Science.gov

Sample records for assessing individual interethnic

  1. Self-Assessed Intelligence: Inter-Ethnic, Rural-Urban, and Sex Differences in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined inter-ethnic, rural-urban, and sex differences in self-assessed intelligence (SAI) in a Malaysian general population sample. In total, 633 individuals varying in rural or urban location, ethnicity (Malay, Kadazan, and Bajau), and sex (women versus men) provided their self-assessed overall intelligence and ten multiple…

  2. Assessing interethnic admixture using an X-linked insertion-deletion multiplex.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Elzemar Martins; dos Santos, Ney Pereira Carneiro; dos Santos, Andrea Kely Campos Ribeiro; Pereira, Rui; Amorim, António; Gusmão, Leonor; Zago, Marco Antonio; dos Santos, Sidney Emanuel Batista

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a PCR multiplex was optimized, allowing the simultaneous analysis of 13 X-chromosome Insertion/deletion polymorphisms (INDELs). Genetic variation observed in Africans, Europeans, and Native Americans reveals high inter-population variability. The estimated proportions of X-chromosomes in an admixed population from the Brazilian Amazon region show a predominant Amerindian contribution (approximately 41%), followed by European (approximately 32%) and African (approximately 27%) contributions. The proportion of Amerindian contribution based on X-linked data is similar to the expected value based on mtDNA and Y-chromosome information. The accuracy for assessing interethnic admixture, and the high differentiation between African, European, and Native American populations, demonstrates the suitability of this INDEL set to measure ancestry proportions in three-hybrid populations, as it is the case of Latin American populations.

  3. Relationship Quality in Interethnic Marriages and Cohabitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohmann-Marriott, Bryndl E.; Amato, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on the factors underlying differences in relationship quality between interethnic and same-ethnic couples. Using the National Survey of Families and Households and the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, we examine relationship satisfaction, interpartner conflict and subjective assessments of relationship instability in…

  4. Psychological essentialism and nationalism as determinants of interethnic bias.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Saori; Enright, Joe; Karasawa, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether individuals without strong national identity (i.e., low nationalism) would be susceptible to temporarily elicited essentialism to alter their mental representations of ethnic boundaries, and thus increase interethnic bias. To test these ideas we experimentally induced essentialist beliefs among Japanese subjects about the boundary between Japanese and Chinese ethnicities, while measuring the strength of nationalism as an individual variable. The results were generally consistent with predictions, suggesting that the activation of essentialist beliefs can strengthen interethnic biases among people without strong nationalism.

  5. Latinos' Perceptions of Interethnic Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Amber L.; Riggio, Heidi R.; Palavinelu, Subha; Culpepper, Lane Locher

    2012-01-01

    Numerous survey findings indicate that the majority of White Americans are accepting of interracial romantic relationships. However, relatively few studies have looked at how different American ethnic minority groups view such relationships. The current research examined Latinos' evaluations of intraethnic and interethnic couples. Latino…

  6. Interethnic Romantic Relationships: Enacting Affiliative Ethnic Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yodanis, Carrie; Lauer, Sean; Ota, Risako

    2012-01-01

    Through in-depth interviews with respondents who were in interethnic relationships (N = 28), the authors extended and refined a new approach to mate selection based on affiliative ethnic identities (T. Jimenez, 2010). Rather than assimilation and a breakdown of ethnic group boundaries, they found that people pursued interethnic relationships…

  7. Individualized assessment and phenomenological psychology.

    PubMed

    Fischer, C T

    1979-04-01

    Although there is growing openness to tailoring of assessment procedures and reports to the particular client, these efforts typically have been sporadic and incomplete. This article reviews a systematic approach to individualized assessment, one whose practices are referred to as collaborative, contextual, and interventional. Clinical examples of these practices are presented in terms of their grounding in phenomenological psychology. Prior to that, themes such as intentionality, situatedness, dialectics, structuralism, and hermeneutics are introduced briefly. Phenomenological psychology as such is not seen here as necessary for all individualized practices, but it is seen as a critical touchpoint for development of theory and further practices.

  8. College Students' Intercultural Competence and Interethnic Tolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnyshev, A. D.; Karnysheva, O. A.; Ivanova, E. A.

    2014-01-01

    Data from studies of interethnic tolerance among college students in Russia show that positive or negative attitudes toward other ethnic groups is a factor of both personal characteristics and experience of and access to other groups. Levels of tolerance in turn are associated with different levels of interest in other groups and in building…

  9. Interethnic marriage: bringing in the context through multilevel modelling.

    PubMed

    Lievens, J

    1998-06-01

    "This article deals with the underlying causes of interethnic marriages of Turks and Moroccans living in Belgium.... Higher odds [of interethnic marriage] are generally found for the second generation and at higher levels of age at marriage and educational attainment. Interethnic marriage is further promoted by a small size of the ethnic group, by low ethnic heterogeneity and by low correlation between the ethnic and the socio-economic dimension. Interethnic marriages are generally more prevalent in districts where the common language is French and where the majority of immigrants originate from urban regions in the country of origin." (EXCERPT)

  10. Interethnic variability in human drug responses.

    PubMed

    Evans, D A; McLeod, H L; Pritchard, S; Tariq, M; Mobarek, A

    2001-04-01

    The scientific study of interethnic differences in responses to drugs has been extant for 80 years. Many of these differences have been described at the phenotypic level, and some have been explained by genetic factors. However, it is frequently difficult to disentangle accurately the hereditary and environmental influences in phenotypic comparisons. This is where the recent developments in knowledge of the genes responsible for drug receptors are starting to make a big impact. The beta 2 adrenoceptor is described; it has three genetic polymorphisms. The different genotypes influence responses to agonists such as albuterol (Salbutamol). New gene frequency data including those for Saudi Arabians, Indians, and Africans are shown. The expanding body of knowledge about genetic (and interethnic) variability in drug receptors is likely to be important in clinical medicine.

  11. Interethnic difference in thiopurine methyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Klemetsdal, B; Tollefsen, E; Loennechen, T; Johnsen, K; Utsi, E; Gisholt, K; Wist, E; Aarbakke, J

    1992-01-01

    A number of metabolic pathways are subject to both genetic polymorphism and interethnic differences. A catabolic pathway of 6-mercaptopurine, red blood cell (RBC) thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) activity showed genetic polymorphism in Caucasians, but variation according to ethnicity has not been studied. We investigated if red blood cell thiopurine methyltransferase was subject to interethnic variation in a Saami (Lappish; n = 36) and a Caucasian population (n = 50). The Saami population sample had 29% higher thiopurine methyltransferase activity, 17.0 +/- 3.3 U/ml red blood cell compared with the Caucasian population sample, 13.1 +/- 2.9 U/ml red blood cell (p much less than 0.001). Probit plots and frequency distribution histograms supported bimodality consistent with genetic polymorphism in both study populations. Differences in chronic diseases, drug consumption, age, or gender could not explain the interethnic difference in red blood cell thiopurine methyltransferase activity. The higher red blood cell thiopurine methyltransferase activity in the Saami population group indicates that these subjects may require higher dosages of thiopurine drugs than Caucasians.

  12. Methodology of Diagnostics of Interethnic Relations and Ethnosocial Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maximova, Svetlana G.; Noyanzina, Oksana Ye.; Omelchenko, Daria A.; Maximov, Maxim B.; Avdeeva, Galina C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to research the methodological approaches to the study of interethnic relations and ethno-social processes. The analysis of the literature was conducted in three main areas: 1) the theoretical and methodological issues of organizing the research of inter-ethnic relations, allowing to highlight the current…

  13. Intimate Partner Violence and Alcohol Problems in Interethnic and Intraethnic Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chartier, Karen G.; Caetano, Raul

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing number of interethnic marriages in the United States, few studies have examined intimate partner violence (IPV) in interethnic couples. This article examined past-year occurrences of IPV across interethnic and intraethnic couples and tested correlates of IPV specifically in interethnic couples. Data were from a national survey…

  14. Accountable Individual Assessment for Cooperative Performance Assignments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastick, Tony

    This paper aims to make the techniques of cooperative learning more attractive to teachers by presenting a method of assessment that avoids the drawbacks associated with trying to extract valid and reliable individual marks from cooperative performances. The paper presents an easy-to-use method of assessing an individual's contribution to a…

  15. Assessing and Managing Risk with Suicidal Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linehan, Marsh M.; Comtois, Katherine A.; Ward-Ciesielski, Erin F.

    2012-01-01

    The University of Washington Risk Assessment Protocol (UWRAP) and Risk Assessment and Management Protocol (UWRAMP) have been used in numerous clinical trials treating high-risk suicidal individuals over several years. These protocols structure assessors and treatment providers to provide a thorough suicide risk assessment, review standards of care…

  16. A Quasi Actuarial Prospect for Individual Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, William A.

    A conceptual model of individual assessment through the use of biodata responses with minimal input information is outlined. The process is considered especially applicable to industrial psychology. A scored autobiographical data form, which measures the individual's past behavior and experiences, provides for assignment to a specific subgroup…

  17. The Individual Basic Facts Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait-McCutcheon, Sandi; Drake, Michael

    2015-01-01

    There is an identified and growing need for a levelled diagnostic basic facts assessment tool that provides teachers with formative information about students' mastery of a broad range of basic fact sets. The Individual Basic Facts Assessment tool has been iteratively and cumulatively developed, trialled, and refined with input from teachers and…

  18. Quality versus quantity: assessing individual research performance

    PubMed Central

    Sahel, José-Alain

    2011-01-01

    Evaluating individual research performance is a complex task that ideally examines productivity, scientific impact, and research quality––a task that metrics alone have been unable to achieve. In January 2011, the French Academy of Sciences published a report on current bibliometric (citation metric) methods for evaluating individual researchers, as well as recommendations for the integration of quality assessment. Here, we draw on key issues raised by this report and comment on the suggestions for improving existing research evaluation practices. PMID:21613620

  19. Interracial-Interethnic Unions and Fertility in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Vincent Kang

    2008-01-01

    How does the fertility of interracial and interethnic couples compare to the fertility of endogamous couples? If exogamous couples have transcended the boundary between them, then exogamy should not affect fertility. Alternatively, opposition to the relationship from the couple's family and friends may reduce fertility. This study uses 2000-2005…

  20. Chicano Hip-Hop as Interethnic Contact Zone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Pancho

    2008-01-01

    Hip-hop is an interethnic contact zone that allows for the creation of new expressive cultures and new identities for young people. Its openness derives in part from the wide range of expression and interpretation allowed in 182 "McFarland" African musics. Moving beyond the often stifling options offered by an earlier generation that focused on…

  1. The Effects of the Economic Crisis on Inter-Ethnic Relations in Cypriot Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vryonides, Marios

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to examine the effects of the current economic crisis in the way teenagers experience and report interethnic relations with emphasis on interethnic violence in the school environment in Cyprus. It will report findings from an EU funded project which was recently completed (2012) titled: "Children's voices: Exploring…

  2. Who Is to Blame? Rape of Hindu-Muslim Women in Interethnic Violence in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murthi, Meera

    2009-01-01

    This research examined attitudes that predict rape blame in contexts of interethnic violence between minority Muslims and dominant Hindu communities in Mumbai, India. I hypothesized that, in contexts of interethnic violence, prejudicial attitudes toward communities and attitudes that view rape as a conflict tool (i.e., an effective strategy to…

  3. Making Contact. Generating Interethnic Contact for Multicultural Integration and Tolerance in Amsterdam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Floris

    2012-01-01

    Interethnic contact is considered a potent tool for the generation of interethnic understanding and tolerance. This faith has engendered countless social projects that seek to stimulate contact between members of different ethnic groups under "optimal conditions". However, the academic literature does not stipulate how, if at all, these…

  4. Physical Activity Assessments for Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fittipaldi-Wert, Jeanine; Brock, Sheri J.

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity is important in maintaining and improving overall health for all. Students with disabilities tend to have lower fitness levels due to the lack of participation in physical activities, therefore, progressions and modifications to physical activities are needed. Assessing the physical activity levels of students with disabilities…

  5. Group Assessment: Comparing Group and Individual Undergraduate Module Marks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a small study that analysed module marks of one cohort of science undergraduates from one academic year. It explored how group summative assessment marking affected the overall marks in comparison with individual assessment. A tutor allocated students to mixed ability project groups. Individual marks for the group work…

  6. Predicting Optimal Preference Assessment Methods for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Kendra M.; Czarnecki, Diana; Martin, Toby L.; Yu, C. T.; Martin, Garry L.

    2007-01-01

    The single-stimulus (SS) preference assessment procedure has been described as more appropriate than the paired stimulus (PS) procedure for "lower functioning" individuals, but this guideline's vagueness limits its usefulness. We administered the SS and PS preference assessment procedures with food items to seven individuals with severe…

  7. Instant Feedback for Learner Training: Using Individual Assessment Cards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovelock, Clive

    2002-01-01

    Describes individual assessment cards devised by an English-as-a-Foreign-Language teacher in Japan. This system consists of giving each student her own individual assessment card at the beginning of each lesson. The focus of the information recorded on the card relates to the process of learning English. (Author/VWL)

  8. Essentialism promotes children's inter-ethnic bias

    PubMed Central

    Diesendruck, Gil; Menahem, Roni

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the developmental foundation of the relation between social essentialism and attitudes. Forty-eight Jewish Israeli secular 6-year-olds were exposed to either a story emphasizing essentialism about ethnicity, or stories controlling for the salience of ethnicity or essentialism per se. After listening to a story, children's attitudes were assessed in a drawing and in an IAT task. Compared to the control conditions, children in the ethnic essentialism condition drew a Jewish and an Arab character as farther apart from each other, and the Jewish character with a more positive affect than the Arab character. Moreover, boys in the ethnic essentialism condition manifested a stronger bias in the IAT. These findings reveal an early link between essentialism and inter-group attitudes. PMID:26321992

  9. Assessing Individuals with Disabilities in Educational, Employment, and Counseling Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekstrom, Ruth B., Ed.; Smith, Douglas K., Ed.

    This book is designed to assist testing professionals as they face the challenge of how best to assess and test people with disabilities. Chapters include: (1) "Testing Individuals with Disabilities: Reconciling Social Science and Social Policy" (Diana Pullin); (2) "The Psychometrics of Testing Individuals with Disabilities"…

  10. Person Characteristics of Individuals in Functional Assessment Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Horovitz, Max; Kozlowski, Alison M.; Sipes, Megan; Worley, Julie A.; Shoemaker, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a review of person characteristics that were present in 173 studies that were reviewed on functional assessment. The purpose was to give the reader an idea about the types of individuals for which functional assessment is appropriate and to outline persons and their characteristics which have the best research support. The majority…

  11. Revisiting Individual Creativity Assessment: Triangulation in Subjective and Objective Assessment Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Namgyoo K.; Chun, Monica Youngshin; Lee, Jinju

    2016-01-01

    Compared to the significant development of creativity studies, individual creativity research has not reached a meaningful consensus regarding the most valid and reliable method for assessing individual creativity. This study revisited 2 of the most popular methods for assessing individual creativity: subjective and objective methods. This study…

  12. Early onset type 2 diabetes in Jamaica and in Mexico. Opportunities derived from an interethnic study.

    PubMed

    Irving, Rachael; Tusié-Luna, Ma Teresa; Mills, James; Wright-Pascoe, Rosemarie; McLaughlin, Wayne; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A

    2011-01-01

    Populations with Amerindian or African heritages are the one with the highest prevalence of diabetes worldwide. A large percentage of these individuals survived famine. However, the survival effect has become detrimental to their descendents living in an environment of caloric surplus. In countries, like Mexico and Jamaica, in which diabetes is highly prevalent, the onset of the disease happens at earlier ages. Our objective is to summarize diabetes data from Mexico and Jamaica and to discuss the opportunities that can result from an interethnic study. On one hand, the prevalence of diabetes in Jamaica is 17.9% in the 15+ age group. Jamaican researchers have built a cohort of families with early onset type 2 diabetes. In this population, this form of the disease is unrelated to MODY genes. On the other hand, the prevalence of diabetes in adult Mexicans is 14.4%. The group in which the greater percentual changes have occurred is the adults who are below the age of 40. More than two thirds of the early onset cases studied have a body mass index that is >25 kg/m2 and the clinical characteristics of metabolic syndrome. A minority of them has mutations in the MODY genes. The joint study of Mexican and Jamaican cohorts of early onset type 2 diabetes cases will be useful to identify new genetic and environmental players in the pathogenesis of this entity.

  13. Integrating Individual Differences in Career Assessment: The Atlas Model of Individual Differences and the Strong Ring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Rounds, James

    2010-01-01

    Career assessment methods often include measures of individual differences constructs, such as interests, personality, abilities, and values. Although many researchers have recently called for the development of integrated models, career counseling professionals have long faced the challenge of integrating this information into their practice. The…

  14. An Assessment of Individualized Instruction in Navy Technical Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajkowski, M. Michael; And Others

    A study was conducted to establish the current status of Individualized Instruction (II) in the Navy and other services, identify the factors influencing its effectiveness, identify present or potential problem areas, and recommend strategies/policies to improve II in Navy technical training. Particular attention was given to an assessment of…

  15. Communication Assessment for Individuals with Rett Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigafoos, Jeff; Kagohara, Debora; van der Meer, Larah; Green, Vanessa A.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Lang, Russell; Rispoli, Mandy; Zisimopoulos, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    We reviewed studies that aimed to determine whether behaviors, such as body movements, vocalizations, eye gaze, and facial expressions, served a communicative function for individuals with Rett syndrome. A systematic search identified eight studies, which were summarized in terms of (a) participants, (b) assessment targets, (c) assessment…

  16. The Individual Education Plan: A Gendered Assessment Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsh, Asa

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this study is gendered differences and similarities in the distribution of individual education plan (IEP) targets given to pupils in Swedish schools. IEP writing is seen as part of teachers' formal assessment practice. Through qualitative content analysis of data, two main target types emerged: "learning targets," related…

  17. Assessing individual clinical performance: a primer for physicians.

    PubMed

    Scott, I A; Phelps, G; Brand, C

    2011-02-01

    The assessment of individual physician performance has attracted interest from several quarters, including statutory licensing agencies and credentialing bodies of healthcare institutions. Performance measures and assessment methods have been developed, although their validity, reliability and feasibility in regards to physician specialty practice are open to challenge. Despite this, professional colleges and societies will be increasingly obliged to ensure their members are demonstrating high-quality performance on the basis of assessment methods viewed as being transparent, impartial and reproducible. This article provides an overview of the current state of the art which hopefully will serve to inform future debate both within and outside professional circles.

  18. Preferences in Individuals with Angelman Syndrome Assessed by a Modified Choice Assessment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didden, R.; Korzilius, H.; Kamphuis, A.; Sturmey, P.; Lancioni, G.; Curfs, L. M. G.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Individuals with Angelman syndrome (AS) seem to have a strong preference for water-related items. Until present, preference assessment in AS has not been reported. Methods: An adapted Dutch version of the Choice Assessment Scale (CAS) was administered by parents and other caregivers to 105 individuals with AS. The CAS was adapted by…

  19. Individual differences and subjective workload assessment - Comparing pilots to nonpilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidulich, Michael A.; Pandit, Parimal

    1987-01-01

    Results by two groups of subjects, pilots and nonpilots, for two subjective workload assessment techniques (the SWAT and NASA-TLX tests) intended to evaluate individual differences in the perception and reporting of subjective workload are compared with results obtained for several traditional personality tests. The personality tests were found to discriminate between the groups while the workload tests did not. It is concluded that although the workload tests may provide useful information with respect to the interaction between tasks and personality, they are not effective as pure tests of individual differences.

  20. Exercise and the Asymptomatic Individual: Assessment and Advice

    PubMed Central

    Skrastins, Roland; McCans, John L.

    1982-01-01

    With the current popularity of physical fitness, the family physician is often asked to advise asymptomatic individuals who wish to undertake an exercise program. In the majority of cases, adequate assessment consists of a thorough history and physical examination, along with a few simple investigations, including a resting electrocardiogram. Exercise stress testing of asymptomatic individuals produces an unacceptably high frequency of false-positive results, and its use should be restricted to those patients with cardiac symptoms or major cardiac risk factors. The potential benefits of a longterm commitment to regular exercise should be discussed with the patient and guidance provided on the optimal form of exercise program for that individual. Exercise must not be considered in isolation. Other major cardiovascular risk factors should be sought and dealt with appropriately. PMID:21286106

  1. Psychophysical Assessment of Timing in Individuals With Autism

    PubMed Central

    Allman, Melissa J.; DeLeon, Iser G.; Wearden, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Perception of time, in the seconds to minutes range, is not well characterized in autism. The required interval timing system (ITS) develops at the same stages during infancy as communication, social reciprocity, and other cognitive and behavioral functions. The authors used two versions of a temporal bisection procedure to study the perception of duration in individuals with autism and observed quantifiable differences and characteristic patterns in participants’ timing functions. Measures of timing performance correlated with certain autism diagnostic and intelligence scores, and parents described individuals with autism as having a poor sense of time. The authors modeled the data to provide a relative assessment of ITS function in these individuals. The implications of these results for the understanding of autism are discussed. PMID:21381951

  2. Assessing the value of token reinforcement for individuals with autism.

    PubMed

    Fiske, Kate E; Isenhower, Robert W; Bamond, Meredith J; Delmolino, Lara; Sloman, Kimberly N; LaRue, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    The use of token systems has been supported across a variety of populations, but little research has evaluated the reinforcing value of token systems for individuals with autism. We used progressive-ratio schedules to compare the reinforcing value of an established token system, primary reinforcement, and tokens unpaired with reinforcement. Token systems were variably reinforcing for 2 students with autism and more so than primary reinforcement for 1 student. Results support formal assessment of the effectiveness of token systems.

  3. Behavioral assessment of feeding problems of individuals with severe disabilities.

    PubMed

    Munk, D D; Repp, A C

    1994-01-01

    As many as 80% of the individuals with severe or profound mental retardation exhibit feeding problems. Although behavioral interventions have been used to treat these problems, no assessment procedure for determining a functional relationship between a person's acceptance of food and the type and texture of that food has been reported. The purpose of this study was to test a behavioral assessment procedure for a feeding problem of limited intake. Five individuals with severe or profound mental retardation were fed 10 to 12 types of foods with one or more textures. Behavioral categories of acceptance, rejection, expulsion, and other negative behavior were recorded. Results indicated that each subject fit into one of four categories of feeding problems: (a) total refusal, (b) type selectivity, (c) texture selectivity, or (d) type and texture selectivity. Thus, although all 5 subjects exhibited limited intake, the food characteristics correlated with the problem were different for each individual. Results suggest that treatments for limited intake may be based on assessments that show the association of food type or texture to a person's rejection or expulsion of food.

  4. Predicting the use of Individualized Risk Assessment for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Toviessi, Paula; Katafiasz, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the decision to obtain individualized risk assessment after a breast cancer education session. Methods A sample of both African American and Caucasian women was used to determine if there were differences by race/ethnicity in uptake of the assessment and differences in the variables that were most predictive of uptake. The sample included 166 women between the ages of 18 and 80. Sixty-two percent of the sample were African American women. Key Findings The results suggested that African American women and Caucasian women used different factors and used other factors differently to decide whether or not to obtain an individualized risk assessment. Conclusions and Implications These results are discussed within the context of health disparities among ethnic minority and Caucasian women with implications for breast cancer control programs. The results of this study would suggest that knowledge alone does not lead to opting for a personalized risk assessment, and that African American and Caucasian women use different pieces of information, or information differently to make decision about getting more personalized information about risk. PMID:18319147

  5. Sense of Community and Interethnic Relations: Comparing Local Communities Varying in Ethnic Heterogeneity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellini, Federica; Colombo, Monica; Maffeis, Daniele; Montali, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the sense of community and interethnic relations in two different metropolitan areas that vary in ethnic heterogeneity. The study was conducted in Milan, Italy using a sample of 318 participants living in different city districts that vary in ethnic heterogeneity (low vs. high). The participants completed a questionnaire…

  6. Children Speak about Interethnic and Interracial Friendships in the Classroom: Lessons for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica-Smith, Cinzia

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses her research on children's perspectives of interracial and interethnic friendships in a multiethnic school and highlights children's voices on these intergroup friendships. Schools are important spaces in which social and cultural competencies necessary to the formation of intergroup friendships may be…

  7. Children's Perceptions of Interethnic and Interracial Friendships in a Multiethnic School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica-Smith, Cinzia

    2011-01-01

    Some literature exists on children's real-life interracial and interethnic friendships. However, a scarcity of research exists on children's perceptions of these relationships. This cross-sectional study investigated children's perceptions of interracial friendships by employing the Perceptions of Intergroup Friendships Questionnaire. A total of…

  8. Using the Multicultural Family Support Centers and Adjustment among Interethnic and Interracial Families in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Grace H.; Yoo, Joan P.

    2013-01-01

    The present study proposes a model of using the Multicultural Family Support Centers and adjustment among foreign brides and their interethnic and interracial families in South Korea based on the narratives of 10 foreign brides married to Korean men and 11 service providers who directly interact with these women and their families. The results…

  9. What standardized tests ignore when assessing individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tenorio, Marcela; Campos, Ruth; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2016-01-01

    In this article we critique the use of traditional standardized tests for the cognitive assessment of children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Limitations stem from the lack of integrating (a) results from research into the psychological functioning of these populations, and (b) the main arguments underlying models of human development. We identify four secondary issues in this discussion: (1) these instruments cannot be used with children who have particularly low cognitive functioning; (2) little or no variance in the scores obtained by individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders, because all are at floor, prevent adequate interpretations; (3) measurements do not provide information useful for the design of intervention strategies; and (4) different cognitive and/or neural processes may underlie behavioural scores ‘in the normal range’. Rethinking traditional assessment methods in favour of technologically-mediated games yields new cognitive assessment possibilities. PMID:26778874

  10. Self-assessment of individual differences in language switching.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Krämer, Ulrike M; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Festman, Julia; Münte, Thomas F

    2011-01-01

    Language switching is omnipresent in bilingual individuals. In fact, the ability to switch languages (code switching) is a very fast, efficient, and flexible process that seems to be a fundamental aspect of bilingual language processing. In this study, we aimed to characterize psychometrically self-perceived individual differences in language switching and to create a reliable measure of this behavioral pattern by introducing a bilingual switching questionnaire. As a working hypothesis based on the previous literature about code switching, we decomposed language switching into four constructs: (i) L1 switching tendencies (the tendency to switch to L1; L1-switch); (ii) L2 switching tendencies (L2-switch); (iii) contextual switch, which indexes the frequency of switches usually triggered by a particular situation, topic, or environment; and (iv) unintended switch, which measures the lack of intention and awareness of the language switches. A total of 582 Spanish-Catalan bilingual university students were studied. Twelve items were selected (three for each construct). The correlation matrix was factor-analyzed using minimum rank factor analysis followed by oblique direct oblimin rotation. The overall proportion of common variance explained by the four extracted factors was 0.86. Finally, to assess the external validity of the individual differences scored with the new questionnaire, we evaluated the correlations between these measures and several psychometric (language proficiency) and behavioral measures related to cognitive and attentional control. The present study highlights the importance of evaluating individual differences in language switching using self-assessment instruments when studying the interface between cognitive control and bilingualism.

