND ECOLOGICAL EXPOSURE AND RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major uncertainty in risk assessment is determining the exposure of a target organism to a chemical stressor, and a confounding factor is the transformation of the chemical to a toxic metabolite inside the target organism. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are...

  1. A perspective on the risk assessment process for endocrine-disruptive effects on wildlife and human health.

    PubMed

    Kavlock, R J; Ankley, G T

    1996-12-01

    The topic of EDCs presents significant issues to the risk assessment process. In Table I, we have summarized many of the issues raised above. We have a working definition of an EDC, that provides a starting point for considering what chemicals are of concern. We also have an understanding of the important biological endpoints. Significantly, there are indications that large scale impacts might be occurring in both human and wildlife populations. Should these effects be confirmed and the causative agents identified, we will face difficult risk management decisions to minimize or mitigate the risks. Our present knowledge base, however, suggests that the traditional approach to assessing both noncancer and cancer endpoints will be suitable for toxicity mediated through disruption of endocrine systems, although there is controversy here as well. The fact that many EDCs share a common MOA should, in fact, assist in developing more scientifically defensible risk assessments, given that we must often extrapolate across doses and species in the absence of a mechanistic basis for noncancer effects. As more research focuses on the key uncertainties, we should acquire a better vision of the relative risks that EDCs pose to humans and wildlife.

  2. Strategic Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derleth, Jason; Lobia, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation provides an overview of the attempt to develop and demonstrate a methodology for the comparative assessment of risks across the entire portfolio of NASA projects and assets. It includes information about strategic risk identification, normalizing strategic risks, calculation of relative risk score, and implementation options.

  3. Improving pandemic influenza risk assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessing the pandemic risk posed by specific non-human influenza A viruses remains a complex challenge. As influenza virus genome sequencing becomes cheaper, faster and more readily available, the ability to predict pandemic potential from sequence data could transform pandemic influenza risk asses...

  4. Human health risk assessment in relation to environmental pollution of two artificial freshwater lakes in The Netherlands.

    PubMed Central

    Albering, H J; Rila, J P; Moonen, E J; Hoogewerff, J A; Kleinjans, J C

    1999-01-01

    A human health risk assessment has been performed in relation to recreational activities on two artificial freshwater lakes along the river Meuse in The Netherlands. Although the discharges of contaminants into the river Meuse have been reduced in the last decades, which is reflected in decreasing concentrations of pollutants in surface water and suspended matter, the levels in sediments are more persistent. Sediments of the two freshwater lakes appear highly polluted and may pose a health risk in relation to recreational activities. To quantify health risks for carcinogenic (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) as well as noncarcinogenic compounds (e.g., heavy metals), an exposure assessment model was used. First, we used a standard model that solely uses data on sediment pollution as the input parameter, which is the standard procedure in sediment quality assessments in The Netherlands. The highest intake appeared to be associated with the consumption of contaminated fish and resulted in a health risk for Pb and Zn (hazard index exceeded 1). For the other heavy metals and for benzo(a)pyrene, the total averaged exposure levels were below levels of concern. Secondly, input data for a more location-specific calculation procedure were provided via analyses of samples from sediment, surface water, and suspended matter. When these data (concentrations in surface water) were taken into account, the risk due to consumption of contaminated fish decreased by more than two orders of magnitude and appeared to be negligible. In both exposure assessments, many assumptions were made that contribute to a major degree to the uncertainty of this risk assessment. However, this health risk evaluation is useful as a screening methodology for assessing the urgency of sediment remediation actions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9872714

  5. Including pathogen risk in life cycle assessment of wastewater management. 2. Quantitative comparison of pathogen risk to other impacts on human health.

    PubMed

    Heimersson, Sara; Harder, Robin; Peters, Gregory M; Svanström, Magdalena

    2014-08-19

    Resource recovery from sewage sludge has the potential to save natural resources, but the potential risks connected to human exposure to heavy metals, organic micropollutants, and pathogenic microorganisms attract stakeholder concern. The purpose of the presented study was to include pathogen risks to human health in life cycle assessment (LCA) of wastewater and sludge management systems, as this is commonly omitted from LCAs due to methodological limitations. Part 1 of this article series estimated the overall pathogen risk for such a system with agricultural use of the sludge, in a way that enables the results to be integrated in LCA. This article (part 2) presents a full LCA for two model systems (with agricultural utilization or incineration of sludge) to reveal the relative importance of pathogen risk in relation to other potential impacts on human health. The study showed that, for both model systems, pathogen risk can constitute an important part (in this study up to 20%) of the total life cycle impacts on human health (expressed in disability adjusted life years) which include other important impacts such as human toxicity potential, global warming potential, and photochemical oxidant formation potential.

  6. Pollinator Risk Assessment Guidance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Guidance is part of a long-term strategy to advance the science of assessing the risks posed by pesticides to honey bees, giving risk managers the means to further improve pollinator protection in our regulatory decisions.

  7. Human Research Risk Management

    NASA Video Gallery

    Crew health and performance is critical to successful human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. The Human Research Program (HRP) investigates and mitigates the highest risks to human health and per...

  8. Phthalates in dormitory and house dust of northern Chinese cities: Occurrence, human exposure, and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Ling; Song, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Ma, Wan-Li; Gao, Chong-Jing; Li, Jia; Huo, Chun-Yan; Mohammed, Mohammed O A; Liu, Li-Yan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Li, Yi-Fan

    2016-09-15

    Phthalates are widely used chemicals in household products, which severely affect human health. However, there were limited studies emphasized on young adults' exposure to phthalates in dormitories. In this study, seven phthalates were extracted from indoor dust that collected in university dormitories in Harbin, Shenyang, and Baoding, in the north of China. Dust samples were also collected in houses in Harbin for comparison. The total concentrations of phthalates in dormitory dust in Harbin and Shenyang samples were significantly higher than those in Baoding samples. The total geometric mean concentration of phthalates in dormitory dust in Harbin was lower than in house dust. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was the most abundant phthalate in both dormitory and house dust. The daily intakes of the total phthalates, carcinogenic risk (CR) of DEHP, hazard index (HI) of di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and DEHP were estimated, the median values for all students in dormitories were lower than adults who live in the houses. Monte Carlo simulation was applied to predict the human exposure risk of phthalates. HI of DiBP, DBP, and DEHP was predicted according to the reference doses (RfD) provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.EPA) and the reference doses for anti-androgenicity (RfD AA) developed by Kortenkamp and Faust. The results indicated that the risks of some students had exceeded the limitation, however, the measured results were not exceeded the limitation. Risk quotients (RQ) of DEHP were predicted based on China specific No Significant Risk Level (NSRL) and Maximum Allowable Dose Level (MADL). The predicted results of CR and RQ of DEHP suggested that DEHP could pose a health risk through intake of indoor dust.

  9. Human health risk assessment of lead pollution in atmospheric deposition in Baoshan District, Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Wang, Jun; Shi, Guitao; Sun, Xiaojing; Chen, Zhenlou; Xu, Shiyuan

    2011-12-01

    The lead (Pb) content in atmospheric deposition was determined at 42 sampling sites in Baoshan District of Shanghai, China. Based on exposure and dose-response assessments, the health risk caused by Pb exposure in atmospheric deposition was investigated. The results indicated that Pb was significantly accumulated in atmospheric deposition. The spatial distribution of Pb was mapped by geostatistical analysis, and the results showed that pollution hotspots were present at traffic and industrial zones. Ingestion was the main route of Pb exposure in both adults and children. For children the risk value was above 1, whereas it was below 1 for the adult group. Therefore, children belong to the high-risk group for Pb exposure from atmospheric deposition in the observed area of Shanghai, China.

  10. Human Health Risk Assessment, Pope Air Force Base, North Carolina (AMC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    contaminants of potential concern (COPC). During the screening process, the results were compared to the United States Environmental Protection Agency...sources: I: US EPA Integrated Risk Information System. n: US EPA National Center for Environmental Assessment (NCEA) h: HEAST Tables ( Health Effects...lifetime. If the exposure level exceeds the toxicity value (ratio greater than 1), there may be some concern for potential adverse health effects. The

  11. Toxicological risk assessment. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Clayson, D.B.; Krewski, D.; Munro, I.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: Epidemiological Methods for Assessment of Human Cancer Risk. Assessment of Human Exposure to Environmental Contaminants with Special Reference to Cancer. Influence of Nutrition, Immunologic Status, and Other Factors on Development of Cancer. Significance of Benefits in Regulatory Decision Making. Measuring Health Benefits. Food Safety Regulations. Case Study-Asbestos. Vinyl Chloride - A Cancer Case Study. An Integrated Approach to the Study of Formaldehyde Carcinogenicity in Rats and Mice. Determination of Human Risk in Regulating Polychlorinated Biphenyls Saccharin - A Bitter-Sweet Case.

  12. Quantitative microbiological risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Hoornstra, E; Notermans, S

    2001-05-21

    The production of safe food is being increasingly based on the use of risk analysis, and this process is now in use to establish national and international food safety objectives. It is also being used more frequently to guarantee that safety objectives are met and that such guarantees are achieved in a cost-effective manner. One part of the overall risk analysis procedure-risk assessment-is the scientific process in which the hazards and risk factors are identified, and the risk estimate or risk profile is determined. Risk assessment is an especially important tool for governments when food safety objectives have to be developed in the case of 'new' contaminants in known products or known contaminants causing trouble in 'new' products. Risk assessment is also an important approach for food companies (i) during product development, (ii) during (hygienic) process optimalization, and (iii) as an extension (validation) of the more qualitative HACCP-plan. This paper discusses these two different types of risk assessment, and uses probability distribution functions to assess the risks posed by Escherichia coli O157:H7 in each case. Such approaches are essential elements of risk management, as they draw on all available information to derive accurate and realistic estimations of the risk posed. The paper also discusses the potential of scenario-analysis in simulating the impact of different or modified risk factors during the consideration of new or improved control measures.

  13. Initial ecological risk assessment of eight selected human pharmaceuticals in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yudai; Nakamura, Yuki; Kitani, Chise; Imari, Tetsuya; Sekizawa, Jun; Takao, Yuji; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Hirai, Narisato; Oda, Shigeto; Tatarazako, Norihisa

    2007-01-01

    Eight pharmaceuticals were selected on the basis of their domestic consumption in Japan, the excretion ratio of the parent compound and the frequency of detection in the aquatic environment or wastewater treatment plant effluent. Toxicity tests on these pharmaceuticals were conducted using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), daphnia (Daphnia magna), and green algae (Psuedokirchneriella subcapitata). Predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) was calculated using lethal or effect concentration 50 (LC50 or EC50) values and no effect concentration (NOEC) obtained in the toxicity tests for these compounds. Predicted environmental concentration (PEC) was also calculated from annual consumption, the excretion rate of the parent compound, and removal rate in the preliminary batch activated sludge treatment performed in this study. Maximum concentrations found in the aquatic environment or sewage effluent in Japan or foreign countries were also used for another calculation of PEC. Initial risk assessment on the selected pharmaceuticals was performed using the PEC/PNEC ratio. The results of initial risk assessment on the eight selected pharmaceuticals suggest neither urgent nor severe concern for the ecological risk of these compounds, but further study needs to be conducted using chronic toxicity tests, including reproduction inhibition and endocrine disruption assessments.

  14. Participatory probabilistic assessment of the risk to human health associated with cryptosporidiosis from urban dairying in Dagoretti, Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Grace, Delia; Monda, Joseph; Karanja, Nancy; Randolph, Thomas F; Kang'ethe, Erastus K

    2012-09-01

    We carried out a participatory risk assessment to estimate the risk (negative consequences and their likelihood) from zoonotic Cryptosporidium originating in dairy farms in urban Dagoretti, Nairobi to dairy farm households and their neighbours. We selected 20 households at high risk for Cryptosporidium from a larger sample of 300 dairy households in Dagoretti based on risk factors present. We then conducted a participatory mapping of the flow of the hazard from its origin (cattle) to human potential victims. This showed three main exposure pathways (food and water borne, occupational and recreational). This was used to develop a fault tree model which we parameterised using information from the study and literature. A stochastic simulation was used to estimate the probability of exposure to zoonotic cryptosporidiosis originating from urban dairying. Around 6 % of environmental samples were positive for Cryptosporidium. Probability of exposure to Cryptosporidium from dairy cattle ranged from 0.0055 for people with clinical acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in non-dairy households to 0.0102 for children under 5 years from dairy households. Most of the estimated health burden was born by children. Although dairy cattle are the source of Cryptosporidium, the model suggests consumption of vegetables is a greater source of risk than consumption of milk. In conclusion, by combining participatory methods with quantitative microbial risk assessment, we were able to rapidly, and with appropriate 'imprecision', investigate health risk to communities from Cryptosporidium and identify the most vulnerable groups and the most risky practices.

  15. Data Mining of Historical Human Data to Assess the Risk of Injury due to Dynamic Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Jesica; Somers, Jeffrey T.; Newby, N.; Gernhardt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Occupant Protection Group is charged with ensuring crewmembers are protected during all dynamic phases of spaceflight. Previous work with outside experts has led to the development of a definition of acceptable risk (DAR) for space capsule vehicles. The DAR defines allowable probability rates for various categories of injuries. An important question is how to validate these probabilities for a given vehicle. One approach is to impact test human volunteers under projected nominal landing loads. The main drawback is the large number of subject tests required to attain a reasonable level of confidence that the injury probability rates would meet those outlined in the DAR. An alternative is to mine existing databases containing human responses to impact. Testing an anthropomorphic test device (ATD) at the same human-exposure levels could yield a range of ATD responses that would meet DAR. As one aspect of future vehicle validation, the ATD could be tested in the vehicle's seat and suit configuration at nominal landing loads and compared with the ATD responses supported by the human data set. This approach could reduce the number of human-volunteer tests NASA would need to conduct to validate that a vehicle meets occupant protection standards. METHODS: The U.S. Air Force has recorded hundreds of human responses to frontal, lateral, and spinal impacts at many acceleration levels and pulse durations. All of this data are stored on the Collaborative Biomechanics Data Network (CBDN), which is maintained by the Wright Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB). The test device for human occupant restraint (THOR) ATD was impact tested on WPAFB's horizontal impulse accelerator (HIA) matching human-volunteer exposures on the HIA to 5 frontal and 3 spinal loading conditions. No human injuries occurred as a result of these impact conditions. Peak THOR response variables for neck axial tension and compression, and thoracic-spine axial compression were collected. Maximal chest

  16. Assessing risks to humans from invasive Burmese pythons in Everglades National Park, Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Robert N.; Snow, Ray W.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) are now established across a large area of southern Florida, USA, including all of Everglades National Park (NP). The presence of these large-bodied snakes in the continental United States has attracted intense media attention, including regular reference to the possibility of these snakes preying on humans. Over the course of a decade (2003–2012), we solicited reports of apparently unprovoked strikes directed at humans in Everglades NP. We summarize the circumstances surrounding each of the 5 reported incidents, which occurred between 2006 and 2012. All strikes were directed toward biologists moving through flooded wetlands; 2 strikes resulted in minor injury and none resulted in constriction. We consider most of these strikes to be cases of “mistaken identity,” in which the python initiated a strike at a potential prey item but aborted its predatory behavior prior to constriction and ingestion. No strikes are known to have been directed at park visitors despite visitation rates averaging over one million per year during this period. We conclude that while risks to humans should not be completely discounted, the relative risk of a human being killed by a python in Everglades NP appears to be extremely low.

  17. Risk Assessment Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prassinos, Peter G.; Lyver, John W., IV; Bui, Chinh T.

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment is used in many industries to identify and manage risks. Initially developed for use on aeronautical and nuclear systems, risk assessment has been applied to transportation, chemical, computer, financial, and security systems among others. It is used to gain an understanding of the weaknesses or vulnerabilities in a system so modification can be made to increase operability, efficiency, and safety and to reduce failure and down-time. Risk assessment results are primary inputs to risk-informed decision making; where risk information including uncertainty is used along with other pertinent information to assist management in the decision-making process. Therefore, to be useful, a risk assessment must be directed at specific objectives. As the world embraces the globalization of trade and manufacturing, understanding the associated risk become important to decision making. Applying risk assessment techniques to a global system of development, manufacturing, and transportation can provide insight into how the system can fail, the likelihood of system failure and the consequences of system failure. The risk assessment can identify those elements that contribute most to risk and identify measures to prevent and mitigate failures, disruptions, and damaging outcomes. In addition, risk associated with public and environment impact can be identified. The risk insights gained can be applied to making decisions concerning suitable development and manufacturing locations, supply chains, and transportation strategies. While risk assessment has been mostly applied to mechanical and electrical systems, the concepts and techniques can be applied across other systems and activities. This paper provides a basic overview of the development of a risk assessment.

  18. Optimal Temporal Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Balci, Fuat; Freestone, David; Simen, Patrick; deSouza, Laura; Cohen, Jonathan D.; Holmes, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Time is an essential feature of most decisions, because the reward earned from decisions frequently depends on the temporal statistics of the environment (e.g., on whether decisions must be made under deadlines). Accordingly, evolution appears to have favored a mechanism that predicts intervals in the seconds to minutes range with high accuracy on average, but significant variability from trial to trial. Importantly, the subjective sense of time that results is sufficiently imprecise that maximizing rewards in decision-making can require substantial behavioral adjustments (e.g., accumulating less evidence for a decision in order to beat a deadline). Reward maximization in many daily decisions therefore requires optimal temporal risk assessment. Here, we review the temporal decision-making literature, conduct secondary analyses of relevant published datasets, and analyze the results of a new experiment. The paper is organized in three parts. In the first part, we review literature and analyze existing data suggesting that animals take account of their inherent behavioral variability (their “endogenous timing uncertainty”) in temporal decision-making. In the second part, we review literature that quantitatively demonstrates nearly optimal temporal risk assessment with sub-second and supra-second intervals using perceptual tasks (with humans and mice) and motor timing tasks (with humans). We supplement this section with original research that tested human and rat performance on a task that requires finding the optimal balance between two time-dependent quantities for reward maximization. This optimal balance in turn depends on the level of timing uncertainty. Corroborating the reviewed literature, humans and rats exhibited nearly optimal temporal risk assessment in this task. In the third section, we discuss the role of timing uncertainty in reward maximization in two-choice perceptual decision-making tasks and review literature that implicates timing uncertainty

  19. Industrial metal pollution in water and probabilistic assessment of human health risk.

    PubMed

    Saha, Narottam; Rahman, M Safiur; Ahmed, Mohammad Boshir; Zhou, John L; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan

    2016-10-28

    Concentration of eight heavy metals in surface and groundwater around Dhaka Export Processing Zone (DEPZ) industrial area were investigated, and the health risk posed to local children and adult residents via ingestion and dermal contact was evaluated using deterministic and probabilistic approaches. Metal concentrations (except Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn) in Bangshi River water were above the drinking water quality guidelines, while in groundwater were less than the recommended limits. Concentration of metals in surface water decreased as a function of distance. Estimations of non-carcinogenic health risk for surface water revealed that mean hazard index (HI) values of As, Cr, Cu, and Pb for combined pathways (i.e., ingestion and dermal contact) were >1.0 for both age groups. The estimated risk mainly came from the ingestion pathway. However, the HI values for all the examined metals in groundwater were <1.0, indicating no possible human health hazard. Deterministically estimated total cancer risk (TCR) via Bangshi River water exceeded the acceptable limit of 1 × 10(-4) for adult and children. Although, probabilistically estimated 95th percentile values of TCR exceeded the benchmark, mean TCR values were less than 1 × 10(-4). Simulated results showed that 20.13% and 5.43% values of TCR for surface water were >1 × 10(-4) for adult and children, respectively. Deterministic and probabilistic estimations of cancer risk through exposure to groundwater were well below the safety limit. Overall, the population exposed to Bangshi River water remained at carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health threat and the risk was higher for adults. Sensitivity analysis identified exposure duration (ED) and ingestion rate (IR) of water as the most relevant variables affecting the probabilistic risk estimation model outcome.

  20. Approaches to Develop Alternative Testing Strategies to Inform Human Health Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Stone, Vicki; Johnston, Helinor J; Balharry, Dominique; Gernand, Jeremy M; Gulumian, Mary

    2016-08-01

    The development of alternative testing strategies (ATS) for hazard assessment of new and emerging materials is high on the agenda of scientists, funders, and regulators. The relatively large number of nanomaterials on the market and under development means that an increasing emphasis will be placed on the use of reliable, predictive ATS when assessing their safety. We have provided recommendations as to how ATS development for assessment of nanomaterial hazard may be accelerated. Predefined search terms were used to identify the quantity and distribution of peer-reviewed publications for nanomaterial hazard assessment following inhalation, ingestion, or dermal absorption. A summary of knowledge gaps relating to nanomaterial hazard is provided to identify future research priorities and areas in which a rich data set might exist to allow ATS identification. Consultation with stakeholders (e.g., academia, industry, regulators) was critical to ensure that current expert opinion was reflected. The gap analysis revealed an abundance of studies that assessed the local and systemic impacts of inhaled particles, and so ATS are available for immediate use. Development of ATS for assessment of the dermal toxicity of chemicals is already relatively advanced, and these models should be applied to nanomaterials as relatively few studies have assessed the dermal toxicity of nanomaterials to date. Limited studies have investigated the local and systemic impacts of ingested nanomaterials. If the recommendations for research prioritization proposed are adopted, it is envisioned that a comprehensive battery of ATS can be developed to support the risk assessment process for nanomaterials. Some alternative models are available for immediate implementation, while others require more developmental work to become widely adopted. Case studies are included that can be used to inform the selection of alternative models and end points when assessing the pathogenicity of fibers and mode of

  1. Assessment of Ecological and Human Health Risks of Heavy Metal Contamination in Agriculture Soils Disturbed by Pipeline Construction

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Peng; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Yafeng; Chen, Liding

    2014-01-01

    The construction of large-scale infrastructures such as nature gas/oil pipelines involves extensive disturbance to regional ecosystems. Few studies have documented the soil degradation and heavy metal contamination caused by pipeline construction. In this study, chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) levels were evaluated using Index of Geo-accumulation (Igeo) and Potential Ecological Risk Index (RI) values, and human health risk assessments were used to elucidate the level and spatial variation of heavy metal pollution risks. The results showed that the impact zone of pipeline installation on soil heavy metal contamination was restricted to pipeline right-of-way (RoW), which had higher Igeo of Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb than that of 20 m and 50 m. RI showed a declining tendency in different zones as follows: trench > working zone > piling area > 20 m > 50 m. Pipeline RoW resulted in higher human health risks than that of 20 m and 50 m, and children were more susceptible to non-carcinogenic hazard risk. Cluster analysis showed that Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd had similar sources, drawing attention to the anthropogenic activity. The findings in this study should help better understand the type, degree, scope and sources of heavy metal pollution from pipeline construction to reduce pollutant emissions, and are helpful in providing a scientific basis for future risk management. PMID:24590049

  2. Approaches to advancing quantitative human health risk assessment of environmental chemicals in the post-genomic era

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Euling, Susan Y.; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Subramaniam, Ravi P.

    2013-09-15

    The contribution of genomics and associated technologies to human health risk assessment for environmental chemicals has focused largely on elucidating mechanisms of toxicity, as discussed in other articles in this issue. However, there is interest in moving beyond hazard characterization to making more direct impacts on quantitative risk assessment (QRA) — i.e., the determination of toxicity values for setting exposure standards and cleanup values. We propose that the evolution of QRA of environmental chemicals in the post-genomic era will involve three, somewhat overlapping phases in which different types of approaches begin to mature. The initial focus (in Phase I) has been and continues to be on “augmentation” of weight of evidence — using genomic and related technologies qualitatively to increase the confidence in and scientific basis of the results of QRA. Efforts aimed towards “integration” of these data with traditional animal-based approaches, in particular quantitative predictors, or surrogates, for the in vivo toxicity data to which they have been anchored are just beginning to be explored now (in Phase II). In parallel, there is a recognized need for “expansion” of the use of established biomarkers of susceptibility or risk of human diseases and disorders for QRA, particularly for addressing the issues of cumulative assessment and population risk. Ultimately (in Phase III), substantial further advances could be realized by the development of novel molecular and pathway-based biomarkers and statistical and in silico models that build on anticipated progress in understanding the pathways of human diseases and disorders. Such efforts would facilitate a gradual “reorientation” of QRA towards approaches that more directly link environmental exposures to human outcomes.

  3. Cancer Risk Assessment Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aidala, Jim

    1985-01-01

    Describes the scientific basis of cancer risk assessment, outlining the dominant controversies surrounding the use of different methods for identifying carcinogens (short-term tests, animal bioassays, and epidemiological studies). Points out that risk assessment is as much an art as it is a science. (DH)

  4. [ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL RISK FOR CONTAMINATION OF SURFACE WATER RESERVOIRS BY PATHOGENS OF HUMAN PARASITIC DISEASES].

    PubMed

    Khromenkova, E P; Dimidova, L L; Dumbadze, O S; Aidinov, G T; Shendo, G L; Agirov, A Kh; Batchaev, Kh Kh

    2015-01-01

    Sanitary and parasitological studies of the waste effluents and surface reservoir waters were conducted in the south of Russia. The efficiency of purification of waste effluents from the pathogens of parasitic diseases was investigated in the region's sewage-purification facilities. The water of the surface water reservoirs was found to contain helminthic eggs and larvae and intestinal protozoan cysts because of the poor purification and disinfection of service fecal sewage waters. The poor purification and disinvasion of waste effluents in the region determine the potential risk of contamination of the surface water reservoirs and infection of the population with the pathogens of human parasitic diseases.

  5. Challenges for In vitro to in Vivo Extrapolation of Nanomaterial Dosimetry for Human Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jordan N.

    2013-11-01

    The proliferation in types and uses of nanomaterials in consumer products has led to rapid application of conventional in vitro approaches for hazard identification. Unfortunately, assumptions pertaining to experimental design and interpretation for studies with chemicals are not generally appropriate for nanomaterials. The fate of nanomaterials in cell culture media, cellular dose to nanomaterials, cellular dose to nanomaterial byproducts, and intracellular fate of nanomaterials at the target site of toxicity all must be considered in order to accurately extrapolate in vitro results to reliable predictions of human risk.

  6. Risk Assessment Tools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-01

    2W0 ww) A number of computer-based risk assessment tools were enhanced or creaited to provide Increased access to risk assessment instruments and...produced an extensible authoring tool , SYNTAS, for test instruments that will simplify the data gathering phase of subsequent work. SYNTAS gives DNA...Ultimately it became a computer-assisted software engineerting (CASE) tool capable of producing a wide variety of assessment instruments . In addition, its

  7. Bioaccessibility of metals and human health risk assessment in community urban gardens.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, M; De Miguel, E; Ortega, M F; Mingot, J

    2015-09-01

    Pseudo-total (i.e. aqua regia extractable) and gastric-bioaccessible (i.e. glycine+HCl extractable) concentrations of Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in a total of 48 samples collected from six community urban gardens of different characteristics in the city of Madrid (Spain). Calcium carbonate appears to be the soil property that determines the bioaccessibility of a majority of those elements, and the lack of influence of organic matter, pH and texture can be explained by their low levels in the samples (organic matter) or their narrow range of variation (pH and texture). A conservative risk assessment with bioaccessible concentrations in two scenarios, i.e. adult urban farmers and children playing in urban gardens, revealed acceptable levels of risk, but with large differences between urban gardens depending on their history of land use and their proximity to busy areas in the city center. Only in a worst-case scenario in which children who use urban gardens as recreational areas also eat the produce grown in them would the risk exceed the limits of acceptability.

  8. Cadmium and lead in seafood from the Aratu Bay, Brazil and the human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Silva da Araújo, Cecilia Freitas; Lopes, Mariângela Vieira; Vaz Ribeiro, Mirian Rocha; Porcino, Thiago Santos; Vaz Ribeiro, Amanda Santos; Rodrigues, Juliana Lima Gomes; do Prado Oliveira, Sérgio Soares; Menezes-Filho, José Antonio

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels in seafood and perform a risk assessment based on individual food consumption frequency of inhabitants of the Aratu Bay, Brazil. From December 2013 to November 2014, ready-to-market seafood, including fish [pititinga (Lile piquitinga) and small green eel (Gobionellus oceanicus)], mollusks [mussel (Mytella guyanensis) and oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae)], and crustaceans [white shrimp (Litopenaeus schmitti) and blue crab (Callinectes exasperatus)], were purchased bimonthly from a local artisanal shellfish harvester. Metal levels were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Based on the volunteer’ seafood consumption, estimates of the non-carcinogenic target hazard quotients (THQs) were calculated. The annual concentrations (μg/g, w/w) of Cd were 0.007 (±0.001) in crustaceans, 0.001 (±0.0003) in fish, and 0.446 (±0.034) in mollusks. Lead levels were risk; however, 9.1 % presented THQs between ≥1 and <9.9. These data are important to inform the community of the imminent exposure risk through communication strategies, with the purpose of minimizing exposure and, consequently, the health effects associated with it.

  9. Concentrations, bioaccumulation, and human health risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals in edible fish from Wuhan, China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lili; Ge, Jing; Zhu, Yindi; Yang, Yuyi; Wang, Jun

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine concentration and bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals in edible fish from Wuhan, China, in order to assess health risk to the human via fish consumption. Two edible fish species (Aristichthys nobilis and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) were collected and analyzed for 11 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and eight heavy metals (HMs). Concentrations of ∑HCHs, ∑DDTs, and ∑OCPs in fish samples were in the range of 0.37-111.20, not detected (nd)-123.61, and 2.04-189.04 ng g(-1) (wet weight), respectively. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of OCPs in bighead carp (A. nobilis) were higher than those in silver carp (H. molitrix). Concentrations of ∑HMs in bighead carp and silver carp were 352.48 and 345.20 mg kg(-1) (dw), respectively. Daily exposure of OCPs and HMs for consumers was estimated by comparing estimated daily intake (EDI) with different criteria. The results revealed that the EDIs in our study were all lower than those criteria. Target hazard quotient (THQ) and risk ratio (R) were used to evaluate non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks, respectively. As regard to non-carcinogenic effects of the contaminants, hazard quotients (THQ) of OCPs and HMs were both lower than 1.0, implying negligible non-carcinogenic risk via fish consumption in study area. Nevertheless, in view of carcinogenic effects of the contaminants, the total value of risk ratio (R) of OCPs was lower than the threshold of tolerable risk while the total value of risk ratio (R) of HMs was higher than the threshold of tolerable risk due to the high carcinogenic risk ratios of As and Cr, indicating high carcinogenic risks via fish consumption. The results demonstrated that HMs in edible fish from Wuhan, China, especially As and Cr required more attention than OCPs.

  10. An Approach to Using Toxicogenomic Data in U.S. EPA Human Health Risk Assessments: A Dibutyl Phthalate Case Study (Final Report, 2010)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, An Approach to Using Toxicogenomic Data in U.S. EPA Human Health Risk Assessments: A Dibutyl Phthalate Case Study. This report outlines an approach to evaluate genomic data for use in risk assessment and a case study to ...

  11. An Approach to Using Toxicogenomic Data in U.S. EPA Human Health Risk Assessments: A Dibutyl Phthalate Case Study (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, An Approach to Using Toxicogenomic Data in U.S. EPA Human Health Risk Assessments: A Dibutyl Phthalate Case Study. This report outlines an approach to evaluate genomic data for use in risk assessment and a case study to ...

  12. Trace metals accumulation in soil irrigated with polluted water and assessment of human health risk from vegetable consumption in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Atikul; Romić, Davor; Akber, Md Ali; Romić, Marija

    2017-01-18

    Trace metals accumulation in soil irrigated with polluted water and human health risk from vegetable consumption was assessed based on the data available in the literature on metals pollution of water, soil, sediment and vegetables from the cites of Bangladesh. The quantitative data on metal concentrations, their contamination levels and their pollution sources have not been systematically gathered and studied so far. The data on metal concentrations, sources, contamination levels, sample collection and analytical tools used were collected, compared and discussed. The USEPA-recommended method for health risk assessment was used to estimate human risk from vegetable consumption. Concentrations of metals in water were highly variable, and the mean concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu and As in water were found to be higher than the FAO irrigation water quality standard. In most cases, mean concentrations of metals in soil were higher than the Bangladesh background value. Based on geoaccumulation index (I geo) values, soils of Dhaka city are considered as highly contaminated. The I geo shows Cd, As, Cu, Ni, Pb and Cr contamination of agricultural soils and sediments of the cities all over the Bangladesh. Polluted water irrigation and agrochemicals are identified as dominant sources of metals in agricultural soils. Vegetable contamination by metals poses both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks to the public. Based on the results of the pollution and health risk assessments, Cd, As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni are identified as the priority control metals and the Dhaka city is recommended as the priority control city. This study provides quantitative evidence demonstrating the critical need for strengthened wastewater discharge regulations in order to protect residents from heavy metal discharges into the environment.

  13. Metal uptake by homegrown vegetables – The relative importance in human health risk assessments at contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect

    Augustsson, Anna L.M.; Uddh-Söderberg, Terese E.; Hogmalm, K. Johan; Filipsson, Monika E.M.

    2015-04-15

    Risk assessments of contaminated land often involve the use of generic bioconcentration factors (BCFs), which express contaminant concentrations in edible plant parts as a function of the concentration in soil, in order to assess the risks associated with consumption of homegrown vegetables. This study aimed to quantify variability in BCFs and evaluate the implications of this variability for human exposure assessments, focusing on cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in lettuce and potatoes sampled around 22 contaminated glassworks sites. In addition, risks associated with measured Cd and Pb concentrations in soil and vegetable samples were characterized and a probabilistic exposure assessment was conducted to estimate the likelihood of local residents exceeding tolerable daily intakes. The results show that concentrations in vegetables were only moderately elevated despite high concentrations in soil, and most samples complied with applicable foodstuff legislation. Still, the daily intake of Cd (but not Pb) was assessed to exceed toxicological thresholds for about a fifth of the study population. Bioconcentration factors were found to vary more than indicated by previous studies, but decreasing BCFs with increasing metal concentrations in the soil can explain why the calculated exposure is only moderately affected by the choice of BCF value when generic soil guideline values are exceeded and the risk may be unacceptable. - Highlights: • Uptake of Cd and Pb by lettuce and potatoes increased with soil contamination. • Consumption of homegrown vegetables may lead to a daily Cd intake above TDIs. • The variability in the calculated BCFs is high when compared to previous studies. • Exposure assessments are most sensitive to the choice of BCFs at low contamination.

  14. Fukushima nuclear accident: preliminary assessment of the risks to non-human biota.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Garba, Nuraddeen Nasiru; Saleh, Muneer Aziz; Gabdo, Hamman Tukur; Liman, Muhammad Sanusi

    2015-02-01

    This study assesses the 'radio-ecological' impacts of Fukushima nuclear accident on non-human biota using the ERICA Tool, which adopts an internationally verified methodology. The paper estimates the impacts of the accident on terrestrial and marine biota based on the environmental data reported in literature for Japan, China, South Korea and the USA. Discernible impacts have been detected in the marine biota around Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. This study confirms that the Fukushima accident had caused heavier damage to marine bionts compared with terrestrial flora and fauna, in Japan.