  11. Self-Assessment of Individual Differences in Language Switching

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Krämer, Ulrike M.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Festman, Julia; Münte, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    Language switching is omnipresent in bilingual individuals. In fact, the ability to switch languages (code switching) is a very fast, efficient, and flexible process that seems to be a fundamental aspect of bilingual language processing. In this study, we aimed to characterize psychometrically self-perceived individual differences in language switching and to create a reliable measure of this behavioral pattern by introducing a bilingual switching questionnaire. As a working hypothesis based on the previous literature about code switching, we decomposed language switching into four constructs: (i) L1 switching tendencies (the tendency to switch to L1; L1-switch); (ii) L2 switching tendencies (L2-switch); (iii) contextual switch, which indexes the frequency of switches usually triggered by a particular situation, topic, or environment; and (iv) unintended switch, which measures the lack of intention and awareness of the language switches. A total of 582 Spanish–Catalan bilingual university students were studied. Twelve items were selected (three for each construct). The correlation matrix was factor-analyzed using minimum rank factor analysis followed by oblique direct oblimin rotation. The overall proportion of common variance explained by the four extracted factors was 0.86. Finally, to assess the external validity of the individual differences scored with the new questionnaire, we evaluated the correlations between these measures and several psychometric (language proficiency) and behavioral measures related to cognitive and attentional control. The present study highlights the importance of evaluating individual differences in language switching using self-assessment instruments when studying the interface between cognitive control and bilingualism. PMID:22291668

  12. How School Norms, Peer Norms, and Discrimination Predict Interethnic Experiences among Ethnic Minority and Majority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tropp, Linda R.; O'Brien, Thomas C.; González Gutierrez, Roberto; Valdenegro, Daniel; Migacheva, Katya; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo; Berger, Christian; Cayul, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    This research tests how perceived school and peer norms predict interethnic experiences among ethnic minority and majority youth. With studies in Chile (654 nonindigenous and 244 Mapuche students, M = 11.20 and 11.31 years) and the United States (468 non-Hispanic White and 126 Latino students, M = 11.66 and 11.68 years), cross-sectional results…

  13. Intra-ethnic and inter-ethnic marriage and divorce in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Ho, F C; Johnson, R C

    1990-01-01

    A comparison of intra- and inter-ethnic divorce rates in Hawaii showed that inter-ethnic marriages resulted in a higher proportion of divorces than did intra-ethnic marriages when the marriage data used had to do with all marriages occurring in Hawaii. However, a sizeable portion of marriages in Hawaii are of nonresidents who, if they divorce, probably divorce elsewhere. Nonresident marriages are chiefly intra-ethnic marriages of Caucasians. When examining the proportions of divorces to resident marriages, within-group marriages are more at risk than inter-ethnic marriages. As in prior research, persons who marry members of other racial/ethnic groups tend to marry persons from groups with income levels similar to their own. As in previous reports, some cross-ethnic combinations appeared more at risk for divorce than did others. Group income appeared to be a predictor of risk. When considering only resident marriages as related to divorces, those marriages in which the bride was from a higher income group than the groom were at a significantly greater risk for divorce than marriage in which the bride came from an income group lower than that of the groom.

  14. Ethnic diversity, trust, and the mediating role of positive and negative interethnic contact: a priming experiment.

    PubMed

    Koopmans, Ruud; Veit, Susanne

    2014-09-01

    This study not only shows that the empirically well-established negative relationship between residential diversity and trust in neighbors holds for the case of Germany, but goes beyond existing research by providing experimental evidence on the causal nature of the diversity effect. Respondents exposed to experimental stimuli that made salient the ethnic or religious heterogeneity of their neighborhoods display significantly lower levels of trust in their neighbors than do respondents in the control group. Further, we explore the role of interethnic contact in mediating the relationship between diversity and trust in a degree of detail unmatched by earlier studies. We consider not only positive forms of interethnic contact such as friendships, but also neutral and negative encounters between people of native and immigrant origin. We find that interethnic contacts mediate negative diversity effects on trust in different ways for both groups. For natives, distant encounters and negative experiences with immigrants in diverse contexts reduce trust, whereas for people of immigrant origin trust in neighbors suffers from the relatively small number of native acquaintances in diverse neighborhoods.

  15. Study on inter-ethnic human differences in bioactivation and detoxification of estragole using physiologically based kinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Ning, Jia; Louisse, Jochem; Spenkelink, Bert; Wesseling, Sebastiaan; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2017-03-29

    Considering the rapid developments in food safety in the past decade in China, it is of importance to obtain insight into what extent safety and risk assessments of chemicals performed for the Caucasian population apply to the Chinese population. The aim of the present study was to determine physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modeling-based predictions for differences between Chinese and Caucasians in terms of metabolic bioactivation and detoxification of the food-borne genotoxic carcinogen estragole. The PBK models were defined based on kinetic constants for hepatic metabolism derived from in vitro incubations using liver fractions of the two ethnic groups, and used to evaluate the inter-ethnic differences in metabolic activation and detoxification of estragole. The models predicted that at realistic dietary intake levels, only 0.02% of the dose was converted to the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite 1'-sulfooxyestragole in Chinese subjects, whereas this amounted to 0.09% of the dose in Caucasian subjects. Detoxification of 1'-hydroxyestragole, mainly via conversion to 1'-oxoestragole, was similar within the two ethnic groups. The 4.5-fold variation in formation of the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of estragole accompanied by similar rates of detoxification may indicate a lower risk of estragole for the Chinese population at similar levels of exposure. The study provides a proof of principle for how PBK modeling can identify differences in ethnic sensitivity and provide a more refined risk assessment for a specific ethnic group for a compound of concern.

  16. The Personality Assessment Inventory in individuals with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Demakis, George J; Hammond, Flora; Knotts, Allison; Cooper, Douglas B; Clement, Pamelia; Kennedy, Jan; Sawyer, Tom

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) in 95 individuals who had suffered a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants were recruited from a rehabilitation hospital (n=60) and a military hospital (n=35); despite differences in demographics and injury characteristics groups did not differ on any of the clinical scales and were thus combined. In the combined group, the highest mean clinical scale elevations were on Somatic Complaints, Depression, and Borderline Features and the most common configural profiles, based on cluster analysis, were Cluster 1 (no prominent elevations), Cluster 6 (social isolation and confused thinking), and Cluster 2 (depression and withdrawal). Factor analysis indicated a robust three-factor solution that accounted for 74.86 percent of the variance and was similar to findings from the psychiatric and non-psychiatric populations in the standardization sample. The above findings are compared with the previous literature on psychopathology in TBI, particularly in regards to the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), as well as previous psychometric research on the PAI.

  17. Individual-based model for radiation risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, O.

    A mathematical model is developed which enables one to predict the life span probability for mammals exposed to radiation. It relates statistical biometric functions with statistical and dynamic characteristics of an organism's critical system. To calculate the dynamics of the latter, the respective mathematical model is used too. This approach is applied to describe the effects of low level chronic irradiation on mice when the hematopoietic system (namely, thrombocytopoiesis) is the critical one. For identification of the joint model, experimental data on hematopoiesis in nonirradiated and irradiated mice, as well as on mortality dynamics of those in the absence of radiation are utilized. The life span probability and life span shortening predicted by the model agree with corresponding experimental data. Modeling results show the significance of ac- counting the variability of the individual radiosensitivity of critical system cells when estimating the radiation risk. These findings are corroborated by clinical data on persons involved in the elimination of the Chernobyl catastrophe after- effects. All this makes it feasible to use the model for radiation risk assessments for cosmonauts and astronauts on long-term missions such as a voyage to Mars or a lunar colony. In this case the model coefficients have to be determined by making use of the available data for humans. Scenarios for the dynamics of dose accumulation during space flights should also be taken into account.

  18. Individual fertility assessment and counselling in women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Kathrine Birch

    2016-10-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to validate the new concept of the Fertility Assessment and Counselling (FAC) Clinic at Rigshospitalet. The intention was to: explore the prognostic value of fertility risk factors by a risk score and provide an estimate of female fecundity, to quantify the impact of oral contraception (OC) on ovarian reserve parameters defined as Anti Müllerian Hormone (AMH), Antral Follicle Count (AFC) and ovarian volume, and to gain knowledge of attitudes and considerations toward family formation in women of advanced age. The thesis is based on the following four manuscripts:   Manuscript I describes the predictive value of individual fertility assessment and counselling in terms of subsequent time to pregnancy within two years after the initial consultation at the FAC Clinic. The follow up study comprised 519 women, of which 352 had tried to conceive. At the time of follow-up, 259/352 had achieved a pregnancy, 74/352 were still trying and 19/352 had given up. The remaining 167 women had no attempts to conceive. The risk assessment provided a score based on the appearance of fertility risk factors: green (low), yellow (low), orange (medium) and red (high). Two-thirds of the women with only low risk scores conceived spontaneously within 12 months (65%), while this figure was only 32% for women with at least one high risk score (n=82). Accordingly, presence of at least one high risk score reduced the odds of achieving a pregnancy within 12 months by 73% (OR 0.27, 95%CI 0.13-0.57). The FAC Clinic concept seems as a usable tool for fertility experts to guide women on how to fulfil their reproductive life-plan, but longer follow-up studies are needed. Manuscript II describes the impact of OC on ovarian reserve parameters in 887 women at the FAC Clinic. Of the 887 women, 244 (27.5%) used OC.  The 244 users of OC were significantly younger than non-users with a mean age of 31.5 (SD 4.3) vs. 34.1 (SD 4.3) years (p < 0.001). Overall, there was no

  19. Two Thinking Skills Assessment Approaches: "Assessment of Pupils' Thinking Skills" and "Individual Thinking Skills Assessments"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Lynsey A.; Williams, Joanne M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is linked to a previous paper outlining an evaluation of a thinking skills intervention (Burke & Williams, 2008). Following extensive requests for the assessment tools used in the intervention, this short paper presents the development and potential uses of two thinking skills assessment tools. The aim of the paper is simply to make…

  20. Assessment, Prevention, and Intervention for Abuse among Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilczynski, Susan M.; Connolly, Sarah; Dubard, Melanie; Henderson, Amanda; Mcintosh, David

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities are at increased risk for abuse by their parents, caretakers, and the staff who are entrusted with their care as well as from the general population. Many individuals with disabilities have cognitive or communication impairments that place them at even higher risk for abuse. These limitations also make it more…

  1. 30 CFR 724.17 - Procedure for assessment of individual civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... assessed an individual civil penalty, by certified mail, or by any alternative means consistent with the... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Procedure for assessment of individual civil..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS INDIVIDUAL CIVIL PENALTIES § 724.17 Procedure...

  2. 30 CFR 846.17 - Procedure for assessment of individual civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Procedure for assessment of individual civil..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM INSPECTION AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES INDIVIDUAL CIVIL PENALTIES § 846.17 Procedure for assessment of individual civil penalty. (a) Notice. The Office shall serve...

  3. 30 CFR 724.17 - Procedure for assessment of individual civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... assessed an individual civil penalty, by certified mail, or by any alternative means consistent with the... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Procedure for assessment of individual civil..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS INDIVIDUAL CIVIL PENALTIES § 724.17 Procedure...

  4. 30 CFR 846.17 - Procedure for assessment of individual civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Procedure for assessment of individual civil..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM INSPECTION AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES INDIVIDUAL CIVIL PENALTIES § 846.17 Procedure for assessment of individual civil penalty. (a) Notice. The Office shall serve...

  5. Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of nitrazepam in healthy volunteers: an interethnic comparative study between Japanese and European volunteers.

    PubMed

    van Gerven, J M; Uchida, E; Uchida, N; Pieters, M S; Meinders, A J; Schoemaker, R C; Nanhekhan, L V; Kroon, J M; de Visser, S J; Altorf, B; Yasuda, K; Yasuhara, H; Cohen, A F

    1998-12-01

    Potential interethnic differences in drug disposition and effects between Japanese and white subjects hamper the registration in Japan of medications already used in Western countries. This double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was conducted to compare the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of nitrazepam (5 mg) in age- and sex-matched Japanese (n = 8) and white (n = 8) healthy volunteers. The study was performed in centers in Japan and the Netherlands using the same methods and study design. Subjects were individually matched for gender, age, and body stature. Drug effects were measured by means of saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements and visual analog lines obtained from the scales of Bond and Lader. There were no pharmacokinetic differences between the Japanese and white subjects. Clearance of nitrazepam was 0.91 +/- 0.165 mL/min/kg and 1.17 +/- 0.492 mL/min/kg, and half-life (t1/2) was 22.1 +/- 4.96 hours and 21.5 +/- 7.51 hours for the Japanese and European groups, respectively. Pharmacokinetic parameters showed no significant correlation with age, height, or weight. The average time-effect curves for the different parameters were comparable between groups. Compared with placebo, both groups showed similar significant reductions in average peak velocity and increases in saccadic inaccuracy and reaction time. Visual analog scores showed clear sedation in the white subjects, but insignificant effects in the Japanese subjects. Smooth pursuit did not change significantly in either group. Slope and intercept of the concentration-effect relationships for saccadic peak velocity showed considerable intersubject variability, but no clear differences between groups. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of nitrazepam were similar in matched healthy Japanese and white subjects. Interethnic comparative studies are feasible, and provide meaningful information about potential racial differences in disposition and action of drugs

  6. A Survey of Individual Assessment Practices by I/O Psychologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Ann Marie; Sackett, Paul R.

    1987-01-01

    Examined individual assessment (making an assessment decision for a personnel-related purpose about one individual), within the Division of Industrial and Organizational Psychology of the American Psychological Association. Reports findings regarding types of assessment typically conducted, choice of methods, methods typically used, how findings…

  7. Performance assessment in complex individual and team tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddy, Douglas R.

    1992-01-01

    Described here is an eclectic, performance based approach to assessing cognitive performance from multiple perspectives. The experience gained from assessing the effects of antihistamines and scenario difficulty on C (exp 2) decision making performance in Airborne Warning and Control Systems (AWACS) weapons director (WD) teams can serve as a model for realistic simulations in space operations. Emphasis is placed on the flexibility of measurement, hierarchical organization of measurement levels, data collection from multiple perspectives, and the difficulty of managing large amounts of data.

  8. Assessing Behavioral Flexibility in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Vanessa A.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Pituch, Keenan A.; Itchon, Jonathan; O'Reilly, Mark; Lancioni, Giulio E.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers associate an insistence on sameness or lack of behavioral flexibility with autism and Asperger syndrome, but few studies have sought to identify specific situations in which individuals insist on sameness. Along these lines, we developed the "Behavioral Flexibility Rating Scale" (BFRS) and conducted an Internet survey of parents of…

  9. Metabolomics of aging assessed in individual parasitoid wasps

    PubMed Central

    Kapranas, Apostolos; Snart, Charles J. P.; Williams, Huw; Hardy, Ian C. W.; Barrett, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomics studies of low-biomass organisms, such as small insects, have previously relied on the pooling of biological samples to overcome detection limits, particularly using NMR. We show that the differentiation of metabolite profiles of individual 1 mg parasitoid wasps of different ages is possible when using a modified sample preparation and a combination of untargeted NMR and LC-MS based metabolomics. Changes were observed between newly emerged and older wasps in glycerolipids, amino acids and circulatory sugars. This advance in chemical profiling has important implications for the study of the behaviour and ecology of parasitoids and many other species of small organisms because predictions and observations are typically made at the level of the individual. Thus, the metabolomic state of low-biomass individuals can now be related to their behaviour and ecological performance. We discuss specifically the utility of age-related metabolomic profiling but our new approach can be applied to a wide range of biological research. PMID:27713504

  10. Assessment of Individual Student Performance in Online Team Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alden, Jay

    2011-01-01

    The use of team projects has been shown to be beneficial in higher education. There is also general agreement that team efforts should be assessed and that the grading ought to represent both (1) the quality of the product developed jointly by the team, as well as (2) the degree of participation and quality of contribution by each individual…

  11. Assessment of Anger Coping Skills in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willner, P.; Brace, N.; Phillips, J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent controlled studies have supported the effectiveness of anger management training for people with intellectual disabilities (IDs). This report describes an evaluation instrument designed to assess their usage of specific anger coping skills. The Profile of Anger Coping Skills (PACS) is designed for completion by a staff member or carer.…

  12. Individual Student Assessment Process: Lincoln Public Schools, 1982-83.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heskett, Eldon; Sherrill, Don

    The paper describes a framework for assessing students with suspected learning or behavior problems. The process is outlined in sequences which are designed to guide staff from the point of identification to the point where an alternative program may be recommended. Each sequence is described in terms of a step title, a description of procedures…

  13. Pennsylvania Training Model: Individual Assessment Guide. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerton-Fair, Ellen; Turner, Keith D.

    The guide provides information on four sequences in the instruction of severely and profoundly handicapped students. The Curriculum Assessment Guide produces an overview of the student's skill development in input modes (tactile, auditory, and visual development); output modes (gross motor and fine motor); activities of daily living…

  14. Supporting Interethnic and Interracial Friendships among Youth to Reduce Prejudice and Racism in Schools: The Role of the School Counselor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica-Smith, Cinzia; Poynton, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    Supporting interethnic and interracial friendships in schools among children and adolescents is an important part of a progressive educational agenda informed in equity, social justice frameworks, and critical multicultural education that leads to a reduction in racial prejudice. Positive intergroup contact is a necessary condition in prejudice…

  15. Alkaline Comet Assay for Assessing DNA Damage in Individual Cells.

    PubMed

    Pu, Xinzhu; Wang, Zemin; Klaunig, James E

    2015-08-06

    Single-cell gel electrophoresis, commonly called a comet assay, is a simple and sensitive method for assessing DNA damage at the single-cell level. It is an important technique in genetic toxicological studies. The comet assay performed under alkaline conditions (pH >13) is considered the optimal version for identifying agents with genotoxic activity. The alkaline comet assay is capable of detecting DNA double-strand breaks, single-strand breaks, alkali-labile sites, DNA-DNA/DNA-protein cross-linking, and incomplete excision repair sites. The inclusion of digestion of lesion-specific DNA repair enzymes in the procedure allows the detection of various DNA base alterations, such as oxidative base damage. This unit describes alkaline comet assay procedures for assessing DNA strand breaks and oxidative base alterations. These methods can be applied in a variety of cells from in vitro and in vivo experiments, as well as human studies.

  16. Interethnic variation of the MMP-9 microsatellite in Amerindian and Mexican Mestizo populations: considerations for genetic association studies.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Mejorado, R; Noris, G; Santana, C; Magaña, J J; Majluf-Cruz, A; Arellano-Galindo, J; De la Peña, A; Hernández-Juárez, J; Calderón-Aranda, E S; Meraz-Ríos, M A; Gómez, R

    2015-03-31

    We studied the interethnic variation of the MMP-9 microsatellite in the Mestizo and Amerindian populations using blood samples collected from 435 healthy unrelated individuals from the Central Valley of Mexico. DNA samples were genotyped using the -90 (CA)12-27 repeat near the MMP transcriptional start site using capillary electrophoresis. Our data were compared with those from African, Asian, and European populations (N = 729). Both Mestizo and Amerindian populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P ≥ 0.05). However, strong genetic heterogeneity was found within the Mestizo population (94%, P ≤ 0.0001), which exhibited the highest frequency of Amerindian, African, and European alleles. Likewise, Amerindians showed 6.7% variation among populations (P ≤ 0.0001), suggesting a genetic substructure potentially associated with linguistic affiliations. These findings were corroborated with principal component and population differentiation analyses, which showed relative proximity among the Mestizos and their historical parental populations: Asian (FST ≥ 0.05), European (FST ≥ 0.09), and African (FST ≥ 0.02). Nevertheless, important differences were found between Mestizo and Nahuas (P ≤ 0.0001), and between Mestizo and Me'Phaas (P ≤ 0.0001). These findings highlight the importance of determining local-specific patterns to establish the population variability of MMP-9 and other polymorphic markers. Validation of candidate markers is critical to identifying risk factors; however, this depends on knowledge of population genetic variation, which increases the possibility of finding true causative variants. We also show that dissimilar ethnic backgrounds might lead to spurious associations. Our study provides useful considerations for greater accuracy and robustness in future genetic association studies.

  17. Camouflage simulation and effectiveness assessment for the individual soldier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepfinger, Lisa B.

    1990-09-01

    The mission of the Individual Protection Directorate of the U. S. Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center is to develop clothing and equipment to protect the individual combat soldier against battlefield chemical, ballistic, surveillance, environmental and nuclear hazards. In an effort to meet our countersurveillance mission, the Terrain Analysis Systn was developed by Natick in conjunction with Decilog, Inc., Melville, New York. The Terrain Analysis System was developed to satisfy the need for a scientific method of designing camouflage patterns based on natural terrain reflectance data. It functions as a portable, abridged spectrophotometer to obtain spectral refltance data in the visible and near-infrared on any scene of interest. Data is collected on videotape in the field, digitized into the computer back in the laboratory, and spectral reflectance factors determined for each pixel in the scene. The 1976 CIE L*a*b* color coordinates are calculated and the image is clustered to a user-specific number of color domains. Camouflage patterns can be designed based on these domains, and visual camouflage evaluations can be made by overlaying the designed patterns on any desired background scene. Additional capabilities include calculation of values analogous to the CIE values, which use infrared film or an image intensifier as the observer. The Terrain Analysis System is also capable of analyzing video data taken through an image intensifier or thermal imager and calculating the probability of detection of a user-defined target against the background. "What if" cases can be run to determine the detection probability under other sets of conditions, such as a detector with a different spectral response or under different atmospheric conditions.

  18. Interethnic genetic differentiation: GM polymorphism in eastern Senegal.

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, M; Sanchez-Mazas, A; Van Blyenburgh, N H; Sevin, A; Pison, G; Langaney, A

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of GM polymorphism has been performed on 1,806 individuals representing three sympatric ethnic groups--Bedik, Fulani, and Mandenkalu--of eastern Senegal. Haplotype frequencies estimated by maximum likelihood have been used to compute common genetic pools between the three samples and a number of other sub-Saharan African populations. Despite extreme linguistic and sociocultural differentiations and very high levels of endogamy, especially in the Bedik and Niokholo Mandenkalu, the three populations share about 90%-95% of their haplotype frequencies in a system which commonly provides strong genetic differentiations. This supports the view that, despite its importance at a large continental scale level, as it is discussed for a set of populations from many regions of sub-Saharan Africa, sociocultural differentiation usually has little effect on local genetic diversity. PMID:2105642

  19. A Robust Approach for Mapping Group Marks to Individual Marks Using Peer Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spatar, Ciprian; Penna, Nigel; Mills, Henny; Kutija, Vedrana; Cooke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Group work can form a substantial component of degree programme assessments. To satisfy institutional and student expectations, students must often be assigned individual marks for their contributions to the group project, typically by mapping a single holistic group mark to individual marks using peer assessment scores. Since the early 1990s,…

  20. Interethnic admixture and the evolution of Latin American populations

    PubMed Central

    Salzano, Francisco Mauro; Sans, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    A general introduction to the origins and history of Latin American populations is followed by a systematic review of the data from molecular autosomal assessments of the ethnic/continental (European, African, Amerindian) ancestries for 24 Latin American countries or territories. The data surveyed are of varying quality but provide a general picture of the present constitution of these populations. A brief discussion about the applications of these results (admixture mapping) is also provided. Latin American populations can be viewed as natural experiments for the investigation of unique anthropological and epidemiological issues. PMID:24764751

  1. 28 CFR 105.11 - Individuals not requiring a security risk assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Individuals not requiring a security risk assessment. 105.11 Section 105.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIMINAL HISTORY BACKGROUND CHECKS Aviation Training for Aliens and Other Designated Individuals § 105.11 Individuals...

  2. 28 CFR 105.11 - Individuals not requiring a security risk assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Individuals not requiring a security risk assessment. 105.11 Section 105.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIMINAL HISTORY BACKGROUND CHECKS Aviation Training for Aliens and Other Designated Individuals § 105.11 Individuals...

  3. 28 CFR 105.11 - Individuals not requiring a security risk assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individuals not requiring a security risk assessment. 105.11 Section 105.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIMINAL HISTORY BACKGROUND CHECKS Aviation Training for Aliens and Other Designated Individuals § 105.11 Individuals...

  4. 28 CFR 105.11 - Individuals not requiring a security risk assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Individuals not requiring a security risk assessment. 105.11 Section 105.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIMINAL HISTORY BACKGROUND CHECKS Aviation Training for Aliens and Other Designated Individuals § 105.11 Individuals...

  5. 28 CFR 105.11 - Individuals not requiring a security risk assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Individuals not requiring a security risk assessment. 105.11 Section 105.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIMINAL HISTORY BACKGROUND CHECKS Aviation Training for Aliens and Other Designated Individuals § 105.11 Individuals...

  6. Assessing personality traits of individuals with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Zigler, Edward; Bennett-Gates, Dianne; Hodapp, Robert; Henrich, Christopher C

    2002-05-01

    Psychometric properties for a new instrument, the EZ-Personality Questionnaire designed to assess the functioning of students with cultural-familial mental retardation, are presented. The analysis of data from 661 participants yielded a 37-item, seven-scale instrument that confirmed the five hypothesized factors of Positive Reaction Tendency, Negative Reaction Tendency, Effectance Motivation, Expectancy of Success, and Outerdirectedness and identified two additional factors of Curiosity/Creativity and Obedience. Separate studies were conducted to establish the concurrent and construct validity of the instrument. Reliability was examined through split-half and test-retest analyses. All psychometric indices were within acceptable levels, resulting in an instrument with potential applications in research, education, and clinical settings.