  15. Landslide risk assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lessing, P.; Messina, C.P.; Fonner, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    Landslide risk can be assessed by evaluating geological conditions associated with past events. A sample of 2,4 16 slides from urban areas in West Virginia, each with 12 associated geological factors, has been analyzed using SAS computer methods. In addition, selected data have been normalized to account for areal distribution of rock formations, soil series, and slope percents. Final calculations yield landslide risk assessments of 1.50=high risk. The simplicity of the method provides for a rapid, initial assessment prior to financial investment. However, it does not replace on-site investigations, nor excuse poor construction. ?? 1983 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  16. Risk assessment of dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Boobis, Alan R

    2007-01-01

    Risk assessment of dietary supplements shares many of the requirements of that for other chemicals, although there are some important differences. Amongst these is the essential nature of some nutrients so that it may be necessary to balance the need to minimize toxicological risk with the need to avoid deficiency. There may also be limitations on experimental design, in that high doses may not be achievable for nutritional reasons and available human data on toxicological hazard is likely to be very limited. Prior to embarking on a risk assessment the problem needs to be formulated. This involves risk assessors, risk managers and relevant stakeholders. A key decision is whether a risk assessment is necessary and, if so, what is required of the assessment. This will shape the nature and output of the assessment. Risk assessment itself is a scientific process comprising four steps, hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment and risk characterization. Hazard identification involves determining the range of toxicological effects that might be caused by the substance, whilst hazard characterization establishes dose-response relationships, toxicological and species relevance of the findings and establishes health based guidance values. Exposure assessment involves predicting or measuring the level, pattern and duration of intake of the substance by exposed individuals. This may require dietary consumption data. Finally, risk characterization is the process whereby all of the prior information is integrated to reach conclusions in a form appropriate to the question posed. The nature of the output can take several different forms, and may be qualitative or quantitative. There are some cross-cutting issues in risk assessment, primarily on uncertainty and variability. The sources of uncertainty at each step of the risk assessment should be clearly identified and quantified to the extent possible. Variability requires that the risk assessment should

  17. Public Risk Assessment Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendeck, Gavin

    2010-01-01

    The Public Entry Risk Assessment (PERA) program addresses risk to the public from shuttle or other spacecraft re-entry trajectories. Managing public risk to acceptable levels is a major component of safe spacecraft operation. PERA is given scenario inputs of vehicle trajectory, probability of failure along that trajectory, the resulting debris characteristics, and field size and distribution, and returns risk metrics that quantify the individual and collective risk posed by that scenario. Due to the large volume of data required to perform such a risk analysis, PERA was designed to streamline the analysis process by using innovative mathematical analysis of the risk assessment equations. Real-time analysis in the event of a shuttle contingency operation, such as damage to the Orbiter, is possible because PERA allows for a change to the probability of failure models, therefore providing a much quicker estimation of public risk. PERA also provides the ability to generate movie files showing how the entry risk changes as the entry develops. PERA was designed to streamline the computation of the enormous amounts of data needed for this type of risk assessment by using an average distribution of debris on the ground, rather than pinpointing the impact point of every piece of debris. This has reduced the amount of computational time significantly without reducing the accuracy of the results. PERA was written in MATLAB; a compiled version can run from a DOS or UNIX prompt.

  18. GAR Global Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskrey, Andrew; Safaie, Sahar

    2015-04-01

    Disaster risk management strategies, policies and actions need to be based on evidence of current disaster loss and risk patterns, past trends and future projections, and underlying risk factors. Faced with competing demands for resources, at any level it is only possible to priorities a range of disaster risk management strategies and investments with adequate understanding of realised losses, current and future risk levels and impacts on economic growth and social wellbeing as well as cost and impact of the strategy. The mapping and understanding of the global risk landscape has been greatly enhanced by the latest iteration of the GAR Global Risk Assessment and the objective of this submission is to present the GAR global risk assessment which contributed to Global Assessment Report (GAR) 2015. This initiative which has been led by UNISDR, was conducted by a consortium of technical institutions from around the world and has covered earthquake, cyclone, riverine flood, and tsunami probabilistic risk for all countries of the world. In addition, the risks associated with volcanic ash in the Asia-Pacific region, drought in various countries in sub-Saharan Africa and climate change in a number of countries have been calculated. The presentation will share thee results as well as the experience including the challenges faced in technical elements as well as the process and recommendations for the future of such endeavour.

  19. Quantitative risk assessment of human salmonellosis and listeriosis related to the consumption of raw milk in Italy.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, Federica; Bonilauri, Paolo; Albonetti, Sabrina; Amatiste, Simonetta; Arrigoni, Norma; Bianchi, Manila; Bertasi, Barbara; Bilei, Stefano; Bolzoni, Giuseppe; Cascone, Giuseppe; Comin, Damiano; Daminelli, Paolo; Decastelli, Lucia; Merialdi, Giuseppe; Mioni, Renzo; Peli, Angelo; Petruzzelli, Annalisa; Tonucci, Franco; Bonerba, Elisabetta; Serraino, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative risk assessment (RA) models were developed to describe the risk of salmonellosis and listeriosis linked to consumption of raw milk sold in vending machines in Italy. Exposure assessment considered the official microbiological records monitoring raw milk samples from vending machines performed by the regional veterinary authorities from 2008 to 2011, microbial growth during storage, destruction experiments, consumption frequency of raw milk, serving size, and consumption preference. Two separate RA models were developed: one for the consumption of boiled milk and the other for the consumption of raw milk. The RA models predicted no human listeriosis cases per year either in the best or worst storage conditions and with or without boiling raw milk, whereas the annual estimated cases of salmonellosis depend on the dose-response relationships used in the model, the milk storage conditions, and consumer behavior in relation to boiling raw milk or not. For example, the estimated salmonellosis cases ranged from no expected cases, assuming that the entire population boiled milk before consumption, to a maximum of 980,128 cases, assuming that the entire population drank raw milk without boiling, in the worst milk storage conditions, and with the lowest dose-response model. The findings of this study clearly show how consumer behavior could affect the probability and number of salmonellosis cases and in general, the risk of illness. Hence, the proposed RA models emphasize yet again that boiling milk before drinking is a simple yet effective tool to protect consumers against the risk of illness inherent in the consumption of raw milk. The models may also offer risk managers a useful tool to identify or implement appropriate measures to control the risk of acquiring foodborne pathogens. Quantification of the risks associated with raw milk consumption is necessary from a public health perspective.

  20. Monte-Carlo human health risk assessment of mercury emissions from a MSW gasification plant.

    PubMed

    Lonati, Giovanni; Zanoni, Francesca

    2013-02-01

    The potential impact of the atmospheric emission of mercury from a new waste gasification plant is assessed by means of a probabilistic approach based on probability density functions for the description of the input data (namely, emission rate of mercury gaseous and particulate species) and the model parameters involved in the individual risk exposure assessment through the pathways of inhalation, soil ingestion, dermal contact, and diet. The use of probability functions allowed the uncertainty in the input data and model parameters to be accounted for; the uncertainty was propagated throughout the evaluation by Monte Carlo technique, resulting in the probability distributions for the ambient air and soil concentrations nearby the plant and for the subsequent individual risk, estimated in terms of hazard index for both an adult and a child receptor. The estimated median concentration levels in air and soil are respectively in the 1.6 × 10(-3)-2.2 × 10(-2) ng m(-3) range and in the 3.5 × 10(-4)-1.7 × 10(-2) mg kg(-1) range, that is at least two orders of magnitude lower than the current background concentration in the ambient air and one order of magnitude lower than the concentration locally measured in the soil. The diet pathway is responsible for the most part (>80%) of the daily mercury intake, which, however, is at least four (median estimated values) and three orders (estimates for a reasonable maximum exposure) lower than the reference dose in the most part of the modeling domain. According to the locally measured background mercury levels in air and soil the additional contribution of the plant emissions to the environmental mercury levels appears of small significance, with an almost negligible impact on the hazard index for the population living in the neighborhood of the plant.

  1. Hazardous waste transportation risk assessment for the US Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement -- human health endpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, H.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Lazaro, M.A.

    1994-03-01

    In this presentation, a quantitative methodology for assessing the risk associated with the transportation of hazardous waste (HW) is proposed. The focus is on identifying air concentrations of HW that correspond to specific human health endpoints.

  2. Critical review on the Environmental Risk Assessment of medicinal products for human use in the centralised procedure.

    PubMed

    Caneva, Laura; Bonelli, Milton; Papaluca-Amati, Marisa; Vidal, Jean-Marc

    2014-04-01

    In this article we analyse the Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) of 59 medicinal products for human use authorised in the EU through the centralised procedure between 2011 and 2012, to establish whether company submissions are compliant with the European Medicines Agency (EMA) guideline and complete in terms of data and study reports provided. The most frequent questions raised by EU regulatory authorities are described, together with an evaluation of the presence and quality of ERA-related information in published regulatory assessment documents. The results of this review show recent improvement in ERA-related data presented in regulatory assessment documents available to the public while also highlighting a need to develop further guidance on environmental issues in order to assist applicants improve their ERA dossiers and overcome current shortcomings.

  3. Man-made mineral fibers (MMMF): Human exposures and health risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M. )

    1990-01-01

    Man-made mineral fibers (MMMF) are made by spraying or extruding molten glass, furnace slag, or mineral rock. Health concerns are based on the morphological and toxicological similarities between MMF and asbestos, and the well-documented evidence that asbestos fibers can cause lung fibrosis (asbestosis), bronchial cancer, and mesothelioma in humans. Epidemiological evidence for human disease from inhalation exposures to fibrous glass is largely negative. Some positive associations have been reported from slag and rockwools. Most of the toxicological evidence for MMMF toxicity in laboratory animals is based on nonphysiological exposures such as intratracheal instillation or intraperitoneal injection of fiber suspensions. The risks for lung fibrosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma for industrial exposures to most fibrous glass products are either low or negligible for a variety of reasons. First, most commercial fibrous glass products have mean fiber diameters of {approximately} 7.5 {mu}m, which results in mean aerodynamic diameters > 22 {mu}m. Thus, most glass fibers, even if dispersed into the air, do not penetrate into the lung to any great extent. Second, the small fraction of smaller diameter fibers which do penetrate into the lungs are not persistent within the lungs for most fibrous glass products, due to mechanical breakage into shorter lengths and dissolution. Dissolution is most rapid for the smaller diameters capable of producing mesothelioma. The greater hazards for slag and rockwools, in comparison to conventional fibrous glass, appear to be related to their smaller diameters and greater durability within the lungs.

  4. Exposure to toxicants in soil and bottom ash deposits in Agbogbloshie, Ghana: human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Obiri, S; Ansa-Asare, O D; Mohammed, S; Darko, H F; Dartey, A G

    2016-10-01

    Recycling of e-waste using informal or crude techniques poses serious health risk not only to the workers but also to the environment as whole. It is against this background that this paper sought to measure health risk faced by informal e-waste workers from exposure to toxicants such as lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, arsenic, tin, zinc and cobalt via oral and dermal contact with bottom ash and soil. Using random sampling techniques, 3 separate sites each (where burning and manual dismantling of e-wastes are usually carried) were identified, and a total of 402 samples were collected. The samples were analysed using standard methods for chemical analysis prescribed by the American Water Works Association (AWWA). Concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, As, Sn, Zn and Co in bottom ash samples from location ASH1 are 5388 ± 0.02 mg/kg (Pb), 2.39 ± 0.01 mg/kg (Cd), 42 ± 0.05 mg/kg (Cr), 7940 ± 0.01 mg/kg (Cu), 20 ± 0.07 mg/kg (As), 225 ± 0.04 mg/kg (Sn), 276 ± 0.04 mg/kg (Zn) and 123 ± 0.04 mg/kg (Co), while concentrations of the aforementioned toxicants in soil samples at location ASG1 are as follows: 1685 ± 0.14 mg/kg (Pb), 26.89 ± 0.30 mg/kg (Cd), 36.86 ± 0.02 mg/kg (Cr), 1427 ± 0.08 mg/kg (Cu), 1622 ± 0.12 mg/kg (As), 234 ± 0.25 mg/kg (Sn), 783 ± 0.31 mg/kg (Zn) and 135 ± 0.01 mg/kg (Co); used as input parameters in assessing health risk faced by workers. The results of cancer health risk faced by e-waste workers due to accidental ingestion of As in bottom ash at ASH1 is 4.3 × 10(-3) (CTE) and 6.5 × 10(-2) (RME), i.e. approximately 4 out of 1000 e-waste workers are likely to suffer from cancer-related diseases via central tendency exposure (CTE parameters), and 7 out of every 100 e-waste worker is also likely to suffer from cancer cases by reasonable maximum exposure (RME) parameters, respectively. The cancer health risk results for the other sampling sites were found to have exceeded the acceptable

  5. Schedule Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Greg

    2003-01-01

    Schedule Risk Assessment needs to determine the probability of finishing on or before a given point in time. Task in a schedule should reflect the "most likely" duration for each task. IN reality, each task is different and has a varying degree of probability of finishing within or after the duration specified. Schedule risk assessment attempt to quantify these probabilities by assigning values to each task. Bridges the gap between CPM scheduling and the project's need to know the likelihood of "when".

  6. Pollution level and human health risk assessment of some pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in Nantong of Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Na; Yi, Li; Shi, Lili; Kong, Deyang; Cai, Daoji; Wang, Donghua; Shan, Zhengjun

    2012-01-01

    Food consumption is one of the key exposure routes of humans to contaminants. This article evaluated the residue levels of 51 pesticides and 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in selected fish and food items which were commonly consumed in the Nantong area of Jiangsu Province, Southeast China. The 51 pesticides and 16 PCBs were analyzed by highly sensitive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The results showed that organochlorine pesticides such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and mirex and other pesticides including chlorpyrifos, pyrethroid pesticides, metolachlor, pyridaben and trifluralin were frequently detected in the samples, which was consistent with the accumulation level and characteristics of these toxic chemicals in human adipose tissue of people living in Nantong. Meanwhile, correlation of the residue level of toxic chemicals with their physical chemical properties and historic use pattern in Nantong area was observed. Combined with dietary survey results at the same sampling locations, human health risk assessment of ingestion through the dietary route was performed. The results suggested that the non-cancer risks of the chemicals investigated can be considered negligible in the Nantong area, however, the cancer risks from lifetime dietary exposure to DDTs and HCB have exceeded the acceptable levels.

  7. Development of a quantitative microbial risk assessment for human salmonellosis through household consumption of fresh minced pork meat in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Bollaerts, Kaatje Els; Messens, Winy; Delhalle, Laurent; Aerts, Marc; Van der Stede, Yves; Dewulf, Jeroen; Quoilin, Sophie; Maes, Dominiek; Mintiens, Koen; Grijspeerdt, Koen

    2009-06-01

    A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) according to the Codex Alimentarius Principles is conducted to evaluate the risk of human salmonellosis through household consumption of fresh minced pork meat in Belgium. The quantitative exposure assessment is carried out by building a modular risk model, called the METZOON-model, which covers the pork production from farm to fork. In the METZOON-model, the food production pathway is split up in six consecutive modules: (1) primary production, (2) transport and lairage, (3) slaughterhouse, (4) postprocessing, (5) distribution and storage, and (6) preparation and consumption. All the modules are developed to resemble as closely as possible the Belgian situation, making use of the available national data. Several statistical refinements and improved modeling techniques are proposed. The model produces highly realistic results. The baseline predicted number of annual salmonellosis cases is 20,513 (SD 9061.45). The risk is estimated higher for the susceptible population (estimate 4.713 x 10(-5); SD 1.466 x 10(-5)) compared to the normal population (estimate 7.704 x 10(-6); SD 5.414 x 10(-6)) and is mainly due to undercooking and to a smaller extent to cross-contamination in the kitchen via cook's hands.

  8. Environmental risk assessment of human pharmaceuticals in Denmark after normal therapeutic use.

    PubMed

    Stuer-Lauridsen, F; Birkved, M; Hansen, L P; Lützhøft, H C; Halling-Sørensen, B

    2000-04-01

    An environmental risk assessment is presented for the 25 most used pharmaceuticals in the primary health sector in Denmark. Predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) for the aquatic environment were calculated using conservative assumptions and all PECs exceeded 1 ng/l. Measured concentrations were in general within a factor of 2-5 of PECs and ranged from approximately 0.5 ng/l to 3 micrograms/l for nine of the pharmaceuticals reported in literature. The calculation of predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) based on aquatic ecotoxicity data was possible for six of the pharmaceuticals. PEC/PNEC ratio exceeded one for ibuprofen, acetylsalicylic acid, and paracetamol. For estrogens the PEC/PNEC ratio approached one when non-standard test was used. The ratio was below one for estrogens (standard test), diazepam and digoxin. For the terrestrial compartment, toxicity data were not available, and no assessment was carried out. Comparisons of predicted concentrations of furosemide, ibuprofen, oxytetracycline and ciprofloxacin in sludge based on either preliminary experimental sludge-water partition coefficients (Kd), octanol-water coefficients (Kow) or acid-base constants (pKa) revealed large variations.

  9. Anthropic Risk Assessment on Biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piragnolo, M.; Pirotti, F.; Vettore, A.; Salogni, G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for risk assessment of anthropic activities on habitats and species. The method has been developed for Veneto Region, in order to simplify and improve the quality of EIA procedure (VINCA). Habitats and species, animals and plants, are protected by European Directive 92/43/EEC and 2009/147/EC but they are subject at hazard due to pollution produced by human activities. Biodiversity risks may conduct to deterioration and disturbance in ecological niches, with consequence of loss of biodiversity. Ecological risk assessment applied on Natura 2000 network, is needed to best practice of management and monitoring of environment and natural resources. Threats, pressure and activities, stress and indicators may be managed by geodatabase and analysed using GIS technology. The method used is the classic risk assessment in ecological context, and it defines the natural hazard as influence, element of risk as interference and vulnerability. Also it defines a new parameter called pressure. It uses risk matrix for the risk analysis on spatial and temporal scale. The methodology is qualitative and applies the precautionary principle in environmental assessment. The final product is a matrix which excludes the risk and could find application in the development of a territorial information system.

  10. Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment provide EPA staff with guidance for developing and using risk assessments. They also provide basic information to the public about the Agency's risk assessment methods.

  11. New methods for assessing male germ line mutations in humans and genetic risks in their offspring.

    PubMed

    Verhofstad, Nicole; Linschooten, Joost O; van Benthem, Jan; Dubrova, Yuri E; van Steeg, Harry; van Schooten, Frederik J; Godschalk, Roger W L

    2008-07-01

    Germ line mutations resulting from chemical or radiation exposure are a particular problem in toxicology as they affect not only the exposed generation but also an infinite number of generations thereafter. Established methods to show that these mutations occur in an F1 or subsequent population require the use of a large number of progeny for statistical significance. Consequently, many thousands of animals have been used in the past. Such a use is no longer considered desirable and is also very expensive. Several new molecular techniques (including analysis of tandem repeats and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA) now provide alternative methods of assessment, which also allow the quantification of individual mutations in individual sperm cells. These can also be applied to human offspring, making extrapolation obsolete. The downside of these methods is that they effectively determine the mutation rate in certain regions of DNA and the relevance of these to diseases, particularly cancer, is not always apparent. Therefore, it must be assumed that an increase in mutation rates in these selected regions correlates with altered phenotype. However, disease types linked to changes in tandem repeat length indicate that these may act as relevant markers for the development of phenotypes. Further research and evaluation are required to more closely link changes in DNA with altered phenotype and validate the use of tandem repeats and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA in transgenerational genotoxicity testing. This paper introduces and compares recently developed methods to assess mutations in sperm due to stem cell damage.

  12. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in wheat using different water qualities: implication for human health.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zafar Iqbal; Ahmad, Kafeel; Rehman, Sidrah; Siddique, Samra; Bashir, Humayun; Zafar, Asma; Sohail, Muhammad; Ali, Salem Alhajj; Cazzato, Eugenio; De Mastro, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    In the recent years, the use of sewage water for irrigation has attracted the attention of arid and semi-arid countries where the availability of fresh water is poor. Despite the potential use of sewage water in crop irrigation as effective and sustainable strategy, the environmental and human risks behind this use need to be deeply investigated. In this regard, an experiment was carried out under field conditions in Nursery, University College of Agriculture Sargodha, to evaluate the possible health risks of undesirable metals in wheat grains. Wheat variety Sarang was cultivated and irrigated with different combinations of ground (GW) and sewage water (SW). The concentrations of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Ni, and Pb) and trace elements (Cu, Zn, and Fe) in wheat grains as well as in soil were determined. Moreover, the pollution load index (PLI), accumulation factor (AF), daily intake of metals (DIM), and health risk index (HRI) were calculated. Results showed that the concentration trend of heavy metals was Pb

  13. Human health risk assessment of synthetic turf fields based upon investigation of five fields in Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, Gary; Toal, Brian; Simcox, Nancy; Bracker, Anne; Golembiewski, Brian; Kurland, Tara; Hedman, Curtis

    2011-01-01

    Questions have been raised regarding possible exposures when playing sports on synthetic turf fields cushioned with crumb rubber. Rubber is a complex mixture with some components possessing toxic and carcinogenic properties. Exposure is possible via inhalation, given that chemicals emitted from rubber might end up in the breathing zone of players and these players have high ventilation rates. Previous studies provide useful data but are limited with respect to the variety of fields and scenarios evaluated. The State of Connecticut investigated emissions associated with four outdoor and one indoor synthetic turf field under summer conditions. On-field and background locations were sampled using a variety of stationary and personal samplers. More than 20 chemicals of potential concern (COPC) were found to be above background and possibly field-related on both indoor and outdoor fields. These COPC were entered into separate risk assessments (1) for outdoor and indoor fields and (2) for children and adults. Exposure concentrations were prorated for time spent away from the fields and inhalation rates were adjusted for play activity and for children's greater ventilation than adults. Cancer and noncancer risk levels were at or below de minimis levels of concern. The scenario with the highest exposure was children playing on the indoor field. The acute hazard index (HI) for this scenario approached unity, suggesting a potential concern, although there was great uncertainty with this estimate. The main contributor was benzothiazole, a rubber-related semivolatile organic chemical (SVOC) that was 14-fold higher indoors than outdoors. Based upon these findings, outdoor and indoor synthetic turf fields are not associated with elevated adverse health risks. However, it would be prudent for building operators to provide adequate ventilation to prevent a buildup of rubber-related volatile organic chemicals (VOC) and SVOC at indoor fields. The current results are generally

  14. Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) Volume III: Part A

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) Volume 3A provides policies and guiding principles on the application of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods to human health and ecological risk assessment in the EPA Superfund Program.

  15. An exploration of spatial human health risk assessment of soil toxic metals under different land uses using sequential indicator simulation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin-Hui; Liu, Wen-Chu; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Li, Fei; Huang, Xiao-Long; Gu, Yan-Ling; Shi, Li-Xiu; Shi, Ya-Hui; Wan, Jia

    2016-07-01

    A modified method was proposed which integrates the spatial patterns of toxic metals simulated by sequential indicator simulation, different exposure models and local current land uses extracted by remote-sensing software into a dose-response model for human health risk assessment of toxic metals. A total of 156 soil samples with a various land uses containing farm land (F1-F25), forest land (W1-W12) and residential land (U1-U15) were collected in a grid pattern throughout Xiandao District (XDD), Hunan Province, China. The total Cr and Pb in topsoil were analyzed. Compared with Hunan soil background values, the elevated concentrations of Cr were mainly located in the east of XDD, and the elevated concentrations of Pb were scattered in the areas around F1, F6, F8, F13, F14, U5, U14, W2 and W11. For non-carcinogenic effects, the hazard index (HI) of Cr and Pb overall the XDD did not exceed the accepted level to adults. While to children, Cr and Pb exhibited HI higher than the accepted level around some areas. The assessment results indicated Cr and Pb should be regarded as the priority pollutants of concern in XDD. The first priority areas of concern were identified in region A with a high probability (>0.95) of risk in excess of the accepted level for Cr and Pb. The areas with probability of risk between 0.85 and 0.95 in region A were identified to be the secondary priority areas for Cr and Pb. The modified method was proved useful due to its improvement on previous studies and calculating a more realistic human health risk, thus reducing the probability of excessive environmental management.

  16. Wildlife Trade and Human Health in Lao PDR: An Assessment of the Zoonotic Disease Risk in Markets

    PubMed Central

    Singhalath, Sinpakone; Silithammavong, Soubanh; Khammavong, Kongsy; Fine, Amanda E.; Weisman, Wendy; Douangngeun, Bounlom; Theppangna, Watthana; Keatts, Lucy; Gilbert, Martin; Karesh, William B.; Hansel, Troy; Zimicki, Susan; O’Rourke, Kathleen; Joly, Damien O.; Mazet, Jonna A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Although the majority of emerging infectious diseases can be linked to wildlife sources, most pathogen spillover events to people could likely be avoided if transmission was better understood and practices adjusted to mitigate risk. Wildlife trade can facilitate zoonotic disease transmission and represents a threat to human health and economies in Asia, highlighted by the 2003 SARS coronavirus outbreak, where a Chinese wildlife market facilitated pathogen transmission. Additionally, wildlife trade poses a serious threat to biodiversity. Therefore, the combined impacts of Asian wildlife trade, sometimes termed bush meat trade, on public health and biodiversity need assessing. From 2010 to 2013, observational data were collected in Lao PDR from markets selling wildlife, including information on volume, form, species and price of wildlife; market biosafety and visitor origin. The potential for traded wildlife to host zoonotic diseases that pose a serious threat to human health was then evaluated at seven markets identified as having high volumes of trade. At the seven markets, during 21 observational surveys, 1,937 alive or fresh dead mammals (approximately 1,009 kg) were observed for sale, including mammals from 12 taxonomic families previously documented to be capable of hosting 36 zoonotic pathogens. In these seven markets, the combination of high wildlife volumes, high risk taxa for zoonoses and poor biosafety increases the potential for pathogen presence and transmission. To examine the potential conservation impact of trade in markets, we assessed the status of 33,752 animals observed during 375 visits to 93 markets, under the Lao PDR Wildlife and Aquatic Law. We observed 6,452 animals listed by Lao PDR as near extinct or threatened with extinction. The combined risks of wildlife trade in Lao PDR to human health and biodiversity highlight the need for a multi-sector approach to effectively protect public health, economic interests and biodiversity. PMID:27008628

  17. Wildlife Trade and Human Health in Lao PDR: An Assessment of the Zoonotic Disease Risk in Markets.

    PubMed

    Greatorex, Zoe F; Olson, Sarah H; Singhalath, Sinpakone; Silithammavong, Soubanh; Khammavong, Kongsy; Fine, Amanda E; Weisman, Wendy; Douangngeun, Bounlom; Theppangna, Watthana; Keatts, Lucy; Gilbert, Martin; Karesh, William B; Hansel, Troy; Zimicki, Susan; O'Rourke, Kathleen; Joly, Damien O; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2016-01-01

    Although the majority of emerging infectious diseases can be linked to wildlife sources, most pathogen spillover events to people could likely be avoided if transmission was better understood and practices adjusted to mitigate risk. Wildlife trade can facilitate zoonotic disease transmission and represents a threat to human health and economies in Asia, highlighted by the 2003 SARS coronavirus outbreak, where a Chinese wildlife market facilitated pathogen transmission. Additionally, wildlife trade poses a serious threat to biodiversity. Therefore, the combined impacts of Asian wildlife trade, sometimes termed bush meat trade, on public health and biodiversity need assessing. From 2010 to 2013, observational data were collected in Lao PDR from markets selling wildlife, including information on volume, form, species and price of wildlife; market biosafety and visitor origin. The potential for traded wildlife to host zoonotic diseases that pose a serious threat to human health was then evaluated at seven markets identified as having high volumes of trade. At the seven markets, during 21 observational surveys, 1,937 alive or fresh dead mammals (approximately 1,009 kg) were observed for sale, including mammals from 12 taxonomic families previously documented to be capable of hosting 36 zoonotic pathogens. In these seven markets, the combination of high wildlife volumes, high risk taxa for zoonoses and poor biosafety increases the potential for pathogen presence and transmission. To examine the potential conservation impact of trade in markets, we assessed the status of 33,752 animals observed during 375 visits to 93 markets, under the Lao PDR Wildlife and Aquatic Law. We observed 6,452 animals listed by Lao PDR as near extinct or threatened with extinction. The combined risks of wildlife trade in Lao PDR to human health and biodiversity highlight the need for a multi-sector approach to effectively protect public health, economic interests and biodiversity.

  18. Estimating exposure and dose to characterize health risks: the role of human tissue monitoring in exposure assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, K; Callahan, M A; Bryan, E F

    1995-01-01

    Exposure assessment is an integral part of health risk characterization. Exposure assessments typically address three critical aspects of exposure: the number of people exposed to the environmental toxicant, at specific concentrations, for the time period of interest; the resulting dose; and the relative contribution of important sources and pathways to exposure/dose. Because historically both "point-of-contact" measurements and information about dose and related pharmacokinetic processes have been lacking, exposure assessments have had to rely on construction of "scenarios" to estimate exposure and dose. This could change, however, as advances in development of biologic markers of exposure and dose make it possible to measure and interpret toxicant concentrations in accessible human tissues. The increasing availability of "biomarkers," coupled with improvements in pharmacokinetic understanding, present opportunities to estimate ("reconstruct") exposure from measurements of dose and knowledge of intake and uptake parameters. Human tissue monitoring, however, is not a substitute for more traditional methods of measuring exposure, but rather a complementary approach. A combination of exposure measurements and dose measurements provides the most credible scientific basis for exposure assessment. PMID:7635107

  19. Regulation of endocrine-disrupting chemicals: critical overview and deficiencies in toxicology and risk assessment for human health.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Philip W; Everett, David J

    2006-03-01

    Regulation of endocrine-disrupting chemicals is reviewed in terms of hazard assessment (regulatory toxicology) and risk assessment. The current range of regulatory general toxicology protocols can detect endocrine toxicity, but specific endocrine toxicology tests are required to confirm mechanisms (e.g. oestrogenic, anti-androgenic). Strategies for validating new endocrine toxicology protocols and approaches to data assessment are discussed, and deficiencies in regulatory toxicology testing (e.g. lack of adrenocortical function assessment) identified. Recent evidence of a role of prolactin in human breast cancer also highlights deficiencies in regulatory evaluation. Actual human exposure to chemicals and the high-exposure example of chemicals in body-care cosmetics is reviewed with reference to evidence that common ingredients (e.g. parabens, cyclosiloxanes) are oestrogenic. The hypothesis and epidemiology concerning chemical exposure from body-care cosmetics (moisturizers, lotions, sun screens, deodorants) and breast cancer in women is reviewed, applying Bradford-Hill criteria for association and causality, and research requirements are identified.

  20. Assessment of Risk in Newborns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umansky, Warren; Seaton, Jane B.

    1979-01-01

    To assess risk status of newborns, data were collected on 776 newborns using a high risk register. Analysis of high risk characteristics revealed 261 primary risk incidents in the sample and 292 secondary risk factors. (Author/PHR)

  1. Cancer risk assessment of toxaphene.

    PubMed

    Buranatrevedh, Surasak

    2004-07-01

    The primary purpose is to do cancer risk assessment of toxaphene by using four steps of risk assessment proposed by the United States National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council (NAS/NRC). Four steps of risk assessment including hazard identification, dose-response relationship, exposure assessment, and risk characterization were used to evaluate cancer risk of toxaphene. Toxaphene was the most heavily used insecticide in many parts of the world before it was banned in 1982. It increased incidence of neoplasms of liver and uterus in mice and increased incidence of neoplasms of endocrine organs, thyroid, pituitary, adrenal, mammary glands, and reproductive systems in rats. From mice's and rats' study, slope factor for toxaphene is 0.8557 (mg/ kg/day)(-1). Lifetime average daily dose (LADD) of toxaphene from ambient air, surface water, soil, and fish were 1.08 x 10(-6), 5.71 x 10(-6), 3.43 x 10(-7), and 7.96 x 10(-5) mg/kg/day, respectively. Cancer risk of toxaphene for average exposure is 7.42 x 10(-5). From this study, toxaphene might have carcinogenic risk among humans.

  2. Microbiological Quantitative Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, Silvia; Schaffner, Donald W.

    The meat and poultry industry faces ongoing challenges due to the natural association of pathogens of concern (e.g., Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157:H7) with a variety of domesticated food animals. In addition, pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes pose a significant cross-contamination risk during further meat and poultry processing, distribution, and storage. Furthermore, the meat and poultry industries are constantly changing with the addition of new products, use of new raw materials, and targeting of new consumer populations, each of which may give rise to potential new risks. National and international regulations are increasingly using a “risk-based” approach to food safety (where the regulatory focus is driven by the magnitude of the risk), so risk assessment is becoming a valuable tool to systematically organize and evaluate the potential public health risk posed by food processing operations.

  3. A pesticide monitoring survey in rivers and lakes of northern Greece and its human and ecotoxicological risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Emmaluel N; Vryzas, Zisis; Kotopoulou, Athena; Kintzikoglou, Katerina; Makris, Konstantinos C; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia

    2015-06-01

    A pesticide monitoring study covering the main rivers and lakes of Northern Greece (Macedonia, Thrace and Thessaly) was undertaken. A total of 416 samples were collected over a 1.5-year sampling period (September 1999- February 2001) from six rivers and ten lakes. The water samples were analyzed with an off-line solid phase extraction technique coupled with a gas chromatography ion trap mass spectrometer using an analytical method for 147 pesticides and their metabolites, including organochlorines, organophosphates, triazines, chloroacetanilides, pyrethroids, carbamates, phthalimides and other pesticides (herbicides, insecticides and fungicides). Based on the pesticide survey results, a human health carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk assessment was conducted for adults and children. Ecotoxicological risk assessment was also conducted using default endpoint values and the risk quotient method. Results showed that the herbicides metolachlor, prometryn, alachlor and molinate, were the most frequently detected pesticides (29%, 12.5%, 12.5% and 10%, respectively). They also exhibited the highest concentration values, often exceeding 1 μg/L. Chlorpyrifos ethyl was the most frequently detected insecticide (7%). Seasonal variations in measured pesticide concentrations were observed in all rivers and lakes. The highest concentrations were recorded during May-June period, right after pesticide application. Concentrations of six pesticides were above the maximum allowable limit of 0.1 μg/L set for drinking water. Alachlor, atrazine and a-HCH showed unacceptable carcinogenic risk estimates (4.5E-06, 4.6E-06 and 1.3E-04, respectively). Annual average concentrations of chlorpyriphos ethyl (0.031 μg L), dicofol (0.01 μg/L), dieldrin (0.02 μg/L) and endosulfan a (0.065 μg/L) exceeded the EU environmental quality standards. The risk quotient estimates for the insecticides chorpyrifos ethyl, diazinon and parathion methyl and herbicide prometryn were above acceptable risk

  4. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in oysters from the southern coast of Korea: assessment of potential risk to human health.

    PubMed

    Mok, Jong Soo; Yoo, Hyun Duk; Kim, Poong Ho; Yoon, Ho Dong; Park, Young Cheol; Lee, Tae Seek; Kwon, Ji Young; Son, Kwang Tae; Lee, Hee Jung; Ha, Kwang Soo; Shim, Kil Bo; Kim, Ji Hoe

    2015-06-01

    From 2009 to 2013, 80 oyster and 16 seawater samples were collected from the southern coast of Korea, including designated shellfish growing areas for export. The concentrations and bioaccumulation of heavy metals were determined, and a potential risk assessment was conducted to evaluate their hazards towards human consumption. The cadmium (Cd) concentration in oysters was the highest of three hazardous metals, including Cd, lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg), however, below the standards set by various countries. The metal bioaccumulation ratio in oysters was relatively high for zinc and Cd but low for Hg, Pb, arsenic, and chromium. The estimated dietary intakes of all heavy metals for oysters accounted for 0.02%-17.75% of provisional tolerable daily intake. The hazard index for all samples was far <1.0, which indicates that the oysters do not pose an appreciable hazard to humans for the metal pollutants of study.

  5. Virus detection in questing ticks is not a sensitive indicator for risk assessment of tick-borne encephalitis in humans.

    PubMed

    Stefanoff, P; Pfeffer, M; Hellenbrand, W; Rogalska, J; Rühe, F; Makówka, A; Michalik, J; Wodecka, B; Rymaszewska, A; Kiewra, D; Baumann-Popczyk, A; Dobler, G

    2013-05-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is the most important tick-transmitted arbovirus causing human disease in Europe, but information on its endemic occurrence varies between countries because of differences in surveillance systems. Objective data are necessary to ascertain the disease risk for vaccination recommendations and other public health interventions. In two independent, separately planned projects, we used real-time RT-PCR to detect TBE virus in questing ticks. In Poland, 32 sampling sites were selected in 10 administrative districts located in regions where sporadic TBE cases were reported. In Germany, 18 sampling sites were selected in two districts located in a region with high TBE incidence. Altogether, >16,000 ticks were tested by real-time RT-PCR, with no sample testing positive for TBEV. A systematic search for published studies on TBEV prevalence in ticks in Poland and Germany also suggested that testing large numbers of collected ticks could not consistently assure virus detection in known endemic foci. Although assignment of results to administrative regions is essential for TBE risk mapping, this was possible in only 10 (investigating 22,417 ticks) of 15 published studies (>50,000 ticks) identified. We conclude that the collection and screening of ticks by real-time RT-PCR cannot be recommended for assessment of human TBE risk. Alternative methods of environmental TBEV monitoring should be considered, such as serological monitoring of rodents or other wildlife.

  6. Assessing habitat risk from human activities to inform coastal and marine spatial planning: a demonstration in Belize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkema, Katie K.; Verutes, Gregory; Bernhardt, Joanna R.; Clarke, Chantalle; Rosado, Samir; Canto, Maritza; Wood, Spencer A.; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Rosenthal, Amy; McField, Melanie; de Zegher, Joann

    2014-11-01

    Integrated coastal and ocean management requires transparent and accessible approaches for understanding the influence of human activities on marine environments. Here we introduce a model for assessing the combined risk to habitats from multiple ocean uses. We apply the model to coral reefs, mangrove forests and seagrass beds in Belize to inform the design of the country’s first Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) Plan. Based on extensive stakeholder engagement, review of existing legislation and data collected from diverse sources, we map the current distribution of coastal and ocean activities and develop three scenarios for zoning these activities in the future. We then estimate ecosystem risk under the current and three future scenarios. Current levels of risk vary spatially among the nine coastal planning regions in Belize. Empirical tests of the model are strong—three-quarters of the measured data for coral reef health lie within the 95% confidence interval of interpolated model data and 79% of the predicted mangrove occurrences are associated with observed responses. The future scenario that harmonizes conservation and development goals results in a 20% reduction in the area of high-risk habitat compared to the current scenario, while increasing the extent of several ocean uses. Our results are a component of the ICZM Plan for Belize that will undergo review by the national legislature in 2015. This application of our model to marine spatial planning in Belize illustrates an approach that can be used broadly by coastal and ocean planners to assess risk to habitats under current and future management scenarios.

  7. Groundwater nitrate pollution and human health risk assessment by using HHRA model in an agricultural area, NE China.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yuanzheng; Zhao, Xiaobing; Teng, Yanguo; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Junjun; Wu, Jin; Zuo, Rui

    2017-03-01

    In order to learn the pollution circumstance of groundwater nitrate detailedly in Songnen Plain of Northeast China and estimate its potential risk to human health of local residents, a total of 389 groundwater samples were collected in 2014 and studied from residential areas and public water supply wells in 11 cities and counties in southeastern of Songnen Plain. The analysis results showed that the spatial distributions of main chemical components in groundwater had great variations with statistical concentrations in the order of TDS> HCO3> Ca> NO3> Cl> Na> SO4> Mg> K> NH4> NO2. As for NO3, it ranged from less than 0.02mg/L to 497mg/L with an average value of 39.46mg/L indicating an obviously anthropogenic pollution. Even more than 32% of the samples exceeded the Grade III threshold (20mg/L of N) according to China's standard. The results obtained from principal component analysis showed that high NO3 concentration could be attributed to human activities, especially the excessive use of chemical fertilizers in agriculture. Further, a human health risk assessment (HHRA) model derived from the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) was applied to estimate the potential health risk of groundwater nitrate considering both drinking water and dermal contact pathways. The results indicated that potential health risks of adult males and females within about 60% of the area were at the acceptable level, while those within about 40% were beyond the acceptable level. The area at the acceptable level for children covered 49% of the total area while the same value for infants was 37%. The NO3 concentration in southeast and northeast of the study area was the highest so that residents in these regions were at the highest health risk. In conclusion, risk levels for different crowds in the study area varied obviously, generally in the order of infants> children> adult females> adult males, and the potential health risks of residents, especially minors and rural residents

  8. Assessment of heavy metal pollution and human health risk in urban soils of steel industrial city (Anshan), Liaoning, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Qing, Xiao; Yutong, Zong; Shenggao, Lu

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations and health risk of heavy metals in urban soils from a steel industrial district in China. A total of 115 topsoil samples from Anshan city, Liaoning, Northeast China were collected and analyzed for Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo), pollution index (PI), and potential ecological risk index (PER) were calculated to assess the pollution level in soils. The hazard index (HI) and carcinogenic risk (RI) were used to assess human health risk of heavy metals. The average concentration of Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni were 69.9, 0.86, 45.1, 213, 52.3, and 33.5mg/kg, respectively. The Igeo and PI values of heavy metals were in the descending order of Cd>Zn>Cu>Pb>Ni>Cr. Higher Igeo value for Cd in soil indicated that Cd pollution was moderate. Pollution index indicated that urban soils were moderate to highly polluted by Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb. The spatial distribution maps of heavy metals revealed that steel industrial district was the contamination hotspots. Principal component analysis (PCA) and matrix cluster analysis classified heavy metals into two groups, indicating common industrial sources for Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd. Matrix cluster analysis classified the sampling sites into four groups. Sampling sites within steel industrial district showed much higher concentrations of heavy metals compared to the rest of sampling sites, indicating significant contamination introduced by steel industry on soils. The health risk assessment indicated that non-carcinogenic values were below the threshold values. The hazard index (HI) for children and adult has a descending order of Cr>Pb>Cd>Cu>Ni>Zn. Carcinogenic risks due to Cr, Cd, and Ni in urban soils were within acceptable range for adult. Carcinogenic risk value of Cr for children is slightly higher than the threshold value, indicating that children are facing slight threat of Cr. These results provide basic information of heavy metal pollution control

  9. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-10-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility.

  10. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed Central

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-01-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility. PMID:6418541

  11. Mercury contamination in alligators (Melanosuchus niger) from Mamirauá Reservoir (Brazilian Amazon) and human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Correia, Jozélia; Cesar, Ricardo; Marsico, Eliane; Diniz, George Tadeu Nunes; Zorro, Mauricio Camargo; Castilhos, Zuleica

    2014-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations in muscles of wild alligators (Melanosuchus niger) from the Mamirauá Reservoir (a reference area in the Brazilian Amazon) and the human health risks associated with its consumption were assessed. The mean Hg concentration in alligator muscles was 0.407 ± 0.114 μg/g (N = 61). Close to 5 % of the muscle samples showed Hg levels above the World Health Organization guideline for fish consumption (0.5 μg/g). A positive and significant relationship was observed between Hg concentrations in muscle and the age of the specimens. The dose-response approach suggests that close to 27.4 years is required for half of the exposed specimens to attain 0.5 μg/g. The hazard quotient (HQ) is a risk indicator which defines the ratio of exposure level and a toxicological reference dose. HQ resulted above the unity for all the specimens when the ingestion rate for riverine communities (200 g of muscle per day) is considered, indicating the existence of hazard. When the ingestion rate for market consumers (28.57 g/day) is considered, the risks are much lower (mean HQ = 0.55), suggesting that such group is not at risk. The establishment of local and regional ingestion rates for riverine populations and market consumers is extremely recommended.

  12. Assessment of carcinogenic risk from personal exposure to benzo(a)pyrene in the Total Human Environmental Exposure Study (THEES)

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.P.; Post, G.B.; Lioy, P.J.; Waldman, J.M.; Greenberg, A. )

    1993-07-01

    The Total Human Environmental Exposure Study (THEES) was an investigation of multimedia exposure to the ubiquitous environmental carcinogen, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). The three-phase study was conducted in Phillipsburg, New Jersey and involved the participation of 14-15 individuals (8-10 homes) during each 14-day monitoring period. Microenvironmental sampling of air, food, water and soil indicated that environmental exposure to BaP was primarily through air and food. Exposure and risk estimates were, therefore, based on the results of personal monitoring of breathing zone air and prepared food samples. Based on a comparison of the range and magnitude of inhalation and dietary BaP exposures, food ingestion was clearly the predominant exposure to pathway. The relative contributions of other potential sources of community exposure to BaP (e.g., soil and drinking water ingestion) were also assessed. The excess cancer risk estimates for food ingestion were consistently greater than those for personal air, reflecting both the predominantly higher BaP exposures through the diet and the higher carcinogenic potency value for oral exposure. Overall, the total lifetime risk from personal exposure to BaP for nonsmokers in the community was estimated at 10(-5). In identifying risk reduction options, it is important to account for the observation that personal activities, lifestyle, and diet strongly influenced individual exposures to BaP.

  13. Drinking water quality in villages of southwestern Haryana, India: assessing human health risks associated with hydrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Vinod K.; Suthar, Surindra; Singh, Sushma; Sheoran, Aleenjeet; Garima; Meenakshi; Jain, Sandeep

    2009-09-01

    The chemical quality of groundwater of western Haryana, India was assessed for its suitability for drinking purposes. A total of 275 water samples were collected from deep aquifer based hand-pumps situated in 37 different villages/towns of Bhiwani region. The water samples were analyzed for different physico-chemical properties, e.g., pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), total harness (TH), total alkalinity (TA), calcium, magnesium, carbonate, bicarbonate, sulphate, chloride and fluoride concentrations. In this study, the average TDS content was greater ranging 1,692 (Bhiwani block) to 2,560 mg l-1 (Siwani block), and other important parameters of water, e.g., TA (442-1,232 mg l-1), TH (437-864 mg l-1) and bicarbonate (554-672 mg l-1), were also higher than maximum permissible limit by WHO or BIS. The fluoride appeared as a major problem of safe drinking water in this region. We recorded greater fluoride concentration, i.e., 86.0 mg l-1 from Motipura village that is highest fluoride level ever recorded for Haryana state. The average fluoride concentration ranged between 7.1 and 0.8 mg l-1 in different blocks of western Haryana. On the basis of fluoride concentration, Siwani block showed the maximum number of water samples (84% of total collected samples) unsuitable for drinking purposes (containing fluoride >1.5 mg l-1) followed by Charki Dadri block (58%), Bhiwani block (52%), Bawani Khera block (33%) and Loharu block (14%). This study clearly suggest that some health deteriorating chemicals in drinking water were at dangerous level and; therefore, water quality could be a major health threat for local residents of western Haryana. The high fluoride level in drinking water has posed some serious dental health risks in local residents.

  14. Human health risk assessment via drinking water pathway due to metal contamination in the groundwater of Subarnarekha River Basin, India.

    PubMed

    Giri, Soma; Singh, Abhay Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from 30 sampling sites throughout the Subarnarekha River Basin for source apportionment and risk assessment studies. The concentrations of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se, Sr, V and Zn were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results demonstrated that concentrations of the metals showed significant spatial variation with some of the metals like As, Mn, Fe, Cu and Se exceeding the drinking water standards at some locations. Principal component analysis (PCA) outcome of four factors that together explained 84.99 % of the variance with >1 initial eigenvalue indicated that both innate and anthropogenic activities are contributing factors as source of metal in groundwater of Subarnarekha River Basin. Risk of metals on human health was then evaluated using hazard quotients (HQ) and cancer risk by ingestion for adult and child, and it was indicated that Mn was the most important pollutant leading to non-carcinogenic concerns. The carcinogenic risk of As for adult and child was within the acceptable cancer risk value of 1 × 10(-4). The largest contributors to chronic risks were Mn, Co and As. Considering the geometric mean concentration of metals, the hazard index (HI) for adult was above unity. Considering all the locations, the HI varied from 0.18 to 11.34 and 0.15 to 9.71 for adult and child, respectively, suggesting that the metals posed hazard by oral intake considering the drinking water pathway.

  15. Human health risk assessment database, 'the NHSRC toxicity value database': Supporting the risk assessment process at US EPA's National Homeland Security Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Moudgal, Chandrika J.

    2008-11-15

    The toxicity value database of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Homeland Security Research Center has been in development since 2004. The toxicity value database includes a compilation of agent property, toxicity, dose-response, and health effects data for 96 agents: 84 chemical and radiological agents and 12 biotoxins. The database is populated with multiple toxicity benchmark values and agent property information from secondary sources, with web links to the secondary sources, where available. A selected set of primary literature citations and associated dose-response data are also included. The toxicity value database offers a powerful means to quickly and efficiently gather pertinent toxicity and dose-response data for a number of agents that are of concern to the nation's security. This database, in conjunction with other tools, will play an important role in understanding human health risks, and will provide a means for risk assessors and managers to make quick and informed decisions on the potential health risks and determine appropriate responses (e.g., cleanup) to agent release. A final, stand alone MS ACESSS working version of the toxicity value database was completed in November, 2007.

  16. Biosafety Risk Assessment Model

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Bowen, Susan Caskey

    2011-05-27

    Software tool based on a structured methodology for conducting laboratory biosafety risk assessments by biosafety experts. Software is based upon an MCDA scheme and uses peer reviewed criteria and weights. The software was developed upon Microsoft’s .net framework. The methodology defines likelihood and consequence of a laboratory exposure for thirteen unique scenarios and provides numerical relative risks for each of the relevant thirteen. The software produces 2-d graphs reflecting the relative risk and a sensitivity analysis which highlights the overall importance of each factor. The software works as a set of questions with absolute scales and uses a weighted additive model to calculate the likelihood and consequence.

  17. Proarrhythmia Risk Assessment in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes Using the Maestro MEA Platform.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yusheng; Vargas, Hugo M

    2015-09-01

    Evaluation of stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (SC-CM) using multi-electrode array (MEA) has attracted attention as a novel model to detect drug-induced arrhythmia. An experiment was conducted to determine if MEA recording from human induced pluripotent SC-CM (hiPSC-CM) could assess proarrhythmic risk. Ten hERG blockers, 4 Na(+) blockers, and 1 IKs blocker were evaluated blindly. Eight drugs are associated with Torsades de Pointes (TdP) and 4 are not. Multiple parameters, including field potential duration (FPD), Na(+) slope, Na(+) amplitude, beat rate (BR), and early after-depolarization (EAD) were recorded. Minimum effective concentrations (MEC) that elicited a significant change were calculated. Our results determined that FPD and EAD were unable to distinguish torsadogenic from benign compounds, Na(+) slope and amplitude could not differentiate Na(+) channel blockade from hERG blockade, BR had an inconsistent response to pharmacological treatment, and that hiPSC-CM were, in general, insensitive to IKs inhibition. A ratio was calculated that relates MEC for evoking FPD prolongation, or triggering EAD, to the human therapeutic unbound Cmax (MEC/Cmax). The key finding was that the ratio was sensitive, but specificity was low. Consistently, the ratio had high positive predictive value and low negative predictive value. In conclusion, MEA recordings of hiPSC-CM were sensitive for FPD and EAD detection, but unable to distinguish agents with low- and high-risk for TdPs. Although some published reports suggested great potential for MEA recordings in hSC-CM to assess preclinical cardiac toxicity, the current evaluation implies that this model would have a high false-positive rate in regard to proarrhythmic risk.

  18. Microbial Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. M.; Mena, K. D.; Nickerson, C.A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, microbiological spaceflight requirements have been established in a subjective manner based upon expert opinion of both environmental and clinical monitoring results and the incidence of disease. The limited amount of data, especially from long-duration missions, has created very conservative requirements based primarily on the concentration of microorganisms. Periodic reevaluations of new data from later missions have allowed some relaxation of these stringent requirements. However, the requirements remain very conservative and subjective in nature, and the risk of crew illness due to infectious microorganisms is not well defined. The use of modeling techniques for microbial risk has been applied in the food and potable water industries and has exceptional potential for spaceflight applications. From a productivity standpoint, this type of modeling can (1) decrease unnecessary costs and resource usage and (2) prevent inadequate or inappropriate data for health assessment. In addition, a quantitative model has several advantages for risk management and communication. By identifying the variable components of the model and the knowledge associated with each component, this type of modeling can: (1) Systematically identify and close knowledge gaps, (2) Systematically identify acceptable and unacceptable risks, (3) Improve communication with stakeholders as to the reasons for resource use, and (4) Facilitate external scientific approval of the NASA requirements. The modeling of microbial risk involves the evaluation of several key factors including hazard identification, crew exposure assessment, dose-response assessment, and risk characterization. Many of these factors are similar to conditions found on Earth; however, the spaceflight environment is very specialized as the inhabitants live in a small, semi-closed environment that is often dependent on regenerative life support systems. To further complicate modeling efforts, microbial dose

  19. Comparison of the acute inhibitory effects of Tetrodotoxin (TTX) in rat and human neuronal networks for risk assessment purposes.

    PubMed

    Kasteel, Emma E J; Westerink, Remco H S

    2017-03-15

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is an extremely toxic marine neurotoxin. TTX inhibits voltage-gated sodium channels, resulting in a potentially lethal inhibition of neurotransmission. Despite numerous intoxications in Asia and Europe, limited (human) toxicological data are available for TTX. Additionally, the degree of interspecies differences for TTX is not well established, hampering the use of available (animal) data for human risk assessment and establishing regulatory limits for TTX concentrations in (shell)fish. We therefore used micro-electrode array (MEA) recordings as an integrated measure of neurotransmission to demonstrate that TTX inhibits neuronal electrical activity in both primary rat cortical cultures and human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hIPSC)-derived iCell(®) neurons in co-culture with hIPSC-derived iCell(®) astrocytes, with IC50 values of 7 and 10nM, respectively. From these data combined with LD50 values and IC50 concentrations of voltage-gated sodium channels derived from literature it can be concluded that interspecies differences are limited for TTX. Consequently, we used experimental animal data to derive a human acute reference dose of 1.33μg/kg body weight, which corresponds to maximum concentration of TTX in shellfish of 200μg/kg.

  20. The speciation of metals in mammals influences their toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics and therefore human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Yokel, Robert A; Lasley, Stephen M; Dorman, David C

    2006-01-01

    Chemical form (i.e., species) can influence metal toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics and should be considered to improve human health risk assessment. Factors that influence metal speciation (and examples) include: (1) carrier-mediated processes for specific metal species (arsenic, chromium, lead and manganese), (2) valence state (arsenic, chromium, manganese and mercury), (3) particle size (lead and manganese), (4) the nature of metal binding ligands (aluminum, arsenic, chromium, lead, and manganese), (5) whether the metal is an organic versus inorganic species (arsenic, lead, and mercury), and (6) biotransformation of metal species (aluminum, arsenic, chromium, lead, manganese and mercury). The influence of speciation on metal toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics in mammals, and therefore the adverse effects of metals, is reviewed to illustrate how the physicochemical characteristics of metals and their handling in the body (toxicokinetics) can influence toxicity (toxicodynamics). Generalizing from mercury, arsenic, lead, aluminum, chromium, and manganese, it is clear that metal speciation influences mammalian toxicity. Methods used in aquatic toxicology to predict the interaction among metal speciation, uptake, and toxicity are evaluated. A classification system is presented to show that the chemical nature of the metal can predict metal ion toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics. Essential metals, such as iron, are considered. These metals produce low oral toxicity under most exposure conditions but become toxic when biological processes that utilize or transport them are overwhelmed, or bypassed. Risk assessments for essential and nonessential metals should consider toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic factors in setting exposure standards. Because speciation can influence a metal's fate and toxicity, different exposure standards should be established for different metal species. Many examples are provided which consider metal essentiality and toxicity and that illustrate

  1. Assessment of potential health risk for inhabitants living near a former lead smelter. Part 2: site-specific human health risk assessment of Cd and Pb contamination in kitchen gardens.

    PubMed

    Pelfrêne, Aurélie; Douay, Francis; Richard, Antoine; Roussel, Hélène; Girondelot, Bertrand

    2013-04-01

    Metal contamination of urban soils and homegrown products has caused major concern. In Part 1, we investigated the long-term effects of a former smelter on the degree of kitchen garden-soil contamination and the quality of the homegrown vegetables from these gardens. The results showed that the soils retained a high level of contamination and that a large proportion of the vegetables produced did not comply with the legislation on the levels of metals allowed for human consumption. The present study aims to assess the associated potential health risk to local inhabitants through consumption of homegrown vegetables and ingestion of soil particles using a land use-based approach. For lead (Pb), the standard hazard quotient (HQ)-based risk assessment method was used to determine the HQ. For cadmium (Cd), the approach consisted of calculating the HQs and then deriving site-specific assessment criteria (SSAC) using the SNIFFER method. The results suggested that the exposure pathways considered should not engender any form of deleterious health effects for adults. For children, Pb was the main concern and induced a relatively high health risk through soil particle ingestion, and most total soil Cd concentrations exceeded the derived SSAC, in particular, through consumption of vegetables. The metal bioaccessibility in soils was incorporated into the methods to establish more realistic risk assessment measures. This study proposes an approach to integrate different human health risk assessment methods. Further investigations should complete the assessment to improve risk determination, e.g., the determination of metal bioaccessibility in vegetables.

  2. Contamination of fish in UK fresh water systems: risk assessment for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Rose, Martin; Fernandes, Alwyn; Mortimer, David; Baskaran, Christina

    2015-03-01

    There is growing evidence that more people in the UK are consuming fish taken from inland waterways. This may be partly due to the increased numbers of migrants from Eastern Europe where this is part of traditional culture and partly because of a desire to try new foods encouraged by celebrity chefs. Fish can bioaccumulate environmental contaminants and so could contribute a significant amount to dietary exposure to these chemicals. This study examined the changing habits of anglers and consumers and characterised a range of existing and emerging contaminants in freshwater fish species with a view to determining current levels of occurrence and possible risk from consumption. The project was conducted in two stages. The first stage included (a) a study that identified freshwater systems that are contaminated either by anthropogenic activity or as a result of the geology of the area; and (b) socioeconomic research to assess the consumption habits of the public, particularly anglers, with respect to fish and shellfish from unmanaged inland waterways. Based on the outcome from the first stage, specific rivers and other inland waterways were chosen for investigation, along with the range of contaminants to be included in the analytical programme. Predicted contamination levels and prevalence of anglers were among the factors taken into consideration. The second stage of the project involved sampling and analysis of fish taken from selected locations on the chosen waterways. A range of fish species from a variety of inland water habitats were obtained. These were analysed for the following contaminants: heavy metals, chlorinated dioxins (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated dioxins (PBDD/Fs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), OC pesticides, organotin compounds and organo-fluorine compounds. Legal limits for contaminants apply only to food traded commercially, but some samples

  3. Supporting Risk Assessment: Accounting for Indirect Risk to Ecosystem Components.

    PubMed

    Murray, Cathryn Clarke; Mach, Megan E; Martone, Rebecca G; Singh, Gerald G; O, Miriam; Chan, Kai M A

    2016-01-01

    The multi-scalar complexity of social-ecological systems makes it challenging to quantify impacts from human activities on ecosystems, inspiring risk-based approaches to assessments of potential effects of human activities on valued ecosystem components. Risk assessments do not commonly include the risk from indirect effects as mediated via habitat and prey. In this case study from British Columbia, Canada, we illustrate how such "indirect risks" can be incorporated into risk assessments for seventeen ecosystem components. We ask whether (i) the addition of indirect risk changes the at-risk ranking of the seventeen ecosystem components and if (ii) risk scores correlate with trophic prey and habitat linkages in the food web. Even with conservative assumptions about the transfer of impacts or risks from prey species and habitats, the addition of indirect risks in the cumulative risk score changes the ranking of priorities for management. In particular, resident orca, Steller sea lion, and Pacific herring all increase in relative risk, more closely aligning these species with their "at-risk status" designations. Risk assessments are not a replacement for impact assessments, but-by considering the potential for indirect risks as we demonstrate here-they offer a crucial complementary perspective for the management of ecosystems and the organisms within.

  4. Falls risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Gallacher, Rose

    2017-02-22

    What was the nature of the CPD activity, practice-related feedback and/or event and/or experience in your practice? The CPD article outlined the causes and consequences of falls for older patients. It discussed the falls risk assessment tools, and falls prevention measures.

  5. Formaldehyde risk assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    We would like to comment on the paper by Crump et al. (2008), ‘Sensitivity analysis of biologically motivated model for formaldehyde-induced respiratory cancer in humans’. We are authors of the formaldehyde cancer risk assessment described in Conolly et al. (2003, 2004) that is t...

  6. CYP1A induction and human risk assessment: an evolving tale of in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiang; Lu, Anthony Y H

    2007-07-01

    CYP1A1 and 1A2 play critical roles in the metabolic activation of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic aromatic amines/amides (HAAs), respectively, to electrophilic reactive intermediates, leading to toxicity and cancer. CYP1As are highly inducible by PAHs and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons via aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated gene transcription. The impact of CYP1A induction on the carcinogenic and toxic potentials of environmental, occupational, dietary, and therapeutic chemicals has been a central focus of human risk evaluation and has broadly influenced the fields of cancer research, toxicology, pharmacology, and risk assessment over the past half-century. From the early discovery of CYP1A induction and its role in protection against chemical carcinogenesis in intact animals, to the establishment of CYP1A enzymes as the principal cytochromes P450 for bioactivation of PAHs and HAAs in in vitro assays, to the recent realization of an essential protective role of CYP1A in benzo[a]pyrene-induced lethality and carcinogenesis with CYP1A knockout mice, the understanding of the interrelation between CYP1A induction and chemical safety has followed a full circle. This unique path of CYP1A research underscores the importance of whole animal and human studies in chemical safety evaluation.

  7. Biomechanical Rupture Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is a local event in the aneurysm wall that naturally demands tools to assess the risk for local wall rupture. Consequently, global parameters like the maximum diameter and its expansion over time can only give very rough risk indications; therefore, they frequently fail to predict individual risk for AAA rupture. In contrast, the Biomechanical Rupture Risk Assessment (BRRA) method investigates the wall’s risk for local rupture by quantitatively integrating many known AAA rupture risk factors like female sex, large relative expansion, intraluminal thrombus-related wall weakening, and high blood pressure. The BRRA method is almost 20 years old and has progressed considerably in recent years, it can now potentially enrich the diameter indication for AAA repair. The present paper reviews the current state of the BRRA method by summarizing its key underlying concepts (i.e., geometry modeling, biomechanical simulation, and result interpretation). Specifically, the validity of the underlying model assumptions is critically disused in relation to the intended simulation objective (i.e., a clinical AAA rupture risk assessment). Next, reported clinical BRRA validation studies are summarized, and their clinical relevance is reviewed. The BRRA method is a generic, biomechanics-based approach that provides several interfaces to incorporate information from different research disciplines. As an example, the final section of this review suggests integrating growth aspects to (potentially) further improve BRRA sensitivity and specificity. Despite the fact that no prospective validation studies are reported, a significant and still growing body of validation evidence suggests integrating the BRRA method into the clinical decision-making process (i.e., enriching diameter-based decision-making in AAA patient treatment). PMID:27757402

  8. Human Health Risk Assessment Simulations in a Distributed Environment for Shuttle Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar; Bardina, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    During the launch of a rocket under prevailing weather conditions, commanders at Cape Canaveral Air Force station evaluate the possibility of whether wind blown toxic emissions might reach civilian and military personnel in the near by area. In our model, we focused mainly on Hydrogen chloride (HCL), Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and Nitric acid (HNO3), which are non-carcinogenic chemicals as per United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) classification. We have used the hazard quotient model to estimate the number of people at risk. It is based on the number of people with exposure above a reference exposure level that is unlikely to cause adverse health effects. The risk to the exposed population is calculated by multiplying the individual risk and the number in exposed population. The risk values are compared against the acceptable risk values and GO or NO-go situation is decided based on risk values for the Shuttle launch. The entire model is simulated over the web and different scenaria can be generated which allows management to choose an optimum decision.

  9. Preliminary human health risk assessment of arsenic and fluoride in tap water from Zacatecas, México.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Acuña, Mónica I; Mercado-Reyes, Marisa; Alegría-Torres, Jorge A; Mejía-Saavedra, José J

    2016-08-01

    Zacatecas state is located in the central area of Mexico, where the underground water contains elevated quantities of natural arsenic and fluoride. In order to estimate health risk associated with human exposure to these pollutants, tap water samples from the southern-central region of the state were analyzed. Ninety percent of the samples exceeded the levels of arsenic established by the World Health Organization (WHO) of 0.01 mg/L and 43 % exceeded the limit established by the NOM-127-SSA1(1) of 0.025 mg/L. Forty-three percent of the samples had fluoride levels above the Mexican regulation limit of 1.5 mg/L (NOM-127-SSA1). We used WHO and EPA's health risk assessment method, we estimated 80 % of the inhabitants of sites studied could be exposed to arsenic levels higher than those recommended by EPA and the WHO, 22 % could be exposed to fluoride levels higher than those recommended by EPA, and 16 % of the local population may be in risk of suffering dental fluorosis.

  10. Potential for Incorporation of Genetic Polymorphism Data in Human Health Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This overview summarizes several EPA assessment publications evaluating the potential impact of genetic polymorphisms in ten metabolizing enzymes on the variability in enzyme function across ethnically diverse populations.

  11. Organochlorine pesticides in fish from Taihu Lake, China, and associated human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Deqing; Yu, Yingxin; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhang, Dongping; Zhang, Shaohuan; Wu, Minghong

    2013-12-01

    Because contaminants and nutrients always coexist in fish, the risk from contaminants and the benefit from nutrients, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are also concomitant via fish consumption. To investigate the risk and benefit via fish consumption, concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in the whole- and portion-muscles of fish from Taihu Lake, China, were measured. Based on the contaminant data and nutrients from our previous study, and the associated risk and benefit via fish consumption were estimated. The concentrations of DDTs and HCHs in the whole-muscles ranged from 7.8 × 10² to 3.4×10³ pg g⁻¹ ww, and from 67.3 to 300 pg g⁻¹ ww, respectively. Of DDTs and HCHs measured, p,p'-DDE and β-HCH were respectively the most abundant pesticides. The composition profiles of DDTs and HCHs suggested that the pesticides were mainly historical residues. The benefit-risk quotient (BRQ) of EPA+DHA vs. POPs (persistent organic pollutants including data of DDTs, HCHs, and those of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers cited from our previous study) via consumption of fish from Taihu Lake was calculated. As a result, to achieve the recommended EPA+DHA intake of 250 mg d⁻¹ for a healthy adult, the consumption of most fish species from the lake can cause cancer and non-cancer risks. However, the fish consumption at the rates of 44.9 g d⁻¹ by Chinese would not lead to the risks for most of the species. The results also suggested that the risk of consuming silver carp was generally lower than other fish species, and those of dorsal muscles were lower than ventral and tail muscles.

  12. 78 FR 59685 - Registration Review; Draft Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... general, and may be of interest to a wide range of stakeholders including environmental, human health... potential environmental justice issues, the Agency seeks information on any groups or segments of the... disproportionately high and adverse human health impacts or environmental effects from exposure to the...

  13. Risk Assessment in Criminal Sentencing.

    PubMed

    Monahan, John; Skeem, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    The past several years have seen a surge of interest in using risk assessment in criminal sentencing, both to reduce recidivism by incapacitating or treating high-risk offenders and to reduce prison populations by diverting low-risk offenders from prison. We begin by sketching jurisprudential theories of sentencing, distinguishing those that rely on risk assessment from those that preclude it. We then characterize and illustrate the varying roles that risk assessment may play in the sentencing process. We clarify questions regarding the various meanings of "risk" in sentencing and the appropriate time to assess the risk of convicted offenders. We conclude by addressing four principal problems confronting risk assessment in sentencing: conflating risk and blame, barring individual inferences based on group data, failing adequately to distinguish risk assessment from risk reduction, and ignoring whether, and if so, how, the use of risk assessment in sentencing affects racial and economic disparities in imprisonment.

  14. Long-term fate of depleted uranium at Aberdeen and Yuma Proving Grounds: Human health and ecological risk assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Ebinger, M.H.; Beckman, R.J.; Myers, O.B.; Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.; Bestgen, H.T.

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate and long-term consequences of depleted uranium (DU) in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) and Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) for the Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) of the US Army. Specifically, we examined the potential for adverse radiological and toxicological effects to humans and ecosystems caused by exposure to DU at both installations. We developed contaminant transport models of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems at APG and terrestrial ecosystems at YPG to assess potential adverse effects from DU exposure. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of the initial models showed the portions of the models that most influenced predicted DU concentrations, and the results of the sensitivity analyses were fundamental tools in designing field sampling campaigns at both installations. Results of uranium (U) isotope analyses of field samples provided data to evaluate the source of U in the environment and the toxicological and radiological doses to different ecosystem components and to humans. Probabilistic doses were estimated from the field data, and DU was identified in several components of the food chain at APG and YPG. Dose estimates from APG data indicated that U or DU uptake was insufficient to cause adverse toxicological or radiological effects. Dose estimates from YPG data indicated that U or DU uptake is insufficient to cause radiological effects in ecosystem components or in humans, but toxicological effects in small mammals (e.g., kangaroo rats and pocket mice) may occur from U or DU ingestion. The results of this study were used to modify environmental radiation monitoring plans at APG and YPG to ensure collection of adequate data for ongoing ecological and human health risk assessments.