  7. Assessing the benefits of multisensory audiotactile stimulation for overweight individuals.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiaoang; Spence, Charles; Mu, Bingbing; Zhou, Xi; Ho, Cristy

    2014-04-01

    We report an experiment designed to examine whether individuals who are overweight would perform differently when trying to detect and/or discriminate auditory, vibrotactile, and audiotactile targets. The vibrotactile stimuli were delivered either to the participant's abdomen or to his hand. Thirty-six young male participants were classified into normal, underweight, or overweight groups based on their body mass index. All three groups exhibited a significant benefit of multisensory (over the best of the unisensory) stimulation, but the magnitude of this benefit was modulated by the weight of the participant, the task, and the location from which the vibrotactile stimuli happened to be presented. For the detection task, the overweight group exhibited a significantly smaller benefit than the underweight group. In the discrimination task, the overweight group showed significantly more benefits than the other two groups when the vibrotactile stimuli were delivered to their hands, but not when the stimuli were delivered to their abdomens. These results might raise some interesting questions regarding the mechanisms underlying audiotactile information processing and have applied relevance for the design of the most effective warning signal (e.g., for drivers).

  8. A Review of Biobehavioral State Assessment of Individuals with Profound Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Stephen B.; Taylor, Ronald L.

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of individuals with profound disabilities is problematic, particularly when traditional approaches are used. As a result, alternate assessments have been attempted that better suit the needs of these students. One approach that has shown some promise is biobehavioral state assessment. Initially used with infants without disabilities,…

  9. Assessing the criminal responsibility of individuals with multiple personality disorder: legal cases, legal theory.

    PubMed

    Behnke, S H

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the criminal responsibility of individuals diagnosed with multiple personality disorder (MPD). First, it reviews how courts understand and assess criminal responsibility. Second, it gives an overview of how courts have applied the doctrine of criminal responsibility to individuals with MPD. Third, it explains what legal theorists say about this question. Finally, it uses a case example to illustrate how various theorists would assess the responsibility of a criminal defendant with MPD.

  10. Systematic Assessment of Caregiving Skill Performance by Individuals with Tetraplegia and Their Caregivers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Caregiving Skill Performance by Individuals with Tetraplegia and Their Caregivers PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jeanne M. Zanca, PhD, MPT...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Systematic Assessment of Caregiving Skill Performance by Individuals with Tetraplegia and Their Caregivers 5b. GRANT NUMBER...systematically evaluate and describe competence in self-direction of care by persons with tetraplegia (PWTs) and provision of care by their caregivers

  11. 30 CFR 724.12 - When an individual civil penalty may be assessed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When an individual civil penalty may be assessed. 724.12 Section 724.12 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS INDIVIDUAL CIVIL PENALTIES § 724.12 When an...

  12. Ignoring Individual Differences in Times of Assessment in Growth Curve Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulombe, Patrick; Selig, James P.; Delaney, Harold D.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers often collect longitudinal data to model change over time in a phenomenon of interest. Inevitably, there will be some variation across individuals in specific time intervals between assessments. In this simulation study of growth curve modeling, we investigate how ignoring individual differences in time points when modeling change over…

  13. A meta-analysis of the relationship between individual assessments and job performance.

    PubMed

    Morris, Scott B; Daisley, Rebecca L; Wheeler, Megan; Boyer, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Though individual assessments are widely used in selection settings, very little research exists to support their criterion-related validity. A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted of 39 individual assessment validation studies. For the current research, individual assessments were defined as any employee selection procedure that involved (a) multiple assessment methods, (b) administered to an individual examinee, and (c) relying on assessor judgment to integrate the information into an overall evaluation of the candidate's suitability for a job. Assessor recommendations were found to be useful predictors of job performance, although the level of validity varied considerably across studies. Validity tended to be higher for managerial than nonmanagerial occupations and for assessments that included a cognitive ability test. Validity was not moderated by the degree of standardization of the assessment content or by use of multiple assessors for each candidate. However, higher validities were found when the same assessor was used across all candidates than when different assessors evaluated different candidates. These results should be interpreted with caution, given a small number of studies for many of the moderator subgroups as well as considerable evidence of publication bias. These limitations of the available research base highlight the need for additional empirical work to inform individual assessment practices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Utility of Formal Preference Assessments for Individuals Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaf, Justin B.; Leaf, Ronald; Alcalay, Aditt; Leaf, Jeremy A.; Ravid, Daniel; Dale, Stephanie; Kassardjian, Alyne; Tsuji, Kathleen; Taubman, Mitchell; McEachin, John; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty

    2015-01-01

    The systematic use of reinforcers is an essential component of behavioral intervention for individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Today, the use of rigorous formal preference assessments, including paired-preference assessments, are widely conducted to help determine which items to use as reinforcers during intervention. Although…

  15. Clinical Decision Making and Preference Assessment for Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virués-Ortega, Javier; Pritchard, Kristen; Grant, Robin L.; North, Sebastian; Hurtado-Parrado, Camilo; Lee, May S. H.; Temple, Bev; Julio, Flavia; Yu, C. T.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual or developmental disabilities are able to reliably express their likes and dislikes through direct preference assessment. Preferred items tend to function as rewards and can therefore be used to facilitate the acquisition of new skills and promote task engagement. A number of preference assessment methods are…

  16. The Individualized Needs for Service Assessment (INSA) for Children with Serious Emotional Disturbances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosser, Rene C.; Flisher, Alan J.

    This paper reports on efforts underway in New York State to develop the Individualized Needs for Services Assessment (INSA). The INSA is a set of standardized procedures and data definitions to guide assessment of service needs for children with serious emotional disturbances (SED). The INSA procedure for children with SED is designed to be…

  17. The Contribution of Project Environmental Assessment to Assessing and Managing Cumulative Effects: Individually and Collectively Insignificant?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Bram; Liu, Jialang; Hackett, Paul

    2017-04-01

    This paper explores the opportunities and constraints to project-based environmental assessment as a means to support the assessment and management of cumulative environmental effects. A case study of the hydroelectric sector is used to determine whether sufficient information is available over time through project-by-project assessments to support an adequate understanding of cumulative change. Results show inconsistency from one project to the next in terms of the components and indicators assessed, limited transfer of baseline information between project assessments over time, and the same issues and concerns being raised by review panels-even though the projects reviewed are operating in the same watershed and operated by the same proponent. Project environmental assessments must be managed, and coordinated, as part of a larger system of impact assessment, if project-by-project assessments are to provide a meaningful forum for learning and understanding cumulative change. The paper concludes with recommendations for improved project-based assessment practice in support of cumulative effects assessment and management.

  18. From group data to useful probabilities: the relevance of actuarial risk assessment in individual instances.

    PubMed

    Mossman, Douglas

    2015-03-01

    Probability plays a ubiquitous role in decision-making through a process in which we use data from groups of past outcomes to make inferences about new situations. Yet in recent years, many forensic mental health professionals have become persuaded that overly wide confidence intervals render actuarial risk assessment instruments virtually useless in individual assessments. If this were true, the mathematical properties of probabilistic judgments would preclude forensic clinicians from applying group-based findings about risk to individuals. As a consequence, actuarially based risk estimates might be barred from use in legal proceedings. Using a fictional scenario, I seek to show how group data have an obvious application to individual decisions. I also explain how misunderstanding the aims of risk assessment has led to mistakes about how, when, and why group data apply to individual instances. Although actuarially based statements about individuals' risk have many pitfalls, confidence intervals pose no barrier to using actuarial tools derived from group data to improve decision-making about individual instances.

  19. Combat Service Support Enabler Functional Assessment (CEFA). Volume 2: Individual (65) Mini-CEFA Assessments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    47E Vibration Management Enhancement DEC 96 Program Cost-Benefit Analysis for U.S. Navy JAN 95 and Marine Corps Helicopter Safety-of-Flight Systems...ASSESSMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS Mini-Assessment Title Page 1. Advanced Radiographic System (ARS) . 1 2. Air Ambulance (UH-60Q MEDEVAC Helicopter ) 7...Air Ambulance (UH-60Q MEDEVAC Helicopter ) 2. Designation. FXXI CSS Initiative. Provides medical units w/on-board medical technology to

  20. Scientific and social significance of assessing individual differences: "sinking shafts at a few critical points".

    PubMed

    Lubinski, D

    2000-01-01

    This chapter reviews empirical findings on the importance of assessing individual differences in human behavior. Traditional dimensions of human abilities, personality, and vocational interests play critical roles in structuring a variety of important behaviors and outcomes (e.g. achieved socioeconomic status, educational choices, work performance, delinquency, health risk behaviors, and income). In the review of their importance, the construct of general intelligence is featured, but attributes that routinely add incremental validity to cognitive assessments are also discussed. Recent experimental and methodological advances for better understanding how these dimensions may contribute to other psychological frameworks are reviewed, as are ways for determining their scientific significance within domains where they are not routinely assessed. Finally, some noteworthy models are outlined that highlight the importance of assessing relatively distinct classes of individual-differences attributes simultaneously. For understanding fully complex human phenomena such as crime, eminence, and educational-vocational development, such a multifaceted approach is likely to be the most productive.

  1. The Assessment of Meta-Cognition in Different Contexts: Individualized vs. Peer Assisted Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamir, Adina; Mevarech, Zemira R.; Gida, Carmit

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of assessing young children's meta-cognition in different contexts (i.e., individual learning (IL), peer assisted learning (PAL) and self-reports). Additionally, the contributions of declarative and procedural meta-cognition in IL and PAL, TOM and language ability on children's cognitive performance…

  2. Sensitivity and Specificity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Modified for Individuals Who Are Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittich, Walter; Phillips, Natalie; Nasreddine, Ziad S.; Chertkow, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Evaluating the cognitive status of individuals who are visually impaired is limited by the design of the test that is used. This article presents data on the sensitivity and specificity of the version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment for people who are visually impaired. The original validation data were reanalyzed, excluding the five visual…

  3. An Assessment-for-Learning System in Mathematics for Individuals with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Eric G.; Shute, Valerie J.; Landau, Steven

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the usability of an assessment-for-learning (AfL) system that provides audio-tactile graphics for algebra content (geometric sequences) for individuals with visual impairments--two who are blind and two with low vision. It found that the system is generally usable as a mathematics AfL system. (Contains 4 tables.)

  4. Self-Reported versus Professionally Assessed Functional Limitations in Community-Dwelling Very Old Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlsson, Gunilla; Haak, Maria; Nygren, Carita; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported and professionally assessed functional limitations in community-dwelling very old individuals. In total, 306 single-living adults aged 81-90 years were included in this cross-sectional study. The main outcome measure was the presence and absence of self-reported and…

  5. Individualizing Elementary General Music Instruction: Case Studies of Assessment and Differentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvador, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Elementary general music teachers typically teach hundreds of students every week. Each child has individual learning needs due to a variety of factors, such as prior experiences with music, music aptitude, learning style, and personality. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore ways that experienced teachers used assessments to…

  6. Individualized Sampling Parameters for Behavioral Observations: Enhancing the Predictive Validity of Competing Stimulus Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLeon, Iser G.; Toole, Lisa M.; Gutshall, Katharine A.; Bowman, Lynn G.

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have used pretreatment analyses, termed competing stimulus assessments, to identify items that most effectively displace the aberrant behavior of individuals with developmental disabilities. In most studies, there appeared to have been no systematic basis for selecting the sampling period (ranging from 30 s to 10 min) in which items…

  7. Defining Course Outcomes and Assessment Procedures: A Model for Individual Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, James K., Jr.; Marabeti, Hilary B.

    A description is provided of Tennessee's Volunteer State Community College's (VSCC's) approach to defining the goals, expected outcomes, and assessment procedures of individual courses, utilizing teacher-developed course instruction manuals and standardized course syllabi. Introductory material explains why and how the approach was developed,…

  8. Towards a Personalised, Learning Style Based Collaborative Blended Learning Model with Individual Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Béres, Ilona; Magyar, Timea; Turcsányi-Szabó, Márta

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we aim to describe the process by which our personalised web-based collaborative teaching/learning methodology (CECIP--Collaboration--Evaluation--Critical thinking--Individual assessment--learner Profile) evolved originating from Vygotsky's theory and based on the (C) collaborative construction of student's knowledge, (E) developing…

  9. VULNERABILITY AS A FUNCTION OF INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP RESOURCES IN CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The field of risk assessment has focused on protecting the health of individual people or populations of wildlife from single risks, mostly from chemical exposure. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently began to address multiple risks to communities in the ...

  10. Assessing Same/Different Judgments in Individuals with Severe Intellectual Disabilities: A Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serna, Richard W.; Dube, William V.; McIlvane, William J.

    1997-01-01

    Summarizes state-of-the-art approaches for assessing visual stimulus same/different judgments in individuals with severe intellectual disabilities. Methodological investigations indicate that one can obtain reliable same/different judgments with a variety of stimuli in virtually anyone for whom a basal score on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test…

  11. Assessment of Preference for Edible and Leisure Items in Individuals with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Javier Virues; Iwata, Brian A.; Nogales-Gonzalez, Celia; Frades, Belen

    2012-01-01

    We conducted 2 studies on reinforcer preference in patients with dementia. Results of preference assessments yielded differential selections by 14 participants. Unlike prior studies with individuals with intellectual disabilities, all participants showed a noticeable preference for leisure items over edible items. Results of a subsequent analysis…

  12. Assessment of Cognitive and Adaptive Behaviour among Individuals with Congenital Insensitivity to Pain and Anhidrosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erez, Daniella Levy; Levy, Jacov; Friger, Michael; Aharoni-Mayer, Yael; Cohen-Iluz, Moran; Goldstein, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Individuals with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) are reported to have mental retardation but to our knowledge no detailed study on the subject has ever been published. The present study assessed and documented cognitive and adaptive behaviour among Arab Bedouin children with CIPA. Methods: Twenty-three Arab Bedouin…

  13. Contract Learning as an Approach to Individualizing EFL Education in the Context of Assessment for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zandi, Hamed; Kaivanpanah, Shiva; Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Contract learning as an approach to individualizing education in the context of assessment for learning is relatively underexplored in English as a Foreign Language instruction. The present study used a mixed-methods design to investigate its efficacy to provide feedback to students and improve self-directed learning. Furthermore, it studied…

  14. Assessment of Language and Literacy: A Process of Hypothesis Testing for Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Cheryl M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Older school-aged children and adolescents with persistent language and literacy impairments vary in their individual profiles of linguistic strengths and weaknesses. Given the multidimensional nature and complexity of language, designing an assessment protocol capable of uncovering linguistic variation is challenging. A process of…

  15. Welfare Policy and Subjective Well-Being across Nations: An Individual-Level Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacek, Alexander C.; Radcliff, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    In the vast and diverse literature on determinants of life-satisfaction and happiness, there is a relative dearth of empirical research on the role of specifically political factors. We identify one such possible factor, the industrial welfare state, and assess its impact on how individuals perceive their well-being. The voluminous literature on…

  16. Quantitative Approach to Collaborative Learning: Performance Prediction, Individual Assessment, and Group Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cen, Ling; Ruta, Dymitr; Powell, Leigh; Hirsch, Benjamin; Ng, Jason

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of collaborative learning, although widely reported, lack the quantitative rigor and detailed insight into the dynamics of interactions within the group, while individual contributions and their impacts on group members and their collaborative work remain hidden behind joint group assessment. To bridge this gap we intend to address…

  17. Assessing English literacy as a predictor of postschool outcomes in the lives of deaf individuals.

    PubMed

    Garberoglio, Carrie Lou; Cawthon, Stephanie W; Bond, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Lower English literacy achievement of deaf students is often hypothesized to be an impediment for successful adult life experiences. Yet, literacy practices that individuals engage in throughout their daily lives are much more complex than what school-based measures of English can capture and particularly so for deaf individuals. A national large-scale data set with a sample of over 1,000 deaf youths was used to assess what, precisely, standardized measures of literacy may predict in terms of postschool outcomes in three domains: life, employment, and education. Regression analyses indicate that these measures predicted some postschool outcomes, but not all, and if significant, only a small amount of variation in the outcomes was explained. Findings suggest that English literacy, particularly the narrow conceptualization of English literacy skills that are measured through school-based assessments, may not play a significant role in the lives of deaf individuals, contrary to expectations.

  18. Assessment of soil pollution based on total petroleum hydrocarbons and individual oil substances.

    PubMed

    Pinedo, J; Ibáñez, R; Lijzen, J P A; Irabien, Á

    2013-11-30

    Different oil products like gasoline, diesel or heavy oils can cause soil contamination. The assessment of soils exposed to oil products can be conducted through the comparison between a measured concentration and an intervention value (IV). Several national policies include the IV based on the so called total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) measure. However, the TPH assessment does not indicate the individual substances that may produce contamination. The soil quality assessment can be improved by including common hazardous compounds as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aromatic volatile hydrocarbons like benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). This study, focused on 62 samples collected from different sites throughout The Netherlands, evaluates TPH, PAH and BTEX concentrations in soils. Several indices of pollution are defined for the assessment of individual variables (TPH, PAH, B, T, E, and X) and multivariables (MV, BTEX), allowing us to group the pollutants and simplify the methodology. TPH and PAH concentrations above the IV are mainly found in medium and heavy oil products such as diesel and heavy oil. On the other hand, unacceptable BTEX concentrations are reached in soils contaminated with gasoline and kerosene. The TPH assessment suggests the need for further action to include lighter products. The application of multivariable indices allows us to include these products in the soil quality assessment without changing the IV for TPH. This work provides useful information about the soil quality assessment methodology of oil products in soils, focussing the analysis into the substances that mainly cause the risk.

  19. The assessment of individual usual food intake in large-scale prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Nöthlings, Ute; Wagner, Karen; Ward, Heather; Boeing, Heiner

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has called into question the current practice to estimate individual usual food intake in large-scale studies. In such studies, usual food intake has been defined as diet over the past year. The aim of this review is to summarise the concepts of dietary assessment methods providing food intake data over this time period. A conceptualised framework is given to help researchers to understand the more recent developments to improve dietary assessment in large-scale prospective studies, and also to help to spot the gaps that need to be addressed in future methodological research. The conceptual framework illustrates the current options for the assessment of an individual's food consumption over 1 year. Ideally, a person's food intake on each day of this year should be assessed. Due to participants' burden, and organisational and financial constraints, however, the options are limited to directly requesting the long-term average (e.g. food frequency questionnaires), or selecting a few days with detailed food consumption measurements (e.g. 24-hour dietary recalls) or using snapshot techniques (e.g. barcode scanning of purchases). It seems necessary and important to further evaluate the performance of statistical modelling of the individual usual food intake from all available sources. Future dietary assessment might profit from the growing prominence of internet and telecommunication technologies to further enhance the available data on food consumption for each study participant. Research is crucial to investigate the performance of innovative assessment tools. However, the self-reported nature of the data itself will always lead to bias.

  20. Vulnerability as a Function of Individual and Group Resources in Cumulative Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    deFur, Peter L.; Evans, Gary W.; Hubal, Elaine A. Cohen; Kyle, Amy D.; Morello-Frosch, Rachel A.; Williams, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Background The field of risk assessment has focused on protecting the health of individual people or populations of wildlife from single risks, mostly from chemical exposure. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently began to address multiple risks to communities in the “Framework for Cumulative Risk Assessment” [EPA/630/P02/001F. Washington DC:Risk Assessment Forum, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2003)]. Simultaneously, several reports concluded that some individuals and groups are more vulnerable to environmental risks than the general population. However, vulnerability has received little specific attention in the risk assessment literature. Objective Our objective is to examine the issue of vulnerability in cumulative risk assessment and present a conceptual framework rather than a comprehensive review of the literature. In this article we consider similarities between ecologic and human communities and the factors that make communities vulnerable to environmental risks. Discussion The literature provides substantial evidence on single environmental factors and simple conditions that increase vulnerability or reduce resilience for humans and ecologic systems. This observation is especially true for individual people and populations of wildlife. Little research directly addresses the topic of vulnerability in cumulative risk situations, especially at the community level. The community level of organization has not been adequately considered as an end point in either human or ecologic risk assessment. Furthermore, current information on human risk does not completely explain the level of response in cumulative risk conditions. Ecologic risk situations are similarly more complex and unpredictable for cases of cumulative risk. Conclusions Psychosocial conditions and responses are the principal missing element for humans. We propose a model for including psychologic and social factors as an integral component of cumulative risk assessment. PMID

  1. Smartphone-Based Self-Assessment of Stress in Healthy Adult Individuals: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Þórarinsdóttir, Helga; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2017-01-01

    Background Stress is a common experience in today’s society. Smartphone ownership is widespread, and smartphones can be used to monitor health and well-being. Smartphone-based self-assessment of stress can be done in naturalistic settings and may potentially reflect real-time stress level. Objective The objectives of this systematic review were to evaluate (1) the use of smartphones to measure self-assessed stress in healthy adult individuals, (2) the validity of smartphone-based self-assessed stress compared with validated stress scales, and (3) the association between smartphone-based self-assessed stress and smartphone generated objective data. Methods A systematic review of the scientific literature was reported and conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The scientific databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, IEEE, and ACM were searched and supplemented by a hand search of reference lists. The databases were searched for original studies involving healthy individuals older than 18 years, measuring self-assessed stress using smartphones. Results A total of 35 published articles comprising 1464 individuals were included for review. According to the objectives, (1) study designs were heterogeneous, and smartphone-based self-assessed stress was measured using various methods (e.g., dichotomized questions on stress, yes or no; Likert scales on stress; and questionnaires); (2) the validity of smartphone-based self-assessed stress compared with validated stress scales was investigated in 3 studies, and of these, only 1 study found a moderate statistically significant positive correlation (r=.4; P<.05); and (3) in exploratory analyses, smartphone-based self-assessed stress was found to correlate with some of the reported smartphone generated objective data, including voice features and data on activity and phone usage. Conclusions Smartphones are being used to measure self-assessed stress in

  2. Telepractice in the Assessment and Treatment of Individuals with Aphasia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Nerissa; Boisvert, Michelle; Steele, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Telepractice involves the application of technology to deliver services over a geographical distance. Studies in which telepractice procedures were used in the assessment or treatment of individuals with aphasia were reviewed. Systematic searches identified 10 studies meeting inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of the: (a) characteristics of the participants, (b) technology utilized (c), services delivered via telepractice, (d) research methodology, and (e) results and conclusions of the study. Telepractice was used by speech-language pathologists and allied health professionals to assist with the delivery of services to participants with aphasia by their caretakers or clinicians. The services delivered included appraisal, diagnostic assessments, interventions, and consultation. This review suggests that telepractice is a viable method of service delivery for individuals with aphasia, however further research is warranted. Guidelines for practitioners and potential directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25945211

  3. Long term post-flood damage assessments to analyze the strategies of adaptation at individual scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brémond, Pauline; Bonte, Bruno; Erdlenbruch, Katrin; Grelot, Frédéric; Richert, Claire

    2015-04-01

    RETINA is a project which studies the opportunity for adaptation in the aftermath of flood events. To handle this research question, we consider adaptation to flood risk at individual and collective scale as well as the influence of the urban planning regulation (Flood risk mapping). For the purpose of this research, collective adaptation means actions that are undertaken at collective scale such as dikes, relocation of collective infrastructures (roads, treatment plant...) and individual adaptation means actions decided at individual level (households, enterprises or farmers) such as relocation, elevation of critical components, new organization.... In this presentation, we focus on individual adaptation and analyse which are the mechanisms that incite or constrain the adaptation to flood risk of individual assets considering their own trajectory. The originality of our approach is to carry out long term post-flood assessments and comprehensive interviews at individual scale. To catch the drivers of adaptation, we sequenced the interview guide in three periods: 1/ the situation before the reference event occurred, 2/ what happened during and just after the flood event, 3/ what happened from the flood event until the moment of the interview. Two case studies have been chosen. The first case study is the Aude department where an exceptional flooding occurred in 1999. The second case study is the Var department where more recent and frequent flood events occurred in 2010, 2011, 2014. On each case study, we plan to conduct about fifty interviews including households and economic activities. In this presentation, we will develop methodological aspects on long term post-flood damage assessments. Carrying out a long term post-flood assessment enabled us to consider adaptation to flood risk among the whole of strategic decisions a household or an enterprise has to take. Moreover, we found out that contrary to what is usually assumed, the fact that the reference event was

  4. An assessment of the effectiveness of individual pitch control on upscaled wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Z. J.; Stol, K. A.

    2014-06-01

    The use of individual pitch control (IPC) based on loads transformed into nonrotating coordinates is explored on a range of wind turbines with ratings between 5MW and 15MW. Turbine models are generated using classical upscaling based on properties of the NREL 5MW reference wind turbine. The Ziegler-Nichols method is used with a low order linear model of each turbine to objectively tune a gain-scheduled, proportional-integral individual pitch controller. The performance of IPC is assessed by measuring reductions in blade and tower root damage equivalent loads from simulations at several wind speeds spanning Region 3. It is observed that the load reductions obtained with individual pitch control are maintained on upscaled turbines, with minimal impact on tower root loads, while actuator usage scales at a rate lower than expected with classical scaling.

  5. Radiation Risk Assessment of the Individual Astronaut: A Complement to Radiation Interests at the NIH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    Predicting human risks following exposure to space radiation is uncertain in part because of unpredictable distribution of high-LET and low-dose-derived damage amongst cells in tissues, unknown synergistic effects of microgravity upon gene- and protein-expression, and inadequately modeled processing of radiation-induced damage within cells to produce rare and late-appearing malignant cancers. Furthermore, estimation of risks of radiogenic outcome within small numbers of astronauts is not possible using classic epidemiologic study. It therefore seems useful to develop strategies of risk-assessment based upon large datasets acquired from correlated biological models useful for resolving radiogenic risk-assessment for irradiated individuals. In this regard, it is suggested that sensitive cellular biodosimeters that simultaneously report 1) the quantity of absorbed dose after exposure to ionizing radiation, 2) the quality of radiation delivering that dose, and 3) the biomolecular risk of malignant transformation be developed in order to resolve these NASA-specific challenges. Multiparametric cellular biodosimeters could be developed using analyses of gene-expression and protein-expression whereby large datasets of cellular response to radiation-induced damage are analyzed for markers predictive for acute response as well as cancer-risk. A new paradigm is accordingly addressed wherein genomic and proteomic datasets are registered and interrogated in order to provide statistically significant dose-dependent risk estimation in individual astronauts. This evaluation of the individual for assessment of radiogenic outcomes connects to NIH program in that such a paradigm also supports assignment of a given patient to a specific therapy, the diagnosis of response of that patient to therapy, and the prediction of risks accumulated by that patient during therapy - such as risks incurred by scatter and neutrons produced during high-energy Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy

  6. An interactive mapping tool to assess individual mobility patterns in neighborhood studies.

    PubMed

    Chaix, Basile; Kestens, Yan; Perchoux, Camille; Karusisi, Noëlla; Merlo, Juan; Labadi, Karima

    2012-10-01

    As their most critical limitation, neighborhood and health studies published to date have not taken into account nonresidential activity places where individuals travel in their daily lives. However, identifying low-mobility populations residing in low-resource environments, assessing cumulative environmental exposures over multiple activity places, and identifying specific activity locations for targeting interventions are important for health promotion. Daily mobility has not been given due consideration in part because of a lack of tools to collect locational information on activity spaces. Thus, the first aim of the current article is to describe VERITAS (Visualization and Evaluation of Route Itineraries, Travel Destinations, and Activity Spaces), an interactive web mapping application that can geolocate individuals' activity places, routes between locations, and relevant areas such as experienced or perceived neighborhoods. The second aim is to formalize the theoretic grounds of a contextual expology as a subdiscipline to better assess the spatiotemporal configuration of environmental exposures. Based on activity place data, various indicators of individual patterns of movement in space (spatial behavior) are described. Successive steps are outlined for elaborating variables of multiplace environmental exposure (collection of raw locational information, selection/exclusion of locational data, defining an exposure area for measurement, and calculation). Travel and activity place network areas are discussed as a relevant construct for environmental exposure assessment. Finally, a note of caution is provided that these measures require careful handling to avoid increasing the magnitude of confounding (selective daily mobility bias).