  15. Heavy metals contamination and human health risk assessment around Obuasi gold mine in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Bempah, Crentsil Kofi; Ewusi, Anthony

    2016-05-01

    Gold mining has increased the prevalence and occurrence of heavy metals contamination at the Earth's surface and is causing major concern due to the potential risk involved. This study investigated the impact of gold mine on heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Hg, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Zn) pollution and evaluated the potential health risks to local residents via consumption of polluted groundwater, agricultural soils, and vegetable crops grown at three community farms surrounding the mine at Obuasi municipality of Ghana. The results showed levels of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Fe, and Mn higher than the allowable drinking water standards. The vegetable samples analyzed showed high accumulation of As and Ni above the normal value. Bioaccumulation factors of heavy metals were significantly higher for vegetables grown in the Sanso soils. Estimated average daily intake and hazard quotient for As in drinking water as well as As, Pb, and Hg in vegetable samples exceeded permissible limit. Unacceptable non-cancer health risk levels were found in vegetable samples analyzed for As, Pb, and Hg. An unacceptable cancer risk was found via drinking of groundwater, in consumption of vegetables, and in soil. The hazard index for vegetables was higher than 1, indicating very high health risk to heavy metals contamination through consumption of vegetables grown around the sampling sites. The results recommend the need for regular monitoring of groundwater and food crops to protect consumers' health.

  16. Supporting Risk Assessment: Accounting for Indirect Risk to Ecosystem Components

    PubMed Central

    Mach, Megan E.; Martone, Rebecca G.; Singh, Gerald G.; O, Miriam; Chan, Kai M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The multi-scalar complexity of social-ecological systems makes it challenging to quantify impacts from human activities on ecosystems, inspiring risk-based approaches to assessments of potential effects of human activities on valued ecosystem components. Risk assessments do not commonly include the risk from indirect effects as mediated via habitat and prey. In this case study from British Columbia, Canada, we illustrate how such “indirect risks” can be incorporated into risk assessments for seventeen ecosystem components. We ask whether (i) the addition of indirect risk changes the at-risk ranking of the seventeen ecosystem components and if (ii) risk scores correlate with trophic prey and habitat linkages in the food web. Even with conservative assumptions about the transfer of impacts or risks from prey species and habitats, the addition of indirect risks in the cumulative risk score changes the ranking of priorities for management. In particular, resident orca, Steller sea lion, and Pacific herring all increase in relative risk, more closely aligning these species with their “at-risk status” designations. Risk assessments are not a replacement for impact assessments, but—by considering the potential for indirect risks as we demonstrate here—they offer a crucial complementary perspective for the management of ecosystems and the organisms within. PMID:27632287

  17. Essential and toxic heavy metals in cereals and agricultural products marketed in Kermanshah, Iran, and human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Fattahi, Nazir; Sharafi, Kiomars; Khamotian, Razieh; Atafar, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Levels of some essential and toxic heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel, zinc and copper in cereals and agricultural products obtained from the markets in Kermanshah city, west Iran, were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The average concentrations for lead and cadmium in some cereals were higher than the maximum levels set by the Codex Alimentarius. A potential human health risk assessment was conducted by calculating estimated weekly intake (EWI) of the metals from eating cereals and comparison of these values with provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) values. In combination with recent cereal consumption data, the EWIs of heavy metals were calculated for the Kermanshah population. EWI data for the studied metals through cereal consumption were lower than the PTWI values. Cr, Ni, Zn and Cu levels in all samples analysed were within the ranges reported for similar cereals from various parts of the world.

  18. Concentration of some heavy metals in rice types available in Shiraz market and human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Naseri, Mahmood; Vazirzadeh, Arya; Kazemi, Robabeh; Zaheri, Farnaz

    2015-05-15

    This investigation was conducted to survey the levels of some heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel and cobalt in domestic cultivated and imported rice sold on the Shiraz - Iran markets. The potential human health risk assessment was conducted by considering estimated weekly intake (EWI) of toxic metals from eating rice and compared calculated values with provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI). The mean values for lead and cadmium in domestic cultivated and imported rice were considerably higher than allowable limits set by FAO/WHO. In combination of recent rice consumption data, the estimated weekly intakes of toxic element were calculated for Iranian population. EWI for cadmium, nickel, chromium through imported and domestic cultivated rice consumption was lower than the PTWI. The EWI for lead were considerably higher than other measured toxic metals. The highest mean level of EWI for lead was observed in some imported rice samples (25.76 μg/kg body weight).

  19. Nanotechnologies: Risk assessment model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacobbe, F.; Monica, L.; Geraci, D.

    2009-05-01

    The development and use of nanomaterials has grown widely in the last years. Hence, it is necessary to carry out a careful and aimed risk assessment for the safety of the workers. The objective of this research is a specific assessment model finalized to the workplaces where the personnel work manipulating nanoparticles. This model mainly takes into account the number of exposed workers, the dimensions of particles, the information found in the safety data sheets and the uncertainties about the danger level coming from the exposition to nanomaterials. The evaluation algorithm considers the normal work conditions, the abnormal (e.g. breakdown air filter) and emergency situations (e.g. package cracking). It has been necessary to define several risk conditions in order to quantify the risk by increasing levels ("low", "middle" and "high" level). Each level includes appropriate behavioural procedures. In particular for the high level, it is advisable that the user carries out urgent interventions finalized to reduce the risk level (e.g. the utilization of vacuum box for the manipulation, high efficiency protection PPE, etc). The model has been implemented in a research laboratory where titanium dioxide and carbon nanotubes are used. The outcomes taken out from such specific evaluation gave a risk level equal to middle.

  20. Evaluation of relative effect potencies (REPs) for dioxin-like compounds to derive systemic or human-specific TEFs to improve human risk assessment.

    PubMed

    van Ede, Karin I; van Duursen, Majorie B M; van den Berg, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) are generally applied for estimating human risk of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds using systemic (e.g., blood) levels, even though these TEFs are established based on intake doses in rodent studies. This review shows that systemic relative effect potencies (REPs) can deviate substantially from intake REPs, but are similar to in vitro-derived REPs. Interestingly, the in vitro REPs for 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (HpCDD) and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4-PeCDF) are up to one order of magnitude higher than their in vivo REPs and WHO-TEFs, based on oral intake. In addition, clear species-differences in in vitro REPs were apparent for some congeners. Especially the human-derived REP for polychlorinated biphenyl 126 is one to two orders of magnitude lower than rodent REPs and its current WHO-TEF. Next, suggested adapted systemic or human-specific TEFs for these congeners were applied to calculate changes in systemic TEQ concentrations in studies from the USA, Germany and Japan and compared with either the JECFA TDI or USEPA RfD of TCDD. Overall, the effect of such TEF changes for these three congeners on total TEQ roughly balances each other out in the general population. However, results may be different for situations in which a specific group of congeners dominates. For those congeners that show a distinct deviation between either intake and systemic REPs or between rodent- and human-based in vitro REPs, we propose that especially REPs derived from human-based in vitro models are weighted more heavily in establishing systemic or human-specific TEF values to improve human health risk assessment.

  1. Toxicologic Pathology: The Basic Building Block of Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human health risk assessment is a critical factor in many risk management decisions. Evaluation of human health risk requires research the provides information that appropriately characterizes potential hazards from exposure. Pathology endpoints are the central response around ...

  2. Risk Assessment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    FEAT, a software system for evaluating risks, was developed by Lockheed and later enhanced under NASA funding. FEAT uses directed graph - or digraph - models to provide information on cause and effect if a set of failure events occurs. James Miller, the program designer at Lockheed, formed DiGraphics, Inc. to market the software that has evolved from FEAT. The Diquest Analyzer, the company's flagship product, assists product designers in identifying the redundancies and weaknesses of a system. The software has applications in the chemical industry for risk assessment, design evaluation, and change management. Additional markets have been found in operations monitoring diagnostics and training of new personnel.

  3. [Survey of arsenic concentrations in Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) and preliminary risk assessment of As in CHMs on human health].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Wen-Ju; Lin, Ai-Jun; Liu, Yun-Xia

    2010-12-01

    Characteristics and concentrations of As in Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHMs) from Hebei province (including samples collected from fields and from medicine markets) were investigated, and the ADI (allowable daily intake) standard value from FAO/WHO was used for preliminary assessment of As risk on human health. The results showed that the average of As concentrations in different roots which were used as medicines, ranged from 0.14 mg/kg to 0.54 mg/kg,while for shoots which were used as medicines, average value of As concentrations in Dendranthema morifolium was 1.42 mg/kg, and the range in other species was from 0.09 mg/kg to 0.27 mg/kg. Based on Green Standards of Medicinal Plants and Preparations for Foreign Trade and Economy (2.0 mg/kg), the percentage of samples with As concentrations exceeding standard was 3.27% (n = 153) in roots and 9.09% (n = 44) in shoots,and 4.57% (n = 197) in total CHMs samples. As concentrations in CHMs from fields ranged from 0.03 mg/kg to 0.73 mg/kg,which were all lower than 2.0 mg/kg. However, As concentrations in CHMs from markets ranged from 0.05 mg/kg to 7.05 mg/kg, and the concentrations of As in 6.36% of samples exceeded the limited standard. Arsenic concentrations in samples from markets were significantly higher than those from fields (p < 0.05). As concentrations in Compositae were distributed widely from 0.08 mg/kg to 7.05 mg/kg,and the average at 0.87 mg/kg,while the average of As concentrations in other six families were between 0.21 mg/kg and 0.41 mg/kg, and As levels in 75% of samples for each family were below 0.5 mg/kg. Compared to Compositae samples, the CHMs from other families have higher security. ADI regulated by FAO/WHO was used to assess As risk in CHMs on human health in this study as well. As daily intake through CHMs from markets varied from 0.90 microg/d to 19.7 microg/d, and percentages of the daily intake of As in CHMs to ADI were in the range of 0.70% to 15.4%, which indicated that As in CHMs from markets

  4. Risk assessment of human health for geogenic chromium and nickel in soils derived from serpentines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Lai, Yun-Jie

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations of Cr and Ni are extremely high in serpentine soils compared to soils from the other parent materials. Three serpentine sites in Taiwan were selected to determine health risk of Cr and Ni as cumulative carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks via the multiple routes of ingestion, dermal contact, inhalation, and diet on adults and children. The mean levels of Cr and Ni were higher than the soil control standards of heavy metals in Taiwan (250 and 200 mg/kg of Cr and Ni). For adults and children, the total dose of chronic daily intake (mg/kg/d) was the highest for Ni, followed in descending order by Cr(III) and Cr(VI) at all sites. Regardless inhabitant age, the total carcinogenic risk was much lower than 1.0E-6. However, the hazard index (HI) of non-carcinogenic risk exceeded 1.0 for adults at all sites, which was mainly contributed in Ni by eating rice.

  5. Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: Implications for Human Health Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The risk analysis perspective by Daniel Krewski and colleagues lays out the long-term vision and strategic plan developed by a National Research Council committee (1), sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with support from the U.S. National Toxicology Progr...

  6. ORD Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) Research Program Mid-Cycle Progress Report and Review - 2010

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The principal charge to the BOSC reviewers was to evaluate ORD’s HHRA Program from a program assessment framework relative to program relevance, structure, performance, quality, leadership, communication, and outcomes.

  7. RELEVANCE OF VISUAL EFFECTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS TO HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional measures of neurotoxicity have included assessment of sensory, cognitive, and motor function. Visual system function and the neurobiological substrates are well characterized across species. Dysfunction in the visual system may be specific or may be surrogate for mor...

  8. Ethinyl estradiol and other human pharmaceutical estrogens in the aquatic environment: a review of recent risk assessment data.

    PubMed

    Laurenson, James P; Bloom, Raanan A; Page, Stephen; Sadrieh, Nakissa

    2014-03-01

    Interest in pharmaceuticals in the environment has increased substantially in recent years. Several studies in particular have assessed human and ecological risks from human pharmaceutical estrogens, such as 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2). Regulatory action also has increased, with the USA and other countries developing rules to address estrogens and other pharmaceuticals in the environment. Accordingly, the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research at the US Food and Drug Administration has conducted a review and analysis of current data on the long-term ecological exposure and effects of EE2 and other estrogens. The results indicate that mean-flow long-term predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of EE2 in approximately 99% or more of US surface water segments downstream of wastewater treatment plants are lower than a predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) for aquatic chronic toxicity of 0.1 ng/L. Exceedances are expected to be primarily in localized, effluent-dominated water segments. The median mean-flow PEC is more than two orders of magnitude lower than this PNEC. Similar results exist for other pharmaceutical estrogens. Data also suggest that the contribution of EE2 more broadly to total estrogenic load in the environment from all sources (including other human pharmaceutical estrogens, endogenous estrogens, natural environmental estrogens, and industrial chemicals), while highly uncertain and variable, appears to be relatively low overall. Additional data and a more comprehensive approach for data collection and analysis for estrogenic substances in the environment, especially in effluent-dominated water segments in sensitive environments, would more fully characterize the risks.

  9. Balkan Endemic Nephropathy - Still continuing enigma, risk assessment and underestimated hazard of joint mycotoxin exposure of animals or humans.

    PubMed

    Stoev, Stoycho D

    2017-01-05

    The spreading of mycotoxic nephropathy in animals/humans was studied. The possible etiological causes provoking this nephropathy were carefully reviewed and analyzed. The natural content of the most frequent nephrotoxic mycotoxins in target feedstuffs/foods were investigated, in addition to their significance for development of renal damages in endemic areas. An estimation of the level of exposure of humans to the nephrotoxic mycotoxin, ochratoxin A (OTA), is made. The possible synergism or additive effects between some target mycotoxins in the development of nephropathy is also covered. The significance of joint mycotoxin interaction and masked mycotoxins, in addition to some newly isolated fungal toxic agents in the complicated etiology of mycotoxic nephropathy ranged in Balkan countries is discussed. The importance of some target fungal species which can induce kidney damages was evaluated. The morphological/ultrastructural, functional and toxicological similarities between human and animal nephropathy are studied. The possible hazard of low content of combinations of some target mycotoxins in food or feedstuff ingested by pigs, chickens or humans under natural conditions is evaluated and a risk assessment was made. Some different but more effective manners of prophylaxis and/or prevention against OTA contamination of feedstuffs/foods are suggested. A survey was made in regard to the best possible ways of veterinary hygiene control of OTA-exposed animals at slaughter time for preventing the entrance of OTA in commercial feedstuffs/food channels with a view to reduce the possible health hazard for humans. The economic efficacy and applicability of such preventive measures is additionally discussed and some practical suggestions are made.

  10. Risk Assessment for Toxic Air Pollutants: A Citizen's Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... IT ALL UP Public health agencies concerned with air quality perform risk assessments to determine the increased risk of illness from a specific human exposure to a toxic air pollutant. Risk assessment is a four-step process: ( ...

  11. Assessing the Relative Risk of Aerocapture Using Probabalistic Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Percy, Thomas K.; Bright, Ellanee; Torres, Abel O.

    2005-01-01

    A recent study performed for the Aerocapture Technology Area in the In-Space Propulsion Technology Projects Office at the Marshall Space Flight Center investigated the relative risk of various capture techniques for Mars missions. Aerocapture has been proposed as a possible capture technique for future Mars missions but has been perceived by many in the community as a higher risk option as compared to aerobraking and propulsive capture. By performing a probabilistic risk assessment on aerocapture, aerobraking and propulsive capture, a comparison was made to uncover the projected relative risks of these three maneuvers. For mission planners, this knowledge will allow them to decide if the mass savings provided by aerocapture warrant any incremental risk exposure. The study focuses on a Mars Sample Return mission currently under investigation at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). In each case (propulsive, aerobraking and aerocapture), the Earth return vehicle is inserted into Martian orbit by one of the three techniques being investigated. A baseline spacecraft was established through initial sizing exercises performed by JPL's Team X. While Team X design results provided the baseline and common thread between the spacecraft, in each case the Team X results were supplemented by historical data as needed. Propulsion, thermal protection, guidance, navigation and control, software, solar arrays, navigation and targeting and atmospheric prediction were investigated. A qualitative assessment of human reliability was also included. Results show that different risk drivers contribute significantly to each capture technique. For aerocapture, the significant drivers include propulsion system failures and atmospheric prediction errors. Software and guidance hardware contribute the most to aerobraking risk. Propulsive capture risk is mainly driven by anomalous solar array degradation and propulsion system failures. While each subsystem contributes differently to the risk of

  12. An animal-to-human scaling law for blast-induced traumatic brain injury risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Jean, Aurélie; Nyein, Michelle K; Zheng, James Q; Moore, David F; Joannopoulos, John D; Radovitzky, Raúl

    2014-10-28

    Despite recent efforts to understand blast effects on the human brain, there are still no widely accepted injury criteria for humans. Recent animal studies have resulted in important advances in the understanding of brain injury due to intense dynamic loads. However, the applicability of animal brain injury results to humans remains uncertain. Here, we use advanced computational models to derive a scaling law relating blast wave intensity to the mechanical response of brain tissue across species. Detailed simulations of blast effects on the brain are conducted for different mammals using image-based biofidelic models. The intensity of the stress waves computed for different external blast conditions is compared across species. It is found that mass scaling, which successfully estimates blast tolerance of the thorax, fails to capture the brain mechanical response to blast across mammals. Instead, we show that an appropriate scaling variable must account for the mass of protective tissues relative to the brain, as well as their acoustic impedance. Peak stresses transmitted to the brain tissue by the blast are then shown to be a power function of the scaling parameter for a range of blast conditions relevant to TBI. In particular, it is found that human brain vulnerability to blast is higher than for any other mammalian species, which is in distinct contrast to previously proposed scaling laws based on body or brain mass. An application of the scaling law to recent experiments on rabbits furnishes the first physics-based injury estimate for blast-induced TBI in humans.

  13. Relevance of F-Specific RNA Bacteriophages in Assessing Human Norovirus Risk in Shellfish and Environmental Waters

    PubMed Central

    Hartard, C.; Banas, S.; Loutreul, J.; Rincé, A.; Benoit, F.; Boudaud, N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the main cause of shellfish-borne gastroenteritis outbreaks. In the absence of routine technical approaches allowing infectious particles to be detected, this viral pathogen is currently targeted by genome research, leading to difficult interpretations. In this study, we investigated the potential of F-specific RNA bacteriophages (FRNAPH) as fecal and viral contamination indicators in shellfish and water from a local harvesting area. FRNAPH were also used as microbial source tracking tools. Constraints imposed by detection limits are illustrated here by the detection of infectious FRNAPH in several samples in the absence of FRNAPH genomes. The opposite situation was also observed, likely explained by the persistence of the genomes being greater than infectivity. Similar considerations may be applied to HuNoVs, suggesting that HuNoV genome targeting is of limited relevance in assessing infectious risks. While FRNAPH did not provide any benefits compared to Escherichia coli as fecal pollution indicators in water, novel observations were made in shellfish: contrary to E. coli, a seasonal trend of infectious FRNAPH concentrations was observed. These concentrations were higher than those found in water, confirming bioaccumulation in shellfish. This study also underlines a relationship between the presence of HuNoV genomes and those of human-specific FRNAPH subgroup II (FRNAPH-II) in shellfish collected throughout Europe. Further research should be undertaken to evaluate FRNAPH potential as an indicator of the presence of infectious HuNoVs. To this end, shellfish involved in HuNoV-caused gastroenteritis outbreaks should be analyzed for the presence of infectious FRNAPH-II. IMPORTANCE This work provides new data about the use of F-specific RNA phages (FRNAPH) as a tool for evaluating fecal or viral contamination, especially in shellfish. In our case study, FRNAPH did not provide any benefits compared to E. coli as fecal pollution

  14. Methylmercury risk assessment issues

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, F.W.; Saroff, L.

    1996-07-01

    This paper reviews the general background of health risks associated with mercury (Hg), primarily methylmercury (MeHg), with a view towards application to advanced technologies that could reduce any contributions from coal combustion. The need for accurate assessment of such risks is discussed, since Hg is now widely dispersed in the environment and cannot easily be eliminated. The primary pathway of MeHg intake is through eating contaminated fish. The issues of concern include identification of critical health outcomes (various neurological indices) and their confounding factors, accurate assessment of MeHg intake rates, and appropriate use of dose-response functions. Ultimately, such information will be used to evaluate alternative coal combustion systems.

  15. Determination of free and total bisphenol A in human urine to assess daily uptake as a basis for a valid risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Völkel, Wolfgang; Kiranoglu, Mandy; Fromme, Hermann

    2008-07-10

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely distributed and exhibits weak estrogenic activity. In contrast to BPA, the corresponding glucuronide metabolite is not estrogenic. Therefore, free and total BPA were determined in human urine samples to assess the significance of free BPA for risk assessment. In only 10% of 474 samples from 287 subjects was free BPA detected in a range from risk assessment a concentration of 2.5 microg/l was used and this value is 800-fold below the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 50 microg/kg. Total BPA was determined in 147 urine samples with concentrations between

  16. Implications of gender differences for human health risk assessment and toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper from The Human Health working group of SGOMSEC 16 examines a broad range of issues on gender effects in toxicology. Gender differences in toxicology begin at the gamete and embryo stage, continuing through development and maturation and into old age. Sex influences exp...

  17. UNCERTAINTY AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSES FOR INTEGRATED HUMAN HEALTH AND ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    While there is a high potential for exposure of humans and ecosystems to chemicals released from hazardous waste sites, the degree to which this potential is realized is often uncertain. Conceptually divided among parameter, model, and modeler uncertainties imparted during simula...

  18. 76 FR 39399 - Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... registration review of chlorpyrifos pursuant to section 3(g) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and... unreasonable adverse effects on human health or the environment. Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate insecticide... for the Southern District of New York in Natural Resources Defense Council, et al. v. EPA, No. 10...

  19. Human H7N9 avian influenza virus infection: a review and pandemic risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Yiu Lai, Kang; Wing Yiu Ng, George; Fai Wong, Kit; Fan Ngai Hung, Ivan; Kam Fai Hong, Jeffrey; Fan Cheng, Fanny; Kwok Cheung Chan, John

    2013-08-01

    China is undergoing a recent outbreak of a novel H7N9 avian influenza virus (nH7N9) infection that has thus far involved 132 human patients, including 37 deaths. The nH7N9 virus is a reassortant virus originating from the H7N3, H7N9 and H9N2 avian influenza viruses. nH7N9 isolated from humans contains features related to adaptation to humans, including a Q226L mutation in the hemagglutinin cleavage site and E627K and D701N mutations in the PB2 protein. Live poultry markets provide an environment for the emergence, spread and maintenance of nH7N9 as well as for the selection of mutants that facilitate nH7N9 binding to and replication in the human upper respiratory tract. Innate immune suppression conferred by the internal genes of H9N2 may contribute to the virulence of nH7N9. The quail may serve as the intermediate host during the adaptation of avian influenza viruses from domestic waterfowl to gallinaceous poultry, such as chickens and related terrestrial-based species, due to the selection of viral mutants with a short neuraminidase stalk. Infections in chickens, common quails, red-legged partridges and turkeys may select for mutants with human receptor specificity. Infection in Ratitae species may lead to the selection of PB2-E627K and PB2-D701N mutants and the conversion of nH7N9 to a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.

  20. Documents for Recommended Toxicity Equivalency Factors for Human Health Risk Assessments of Dioxin and Dioxin-Like Compounds

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document describes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA’s) updated approach for evaluating the human health risks from exposures to environmental media containing dioxin-like compounds (DLCs).

  1. Environmental contaminant concentrations in Canada goose (Branta canadensis) muscle: probabilistic risk assessment for human consumers.

    PubMed

    Horak, Katherine; Chipman, Richard; Murphy, Lisa; Johnston, John

    2014-09-01

    The issue of food insecurity affects millions of people in the United States every year. Often these people rely on soup kitchens, food banks, and shelters for proper meals, and these organizations often depend on donations to meet needs. One of the most limited food resources is meat. To help alleviate this problem, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Wildlife Services donates more than 60 tons of wild game (deer, moose, feral hogs, goats, geese, and ducks) to a variety of charitable organizations each year. Although commercially produced meat routinely undergoes screening for contaminants, potential exposure to environmental contaminants from eating wild game is not well characterized. In this study, the concentration of 17 contaminants of concern in the breast meat of wild geese was examined. These concentrations were then used in a probabilistic model to estimate potential risk associated with consumption of this meat. Based on model predictions, more than 99 % of all adults were below exposure limits for all of the compounds tested. For all consumer age classes modeled, consumption of wild goose meat may expose a small fraction of these populations to levels of lead higher than the recommended exposure limits. Similarly, mercury exposure was predicted to be higher than the recommended limits when the meat was served as steaks. This information about concentrations of contaminants of concern in goose meat and potential exposures associated with meat consumption based on probabilistic models will enable others to make informed decisions about the risks associated with the consumption of wild meat.

  2. 2007 TOXICOLOGY AND RISK ASSESSMENT ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has announced The 2007 Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference Cincinnati Marriott North, West Chester (Cincinnati), OHApril 23- 26, 2007 - Click to register!The Annual Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference is a unique meeting where several Government Agencies come together to discuss toxicology and risk assessment issues that are not only of concern to the government, but also to a broader audience including academia and industry. The theme of this year's conference is Emerging Issues and Challenges in Risk Assessment and the preliminary agenda includes: Plenary Sessions and prominent speakers (tentative) include: Issues of Emerging Chemical ContaminantsUncertainty and Variability in Risk Assessment Use of Mechanistic data in IARC evaluationsParallel Sessions:Uncertainty and Variability in Dose-Response Assessment Recent Advances in Toxicity and Risk Assessment of RDX The Use of Epidemiologic Data for Risk Assessment Applications Cumulative Health Risk Assessment:

  3. Methods to identify and characterize developmental neurotoxicity for human health risk assessment. II: neuropathology.

    PubMed Central

    Garman, R H; Fix, A S; Jortner, B S; Jensen, K F; Hardisty, J F; Claudio, L; Ferenc, S

    2001-01-01

    Neuropathologic assessment of chemically induced developmental alterations in the nervous system for regulatory purposes is a multifactorial, complex process. This calls for careful qualitative and quantitative morphologic study of numerous brains at several developmental stages in rats. Quantitative evaluation may include such basic methods as determination of brain weight and dimensions as well as the progressively more complex approaches of linear, areal, or stereologic measurement of brain sections. Histologic evaluation employs routine stains (such as hematoxylin and eosin), which can be complemented by a variety of special and immunohistochemical procedures. These brain studies are augmented by morphologic assessment of selected peripheral nervous system structures. Studies of this nature require a high level of technical skill as well as special training on the part of the pathologist. The pathologist should have knowledge of normal microscopic neuroanatomy/neuronal circuitry and an understanding of basic principles of developmental neurobiology, such as familiarity with the patterns of physiologic or programmed cell de PMID:11250809

  4. Ecological risk assessment framework -- the NAS perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.

    1993-06-01

    A Workshop on Ecological Risk Assessment was held on February 26--March 1, 1991, at Airlie House, Warrenton, Virginia. In addition to presentation and discussion of the case study papers, the workshop included breakout sessions to discuss conceptual and technical aspects of ecological risk assessment. A general consensus emerged that an ecological version of the 1983 framework is desirable and feasible. The committee concluded that the 1983 human health framework could be expanded to accomodate both human health and ecological risk assessment. For general applicability to ecological assessments, the 1983 scheme requires augmentation to address some of the interfaces between science and management, primarily because of the need to focus on appropriate questions relevant to applicable environmental law and policy under different circumstances. Specifically, the scheme needs modification to address (1) the influence of legal and regulatory considerations on the initial stages of ecological risk assessment and (2) the importance of characterizing ecological risks in terms that are intelligible to risk managers. The committee`s opinion is that these augmentations are as important for human health risk assessment as they are for ecological risk assessment. This paper briefly describes the framework recommended by the Committee and compares it to EPA`s recently-published Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment.

  5. Methods to identify and characterize developmental neurotoxicity for human health risk assessment. I: behavioral effects.

    PubMed Central

    Cory-Slechta, D A; Crofton, K M; Foran, J A; Ross, J F; Sheets, L P; Weiss, B; Mileson, B

    2001-01-01

    Alterations in nervous system function after exposure to a developmental neurotoxicant may be identified and characterized using neurobehavioral methods. A number of methods can evaluate alterations in sensory, motor, and cognitive functions in laboratory animals exposed to toxicants during nervous system development. Fundamental issues underlying proper use and interpretation of these methods include a) consideration of the scientific goal in experimental design, b) selection of an appropriate animal model, c) expertise of the investigator, d) adequate statistical analysis, and e) proper data interpretation. Strengths and weaknesses of the assessment methods include sensitivity, selectivity, practicality, and variability. Research could improve current behavioral methods by providing a better understanding of the relationship between alterations in motor function and changes in the underlying structure of these systems. Research is also needed to develop simple and sensitive assays for use in screening assessments of sensory and cognitive function. Assessment methods are being developed to examine other nervous system functions, including social behavior, autonomic processes, and biologic rhythms. Social behaviors are modified by many classes of developmental neurotoxicants and hormonally active compounds that may act either through neuroendocrine mechanisms or by directly influencing brain morphology or neurochemistry. Autonomic and thermoregulatory functions have been the province of physiologists and neurobiologists rather than toxicologists, but this may change as developmental neurotoxicology progresses and toxicologists apply techniques developed by other disciplines to examine changes in function after toxicant exposure. PMID:11250808

  6. Future research needs associated with the assessment of potential human health risks from exposure to toxic ambient air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Möller, L; Schuetzle, D; Autrup, H

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents key conclusions and future research needs from a Workshop on the Risk Assessment of Urban Air, Emissions, Exposure, Risk Identification, and Quantification, which was held in Stockholm during June 1992 by 41 participants from 13 countries. Research is recommended in the areas of identification and quantification of toxics in source emissions and ambient air, atmospheric transport and chemistry, exposure level assessment, the development of improved in vitro bioassays, biomarker development, the development of more accurate epidemiological methodologies, and risk quantification techniques. Studies are described that will be necessary to assess and reduce the level of uncertainties associated with each step of the risk assessment process. International collaborative research efforts between industry and government organizations are recommended as the most effective way to carry out this research. PMID:7529703

  7. Human health risk assessment of mercury vapor around artisanal small-scale gold mining area, Palu city, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Koyomi; Nagafuchi, Osamu; Kawakami, Tomonori; Inoue, Takanobu; Yokota, Kuriko; Serikawa, Yuka; Cyio, Basir; Elvince, Rosana

    2016-02-01

    Emissions of elemental mercury, Hg(0), from artisanal small-scale gold mining activities accounted for 37% of total global Hg(0) emissions in 2010. People who live near gold-mining areas may be exposed to high concentrations of Hg(0). Here, we assessed the human health risk due to Hg(0) exposure among residents of Palu city (Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia). The area around the city has more than 60t of gold reserves, and the nearby Poboya area is the most active gold-mining site in Indonesia. Owing to its geography, the city experiences alternating land and sea breezes. Sampling was done over a period of 3 years (from 2010 Aug. to 2012 Dec.) intermittently with a passive sampler for Hg(0), a portable handheld mercury analyzer, and a mercury analyzer in four areas of the city and in the Poboya gold-processing area, as well as wind speeds and directions in one area of the city. The 24-h average concentration, wind speed, and wind direction data show that the ambient air in both the gold-processing area and the city was always covered by high concentration of mercury vapor. The Hg(0) concentration in the city was higher at night than in the daytime, owing to the effect of land breezes. These results indicate that the inhabitants of the city were always exposed to high concentrations of Hg(0). The average daytime point-sample Hg(0) concentrations in the city, as measured with a handheld mercury analyzer over 3 days in July 2011, ranged from 2096 to 3299ngm(-3). In comparison, the average daytime Hg(0) concentration in the Poboya gold-processing area was 12,782ngm(-3). All of these concentrations are substantially higher than the World Health Organization air-quality guideline for annual average Hg exposure (1000ngm(-3)). We used the point-sample concentrations to calculate hazard quotient ratios by means of a probabilistic risk assessment method. The results indicated that 93% of the sample population overall was at risk (hazard quotient ratio ≥1 and cut off at

  8. Toxic elements in groundwater of Lagos and Ogun States, Southwest, Nigeria and their human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Ayedun, H; Gbadebo, A M; Idowu, O A; Arowolo, T A

    2015-06-01

    A good quality drinking water is essential for human survival. However, a large percentage of the populations in most developing countries (Nigeria inclusive) do not have access to potable water. This study was therefore conducted to assess the extent of risk arising from consumption of toxic elements in groundwater samples collected from Lagos and Ogun States, Southwest, Nigeria. Twelve toxic elements concentrations (As, Mn, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, Al, Ti, V, Hg, Li, and Sn) were determined from 170 groundwater samples using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and the physicochemical parameters were determined using standard methods. The pH results revealed that most of the water samples were slightly acidic. Of the twelve toxic elements, only Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Al have concentrations higher than the WHO recommended limit in drinking water. The average dose of Mn and Al consumed daily from groundwater by an adult in Lagos state is 3.4 and 23.2 (μg/kg body weight), respectively. Similarly, an adult in Ogun State consumed an average daily dose of 6.09 and 25 (μg/kg body weight) Mn and Al, respectively. A greater threat was posed to children and infants. The order for risk of cancer in groundwater from Lagos State was Pb > Cr > As > Cd while the order in Ogun State groundwater was Cr > Cd > As > Pb. The relative high concentrations of Mn, Al, and Pb obtained in this study can be attributed to industrial and anthropogenic activities in the study area. Treatment of groundwater before consumption is recommended to avoid possible adverse cumulative effect. Improved waste disposal methods and regular monitoring of toxic elements in groundwater of the study area should be adopted to safeguard human health.

  9. Control of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in minced meat: Comparative analysis of different interventions using a risk assessment approach.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, I; De Zutter, L; Jacxsens, L; Nauta, M J

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different processing scenarios along the farm-to-fork chain on the contamination of minced pork with human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. A modular process risk model (MPRM) was used to perform the assessment of the concentrations of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in minced meat produced in industrial meat processing plants. The model described the production of minced pork starting from the contamination of pig carcasses with pathogenic Y. enterocolitica just before chilling. The endpoints of the assessment were (i) the proportion of 0.5 kg minced meat packages that contained pathogenic Y. enterocolitica and (ii) the proportion of 0.5 kg minced meat packages that contained more than 10³ pathogenic Y. enterocolitica at the end of storage, just before consumption of raw pork or preparation. Comparing alternative scenarios to the baseline model showed that the initial contamination and different decontamination procedures of carcasses have an important effect on the proportion of highly contaminated minced meat packages at the end of storage. The addition of pork cheeks and minimal quantities of tonsillar tissue into minced meat also had a large effect on the endpoint estimate. Finally, storage time and temperature at consumer level strongly influenced the number of highly contaminated packages.