  7. Constructing interethnic conflict and cooperation: why some people harmed Jews and others helped them during the Holocaust in Romania.

    PubMed

    Dumitru, Diana; Johnson, Carter

    2011-01-01

    The authors draw on a natural experiment to demonstrate that states can reconstruct conflictual interethnic relationships into cooperative relationships in relatively short periods of time. The article examines differences in how the gentile population in each of two neighboring territories in Romania treated its Jewish population during the Holocaust. These territories had been part of tsarist Russia and subject to state-sponsored anti-Semitism until 1917. During the interwar period one territory became part of Romania, which continued anti-Semitic policies, and the other became part of the Soviet Union, which pursued an inclusive nationality policy, fighting against inherited anti-Semitism and working to integrate its Jews. Both territories were then reunited under Romanian administration during World War II, when Romania began to destroy its Jewish population. The authors demonstrate that, despite a uniform Romanian state presence during the Holocaust that encouraged gentiles to victimize Jews, the civilian population in the area that had been part of the Soviet Union was less likely to harm and more likely to aid Jews as compared with the region that had been part of Romania. Their evidence suggests that the state construction of interethnic relationships can become internalized by civilians and outlive the life of the state itself.

  8. Feathers as a Tool to Assess Mercury Contamination in Gentoo Penguins: Variations at the Individual Level

    PubMed Central

    Pedro, Sara; Xavier, José C.; Tavares, Sílvia; Trathan, Phil N.; Ratcliffe, Norman; Paiva, Vitor H.; Medeiros, Renata; Pereira, Eduarda; Pardal, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Feathers have been widely used to assess mercury contamination in birds as they reflect metal concentrations accumulated between successive moult periods: they are also easy to sample and have minimum impact on the study birds. Moult is considered the major pathway for mercury excretion in seabirds. Penguins are widely believed to undergo a complete, annual moult during which they do not feed. As penguins lose all their feathers, they are expected to have a low individual-variability in feather mercury concentration as all feathers are formed simultaneously from the same somatic reserves. This assumption is central to penguin studies that use feathers to examine the annual or among-individual variation in mercury concentrations in penguins. To test this assumption, we measured the mercury concentrations in 3–5 body feathers of 52 gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) breeding at Bird Island, South Georgia (54°S 38°W). Twenty-five percent of the penguins studied showed substantial within-individual variation in the amount of mercury in their feathers (Coefficient of Variation: 34.7–96.7%). This variation may be caused by differences in moult patterns among individuals within the population leading to different interpretations in the overall population. Further investigation is now needed to fully understand individual variation in penguins’ moult. PMID:26352664

  9. Feathers as a Tool to Assess Mercury Contamination in Gentoo Penguins: Variations at the Individual Level.

    PubMed

    Pedro, Sara; Xavier, José C; Tavares, Sílvia; Trathan, Phil N; Ratcliffe, Norman; Paiva, Vitor H; Medeiros, Renata; Pereira, Eduarda; Pardal, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    Feathers have been widely used to assess mercury contamination in birds as they reflect metal concentrations accumulated between successive moult periods: they are also easy to sample and have minimum impact on the study birds. Moult is considered the major pathway for mercury excretion in seabirds. Penguins are widely believed to undergo a complete, annual moult during which they do not feed. As penguins lose all their feathers, they are expected to have a low individual-variability in feather mercury concentration as all feathers are formed simultaneously from the same somatic reserves. This assumption is central to penguin studies that use feathers to examine the annual or among-individual variation in mercury concentrations in penguins. To test this assumption, we measured the mercury concentrations in 3-5 body feathers of 52 gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) breeding at Bird Island, South Georgia (54°S 38°W). Twenty-five percent of the penguins studied showed substantial within-individual variation in the amount of mercury in their feathers (Coefficient of Variation: 34.7-96.7%). This variation may be caused by differences in moult patterns among individuals within the population leading to different interpretations in the overall population. Further investigation is now needed to fully understand individual variation in penguins' moult.

  10. Parental Choice of Schooling, Learning Processes and Inter-Ethnic Friendship Patterns: The Case of Malay Students in Chinese Primary Schools in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sua, Tan Yao; Ngah, Kamarudin; Darit, Sezali Md.

    2013-01-01

    This study surveys 200 Malay students enrolled in three Chinese primary schools in relation to three issues, i.e., parental choice of schooling, learning processes and inter-ethnic friendship patterns. The three issues are explored through a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methodologies. Parental expectations for their…

  11. Transformations in Kinship, Land Rights and Social Boundaries among the Wampar in Papua New Guinea and the Generative Agency of Children of Interethnic Marriages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schworer, Doris Bacalzo

    2012-01-01

    Among the Wampar in Papua New Guinea, children are active participants in the dynamics of kinship and identity construction. This article explores the transformative capabilities of children of interethnic marriages, particularly those with non-Wampar fathers. It examines children's notions of belonging and rights through their practices and…

  12. Asian American Interethnic Relations and Politics. Asians in America: The Peoples of East, Southeast, and South Asia in American Life and Culture Series, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Franklin, Ed.

    The articles in this anthology address the complex subject of interethnic relations and Asian American politics, transcending ideas of Asian Americans as the model minority. The articles are: (1) "Opening the American Mind and Body: The Role of Asian American Studies" (Shirley Hume); (2) "Surviving Democracy's 'Mistake":…

  13. Combined neuropsychological and neurophysiological assessment of drug effects on groups and individuals.

    PubMed

    Gevins, Alan; Ilan, Aaron B; Jiang, An; Sam-Vargas, Lita; Baum, Cliff; Chan, Cynthia S

    2011-08-01

    An initial standardized approach for combining neuropsychological and neurophysiological measures in order to assess the neurocognitive effects of drugs in groups and individuals is introduced. Its application is illustrated with sedatives, antiepileptic drugs, psychostimulants, antihistamines, and intoxicants. Task performance, electroencephalography, and evoked potential measures during computerized attention and memory testing that are most sensitive to drug effects are identified in a sample population and then applied to individuals. In six example exploratory studies, drug effects were detected with an average area under curve (AUC) of 0.97 (p < 0.0001; 95% sensitivity, 96% specificity). In 10 example validation studies with other drugs and/or different subjects and populations, detection was strong in the eight studies with drugs and doses known to have significant neurocognitive effects (AUC 0.83, p < 0.0001; 82% sensitivity, 89% specificity), whereas no effect was detected in the two studies with drugs known to have faint neurocognitive effects (AUC 0.56, p > 0.10). Individual differences in response to different drugs with similar clinical uses, to varying doses of the same drug, and in pharmacodynamic response were then demonstrated. The significant (p < 0.01) increase in sensitivity and specificity of combined neuropsychological and neurophysiological measures compared with the former alone suggests that fewer subjects may be needed to assess the neurocognitive effects of drugs in future studies. The findings suggest that the concept of combining neuropsychological testing with simultaneous measures of neurophysiological function is worth further exploration.

  14. Helping individuals to understand synergistic risks: an assessment of message contents depicting mechanistic and probabilistic concepts.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Ian G J; Johnson, Johnnie E V; Luke, Michelle A

    2013-05-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that certain hazard combinations interact to present synergistic risks. However, little is known about the most effective ways of helping individuals to understand this complex risk concept. More specifically, there is an absence of empirical research that has assessed the relative efficacy of messages that explain either the causal mechanism and/or the probabilistic components of synergistic risks. In an experiment designed to address this issue, we presented participants with messages concerning the synergistic risk of developing esophageal cancer for individuals who consume both tobacco and alcohol. Relative to a control group, we compared the extent to which messages featuring content detailing the underlying biological mechanism, the probabilistic risk, or both improved understanding of the synergistic risk. Our results showed that messages containing details of both the mechanism and probabilistic information were most effective at enabling individuals to understand that the alcohol-tobacco combination presents a synergistic risk. In addition, large improvements in the accuracy of cancer frequency estimates were observed amongst individuals who received probabilistic information, and the highest relative increase in professed willingness to adopt precautionary behaviors was observed amongst individuals who received the mechanism information only. Importantly, these findings could be utilized in the development of a general model for the communication of synergistic risks. Furthermore, in contrast to previous findings, our study demonstrates that risk messages can be both effective and efficient in helping individuals to acquire a greater understanding of synergistic risks. Acquiring such knowledge could lead to significant improvements in risk-related decisions concerning combined hazards.

  15. 14 CFR 13.18 - Civil penalties: Administrative assessment against an individual acting as a pilot, flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman. 13.18 Section 13.18... assessment against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman. (a) General. (1... procedures against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman, under 49...

  16. 14 CFR 13.18 - Civil penalties: Administrative assessment against an individual acting as a pilot, flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman. 13.18 Section 13.18... assessment against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman. (a) General. (1... procedures against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman, under 49...

  17. 14 CFR 13.18 - Civil penalties: Administrative assessment against an individual acting as a pilot, flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman. 13.18 Section 13.18... assessment against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman. (a) General. (1... procedures against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman, under 49...

  18. 14 CFR 13.18 - Civil penalties: Administrative assessment against an individual acting as a pilot, flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman. 13.18 Section 13.18... assessment against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman. (a) General. (1... procedures against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman, under 49...

  19. 14 CFR 13.18 - Civil penalties: Administrative assessment against an individual acting as a pilot, flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman. 13.18 Section 13.18... assessment against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman. (a) General. (1... procedures against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman, under 49...

  20. Nutrient Status Assessment in Individuals and Populations for Healthy Aging—Statement from an Expert Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Péter, Szabolcs; Saris, Wim H. M.; Mathers, John C.; Feskens, Edith; Schols, Annemie; Navis, Gerjan; Kuipers, Folkert; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    A workshop organized by the University Medical Center Groningen addressed various current issues regarding nutrient status of individuals and populations, tools and strategies for its assessment, and opportunities to intervene. The importance of nutrient deficiencies and information on nutrient status for health has been illustrated, in particular for elderly and specific patient groups. The nutrient profile of individuals can be connected to phenotypes, like hypertension or obesity, as well as to socio-economic data. This approach provides information on the relationship between nutrition (nutrient intake and status) and health outcomes and, for instance, allows us to use the findings to communicate and advocate a healthy lifestyle. Nutrition is complex: a broader profile of nutrients should be considered rather than focusing solely on a single nutrient. Evaluating food patterns instead of intake of individual nutrients provides better insight into relationships between nutrition and health and disease. This approach would allow us to provide feedback to individuals about their status and ways to improve their nutritional habits. In addition, it would provide tools for scientists and health authorities to update and develop public health recommendations. PMID:26694458

  1. Preliminary performance assessment of computer automated facial approximations using computed tomography scans of living individuals.

    PubMed

    Parks, Connie L; Richard, Adam H; Monson, Keith L

    2013-12-10

    ReFace (Reality Enhancement Facial Approximation by Computational Estimation) is a computer-automated facial approximation application jointly developed by the Federal Bureau of Investigation and GE Global Research. The application derives a statistically based approximation of a face from a unidentified skull using a dataset of ~400 human head computer tomography (CT) scans of living adult American individuals from four ancestry groups: African, Asian, European and Hispanic (self-identified). To date only one unpublished subjective recognition study has been conducted using ReFace approximations. It indicated that approximations produced by ReFace were recognized above chance rates (10%). This preliminary study assesses: (i) the recognizability of five ReFace approximations; (ii) the recognizability of CT-derived skin surface replicas of the same individuals whose skulls were used to create the ReFace approximations; and (iii) the relationship between recognition performance and resemblance ratings of target individuals. All five skin surface replicas were recognized at rates statistically significant above chance (22-50%). Four of five ReFace approximations were recognized above chance (5-18%), although with statistical significance only at the higher rate. Such results suggest reconsideration of the usefulness of the type of output format utilized in this study, particularly in regard to facial approximations employed as a means of identifying unknown individuals.

  2. Interethnic variability of pharmacogenetic biomarkers in Mexican healthy volunteers: a report from the RIBEF (Ibero-American Network of Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics).

    PubMed

    Fricke-Galindo, Ingrid; Jung-Cook, Helgi; LLerena, Adrián; López-López, Marisol

    2016-06-01

    Mexico presents a complex population diversity integrated by Mexican indigenous (MI) (7% of Mexico's population) and Mexican mestizos (MMs). This composition highlights the importance of pharmacogenetic studies in Mexican populations. The aims of this study were to analyze the reported frequencies of the most relevant pharmacogenetic biomarkers and metabolic phenotypes in healthy volunteers from Mexican populations and to assess its interethnic variability across MI and MM populations. After a literature search in PubMed, and according to previously defined inclusion criteria, 63 pharmacogenetic studies performed in Mexican healthy volunteers up to date were selected. These reports comprised 56,292 healthy volunteers (71.58% MM). Allele frequencies in 31 pharmacogenetic biomarkers, from 121 searched, are described. Nine of these biomarkers presented variation within MM and MI groups. The frequencies of CYP2D6*3, *4, *5, *10, *17, *35 and *41 alleles in the MM group were different from those reported in the MI group. CYP2C9*2 and *3 alleles were more frequent in MM than in MI populations (χ2 test, p<0.05). CYP2C19*3 allele was not found in the MM or MI populations reported. For UGT1A1*28, only one study was found. HLA-A*31:01 and HLA-B*15:02 were present in some MM and MI populations. Poor metabolizers for CYP2D6 and CYP2C9 were more frequent in MM than in MI groups (χ2 test, p<0.05). Only 26% of the relevant pharmacogenetic biomarkers searched have been studied in Mexican healthy volunteers; therefore, further studies are warranted. The frequency variation of biomarkers in MM and MI populations could be important for the clinical implementation of pharmacogenetics in Mexico.

  3. Communication Services and Supports for Individuals with Severe Disabilities: Guidance for Assessment and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Nancy C.; Bruce, Susan; Goldman, Amy; Erickson, Karen; Mineo, Beth; Ogletree, Bill T.; Paul, Diane; Romski, Mary Ann; Sevcik, Rose; Siegel, Ellin; Schoonover, Judith; Snell, Marti; Sylvester, Lorraine; Wilkinson, Krista

    2015-01-01

    The National Joint Committee for the Communication Needs of People with Severe Disabilities (NJC) reviewed literature regarding practices for people with severe disabilities in order to update guidance provided in documents originally published in 1992. Changes in laws, definitions, and policies that affect communication attainments by persons with severe disabilities are presented, along with guidance regarding assessment and intervention practices. A revised version of the Communication Bill of Rights, a powerful document that describes the communication rights of all individuals, including those with severe disabilities is included in this article. The information contained within this article is intended to be used by professionals, family members, and individuals with severe disabilities to inform and advocate for effective communication services and opportunities. PMID:26914467

  4. Communication Services and Supports for Individuals With Severe Disabilities: Guidance for Assessment and Intervention.

    PubMed

    Brady, Nancy C; Bruce, Susan; Goldman, Amy; Erickson, Karen; Mineo, Beth; Ogletree, Bill T; Paul, Diane; Romski, Mary Ann; Sevcik, Rose; Siegel, Ellin; Schoonover, Judith; Snell, Marti; Sylvester, Lorraine; Wilkinson, Krista

    2016-03-01

    The National Joint Committee for the Communication Needs of People With Severe Disabilities (NJC) reviewed literature regarding practices for people with severe disabilities in order to update guidance provided in documents originally published in 1992. Changes in laws, definitions, and policies that affect communication attainments by persons with severe disabilities are presented, along with guidance regarding assessment and intervention practices. A revised version of the Communication Bill of Rights, a powerful document that describes the communication rights of all individuals, including those with severe disabilities is included in this article. The information contained within this article is intended to be used by professionals, family members, and individuals with severe disabilities to inform and advocate for effective communication services and opportunities.

  5. The Key to Individualized Addiction Treatment is Comprehensive Assessment and Monitoring of Symptoms and Behavioral Change

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Thomas F.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Modern health services now strive for individualized treatment. This approach has been enabled by the increase in knowledge derived from neuroscience and genomics. Substance use disorders are no exception to individualized treatment even though there are no gene-specific medications yet available. What is available is the ability to quickly and precisely assess and monitor biopsychosocial variables known to vary during addiction recovery and which place addicts at increased risk of relapse. Monitoring a broad spectrum of biopsychosocial health enables providers to address diverse genome-specific changes that might trigger withdrawal from treatment or recovery relapse in time to prevent that from occurring. This paper describes modern measurement tools contained in the NIH Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) and the NIH Toolbox and suggests how they might be applied to support recovery from alcohol and other substance use disorders in both pharmacological and abstinence-oriented modalities of care. PMID:26529025

  6. Comparison of individual answer and group answer with and without structured peer assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kablan, Zeynel

    2014-09-01

    Background:Cooperative learning activities provide active participation of students leading to better learning. The literature suggests that cooperative learning activities need to be structured for a more effective and productive interaction. Purpose: This study aimed to test the differences among three instructional conditions in terms of science achievement. Sample:A total of 79 fifth-grade students, 42 males (53%) and 37 females (47%), participated in the study. Design and Methods:In the first condition, students answered the teacher's questions individually by raising hands. In the second condition, students discussed the answer in groups and came up with a single group answer. In this condition, the teacher provided only verbal directions to the groups without using any strategy or material. In the third condition, students used a 'peer assessment form' before giving the group answer. A pre-/post-test experimental design was used. Multiple-choice and open-ended tests were used for data collection. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to test the differences in the test scores between the three groups (individual answer, unstructured group answer and structured group answer). Results:Results showed that there were no significant differences among the three learning conditions in terms of their multiple-choice test scores. In terms of the open-ended test scores, students in the structured group answer condition scored significantly higher than the students in the individual answer condition. Conclusions:Structuring the group work through peer assessment helped to monitor the group discussion, provided a better learning compared to the individual answer condition, and helped students to participate in the activity equally.

  7. Assessment of individual agreements with repeated measurements based on generalized confidence intervals.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Jorge; Burdick, Richard K

    2009-01-01

    Individual agreement between two measurement systems is determined using the total deviation index (TDI) or the coverage probability (CP) criteria as proposed by Lin (2000) and Lin et al. (2002). We used a variance component model as proposed by Choudhary (2007). Using the bootstrap approach, Choudhary (2007), and generalized confidence intervals, we construct bounds on TDI and CP. A simulation study was conducted to assess whether the bounds maintain the stated type I error probability of the test. We also present a computational example to demonstrate the statistical methods described in the paper.

  8. Group Collaboration in Assessment: Competing Objectives, Processes, and Outcomes. Project 2.1: Designs for Assessing Individual and Group Problem Solving. Effects of Group Characteristics on Groups and Individual Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Noreen M.

    A number of theoretical and practical issues are explored that need to be considered in the design of assessments that use group collaboration to be sure that collaboration works toward, rather than away from, the purpose of the assessment. The traditional purpose of assessment has been to measure individual competence of students in thinking…

  9. Use of body mass index of adults in assessing individual and community nutritional status.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, K. V.; Ferro-Luzzi, A.

    1995-01-01

    Adult malnutrition is much more widespread than is commonly recognized. Described in this article is the use of body mass index (BMI = weight in kg/(height in metres)2) as a measure of adult nutritional status, both of individuals and of communities. Concurrent assessment of the nutritional status of children and adults permits conclusions to be drawn about whether there is generalized undernutrition in a community or whether other factors (e.g., childhood infections or feeding practices) are more important in childhood malnutrition. Included is a tabular presentation that permits rapid assessment of both thinness or underweight (BMI values < 16, 17 and 18.5) and overweight (BMI > 25, 30 and 40). Examples of the use of BMI in both clinical and public health practice are also given. PMID:8846494

  10. Individualized Risk of Surgical Complications: An Application of the Breast Reconstruction Risk Assessment Score

    PubMed Central

    Mlodinow, Alexei S.; Khavanin, Nima; Hume, Keith M.; Simmons, Christopher J.; Weiss, Michael J.; Murphy, Robert X.; Gutowski, Karol A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Risk discussion is a central tenet of the dialogue between surgeon and patient. Risk calculators have recently offered a new way to integrate evidence-based practice into the discussion of individualized patient risk and expectation management. Focusing on the comprehensive Tracking Operations and Outcomes for Plastic Surgeons (TOPS) database, we endeavored to add plastic surgical outcomes to the previously developed Breast Reconstruction Risk Assessment (BRA) score. Methods: The TOPS database from 2008 to 2011 was queried for patients undergoing breast reconstruction. Regression models were constructed for the following complications: seroma, dehiscence, surgical site infection (SSI), explantation, flap failure, reoperation, and overall complications. Results: Of 11,992 cases, 4439 met inclusion criteria. Overall complication rate was 15.9%, with rates of 3.4% for seroma, 4.0% for SSI, 6.1% for dehiscence, 3.7% for explantation, 7.0% for flap loss, and 6.4% for reoperation. Individualized risk models were developed with acceptable goodness of fit, accuracy, and internal validity. Distribution of overall complication risk was broad and asymmetric, meaning that the average risk was often a poor estimate of the risk for any given patient. These models were added to the previously developed open-access version of the risk calculator, available at http://www.BRAscore.org. Conclusions: Population-based measures of risk may not accurately reflect risk for many individual patients. In this era of increasing emphasis on evidence-based medicine, we have developed a breast reconstruction risk assessment calculator from the robust TOPS database. The BRA Score tool can aid in individualizing—and quantifying—risk to better inform surgical decision making and better manage patient expectations. PMID:26090295

  11. Kinematic measures for assessing gait stability in elderly individuals: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hamacher, D.; Singh, N.B.; Van Dieën, J.H.; Heller, M.O.; Taylor, W.R.

    2011-01-01

    Falls not only present a considerable health threat, but the resulting treatment and loss of working days also place a heavy economic burden on society. Gait instability is a major fall risk factor, particularly in geriatric patients, and walking is one of the most frequent dynamic activities of daily living. To allow preventive strategies to become effective, it is therefore imperative to identify individuals with an unstable gait. Assessment of dynamic stability and gait variability via biomechanical measures of foot kinematics provides a viable option for quantitative evaluation of gait stability, but the ability of these methods to predict falls has generally not been assessed. Although various methods for assessing gait stability exist, their sensitivity and applicability in a clinical setting, as well as their cost-effectiveness, need verification. The objective of this systematic review was therefore to evaluate the sensitivity of biomechanical measures that quantify gait stability among elderly individuals and to evaluate the cost of measurement instrumentation required for application in a clinical setting. To assess gait stability, a comparative effect size (Cohen's d) analysis of variability and dynamic stability of foot trajectories during level walking was performed on 29 of an initial yield of 9889 articles from four electronic databases. The results of this survey demonstrate that linear variability of temporal measures of swing and stance was most capable of distinguishing between fallers and non-fallers, whereas step width and stride velocity prove more capable of discriminating between old versus young (OY) adults. In addition, while orbital stability measures (Floquet multipliers) applied to gait have been shown to distinguish between both elderly fallers and non-fallers as well as between young and old adults, local stability measures (λs) have been able to distinguish between young and old adults. Both linear and nonlinear measures of foot

  12. Individual Differences in the Post-Illumination Pupil Response to Blue Light: Assessment without Mydriatics.

    PubMed

    Bruijel, Jessica; van der Meijden, Wisse P; Bijlenga, Denise; Dorani, Farangis; Coppens, Joris E; Te Lindert, Bart H W; Kooij, J J Sandra; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2016-09-09

    Melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells play an important role in the non-image forming effects of light, through their direct projections on brain circuits involved in circadian rhythms, mood and alertness. Individual differences in the functionality of the melanopsin-signaling circuitry can be reliably quantified using the maximum post-illumination pupil response (PIPR) after blue light. Previous protocols for acquiring PIPR relied on the use of mydriatics to dilate the light-exposed eye. However, pharmacological pupil dilation is uncomfortable for the participants and requires ophthalmological expertise. Hence, we here investigated whether an individual's maximum PIPR can be validly obtained in a protocol that does not use mydriatics but rather increases the intensity of the light stimulus. In 18 participants (5 males, mean age ± SD: 34.6 ± 13.6 years) we evaluated the PIPR after exposure to intensified blue light (550 µW/cm²) provided to an undilated dynamic pupil. The test-retest reliability of the primary PIPR outcome parameter was very high, both between day-to-day assessments (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) = 0.85), as well as between winter and summer assessments (ICC = 0.83). Compared to the PIPR obtained with the use of mydriatics and 160 µW/cm² blue light exposure, the method with intensified light without mydriatics showed almost zero bias according to Bland-Altman plots and had moderate to strong reliability (ICC = 0.67). In conclusion, for PIPR assessments, increasing the light intensity is a feasible and reliable alternative to pupil dilation to relieve the participant's burden and to allow for performance outside the ophthalmological clinic.

  13. Assessment of the motivation to use artificial sweetener among individuals with an eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Schebendach, Janet; Klein, Diane A; Mayer, Laurel E S; Attia, Evelyn; Devlin, Michael J; Foltin, Richard W; Walsh, B Timothy

    2017-02-01

    Eating disorders are associated with a range of abnormalities in eating behavior. Some individuals consume large amounts of non-caloric artificial sweeteners, suggesting abnormalities in appetitive responding. The current study aimed to quantify hedonic and motivating effects of artificial sweetener in individuals with and without an eating disorder. Two laboratory studies were conducted. Hedonic preference was estimated using the number of artificial sweetener packets (0-10) added to unsweetened cherry flavored Kool-Aid (study 1). Motivation to obtain sweetener was assessed by a progressive ratio (PR) work task (study 2). Ninety-three participants (25 anorexia nervosa restricting type (AN-R), 23 AN binge/purge type (AN-B/P), 20 bulimia nervosa (BN), and 25 normal controls (NC)) completed the study. No significant difference in hedonic preference was found among participant groups. Work completed at the PR task ranged from 0 to 9500 key-board presses. The AN-B/P group had a significantly higher breakpoint and performed significantly more work for sweetener compared to the BN and NC groups. Among AN-B/P and AN-R participants, the preferred number of Equal packets was significantly correlated with the breakpoint and total work. The increased amount of work for sweetener among individuals with AN-B/P supports an enhanced reward value of sweet taste in this population, and suggests that the characteristic food avoidance in AN cannot be accounted for by decreased reward value of all taste-related stimuli. This study also supports the novel application of a PR ratio task to quantify the motivating effect of sweet taste among individuals with an eating disorder.

  14. Accuracy Assessment of Crown Delineation Methods for the Individual Trees Using LIDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, K. T.; Lin, C.; Lin, Y. C.; Liu, J. K.

    2016-06-01

    Forest canopy density and height are used as variables in a number of environmental applications, including the estimation of biomass, forest extent and condition, and biodiversity. The airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is very useful to estimate forest canopy parameters according to the generated canopy height models (CHMs). The purpose of this work is to introduce an algorithm to delineate crown parameters, e.g. tree height and crown radii based on the generated rasterized CHMs. And accuracy assessment for the extraction of volumetric parameters of a single tree is also performed via manual measurement using corresponding aerial photo pairs. A LiDAR dataset of a golf course acquired by Leica ALS70-HP is used in this study. Two algorithms, i.e. a traditional one with the subtraction of a digital elevation model (DEM) from a digital surface model (DSM), and a pit-free approach are conducted to generate the CHMs firstly. Then two algorithms, a multilevel morphological active-contour (MMAC) and a variable window filter (VWF), are implemented and used in this study for individual tree delineation. Finally, experimental results of two automatic estimation methods for individual trees can be evaluated with manually measured stand-level parameters, i.e. tree height and crown diameter. The resulting CHM generated by a simple subtraction is full of empty pixels (called "pits") that will give vital impact on subsequent analysis for individual tree delineation. The experimental results indicated that if more individual trees can be extracted, tree crown shape will became more completely in the CHM data after the pit-free process.

  15. Assessment of neuromuscular and haemodynamic activity in individuals with and without chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    McKeon, Melissa D; Albert, Wayne J; Neary, J Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Background Biering-Sørenson (1984) found that individuals with less lumbar extensor muscle endurance had an increased occurrence of first episode low back pain. As a result, back endurance tests have been recommended for inclusion in health assessment protocols. However, different studies have reported markedly different values for endurance times, leading some researchers to believe that the back is receiving support from the biceps femoris and gluteus maximus. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the haemodynamic and neuromuscular activity of the erector spinae, biceps femoris, and gluteus maximus musculature during the Biering-Sørenson Muscular Endurance Test (BSME). Methods Seventeen healthy individuals and 46 individuals with chronic low back pain performed the Biering-Sørenson Muscular Endurance Test while surface electromyography was used to quantify neuromuscular activity. Disposable silver-silver-chloride electrodes were placed in a bipolar arrangement over the right or left biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, and the lumbosacral paraspinal muscles at the level of L3. Near Infrared Spectroscopy was used simultaneously to measure tissue oxygenation and blood volume changes of the erector spinae and biceps femoris. Results The healthy group displayed a significantly longer time to fatigue (Healthy: 168.5s, LBP: 111.1s; p ≤ 0.05). Significant differences were shown in the median frequency slope of the erector spinae between the two groups at 90–100% of the time to fatigue while no significant differences were noted in the haemodynamic data for the two groups. Conclusion Although the BSME has been recognized as a test for back endurance, individuals with chronic LBP appear to incorporate a strategy that may help support the back musculature by utilizing the biceps femoris and gluteus maximus to a greater degree than their healthy counterparts. PMID:16734915

  16. Symbolic bones and interethnic violence in a frontier zone, northwest Mexico, ca. 500–900 C.E.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Ben A.; Martin, Debra L.

    2015-01-01

    Although extensive deposits of disarticulated, commingled human bones are common in the prehispanic Northern Frontier of Mesoamerica, detailed bioarchaeological analyses of them are not. To our knowledge, this article provides the first such analysis of bone from a full residential-ceremonial complex and evaluates multiple hypotheses about its significance, concluding that the bones actively represented interethnic violence as well as other relationships among persons living and dead. Description of these practices is important to the discussion of multiethnic societies because the frontier was a context where urbanism and complexity were emerging and groups with the potential to form multiethnic societies were interacting, possibly in the same ways that groups did before the formation of larger multiethnic city-states in the core of Mesoamerica. PMID:25941398

  17. Symbolic bones and interethnic violence in a frontier zone, northwest Mexico, ca. 500-900 C.E.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Ben A; Martin, Debra L

    2015-07-28

    Although extensive deposits of disarticulated, commingled human bones are common in the prehispanic Northern Frontier of Mesoamerica, detailed bioarchaeological analyses of them are not. To our knowledge, this article provides the first such analysis of bone from a full residential-ceremonial complex and evaluates multiple hypotheses about its significance, concluding that the bones actively represented interethnic violence as well as other relationships among persons living and dead. Description of these practices is important to the discussion of multiethnic societies because the frontier was a context where urbanism and complexity were emerging and groups with the potential to form multiethnic societies were interacting, possibly in the same ways that groups did before the formation of larger multiethnic city-states in the core of Mesoamerica.

  18. Living in a Genetic World: How Learning About Interethnic Genetic Similarities and Differences Affects Peace and Conflict.

    PubMed

    Kimel, Sasha Y; Huesmann, Rowell; Kunst, Jonas R; Halperin, Eran

    2016-05-01

    Information about the degree of one's genetic overlap with ethnic outgroups has been emphasized in genocides, is frequently learned about through media reporting, and is increasingly being accessed via personal genetic testing services. However, the consequence of learning about whether your own ethnic group is either genetically related to or genetically distinct from a disliked ethnic group remains unknown. Across four experiments, using diverse samples, measures and contexts, we demonstrate that altering perceptions of genetic overlap between groups in conflict--in this case Arabs and Jews--impacts factors that are directly related to interethnic hostility (e.g., aggressive behaviors, support of conflict-related policies). Our findings indicate that learning about the genetic difference between oneself and an ethnic outgroup may contribute to the promotion of violence, whereas learning about the similarities may be a vital step toward fostering peace in some contexts. Possible interventions and implications are discussed.

  19. Housing and mobility demands of individual households and their life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Saner, Dominik; Heeren, Niko; Jäggi, Boris; Waraich, Rashid A; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2013-06-04

    Household consumption, apart from governmental consumption, is the main driver of worldwide economy. Attached to each household purchase are economic activities along the preceding supply chain, with the associated resource use and emissions. A method to capture and assess all these resource uses and emissions is life cycle assessment. We developed a model for the life cycle assessment of housing and land-based mobility (excluding air travel) consumption of individual households a small village in Switzerland. Statistical census and dwelling register data are the foundations of the model. In a case study performed on a midsized community, we found a median value of greenhouse gas emissions of 3.12 t CO2 equiv and a mean value of 4.30 t CO2 equiv per capita and year for housing and mobility. Twenty-one percent of the households in the investigated region were responsible for 50% of the total greenhouse gas emissions, meaning that if their emissions could be halved the total emissions of the community would be reduced by 25%. Furthermore, a cluster analysis revealed that driving factors for large environmental footprints are demands of large living area heated by fossil energy carriers, as well as large demands of motorized private transportation.

  20. Uncertainty in assessment of radiation-induced diffusion index changes in individual patients

    PubMed Central

    Nazem-Zadeh, Mohammad-Reza; Chapman, Christopher H; Lawrence, Theodore S; Tsien, Christina I; Cao, Yue

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate repeatability coefficients of diffusion tensor indices to assess whether longitudinal changes in diffusion indices were true changes beyond the uncertainty for individual patients undergoing radiation therapy (RT). Twenty-two patients who had low-grade or benign tumors and were treated by partial brain radiation therapy (PBRT) participated in an IRB-approved MRI protocol. The diffusion tensor images in the patients were acquired pre-RT, week 3 during RT, at the end of RT, and 1, 6, and 18 months after RT. As a measure of uncertainty, repeatability coefficients (RC) of diffusion indices in the segmented cingulum, corpus callosum, and fornix were estimated by using test–retest diffusion tensor datasets from the National Biomedical Imaging Archive (NBIA) database. The upper and lower limits of the 95% confidence interval of the estimated RC from the test and retest data were used to evaluate whether the longitudinal percentage changes in diffusion indices in the segmented structures in the individual patients were beyond the uncertainty and thus could be considered as true radiation-induced changes. Diffusion indices in different white matter structures showed different uncertainty ranges. The estimated RC for fractional anisotropy (FA) ranged from 5.3% to 9.6%, for mean diffusivity (MD) from 2.2% to 6.8%, for axial diffusivity (AD) from 2.4% to 5.5%, and for radial diffusivity (RD) from 2.9% to 9.7%. Overall, 23% of the patients treated by RT had FA changes, 44% had MD changes, 50% had AD changes, and 50% had RD changes beyond the uncertainty ranges. In the fornix, 85.7% and 100% of the patients showed changes beyond the uncertainty range at 6 and 18 months after RT, demonstrating that radiation has a pronounced late effect on the fornix compared to other segmented structures. It is critical to determine reliability of a change observed in an individual patient for clinical decision making. Assessments of the repeatability

  1. Uncertainty in assessment of radiation-induced diffusion index changes in individual patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazem-Zadeh, Mohammad-Reza; Chapman, Christopher H.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Tsien, Christina I.; Cao, Yue

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate repeatability coefficients of diffusion tensor indices to assess whether longitudinal changes in diffusion indices were true changes beyond the uncertainty for individual patients undergoing radiation therapy (RT). Twenty-two patients who had low-grade or benign tumors and were treated by partial brain radiation therapy (PBRT) participated in an IRB-approved MRI protocol. The diffusion tensor images in the patients were acquired pre-RT, week 3 during RT, at the end of RT, and 1, 6, and 18 months after RT. As a measure of uncertainty, repeatability coefficients (RC) of diffusion indices in the segmented cingulum, corpus callosum, and fornix were estimated by using test-retest diffusion tensor datasets from the National Biomedical Imaging Archive (NBIA) database. The upper and lower limits of the 95% confidence interval of the estimated RC from the test and retest data were used to evaluate whether the longitudinal percentage changes in diffusion indices in the segmented structures in the individual patients were beyond the uncertainty and thus could be considered as true radiation-induced changes. Diffusion indices in different white matter structures showed different uncertainty ranges. The estimated RC for fractional anisotropy (FA) ranged from 5.3% to 9.6%, for mean diffusivity (MD) from 2.2% to 6.8%, for axial diffusivity (AD) from 2.4% to 5.5%, and for radial diffusivity (RD) from 2.9% to 9.7%. Overall, 23% of the patients treated by RT had FA changes, 44% had MD changes, 50% had AD changes, and 50% had RD changes beyond the uncertainty ranges. In the fornix, 85.7% and 100% of the patients showed changes beyond the uncertainty range at 6 and 18 months after RT, demonstrating that radiation has a pronounced late effect on the fornix compared to other segmented structures. It is critical to determine reliability of a change observed in an individual patient for clinical decision making. Assessments of the repeatability and

  2. A novel paradigm for engineering education: virtual internships with individualized mentoring and assessment of engineering thinking.

    PubMed

    Chesler, Naomi C; Ruis, A R; Collier, Wesley; Swiecki, Zachari; Arastoopour, Golnaz; Williamson Shaffer, David

    2015-02-01

    Engineering virtual internships are a novel paradigm for providing authentic engineering experiences in the first-year curriculum. They are both individualized and accommodate large numbers of students. As we describe in this report, this approach can (a) enable students to solve complex engineering problems in a mentored, collaborative environment; (b) allow educators to assess engineering thinking; and (c) provide an introductory experience that students enjoy and find valuable. Furthermore, engineering virtual internships have been shown to increase students'-and especially women's-interest in and motivation to pursue engineering degrees. When implemented in first-year engineering curricula more broadly, the potential impact of engineering virtual internships on the size and diversity of the engineering workforce could be dramatic.

  3. Review of Individual Technology Assessment Reports (ITAR) for industrial boiler applications

    SciTech Connect

    Archer, T.; Bakshi, P.; Weisenberg, I.J.

    1980-01-01

    Eight Individual Technology Assessment Reports and one Background Study in Support of New Source Performance Standards for Industrial Boilers are reviewed. These ITARs were prepared for the EPA and include studies of particulate control, flue-gas desulfurization, fluidized-bed combustion, NO/sub x/ combustion modification, NO/sub x/ flue-gas treatment, coal cleaning, synthetic fuels, and oil cleaning. The ITARs provide engineering and cost data for the air pollution control technologies that will be required to meet the New Source Performance Standards for industrial boilers. The pollutants considered were SO/sub x/, NO/sub x/, and particulates. Each ITAR is reviewed from the standpoint of engineering, demonstrated technology, and costing methodology. The cost review includes a comparison of the costing methodology of each ITAR with the costing methodology recommended by the EPA background document.

  4. A Bayesian approach to the group versus individual prediction controversy in actuarial risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Scurich, Nicholas; John, Richard S

    2012-06-01

    Recent attempts to indict the use of actuarial risk assessment instruments have relied on confidence intervals to demonstrate that risk estimates derived at the group level do not necessarily apply to any specific individual within that group. This article contends that frequentist confidence intervals are inapposite to the current debate. Instead, Bayesian credible intervals are necessary-in principle-to accomplish what commentators are concerned about: describing the precision of an actuarial risk estimate. After illustrating both the calculation and interpretation of credible intervals, this article shows how such intervals can be used to characterize the precision of actuarial risk estimates. It then explores the legal implications of wide and overlapping intervals. Contrary to what detractors claim, the fact that risk estimate intervals overlap is not a germane to legal (logical) relevance, and therefore actuarial risk estimates cannot be per se "inadmissible" on this basis.

  5. CASIG: a consumer-centered assessment for planning individualized treatment and evaluating program outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wallace, C J; Lecomte, T; Wilde, J; Liberman, R P

    2001-05-30

    This paper reports the psychometric characteristics of a measure that assesses the treatment outcomes of individuals with serious and persistent mental illness. Unlike other outcome measures, this one is designed to be embedded in the clinical process of planning and evaluating treatment. It collects individualized data, structures how the data are used to plan and evaluate a client's treatment, and produces aggregate information relevant for research and program purposes. Two parallel versions were developed: one for the client's self-report, and one for an informant's report. The self-report measure was administered by peer-interviewers to 244 community interviewees, and by inpatient peer-interviewers to 93 inpatient interviewees. The community interviewees also completed the BASIS-32 and SF-36. Informants for 103 of the community interviewees completed the informant version of the measure, and the CCAR. Inpatient staff completed the informant version for 161 inpatient residents without regard for matching the 93 inpatient interviewees. The two versions had acceptable internal consistency, test--retest, and interrater reliabilities. Correlations of the community interviewees' and informants' results with the BASIS-32, SF-36, and CCAR provided evidence of convergent and discriminant validity, as did contrasts between community and inpatients interviewees. The usefulness of the instrument for clinical, program and research purposes is discussed, with emphasis on the characteristics that enhance its value in clinical practice --- assessment of meaningful outcomes, operationalization of client empowerment, comprehensiveness, easy administration, and continuity across time and provider. Also discussed is a computer-based program to summarize and present the results in a rapid, clinically meaningful manner.

  6. Application of bioreactance for cardiac output assessment during exercise in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Adrian; Hull, James H; Nunan, David; Jakovljevic, Djordje G; Brodie, David; Ansley, Lesley

    2010-07-01

    In patients with cardiac failure, bioreactance-based cardiac output (CO) monitoring provides a valid non-invasive method for assessing cardiac performance during exercise. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of this technique during strenuous exercise in healthy, trained individuals. Fourteen recreational cyclists, mean (SD) age of 34 (8) years and relative peak oxygen uptake of (VO(2)) 56 (6) ml kg(-1) min(-1), underwent incremental maximal exercise testing, whilst CO was recorded continuously using a novel bioreactance-based device (CO(bio)). The CO(bio) was evaluated against relationship with VO(2), theoretical calculation of arterial-venous oxygen difference (C(a - v) O(2)) and level of agreement with an inert gas rebreathing method (CO(rb)) using a Bland-Altman plot. Bioreactance-based CO measurement was practical and straightforward in application, although there was intermittent loss of electrocardiograph signal at high-intensity exercise. At rest and during exercise, CO(bio) was strongly correlated with VO(2) (r = 0.84; P < 0.001), however, there was evidence of systematic bias with CO(bio) providing lower values than CO(rb); mean bias (limits of agreement) -19% (14.6 to -53%). Likewise, calculated (C(a - v) O(2)) was greater when determined using CO(bio) than CO(rb) (P < 0.001), although both devices provided values in excess of those reported in invasive studies. Bioreactance-based determination of CO provides a pragmatic approach to the continuous assessment of cardiac performance during strenuous exercise in trained individuals. Our findings, however, suggest that further work is needed to refine the key measurement determinants of CO using this device to improve measurement accuracy in this setting.

  7. Student Attainment of Proficiency in a Clinical Skill: The Assessment of Individual Learning Curves

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Robert D.; Hecker, Kent G.; Biau, David J.; Pang, Daniel S. J.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if the learning curve cumulative summation test (LC-CUSUM) can differentiate proficiency in placing intravenous catheters by novice learners, and identify the cause of failure when it occurred. In a prospective, observational study design 6 undergraduate students with no previous experience of placing intravenous catheters received standardized training by a board certified veterinary anesthesiologist in intravenous catheter placement technique. Immediately following training, each student attempted 60 intravenous catheterizations in a dog mannequin thoracic limb model. Results were scored as a success or failure based upon completion of four specific criteria, and where catheter placement failure occurred, the cause was recorded according to pre-defined criteria. Initial acceptable and unacceptable failure rates were set by the study team and the LC-CUSUM was used to generate a learning curve for each student. Using 10% and 25% acceptable and unacceptable failure rates, 3 out of 6 students attained proficiency, requiring between 26 to 48 attempts. Applying 25% and 50% acceptable and unacceptable failure rates, 5 of 6 students obtained proficiency, requiring between 18 and 55 attempts. Wide inter-individual variability was observed and the majority of failed catheterisation attempts were limited to two of the four pre-defined criteria. These data indicate that the LC-CUSUM can be used to generate individual learning curves, inter-individual variability in catheter placement ability is wide, and that specific steps in catheter placement are responsible for the majority of failures. These findings may have profound implications for how we teach and assess technical skills. PMID:24586337

  8. Toxicity assessment of individual ingredients of synthetic-based drilling muds (SBMs).

    PubMed

    Bakhtyar, Sajida; Gagnon, Marthe Monique

    2012-09-01

    Synthetic-based drilling muds (SBMs) offer excellent technical characteristics while providing improved environmental performance over other drilling muds. The low acute toxicity and high biodegradability of SBMs suggest their discharge at sea would cause minimal impacts on marine ecosystems, however, chronic toxicity testing has demonstrated adverse effects of SBMs on fish health. Sparse environmental monitoring data indicate effects of SBMs on bottom invertebrates. However, no environmental toxicity assessment has been performed on fish attracted to the cutting piles. SBM formulations are mostly composed of synthetic base oils, weighting agents, and drilling additives such as emulsifiers, fluid loss agents, wetting agents, and brine. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of exposure to individual ingredients of SBMs on fish health. To do so, a suite of biomarkers [ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, biliary metabolites, sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, DNA damage, and heat shock protein] have been measured in pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) exposed for 21 days to individual ingredients of SBMs. The primary emulsifier (Emul S50) followed by the fluid loss agent (LSL 50) caused the strongest biochemical responses in fish. The synthetic base oil (Rheosyn) caused the least response in juvenile fish. The results suggest that the impact of Syndrill 80:20 on fish health might be reduced by replacement of the primary emulsifier Emul S50 with an alternative ingredient of less toxicity to aquatic biota. The research provides a basis for improving the environmental performance of SBMs by reducing the environmental risk of their discharge and providing environmental managers with information regarding the potential toxicity of individual ingredients.

  9. Approaches for assessment of terrestrial vertebrate responses to contaminants: moving beyond individual organisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Heinz, G.H.; Hall, R.J.; Albers, Peter H.; Heinz, Gary H.; Ohlendorf, Harry M.

    2000-01-01

    Conclusions: A need for a broader range ofinformation on effects of contaminants on individuals exists among the 4 classes of terrestrial vertebrates, especially mammals, reptiles, and amphibians. Separation of contaminant effects from other effects and reduction of speculative extrapolation within and among species requires information that can be produced only by combined field and laboratory investigations that incorporate seasonal or annual cycles and important spatial and interaction conditions. Assessments of contaminant effects at the population level and higher are frequently dependent on extrapolations from a lower organizational level. Actual measurements of the effects of contaminants on populations or communities, possibly in conjunction with case studies that establish relations between effects on individuals and effects on populations, are needed to reduce the uncertainty associated with these extrapolations. Associated with these assessment levels is the need for acceptable definitions of what we mean when we refer to a 'meaningful population change' or an 'effect on communities or ecosystems.' At these higher levels of organization we are also confronted with the need for procedures useful for separating contaminant effects from effects caused by other environmental conditions. Although the bulk of literature surveyed was of the focused cause-and-effect type that is necessary for proving relations between contaminants and wildlife, community or ecosystem field assessments, as sometimes performed with reptiles and amphibians, might be a useful alternative for estimating the potential of a contaminant to cause environmental harm. Assumptions about the special usefulness of reptiles and amphibians as environmental indicators ought to be tested with comparisons to mammals and birds. Information on the effects of contaminants above the individual level is needed to generate accurate estimates of the potential consequences of anthropogenic pollution (e

  10. 14 CFR 13.16 - Civil Penalties: Administrative assessment against a person other than an individual acting as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... against a person other than an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman... assessment against a person other than an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or... as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman for a violation cited in the first sentence of...

  11. 14 CFR 13.16 - Civil Penalties: Administrative assessment against a person other than an individual acting as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... against a person other than an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman... assessment against a person other than an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or... as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman for a violation cited in the first sentence of...

  12. 14 CFR 13.16 - Civil Penalties: Administrative assessment against a person other than an individual acting as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... against a person other than an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman... assessment against a person other than an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or... as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman for a violation cited in the first sentence of...

  13. 14 CFR 13.16 - Civil Penalties: Administrative assessment against a person other than an individual acting as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... against a person other than an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman... assessment against a person other than an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or... as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman for a violation cited in the first sentence of...

  14. 14 CFR 13.16 - Civil Penalties: Administrative assessment against a person other than an individual acting as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... against a person other than an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman... assessment against a person other than an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or... as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman for a violation cited in the first sentence of...

  15. Examining the Reliability of Scores from the Consensual Assessment Technique in the Measurement of Individual and Small Group Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefanic, Nicholas; Randles, Clint

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the reliability of measures of both individual and group creative work using the consensual assessment technique (CAT). CAT was used to measure individual and group creativity among a population of pre-service music teachers enrolled in a secondary general music class (n = 23) and was evaluated from…

  16. Repeatability and reproducibility of individual abutment impression, assessed with a blue light scanner

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Yeon; Lee, Jae-Jun; Kim, Ji-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We assessed the repeatability and reproducibility of abutment teeth dental impressions, digitized with a blue light scanner, by comparing the discrepancies in repeatability and reproducibility values for different types of abutment teeth. MATERIALS AND METHODS To evaluate repeatability, impressions of the canine, first premolar, and first molar, prepared for ceramic crowns, were repeatedly scanned to acquire 5 sets of 3-dimensional data via stereolithography (STL) files. Point clouds were compared and the error sizes were measured (n=10, per type). To evaluate reproducibility, the impressions were rotated by 10-20° on the table and scanned. These data were compared to the first STL data and the error sizes were measured (n=5, per type). One-way analysis of variance was used to assess the repeatability and reproducibility of the 3 types of teeth, and Tukey honest significant differences (HSD) multiple comparison test was used for post hoc comparisons (α=.05). RESULTS The differences with regard to repeatability were 4.5, 2.7, and 3.1 µm for the canine, premolar, and molar, indicating the poorest repeatability for the canine (P<.001). For reproducibility, the differences were 6.6, 5.8, and 11.0 µm indicating the poorest reproducibility for the molar (P=.007). CONCLUSION Our results indicated that impressions of individual abutment teeth, digitized with a blue light scanner, had good repeatability and reproducibility. PMID:27350856

  17. The importance of individual protein molecule dynamics in developing and assessing solid state protein preparations.

    PubMed

    Hill, John J; Shalaev, Evgenyi Y; Zografi, George

    2014-09-01

    Processing protein solutions into the solid state is a common approach for generating stable amorphous protein mixtures that are suitable for long-term storage. Great care is typically given to protecting the protein native structure during the various drying steps that render it into the amorphous solid state. However, many studies illustrate that chemical and physical degradations still occur in spite of this amorphous material having good glassy properties and it being stored at temperatures below its glass transition temperature (Tg). Because of these persistent issues and recent biophysical studies that have refined the debate ascribing meaning to the molecular dynamical transition temperature and Tg of protein molecules, we provide an updated discussion on the impact of assessing and managing localized, individual protein molecule nondiffusive motions in the context of proteins being prepared into bulk amorphous mixtures. Our aim is to bridge the pharmaceutical studies addressing bulk amorphous preparations and their glassy behavior, with the biophysical studies historically focused on the nondiffusive internal protein dynamics and a protein's activity, along with their combined efforts in assessing the impact of solvent hydrogen-bonding networks on local stability. We also provide recommendations for future research efforts in solid-state formulation approaches.

  18. Framework for Risk Analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems: Modeling Individual Steps of a Risk Assessment Process

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Anuj; Castleton, Karl J.; Hoopes, Bonnie L.

    2004-06-01

    The study of the release and effects of chemicals in the environment and their associated risks to humans is central to public and private decision making. FRAMES 1.X, Framework for Risk Analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems, is a systems modeling software platform, developed by PNNL, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, that helps scientists study the release and effects of chemicals on a source to outcome basis, create environmental models for similar risk assessment and management problems. The unique aspect of FRAMES is to dynamically introduce software modules representing individual components of a risk assessment (e.g., source release of contaminants, fate and transport in various environmental media, exposure, etc.) within a software framework, manipulate their attributes and run simulations to obtain results. This paper outlines the fundamental constituents of FRAMES 2.X, an enhanced version of FRAMES 1.X, that greatly improve the ability of the module developers to “plug” their self-developed software modules into the system. The basic design, the underlying principles and a discussion of the guidelines for module developers are presented.