  10. Risk Assessment of Shellfish Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Munday, Rex; Reeve, John

    2013-01-01

    Complex secondary metabolites, some of which are highly toxic to mammals, are produced by many marine organisms. Some of these organisms are important food sources for marine animals and, when ingested, the toxins that they produce may be absorbed and stored in the tissues of the predators, which then become toxic to animals higher up the food chain. This is a particular problem with shellfish, and many cases of poisoning are reported in shellfish consumers each year. At present, there is no practicable means of preventing uptake of the toxins by shellfish or of removing them after harvesting. Assessment of the risk posed by such toxins is therefore required in order to determine levels that are unlikely to cause adverse effects in humans and to permit the establishment of regulatory limits in shellfish for human consumption. In the present review, the basic principles of risk assessment are described, and the progress made toward robust risk assessment of seafood toxins is discussed. While good progress has been made, it is clear that further toxicological studies are required before this goal is fully achieved. PMID:24226039

  11. Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is the first step in a long-term effort to develop risk assessment guidelines for ecological effects. Its primary purpose is to offer a simple, flexible structure for conducting and evaluating ecological risk assessment within EPA.

  12. Cancer Risk-Assessment of Radiation Damage in Ataxia Telangiectasia Heterozygous Human Breast Epithelial Cell Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applewhite, Lisa C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the study of the markers of cellular changes that are found during the onset of carcinogenesis. Several of the biological factors are markers of stress response, oncoprotein expression, and differentiation factors. Oxidative stress response agents such as heat shock proteins (HSPs) protect cells from oxidative stresses such as ionizing radiation. The onocoprotein HER-2/neu, a specific breast cancer marker, indicates early onset of cancer. Additional structural and morphogenetic markers of differentiation were considered in order to determine initial cellular changes at the initial onset of cancer. As an additional consideration, all-trans retinoic acid (RA), a differentiation agent, was considered because of its known role in regulating normal differentiation and inhibiting tumor proliferation via specific nuclear receptors. This paper discusses study and results of the preliminary analyses of gamma irradiation of AT heterozygous human breast epithelial cells (WH). Comparisons are also made of the effects various RA concentrations post-irradiation.

  13. Neurotoxicity of human neural cells induced by space radiation: in vitro risk assessment and countermeasure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guida, P.; Vazquez, M.; Kim, A.

    As the duration of space missions increases the potential for neurological damage to astronauts resulting from exposure to radiation also increases To explore the cytotoxic effects of low and high LET radiation on cells of the central nervous system we utilized a model in vitro system consisting of a human neuronal progenitor cell line NT2 and its terminally differentiated derivative hNT neurons We found that exposure to numerous forms of ionizing radiation induced cell detachment necrosis and apoptosis in time dose and LET dependent manners From the slopes of the dose-response curves we calculated RBE values for each form of heavy ion radiation A sequential field of 1 GeV n protons and iron ions induced apoptosis to a greater extent than either ion alone and the time between hits was also an important determining factor In addition cycling neuronal progenitor cells underwent a dramatic G2 phase specific cell cycle delay within 6 hours following exposure to either low or high LET radiation The molecular effects of HZE radiation were also investigated with an emphasis on the cell stress response protein p53 Heavy ion radiation induced expression of p53 in a time and dose dependent manner in both neuronal progenitor and mature neuronal cells Furthermore several post-translational modifications to the p53 protein were detected 2 hours after exposure to gamma rays Experiments incorporating pifithrin- alpha a small molecule inhibitor of p53 suggest that induction of both apoptosis and the cell cycle delay in human NT2 cells is

  14. TOXICOLOGICAL BASIS FOR DRINKING WATER RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged with protecting human health and the environment. Environmental protection decisions are often guided by risk assessments that are used to develop regulatory policy and other related guidance. Historically, in environmen...

  15. Framework for metals risk assessment [ Journal Article

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a science-based document that describes basic principles that address the special attributes and behaviors of metals and metal compounds to be considered when assessing their human health and ecological risks.

  16. Assessment of metal contamination in water, sediment, and tissues of Arius thalassinus fish from the Red Sea coast of Yemen and the potential human risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Yousef S; Marie, Mohamed-Assem S

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serious environmental issues globally. To evaluate the metal pollution in the Red Sea coast of Hodeida, Yemen Republic, the concentrations of Fe, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Cd in water, sediment, and some vital organs of sea catfish, Arius thalassinus collected from polluted and unpolluted sites, were determined. The risk of these metals to humans through fish consumption was then assessed. The results showed that the concentration order of metals in water, sediment, and fish tissues were Fe > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cd. The levels of studied metals in water, sediment, and fish tissues were significantly higher in the polluted site than those of the unpolluted site, with few exceptions. Linear correlation incorporating paired variables (water-sediment, water-fish, and fish-fish) exhibited several significant correlations indicating a common metal pollution. The risk assessment performed revealed that fish consumption was safe for consumers. This field investigation provides a baseline data on metal pollution in this region.

  17. Description of Spreadsheet Calculations for Populating Data Tables of the Ecological Risk Assessment (Appendix B of the Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment Document) for the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility (EWTF) at Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J

    2007-10-01

    This ecological risk assessment (ERA) is a supplement to the human health risk assessment (HRA) for the Explosive Waste Treatment Facility (EWTF). The EWTF is located near the center of Site 300 in a small, isolated canyon (see Figures 2 through 6 in the text). The ERA described in detail in Appendix B was prepared in accordance with guidance on currently accepted practice provided by the Human and Ecological Risk Division (HERD) at the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DSTC) of the State of California Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA) in Sacramento, California. The technical basis for this ERA is an analysis that involves a series of screening calculations to assess each of 21 contaminants of potential ecological concern (CPECs) for its potential to produce an adverse ecological impact in particular wildlife species, including vegetation, considered representative receptors of ecological interest (RREI) in the trophic levels of the food network at Site 300. This series of screening calculations is designed to illustrate whether CPECs identified as being of possible consequence in the most conservative screening calculation actually may be of lesser or no significance when more information is considered in subsequent screening calculations.

  18. Ecological risk assessment, prediction, and assessing risk predictions.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Mark

    2011-11-01

    Ecological risk assessment embodied in an adaptive management framework is becoming the global standard approach for formally assessing and managing the ecological risks of technology and development. Ensuring the continual improvement of ecological risk assessment approaches is partly achieved through the dissemination of not only the types of risk assessment approaches used, but also their efficacy. While there is an increasing body of literature describing the results of general comparisons between alternate risk assessment methods and models, there is a paucity of literature that post hoc assesses the performance of specific predictions based on an assessment of risk and the effectiveness of the particular model used to predict the risk. This is especially the case where risk assessments have been used to grant consent or approval for the construction of major infrastructure projects. While postconstruction environmental monitoring is increasingly commonplace, it is not common for a postconstruction assessment of the accuracy and performance of the ecological risk assessment and underpinning model to be undertaken. Without this "assessment of the assessment," it is difficult for other practitioners to gain insight into the performance of the approach and models used and therefore, as argued here, this limits the rate of improvement of risk assessment approaches.

  19. Integrating toxicogenomics into human health risk assessment: lessons learned from the benzo[a]pyrene case study.

    PubMed

    Chepelev, Nikolai L; Moffat, Ivy D; Labib, Sarah; Bourdon-Lacombe, Julie; Kuo, Byron; Buick, Julie K; Lemieux, France; Malik, Amal I; Halappanavar, Sabina; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole L

    2015-01-01

    The use of short-term toxicogenomic tests to predict cancer (or other health effects) offers considerable advantages relative to traditional toxicity testing methods. The advantages include increased throughput, increased mechanistic data, and significantly reduced costs. However, precisely how toxicogenomics data can be used to support human health risk assessment (RA) is unclear. In a companion paper ( Moffat et al. 2014 ), we present a case study evaluating the utility of toxicogenomics in the RA of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a known human carcinogen. The case study is meant as a proof-of-principle exercise using a well-established mode of action (MOA) that impacts multiple tissues, which should provide a best case example. We found that toxicogenomics provided rich mechanistic data applicable to hazard identification, dose-response analysis, and quantitative RA of BaP. Based on this work, here we share some useful lessons for both research and RA, and outline our perspective on how toxicogenomics can benefit RA in the short- and long-term. Specifically, we focus on (1) obtaining biologically relevant data that are readily suitable for establishing an MOA for toxicants, (2) examining the human relevance of an MOA from animal testing, and (3) proposing appropriate quantitative values for RA. We describe our envisioned strategy on how toxicogenomics can become a tool in RA, especially when anchored to other short-term toxicity tests (apical endpoints) to increase confidence in the proposed MOA, and emphasize the need for additional studies on other MOAs to define the best practices in the application of toxicogenomics in RA.

  20. Human Health Risk Assessment of 16 Priority Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils of Chattanooga, Tennessee, USA

    PubMed Central

    Hussar, Erika; Richards, Sean; Lin, Zhi-Qing; Dixon, Robert P.; Johnson, Kevin A.

    2012-01-01

    South Chattanooga has been home to foundries, coke furnaces, chemical, wood preserving, tanning and textile plants for over 100 years. Most of the industries were in place before any significant development of residential property in the area. During the 1950s and 1960s, however, the government purchased inexpensive property and constructed public housing projects in South Chattanooga. Many neighborhoods that surround the Chattanooga Creek were previous dumping grounds for industry. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) comprised the largest component of the dumping and airborne industrial emissions. To address the human exposure to these PAHs, a broad study of South Chattanooga soil contaminant concentrations was conducted on 20 sites across the city. Sixteen priority pollutant PAHs were quantified at two depths (0-10cm and 10-20cm) and compared against reference site soils, as well as to soils from industrially-impacted areas in Germany, China, and the US. From these data, the probability that people would encounter levels exceeding EPA Residential Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRG) was calculated. Results indicate that South Chattanooga soils have relatively high concentrations of total PAHs, specifically Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). These high concentrations of B[a]P were somewhat ubiquitous in South Chattanooga. Indeed, there is a high probability (88%) of encountering soil in South Chattanooga that exceeds the EPA PRG for B[a]P. However, there is a low probability (15%) of encountering a site with ∑PAHs exceeding EPA PRG guidelines. PMID:23243323

  1. Determination of the bioaccessibility of chromium in Glasgow soil and the implications for human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Broadway, Andrew; Cave, Mark R; Wragg, Joanna; Fordyce, Fiona M; Bewley, Richard J F; Graham, Margaret C; Ngwenya, Bryne T; Farmer, John G

    2010-12-15

    The Unified Bioaccessibility Method (UBM), which simulates the fluids of the human gastrointestinal tract, was used to assess the oral bioaccessibility of Cr in 27 Glasgow soils. These included several contaminated with Cr(VI), the most toxic form of Cr, from the past disposal of chromite ore processing residue (COPR). The extraction was employed in conjunction with the subsequent determination of the bioaccessible Cr by ICP-OES and Cr(VI) by the diphenylcarbazide complexation colorimetric procedure. In addition, Cr(III)-containing species were determined by (i) HPLC-ICP-MS and (ii) ICP-OES analysis of gel electrophoretically separated components of colloidal and dissolved fractions from centrifugal ultrafiltration of extracts. Similar analytical procedures were applied to the determination of Cr and its species in extracts of the <10 μm fraction of soils subjected to a simulated lung fluid test to assess the inhalation bioaccessibility of Cr. The oral bioaccessibility of Cr was typically greater by a factor of 1.5 in the 'stomach' (pH ~1.2) compared with the 'stomach+intestine' (pH ~6.3) simulation. On average, excluding two COPR-contaminated soil samples, the oral bioaccessibility ('stomach') was 5% of total soil Cr and, overall, similar to the soil Cr(VI) concentration. Chromium(VI) was not detected in the extracts, a consequence of pH- and soil organic matter-mediated reduction in the 'stomach' to Cr(III)-containing species, identified as predominantly Cr(III)-humic complexes. Insertion of oral bioaccessible fraction data into the SNIFFER human health risk assessment model identified site-specific assessment criteria (for residential land without plant uptake) that were exceeded by the soil total Cr (3680 mg kg(-1)) and Cr(VI) (1485 mg kg(-1)) concentration at only the most COPR-Cr(VI)-contaminated location. However, the presence of measurable Cr(VI) in the <10 μm fraction of the two most highly Cr(VI)-contaminated soils demonstrated that inhalation of Cr

  2. Risk assessment for safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadlock, Charles R.; Glaser, Peter E.

    The application of probabilistic risk-assessment techniques to space missions is discussed, with a focus on the International Space Station. The types of hazards likely to be caused by random events; design, operational, and management errors; and intentional intervention are examined along with their secondary effects; and the top-level safety requirements defined by NASA are considered. It is suggested that such qualitative stipulations be supplemented with more quantitative measures such as used in the nuclear-power industry; the major features of such quantitative methods are reviewed.

  3. Assessment of indirect human exposure to environmental sources of nickel: oral exposure and risk characterization for systemic effects.

    PubMed

    De Brouwere, Katleen; Buekers, Jurgen; Cornelis, Christa; Schlekat, Christian E; Oller, Adriana R

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the indirect human exposure to Ni via the oral route for the regional scale in the EU, together with a method to assess additional local exposure from industrial emissions. The approach fills a gap in the generic REACH guidance which is inadequate for assessing indirect environmental exposure of metals. Estimates of regional scale Ni dietary intake were derived from Ni dietary studies performed in the EU. Typical and Reasonable Worst Case dietary Ni intakes for the general population in the EU were below the oral Derived No Effect Level (DNEL) of Ni sulfate for systemic effects. Estimates for the Ni dietary intake at the local scale take into account the influence of aerial Ni deposition and transfer from soil to crops grown near industrial plants emitting Ni. The additional dietary exposure via this local contribution was small. Despite the use of conservative parameters for these processes, this method may underestimate dietary exposure around older industrial sites because REACH guidance does not account for historical soil contamination. Nevertheless, the method developed here can also be used as a screening tool for community-based risk assessment, as it accounts for historical soil pollution. Nickel exposure via drinking water was derived from databases on Ni tap water quality. A small proportion of the EU population (<5%) is likely to be exposed to tap water exceeding the EU standard (20 μg Ni/l). Taking into account the relative gastrointestinal absorption of Ni from water (30%) versus from solid matrices (5%), water intake constitutes, after dietary intake, the second most important pathway for oral Ni intake. Incidental ingestion of Ni from soil/dust at the regional scale, and also at the local scale, was low in comparison with dietary intake.

  4. Microcystin-LR bioaccumulation and depuration kinetics in lettuce and arugula: Human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro-Araújo, Micheline Kézia; Chia, Mathias Ahii; Arruda-Neto, João Dias de Toledo; Tornisielo, Valdemar Luiz; Vilca, Franz Zirena; Bittencourt-Oliveira, Maria do Carmo

    2016-10-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is one of the most toxic and common microcystins (MCs) variant found in aquatic ecosystems. Little is known about the possibility of recovering microcystins contaminated agricultural crops. The objectives of this study were to determine the bioaccumulation and depuration kinetics of MC-LR in leaf tissues of lettuce and arugula, and estimate the total daily intake (ToDI) of MC-LR via contaminated vegetables by humans. Arugula and lettuce were irrigated with contaminated water having 5 and 10μgL(-1) of MC-LR for 7days (bioaccumulation), and subsequently, with uncontaminated water for 7days (depuration). Quantification of MC-LR was performed by LC-MS/MS. The one-compartment biokinetic model was employed for MC-LR bioaccumulation and depuration data analysis. MC-LR was only accumulated in lettuce. After 7days of irrigation with uncontaminated water, over 25% of accumulated MC-LR was still retained in leaf tissues of plants treated with 10μgL(-1) MC-LR. Total daily toxin intake by adult consumers (60kg-bw) exceeded the 0.04μgMC-LRkg(-1) limit recommended by WHO. Bioaccumulation was found to be linearly proportional to the exposure concentration of the toxin, increasing over time; and estimated to become saturated after 30days of uninterrupted exposure. On the other hand, MC-LR depuration was less efficient at higher exposure concentrations. This is because biokinetic half-life calculations gave 2.9 and 3.7days for 5 and 10μgL(-1) MC-LR treatments, which means 29-37days are required to eliminate the toxin. For the first time, our results demonstrated the possibility of MC-LR decontamination of lettuce plants.

  5. Risk assessment in travel medicine.

    PubMed

    Leggat, Peter A

    2006-01-01

    Risk assessment is an integral part of pre-travel and post- assessment. Risk assessment largely determines what health and safety advice and interventions are given within the relevant prevailing travel health guidelines. Risk assessment needs time and depends on information, including that given by the traveller. Risk assessment also needs to be documented. Risk assessment of the traveller preferably starts before they enter the consulting room, where travellers may complete a pre-travel health questionnaire. Armed with this information, risk assessment may be assisted by access to computerised travel health databases and the published literature. Experience of travel to the destination may also assist in risk assessment and the tour operator, overseas employer or agency, the traveller or even the travel health advisers themselves may provide this information.

  6. Risk assessment and risk management of mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Risk assessment is the process of quantifying the magnitude and exposure, or probability, of a harmful effect to individuals or populations from certain agents or activities. Here, we summarize the four steps of risk assessment: hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Risk assessments using these principles have been conducted on the major mycotoxins (aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone) by various regulatory agencies for the purpose of setting food safety guidelines. We critically evaluate the impact of these risk assessment parameters on the estimated global burden of the associated diseases as well as the impact of regulatory measures on food supply and international trade. Apart from the well-established risk posed by aflatoxins, many uncertainties still exist about risk assessments for the other major mycotoxins, often reflecting a lack of epidemiological data. Differences exist in the risk management strategies and in the ways different governments impose regulations and technologies to reduce levels of mycotoxins in the food-chain. Regulatory measures have very little impact on remote rural and subsistence farming communities in developing countries, in contrast to developed countries, where regulations are strictly enforced to reduce and/or remove mycotoxin contamination. However, in the absence of the relevant technologies or the necessary infrastructure, we highlight simple intervention practices to reduce mycotoxin contamination in the field and/or prevent mycotoxin formation during storage.

  7. Ultraviolet Radiation: Human Exposure and Health Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenkate, Thomas D.

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of human exposure to ultraviolet radiation and associated health effects as well as risk estimates for acute and chronic conditions resulting from such exposure. Demonstrates substantial reductions in health risk that can be achieved through preventive actions. Also includes a risk assessment model for skin cancer. Contains 36…

  8. Potential human health risks from toxic metals via mangrove snail consumption and their ecological risk assessments in the habitat sediment from Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wan Hee; Yap, Chee Kong

    2015-09-01

    Samples of mangrove snails Nerita lineata and surface sediments were collected from nine geographical sampling sites in Peninsular Malaysia to determine the concentrations of eight metals. For the soft tissues, the ranges of metal concentrations (μg g(-1) dry weight (dw)) were 3.49-9.02 for As, 0.69-6.25 for Cd, 6.33-25.82 for Cu, 0.71-6.53 for Cr, 221-1285 for Fe, 1.03-50.47 for Pb, and 102.7-130.7 for Zn while Hg as 4.00-64.0 μg kg(-1) dw(-1). For sediments, the ranges were 21.81-59.49 for As, 1.11-2.00 for Cd, 5.59-28.71 for Cu, 18.93-62.91 for Cr, 12973-48916 for Fe, 25.36-172.57 for Pb, and 29.35-130.34 for Zn while for Hg as 2.66-312 μg kg(-1) dw(-1). To determine the ecological risks on the surface habitat sediments, sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), the geochemical indices, and potential ecological risk index (PERI) were used. Based on the SQGs, all the metals investigated were most unlikely to cause any adverse effects. Based on geoaccumulation index and enrichment factor, the sediments were also not polluted by the studied metals. The PERI values based on As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb and Zn in this study were found as 'low ecological risk'. In order to assess the potential health risks, the estimated daily intakes (EDI) of snails were found to be all lower than the RfD guidelines for all metals, except for Pb in some sites investigated. Furthermore, the calculated target hazard quotients (THQ) were found to be less than 1. However, the calculated total target hazard quotients (TTHQ) from all sites were found to be more than 1 for high level consumers except KPPuteh. Therefore, moderate amount of intake is advisable to avoid human health risks to the consumers.

  9. Risk assessment for carnitine.

    PubMed

    Hathcock, John N; Shao, Andrew

    2006-10-01

    Carnitine is a conditionally essential amino acid-like compound involved in the transport of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria during the beta-oxidation process. Carnitine has become an increasingly popular ingredient in dietary supplements, especially weight loss and some sports nutrition products. A number of clinical trials have been conducted examining the effect of carnitine supplementation on weight loss and energy balance. Regarding safety, systematic evaluation of the research designs and data do not provide a basis for risk assessment and the usual safe upper level of intake (UL) derived from it unless the newer methods described as the observed safe level (OSL) or highest observed intake (HOI) are utilized. The OSL risk assessment method indicates that the evidence of safety is strong at intakes up to 2000mg/day l-carnitine equivalents for chronic supplementation, and this level is identified as the OSL. Although much higher levels have been tested without adverse effects and may be safe, the data for intakes above 2000mg/day are not sufficient for a confident conclusion of long-term safety.

  10. Assessment and management of human health risk from toxic metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban stormwater arising from anthropogenic activities and traffic congestion.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yukun; Liu, An; Egodawatta, Prasanna; McGree, James; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2017-02-01

    Toxic metals (TMs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban stormwater pose risk to human health, thereby constraining its reuse potential. Based on the hypothesis that stormwater quality is primarily influenced by anthropogenic activities and traffic congestion, the primary focus of the research study was to analyse the impacts on human health risk from TMs and PAHs in urban stormwater and thereby develop a quantitative risk assessment model. The study found that anthropogenic activities and traffic congestion exert influence on the risk posed by TMs and PAHs in stormwater from commercial and residential areas. Motor vehicle related businesses (FVS) and traffic congestion (TC) were identified as two parameters which need to be included as independent variables to improve the model. Based on the study outcomes, approaches for mitigating the risk associated with TMs and PAHs in urban stormwater are discussed. Additionally, a roadmap is presented for the assessment and management of the risk arising from these pollutants. The study outcomes are expected to contribute to reducing the human health risk associated urban stormwater pollution and thereby enhance its reuse potential.

  11. Advances in stalking risk assessment.

    PubMed

    McEwan, Troy E; Pathé, Michele; Ogloff, James R P

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, forensic mental health has become more concerned with the concepts of violence prevention, management, and treatment. The development of specialist tools to aid in the assessment of a range of risks reflects this concern. This article explores contemporary thinking on violence risk assessment and how this knowledge can be applied to the relatively newer field of stalking risk assessment. The role of risk state and risk status are discussed, in addition to the way that standard structured professional judgment procedures need to be adapted to reflect the variety of risks present in stalking situations. The authors go on to describe the development and format of the Stalking Risk Profile, a set of structured professional judgment guidelines for assessing risk in stalkers. Suggestions are made for future research to enhance knowledge and improve practice in the field of stalking risk assessment.

  12. A comparison of risk modeling tools and a case study for human health risk assessment of volatile organic compounds in contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Han, Lu; Qian, Linbo; Yan, Jingchun; Liu, Rongqin; Du, Yihua; Chen, Mengfang

    2016-01-01

    In order to promote the risk-based strategy in the investigation, assessment, and remediation of Chinese brownfield sites, the Health and Environmental Risk Assessment (HERA) software was developed. It is vital to validate the HERA model and compare the inter-model differences of HERA model against other available risk assessment tools. This paper discusses the similarities and differences between the Risk-Based Corrective Action (RBCA) Tool Kit and the HERA model by evaluating the health risk of organic contaminated groundwater sources for a chemical works in China for the first time. Consequently, the HERA and RBCA models yielded the identical results for Site-Specific Assessment Criteria (SSAC) under the commercial redevelopment. However, the HERA estimated more conservative and stringent SSACs under the residential scenario based on the different exposure calculations. The inhalation of indoor vapors was the most predominated exposure pathway for all the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) determined using the RBCA and HERA models. According to the HERA model, inhalation of chloroform may cause the highest unacceptable carcinogenic risk at 2.31 × 10(-3) under the residential scenario. Therefore, it is recommended that a risk-based remedial strategy be developed to ensure the safe and sustainable redevelopment of the site.

  13. Human exposure and risk assessment associated with mercury contamination in artisanal gold mining areas in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Castilhos, Zuleica; Rodrigues-Filho, Saulo; Cesar, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Ana Paula; Villas-Bôas, Roberto; de Jesus, Iracina; Lima, Marcelo; Faial, Kleber; Miranda, Antônio; Brabo, Edilson; Beinhoff, Christian; Santos, Elisabeth

    2015-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination is an issue of concern in the Amazon region due to potential health effects associated with Hg exposure in artisanal gold mining areas. The study presents a human health risk assessment associated with Hg vapor inhalation and MeHg-contaminated fish ingestion, as well as Hg determination in urine, blood, and hair, of human populations (about 325 miners and 321 non-miners) from two gold mining areas in the Brazilian Amazon (São Chico and Creporizinho, Pará State). In São Chico and Creporizinho, 73 fish specimens of 13 freshwater species, and 161 specimens of 11 species, were collected for total Hg determination, respectively. The hazard quotient (HQ) is a risk indicator which defines the ratio of the exposure level and the toxicological reference dose and was applied to determine the threat of MeHg exposure. The mean Hg concentrations in fish from São Chico and Creporizinho were 0.83 ± 0.43 and 0.36 ± 0.33 μg/g, respectively. More than 60 and 22 % of fish collected in São Chico and Creporizinho, respectively, were above the Hg limit (0.5 μg/g) recommended by WHO for human consumption. For all sampling sites, HQ resulted from 1.5 to 28.5, except for the reference area. In Creporizinho, the values of HQ are close to 2 for most sites, whereas in São Chico, there is a hot spot of MeHg contamination in fish (A2-São Chico Reservoir) with the highest risk level (HQ = 28) associated with its human consumption. Mean Hg concentrations in urine, blood, and hair samples indicated that the miners group (in São Chico: urine = 17.37 μg/L; blood = 27.74 μg/L; hair = 4.50 μg/g and in Creporizinho: urine = 13.75 μg/L; blood = 25.23 μg/L; hair: 4.58 μg/g) was more exposed to mercury compared to non-miners (in São Chico: urine = 5.73 μg/L; blood = 16.50 μg/L; hair = 3.16 μg/g and in Creporizinho: urine = 3.91 μg/L; blood = 21.04 μg/L, hair = 1.88 μg/g). These high Hg levels (found

  14. Global ozone and air quality: a multi-model assessment of risks to human health and crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellingsen, K.; Gauss, M.; van Dingenen, R.; Dentener, F. J.; Emberson, L.; Fiore, A. M.; Schultz, M. G.; Stevenson, D. S.; Ashmore, M. R.; Atherton, C. S.; Bergmann, D. J.; Bey, I.; Butler, T.; Drevet, J.; Eskes, H.; Hauglustaine, D. A.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Horowitz, L. W.; Krol, M.; Lamarque, J. F.; Lawrence, M. G.; van Noije, T.; Pyle, J.; Rast, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Savage, N.; Strahan, S.; Sudo, K.; Szopa, S.; Wild, O.

    2008-02-01

    Within ACCENT, a European Network of Excellence, eighteen atmospheric models from the U.S., Europe, and Japan calculated present (2000) and future (2030) concentrations of ozone at the Earth's surface with hourly temporal resolution. Comparison of model results with surface ozone measurements in 14 world regions indicates that levels and seasonality of surface ozone in North America and Europe are characterized well by global models, with annual average biases typically within 5-10 nmol/mol. However, comparison with rather sparse observations over some regions suggest that most models overestimate annual ozone by 15-20 nmol/mol in some locations. Two scenarios from the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) and one from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (IPCC SRES) have been implemented in the models. This study focuses on changes in near-surface ozone and their effects on human health and vegetation. Different indices and air quality standards are used to characterise air quality. We show that often the calculated changes in the different indices are closely inter-related. Indices using lower thresholds are more consistent between the models, and are recommended for global model analysis. Our analysis indicates that currently about two-thirds of the regions considered do not meet health air quality standards, whereas only 2-4 regions remain below the threshold. Calculated air quality exceedances show moderate deterioration by 2030 if current emissions legislation is followed and slight improvements if current emissions reduction technology is used optimally. For the "business as usual" scenario severe air quality problems are predicted. We show that model simulations of air quality indices are particularly sensitive to how well ozone is represented, and improved accuracy is needed for future projections. Additional measurements are needed to allow a more quantitative assessment of the risks to

  15. Assessing potential health risks to fish and humans using mercury concentrations in inland fish from across western Canada and the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lepak, Jesse M; Hooten, Mevin B.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Tate, Michael T.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Willacker, James J.; Jackson, Allyson K.; Evers, David C.; Wiener, James G.; Pritz, Colleen Flanagan; Davis, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Fish represent high quality protein and nutrient sources, but Hg contamination is ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems and can pose health risks to fish and their consumers. Potential health risks posed to fish and humans by Hg contamination in fish were assessed in western Canada and the United States. A large compilation of inland fish Hg concentrations was evaluated in terms of potential health risk to the fish themselves, health risk to predatory fish that consume Hg contaminated fish, and to humans that consume Hg contaminated fish. The probability that a fish collected from a given location would exceed a Hg concentration benchmark relevant to a health risk was calculated. These exceedance probabilities and their associated uncertainties were characterized for fish of multiple size classes at multiple health-relevant benchmarks. The approach was novel and allowed for the assessment of the potential for deleterious health effects in fish and humans associated with Hg contamination in fish across this broad study area. Exceedance probabilities were relatively common at low Hg concentration benchmarks, particularly for fish in larger size classes. Specifically, median exceedances for the largest size classes of fish evaluated at the lowest Hg concentration benchmarks were 0.73 (potential health risks to fish themselves), 0.90 (potential health risk to predatory fish that consume Hg contaminated fish), and 0.97 (potential for restricted fish consumption by humans), but diminished to essentially zero at the highest benchmarks and smallest fish size classes. Exceedances of benchmarks are likely to have deleterious health effects on fish and limit recommended amounts of fish humans consume in western Canada and the United States. Results presented here are not intended to subvert or replace local fish Hg data or consumption advice, but provide a basis for identifying areas of potential health risk and developing more focused future research and monitoring efforts.

  16. Defense Programs Transportation Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, D.B.

    1994-08-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology used in a probabilistic transportation risk assessment conducted to assess the probabilities and consequences of inadvertent dispersal of radioactive materials arising from severe transportation accidents. The model was developed for the Defense Program Transportation Risk Assessment (DPTRA) study. The analysis incorporates several enhancements relative to previous risk assessments of hazardous materials transportation including newly-developed statistics on the frequencies and severities of tractor semitrailer accidents and detailed route characterization using the 1990 Census data.

  17. Fact Sheet: Assessing Risks from Flame Retardants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's assessing and managing risk programs address pollution prevention, risk assessment, hazard and exposure assessment and/or characterization, and risk management for chemicals substances in commercial use.

  18. Human health risk assessment of lead, manganese and copper from scrapped car paint dust from automobile workshops in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nduka, John Kanayochukwu; Onyenezi Amuka, John Paul; Onwuka, Jude Chinedu; Udowelle, Nnaemeka Arinze; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    2016-10-01

    The economic downturn in Nigeria and Structural Adjustment Programme led to the flooding of Nigerian market with imported used automobiles. Most of these vehicles needed refurbishing and reworking. The present study is a human health risk assessment of metal exposure resulting from reworking of imported used vehicles in Nigeria. Scrap paint dusts from 56 Japanese made cars were collected from 8 different mechanic villages (workshops A-H] in Southeastern Nigeria. Scrap paints were homogenized, mixed, divided into fine particles and digested by standard method. The filtrates were assayed of lead, manganese and copper with atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Workshop B has the highest concentration of Pb (4.26 ± 0.93). Manganese in workshops A and F were (3.31 ± 0.85) and (3.04 ± 0.47) respectively and were higher than the levels from workshops C, B, D, G and H. Copper in workshop D (7.11 ± 0.21) was significantly greater than the other workshops. The highest hazard quotient (HQ) through ingestion, inhalation and dermal exposures in adults were 9.44E-05 (workshop B), 4.20E-01 (workshop B) and 1.08E-05 (workshop D) respectively. The highest values for HQ through ingestion, inhalation and dermal in children were 8.82E-04, 7.61E-01 and 2.86E-05 all in workshop B respectively. For children, the highest carcinogenic risk levels were 7.05E-08, 6.09E-05 and 2.29E-10 for ingestion, inhalation and dermal exposures respectively. In adults, the carcinogenic risk levels were 7.55E-09, 3.39E-05 and 8.67E-10 for ingestion, inhalation and dermal exposures respectively. Chronic exposure to scrap car paint dusts may be of significant public health importance in Nigeria as this may add to the body burden of some heavy metals.

  19. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  20. Risk assessment for halogenated solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    A recent development in the cancer risk area is the advent of biologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models. These models allow for the incorporation of biological and mechanistic data into the risk assessment process. These advances will not only improve the risk assessment process for halogenated solvents but will stimulate and guide basic research in the biological area.

  1. La Conchita Landslide Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropp, A.; Johnson, L.; Magnusen, W.; Hitchcock, C. S.

    2009-12-01

    Following the disastrous landslide in La Conchita in 2005 that resulted in ten deaths, the State of California selected our team to prepare a risk assessment for a committee of key stakeholders. The stakeholders represented the State of California, Ventura County, members of the La Conchita community, the railroad, and the upslope ranch owner (where the slide originated); a group with widely varying views and interests. Our team was charged with characterizing the major hazards, developing a series of mitigation concepts, evaluating the benefits and costs of mitigation, and gathering stakeholder input throughout the process. Two unique elements of the study were the methodologies utilized for the consequence assessment and for the decision-making framework. La Conchita is exposed to multiple slope hazards, each with differing geographical distributions, as well as depth and velocity characteristics. Three consequence matrices were developed so that the potential financial losses, structural vulnerabilities, and human safety exposure could be evaluated. The matrices utilized semi-quantitative loss evaluations (both financial and life safety) based on a generalized understanding of likely vulnerability and hazard characteristics. The model provided a quantitative estimate of cumulative losses over a 50-year period, including losses of life based on FEMA evaluation criteria. Conceptual mitigation options and loss estimates were developed to provide a range of risk management solutions that were feasible from a cost-benefit standpoint. A decision tree approach was adopted to focus on fundamental risk management questions rather than on specific outcomes since the committee did not have a consensus view on the preferred solution. These questions included: 1. Over what time period can risks be tolerated before implementation of decisions? 2. Whose responsibility is it to identify a workable risk management solution? 3. Who will own the project? The decision tree

  2. Probabilistic human health risk assessment of degradation-related chemical mixtures in heterogeneous aquifers: Risk statistics, hot spots, and preferential channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henri, Christopher V.; Fernández-Garcia, Daniel; Barros, Felipe P. J.