  19. The Academic Diligence Task (ADT): Assessing Individual Differences in Effort on Tedious but Important Schoolwork

    PubMed Central

    Galla, Brian M.; Plummer, Benjamin D.; White, Rachel E.; Meketon, David; D’Mello, Sidney K.; Duckworth, Angela L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study reports on the development and validation of the Academic Diligence Task (ADT), designed to assess the tendency to expend effort on academic tasks which are tedious in the moment but valued in the long-term. In this novel online task, students allocate their time between solving simple math problems (framed as beneficial for problem solving skills) and, alternatively, playing Tetris or watching entertaining videos. Using a large sample of high school seniors (N = 921), the ADT demonstrated convergent validity with self-report ratings of Big Five conscientiousness and its facets, self-control and grit, as well as discriminant validity from theoretically unrelated constructs, such as Big Five extraversion, openness, and emotional stability, test anxiety, life satisfaction, and positive and negative affect. The ADT also demonstrated incremental predictive validity for objectively measured GPA, standardized math and reading achievement test scores, high school graduation, and college enrollment, over and beyond demographics and intelligence. Collectively, findings suggest the feasibility of online behavioral measures to assess noncognitive individual differences that predict academic outcomes. PMID:25258470

  20. Individual Differences in the Post-Illumination Pupil Response to Blue Light: Assessment without Mydriatics

    PubMed Central

    Bruijel, Jessica; van der Meijden, Wisse P.; Bijlenga, Denise; Dorani, Farangis; Coppens, Joris E.; te Lindert, Bart H. W.; Kooij, J. J. Sandra; Van Someren, Eus J. W.

    2016-01-01

    Melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells play an important role in the non-image forming effects of light, through their direct projections on brain circuits involved in circadian rhythms, mood and alertness. Individual differences in the functionality of the melanopsin-signaling circuitry can be reliably quantified using the maximum post-illumination pupil response (PIPR) after blue light. Previous protocols for acquiring PIPR relied on the use of mydriatics to dilate the light-exposed eye. However, pharmacological pupil dilation is uncomfortable for the participants and requires ophthalmological expertise. Hence, we here investigated whether an individual’s maximum PIPR can be validly obtained in a protocol that does not use mydriatics but rather increases the intensity of the light stimulus. In 18 participants (5 males, mean age ± SD: 34.6 ± 13.6 years) we evaluated the PIPR after exposure to intensified blue light (550 µW/cm2) provided to an undilated dynamic pupil. The test-retest reliability of the primary PIPR outcome parameter was very high, both between day-to-day assessments (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) = 0.85), as well as between winter and summer assessments (ICC = 0.83). Compared to the PIPR obtained with the use of mydriatics and 160 µW/cm2 blue light exposure, the method with intensified light without mydriatics showed almost zero bias according to Bland-Altman plots and had moderate to strong reliability (ICC = 0.67). In conclusion, for PIPR assessments, increasing the light intensity is a feasible and reliable alternative to pupil dilation to relieve the participant’s burden and to allow for performance outside the ophthalmological clinic. PMID:27618116

  1. 20 CFR 641.230 - Must the individual assessment conducted by the SCSEP grantee or sub-recipient and the assessment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE SENIOR COMMUNITY SERVICE EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Must the individual assessment conducted by... accepted for use by either entity to determine the individual's need for services in the SCSEP and...

  2. 20 CFR 641.230 - Must the individual assessment conducted by the SCSEP grantee or sub-recipient and the assessment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE SENIOR COMMUNITY SERVICE EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Must the individual assessment conducted by... accepted for use by either entity to determine the individual's need for services in the SCSEP and...

  3. Effects of radiofrequency ablation on individual renal function: assessment by technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine renal scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Takashi; Sato, Shuhei; Iguchi, Toshihiro; Mimura, Hidefumi; Yasui, Kotaro; Gobara, Hideo; Saika, Takashi; Nasu, Yasutomo; Kumon, Hiromi; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2006-04-01

    We quantitatively evaluated total and individual renal function by technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (Tc-99m MAG3) renal scintigraphy before and after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of renal tumors. Eleven patients who underwent Tc-99m MAG3 renal scintigraphy 1 week before and after RFA were evaluated (7 men and 4 women; age range: 23-83 years; mean age: 60.6 years). Five patients had solitary kidneys, and five had normally or minimally functioning contralateral kidneys. One patient had a renal cell carcinoma in the contralateral kidney. One patient with a solitary kidney underwent RFA a second time for a residual tumor. In patients with a solitary kidney, MAG3 clearance decreased after 5 of 6 RFAs, and in patients with a normally functioning contralateral kidney, MAG3 clearance decreased after 4 of 5 RFAs, but no significant differences were observed between before and after treatments. In addition to the total MAG3 clearance, the split MAG3 clearance was evaluated in patients with a normally functioning contralateral kidney. MAG3 clearance decreased in 4 of 5 treated kidneys, while it adversely increased in the contralateral kidneys after 4 of 5 RFAs. No significant differences, however, were observed between before and after treatments. The results of our study revealed no significant differences in sCr, BUN, CCr, or MAG3 clearance between pre- and post-RFA values. These results support data regarding the functional impact and safety of renal RFA in published reports. We evaluated total and individual renal function quantitatively using Tc-99m MAG3 renal scintigraphy before and after treatment. This scintigraphy was very useful in assessing the effects of RFA on renal function.

  4. Velar activity in individuals with velopharyngeal insufficiency assessed by acoustic rhinometry

    PubMed Central

    TRINDADE, Inge Elly Kiemle; ARAÚJO, Bruna Mara Adorno Marmontel; TEIXEIRA, Ana Claudia Martins Sampaio; da SILVA, Andressa Sharllene Carneiro; TRINDADE-SUEDAM, Ivy Kiemle

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic rhinometry is routinely used for the evaluation of nasal patency. Objective To investigate whether the technique is able to identify the impairment of velopharyngeal (VP) activity in individuals with clinical diagnosis of velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI). Methods Twenty subjects with repaired cleft palate and inadequate velopharyngeal function (IVF) and 18 non-cleft controls with adequate velopharyngeal function (AVF), adults, of both genders, were evaluated. Area-distance curves were obtained during VP rest and speech activity, using an Eccovision Acoustic Rhinometry system. Volume was determined by integrating the area under the curve at the segment corresponding to the nasopharynx. VP activity (∆V) was estimated by the absolute and relative differences between nasopharyngeal volume at rest (Vr) and during an unreleased /k/ production (Vk). The efficiency of the technique to discriminate IVF and AVF was assessed by a ROC curve. Results Mean Vk and Vr values (±SD) obtained were: 23.2±3.6 cm3 and 15.9±3.8 cm3 (AVF group), and 22.7±7.9 cm3 and 20.7±7.4 cm3 (IVF group), corresponding to a mean ∆V decay of 7.3 cm3 (31%) for the AVF group and a significantly smaller ∆V decay of 2.0 cm3 (9%) for the IVF group (p<0.05). Seventy percent of the IVF individuals showed a ∆V suggesting impaired VP function (below the cutoff score of 3.0 cm3 which maximized both sensitivity and specificity of the test), confirming clinical diagnosis. Conclusion Acoustic rhinometry was able to identify, with a good discriminatory power, the impairment of VP activity which characterizes VPI. PMID:25141205

  5. Use of articulated registration for response assessment of individual metastatic bone lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yip, Stephen; Jeraj, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Accurate skeleton registration is necessary to match corresponding metastatic bone lesions for response assessment over multiple scans. In articulated registration (ART), whole-body skeletons are registered by auto-segmenting individual bones, then rigidly aligning them. Performance and robustness of the ART in lesion matching were evaluated and compared to other commonly used registration techniques. Sixteen prostate cancer patients were treated either with molecular targeted therapy or chemotherapy. Ten out of the 16 patients underwent the double baseline whole-body [F-18]NaF PET/CT scans for test-retest (TRT) evaluation. Twelve of the 16 patients underwent pre- and mid-treatment [F-18]NaF PET/CT scans. Skeletons at different time points were registered using ART, rigid, and deformable (DR) registration algorithms. The corresponding lesions were contoured and identified on successive PET images based on including the voxels with the standardized uptake value over 15. Each algorithm was evaluated for its ability to accurately align corresponding lesions via skeleton registration. A lesion matching score (MS) was measured for each lesion, which quantified the per cent overlap between the lesion's two corresponding contours. Three separate sensitivity studies were conducted to investigate the robustness of ART in matching: sensitivity of lesion matching to various contouring threshold levels, effects of imperfections in the bone auto-segmentation and sensitivity of mis-registration. The performance of ART (MS = 82% for both datasets, p ≪ 0.001) in lesion matching was significantly better than rigid (MSTRT = 53%, MSResponse = 46%) and DR (MSTRT = 46%, MSResponse = 45%) algorithms. Neither varying threshold levels for lesion contouring nor imperfect bone segmentation had significant (p∼0.10) impact on the ART matching performance as the MS remained unchanged. Despite the mis-registration reduced MS for ART, as low as 67% (p ≪ 0.001), the performance remained to

  6. Converging Indicators for Assessing Individual Differences in Adaptation to Extreme Environments: Preliminary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; DeRoshia, Charles W.; Taylor, Bruce; Hines, Seleimah; Bright, Andrew; Dodds, Anika

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of a new methodology for assessing the deleterious effects of spaceflight on crew health and performance. It is well known that microgravity results in various physiological alterations, e.g., headward fluid shifts which can impede physiological adaptation. Other factors that may affect crew operational efficiency include disruption of sleep-wake cycles, high workload, isolation, confinement, stress and fatigue. From an operational perspective, it is difficult to predict which individuals will be most or least affected in this unique environment given that most astronauts are first-time flyers. During future lunar and Mars missions space crews will include both men and women of multi-national origins, different professional backgrounds, and various states of physical condition. Therefore, new methods or technologies are needed to monitor and predict astronaut performance and health, and to evaluate the effects of various countermeasures on crew during long duration missions. This paper reviews several studies conducted in both laboratory and operational environments with men and women ranging in age between 18 to 50 years. The studies included the following: soldiers performing command and control functions during mobile operations in enclosed armored vehicles; subjects participating in laboratory tests of an anti-motion sickness medication; subjects exposed to chronic hypergravity aboard a centrifuge, and subject responses to 36-hours of sleep deprivation. Physiological measurements, performance metrics, and subjective self-reports were collected in each study. The results demonstrate that multivariate converging indicators provide a significantly more reliable method for assessing environmental effects on performance and health than any single indicator.

  7. Midpalatal suture maturation: Classification method for individual assessment before rapid maxillary expansion

    PubMed Central

    Angelieri, Fernanda; Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Franchi, Lorenzo; Gonçalves, João R.; Benavides, Erika; McNamara, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In this study, we present a novel classification method for individual assessment of midpalatal suture morphology. Methods Cone-beam computed tomography images from 140 subjects (ages, 5.6-58.4 years) were examined to define the radiographic stages of midpalatal suture maturation. Five stages of maturation of the midpalatal suture were identified and defined: stage A, straight high-density sutural line, with no or little interdigitation; stage B, scalloped appearance of the high-density sutural line; stage C, 2 parallel, scalloped, high-density lines that were close to each other, separated in some areas by small low-density spaces; stage D, fusion completed in the palatine bone, with no evidence of a suture; and stage E, fusion anteriorly in the maxilla. Intraexaminer and interexaminer agreements were evaluated by weighted kappa tests. Results Stages A and B typically were observed up to 13 years of age, whereas stage C was noted primarily from 11 to 17 years but occasionally in younger and older age groups. Fusion of the palatine (stage D) and maxillary (stage E) regions of the midpalatal suture was completed after 11 years only in girls. From 14 to 17 years, 3 of 13 (23%) boys showed fusion only in the palatine bone (stage D). Conclusions This new classification method has the potential to avoid the side effects of rapid maxillary expansion failure or unnecessary surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion for late adolescents and young adults. PMID:24182592

  8. Assessing age in the desert tortoise Gopherus agassizii: Testing skeletochronology with individuals of known age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, A.J.; Zug, G.R.; Medica, P.A.; Spotila, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Eight desert tortoises Gopherus agassizii from a long-term mark-recapture study in the Mojave Desert, Nevada, USA, afforded an opportunity to examine the accuracy of skeletochronological age estimation on tortoises from a seasonal, yet environmentally erratic environment. These 8 tortoises were marked as hatchlings or within the first 2 yr of life, and their carcasses were salvaged from predator kills. Using d blind protocol, 2 skeletochronological protocols (correction-factor and ranking) provided age estimates for a set of 4 bony elements (humerus, scapula, femur, ilium) from these tortoises of known age. The age at death of the tortoises ranged from 15 to 50 yr. The most accurate protocol - ranking using the growth layers within each of the 4 elements - provided estimates from 21 to 47 yr, with the highest accuracy from the ilia. The results indicate that skeletochronological age estimation provides a reasonably accurate method for assessing the age at death of desert tortoises and, if used with a large sample of individuals, will provide a valuable tool for examining age-related mortality parameters in desert tortoise and likely in other gopher tortoises (Gopherus). ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  9. Assessing individual radial junction solar cells over millions on VLS-grown silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Yu, Linwei; Rigutti, Lorenzo; Tchernycheva, Maria; Misra, Soumyadeep; Foldyna, Martin; Picardi, Gennaro; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere

    2013-07-12

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) grown on low-cost substrates provide an ideal framework for the monolithic fabrication of radial junction photovoltaics. However, the quality of junction formation over a random matrix of SiNWs, fabricated via a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism, has never been assessed in a realistic context. To address this, we probe the current response of individual radial junction solar cells under electron-beam and optical-beam excitations. Excellent current generation from the radial junction units, compared to their planar counterparts, has been recorded, indicating a high junction quality and effective doping in the ultra-thin SiNWs with diameters thinner than 20 nm. Interestingly, we found that the formation of radial junctions by plasma deposition can be quite robust against geometrical disorder and even the crossings of neighboring cell units. These results provide a strong support to the feasibility of building high-quality radial junction solar cells over high-throughput VLS-grown SiNWs on low-cost substrates.

  10. Assessing individual radial junction solar cells over millions on VLS-grown silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Linwei; Rigutti, Lorenzo; Tchernycheva, Maria; Misra, Soumyadeep; Foldyna, Martin; Picardi, Gennaro; Cabarrocas, Pere Roca i.

    2013-07-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) grown on low-cost substrates provide an ideal framework for the monolithic fabrication of radial junction photovoltaics. However, the quality of junction formation over a random matrix of SiNWs, fabricated via a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism, has never been assessed in a realistic context. To address this, we probe the current response of individual radial junction solar cells under electron-beam and optical-beam excitations. Excellent current generation from the radial junction units, compared to their planar counterparts, has been recorded, indicating a high junction quality and effective doping in the ultra-thin SiNWs with diameters thinner than 20 nm. Interestingly, we found that the formation of radial junctions by plasma deposition can be quite robust against geometrical disorder and even the crossings of neighboring cell units. These results provide a strong support to the feasibility of building high-quality radial junction solar cells over high-throughput VLS-grown SiNWs on low-cost substrates.

  11. Architecture and Design Process of the Individualized Assessment System Integrable to Distance Education Softwares

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozyurt, Hacer; Ozyurt, Ozcan; Baki, Adnan

    2012-01-01

    Assessment is one of the methods used for evaluation of the learning outputs. Nowadays, use of adaptive assessment systems estimating ability level and abilities of the students is becoming widespread instead of traditional assessment systems. Adaptive assessment system evaluates students not only according to their marks that they take in test…

  12. 20 CFR 641.230 - Must the individual assessment conducted by the SCSEP grantee and the assessment performed by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the SCSEP grantee and the assessment performed by the One-Stop Delivery System be accepted for use by... and the assessment performed by the One-Stop Delivery System be accepted for use by either entity to... condition for an assessment, service strategy, or IEP completed at the One-Stop and vice-versa....

  13. An assessment of genetic counseling services for individuals with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Stephanie; Guimond, Colleen; Butler, Rachel; Dwosh, Emily; Traboulsee, Anthony L; Sadovnick, A Dessa

    2015-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects up to 1/500 Canadians. The University of British Columbia MS Clinic (UBC Clinic) is the only MS clinic in Canada (and likely internationally) that routinely offers genetic counseling to patients and their families. A typical session includes the collection of family history and demographic data, discussion of the inheritance of MS, interpretation of family-specific recurrence risks and psychosocial counseling. The aims of this study were to explore patients': 1) expectations of the genetic counseling session; 2) understanding of the etiology of MS (both pre and post-session); and 3) post-session perceptions of genetic counseling. A two-part questionnaire to assess genetic counseling services was distributed before and after sessions to all consenting patients seen during the period October 1, 2008 to February 28, 2009 inclusive. Sixty-two completed questionnaires were analysed. Genetic counseling was found to significantly increase the number of individuals who were able to correctly identify the etiology of MS (p < 0.001). Patient satisfaction with genetic counseling was high, with an average satisfaction score of 32.4/35 (92.6 %). Of those who provided comments (n = 42/60) regarding the usefulness of the genetic counseling session, 95.2 % reported it useful (n = 40/42). Findings suggest that genetic counseling is effective in increasing patients' knowledge of the etiology of MS and is viewed by patients as a useful service. Based on the high level of positive feedback regarding genetic counseling by the study sample, this study suggests that the services provided by genetic counselors may be beneficial for patients with MS seen in other centers.

  14. Bridging the etiologic and prognostic outlooks in individualized assessment of absolute risk of an illness: application in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Karp, Igor; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Leffondré, Karen; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2016-11-01

    Assessment of individual risk of illness is an important activity in preventive medicine. Development of risk-assessment models has heretofore relied predominantly on studies involving follow-up of cohort-type populations, while case-control studies have generally been considered unfit for this purpose. To present a method for individualized assessment of absolute risk of an illness (as illustrated by lung cancer) based on data from a 'non-nested' case-control study. We used data from a case-control study conducted in Montreal, Canada in 1996-2001. Individuals diagnosed with lung cancer (n = 920) and age- and sex-matched lung-cancer-free subjects (n = 1288) completed questionnaires documenting life-time cigarette-smoking history and occupational, medical, and family history. Unweighted and weighted logistic models were fitted. Model overfitting was assessed using bootstrap-based cross-validation and 'shrinkage.' The discriminating ability was assessed by the c-statistic, and the risk-stratifying performance was assessed by examination of the variability in risk estimates over hypothetical risk-profiles. In the logistic models, the logarithm of incidence-density of lung cancer was expressed as a function of age, sex, cigarette-smoking history, history of respiratory conditions and exposure to occupational carcinogens, and family history of lung cancer. The models entailed a minimal degree of overfitting ('shrinkage' factor: 0.97 for both unweighted and weighted models) and moderately high discriminating ability (c-statistic: 0.82 for the unweighted model and 0.66 for the weighted model). The method's risk-stratifying performance was quite high. The presented method allows for individualized assessment of risk of lung cancer and can be used for development of risk-assessment models for other illnesses.

  15. Driving evaluation methods for able-bodied persons and individuals with lower extremity disabilities: a review of assessment modalities

    PubMed Central

    Greve, Julia Maria D'Andréa; Santos, Luciana; Alonso, Angelica Castilho; Tate, Denise G

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the driving abilities of individuals with disabilities is often a very challenging task because each medical condition is accompanied by physical impairments and because relative individual functional performance may vary depending on personal characteristics. We identified existing driving evaluation modalities for able-bodied and lower extremity-impaired subjects (spinal cord injury patients and amputees) and evaluated the potential relationships between driving performance and the motor component of driving. An extensive scoping review of the literature was conducted to identify driving assessment tools that are currently used for able-bodied individuals and for those with spinal cord injury or lower extremity amputation. The literature search focused on the assessment of the motor component of driving. References were electronically obtained via Medline from the PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases. This article compares the current assessments of driving performance for those with lower extremity impairments with the assessments used for able-bodied persons. Very few articles were found concerning “Lower Extremity Disabilities,” thus confirming the need for further studies that can provide evidence and guidance for such assessments in the future. Little is known about the motor component of driving and its association with the other driving domains, such as vision and cognition. The available research demonstrates the need for a more evidenced-based understanding of how to best evaluate persons with lower extremity impairment. PMID:26375567

  16. Detection of abnormal resting-state networks in individual patients suffering from focal epilepsy: an initial step toward individual connectivity assessment

    PubMed Central

    Dansereau, Christian L.; Bellec, Pierre; Lee, Kangjoo; Pittau, Francesca; Gotman, Jean; Grova, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The spatial coherence of spontaneous slow fluctuations in the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal at rest is routinely used to characterize the underlying resting-state networks (RSNs). Studies have demonstrated that these patterns are organized in space and highly reproducible from subject to subject. Moreover, RSNs reorganizations have been suggested in pathological conditions. Comparisons of RSNs organization have been performed between groups of subjects but have rarely been applied at the individual level, a step required for clinical application. Defining the notion of modularity as the organization of brain activity in stable networks, we propose Detection of Abnormal Networks in Individuals (DANI) to identify modularity changes at the individual level. The stability of each RSN was estimated using a spatial clustering method: Bootstrap Analysis of Stable Clusters (BASC) (Bellec et al., 2010). Our contributions consisted in (i) providing functional maps of the most stable cores of each networks and (ii) in detecting “abnormal” individual changes in networks organization when compared to a population of healthy controls. DANI was first evaluated using realistic simulated data, showing that focussing on a conservative core size (50% most stable regions) improved the sensitivity to detect modularity changes. DANI was then applied to resting state fMRI data of six patients with focal epilepsy who underwent multimodal assessment using simultaneous EEG/fMRI acquisition followed by surgery. Only patient with a seizure free outcome were selected and the resected area was identified using a post-operative MRI. DANI automatically detected abnormal changes in 5 out of 6 patients, with excellent sensitivity, showing for each of them at least one “abnormal” lateralized network closely related to the epileptic focus. For each patient, we also detected some distant networks as abnormal, suggesting some remote reorganization in the epileptic brain. PMID

  17. Rapid Assessment of Severe Cognitive Impairment in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, D. M.; Finwall, J.; Touchette, P. E.; McGregor, M. R.; Fernandez, G. E.; Lott, I. T.; Sandman, C. A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Most standardized intelligence tests require more than 1hour for administration, which is problematic when evaluating individuals with intellectual disabilities and developmental disabilities (IDDD), because a significant proportion of these individuals can not tolerate lengthy evaluations. Furthermore, most standardized intelligence…

  18. Assessing the Effects of Organizational Culture, Rewards, and Individual Creativity on Technical Workgroup Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navaresse, Daniel O.; Yauch, Charlene A.; Goff, Kathy; Fonseca, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    This study used an experimental approach to investigate the conditions under which creative outcomes should be expected from the interplay of individual creativity, the innovation orientation of the organizational culture, and the rewards distribution rules. The results of this study suggest that the individual creativity of technically educated…

  19. Beating the Odds: Assessment Results from the 2006-2007 School Year. Individual District Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of the Great City Schools, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report includes quantitative information by individual urban school district for the 2006-2007 school year. Data includes: (1) Total Students; (2) Free/Reduced Price Lunch Eligible Students; (3) Students with Individual Educational Plans; (4) English Language Learners; (5) American Indian/Alaskan Native Students; (6) Asian/Pacific Islander…

  20. Individual Action and Reflection: Four Case Studies of Teachers' Responses to a Statewide Assessment Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Patricia A.

    The success of alternative assessments such as the Vermont Assessment Program (VAP) is heavily dependent on the involvement and commitment of teachers. This paper focuses on the implementation of the writing portfolio component of the VAP in the classrooms of four teachers who have different knowledge and beliefs about teaching and assessment. The…

  1. Individual housing and handling procedures modify anxiety levels of Tg2576 mice assessed in the zero maze test.

    PubMed

    Heredia, Luis; Torrente, Margarita; Domingo, José L; Colomina, María T

    2012-09-10

    The zero maze is an unconditioned anxiety test for mice, in which a number of environmental variables can modify the anxiety levels of the animals. In the present study, we have assessed how individual housing, handling procedure and interaction between individual housing and handling procedure affect the baseline anxiety of mice. Thirty-seven wild type mice and eighteen Tg2576 mice were used (obtained from crossing APPSWE hemizygous male C57BL6/SJL background with C57BL6/SJL female). Wild type mice were randomly assigned to four experimental groups: 1) group housed and unhandled, 2) group housed but handled, 3) individually housed, unhandled, and 4) individually housed and handled. In turn, Tg2576 mice were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: 1) individually housed, unhandled, and 2) individually housed and handled. The results show that individually housed mice exhibited more anxiety-related behaviors over a 5 min testing period than the other experimental groups. Use of the handling procedure was associated with a statistically significant reduction in anxiety-related behaviors among individually housed mice. No effects on anxiety-related behavior levels were observed when group housed animals were handled. When activity levels were significantly increased, a new parameter, "Time by Entries", helped to prevent activity from influencing anxiety parameters such as time in the open section of the zero maze test. This knowledge can help to design more efficient experiments without bias from data obtained by means of unconditioned tests.

  2. A Cross-sectional Study to Assess Disability and Its Correlates among Treatment Seeking Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Singh, Shalini; Modak, Tamonud; Sarkar, Siddharth

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Alcohol use is a major risk factor for global disease burden, and excessive use leads to disability in the individual. This study aimed to assess the disability and its correlates among individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). In addition, it assessed the quality of life measures in this population group. Methodology: A cross-sectional study on a sample (N = 62) from among treatment seekers for alcohol dependence. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria were used to assess disorder severity. The WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS) 2.0 and World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF were used to assess disability and quality of life, respectively. Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and linear regression analysis were used for comparative assessments. The level of statistical significance was kept at P < 0.05 for all the tests. Results: DSM-5 diagnosis of the individuals suggested a high severity of substance use disorder as an average of 8.8 (±1.8) criteria were fulfilled. WHODAS 2.0 revealed maximum disability in the domains of “participation in the society,” “household and work-related activities” and “cognitive functioning.” The quality of life measures indicate poor physical health, reduced work capacity, and cognitive dysfunction. A negative correlation was seen between the social dimensions of disability (getting along) and quality of life measures of psychological health (P = 0.026) and social relationships (P = 0.046), work domain of disability schedule and physical health score on quality of life evaluation (P = 0.001). Older age had greater impairment in the work domain (P = 0.040), and unemployment was associated with higher disability (P = 0.001). Unemployment and duration of alcohol use were the independent predictors of greater disability. Conclusions: Disability assessment using WHODAS 2.0 shows significant impairment in individuals with AUDs that is

  3. How Does Early Developmental Assessment Predict Academic and Attentional-Behavioural Skills at Group and Individual Levels?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valtonen, Riitta; Ahonen, Timo; Tolvanen, Asko; Lyytinen, Paula

    2009-01-01

    The main aim of the study was to explore the ability of a brief developmental assessment to predict teacher-rated learning and attentional and behavioural skills in the first grade of school at both the group and individual levels. A sample of 394 children (181 males, 213 females) aged 4 years were followed to the age of 6 years, and 283 of the…

  4. The Ability of Individuals with Psychoactive Substance Use Disorders to Escape Detection by the Personality Assessment Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fals-Stewart, William

    1996-01-01

    The ability of individuals with psychoactive substance use disorders to dissimulate successfully on the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) was evaluated with 236 adults from treatment, nonclinical, control, and forensically referred groups. Findings indicate that the PAI scales measuring drug and alcohol problems are susceptible to…

  5. A Needs-Assessment of Agencies Serving Individuals with Deaf-Blindness: A National Profile of Transitional Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiler, Lauren H.; And Others

    A national needs assessment of 719 educational and adult service agencies providing or proposing to provide transitional services to individuals with deaf-blindness was conducted to determine national and regional technical assistance needs. On average, each agency expressed a need for technical assistance in 20 separate areas. In the area of…

  6. Using Regression Equations Built from Summary Data in the Psychological Assessment of the Individual Case: Extension to Multiple Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, John R.; Garthwaite, Paul H.; Denham, Annie K.; Chelune, Gordon J.

    2012-01-01

    Regression equations have many useful roles in psychological assessment. Moreover, there is a large reservoir of published data that could be used to build regression equations; these equations could then be employed to test a wide variety of hypotheses concerning the functioning of individual cases. This resource is currently underused because…

  7. Parental Stress and Child Behavior and Temperament in the First Year after the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Pal, Sylvia; Maguire, Celeste M.; Le Cessie, Saskia; Veen, Sylvia; Wit, Jan M.; Walther, Frans J.; Bruil, Jeanet

    2008-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial involving 128 infants born prematurely compared basic developmental care (nests and incubator covers) and the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) intervention (behavior observations and guidance by a trained developmental specialist) in relation to effects on parental stress and…

  8. Exploring Individual and Item Factors that Affect Assessment Validity for Diverse Learners: Results from a Large-Scale Cognitive Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Phoebe C.; Kopriva, Rebecca J.; Chen, Chen-Su; Emick, Jessica E.

    2006-01-01

    A cognitive lab technique (n=156) was used to investigate interactions between individual factors and item factors presumed to affect assessment validity for diverse students, including English language learners. Findings support the concept of "access"--an interaction between specific construct-irrelevant item features and individual…

  9. Assessing preferences for AAC options in communication interventions for individuals with developmental disabilities: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Larah; Sigafoos, Jeff; O'Reilly, Mark F; Lancioni, Giulio E

    2011-01-01

    We synthesized studies that assessed preference for using different augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) options. Studies were identified via systematic searches of electronic databases, journals, and reference lists. Studies were evaluated in terms of: (a) participants, (b) setting, (c) communication options assessed, (d) design, (e) communication skill(s) taught to the participant, (f) intervention procedures, (g) outcomes of the intervention and outcome of the preference assessment, (h) follow-up and generalization, and (i) reliability of data collection and treatment integrity. Seven studies, involving 12 participants, met the inclusion criteria. In these studies, individuals were taught to use either speech-generating devices (SGD), (b) picture exchange (PE) systems, and/or (c) manual signs. Assessments to identify preferences for using each AAC option were conducted in each study. Sixty-seven percent (n=8) of participants demonstrated some degree (≥55%) of preference for using SGD compared to 33% (n=4) of participants who demonstrated some degree (≥55%) of preference for PE. The results indicate that individuals with developmental disabilities often show a preference for different AAC options. Incorporating an assessment of such preferences might therefore enable individuals to exert some degree of self-determination with respect to AAC intervention.

  10. The ability of individuals to assess population density influences the evolution of emigration propensity and dispersal distance.

    PubMed

    Poethke, Hans Joachim; Gros, Andreas; Hovestadt, Thomas

    2011-08-07

    We analyze the simultaneous evolution of emigration and settlement decisions for actively dispersing species differing in their ability to assess population density. Using an individual-based model we simulate dispersal as a multi-step (patch to patch) movement in a world consisting of habitat patches surrounded by a hostile matrix. Each such step is associated with the same mortality risk. Our simulations show that individuals following an informed strategy, where emigration (and settlement) probability depends on local population density, evolve a lower (natal) emigration propensity but disperse over significantly larger distances - i.e. postpone settlement longer - than individuals performing density-independent emigration. This holds especially when variation in environmental conditions is spatially correlated. Both effects can be traced to the informed individuals' ability to better exploit existing heterogeneity in reproductive chances. Yet, already moderate distance-dependent dispersal costs prevent the evolution of multi-step (long-distance) dispersal, irrespective of the dispersal strategy.

  11. Assessment of first and second degree relatives of individuals with bipolar disorder shows increased genetic risk scores in both affected relatives and young At-Risk Individuals.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Janice M; Koller, Daniel L; Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana; Liu, Hai; Glowinski, Anne L; McInnis, Melvin G; Wilcox, Holly C; Frankland, Andrew; Roberts, Gloria; Schofield, Peter R; Mitchell, Philip B; Nurnberger, John I

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have revealed the polygenic nature of bipolar disorder (BP), and identified common risk variants associated with illness. However, the role of common polygenic risk in multiplex families has not previously been examined. The present study examined 249 European-ancestry families from the NIMH Genetics Initiative sample, comparing subjects with narrowly defined BP (excluding bipolar II and recurrent unipolar depression; n = 601) and their adult relatives without BP (n = 695). Unrelated adult controls (n = 266) were from the NIMH TGEN control dataset. We also examined a prospective cohort of young (12-30 years) offspring and siblings of individuals with BPI and BPII disorder (at risk; n = 367) and psychiatrically screened controls (n = 229), ascertained from five sites in the US and Australia and assessed with standardized clinical protocols. Thirty-two disease-associated SNPs from the PGC-BP Working Group report (2011) were genotyped and additive polygenic risk scores (PRS) derived. We show increased PRS in adult cases compared to unrelated controls (P = 3.4 × 10(-5) , AUC = 0.60). In families with a high-polygenic load (PRS score ≥32 in two or more subjects), PRS distinguished cases with BPI/SAB from other relatives (P = 0.014, RR = 1.32). Secondly, a higher PRS was observed in at-risk youth, regardless of affected status, compared to unrelated controls (GEE-χ(2) = 5.15, P = 0.012). This report is the first to explore common polygenic risk in multiplex families, albeit using only a small number of robustly associated risk variants. We show that individuals with BP have a higher load of common disease-associated variants than unrelated controls and first-degree relatives, and illustrate the potential utility of PRS assessment in a family context.

  12. Behavioral assessment of intermittent wheel running and individual housing in mice in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Pham, Therese M; Brené, Stefan; Baumans, Vera

    2005-01-01

    Physical cage enrichment--exercise devices for rodents in the laboratory--often includes running wheels. This study compared responses of mice in enriched physical and social conditions and in standard social conditions to wheel running, individual housing, and open-field test. The study divided into 6 groups, 48 female BALB/c mice group housed in enriched and standard conditions. On alternate days, the study exposed 2 groups to individual running wheel cages. It intermittently separated from their cage mates and housed individually 2 groups with no running wheels; 2 control groups remained in enriched or standard condition cages. There were no significant differences between enriched and standard group housed mice in alternate days' wheel running. Over time, enriched, group housed mice ran less. Both groups responded similarly to individual housing. In open-field test, mice exposed to individual housing without running wheel moved more and faster than wheel running and home cage control mice. They have lower body weights than group housed and wheel running mice. Intermittent withdrawal of individual housing affects the animals more than other commodities. Wheel running normalizes some effects of intermittent separation from the enriched, social home cage.

  13. One (rating) from many (observations): Factors affecting the individual assessment of voice behavior in groups.

    PubMed

    Podsakoff, Nathan P; Maynes, Timothy D; Whiting, Steven W; Podsakoff, Philip M

    2015-07-01

    This article reports an investigation into how individuals form perceptions of overall voice behavior in group contexts. More specifically, the authors examine the effect of the proportion of group members exhibiting voice behavior in the group, the frequency of voice events in the group, and the measurement item referent (group vs. individual) on an individual's ratings of group voice behavior. In addition, the authors examine the effect that measurement item referent has on the magnitude of the relationship observed between an individual's ratings of group voice behavior and perceptions of group performance. Consistent with hypotheses, the results from 1 field study (N = 220) and 1 laboratory experiment (N = 366) indicate that: (a) When group referents were used, raters relied on the frequency of voice events (and not the proportion of group members exhibiting voice) to inform their ratings of voice behavior, whereas the opposite was true when individual-referent items were used, and (b) the magnitude of the relationship between observers' ratings of group voice behavior and their perceptions of group performance was higher when raters used group-referent, as opposed to an individual-referent, items. The authors discuss the implications of their findings for scholars interested in studying behavioral phenomena occurring in teams, groups, and work units in organizational behavior research.

  14. Assessing Activity and Location of Individual Laying Hens in Large Groups Using Modern Technology

    PubMed Central

    Siegford, Janice M.; Berezowski, John; Biswas, Subir K.; Daigle, Courtney L.; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G.; Hernandez, Carlos E.; Thurner, Stefan; Toscano, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Tracking of individual animals within large groups is increasingly possible offering an exciting opportunity to researchers. Whereas previously only relatively indistinguishable groups of individual animals could be observed and combined into pen level data, we can now focus on individual actors and track their activities across time and space with minimal intervention and disturbance. We describe several tracking systems that are currently in use for laying hens and review each, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses, as well as environments or conditions for which they may be most suited, and relevant issues to fit the best technology for the intended purpose. Abstract Tracking individual animals within large groups is increasingly possible, offering an exciting opportunity to researchers. Whereas previously only relatively indistinguishable groups of individual animals could be observed and combined into pen level data, we can now focus on individual actors within these large groups and track their activities across time and space with minimal intervention and disturbance. The development is particularly relevant to the poultry industry as, due to a shift away from battery cages, flock sizes are increasingly becoming larger and environments more complex. Many efforts have been made to track individual bird behavior and activity in large groups using a variety of methodologies with variable success. Of the technologies in use, each has associated benefits and detriments, which can make the approach more or less suitable for certain environments and experiments. Within this article, we have divided several tracking systems that are currently available into two major categories (radio frequency identification and radio signal strength) and review the strengths and weaknesses of each, as well as environments or conditions for which they may be most suitable. We also describe related topics including types of analysis for the data and concerns

  15. Faculty Perspectives on Programme Curricular Assessment: Individual and Institutional Characteristics That Influence Participation Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emil, Serap; Cress, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Driven by issues of accountability, the assessment movement in higher education has gained significant momentum in recent years. However, successful implementation of assessment processes varies radically across institutions. A key issue is faculty engagement. This qualitative inquiry explored factors that impact faculty participation in a…

  16. Combining the Tasks of Grading Individual Assignments and Assessing Student Outcomes in Project-Based Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahm, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    ABET requires that engineering programs demonstrate continuous assessment and continuous improvement in order to be accredited. Central to the process is establishing and assessing measurable "student outcomes" that reflect whether the goals and objectives of the program are being met. This paper examines effective strategies for…

  17. Student Online Self-Assessment: Structuring Individual-Level Learning in a New Venture Creation Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human, Sherrie E.; Clark, Thomas; Baucus, Melissa S.

    2005-01-01

    The use of self-assessment instruments to determine students' entrepreneurial characteristics represents a well-accepted practice in entrepreneurship courses, and many professors are only now beginning to embrace Web-based instruments. We describe how we use a comprehensive array of online self-assessments in an undergraduate New Venture Creation…

  18. African Americans and Mathematics Outcomes on National Assessment of Educational Progress: Parental and Individual Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Richard, III; Morton, Crystal Hill

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated within group differences between African American female and male students who participated in the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress mathematics assessment. Using results from participating states, we compare average scale scores of African American students based on home regulatory environment and interest…

  19. What about Me?: Individual Self-Assessment by Skill and Level of Language Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantmeier, Cindy; Vanderplank, Robert; Strube, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In an investigation with advanced language learners, Brantmeier [Brantmeier, C., 2006. "Advanced L2 learners and reading placement: self-assessment, computer based testing, and subsequent performance." "System" 34 (1), 15-35.] reports that self-assessment (SA) of second language (L2) reading ability, when measured with self-rated scales, is not an…

  20. Enabling Teachers to Explore Grade Patterns to Identify Individual Needs and Promote Fairer Student Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedler, Sorelle A.; Tan, Yee Lin; Peer, Nir J.; Shneiderman, Ben

    2008-01-01

    Exploring student test, homework, and other assessment scores is a challenge for most teachers, especially when attempting to identify cross-assessment weaknesses and produce final course grades. During the course, teachers need to identify subject weaknesses in order to help students who are struggling with a particular topic. This identification…

  1. Evidence-based guideline: Assessment and management of psychiatric disorders in individuals with MS

    PubMed Central

    Minden, Sarah L.; Feinstein, Anthony; Kalb, Rosalind C.; Miller, Deborah; Mohr, David C.; Patten, Scott B.; Bever, Christopher; Schiffer, Randolph B.; Gronseth, Gary S.; Narayanaswami, Pushpa

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To make evidence-based recommendations for screening, diagnosing, and treating psychiatric disorders in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: We reviewed the literature (1950 to August 2011) and evaluated the available evidence. Results and recommendations: Clinicians may consider using the Center for Neurologic Study Emotional Lability Scale to screen for pseudobulbar affect (Level C). Clinicians may consider the Beck Depression Inventory and a 2-question tool to screen for depressive disorders and the General Health Questionnaire to screen for broadly defined emotional disturbances (Level C). Evidence is insufficient to support/refute the use of other screening tools, the possibility that somatic/neurovegetative symptoms affect these tools' accuracy, or the use of diagnostic instruments or clinical evaluation procedures for identifying psychiatric disorders in MS (Level U). Clinicians may consider a telephone-administered cognitive behavioral therapy program for treating depressive symptoms (Level C). Although pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies are widely used to treat depressive and anxiety disorders in individuals with MS, evidence is insufficient to support/refute the use of the antidepressants and individual and group therapies reviewed herein (Level U). For pseudobulbar affect, a combination of dextromethorphan and quinidine may be considered (Level C). Evidence is insufficient to determine the psychiatric effects in individuals with MS of disease-modifying and symptomatic therapies and corticosteroids; risk factors for suicide; and treatment of psychotic disorders (Level U). Research is needed on the effectiveness in individuals with MS of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments frequently used in the non-MS population. PMID:24376275

  2. Characterization of individual barium titanate nanorods and their assessment as building blocks of new circuit architectures.

    PubMed

    Zagar, Kristina; Hernandez-Ramirez, Francisco; Prades, Joan Daniel; Morante, Joan Ramon; Rečnik, Aleksander; Ceh, Miran

    2011-09-23

    In this work, we report on the integration of individual BaTiO(3) nanorods into simple circuit architectures. Polycrystalline BaTiO(3) nanorods were synthesized by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of barium titanate sol into aluminium oxide (AAO) templates and subsequent annealing. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations revealed the presence of slabs of hexagonal polymorphs intergrown within cubic grains, resulting from the local reducing atmosphere during the thermal treatment. Electrical measurements performed on individual BaTiO(3) nanorods revealed resistivity values between 10 and 100 Ω cm, which is in good agreement with typical values reported in the past for oxygen-deficient barium titanate films. Consequently the presence of oxygen vacancies in their structure was indirectly validated. Some of these nanorods were tested as proof-of-concept humidity sensors. They showed reproducible responses towards different moisture concentrations, demonstrating that individual BaTiO(3) nanorods may be integrated in complex circuit architectures with functional capacities.

  3. Individual rights advocacy in tobacco control policies: an assessment and recommendation

    PubMed Central

    Katz, J

    2005-01-01

    Efforts to control environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) could be assisted if the tobacco control movement gave greater emphasis to the issue of individual rights. Benefits that may accrue from the promotion of a clear individual rights perspective in tobacco control include adding coherence to the tobacco control advocacy agenda and winning support from those who may have been concerned about loss of personal freedom, excessive governmental power, use of social coercion, or the rights of smokers. Risks also attend to such a policy. It might inadvertently assist the tobacco industry, stir resistance to ETS limitation efforts, or confuse tobacco control supporters. On balance, though, liabilities are outweighed by the ethical and operational merits in tobacco control of a heightened pro-individual rights stance. PMID:16046700

  4. Assessment of individual differences in the rat nucleus accumbens transcriptome following taste-heroin extended access.

    PubMed

    Imperio, Caesar G; McFalls, Ashley J; Colechio, Elizabeth M; Masser, Dustin R; Vrana, Kent E; Grigson, Patricia S; Freeman, Willard M

    2016-05-01

    Heroin addiction is a disease of chronic relapse that harms the individual through devaluation of personal responsibilities in favor of finding and using drugs. Only some recreational heroin users devolve into addiction but the basis of these individual differences is not known. We have shown in rats that avoidance of a heroin-paired taste cue reliably identifies individual animals with greater addiction-like behavior for heroin. Here rats received 5min access to a 0.15% saccharin solution followed by the opportunity to self-administer either saline or heroin for 6h. Large Suppressors of the heroin-paired taste cue displayed increased drug escalation, motivation for drug, and drug loading behavior compared with Small Suppressors. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of these individual differences in addiction-like behavior. We examined the individual differences in mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rats that were behaviorally stratified by addiction-like behavior using next-generation sequencing. We hypothesized that based on the avoidance of the drug-paired cue there will be a unique mRNA profile in the NAc. Analysis of strand-specific whole genome RNA-Seq data revealed a number of genes differentially regulated in NAc based on the suppression of the natural saccharine reward. Large Suppressors exhibited a unique mRNA prolife compared to Saline controls and Small Suppressors. Genes related to immunity, neuronal activity, and behavior were differentially expressed among the 3 groups. In total, individual differences in avoidance of a heroin-paired taste cue are associated with addiction-like behavior along with differential NAc gene expression.

  5. Assessing Individual Differences in Adaptation to Extreme Environments: A 36-Hour Sleep Deprivation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Jacqueline; Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.

    2012-01-01

    In space, astronauts may experience effects of cumulative sleep loss due to demanding work schedules that can result in cognitive performance impairments, mood state deteriorations, and sleep-wake cycle disruption. Individuals who experience sleep deprivation of six hours beyond normal sleep times experience detrimental changes in their mood and performance states. Hence, the potential for life threatening errors increases exponentially with sleep deprivation. We explored the effects of 36-hours of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance, mood states, and physiological responses to identify which metrics may best predict fatigue induced performance decrements of individuals.

  6. Non-intrusive activity assessment of a vulnerable individual for real living environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shaoqiu; Jones, Gordon R.

    2008-04-01

    A system for addressing the scale of activity and detecting periods of immobility of a vulnerable individual is described. The system does not invade the privacy of the individual, is robust to ambient changes and is economic in terms of cost and the amount of data captured. The system is based upon the cross-correlation of changes in the chromatic signatures of a limited number of locations in an environment with the outputs from a triggerable infrared sensor. Results are presented to indicate the system performance.

  7. Radiation Dose Assessments for Fleet-Based Individuals in Operation Tomodachi, Revision 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs), posted TLDs, and surface contamination surveys were used to assess the validity of...and maneuver TED Total Effective Dose TEPCO Tokyo Electric Power Company TLD thermoluminescent dosimeter TR technical report TRAP tactical

  8. Cognitive Flexibility among Individuals with Down Syndrome: Assessing the Influence of Verbal and Nonverbal Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Colin; Landry, Oriane; Russo, Natalie; Flores, Heidi; Jacques, Sophie; Burack, Jacob A.

    2013-01-01

    The influences of verbal mental age (VMA) and performance mental age (PMA) on cognitive flexibility were examined among a group of participants with Down syndrome (DS), in order to disentangle the relative contributions of each. The impaired cognitive flexibility typically observed among individuals with DS in combination with uneven VMA and PMA…

  9. Assessing Activity and Location of Individual Laying Hens in Large Groups Using Modern Technology.

    PubMed

    Siegford, Janice M; Berezowski, John; Biswas, Subir K; Daigle, Courtney L; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Hernandez, Carlos E; Thurner, Stefan; Toscano, Michael J

    2016-02-02

    Tracking individual animals within large groups is increasingly possible, offering an exciting opportunity to researchers. Whereas previously only relatively indistinguishable groups of individual animals could be observed and combined into pen level data, we can now focus on individual actors within these large groups and track their activities across time and space with minimal intervention and disturbance. The development is particularly relevant to the poultry industry as, due to a shift away from battery cages, flock sizes are increasingly becoming larger and environments more complex. Many efforts have been made to track individual bird behavior and activity in large groups using a variety of methodologies with variable success. Of the technologies in use, each has associated benefits and detriments, which can make the approach more or less suitable for certain environments and experiments. Within this article, we have divided several tracking systems that are currently available into two major categories (radio frequency identification and radio signal strength) and review the strengths and weaknesses of each, as well as environments or conditions for which they may be most suitable. We also describe related topics including types of analysis for the data and concerns with selecting focal birds.

  10. A Profiling System for the Assessment of Individual Needs for Rehabilitation With Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    de Ronde-Brons, I.

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the development of a profiling system to specify the needs of hearing-aid candidates. As a basis for the profile of compensation needs, we used a slightly modified version of the Amsterdam Inventory of Disability and Handicap, combined with the well-known Client-Oriented Scale of Improvement (COSI). The first questionnaire results in scores for six audiological dimensions: detection, speech in quiet, speech in noise, localization, focus or discrimination, and noise tolerance. The goal of this study was to determine whether the six dimensions derived from the disability questionnaire are appropriate to also categorize individual COSI targets. The results show a good agreement between eight audiologists in the categorization of COSI goals along the six dimensions. The results per dimension show that the dimension focus or discrimination can be regarded as superfluous. Possible additional dimensions were tinnitus and listening effort. The results indicate that it is possible to translate individual user needs (administered using COSI) into more general dimensions derived from a disability questionnaire. This allows to summarize the compensation needs for individual patients in a profile of general dimensions, based on the degree of disability and the individual user needs. This profile can be used as a starting point in hearing aid selection. This approach also offers a well-structured method for the evaluation of the postfitting results. PMID:27815547

  11. An Assessment of Publication Productivity in Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals: 1978-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unger, Darlene D.; Rumrill, Phillip D., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This literature review examined publication patterns in the journal of "Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals" across 35 years of publication. Overall, 732 contributors affiliated with 267 organizations were identified in our analysis of 436 articles. Frequency counts identified the most productive scholars in…

  12. Parental Assessment of Pain Coping in Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkitt, Chantel C.; Breau, Lynn M.; Zabalia, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Pain coping is thought to be the most significant behavioural contribution to the adjustment to pain. Little is known about how those with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) cope with pain. We describe parental reported coping styles and how coping relates to individual factors. Seventy-seven caregivers of children and adults with…

  13. Ability and Motivation: Assessing Individual Factors that Contribute to University Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alarcon, Gene M.; Edwards, Jean M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study explored individual differences in ability and motivation factors of retention in first-year college students. We used discrete-time survival mixture analysis to model university retention. Parents' education, gender, American College Test (ACT) scores, conscientiousness, and trait affectivity were explored as predictors of…

  14. Dynamic Assessment of Social Cognition in Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Genova, Helen M; Cagna, Christopher J; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D; DeLuca, John; Lengenfelder, Jean

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been reported that individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) are impaired on tasks requiring emotional processing and social cognition, including tasks of Theory of Mind (ToM) and facial affect recognition. The current pilot study examined the ability of individuals with MS to understand and interpret lies and sarcasm using a dynamic task: The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT). Fifteen individuals with MS and 15 healthy controls (HCs) performed the Social Inference-Enriched subtest of the TASIT, in which they viewed video-taped social interactions in which lies and sarcasm are presented. Additionally, tests of cognition were also administered to better understand the relationship between specific cognitive abilities and the ability to understand lies and sarcasm. The MS group showed impairments in the ability to interpret and understand lies and sarcasm relative to HCs. These impairments were correlated with several cognitive abilities including processing speed, working memory, learning and memory, and premorbid IQ. The results indicate that the TASIT is a sensitive measure of social cognition in individuals with MS. Furthermore, performance on the TASIT was related to cognitive abilities. Results are discussed in terms of social cognition deficits in MS and how they relate to cognitive abilities. (JINS, 2016, 22, 83-88).

  15. Does Negative Mood Influence Self-Report Assessment of Individual and Relational Measures? An Experimental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heene, Els; De Raedt, Rudi; Buysse, Ann; Van Oost, Paulette

    2007-01-01

    The present study was designed to test the influence of negative mood on the self-report of individual and relational correlates of depression and marital distress. The authors applied a combined experimental mood induction procedure, based on music, autobiographical recall, and environmental manipulation. Results showed that the mood manipulation…

  16. Radiation Dose Assessments for Shore-Based Individuals in Operation Tomodachi

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    using three unique technologies: the USAF and USN electronic personal dosimeter (EPD), the USAF and USN thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD), and the USA...provided thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). These are passive devices that are read at the end of the monitoring period for each individual

  17. Assessment of Fat Taste in Individuals With and Without Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Schebendach, Janet E.; Klein, Diane A.; Mayer, Laurel E.S.; Devlin, Michael J.; Attia, Evelyn; Walsh, B. Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Objective Avoidance of dietary fat is a highly characteristic eating behavior of individuals with Anorexia Nervosa (AN). To date, no study has determined whether these individuals are better able to perceive the fat content of foods than individuals without AN. The goal of this study was to compare blinded taste ratings of fat free, low fat, and regular cream cheese in patients with AN and in normal controls (NC). Methods AN (n=25) and control (NC; n=25) participants were presented with a series of nine cream cheese samples of three differing fat contents and asked to taste and rate each sample from very low to very high fat. Results Repeated measures ANOVA found no significant main effect of fat content and no interaction between fat content and diagnosis; however, a significant three-way interaction between fat content, diagnosis, and trial was observed. Post-hoc analysis revealed a significant fat content by trial interaction within the AN group, suggesting a significant trial effect for the fat free samples only with improving ability to detect fat-free samples over repeated trials. Conclusions The current study suggests that individuals with AN do not have a markedly greater ability to taste fat than NC, and that; therefore, fat avoidance is likely primarily based on cognitive factors. PMID:24282163

  18. Assessment of Aging Individuals with Down Syndrome in Clinical Trials: Results of Baseline Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sano, Mary; Aisen, Paul S.; Dalton, Arthur J.; Andrews, Howard F.; Tsai, Wei-Yann

    2005-01-01

    A major challenge to developing therapeutic interventions for cognitive loss and dementia in aging individuals with Down syndrome (DS) is the selection of appropriate outcome measures. This report describes the adaptation of the Brief Praxis Test (a nonverbal cognitive test) as a primary outcome measure, as well as the selection of secondary…

  19. [Reliability of the individual age assessment at the time of death based on sternal rib end morphology in Balkan population].