    2015-06-01

    The increasing presence of toxic chemicals released in the subsurface has led to a rapid growth of social concerns and the need to develop and employ models that can predict the impact of groundwater contamination on human health risk under uncertainty. Monitored natural attenuation is a common remediation action in many contamination cases. However, natural attenuation can lead to the production of daughter species of distinct toxicity that may pose challenges in pollution management strategies. The actual threat that these contaminants pose to human health depends on the interplay between the complex structure of the geological media and the toxicity of each pollutant byproduct. This work addresses human health risk for chemical mixtures resulting from the sequential degradation of a contaminant (such as a chlorinated solvent) under uncertainty through high-resolution three-dimensional numerical simulations. We systematically investigate the interaction between aquifer heterogeneity, flow connectivity, contaminant injection model, and chemical toxicity in the probabilistic characterization of health risk. We illustrate how chemical-specific travel times control the regime of the expected risk and its corresponding uncertainties. Results indicate conditions where preferential flow paths can favor the reduction of the overall risk of the chemical mixture. The overall human risk response to aquifer connectivity is shown to be nontrivial for multispecies transport. This nontriviality is a result of the interaction between aquifer heterogeneity and chemical toxicity. To quantify the joint effect of connectivity and toxicity in health risk, we propose a toxicity-based Damköhler number. Furthermore, we provide a statistical characterization in terms of low-order moments and the probability density function of the individual and total risks.

  3. FRAMEWORK FOR INORGANIC METALS RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA has prepared a framework to guide risk assessors in assessing human and ecological risks of inorganic metals. Metals and metal compounds have properties not generally encountered with organic chemicals. For example, metals are neither created nor destroyed by biological a...

  4. Review of assessments of the human health risk associated with the use of antimicrobial agents in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Bailar, John C; Travers, Karin

    2002-06-01

    To our knowledge, no comprehensive risk assessment of agricultural uses of antimicrobial agents has been published. The published risk assessments of antimicrobial use in farm settings are all subject to multiple, serious limitations in scope, including (1) limitation to one species of microorganism; (2) limitation to one or a very few related antimicrobial agents; (3) limitation to a single outcome (death, hospital days, number of illnesses, etc.); (4) limitation to one species of farm animal (e.g., chicken or swine); and (5) limitation to therapeutic use, despite reason for concern about misstated, off-label, or illegal use. In addition, all of the risk assessments reviewed overlooked important issues by accepting 2 further limitations: (6) limiting the scope of the analysis to what has already happened and ignoring the effects of continuing the practices of recent years; and (7) examining only the effects on the species of microorganism that was initially affected and ignoring the cross-species spread of resistance by plasmid transfer. After our review of the risk assessments now available, we propose a comprehensive scheme for organizing existing knowledge and dealing with critical gaps.

  5. EVALUATION AND INTERPRETATION OF NEURODEVELOPMENTAL ENDPOINTS FOR HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT -- POSITIVE CONTROL STUDIES, NORMAL VARIABILITY AND STATISTICAL ISSUES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    ILSI Research Foundation/Risk Science Institute convened an expert working group to assess the lessons learned from the implementation of the EPA Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Guideline and provide guidance for future use. The group prepared manuscripts in five areas: public ...

  6. INTEGRATED RISK ASSESSMENT - RESULTS FROM AN INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The WHO International Programme on Chemical Safety and international partners have developed a framework for integrated assessment of human health and ecological risks and four case studies. An international workshop was convened to consider how ecological and health risk assess...

  7. Human health risk assessment of the mixture of pharmaceuticals in Dutch drinking water and its sources based on frequent monitoring data.

    PubMed

    Houtman, Corine J; Kroesbergen, Jan; Lekkerkerker-Teunissen, Karin; van der Hoek, Jan Peter

    2014-10-15

    The presence of pharmaceuticals in drinking water is a topic of concern. Previous risk assessments indicate that their low concentrations are very unlikely to pose risks to human health, however often conclusions had to be based on small datasets and mixture effects were not included. The objectives of this study were to a) investigate if pharmaceuticals in surface and polder water penetrate in drinking water, b) assess the lifelong exposure of consumers to pharmaceuticals via drinking water and c) assess the possible individual and mixture health risks associated with this exposure. To fulfill these aims, a 2-year set of 4-weekly monitoring data of pharmaceuticals was used from three drinking water production plants. The 42 pharmaceuticals that were monitored were selected according to their consumption volume, earlier detection, toxicity and representation of the most relevant therapeutic classes. Lifelong exposures were calculated from concentrations and compared with therapeutic doses. Health risks were assessed by benchmarking concentrations with provisional guideline values. Combined risks of mixtures of pharmaceuticals were estimated using the concept of Concentration Addition. The lifelong exposure to pharmaceuticals via drinking water was calculated to be extremely low, i.e. a few mg, in total corresponding to <10% of the dose a patient is administered on one day. The risk of adverse health effects appeared to be negligibly low. Application of Concentration Addition confirmed this for the mixture of pharmaceuticals simultaneously present. The investigated treatment plants appeared to reduce the (already negligible) risk up to 80%. The large available monitoring dataset enabled the performance of a realistic risk assessment. It showed that working with maximum instead of average concentrations may overestimate the risk considerably.

  8. Human Health, Environmental and Economic Assessments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Human health and environmental assessments characterize health and environmental risks associated with exposure to pollution. Economic assessments evaluate the cost and economic impact of a policy or regulation & can estimate economic benefits.

  9. Site-Dependent Reference Point Microindentation Complements Clinical Measures for Improved Fracture Risk Assessment at the Human Femoral Neck.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Thomas; Coutts, Louise V; D'Angelo, Stefania; Dunlop, Douglas G; Oreffo, Richard O C; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas C; Thurner, Phillipp J

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to traditional approaches to fracture risk assessment using clinical risk factors and bone mineral density (BMD), a new technique, reference point microindentation (RPI), permits direct assessment of bone quality; in vivo tibial RPI measurements appear to discriminate patients with a fragility fracture from controls. However, it is unclear how this relates to the site of the most clinically devastating fracture, the femoral neck, and whether RPI provides information complementary to that from existing assessments. Femoral neck samples were collected at surgery after low-trauma hip fracture (n = 46; 17 male; aged 83 [interquartile range 77-87] years) and compared, using RPI (Biodent Hfc), with 16 cadaveric control samples, free from bone disease (7 male; aged 65 [IQR 61-74] years). A subset of fracture patients returned for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) assessment (Hologic Discovery) and, for the controls, a micro-computed tomography setup (HMX, Nikon) was used to replicate DXA scans. The indentation depth was greater in femoral neck samples from osteoporotic fracture patients than controls (p < 0.001), which persisted with adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and height (p < 0.001) but was site-dependent, being less pronounced in the inferomedial region. RPI demonstrated good discrimination between fracture and controls using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.79 to 0.89), and a model combining RPI to clinical risk factors or BMD performed better than the individual components (AUC = 0.88 to 0.99). In conclusion, RPI at the femoral neck discriminated fracture cases from controls independent of BMD and traditional risk factors but dependent on location. The clinical RPI device may, therefore, supplement risk assessment and requires testing in prospective cohorts and comparison between the clinically accessible tibia and the femoral neck. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral

  10. Information needs for risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    DeRosa, C.T.; Choudhury, H.; Schoeny, R.S.

    1990-12-31

    Risk assessment can be thought of as a conceptual approach to bridge the gap between the available data and the ultimate goal of characterizing the risk or hazard associated with a particular environmental problem. To lend consistency to and to promote quality in the process, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published Guidelines for Risk Assessment of Carcinogenicity, Developmental Toxicity, Germ Cell Mutagenicity and Exposure Assessment, and Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures. The guidelines provide a framework for organizing the information, evaluating data, and for carrying out the risk assessment in a scientifically plausible manner. In the absence of sufficient scientific information or when abundant data are available, the guidelines provide alternative methodologies that can be employed in the risk assessment. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Probabilistic Risk Assessment: A Bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Probabilistic risk analysis is an integration of failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), fault tree analysis and other techniques to assess the potential for failure and to find ways to reduce risk. This bibliography references 160 documents in the NASA STI Database that contain the major concepts, probabilistic risk assessment, risk and probability theory, in the basic index or major subject terms, An abstract is included with most citations, followed by the applicable subject terms.

  12. Risk assessment of carcinogens in food

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, Susan

    2010-03-01

    Approaches for the risk assessment of carcinogens in food have evolved as scientific knowledge has advanced. Early methods allowed little more than hazard identification and an indication of carcinogenic potency. Evaluation of the modes of action of carcinogens and their broad division into genotoxic and epigenetic (non-genotoxic, non-DNA reactive) carcinogens have played an increasing role in determining the approach followed and provide possibilities for more detailed risk characterisation, including provision of quantitative estimates of risk. Reliance on experimental animal data for the majority of risk assessments and the fact that human exposures to dietary carcinogens are often orders of magnitude below doses used in experimental studies has provided a fertile ground for discussion and diverging views on the most appropriate way to offer risk assessment advice. Approaches used by national and international bodies differ, with some offering numerical estimates of potential risks to human health, while others express considerable reservations about the validity of quantitative approaches requiring extrapolation of dose-response data below the observed range and instead offer qualitative advice. Recognising that qualitative advice alone does not provide risk managers with information on which to prioritise the need for risk management actions, a 'margin of exposure' approach for substances that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic has been developed, which is now being used by the World Health Organization and the European Food Safety Authority. This review describes the evolution of risk assessment advice on carcinogens and discusses examples of ways in which carcinogens in food have been assessed in Europe.

  13. Assessment of Industry-Induced Urban Human Health Risks Related to Benzo[a]pyrene based on a Multimedia Fugacity Model: Case Study of Nanjing, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Linyu; Song, Huimin; Wang, Yan; Yin, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Large amounts of organic pollutants emitted from industries have accumulated and caused serious human health risks, especially in urban areas with rapid industrialization. This paper focused on the carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) from industrial effluent and gaseous emissions, and established a multi-pathway exposure model based on a Level IV multimedia fugacity model to analyze the human health risks in a city that has undergone rapid industrialization. In this study, GIS tools combined with land-use data was introduced to analyze smaller spatial scales so as to enhance the spatial resolution of the results. An uncertainty analysis using a Monte Carlo simulation was also conducted to illustrate the rationale of the probabilistic assessment mode rather than deterministic assessment. Finally, the results of the case study in Nanjing, China indicated the annual average human cancer risk induced by local industrial emissions during 2002–2008 (lowest at 1.99×10–6 in 2008 and highest at 3.34×10–6 in 2004), which was lower than the USEPA prescriptive level (1×10–6–1×10–4) but cannot be neglected in the long term.The study results could not only instruct the BaP health risk management but also help future health risk prediction and control. PMID:26035663

  14. [Forensic assessment of violence risk].

    PubMed

    Pujol Robinat, Amadeo; Mohíno Justes, Susana; Gómez-Durán, Esperanza L

    2014-03-01

    Over the last 20 years there have been steps forward in the field of scientific research on prediction and handling different violent behaviors. In this work we go over the classic concept of "criminal dangerousness" and the more current of "violence risk assessment". We analyze the evolution of such assessment from the practice of non-structured clinical expert opinion to current actuarial methods and structured clinical expert opinion. Next we approach the problem of assessing physical violence risk analyzing the HCR-20 (Assessing Risk for Violence) and we also review the classic and complex subject of the relation between mental disease and violence. One of the most problematic types of violence, difficult to assess and predict, is sexual violence. We study the different actuarial and sexual violence risk prediction instruments and in the end we advise an integral approach to the problem. We also go through partner violence risk assessment, describing the most frequently used scales, especially SARA (Spouse Assault Risk Assessment) and EPV-R. Finally we give practical advice on risk assessment, emphasizing the importance of having maximum information about the case, carrying out a clinical examination, psychopathologic exploration and the application of one of the described risk assessment scales. We'll have to express an opinion about the dangerousness/risk of future violence from the subject and some recommendations on the conduct to follow and the most advisable treatment.

  15. Integration of environmental and human health risk assessment for industries using hazardous materials: a quantitative multi criteria approach for environmental decision makers.

    PubMed

    Topuz, E; Talinli, I; Aydin, E

    2011-02-01

    Environmental management, for which environmental and human health risk assessment is the first stage, is a requirement for industries both before construction and during operation in order to sustain improved quality of life in the ecosystem. Therefore, the aim of this study is to propose an approach that integrates environmental and human health risk assessment for industries using hazardous materials in order to support environmental decision makers with quantitative and directive results. Analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy logic are used as tools to handle problems caused by complexity of environment and uncertain data. When the proposed approach is implemented to a scenario, it was concluded that it is possible to define risk sources with their risk classes and related membership degrees in that classes which enable the decision maker to decide which risk source has priority. In addition, they can easily point out and rank the factors contributing those risk sources owing to priority weights of them. As a result, environmental decision makers can use this approach while they are developing management alternatives for unfounded and on-going industrial plants using hazardous materials.

  16. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in tropical fish and shellfish collected from the river Buriganga, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Md Kawser; Baki, Mohammad Abdul; Islam, Md Saiful; Kundu, Goutam Kumar; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Hossain, Md Muzammel

    2015-10-01

    Although fish, crustacean, and shellfish are significant sources of protein, they are currently affected by rapid industrialization, resulting in increased concentrations of heavy metals. Accumulation of heavy metals (V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Ba, and Pb) and associated human health risk were investigated in three fish species, namely Ailia coila, Gagata youssoufi, and Mastacembelus pancalus; one crustacean (prawn), Macrobrachium rosenbergii; and one Gastropoda, Indoplanorbis exustus, collected from the Buriganga River, Bangladesh. Samples were collected from the professional fishermen. Cu was the most accumulated metal in M. rosenbergii. Ni, As, Ag, and Sb were in relatively lower concentrations, whereas relatively higher accumulation of Cr, Mn, Zn, and Se were recorded. Mn, Zn, and Pb were present in higher concentrations than the guidelines of various authorities. There were significant differences in metal accumulation among different fish, prawn, or shellfish species. Target hazard quotient (THQ) and target cancer risk (TR) were calculated to estimate the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks, respectively. The THQ for individual heavy metals were below 1 suggesting no potential health risk. But combined impact, estimated by hazard index (HI), suggested health risk for M. pancalus consumption. Although consumption of fish at current accumulation level is safe but continuous and excess consumption for a life time of more than 70 years has probability of target cancer risk.

  17. Models for Pesticide Risk Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA considers the toxicity of the pesticide as well as the amount of pesticide to which a person or the environments may be exposed in risk assessment. Scientists use mathematical models to predict pesticide concentrations in exposure assessment.

  18. Using risk assessment in periodontics.

    PubMed

    Woodman, Alan J

    2014-08-01

    Risk assessment has become a regular feature in both dental practice and society as a whole, and principles used to assess risk in society are similar to those used in a clinical setting. Although the concept of risk assessment as a prognostic indicator for periodontal disease incidence and activity is well established in the management of periodontitis, the use of risk assessment to manage the practical treatment of periodontitis and its sequelae appears to have less foundation. A simple system of initial risk assessment - building on the use of the Basic Periodontal Examination (BPE), clinical, medical and social factors - is described, linked to protocols for delivering care suited to general dental practice and stressing the role of long-term supportive care. The risks of not treating the patient are considered, together with the possible causes of failure, and the problems of successful treatment are illustrated by the practical management of post-treatment recession.

  19. Relevance of particle-induced rat lung tumors for assessing lung carcinogenic hazard and human lung cancer risk.

    PubMed Central

    Mauderly, J L

    1997-01-01

    Rats and other rodents are exposed by inhalation to identify agents that might present hazards for lung cancer in humans exposed by inhalation. In some cases, the results are used in attempts to develop quantitative estimates of human lung cancer risk. This report reviews evidence for the usefulness of the rat for evaluation of lung cancer hazards from inhaled particles. With the exception of nickel sulfate, particulate agents thought to be human lung carcinogens cause lung tumors in rats exposed by inhalation. The rat is more sensitive to carcinogenesis from nonfibrous particles than mice or Syrian hamsters, which have both produced false negatives. However, rats differ from mice and nonhuman primates in both the pattern of particle retention in the lung and alveolar epithelial hyperplastic responses to chronic particle exposure. Present evidence warrants caution in extrapolation from the lung tumor response of rats to inhaled particles to human lung cancer hazard, and there is considerable uncertainty in estimating unit risks for humans from rat data. It seems appropriate to continue using rats in inhalation carcinogenesis assays of inhaled particles, but the upper limit of exposure concentrations must be set carefully to avoid false-positive results. A positive finding in both rats and mice would give greater confidence that an agent presents a carcinogenic hazard to man, and both rats and mice should be used if the agent is a gas or vapor. There is little justification for including Syrian hamsters in assays of the intrapulmonary carcinogenicity of inhaled agents. PMID:9400748

  20. Risk management frameworks for human health and environmental risks.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Cindy; Hrudey, Steve; Shortreed, John; Craig, Lorraine; Krewski, Daniel; Furgal, Chris; McColl, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical review of the risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication approaches currently being undertaken by key national, provincial/state, territorial, and international agencies was conducted. The information acquired for review was used to identify the differences, commonalities, strengths, and weaknesses among the various approaches, and to identify elements that should be included in an effective, current, and comprehensive approach applicable to environmental, human health and occupational health risks. More than 80 agencies, organizations, and advisory councils, encompassing more than 100 risk documents, were examined during the period from February 2000 until November 2002. An overview was made of the most important general frameworks for risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication for human health and ecological risk, and for occupational health risk. In addition, frameworks for specific applications were reviewed and summarized, including those for (1)contaminated sites; (2) northern contaminants; (3) priority substances; (4) standards development; (5) food safety; (6) medical devices; (7) prescription drug use; (8) emergency response; (9) transportation; (10) risk communication. Twelve frameworks were selected for more extensive review on the basis of representation of the areas of human health, ecological, and occupational health risk; relevance to Canadian risk management needs; representation of comprehensive and well-defined approaches; generalizability with their risk areas; representation of "state of the art" in Canada, the United States, and/or internationally; and extent of usage of potential usage within Canada. These 12 frameworks were: 1. Framework for Environmental Health Risk Management (US Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management, 1997). 2. Health Risk Determination: The Challenge of Health Protection (Health and Welfare Canada, 1990). 3. Health Canada Decision

  1. Trihalomethanes in drinking water and cancer: risk assessment and integrated evaluation of available data, in animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Attias, L; Contu, A; Loizzo, A; Massiglia, M; Valente, P; Zapponi, G A

    1995-10-27

    In our study, we attempted to jointly consider THM concentration data collected from drinking waters and carcinogenic risk assessment derived from mathematical models commonly used in this field (multi-stage models for laboratory animal experimentation data, and 'unit risk' derived from the relative risk in the case of epidemiological data). In order to estimate the risks related to joint exposure to different THMs, in this study the risk additivity hypothesis is taken into account. Based on animal data for the various tumors, carcinogenic risk estimates for different THM combinations vary from 2.7 x 10(-7) to 4.6 x 10(-6) per micrograms/l in relation to different carcinogenic substances published in the literature or specifically calculated in this study. The carcinogenic risk parameters derived from experimental studies and from epidemiological data were substantially consistent. Our study uses also as an example some data on concentration levels of THMs for drinking water supplies in Sardinia. The area mean THM concentration values for each supply varied, for ground waters, from 8.1 to 13.6 micrograms/l and, for surface waters, from 52.8 to 168 micrograms/l. For the 1976-1989 period, bladder cancer standardized mortality rates in the water distribution system areas where the THMs were measured indicate values similar, but generally lower, than the national ones, except in the province of Cagliari where the values were not significantly different. The risk estimates derived from animal studies are of the same order of magnitude as the epidemiological data in literature.

  2. 78 FR 36787 - Rechanneling the Current Cardiac Risk Paradigm: Arrhythmia Risk Assessment During Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Rechanneling the Current Cardiac Risk Paradigm: Arrhythmia... the Current Cardiac Risk Paradigm: Arrhythmia Risk Assessment During Drug Development Without...

  3. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in soil-vegetable system: a multi-medium analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingmei; Song, Qiujin; Tang, Yu; Li, Wanlu; Xu, Jianming; Wu, Jianjun; Wang, Fan; Brookes, Philip Charles

    2013-10-01

    Vegetable fields near villages in China are suffering increasing heavy metal damages from various pollution sources including agriculture, traffic, mining and Chinese typical local private family-sized industry. 268 vegetable samples which included rape, celery, cabbages, carrots, asparagus lettuces, cowpeas, tomatoes and cayenne pepper and their corresponding soils in three economically developed areas of Zhejiang Province, China were collected, and the concentrations of five heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg and As) in all the samples were determined. The health risk assessment methods developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) were employed to explore the potential health hazards of heavy metals in soils growing vegetables. Results showed that heavy metal contaminations in investigated vegetables and corresponding soils were significant. Pollution levels varied with metals and vegetable types. The highest mean soil concentrations of heavy metals were 70.36 mg kg(-1) Pb, 47.49 mg kg(-1) Cr, 13.51 mg kg(-1) As, 0.73 mg kg(-1) for Cd and 0.67 mg kg(-1) Hg, respectively, while the metal concentrations in vegetables and corresponding soils were poorly correlated. The health risk assessment results indicated that diet dominated the exposure pathways, so heavy metals in soil samples might cause potential harm through food-chain transfer. The total non-cancer and cancer risk results indicated that the investigated arable fields near industrial and waste mining sites were unsuitable for growing leaf and root vegetables in view of the risk of elevated intakes of heavy metals adversely affecting food safety for local residents. Chromium and Pb were the primary heavy metals posing non-cancer risks while Cd caused the greatest cancer risk. It was concluded that more effective controls should be focused on Cd and Cr to reduce pollution in this study area.

  4. Risk assessment Barter Island radar installation, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-05

    This document contains the baseline human health risk assessment and the ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the Barter Island Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line radar installation. Fourteen sites at the Barter Island radar installation underwent remedial investigations (RIS) during the summer of 1993. The presence of chemical contamination in the soil, sediments, and surface water at the installation was evaluated and reported in the Barter Island Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) United States Air Force 1994a. The analytical data reported in the RI/FS form the basis for the human health and ecological risk assessment. The primary contaminants of concern at the 14 sites are diesel and gasoline from past spills and/or leaks. The general location of the Barter Island radar installation is shown in Figure 1-1. The 14 sites investigated and the types of samples collected at each site are presented in Table 1-1. The purpose of the risk assessment is to evaluate the human and ecological health risks that may be associated with chemicals released to the environment at the 14 sites investigated during the RIs. The risk assessment characterizes the probability that measured concentrations of hazardous chemical substances will cause adverse effects in humans or the environment in the absence of remediation. The risk assessment will be used to determine if remediation (site cleanup) is necessary and also to rank sites for remedial action. Additionally, it will be used as a model for the risk assessment to be performed at the other DEW Line installations (Bullen Point, Oliktok Point, Point Lonely, Barrow Point, Wainwright, and Point Lay) and the Cape Lisburne radar installation. pg18. JMD.

  5. AVLIS Criticality risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Brereton, S.J., LLNL

    1998-04-29

    U-235 and uranium depleted in U-235) are cooled and accumulated in solid metallic form in canisters. The collected product and tails material is weighed and transferred into certified, critically safe, shipping containers (DOT specification 6M with 2R containment vessel). These will be temporarily stored, and then shipped offsite either for use by a fuel fabricator, or for disposal. Tails material will be packaged for disposal. A criticality risk assessment was performed for AVLIS IPD runs. In this analysis, the likelihood of occurrence of a criticality was examined. For the AVLIS process, there are a number of areas that have been specifically examined to assess whether or not the frequency of occurrence of a criticality is credible (frequency of occurrence > 10-6/yr). In this paper, we discuss only two of the areas: the separator and canister operations.

  6. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  7. Cancer Risk Prediction and Assessment

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer prediction models provide an important approach to assessing risk and prognosis by identifying individuals at high risk, facilitating the design and planning of clinical cancer trials, fostering the development of benefit-risk indices, and enabling estimates of the population burden and cost of cancer.

  8. Risk-Assessment Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dias, William C.; Mittman, David S.

    1993-01-01

    RISK D/C is prototype computer program assisting in attempts to do program risk modeling for Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) architectures proposed in Synthesis Group Report. Risk assessment performed with respect to risk events, probabilities, and severities of potential results. Enables ranking, with respect to effectiveness, of risk-mitigation strategies proposed for exploration program architecture. Allows for fact that risk assessment in early phases of planning subjective. Although specific to SEI in present form, also used as software framework for development of risk-assessment programs for other specific uses. Developed for Macintosh(TM) series computer. Requires HyperCard(TM) 2.0 or later, as well as 2 Mb of random-access memory and System 6.0.8 or later.

  9. Evaluating the effectiveness of pasteurization for reducing human illnesses from Salmonella spp. in egg products: results of a quantitative risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Latimer, Heejeong K; Marks, Harry M; Coleman, Margaret E; Schlosser, Wayne D; Golden, Neal J; Ebel, Eric D; Kause, Janell; Schroeder, Carl M

    2008-02-01

    As part of the process for developing risk-based performance standards for egg product processing, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) undertook a quantitative microbial risk assessment for Salmonella spp. in pasteurized egg products. The assessment was designed to assist risk managers in evaluating egg handling and pasteurization performance standards for reducing the likelihood of Salmonella in pasteurized egg products and the subsequent risk to human health. The following seven pasteurized liquid egg product formulations were included in the risk assessment model, with the value in parentheses indicating the estimated annual number of human illnesses from Salmonella from each: egg white (2636), whole egg (1763), egg yolk (708), whole egg with 10% salt (407), whole egg with 10% sugar (0), egg yolk with 10% salt (11), and egg yolk with 10% sugar (0). Increased levels of pasteurization were predicted to be highly effective mitigations for reducing the number of illnesses. For example, if all egg white products were pasteurized for a 6-log(10) reduction of Salmonella, the estimated annual number of illnesses from these products would be reduced from 2636 to 270. The risk assessment identified several data gaps and research needs, including a quantitative study of cross-contamination during egg product processing and characterization of egg storage times and temperatures (i) on farms and in homes, (ii) for eggs produced off-line, and (iii) for egg products at retail. Pasteurized egg products are a relatively safe food; however, findings from this study suggest increased pasteurization can make them safer.

  10. Determination of Human Hepatic CYP2C8 and CYP1A2 Age-Dependent Expression to Support Human Health Risk Assessment for Early Ages.

    PubMed

    Song, Gina; Sun, Xueying; Hines, Ronald N; McCarver, D Gail; Lake, Brian G; Osimitz, Thomas G; Creek, Moire R; Clewell, Harvey J; Yoon, Miyoung

    2017-02-22

    Predicting age-specific metabolism is important for evaluating age-related drug and chemical sensitivity. Multiple cytochrome P450s (CYP) and carboxylesterase (CES) enzymes are responsible for human pyrethroid metabolism. Complete ontogeny data for each enzyme is needed to support in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE). This study was designed to determine age-dependent human hepatic CYP2C8 expression, for which only limited ontogeny data are available, and to further define CYP1A2 ontogeny. CYP2C8 and 1A2 protein levels were measured by quantitative Western blotting using liver microsomal samples prepared from 222 subjects with ages ranging from 8 weeks gestation to 18 years after birth. The median CYP2C8 expression was significantly greater among samples from subjects older than 35 postnatal days (n=122) compared to fetal samples and those from very young infants (fetal to 35 days postnatal, n=100) (0.00 vs. 13.38 pmol/mg microsomal protein; p<0.0001). In contrast, the median CYP1A2 expression was significantly greater after 15 months postnatal age (n=55) than in fetal and younger postnatal samples (fetal to 15 months postnatal, n=167) (0.0167 vs. 2.354 pmol/mg microsomal protein; p<0.0001). CYP2C8, but not CYP1A2, protein levels, significantly correlated with those of CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 (p<0.001) consistent with CYP2C8 and CYP1A2 ontogeny being probably controlled by different mechanisms. This study provides key data for physiologically based pharmacokinetic model-based prediction of age-dependent pyrethroid metabolism, which will be used for IVIVE to support pyrethroid risk assessment for early life stages.

  11. Human health risk assessment with spatial analysis: study of a population chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Navoni, J A; De Pietri, D; Olmos, V; Gimenez, C; Bovi Mitre, G; de Titto, E; Villaamil Lepori, E C

    2014-11-15

    Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous element widely distributed in the environment. This metalloid has proven carcinogenic action in man. The aim of this work was to assess the health risk related to As exposure through drinking water in an Argentinean population, applying spatial analytical techniques in addition to conventional approaches. The study involved 650 inhabitants from Chaco and Santiago del Estero provinces. Arsenic in drinking water (Asw) and urine (UAs) was measured by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Average daily dose (ADD), hazard quotient (HQ), and carcinogenic risk (CR) were estimated, geo-referenced and integrated with demographical data by a health composite index (HI) applying geographic information system (GIS) analysis. Asw covered a wide range of concentration: from non-detectable (ND) to 2000 μg/L. More than 90% of the population was exposed to As, with UAs levels above the intervention level of 100 μg/g creatinine. GIS analysis described an expected level of exposure lower than the observed, indicating possible additional source/s of exposure to inorganic arsenic. In 68% of the locations, the population had a HQ greater than 1, and the CR ranged between 5·10(-5) and 2,1·10(-2). An environmental exposure area through ADD geo-referencing defined a baseline scenario for space-time risk assessment. The time of residence, the demographic density and the potential health considered outcomes helped characterize the health risk in the region. The geospatial analysis contributed to delimitate and analyze the change tendencies of risk in the region, broadening the scopes of the results for a decision-making process.

  12. Assessment of human health risks from heavy metals in outdoor dust samples in a coal mining area.

    PubMed

    Rout, Tofan Kumar; Masto, R E; Ram, L C; George, Joshy; Padhy, Pratap Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Jharia (India) a coal mining town has been affected by the consequences of mining and associated activities. Samples of outdoor fallen dust were collected at different locations of Jharia covering four different zones: commercial, petrol pump, high traffic, and residential areas. The dust samples were analysed for different trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn). The highest concentration of the elements in the dust samples are Mn (658 mg/kg), Zn (163.6 mg/kg), Cr (75.4 mg/kg), Pb (67.8 mg/kg), Ni (66 mg/kg), Cu (56.8 mg/kg), Co (16.9 mg/kg), As (4.1 mg/kg), and Cd (0.78 mg/kg). The concentration of selenium was below detection limit. Except Cd, contents of all the other elements in the dust samples were significantly lower in the residential area. High amount of Ni (145 mg/kg) and Pb (102 mg/kg) was observed in the high traffic and petrol pump areas, respectively. The exposure risk assessment strategies are helpful in predicting the potential health risk of the trace elements in the street dust. Selected receptors for risk assessment were infants, toddlers, children, teens, and adults. The calculated hazard quotient (HQ) for lifetime exposure was <1.0 for all the elements studied, indicating no risks from these elements for adults Among the receptors, toddlers were found to be more vulnerable, with HQ for Co, Cr, and Pb > 0.1. The finding predicts potential health risk to toddlers and children.

  13. Integrating Risk Context into Risk Assessments: The Risk Context Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroner, Daryl G.; Gray, Andrew L.; Goodrich, Ben

    2013-01-01

    The context in which offenders are released is an important component of conducting risk assessments. A sample of 257 supervised male parolees were followed in the community ("M" = 870 days) after an initial risk assessment. Drawing on community-based information, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the recently developed Risk…

  14. Risk Assessment and Integration Team (RAIT) Portfolio Risk Analysis Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Impact at management level: Qualitative assessment of risk criticality in conjunction with risk consequence, likelihood, and severity enable development of an "investment policy" towards managing a portfolio of risks. Impact at research level: Quantitative risk assessments enable researchers to develop risk mitigation strategies with meaningful risk reduction results. Quantitative assessment approach provides useful risk mitigation information.

  15. Man is not a big rat: concerns with traditional human risk assessment of phthalates based on their anti-androgenic effects observed in the rat foetus.

    PubMed

    Habert, René; Livera, Gabriel; Rouiller-Fabre, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    Phthalates provide one of the most documented example evidencing how much we must be cautious when using the traditional paradigm based on extrapolation of experimental data from rodent studies for human health risk assessment of endocrine disruptors (EDs). Since foetal testis is known as one of the most sensitive targets of EDs, phthalate risk assessment is routinely based on the capacity of such compounds to decrease testosterone production by the testis or to impair masculinization in the rat during foetal life. In this paper, the well-established inhibiting effects of phthalates of the foetal Leydig cells function in the rat are briefly reviewed. Then, data obtained in humans and other species are carefully analysed. Already in January 2009, using the organotypic culture system named Fetal Testis Assay (FeTA) that we developed, we reported that phthalates might not affect testosterone production in human foetal testes. Several recent experimental studies using xenografts confirm the absence of detectable anti-androgenic effect of phthalates in the human foetal testes. Epidemiological studies led to contradictory results. Altogether, these findings suggest that phthalates effects on foetal Leydig cells are largely species-specific. Consequently, the phthalate threshold doses that disturb foetal steroidogenesis in rat testes and that are presently used to define the acceptable daily intake levels for human health protection must be questioned. This does not mean that phthalates are safe because these compounds have many deleterious effects upon germ cell development that may be common to the different studied species including human. More generally, the identification of common molecular, cellular or/and phenotypic targets in rat and human testes should precede the choice of the toxicological endpoint in rat to accurately assess the safety threshold of any ED in humans.

  16. Risk assessment of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipelin, V. A.; Gmoshinski, I. V.; Khotimchenko, S. A.

    2015-11-01

    Nanoparticles of metallic silver (Ag) are among the most widely used products of nanotechnology. Nanosized colloidal silver (NCS) is presented in many kinds of production as solutions of particles with diameter less than 100 nm. NCS is used in a variety of fields, including food supplements, medicines, cosmetics, packaging materials, disinfectants, water filters, and many others. Problems of toxicity and related safety of NCS for humans and environmental systems are recently overestimated basing on data of numerous toxicological studies in vitro and in vivo. The article discusses the results of current studies in recent years and the data of author's own experiments on studying the safety of NCS, that allows to move on to risk assessment of this nanomaterial presented in consumer products and environmental samples.

  17. Using the risk-disturbance hypothesis to assess the relative effects of human disturbance and predation risk on foraging American Oystercatchers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, K.A.; Otis, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    The risk-disturbance hypothesis asserts that animals perceive human disturbance similar to nonlethal predation stimuli, and exhibit comparable responses in the form of optimization tradeoffs. However, few studies have examined how natural predation risk factors interact with human-disturbance stimuli to elicit such responses. We observed American Oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus) vigilance behavior from September-December 2002 on the Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge, South Carolina. A set of models was constructed based on 340 focal-animal samples and models revealed relationships between vigilance behavior, predator density, and boat activity. Oystercatchers increased vigilance in response to aerial predators, particularly late in the season when predator species composition was dominated by Northern Harriers (Circus cyaneus). At a broader temporal scale, oystercatchers exhibited the highest vigilance rates during simultaneous peaks in boating disturbance and Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) activity. Due to this temporal overlap of stimuli, it is difficult to interpret what may have been driving the observed increased in vigilance. Foraging rates appeared to be primarily driven by habitat and tidal stage indicating that time lost to vigilance did not effectively reduce intake. Taken together, these findings provide some support for the risk-disturbance hypothesis, underscore the sensitivity of disturbance studies to temporal scale, and draw attention to the potential confounding effects of natural predation risk. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2005.

  18. Assessing risks to ecosystem quality

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.

    1995-12-31

    Ecosystems are not organisms. Because ecosystems do not reproduce, grow old or sick, and die, the term ecosystem health is somewhat misleading and perhaps should not be used. A more useful concept is ``ecosystem quality,`` which denotes a set of desirable ecosystem characteristics defined in terms of species composition, productivity, size/condition of specific populations, or other measurable properties. The desired quality of an ecosystem may be pristine, as in a nature preserve, or highly altered by man, as in a managed forest or navigational waterway. ``Sustainable development`` implies that human activities that influence ecosystem quality should be managed so that high-quality ecosystems are maintained for future generations. In sustainability-based environmental management, the focus is on maintaining or improving ecosystem quality, not on restricting discharges or requiring particular waste treatment technologies. This approach requires management of chemical impacts to be integrated with management of other sources of stress such as erosion, eutrophication, and direct human exploitation. Environmental scientists must (1) work with decision makers and the public to define ecosystem quality goals, (2) develop corresponding measures of ecosystem quality, (3) diagnose causes for departures from desired states, and (4) recommend appropriate restoration actions, if necessary. Environmental toxicology and chemical risk assessment are necessary for implementing the above framework, but they are clearly not sufficient. This paper reviews the state-of-the science relevant to sustaining the quality of aquatic ecosystems. Using the specific example of a reservoir in eastern Tennessee, the paper attempts to define roles for ecotoxicology and risk assessment in each step of the management process.

  19. Metabolic Interactions of Purine Derivatives with Human ABC Transporter ABCG2: Genetic Testing to Assess Gout Risk.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Toshihisa; Aw, Wanping; Kaneko, Kiyoko

    2013-11-04

    In mammals, excess purine nucleosides are removed from the body by breakdown in the liver and excretion from the kidneys. Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism in humans. Two-thirds of uric acid in the human body is normally excreted through the kidney, whereas one-third undergoes uricolysis (decomposition of uric acid) in the gut. Elevated serum uric acid levels result in gout and could be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Recent studies have shown that human ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG2 plays a role of renal excretion of uric acid. Two non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), i.e., 421C>A (major) and 376C>T (minor), in the ABCG2 gene result in impaired transport activity, owing to ubiquitination-mediated proteosomal degradation and truncation of ABCG2, respectively. These genetic polymorphisms are associated with hyperuricemia and gout. Allele frequencies of those SNPs are significantly higher in Asian populations than they are in African and Caucasian populations. A rapid and isothermal genotyping method has been developed to detect the SNP 421C>A, where one drop of peripheral blood is sufficient for the detection. Development of simple genotyping methods would serve to improve prevention and early therapeutic intervention for high-risk individuals in personalized healthcare.

  20. Quantitative risk assessment of human campylobacteriosis by consumption of salad cross-contaminated with thermophilic Campylobacter spp. from broiler meat in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Signorini, M L; Zbrun, M V; Romero-Scharpen, A; Olivero, C; Bongiovanni, F; Soto, L P; Frizzo, L S; Rosmini, M R

    2013-04-01

    Here, we developed a quantitative risk assessment for thermophilic Campylobacter spp. related to the consumption of salad prepared alongside broiler meat. The assessment considered initial contamination levels, cross-contamination and decontamination events during the broiler slaughter process and distribution, and storage and consumption patterns in Argentina and other Latin American countries. The model predicted an infection risk of 3.32×10(-4) per serving. This estimation was variable according to the dose-response model used. Considering the number of chickens slaughtered annually in Argentina, the estimated number of people who could suffer campylobacteriosis related to poultry meat consumption was, on average, 484,304. The risk of human campylobacteriosis was most sensitive to the probability of infection from a Campylobacter (r=0.72), the number of Campylobacter spp. per serving (r=0.40), the frequency of washing the cutting board (r=-0.31), the preparation of raw poultry before salad using the same cutting board (r=0.14), and the frequency of hand washing (r=-0.14). The most sensitive stages of the process identified through the risk assessment can be used as a basis for measures of risk management. Public campaigns on hygiene habits during food preparation at home should focus on the importance of washing the cutting board before preparing raw and ready-to-eat foods and of washing the hands during food preparation.

  1. A methodology of the assessment of environmental and human health risks from amine emissions from post combustion CO2 capture technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korre, Anna; Manzoor, Saba; Simperler, Alexandra

    2015-04-01

    Post combustion CO2 capture (PCCC) technology in power plants using amines as solvent for CO2 capture, is one of the reduction technologies employed to combat escalating levels of CO2 in the atmosphere. However, amine solvents used for capturing CO2 produce negative emissions such as, nitrosamines and nitramines, which are suspected to be potent carcinogens. It is therefore essential to assess the atmospheric fate of these amine emissions in the atmosphere by studying their atmospheric chemistry, dispersion and transport pathways away from the source and deposition in the environment, so as to be able to assess accurately the risk posed to human health and the natural environment. An important knowledge gap until recently has been the consideration of the atmospheric chemistry of these amine emissions simultaneously with dispersion and deposition studies so as to perform reliable human health and environmental risk assessments. The authors have developed a methodology to assess the distribution of such emissions away from a post-combustion facility by studying the atmospheric chemistry of monoethanolamine, the most commonly used solvent for CO2 capture, and those of the resulting degradation amines, methylamine and dimethylamine. This was coupled with dispersion modeling calculations (Manzoor, et al., 2014; Manzoor et al,2015). Rate coefficients describing the entire atmospheric chemistry schemes of the amines studied were evaluated employing quantum chemical theoretical and kinetic modeling calculations. These coefficients were used to solve the advection-dispersion-chemical equation using an atmospheric dispersion model, ADMS 5. This methodology is applicable to any size of a power plant and at any geographical location. In this paper, the humman health risk assessment is integrated in the modelling study. The methodology is demonstrated on a case study on the UK's largest capture pilot plant, Ferrybridge CCPilot 100+, to estimate the dispersion, chemical

  2. Ecosystem services as assessment endpoints for ecological risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Munns, Wayne R; Rea, Anne W; Suter, Glenn W; Martin, Lawrence; Blake-Hedges, Lynne; Crk, Tanja; Davis, Christine; Ferreira, Gina; Jordan, Steve; Mahoney, Michele; Barron, Mace G

    2016-07-01

    Ecosystem services are defined as the outputs of ecological processes that contribute to human welfare or have the potential to do so in the future. Those outputs include food and drinking water, clean air and water, and pollinated crops. The need to protect the services provided by natural systems has been recognized previously, but ecosystem services have not been formally incorporated into ecological risk assessment practice in a general way in the United States. Endpoints used conventionally in ecological risk assessment, derived directly from the state of the ecosystem (e.g., biophysical structure and processes), and endpoints based on ecosystem services serve different purposes. Conventional endpoints are ecologically important and susceptible entities and attributes that are protected under US laws and regulations. Ecosystem service endpoints are a conceptual and analytical step beyond conventional endpoints and are intended to complement conventional endpoints by linking and extending endpoints to goods and services with more obvious benefit to humans. Conventional endpoints can be related to ecosystem services even when the latter are not considered explicitly during problem formulation. To advance the use of ecosystem service endpoints in ecological risk assessment, the US Environmental Protection Agency's Risk Assessment Forum has added generic endpoints based on ecosystem services (ES-GEAE) to the original 2003 set of generic ecological assessment endpoints (GEAEs). Like conventional GEAEs, ES-GEAEs are defined by an entity and an attribute. Also like conventional GEAEs, ES-GEAEs are broadly described and will need to be made specific when applied to individual assessments. Adoption of ecosystem services as a type of assessment endpoint is intended to improve the value of risk assessment to environmental decision making, linking ecological risk to human well-being, and providing an improved means of communicating those risks. Integr Environ Assess Manag

  3. Human health risk assessment based on toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and simple bioaccessibility extraction test of toxic metals in urban street dust of Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Binbin; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Qixing

    2014-01-01

    The potential ecological and human health risk related with urban street dust from urban areas of Tianjin, China was quantitatively analyzed using the method of toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and simple bioaccessibility extraction test (SBET). In the study, Hakason index, Nemerow index (P), the hazard index (HI) and the cancer risk index (RI) were calculated to assess the potential risk. The sequence of potential ecological risk based on Hakason index was arsenic (As) > cadmium (Cd) > lead (Pb) > copper (Cu) > chromium (Cr), in particular, As and Cd were regarded as high polluted metals. While the results of extraction of TCLP were assessed using P, the sequence was As > Pb > Cd > Cr > Cu, which mean that As and Pb should be low polluted, and Cd, Cr and Cu would barely not polluted. For human health, total carcinogenic risk for children and adults was 2.01 × 10(-3) and 1.05 × 10(-3), respectively. This could be considered to be intolerable in urban street dust exposure. The sequence in the hazard quotient (HQ) of each element was As > Cr > Pb > Cu > Cd. The HI value of these toxic metals in urban street dust for children and adults was 5.88 × 10(-1) and 2.80 × 10(-1), respectively. According to the characters of chemistry, mobility, and bioavailability of metals in urban street dust, we estimated the hazards on the environment and human health, which will help us to get more reasonable information for risk management of metals in urban environment.

  4. Life cycle and human health risk assessments as tools for decision making in the design and implementation of nanofiltration in drinking water treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Ribera, G; Clarens, F; Martínez-Lladó, X; Jubany, I; V Martí; Rovira, M

    2014-01-01

    A combined methodology using life cycle assessment (LCA) and human health risk assessment (HHR) is proposed in order to select the percentage of water in drinking water treatment plants (DWTP) that should be nanofiltered (NF). The methodological approach presented here takes into account environmental and social benefit criteria evaluating the implementation of new processes into conventional ones. The inclusion of NF process improves drinking water quality, reduces HHR but, in turn, increases environmental impacts as a result of energy and material demand. Results from this study lead to balance the increase of the impact in various environmental categories with the reduction in human health risk as a consequence of the respective drinking water production and consumption. From an environmental point of view, the inclusion of NF and recommended pretreatments to produce 43% of the final drinking water means that the environmental impact is nearly doubled in comparison with conventional plant in impact categories severely related with electricity production, like climate change. On the other hand, the carcinogenic risk (HHR) associated to trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) decreases with the increase in NF percentage use. Results show a reduction of one order of magnitude for the carcinogenic risk index when 100% of drinking water is produced by NF.

  5. Assessing Risk in Graphically Presented Financial Series.

    PubMed

    Sobolev, Daphne; Harvey, Nigel

    2016-12-01

    It has been argued that traders use their natural sensitivity to the fractal properties of price graphs to assess risk and that they are better able to do this when given price change as well as price level information. This approach implies that risk assessments should be higher when the Hurst exponents are lower, that this relationship should be stronger in the presence of price change information and that risk assessment should depend more strongly on the Hurst exponent than on the standard deviation of the series. Participants in Experiment 1 decided which of two assets was riskier by inspecting graphs of their price series. Graphs with lower Hurst exponents were selected only by those who were less emotionally stable and hence more sensitive to risk. However, when both price series and price change series were presented, the assets with lower Hurst exponents were selected by all participants. In a second experiment, participants were given both price level and price change series for a number of assets and rated the risk of trading in each one. Ratings depended more strongly on Hurst exponents than on other measures of volatility. They also depended on indicators of potential loss. Human risk assessment deviates from the way that risk is measured in modern finance theory: it requires integration of information relevant to both uncertainty and loss aversion, thereby imposing high attentional demands on traders. These demands may impair risk assessment but they can be eased by adding displays of price change information.

  6. Quantitative risk assessment system (QRAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstock, Robert M (Inventor); Smidts, Carol S (Inventor); Mosleh, Ali (Inventor); Chang, Yung-Hsien (Inventor); Swaminathan, Sankaran (Inventor); Groen, Francisco J (Inventor); Tan, Zhibin (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A quantitative risk assessment system (QRAS) builds a risk model of a system for which risk of failure is being assessed, then analyzes the risk of the system corresponding to the risk model. The QRAS performs sensitivity analysis of the risk model by altering fundamental components and quantifications built into the risk model, then re-analyzes the risk of the system using the modifications. More particularly, the risk model is built by building a hierarchy, creating a mission timeline, quantifying failure modes, and building/editing event sequence diagrams. Multiplicities, dependencies, and redundancies of the system are included in the risk model. For analysis runs, a fixed baseline is first constructed and stored. This baseline contains the lowest level scenarios, preserved in event tree structure. The analysis runs, at any level of the hierarchy and below, access this baseline for risk quantitative computation as well as ranking of particular risks. A standalone Tool Box capability exists, allowing the user to store application programs within QRAS.

  7. Risk assessment of mixed waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Montague, D.F.; Holton, G.A.; King, C.M.

    1987-12-31

    As part of its ongoing efforts to ensure environmental regulation compliance at DOE facilities, DOE published on April 26, 1985, a notice of intent to write an Environmental Impact Statement on Waste Management Activities for Groundwater Protection (Groundwater EIS) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). To perform a human health risk assessment of each waste site for each closure action considered, DuPont organized a project team led by personnel from the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) and supported by outside contractors specializing in risk assessment work. As part of that team, JBF Associates, Inc. (JBFA) performed an atmospheric containment transport analysis and human health risk assessment of nonradioactive contaminants from SRP waste sites. For each waste site, three closure actions were examined: (1) excavate the site, backfill it, and cap it followed by regular groundwater monitoring (Option 1); (2) backfill and cap the site followed by regular groundwater monitoring (Option 2); and (3) no remedial action, regular groundwater monitoring, and some site maintenance work (Option 3). The human health risk assessment performed by JBFA estimated the public and worker risks from contaminants released to the atmosphere from each waste site for each closure option. This paper first presents the methodology JBFA used to estimate the public and worker risks attributable to the inhalation and ingestion of airborne, nonradioactive contaminants. Following the description of the analysis methodology, the authors present the risk results for the waste sites that were due to atmospherically released nonradioactive contaminants. Both worker risks and public risks are presented. Finally, the authors present the results and conclusions derived from their analysis of the risk from airborne, nonradioactive contaminants.

  8. Risk assessment in international operations

    SciTech Connect

    Stricklin, Daniela L.

    2008-11-15

    During international peace-keeping missions, a diverse number of non-battle hazards may be encountered, which range from heavily polluted areas, endemic disease, toxic industrial materials, local violence, traffic, and even psychological factors. Hence, elevated risk levels from a variety of sources are encountered during deployments. With the emphasis within the Swedish military moving from national defense towards prioritization of international missions in atypical environments, the risk of health consequences, including long term health effects, has received greater consideration. The Swedish military is interested in designing an optimal approach for assessment of health threats during deployments. The Medical Intelligence group at FOI CBRN Security and Defence in Umea has, on request from and in collaboration with the Swedish Armed Forces, reviewed a variety of international health threat and risk assessment models for military operations. Application of risk assessment methods used in different phases of military operations will be reviewed. An overview of different international approaches used in operational risk management (ORM) will be presented as well as a discussion of the specific needs and constraints for health risk assessment in military operations. This work highlights the specific challenges of risk assessment that are unique to the deployment setting such as the assessment of exposures to a variety of diverse hazards concurrently.

  9. Building Better Environmental Risk Assessments.

    PubMed

    Layton, Raymond; Smith, Joe; Macdonald, Phil; Letchumanan, Ramatha; Keese, Paul; Lema, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment is a reasoned, structured approach to address uncertainty based on scientific and technical evidence. It forms the foundation for regulatory decision-making, which is bound by legislative and policy requirements, as well as the need for making timely decisions using available resources. In order to be most useful, environmental risk assessments (ERAs) for genetically modified (GM) crops should provide consistent, reliable, and transparent results across all types of GM crops, traits, and environments. The assessments must also separate essential information from scientific or agronomic data of marginal relevance or value for evaluating risk and complete the assessment in a timely fashion. Challenges in conducting ERAs differ across regulatory systems - examples are presented from Canada, Malaysia, and Argentina. One challenge faced across the globe is the conduct of risk assessments with limited resources. This challenge can be overcome by clarifying risk concepts, placing greater emphasis on data critical to assess environmental risk (for example, phenotypic and plant performance data rather than molecular data), and adapting advances in risk analysis from other relevant disciplines.

  10. Pesticide residues in leafy vegetables and human health risk assessment in North Central agricultural areas of Chile.

    PubMed

    Elgueta, Sebastian; Moyano, Stella; Sepúlveda, Paulina; Quiroz, Carlos; Correa, Arturo

    2017-06-01

    To investigate pesticide residue concentrations and potential human health risk, a study was conducted in 118 leafy vegetable samples collected in 2014-2015 from the North Central agricultural areas of Chile. The pesticide residues were determined using the multiresidue QuEChERS method by gas chromatography as well as high-performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated that 27% of the total samples contained pesticide residues above the maximum residue limits of each active ingredient. The maximum estimated daily intake obtained for carbon disulphide (CS2), methamidophos, azoxystrobin and cypermethrin were 0.57, 0.07, 0.06 and 0.05 mg kg(-1), respectively, which was higher than their acceptable daily intake. It is concluded that inhabitants of the North Central agricultural area of Chile are not exposed to health risks through the consumption of leafy vegetables with the exception of methamidophos. Nevertheless, the high levels of methamidophos detected in leafy vegetables could be considered a potential chronic health risk.

  11. Qualitative methods for assessing risk

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A.; Hannaman, G.W.; Kryska, P.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe a qualitative risk assessment process that supplements the requirements of DOE/AL 5481.1B. Although facility managers have a choice of assessing risk either quantitatively or qualitatively, trade offs are involved in making the most appropriate choice for a given application. The results that can be obtained from a quantitative risk assessment are significantly more robust than those results derived from a qualitative approach. However, the advantages derived from quantitative risk assessment are achieved at a greater expenditure of money, time and convenience. This document provides the elements of a framework for performing a much less costly qualitative risk assessment, while retaining the best attributes of quantitative methods. The approach discussed herein will; (1) provide facility managers with the tools to prepare consistent, site wide assessments, and (2) aid the reviewers who may be tasked to evaluate the assessments. Added cost/benefit measures of the qualitative methodology include the identification of mechanisms for optimally allocating resources for minimizing risk in an expeditious, and fiscally responsible manner.

  12. Mercury concentrations in fish from three major lakes in north Mississippi: Spatial and temporal differences and human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Stacy; Brown, Garry; Chen, Jingjing; Meals, Keith; Thornton, Cammi; Brewer, Steve; Cizdziel, James V; Willett, Kristine L

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare total mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish muscle tissue and assess consumption health risks of fish collected from three north Mississippi lakes (Sardis, Enid, and Grenada) that are extensively used for fishing and recreation. Largemouth bass (LMB; n = 64), channel catfish (CC; n = 72), and white crappie (WC; n = 100), which represent a range of trophic levels, were collected during spring 2013 and 2014. Creel data estimated that anglers harvested approximately 370,000 kg of WC, 27,000 kg of CC, and 15,000 kg of LMB from the lakes annually. Median Hg wet weight concentrations were highest in LMB (443 ng/g), followed by CC (211 ng/g) and WC (192 ng/g). Fish-Hg concentrations were lower than those reported in fish >10 years ago. There were significant differences between lakes consistent across species. Grenada length-normalized fish-Hg concentrations were higher than those from Enid and Sardis. Because existing consumption advisories for CC are length based, the lack of relationship between length and Hg concentration indicated that the recommendations may not be sufficiently protective. Further, five different risk assessment paradigms yielded hazard quotient (HQ) values suggesting that existing fish consumption advisories may be insufficient to protect adults and especially children from exposure to Hg.

  13. ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ecological Soil Screening Level (Eco-SSL) Work Group, composed of scientists and risk assessors from EPA, Environment Canada, DOE, Army, Navy, Air Force, states, industry, academia, and consulting companies, has been working on the development of scientifically sound, ecologi...

  14. A tiered approach for the human health risk assessment for consumption of vegetables from with cadmium-contaminated land in urban areas

    SciTech Connect

    Swartjes, Frank A. Versluijs, Kees W.; Otte, Piet F.

    2013-10-15

    Consumption of vegetables that are grown in urban areas takes place worldwide. In developing countries, vegetables are traditionally grown in urban areas for cheap food supply. In developing and developed countries, urban gardening is gaining momentum. A problem that arises with urban gardening is the presence of contaminants in soil, which can be taken up by vegetables. In this study, a scientifically-based and practical procedure has been developed for assessing the human health risks from the consumption of vegetables from cadmium-contaminated land. Starting from a contaminated site, the procedure follows a tiered approach which is laid out as follows. In Tier 0, the plausibility of growing vegetables is investigated. In Tier 1 soil concentrations are compared with the human health-based Critical soil concentration. Tier 2 offers the possibility for a detailed site-specific human health risk assessment in which calculated exposure is compared to the toxicological reference dose. In Tier 3, vegetable concentrations are measured and tested following a standardized measurement protocol. To underpin the derivation of the Critical soil concentrations and to develop a tool for site-specific assessment the determination of the representative concentration in vegetables has been evaluated for a range of vegetables. The core of the procedure is based on Freundlich-type plant–soil relations, with the total soil concentration and the soil properties as variables. When a significant plant–soil relation is lacking for a specific vegetable a geometric mean of BioConcentrationFactors (BCF) is used, which is normalized according to soil properties. Subsequently, a ‘conservative’ vegetable-group-consumption-rate-weighted BioConcentrationFactor is calculated as basis for the Critical soil concentration (Tier 1). The tool to perform site-specific human health risk assessment (Tier 2) includes the calculation of a ‘realistic worst case’ site-specific vegetable

  15. Main components and human health risks assessment of PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 in two areas influenced by cement plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Soberón, Francisco; Rovira, Joaquim; Mari, Montse; Sierra, Jordi; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José L.; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2015-11-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is widely recorded as a source of diseases, being more harmful those particles with smaller size. PM is released to the environment as a consequence of different activities, being one of them cement production. The objective of this pilot study was to characterize PM of different sizes around cement facilities to have a preliminary approach of their origin, and evaluate their potential health risks. For that purpose, three fractions of PM (10, 2.5, and 1) were collected in the nearby area of two cement plants with different backgrounds (urban and rural) in different seasons. Subsequently, main components, outdoor and indoor concentrations, exposure, and human health risks were assessed. Greatest levels of PM1, organic matter, and metals were found in urban location, especially in winter. Consequently, environmental exposure and human health risks registered their highest values in the urban plant during wintertime. Exposure was higher for indoor activities, expressing some metals their peak values in the PM1 fraction. Non-carcinogenic risks were below the safety threshold (HQ < 1). Carcinogenic risks for most of the metals were below the limit of 10-5, except for Cr (VI), which exceeded it in both locations, but being in the range considered as assumable (10-6-10-4).

  16. Environmental risk assessment of paroxetine.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Virginia L; Constable, David J C; Hannah, Robert E

    2004-06-15

    watershed-based environmental risk assessment model, PhATE, to predict environmental concentrations (PECs). Comparison of the calculated PECs with the PNEC allows an assessment of potential environmental risk. Within the 1-99% of stream segments in the PhATE model, PEC values ranged from 0.003 to 100 ng/L. The risk assessment PEC/PNEC ratios ranged from approximately 3 x 10(-8) to approximately 3 x 10(-3), indicating a wide margin of safety, since a PEC/PNEC ratio <1 is generally considered to represent a low risk to the environment. In addition, Microtox studies carried out on PM biodegradation byproducts indicated no detectable residual toxicity. Any compounds in the environment as a result of the biodegradation of PM should be innocuous polar byproducts that should not exert any toxic effects.

  17. Assessment of radiological risk for marine biota and human consumers of seafood in the coast of Qingdao, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Baolu; Ha, Yiming; Jin, Jing

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports the levels of (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in the edible parts of 11 different marine species collected from the Qingdao coast of China. The activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K ranged from 0.08±0.03 to 1.65±0.60 Bq kg(-1) w.w., 0.09±0.02 to 1.44±0.10 Bq kg(-1) w.w., 26.89±1.25 to 219.25±5.61 Bq kg(-1) w.w., respectively. Artificial (137)Cs was undetectable or close to the detection limit in the biota sampled. To link radioactivity to possible impact on health, we calculated radiation doses to both the marine biota and human beings. We showed that doses in all cases were dominated by naturally occurring (40)K and that (137)Cs doses were negligible compared with (40)K-derived doses. The total doses to marine biota ranged between 16.55 and 62.41 nGy h(-1) among different biota species, which were below the benchmark level of aquatic organism. The committed effective dose to humans through seafood consumption varied from 10.55 to 36.17 μSv y(-1), and the associated lifetime cancer risks ranged from 5.93E-05 to 9.49E-05 for different age and gender groups. Both the dose and cancer risk to humans were at the acceptable range. Despite the significant amount of radionuclides released as a result of the Fukushima accident, their impact on the seafood in Qingdao coast appears to be negligible based on our measurements of concentrations of radionuclide activity and internal dose estimates.

  18. Distribution of heavy metals in muscles and internal organs of Korean cephalopods and crustaceans: risk assessment for human health.

    PubMed

    Mok, Jong Soo; Kwon, Ji Young; Son, Kwang Tae; Choi, Woo Seok; Shim, Kil Bo; Lee, Tae Seek; Kim, Ji Hoe

    2014-12-01

    Samples of seven species of cephalopods and crustaceans were collected from major fish markets on the Korean coast and analyzed for mercury (Hg) using a direct Hg analyzer and for the metals cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium, silver, nickel, copper, and zinc using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The distributions of heavy metals in muscles, internal organs, and whole tissues were determined, and a risk assessment was conducted to provide information concerning consumer safety. The heavy metals accumulated to higher levels (P < 0.05) in internal organs than in muscles for all species. The mean concentrations of Cd, which had the highest concentrations of the three hazardous metals (Cd, Pb, and Hg), in all internal organs (except those of blue crab) exceeded the regulatory limits set by Korea and the European Union. The Cd concentrations in all whole tissues of squid and octopus (relatively large cephalopods), red snow crab, and snow crab exceeded the European Union limits. The estimated dietary intake of Cd, Pb, and Hg for each part of all species accounted for 1.73 to 130.57%, 0.03 to 0.39%, and 0.93 to 1.67%, respectively, of the provisional tolerable daily intake adopted by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives; the highest values were found in internal organs. The hazard index (HI) is recognized as a reasonable parameter for assessing the risk of heavy metal consumption associated with contaminated food. Because of the high HI (>1.0) of the internal organs of cephalopods and the maximum HI for whole tissue of 0.424, consumers eating internal organs or whole tissues of cephalopods could be at risk of high heavy metal exposure. Therefore, the internal organs of relatively large cephalopods and crabs (except blue crab) are unfit for consumption. However, consumption of flesh after removing internal organs is a suitable approach for decreasing exposure to harmful metals.

  19. Use of the RISK21 roadmap and matrix: human health risk assessment of the use of a pyrethroid in bed netting.

    PubMed

    Doe, John E; Lander, Deborah R; Doerrer, Nancy G; Heard, Nina; Hines, Ronald N; Lowit, Anna B; Pastoor, Timothy; Phillips, Richard D; Sargent, Dana; Sherman, James H; Young Tanir, Jennifer; Embry, Michelle R

    2016-01-01

    The HESI-coordinated RISK21 roadmap and matrix are tools that provide a transparent method to compare exposure and toxicity information and assess whether additional refinement is required to obtain the necessary precision level for a decision regarding safety. A case study of the use of a pyrethroid, "pseudomethrin," in bed netting to control malaria is presented to demonstrate the application of the roadmap and matrix. The evaluation began with a problem formulation step. The first assessment utilized existing information pertaining to the use and the class of chemistry. At each stage of the step-wise approach, the precision of the toxicity and exposure estimates were refined as necessary by obtaining key data which enabled a decision on safety to be made efficiently and with confidence. The evaluation demonstrated the concept of using existing information within the RISK21 matrix to drive the generation of additional data using a value-of-information approach. The use of the matrix highlighted whether exposure or toxicity required further investigation and emphasized the need to address the default uncertainty factor of 100 at the highest tier of the evaluation. It also showed how new methodology such as the use of in vitro studies and assays could be used to answer the specific questions which arise through the use of the matrix. The matrix also serves as a useful means to communicate progress to stakeholders during an assessment of chemical use.

  20. Assessment of human health risk associated with pyaemia in Danish finisher pigs when conducting visual-only inspection of the lungs.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Amanda Brinch; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Skou, Peter Bæk; Alban, Lis

    2015-03-02

    The most important lesion to be overlooked when performing visual-only inspection of the lungs is embolic pneumonia. The aim of the present study was to assess the additional human health risk represented by overlooking cases of pyaemia represented by embolic pneumonia in finisher pigs, when conducting visual-only compared to palpation of the lungs, as is the traditional meat inspection procedure. An examination of bacteria isolated from 19 finisher pigs identified with embolic pneumonia at traditional meat inspection was undertaken. From each pig samples were taken from various organs (lungs, spleen, heart, liver and kidney), from the carpal joints (A. carpi) and flexor muscle (M. flexor digitorum superficialis) on the right foreleg. These data were included in a risk assessment following OIE guidelines. Bacteria were isolated from 78 out of 127 tissue and swap samples taken (61% positive samples). Staphylococcus aureus (N=37) was the most frequently isolated bacterium. The predominant site of S. aureus was the lung. S. aureus was detected although less frequently in low numbers in some organs (<100CFU/sample) and muscle samples (<10CFU/sample). Only one MRSA isolate was found. Staphylococcus warneri (N=24) was the second most commonly found bacterium. There was no predominant site and the number of S. warneri was less than 50CFU per sample. The risk of a food-borne intoxication from S. aureus in relation to pyaemia in pigs was considered very low due to the low quantitative numbers of S. aureus in muscle tissue samples. Implementing visual-only inspection will reduce the exposure of S. aureus due to less cross-contamination and handling of the plucks by the meat inspectors. The human health risk associated with S. warneri was considered very low, due to the limited zoonotic potential of this bacterium. In conclusion, the additional human health risk in relation to possibly overlooking pyaemia in Danish finisher pigs was considered negligible when conducting

  1. APPROACHES FOR INTEGRATED RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recognizing the need to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of risk assessments globally, the WHO International Programme on Chemical Safety, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the European Commission, and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development form...

  2. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: HALOGENATED SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This source category previously subjected to a technology-based standard will be examined to determine if health or ecological risks are significant enough to warrant further regulation for Halogenated Solvent Degreasing Facilities. These assessments utilize existing models and d...

  3. Resources for global risk assessment: the International Toxicity Estimates for Risk (ITER) and Risk Information Exchange (RiskIE) databases.

    PubMed

    Wullenweber, Andrea; Kroner, Oliver; Kohrman, Melissa; Maier, Andrew; Dourson, Michael; Rak, Andrew; Wexler, Philip; Tomljanovic, Chuck

    2008-11-15

    The rate of chemical synthesis and use has outpaced the development of risk values and the resolution of risk assessment methodology questions. In addition, available risk values derived by different organizations may vary due to scientific judgments, mission of the organization, or use of more recently published data. Further, each organization derives values for a unique chemical list so it can be challenging to locate data on a given chemical. Two Internet resources are available to address these issues. First, the International Toxicity Estimates for Risk (ITER) database (www.tera.org/iter) provides chronic human health risk assessment data from a variety of organizations worldwide in a side-by-side format, explains differences in risk values derived by different organizations, and links directly to each organization's website for more detailed information. It is also the only database that includes risk information from independent parties whose risk values have undergone independent peer review. Second, the Risk Information Exchange (RiskIE) is a database of in progress chemical risk assessment work, and includes non-chemical information related to human health risk assessment, such as training modules, white papers and risk documents. RiskIE is available at http://www.allianceforrisk.org/RiskIE.htm, and will join ITER on National Library of Medicine's TOXNET (http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/). Together, ITER and RiskIE provide risk assessors essential tools for easily identifying and comparing available risk data, for sharing in progress assessments, and for enhancing interaction among risk assessment groups to decrease duplication of effort and to harmonize risk assessment procedures across organizations.

  4. Radiation beamline testbeds for the simulation of planetary and spacecraft environments for human and robotic mission risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Richard

    The Center for Radiation Engineering and Science for Space Exploration (CRESSE) at Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, Texas, USA, is establishing an integrated, multi-disciplinary research program on the scientific and engineering challenges faced by NASA and the inter-national space community caused by space radiation. CRESSE focuses on space radiation research directly applicable to astronaut health and safety during future long term, deep space missions, including Martian, lunar, and other planetary body missions beyond low earth orbit. The research approach will consist of experimental and theoretical radiation modeling studies utilizing particle accelerator facilities including: 1. NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory; 2. Proton Synchrotron at Loma Linda University Med-ical Center; and 3. Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Specifically, CRESSE investigators are designing, developing, and building experimental test beds that simulate the lunar and Martian radiation environments for experiments focused on risk assessment for astronauts and instrumentation. The testbeds have been designated the Bioastronautics Experimental Research Testbeds for Environmental Radiation Nostrum Investigations and Education (BERT and ERNIE). The designs of BERT and ERNIE will allow for a high degree of flexibility and adaptability to modify experimental configurations to simulate planetary surface environments, planetary habitats, and spacecraft interiors. In the nominal configuration, BERT and ERIE will consist of a set of experimental zones that will simulate the planetary atmosphere (Solid CO2 in the case of the Martian surface.), the planetary surface, and sub-surface regions. These experimental zones can be used for dosimetry, shielding, biological, and electronic effects radiation studies in support of space exploration missions. BERT and ERNIE are designed to be compatible with the

  5. Radiation Beamline Testbeds for the Simulation of Planetary and Spacecraft Environments for Human and Robotic Mission Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The Center for Radiation Engineering and Science for Space Exploration (CRESSE) at Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, Texas, USA, is establishing an integrated, multi-disciplinary research program on the scientific and engineering challenges faced by NASA and the international space community caused by space radiation. CRESSE focuses on space radiation research directly applicable to astronaut health and safety during future long term, deep space missions, including Martian, lunar, and other planetary body missions beyond low earth orbit. The research approach will consist of experimental and theoretical radiation modeling studies utilizing particle accelerator facilities including: 1. NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory; 2. Proton Synchrotron at Loma Linda University Medical Center; and 3. Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Specifically, CRESSE investigators are designing, developing, and building experimental test beds that simulate the lunar and Martian radiation environments for experiments focused on risk assessment for astronauts and instrumentation. The testbeds have been designated the Bioastronautics Experimental Research Testbeds for Environmental Radiation Nostrum Investigations and Education (BERT and ERNIE). The designs of BERT and ERNIE will allow for a high degree of flexibility and adaptability to modify experimental configurations to simulate planetary surface environments, planetary habitats, and spacecraft interiors. In the nominal configuration, BERT and ERIE will consist of a set of experimental zones that will simulate the planetary atmosphere (Solid CO2 in the case of the Martian surface.), the planetary surface, and sub-surface regions. These experimental zones can be used for dosimetry, shielding, biological, and electronic effects radiation studies in support of space exploration missions. BERT and ERNIE are designed to be compatible with the

  6. The risk assessment information system

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, S.B.; Bonczek, R.R.; McGinn, C.W.; Land, M.L.; Bloom, L.D.; Sample, B.E.; Dolislager, F.G.

    1998-06-01

    In an effort to provide service-oriented environmental risk assessment expertise, the Department of Energy (DOE) Center for Risk Excellence (CRE) and DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) are sponsoring Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop a web-based system for disseminating risk tools and information to its users. This system, the Risk Assessment Information System (RAIS), was initially developed to support the site-specific needs of the DOE-ORO Environmental Restoration Risk Assessment Program. With support from the CRE, the system is currently being expanded to benefit all DOE risk information users and can be tailored to meet site-specific needs. Taking advantage of searchable and executable databases, menu-driven queries, and data downloads, using the latest World Wide Web technologies, the RAIS offers essential tools that are used in the risk assessment process or anywhere from project scoping to implementation. The RAIS tools can be located directly at http://risk.lsd.ornl.gov/homepage/rap{_}tool.htm or through the CRE`s homepage at http://www.doe.gov/riskcenter/home.html.

  7. Carcinogen risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hazelwoold, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    This article describes the methods by which risk factors for carcinogenic hazards are determined and the limitations inherent in the process. From statistical and epidemiological studies, the major identifiable factors related to cancer in the United States were determined to be cigarette smoking, diet, reproductive and sexual behavior, infections, ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, and alcohol consumption. The incidence of lung cancer due to air pollutants was estimated to be less than 2%. Research needs were discussed.

  8. A Reexamination of the PPAR-α Activation Mode of Action as a Basis for Assessing Human Cancer Risks of Environmental Contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Bateson, Thomas F.; Jinot, Jennifer; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Brown, Rebecca C.; Caldwell, Jane C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Diverse environmental contaminants, including the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), are hepatocarcinogenic peroxisome proliferators in rodents. Peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) activation and its sequelae have been proposed to constitute a mode of action (MOA) for hepatocarcinogenesis by such agents as a sole causative factor. Further, based on a hypothesized lower sensitivity of humans to this MOA, prior reviews have concluded that rodent hepatocarcinogenesis by PPAR-α agonists is irrelevant to human carcinogenic risk. Data synthesis Herein, we review recent studies that experimentally challenge the PPAR-α activation MOA hypothesis, providing evidence that DEHP is hepatocarcinogenic in PPAR-α–null mice and that the MOA but not hepatocarcinogenesis is evoked by PPAR-α activation in a transgenic mouse model. We further examine whether relative potency for PPAR-α activation or other steps in the MOA correlates with tumorigenic potency. In addition, for most PPAR-α agonists of environmental concern, available data are insufficient to characterize relative human sensitivity to this rodent MOA or to induction of hepatocarcinogenesis. Conclusions Our review and analyses raise questions about the hypothesized PPAR-α activation MOA as a sole explanation for rodent hepatocarcinogenesis by PPAR-α agonists and therefore its utility as a primary basis for assessing human carcinogenic risk from the diverse compounds that activate PPAR-α. These findings have broad implications for how MOA hypotheses are developed, tested, and applied in human health risk assessment. We discuss alternatives to the current approaches to these key aspects of mechanistic data evaluation. PMID:20049115

  9. Blue print for building a risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Otsuki, H.K.; Eagan-McNeill, E.

    1997-05-01

    Federal and stet regulations require the operator of a miscellaneous waste treatment unit to demonstrate compliance with environmental performance standard. A sample risk assessment is demonstrated as a means of showing compliance for such a treatment unit. A new Open Burning and Open Detonation (OB/OD) facility for explosive wastes at LLNL experimental site is used. Simplified, the process of performing a risk assessment consists of characterization of the treatment operation and estimation of emission rates; evaluation of the emission dispersion to estimate acute exposure; and evaluation of human and environmental risks. Each step may require the environmental analysts to perform detained date gathering, modeling and calculations, and to negotiate with facility operations personnel and regulatory representatives. The Risk Assessment Protocol, which explains the assumptions, model selection and inputs, and data selection, must ultimately withstand the rigors of regulatory review and public scrutiny.s

  10. Groundwater abstraction pollution risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Lytton, L; Howe, S; Sage, R; Greenaway, P

    2003-01-01

    A generic groundwater pollution risk assessment methodology has been developed to enable the evaluation and ranking of the potential risk of pollution to groundwater abstractions. The ranking can then be used to prioritise risk management or mitigation procedures in a robust and quantifiable framework and thus inform business investment decisions. The risk assessment consider the three components of the pollution transport model: source-pathway-receptor. For groundwater abstractions these correspond to land use (with associated pollutants and shallow subsurface characteristics), aquifer and the abstraction borehole. An hierarchical approach was chosen to allow the risk assessment to be successfully carried out with different quality data for different parts of the model. The 400-day groundwater protection zone defines the catchment boundary that form the spatial limit of the land use audit for each receptor. A risk score is obtained for each land use (potential pollution source) within the catchment. These scores are derived by considering the characteristics (such as load, persistence and toxicity) of all pollutants pertaining to each land use, their on-site management and the potential for the unsaturated subsurface to attenuate their effects in the event of a release. Risk scores are also applied to the aquifer characteristics (as pollutant pathway) and to the abstraction borehole (as pollutant receptor). Each risk score is accompanied by an uncertainty score which provides a guide to the confidence in the data used to compile the risk assessment. The application of the methodology has highlighted a number of problems in this type of work and results of initial case studies are being used to trial alternative scoring methods and a more simplified approach to accelerate the process of pollution risk assessment.

  11. Current Challenges in Neurotoxicity Risk Assessment ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Neurotoxicity risk assessment must continue to evolve in parallel with advances in basic research. Along with this evolution is an expansion in the scope of neurotoxicity assessments of environmental health risks. Examples of this expansion include an increasing emphasis on complex animal models that better replicate human behavior and a wider array of molecular and mechanistic data relevant to interpreting the underlying cause(s) of toxicity. However, modern neurotoxicology studies are often more nuanced and complicated than traditional studies, and they often vary considerably in evaluation methods from one study to the next, impeding comparisons. This can pose particular difficulties for risk assessors, especially given the recent demand for chemical risk assessments to be more systematic and transparent. This presentation will introduce and provide some examples of specific challenges in neurotoxicity assessments of environmental chemicals. Some of these challenges are relatively new to the field, such as the incorporation of data on neuron-supportive glial cells into hazard characterization, while other challenges have persisted for several decades, but only recently are studies being designed to evaluate them, including analyses of latent neurotoxicity. The examples provided illustrate some future research areas of interest for scientists and risk assessors examining human neurotoxicity risk. This abstract will be presented to internal U.S. Food and Drug A

  12. Taking the Risk Out of Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The ability to understand risks and have the right strategies in place when risky events occur is essential in the workplace. More and more organizations are being confronted with concerns over how to measure their risks or what kind of risks they can take when certain events transpire that could have a negative impact. NASA is one organization that faces these challenges on a daily basis, as effective risk management is critical to the success of its missions especially the Space Shuttle missions. On July 29, 1996, former NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin charged NASA s Office of Safety and Mission Assurance with developing a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) tool to support decisions on the funding of Space Shuttle upgrades. When issuing the directive, Goldin said, "Since I came to NASA [in 1992], we've spent billions of dollars on Shuttle upgrades without knowing how much they improve safety. I want a tool to help base upgrade decisions on risk." Work on the PRA tool began immediately. The resulting prototype, the Quantitative Risk Assessment System (QRAS) Version 1.0, was jointly developed by NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center, its Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, and researchers at the University of Maryland. QRAS software automatically expands the reliability logic models of systems to evaluate the probability of highly detrimental outcomes occurring in complex systems that are subject to potential accident scenarios. Even in its earliest forms, QRAS was used to begin PRA modeling of the Space Shuttle. In parallel, the development of QRAS continued, with the goal of making it a world-class tool, one that was especially suited to NASA s unique needs. From the beginning, an important conceptual goal in the development of QRAS was for it to help bridge the gap between the professional risk analyst and the design engineer. In the past, only the professional risk analyst could perform, modify, use, and perhaps even adequately understand PRA. NASA wanted

  13. Uncertainty and sensitivity assessment of flood risk assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Moel, H.; Aerts, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    Floods are one of the most frequent and costly natural disasters. In order to protect human lifes and valuable assets from the effect of floods many defensive structures have been build. Despite these efforts economic losses due to catastrophic flood events have, however, risen substantially during the past couple of decades because of continuing economic developments in flood prone areas. On top of that, climate change is expected to affect the magnitude and frequency of flood events. Because these ongoing trends are expected to continue, a transition can be observed in various countries to move from a protective flood management approach to a more risk based flood management approach. In a risk based approach, flood risk assessments play an important role in supporting decision making. Most flood risk assessments assess flood risks in monetary terms (damage estimated for specific situations or expected annual damage) in order to feed cost-benefit analysis of management measures. Such flood risk assessments contain, however, considerable uncertainties. This is the result from uncertainties in the many different input parameters propagating through the risk assessment and accumulating in the final estimate. Whilst common in some other disciplines, as with integrated assessment models, full uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of flood risk assessments are not so common. Various studies have addressed uncertainties regarding flood risk assessments, but have mainly focussed on the hydrological conditions. However, uncertainties in other components of the risk assessment, like the relation between water depth and monetary damage, can be substantial as well. This research therefore tries to assess the uncertainties of all components of monetary flood risk assessments, using a Monte Carlo based approach. Furthermore, the total uncertainty will also be attributed to the different input parameters using a variance based sensitivity analysis. Assessing and visualizing the

  14. Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Risk Assessment

    MedlinePlus

    ... HRS Find a Specialist Share Twitter Facebook SCA Risk Assessment Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) occurs abruptly and without ... people of all ages and health conditions. Start Risk Assessment The Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Risk Assessment Tool ...

  15. Cancer risk assessment of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) via indoor and outdoor dust based on probit model.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yuan; Shao, Dingding; Li, Ning; Yang, Gelin; Zhang, Qiuyun; Zeng, Lixuan; Luo, Jiwen; Zhong, Wenfeng

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor dust and outdoor dust including road and window dust around the traffic road in Hunan Province, China, were sampled and detected. The ∑PAHs in indoor dust ranged from 5007-24,236 ng g(-1), with a median of 14,049 ng g(-1). The ∑PAHs in road dust ranged from 3644-12,875 ng g(-1), with a median of 10,559 ng g(-1). The ∑PAHs in window dust ranged from 803-12,590 ng g(-1), with a median of 5459 ng g(-1). Similar pattern of PAHs was observed in road and window dust except in H3W and H4W samples, which was dominated by naphthalene (Nap), benzo(b+k)fluoranthene (B(b+k)F), phenanthrene (Phe), and fluorine (Fle). Indoor dust showed slightly different PAHs profiles, which was dominated by Nap, fluoranthene (Fla) and Phe. Risk assessment indicated that dermal contact and dust ingestion exposure pathways were more important than the inhalation pathway. Cancer risk of PAHs via dust varied from 2.73 × 10(-8)-8.04 × 10(-6), with a median of 2.06 × 10(-6) for children, and from 2 × 10(-8)-5.89 × 10(-6), with a median of 1.52 × 10(-6) for adult. Probit model showed that 76 and 71 % of samples in the sampling area would result in the risk of children and adult exposure to PAHs via dust higher than the acceptable level (1 × 10(-6)), respectively.

  16. Fukushima's lessons from the blue butterfly: A risk assessment of the human living environment in the post-Fukushima era.

    PubMed

    Otaki, Joji M

    2016-10-01

    A series of studies on the pale grass blue butterfly that were carried out to assess the biological effects of the Fukushima nuclear accident teach 3 important lessons. First, it is necessary to have an environmental indicator species, such as the pale grass blue butterfly in Japan, that is common (not endangered), shares a living environment (air, water, and soil) with humans, and is amenable to laboratory experiments. The monitoring of such indicator species before and immediately after a nuclear accident likely reflects acute impacts caused by initial exposure. To assess transgenerational and chronic effects, continuous monitoring over time is encouraged. Second, it is important to understand the actual health status of a polluted region and comprehend the whole picture of the pollution impacts, rather than focusing on the selected effects of radiation alone. In our butterfly experiments, plant leaves from Fukushima were fed to larval butterflies to access whole-body effects, focusing on survival rate and morphological abnormalities (rather than focusing on a specific disease or biochemical marker). Our results revealed that ionizing radiation is unlikely to be the exclusive source of environmental disturbances. Airborne particulate matter from a nuclear reactor, regardless of its radioactivity, is likely equally important. Finally, our butterfly experiments demonstrate that there is considerable variation in sensitivities to nuclear pollution within a single species or even within a local population. Based on these results, it is speculated that high pollution sensitivity in humans may be caused not only by low levels of functional DNA repair enzymes but also by immunological responses to particulate matter in the respiratory tract. These lessons from the pale grass blue butterfly should be integrated in studying future nuclear pollution events and decision making on nuclear and environmental policies at the local and international levels in the post

  17. Comparison of toxicogenomics and traditional approaches to inform mode of action and points of departure in human health risk assessment of benzo[a]pyrene in drinking water

    PubMed Central

    Labib, Sarah; Bourdon-Lacombe, Julie; Kuo, Byron; Buick, Julie K.; Lemieux, France; Williams, Andrew; Halappanavar, Sabina; Malik, Amal; Luijten, Mirjam; Aubrecht, Jiri; Hyduke, Daniel R.; Fornace, Albert J.; Swartz, Carol D.; Recio, Leslie; Yauk, Carole L.

    2015-01-01

    Toxicogenomics is proposed to be a useful tool in human health risk assessment. However, a systematic comparison of traditional risk assessment approaches with those applying toxicogenomics has never been done. We conducted a case study to evaluate the utility of toxicogenomics in the risk assessment of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a well-studied carcinogen, for drinking water exposures. Our study was intended to compare methodologies, not to evaluate drinking water safety. We compared traditional (RA1), genomics-informed (RA2) and genomics-only (RA3) approaches. RA2 and RA3 applied toxicogenomics data from human cell cultures and mice exposed to BaP to determine if these data could provide insight into BaP's mode of action (MOA) and derive tissue-specific points of departure (POD). Our global gene expression analysis supported that BaP is genotoxic in mice and allowed the development of a detailed MOA. Toxicogenomics analysis in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells demonstrated a high degree of consistency in perturbed pathways with animal tissues. Quantitatively, the PODs for traditional and transcriptional approaches were similar (liver 1.2 vs. 1.0 mg/kg-bw/day; lung 0.8 vs. 3.7 mg/kg-bw/day; forestomach 0.5 vs. 7.4 mg/kg-bw/day). RA3, which applied toxicogenomics in the absence of apical toxicology data, demonstrates that this approach provides useful information in data-poor situations. Overall, our study supports the use of toxicogenomics as a relatively fast and cost-effective tool for hazard identification, preliminary evaluation of potential carcinogens, and carcinogenic potency, in addition to identifying current limitations and practical questions for future work. PMID:25605026

  18. Comparison of toxicogenomics and traditional approaches to inform mode of action and points of departure in human health risk assessment of benzo[a]pyrene in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Moffat, Ivy; Chepelev, Nikolai L; Labib, Sarah; Bourdon-Lacombe, Julie; Kuo, Byron; Buick, Julie K; Lemieux, France; Williams, Andrew; Halappanavar, Sabina; Malik, Amal I; Luijten, Mirjam; Aubrecht, Jiri; Hyduke, Daniel R; Fornace, Albert J; Swartz, Carol D; Recio, Leslie; Yauk, Carole L

    2015-01-01

    Toxicogenomics is proposed to be a useful tool in human health risk assessment. However, a systematic comparison of traditional risk assessment approaches with those applying toxicogenomics has never been done. We conducted a case study to evaluate the utility of toxicogenomics in the risk assessment of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a well-studied carcinogen, for drinking water exposures. Our study was intended to compare methodologies, not to evaluate drinking water safety. We compared traditional (RA1), genomics-informed (RA2) and genomics-only (RA3) approaches. RA2 and RA3 applied toxicogenomics data from human cell cultures and mice exposed to BaP to determine if these data could provide insight into BaP's mode of action (MOA) and derive tissue-specific points of departure (POD). Our global gene expression analysis supported that BaP is genotoxic in mice and allowed the development of a detailed MOA. Toxicogenomics analysis in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells demonstrated a high degree of consistency in perturbed pathways with animal tissues. Quantitatively, the PODs for traditional and transcriptional approaches were similar (liver 1.2 vs. 1.0 mg/kg-bw/day; lungs 0.8 vs. 3.7 mg/kg-bw/day; forestomach 0.5 vs. 7.4 mg/kg-bw/day). RA3, which applied toxicogenomics in the absence of apical toxicology data, demonstrates that this approach provides useful information in data-poor situations. Overall, our study supports the use of toxicogenomics as a relatively fast and cost-effective tool for hazard identification, preliminary evaluation of potential carcinogens, and carcinogenic potency, in addition to identifying current limitations and practical questions for future work.

  19. Screening-level ecological and human health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in stormwater detention pond sediments of Coastal South Carolina, USA.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, John E; Crawford, Kevin D; Garner, Thomas R; Flemming, Alan J

    2010-06-15

    Screening-level ecological and human health assessments were performed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the sediments of 19 stormwater detention ponds located in coastal South Carolina. For ecological screening benchmarks, we used threshold and probable effect concentrations (TEC and PEC) derived from consensus-based sediment quality guidelines for individual PAH analytes and equilibrium partitioning sediment benchmarks-toxic units (SigmaESB-TU) derived for PAH mixtures. For human health benchmarks, we used preliminary remediation goals (PRGs). Sediments of five stormwater ponds (four commercial ponds and one residential pond with a large drainage area) exceeded PEC values for several PAH analytes and the SigmaESB-TU safe value of 1 for PAH mixtures. These same five stormwater ponds also exceeded the PRG values for five carcinogenic PAH analytes. These results suggest that the PAH levels in sediments from certain commercial and residential ponds have the potential to pose moderate to high risks for adverse, chronic effects to benthic organisms in situ and an increased risk of cancer to humans ex situ following excavation and on-site disposal. We recommend that sediment from these stormwater ponds be tested prior to excavation to determine the appropriate method of disposal. We also recommend that regulatory agencies enforce guidelines for periodic sediment removal as this should reduce both in situ and ex situ risks resulting from sediment PAH exposure.

  20. Risk assessment methodologies for biotechnology impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillett, James W.

    1986-07-01

    By combining hazard assessment of effects of a potential biotechnology product with exposure assessments based on study of the genetically engineered organism's fate, conclusions may be reached about the risk involved in release of the product to the environment. In order to make this risk assessment, criteria (including regulatory endpoints) must be established and then developed further against a data base from well-accepted tests. Other aspects requiring research and development include test evaluation, quality assurance, statistical procedures, and methods of identifying and monitoring not only the nominal organism(s) in the products, but also any contaminating material or organisms to which the genetically engineered components may be transferred in the environment. Application of microcosm technology to testing of genetically engineered organisms is expected to be important, since these systems may be used safely to understand fate and effects prior to (or in place of) testing the product in the environment. Limitations in the use of microcosms may be offset by the cost-effectiveness and incisiveness of results, as has been shown for other pollutants. Risk management for biotechnology products currently lacks an adequate background, but components of the process exist or can be developed. New resources, in terms of personnel, training, facilities, and funding, will be needed in order to apply the risk assessment paradigm used for toxic chemicals and pesticides. We will need to know:

  1. INTEGRATING EPIDEMIOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY IN NEUROTOXICITY RISK ASSESSMENT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurotoxicity risk assessments depend on the best available scientific information, including data from animal toxicity, human experimental studies and human epidemiology studies. There are several factors to consider when evaluating the comparability of data from studies. Reg...

  2. Human System Risk Management for Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    This brief abstract reviews the development of the current day approach to human system risk management for space flight and the development of the critical components of this process over the past few years. The human system risk management process now provides a comprehensive assessment of each human system risk by design reference mission (DRM) and is evaluated not only for mission success but also for long-term health impacts for the astronauts. The discipline of bioastronautics is the study of the biological and medical effects of space flight on humans. In 1997, the Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) initiated the Bioastronautics Roadmap (Roadmap) as the "Critical Path Roadmap", and in 1998 participation in the roadmap was expanded to include the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) and the external community. A total of 55 risks and 250 questions were identified and prioritized and in 2000, the Roadmap was base-lined and put under configuration control. The Roadmap took into account several major advisory committee reviews including the Institute of Medicine (IOM) "Safe Passage: Astronaut care for Exploration Missions", 2001. Subsequently, three collaborating organizations at NASA HQ (Chief Health and Medical Officer, Office of Space Flight and Office of Biological & Physical Research), published the Bioastronautics Strategy in 2003, that identified the human as a "critical subsystem of space flight" and noted that "tolerance limits and safe operating bands must be established" to enable human space flight. These offices also requested a review by the IOM of the Roadmap and that review was published in October 2005 as "A Risk Reduction Strategy for Human Exploration of Space: A Review of NASA's Bioastronautics Roadmap", that noted several strengths and weaknesses of the Roadmap and made several recommendations. In parallel with the development of the Roadmap, the Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer (OCHMO) began a process in

  3. Evolutionary Consequences for Ecological Risk Assessment and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gochfeld, Michael; Burger, Joanna

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the use of the human health risk assessment model as a basis for developing ecological risk assessment (ERA). For ERA, risk to individuals is less important than the survival of the population, with the exception of endangered species. Suggests that ERA take into account the relative reproductive value of the potentially impacted…

  4. FRAMEWORK FOR INORGANIC METALS RISK ASSESSMENT - 1/2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA¿s Risk Assessment Forum has prepared a framework to guide risk assessors in assessing human and ecological risks of inorganic metals. Metals and metal compounds have properties not generally encountered with organic chemicals. For example, metals are neither created nor d...

  5. ORAMUS(WINDOWS). Ozone Risk AssessMent Utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Whitfield, R.G.; Jusko, M.J.; Biller, W.F.

    1998-12-01

    ORAMUS is a user-friendly, menu-driven software system that calculates and displays user-selected risk estimates for health effects attributable to short-term exposure to tropospheric ozone. Inputs to the risk assessment are estimates of exposure to ozone and exposure-response relationships to produce overall risk estimates in the form of probability distributions. Three fundamental models are included: headcount risk, benchmark risk, and hospital admissions. Exposure-response relationships are based on results of controlled human exposure studies. Exposure estimates are based on the EPA`s probabilistic national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) exposure model, pNEM/Osub3, which simulates air quality associated with attainment of alternative NAAQS. Using ORAMUS, risk results for 27 air quality scenarios, air quality in 9 urban areas, 33 health endpoints, and 4 chronic health endpoints can be calculated.

  6. ORAMUS(DOS). Ozone Risk AssessMent Utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Whitfield, R.G.; Jusko, M.J.; Biller, W.F.

    1998-12-01

    ORAMUS is a user-friendly, menu-driven software system that calculates and displays user-selected risk estimates for health effects attributable to short-term exposure to tropospheric ozone. Inputs to the risk assessment are estimates of exposure to ozone and exposure-response relationships to produce overall risk estimates in the form of probability distributions. Three fundamental models are included: headcount risk, benchmark risk, and hospital admissions. Exposure-response relationships are based on results of controlled human exposure studies. Exposure estimates are based on the EPA`s probabilistic national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) exposure model, pNEM/Osub3, which simulates air quality associated with attainment of alternative NAAQS. Using ORAMUS, risk results for 27 air quality scenarios, air quality in 9 urban areas, 33 acute health endpoints, and 4 chronic health endpoints can be calculated.

  7. TSCA Work Plan Chemical Risk Assessment: 1 ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    1-Bromopropane (CASRN 106-94-5): or 1-BP is a volatile organic chemical that is considered moderately persistent in the environment but does not have the potential to bioaccumulate in fish or other animals. The majority of the 1-BP production volume (~ 47%) is used as a vapor degreaser for optics electronics, plastics, and metals. 1-BP also is used as an aerosol solvent in cleaning products, as a spray fixative in arts and crafts, and as a spot cleaner in various industrial/commercial/consumer sectors. Focus of the Risk Assessment: The assessment will focus on uses of 1-BP in commercial (i.e., vapor degreasing, spray adhesives, and dry cleaning) and consumer applications (i.e., aerosol solvent cleaners and spray adhesives). Given the range of endpoints (i.e., cancer, non-cancer; the latter includes potential effects on the developing fetus), susceptible populations are expected to include adults (including pregnant women) in commercial uses and children (as bystanders) and adults of all ages (including pregnant women) for consumer uses. Thus, the assessment will focus on all humans/lifestages. EPA anticipates issuing draft risk assessments for public review and comment as they are completed. At the conclusion of the review process, if an assessment of specific uses indicates significant risk, EPA will evaluate and pursue appropriate risk reduction actions, as warranted. If an assessment indicates no significant risk, EPA will conclude its work on the a

  8. Earthquake Risk Assessment and Risk Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liechti, D.; Zbinden, A.; Rüttener, E.

    Research on risk assessment of natural catastrophes is very important for estimating its economical and social impact. The loss potentials of such disasters (e.g. earthquake and storms) for property owners, insurance and nationwide economies are driven by the hazard, the damageability (vulnerability) of buildings and infrastructures and depend on the ability to transfer these losses to different parties. In addition, the geographic distribution of the exposed values, the uncertainty of building vulnerability and the individual deductible are main factors determining the size of a loss. The deductible is the key element that steers the distribution of losses between insured and insurer. Therefore the risk analysis concentrates on deductible and vulnerability of insured buildings and maps their variations to allow efficient decisions. With consideration to stochastic event sets, the corresponding event losses can be modelled as expected loss grades of a Beta probability density function. Based on deductible and standard deviation of expected loss grades, the loss for the insured and for the insurer can be quantified. In addition, the varying deductible impact on different geographic regions can be described. This analysis has been carried out for earthquake insurance portfolios with various building types and different deductibles. Besides quantifying loss distributions between insured and insurer based on uncertainty assumptions and deductible consideration, mapping yields ideas to optimise the risk transfer process and can be used for developing risk mitigation strategies.

  9. Health Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The implementation of Superfund requires a methodology for estimating health risk from multi-chemical contamination at ambient levels. Most often, the chemical composition of these mixtures is poorly characterized, exposure data are uncertain and toxicologic data on the known components of the mixture are limited. However, a potential human health hazard may exist and the U.S.EPA, state and local governments need to be able to assess the total hazard in order to make decisions on appropriate action. This report describes a procedure for assessing the risks from chemical mixtures that includes options when different kinds of data are available. Good-quality information on the mixture of concern or a similar mixture should always be used. Less desirable, but still useful approach, is to utilize data on components and their interactions. The quality of exposure and toxicity data must be determined and the uncertainties involved in each risk assessment must be thoroughly discussed. ater contamination is briefly discussed since it is of vital concern as the primary exposure medium for chemical mixtures. The methodology for estimating the human health risk from single chemicals, both carcinogens and systemic toxicants, is reviewed as it forms the basis for the assessment of mixtures. The Implementation of Superfund requires a methodology for estimating health risk from multi-chemical contamination at ambient levels. Most often, the chemical composition of these mix

  10. Feasibility study to support a threshold of sensitization concern concept in risk assessment based on human data.

    PubMed

    Keller, Detlef; Krauledat, Matthias; Scheel, Julia

    2009-12-01

    In analogy to the Threshold of Toxicological Concern concept, a Threshold of Sensitization Concern (TSC) concept is proposed for chemicals with respect to their ability to induce an allergic contact dermatitis. Recently, the derivation of a dermal sensitization threshold was suggested based on an evaluation of animal data. In order to establish the concept with human data, we conducted a meta-analysis taking into account No Expected Sensitization Induction Levels for fragrance ingredients from the IFRA/RIFM dataset. Based on a statistical analysis by applying Sensitization Assessment Factors that account for interindividual variability and different exposure conditions, TSC values of 0.91 or 0.30 lg/cm2 can be derived in terms of amount per skin area. TSC values are compared with typical exposure levels of cosmetic products. A substance can be considered to be virtually safe if the quotient of exposure level and TSC is < 1. The findings derived from human data include several conservative assumptions and largely support the dermal sensitization thresholds previously derived from animal data. The TSC concept might in principle be used for any untested chemical and therefore help in some cases to waive animal testing.

  11. Transmission risk of human trichinellosis.

    PubMed

    Takumi, Katsuhisa; Teunis, Peter; Fonville, Manoj; Vallee, Isabelle; Boireau, Pascal; Nöckler, Karsten; van der Giessen, Joke

    2009-02-23

    Trichinella is a food-borne parasitic zoonoses and human cases are still reported in Europe mainly due to the consumption of pig meat originating from small backyard farms. Infections originating from industrialized pig farming have not been reported for decades in Europe, due to control measures to prevent the transmission of Trichinella from wildlife by indoor housing and good management practices. Therefore, risk-based monitoring programs might replace individual carcass control in industrialized pig farming as described in EU legislation SANCO 2075/2005. Transmission of Trichinella species between wildlife and the risk that may pose to humans via consumption of contaminated pork meat has not been studied quantitatively. One pathway by which human trichinellosis can occur is the rat-pig-human route. To evaluate the transmission risk though this pathway the dose responses of rat, pig, and human were studied. Experimental T. spiralis infection was performed in rats with doses of as few as 10 parasites and the data set was analysed using a newly developed dose response model that describes larvae per gram (LPG). Experimental T. spiralis infection in pig was analysed in a similar way. Furthermore nine published outbreaks of human trichinellosis were analysed to determine the dose response in humans. The risk of human trichinellosis via the rat-pig-human transmission was simulated by the Monte Carlo method. A pair of female and male parasites representing the lowest infection pressure from the environment, led to the probability of human trichinellosis by consumption of 100g of raw pork meat equal to 5% via the studied rat-pig-human pathway. In the absence of rodent control near the farm, a low infection pressure from wildlife presents a relatively high risk of human trichinellosis via consumption of uncooked pork meat.

  12. Toxic substances and human risk: principles of data interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Tardiff, R.G.; Rodricks, J.V.

    1988-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the relationship between toxicology and risk assessment and identifying the principles that should be used to evaluate toxicological data for human risk assessment. The book opens by distinguishing between the practice of toxicology as a science (observational and data-gathering activities) and its practice as an art (predictive or risk-estimating activities). This dichotomous nature produces the two elemental problems with which users of toxicological data must grapple. First, how relevant are data provided by the science of toxicology to assessment of human health risks. Second, what methods of data interpretation should be used to formulate hypotheses or predictions regarding human health risk.

  13. Screening and human health risk assessment of pharmaceuticals and their transformation products in Dutch surface waters and drinking water.

    PubMed

    de Jongh, Cindy M; Kooij, Pascal J F; de Voogt, Pim; ter Laak, Thomas L

    2012-06-15

    Numerous studies describe the presence of pharmaceuticals in the water cycle, while their transformation products are usually not included. In the current study 17 common pharmaceuticals and 9 transformation products were monitored in the Dutch waters, including surface waters, pre-treated surface waters, river bank filtrates, two groundwater samples affected by surface water and drinking waters. In these samples, 12 pharmaceuticals and 7 transformation products were present. Concentrations were generally highest in surface waters, intermediate in treated surface waters and river bank filtrates and lowest or not detected in produced drinking water. However, the concentrations of phenazone and its environmental transformation product AMPH were significantly higher in river bank filtrates, which is likely due to historical contamination. Fairly constant ratios were observed between concentrations of transformation products and parent pharmaceuticals. This might enable prediction of concentrations of transformation products from concentrations of parent pharmaceuticals. The toxicological relevance of the observed pharmaceuticals and transformation products was assessed by deriving (i) a substance specific provisional guideline value (pGLV) and (ii) a group pGLV for groups of related compounds were under the assumption of additivity of effects within each group. A substantial margin exists between the maximum summed concentrations of these compounds present in different water types and the derived (group) pGLVs. Based on the results of this limited screening campaign no adverse health effects of the studied compounds are expected in (sources of) drinking water in the Netherlands. The presence of transformation products with similar pharmacological activities and concentration levels as their parents illustrates the relevance of monitoring transformation products, and including these in risk assessment. More thorough monitoring yielding information on statistical

  14. A comparative human health risk assessment of p-dichlorobenzene-based toilet rimblock products versus fragrance/surfactant-based alternatives.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Dallas B; Bosch, Stephen; Gray, D Anthony; Howard, Philip H; Guiney, Patrick D

    2007-10-01

    A comparison of the human health risk to consumers using one of two types of toilet rimblock products, either a p-dichlorobenzene-based rimblock or two newer fragrance/surfactant-based alternatives, was conducted. Rimblock products are designed for global use by consumers worldwide and function by releasing volatile compounds into indoor air with subsequent exposure presumed to be mainly by inhalation of indoor air. Using the THERdbASE exposure model and experimentally determined emission data, indoor air concentrations and daily intake values were determined for both types of rimblock products. Modeled exposure concentrations from a representative p-dichlorobenzene rimblock product are an order of magnitude higher than those from the alternative rimblock products due to its nearly pure composition and high sublimation rate. Lifetime exposure to p-dichlorobenzene or the subset of fragrance components with available RfD values is not expected to lead to non-cancer-based adverse health effects based on the exposure concentrations estimated using the THERdbASE model. A similar comparison of cancer-based effects was not possible as insufficient data were available for the fragrance components.

  15. Assessment of human health risk for heavy metals in fish and shrimp collected from Subarnarekha river, India.

    PubMed

    Giri, Soma; Singh, Abhay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Five fish species and one shrimp species from the Subarnarekha river were analyzed for heavy metals using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The geometric mean concentration of As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, Zn, Cr, Co, and Sr for all the samples was found to be 0.248, 0.031, 5.16, 104.9, 0.121, 4.68, 52.2, 0.784, 0.207, and 42.86 mg kg(-1)fresh, respectively. The concentrations of metals in the fish and shrimp exceed the limits of Indian and FAO standards for food for As, Cu, Ni, Cd, and Zn in many samples. The mean target hazard quotient (THQ) values for the 10 metals were below one for all the samples; however, the maximum THQ was more than one for shrimp in case of As, Cu, and Cr. The results indicate that the concentration of metals in some species, especially shrimp, at some locations is alarming and do present an appreciable hazard risk on human health.

  16. A retrospective approach to assess human health risks associated with growing air pollution in urbanized area of Thar Desert, western Rajasthan, India

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution has been a matter of great concern globally because of the associated health risks to individua