    PubMed

    Donić, Danijela; Durić, Marija; Babić, Dragan; Popović, Dorde

    2005-06-01

    This paper analyzes the reliability of the Iscan's sternal rib-ends phase method for the assessment of individual age at the time of death in the Balkan population. The method is based on the morphological age changes of the sternal rib ends. The tested samples consisted of 65 ribs from autopsy cases in the Institute for Forensic Medicine, University of Belgrade, during 1999-2002 (23 females, and 42 males of various ages, ranged from 17-91 years), according to the forensic documents. Significant differences between the real chronological age of the individuals and the values established by the Iscan's method was found, especially in the older categories (phases 6 and 7), in both males and females. The results of the discriminative analysis showed the values of the highest diagnostic relevance for the assessment of age in our population: the change of the depth of the articular fossa, the thickness of its walls, and the quality of the bones.

  20. Assessment of first and second degree relatives of individuals with bipolar disorder shows increased genetic risk scores in both affected relatives and young At‐Risk Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Koller, Daniel L.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Foroud, Tatiana; Liu, Hai; Glowinski, Anne L.; McInnis, Melvin G.; Wilcox, Holly C.; Frankland, Andrew; Roberts, Gloria; Schofield, Peter R.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Nurnberger, John I.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed the polygenic nature of bipolar disorder (BP), and identified common risk variants associated with illness. However, the role of common polygenic risk in multiplex families has not previously been examined. The present study examined 249 European‐ancestry families from the NIMH Genetics Initiative sample, comparing subjects with narrowly defined BP (excluding bipolar II and recurrent unipolar depression; n = 601) and their adult relatives without BP (n = 695). Unrelated adult controls (n = 266) were from the NIMH TGEN control dataset. We also examined a prospective cohort of young (12–30 years) offspring and siblings of individuals with BPI and BPII disorder (at risk; n = 367) and psychiatrically screened controls (n = 229), ascertained from five sites in the US and Australia and assessed with standardized clinical protocols. Thirty‐two disease‐associated SNPs from the PGC‐BP Working Group report (2011) were genotyped and additive polygenic risk scores (PRS) derived. We show increased PRS in adult cases compared to unrelated controls (P = 3.4 × 10−5, AUC = 0.60). In families with a high‐polygenic load (PRS score ≥32 in two or more subjects), PRS distinguished cases with BPI/SAB from other relatives (P = 0.014, RR = 1.32). Secondly, a higher PRS was observed in at‐risk youth, regardless of affected status, compared to unrelated controls (GEE‐χ2 = 5.15, P = 0.012). This report is the first to explore common polygenic risk in multiplex families, albeit using only a small number of robustly associated risk variants. We show that individuals with BP have a higher load of common disease‐associated variants than unrelated controls and first‐degree relatives, and illustrate the potential utility of PRS assessment in a family context. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID

  1. Neuro-Cognitive Assessment, Symptoms of Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder, and Soldier Performance during 68W Advanced Individual Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    individual is late in his response ) (p < 0.05). In addition, the IM assessment with auditory cues was predictive of AIT performance including GPA and all...higher SRO% was predictive of the number of push-ups achieved. That is, when auditory distractions were added, a stronger set of associations...resulted, including TA. The IM scores predicting push-ups without auditory distractions were early and late scores with an R2 of 6.3, but with auditory

  2. Another look at the (im-)precision of individual risk estimates made using actuarial risk assessment instruments.

    PubMed

    Hart, Stephen D; Cooke, David J

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the precision of individual risk estimates made using actuarial risk assessment instruments (ARAIs) by discussing some major conceptual issues and then illustrating them by analyzing new data. We used a standard multivariate statistical procedure, logistic regression, to create a new ARAI based on data from a follow-up study of 90 adult male sex offenders. We indexed predictive precision at the group level using confidence intervals for group mean probability estimates, and at the individual level using prediction intervals for individual probability estimates. Consistent with past research, ARAI scores were moderately and significantly predictive of failure in the aggregate, but group probability estimates had substantial margins of error and individual probability estimates had very large margins of error. We conclude that, without major advances in our understanding of the causes of violence, ARAIs cannot be used to estimate the specific probability or absolute likelihood of future violence with any reasonable degree of precision or certainty. The implications for conducting violence risk assessments in forensic mental health are discussed.

  3. Sequential Learning Models for the Wisconsin Card Sort Task: Assessing Processes in Substance Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Bishara, Anthony J.; Kruschke, John K.; Stout, Julie C.; Bechara, Antoine; McCabe, David P.; Busemeyer, Jerome R.

    2010-01-01

    The Wisconsin Card Sort Task (WCST) is a commonly used neuropsychological test of executive or frontal lobe functioning. Traditional behavioral measures from the task (e.g., perseverative errors) distinguish healthy controls from clinical populations, but such measures can be difficult to interpret. In an attempt to supplement traditional measures, we developed and tested a family of sequential learning models that allowed for estimation of processes at the individual subject level in the WCST. Testing the model with substance dependent individuals and healthy controls, the model parameters significantly predicted group membership even when controlling for traditional behavioral measures from the task. Substance dependence was associated with a) slower attention shifting following punished trials and b) reduced decision consistency. Results suggest that model parameters may offer both incremental content validity and incremental predictive validity. PMID:20495607

  4. Evaluation of a behavioral assessment tool for the individual unable to self-report pain.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Rob W; Tucker, William F; Kim, Sunghyun; Gilder, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Assessment of pain intensity using a standard self-reported pain score is standard practice in most institutions. These instruments require the cognitive ability to process the pain intensity into a numeric or descriptive value. Many institutions are considering adopting an assessment tool for cognitive impairment. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a clinician-administered assessment tool, PAINAD, in patients with cognitive impairment. Opioid consumption and frequency of documented unknown pain were collected in 2 cognitive impaired groups. In the control group, a self-reporting pain intensity tool was used, and in a second group, the PAINAD was used. Opioid use was significantly higher (P = .003) and the rates of reported unknown pain were significantly lower (P < .01) in the group using the PAINAD instrument compared to the control group of patients with cognitive impairment. There were no noted differences in opioid-induced adverse reactions in either group.

  5. Individualized nutritional recommendations: do we have the measurements needed to assess risk and make dietary recommendations?

    PubMed

    Arab, Lenore

    2004-02-01

    Is the information currently available to adjust nutritional recommendations and develop individualized nutrition? No. There is not even the information needed for setting dietary recommendations with confidence now at the group level. Will it be available soon? The answer to this question depends on the drive and will of the nutritional community, the success in recruiting funding to the area, the education of nutritionists and the spawning of great ideas and approaches. The emerging tools of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are enabling the in-depth study of relationships between diet, genetics and metabolism. The advent of technologies can be compared with the discovery of the microscope and the new dimensions of scientific visualization enabled by that discovery. Nutritionists stand at the crest of new waves of data that can be generated, and new methods for their digestion will be required. To date, the study of dietary requirements has been based largely on a black box approach. Subjects are supplemented or depleted and clinical outcomes are observed. Few recommendations are based on metabolic outcomes. Metabolomics and nutrigenomics promise tools with which recommendations can be refined to meet individual requirements and the potential of individualized nutrition can be explored. As yet, these tools are not being widely applied in nutritional research and are rarely being applied by nutritionists. The result is often interesting research that is frequently nutritionally flawed, resulting in inappropriate conclusions. Nutritional education is needed to put nutritionists at the forefront of the development of applications for these technologies, creating a generation of nutrigenomicists. A new generation of nutritionists should be working interdisciplinarily with geneticists, molecular biologists and bioinformaticians in the development of research strategies. The present paper reviews the current status of nutrigenomic research, the current

  6. Risk assessment for incident heart failure in individuals with atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Schnabel, Renate B.; Rienstra, Michiel; Sullivan, Lisa M.; Sun, Jenny X.; Moser, Carlee B.; Levy, Daniel; Pencina, Michael J.; Fontes, João D.; Magnani, Jared W.; McManus, David D.; Lubitz, Steven A.; Tadros, Thomas M.; Wang, Thomas J.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a strong risk factor for heart failure (HF); HF onset in patients with AF is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Risk factors that predict HF in individuals with AF in the community are not well established. Methods and results We examined clinical variables related to the 10-year incidence of HF in 725 individuals (mean 73.3 years, 45% women) with documented AF in the Framingham Heart Study. Event rates for incident HF (n = 161, 48% in women) were comparable in women (4.30 per 100 person-years) and men (3.34 per 100 person-years). Age, body mass index, ECG LV hypertrophy, diabetes, significant murmur, and history of myocardial infarction were positively associated with incident HF in multivariable models (C-statistic 0.71; 95% confidence interval 0.67–0.75). We developed a risk algorithm for estimating absolute risk of HF in AF patients with good model fit and calibration (adjusted calibration χ2 statistic 7.29; Pχ2 = 0.61). Applying the algorithm, 47.6% of HF events occurred in the top tertile in men compared with 13.1% in the bottom tertile, and 58.4% in women in the upper tertile compared with 18.2% in the lowest category. For HF type, women had a non-significantly higher incidence of HF with preserved EF compared with men. Conclusions We describe advancing age, LV hypertrophy, body mass index, diabetes, significant heart murmur, and history of myocardial infarction as clinical predictors of incident HF in individuals with AF. A risk algorithm may help identify individuals with AF at high risk of developing HF. PMID:23594831

  7. Inter-individual susceptibility to environmental toxicants-A current assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Nebert, Daniel W. . E-mail: dan.nebert@uc.edu

    2005-09-01

    Virtually all diseases have an environmental component. The two most important factors affecting your unique risk of an environmental disease (toxicity or cancer) are (a) your exposure to the environmental agent and (b) your genes. Epidemiologists have found ways to calculate inter-individual risk-if the exposure to environmental agents is sufficiently high and can be documented (e.g., years of cigarette smoking, taking prescribed drugs, drinking alcohol, or exposure to radon or other radioactive material, etc.). If the dose of environmental agents is lower and more ambiguous (e.g., exposure to chemicals on the job, herbicides sprayed on a golf course, outdoor or indoor air pollution, endocrine disruptors in cans of food, living near a toxic waste dump site, etc.), however, calculations of inter-individual risk become much more difficult. Highly accurate DNA tests for genetic susceptibility to toxicity and cancer have been sought in order to identify individuals at increased risk; this type of research represents the leading edge of phenotype-genotype association studies and is the major goal of most public health and preventive medicine programs. The task, however, has turned out to be far more challenging than anticipated. The major stumbling block has been the difficulty in determining an unequivocal phenotype or an unequivocal genotype. We were quite optimistic 5-10 years ago that this would be easy, but now we are beginning to appreciate how difficult it is to determine an unequivocal phenotype or genotype with certainty. For many reasons set forth in this overview, it appears that DNA testing alone, to predict and prevent environmental disease on an individual basis, may be virtually impossible with current knowledge and technologies and will require novel insights before major practical applications will evolve.

  8. Radiation Dose Assessments for Shore-Based Individuals in Operation Tomodachi, Revision 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-31

    personal dosimeter (EPD), the USAF and USN thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD), and the USA optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) dosimeter. Salient... thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). These are passive devices that are read at the end of the monitoring period for each individual. • The USA...Company TLD thermoluminescent dosimeter USA United States Army USAF United States Air Force USAFSAM U.S. Air Force, School of Aerospace Medicine USC

  9. A clinical assessment of cochlear implant recipient performance: implications for individualized map settings in specific environments.

    PubMed

    Hey, Matthias; Hocke, Thomas; Mauger, Stefan; Müller-Deile, Joachim

    2016-11-01

    Individual speech intelligibility was measured in quiet and noise for cochlear Implant recipients upgrading from the Freedom to the CP900 series sound processor. The postlingually deafened participants (n = 23) used either Nucleus CI24RE or CI512 cochlear implant, and currently wore a Freedom sound processor. A significant group mean improvement in speech intelligibility was found in quiet (Freiburg monosyllabic words at 50 dBSPL) and in noise (adaptive Oldenburger sentences in noise) for the two CP900 series SmartSound programs compared to the Freedom program. Further analysis was carried out on individual's speech intelligibility outcomes in quiet and in noise. Results showed a significant improvement or decrement for some recipients when upgrading to the new programs. To further increase speech intelligibility outcomes when upgrading, an enhanced upgrade procedure is proposed that includes additional testing with different signal-processing schemes. Implications of this research are that future automated scene analysis and switching technologies could provide additional performance improvements by introducing individualized scene-dependent settings.

  10. Optical molecular imaging approach for rapid assessment of response of individual cancer cells to chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhen; Tikekar, Rohan Vijay; Samadzadeh, Kiana Michelle; Nitin, Nitin

    2012-10-01

    Predicting the response of individual patients to cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs is critical for developing individualized therapies. With this motivation, an optical molecular imaging approach was developed to detect cisplatin induced changes in the uptake and intracellular retention of choline. Intracellular uptake of choline was characterized using a click chemistry reaction between propargyl choline and Alexa-488 azide. Cisplatin induced changes in the uptake of propargyl choline in cells and tumor spheroids were compared with similar measurements using a fluorescent analogue of deoxyglucose and conventional cell viability assays. Uptake and intracellular retention of propargyl choline decreased with an increase in concentration of cisplatin. Intracellular uptake of propargyl choline was significantly reduced within 3 h of incubation with a sub-lethal dose of cisplatin. Results demonstrate that the imaging approach based on propargyl choline was more sensitive in detecting the early response of cancer cells to cisplatin as compared to the imaging based on fluorescent analogue of deoxyglucose and cell viability assays. Imaging measurements in tumor spheroids show a significant decrease in the uptake of propargyl choline following treatment with cisplatin. Overall, the results demonstrate a novel optical molecular imaging approach for rapid measurement of the response of individual cancer cells to cisplatin treatment.

  11. Ensuring Confidentiality of Geocoded Health Data: Assessing Geographic Masking Strategies for Individual-Level Data

    PubMed Central

    Zandbergen, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Public health datasets increasingly use geographic identifiers such as an individual's address. Geocoding these addresses often provides new insights since it becomes possible to examine spatial patterns and associations. Address information is typically considered confidential and is therefore not released or shared with others. Publishing maps with the locations of individuals, however, may also breach confidentiality since addresses and associated identities can be discovered through reverse geocoding. One commonly used technique to protect confidentiality when releasing individual-level geocoded data is geographic masking. This typically consists of applying a certain amount of random perturbation in a systematic manner to reduce the risk of reidentification. A number of geographic masking techniques have been developed as well as methods to quantity the risk of reidentification associated with a particular masking method. This paper presents a review of the current state-of-the-art in geographic masking, summarizing the various methods and their strengths and weaknesses. Despite recent progress, no universally accepted or endorsed geographic masking technique has emerged. Researchers on the other hand are publishing maps using geographic masking of confidential locations. Any researcher publishing such maps is advised to become familiar with the different masking techniques available and their associated reidentification risks. PMID:26556417

  12. Assessment of the Exercise Intensity of Short Stick Exercises in Elderly Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Kurasawa, Shigeki; Yokoi, Katsushi; Miyai, Nobuyuki; Takemura, Shigeki; Miyashita, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    The present study was to obtain basic data for applying the short stick exercises to frail elderly individuals. A total of 20 individuals aged ≥60 years (10 men, and 10 women) with independence in activities of daily living participated in a short stick exercise program. During the exercise program, the time required and the number of times the short stick was dropped were investigated. The exercise intensity was also evaluated based on expired gas and heart rate measurements. The mean exercise intensity of the short stick exercises was 1.9 ± 0.3 metabolic equivalents (METs), equivalent to talking while standing or walking indoors. Compared to the early elderly (those aged 60 to 74 years), the late elderly (those aged ≥75 years) had a significantly higher number of stick drops and significantly lower increase in heart rate from resting to the warming-up exercise. The short stick exercises had a low exercise intensity and can be applicable to exercise interventions of the frail elderly individuals. However, in the case of the late elderly, the high frequency of short stick drops and the change in heart rate during warming up must be considered. PMID:25734017

  13. A model to assess the emission of individual isoprenoids emitted from Italian ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper Pacheco, C. J.; Fares, S.; Loreto, F.; Ciccioli, P.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a GIS-based model to estimate the emissions from the Italian forest ecosystems. The model was aimed at generating a species-specific emission inventory for isoprene and individual monoterpenes that could have been validated with experimental data collected in selected sites of the CARBOITALY network. The model was develop for the year 2006. At a resolution of 1 km2 with a daily time resolution. By using the emission rates of individual components obtained through several laboratory and field experiments carried out on different vegetation species of the Mediterranean basin, maps of individual isoprenoids were generated for the Italian ecosystems. The spatial distribution and fractional contents of vegetation species present in the Italian forest ecosystems was obtained by combining the CORINE IV land cover map with National Forest Inventory based on ground observations performed at local levels by individual Italian regions (22) in which the country is divided. In general, basal emission rates for individual isoprenoids was reported by Steinbrecher et al. 1997 and Karl et al. 2009 were used. In this case, classes were further subdivided into T and L+T emitters as functions of the active pool. In many instances, however they were revised based on the results obtained in our Institute through determinations performed at leaf, branch (cuvette method) or ecosystem level (REA and the gradient method). In the latter case, studies performed in Italy and/or Mediterranean countries were used. An empirical light extinction function as a function of the canopy type and structure was introduced. The algorithms proposed by (Guenther et al. 1993) were used, but, they were often adapted to fit with the experimental observations made in the Mediterranean Areas. They were corrected for a seasonality factor (Steinbrecher et al. 2009) taking into account a time lag in leaf sprouting due to the plant elevation. A simple parameterization with LAI was

  14. Assessment Instruments Measuring Malingering Used with Individuals Who Have Mental Retardation: Potential Problems and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Kolleen E.; Deal, William Paul

    2006-01-01

    "Malingering," the exaggeration or fabrication of physical and/or psychological symptoms, can threaten the psychological assessment process (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). To enhance the validity of psychological evaluations, researchers have studied trends in malingering and developed instruments for its detection (Rogers, Bagby, &…

  15. Teaching Medieval Towns: Group Exercises, Individual Presentations and Self-Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Andrew; Gunn, Vicky

    2002-01-01

    Examines the use of innovative collaborative small group activities in a Medieval History undergraduate honors course. Discusses student evaluations and feedback from a focus group to investigate the use of group exercises that involve the construction of three-dimensional models of medieval towns and the use of self-assessment. (Author/LRW)

  16. Systematic Assessment of Caregiving Skill Performance by Individuals with Tetraplegia and Their Caregivers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Objective: To assess the feasibility and potential benefits of a program of guided imagery and meditation for persons with chronic pain and spinal cord...injury (SCI). Improving Functioning in Persons with Chronic Pain Post-SCI through Virtual Classroom Delivery of a Mindfulness-Based Chronic Pain

  17. Assessing Students' Theories of Success in Mathematics: Individual and Classroom Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, John G.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Assessed were second grade students to determine whether their beliefs about causes of success in mathematics were related to their personal goals in mathematics. One class that experienced mathematics instruction consistent with a constructivist view rated higher than traditional classes on Task Orientation, attempting to gain understanding.…

  18. The United Kingdom's Research Assessment Exercise: Impact on Institutions, Departments, Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Paul G.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the United Kingdom's Research Assessment Exercises (RAE) affect institutional grants for university-based research projects. Explains the RAE system, discussing its advantages and disadvantages, outlines a framework within which it can be analyzed, and examines some of the available evidence about the impact of the RAE. (SWM)

  19. Using a Quality Indicator Checklist To Assess Technical Needs for Individuals and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Paro, Karen M.; And Others

    This paper describes a needs assessment instrument that is intended to effectively communicate recommended practice ideas for serving children with disabilities to teachers, families, and service delivery personnel. The instrument is in the form of a quality indicators checklist and utilizes 143 statements of recommended practice. The inclusion of…

  20. An Occupational Therapy Work Skills Assessment for Individuals with Head Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Irene; Higham, Julie; McLean, Alison M.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an occupational therapy skills assessment protocol developed and used to evaluate physical, cognitive, and behavioral abilities for persons seeking to return to work following head injuries. It measures them within the framework of productivity, interpersonal skills, and safety. (Contains 48 references.) (Author/JOW)

  1. A Survey of Methods of Deriving Individual Grades from Group Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejk, Mark; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The literature pertaining to evaluation of student work in groups is reviewed, and a number of group assessment methods are identified. Two alternative methods used at the University of Sunderland (England) are described. Issues and practical considerations in peer and self-evaluation of work in groups are also examined, particularly the tendency…

  2. The Assessment of Pain and Discomfort in Individuals with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Angela; Edwards, Christopher L.; Robinson, Elwood L.

    2005-01-01

    This research was conducted to replicate and expanded the work of Bodfish et al. [Bodfish, J. W., Harper, V. N., Deacon, J. R., & Symons, F. J. (2001, May). "Identifying and measuring pain in persons with developmental disabilities: A manual for the Pain and Discomfort Scale (PADS)." Western Carolina Center Research Reports] by assessing the…

  3. Assessing Teamwork in Undergraduate Education: A Measurement Tool to Evaluate Individual Teamwork Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Emily; Simper, Natalie; Leger, Andrew; Stephenson, Jenn

    2017-01-01

    Effective teamwork skills are essential for success in an increasingly team-based workplace. However, research suggests that there is often confusion concerning how teamwork is measured and assessed, making it difficult to develop these skills in undergraduate curricula. The goal of the present study was to develop a sustainable tool for assessing…

  4. 76 FR 63628 - Preliminary Damage Assessment for Individual Assistance Operations Manual (9327.2-PR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... Assistance Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 5170 and 5191). The PDA information, along with the Governor's request...) Preliminary Damage Assessments (PDAs) nationwide in response to an impacted State's request. The primary... support. If the Governor determines that the State does not have adequate resources to respond and...

  5. Individualized Skill Assessment in Digital Learning Games: Basic Definitions and Mathematical Formalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustin, T.; Hockemeyer, C.; Kickmeier-Rust, M.; Albert, D.

    2011-01-01

    The assessment of knowledge and learning progress in the context of game-based learning requires novel, noninvasive, and embedded approaches. In the present paper, we introduce a mathematical framework which relates the (problem solution) behavior of a learner in the game context to the learner's available and lacking competencies. We argue that a…

  6. Moving the Risk and Protective Factor Framework toward Individualized Assessment in Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Matthew J.; Loneck, Barry; Videka, Lynn; Brown, M. Craig

    2007-01-01

    The field of substance abuse prevention has evolved towards a risk and protective factor paradigm in explaining the onset and escalation of adolescent substance use. This framework for understanding the problem has been developed and employed by researchers at the University of Washington, under Doctors Hawkins and Catalano, to assess communities…

  7. An Assessment Instrument for Families: Evaluating Employment Programs for Individuals with Deaf-Blindness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helen Keller National Center - Technical Assistance Center, Sands Point, NY.

    This employment assessment tool for parents of young adults with deaf-blindness was created to assist in examining strengths and weaknesses of various employment programs in relation to their child's employment wants and needs, to guide parents in advocating for what is needed from a specific job to ensure their child's success, and to provide a…

  8. Interethnic Group and Intraethnic Group Racism: Perceptions and Coping in Black University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Rodney

    2004-01-01

    This study explored perceived racism and the usual ways of coping with these perceptions in a sample of 269 Black university students (53% female). Perceptions of inter- and intragroup racism were assessed with the Life Experiences and Stress scale, and coping was measured with the Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced scale. A principal…

  9. A detailed phenotypic assessment of individuals affected by MFRP-related oculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sergouniotis, Panagiotis I.; Mackay, Donna S.; Day, Alexander C.; Wright, Genevieve; Devery, Sophie; Leroy, Bart P.; Robson, Anthony G.; Holder, Graham E.; Li, Zheng; Webster, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine the spectrum of mutations and phenotypic variability within patients with mutations in membrane-type frizzled related protein gene (MFRP). Methods Individuals were initially ascertained based on a phenotype similar to that previously published in association with MFRP mutations. Affected patients underwent a full ophthalmic examination (best-corrected visual acuity, slit-lamp examination, applanation tonometry, and fundoscopy), color fundus photography, optical coherence tomography, autofluorescence imaging, and electrophysiology. MFRP was identified by a genome-wide scan in the fourth-largest autozygous region in one consanguineous family. Sanger sequencing of all the exons and intron-exon boundaries of MFRP was undertaken in the affected individuals. Results Seven affected individuals from four families were identified as having mutations in MFRP. Patients from two families were homozygous for mutations already previously described (c.1143_1144 insC and c.492 delC), while those from the other two were compound heterozygous for mutations (c.201G>A and c.491_492 insT, and c.492 delC, and c.1622_1625 delTCTG), three of which were novel. There was considerable phenotypic variability within and among families. Autofluorescence imaging revealed the central macula to be relatively well preserved. Foveal cysts and optic nerve head drusen were present in two of the four families. Electrophysiology results showed rod-cone dystrophy with mild to moderate reduction in macular function in all affected members. Conclusions We report three novel MFRP mutations and expand the phenotypic data available on patients with MFRP mutations. PMID:20361016

  10. Estimated effects of ionizing radiation upon military task performance: individual combat crewmember assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Anno, G.H.; Wilson, D.B.

    1984-04-01

    Quantitative estimates are developed of the performance levels for selected individual Army combat crewmembers exposed to prompt ionizing radiation from nuclear weapons. The performance levels, expressed in percent of normal (baseline) task performance, provide information for military operations planning, combat training, and computer simulation modeling of combat crew and unit effectiveness. The methodology is described where data from two separate bodies of information: acute radiation sickness symptomatology, and judgment of task performance time from Army combat crew questionnaires - are integrated to compute performance levels as a function of dose (free-in-air) and post-exposure time.

  11. Who gets evicted? Assessing individual, neighborhood, and network factors.

    PubMed

    Desmond, Matthew; Gershenson, Carl

    2017-02-01

    The prevalence and consequences of eviction have transformed the lived experience of urban poverty in America, yet little is known about why some families avoid eviction while others do not. Applying discrete hazard models to a unique dataset of renters, this study empirically evaluates individual, neighborhood, and social network characteristics that explain disparities in displacement from housing. Family size, job loss, neighborhood crime and eviction rates, and network disadvantage are identified as significant and robust predictors of eviction, net of missed rental payments and other relevant factors. This study advances urban sociology and inequality research and informs policy interventions designed to prevent eviction and stem its consequences.

  12. Using geographic information systems to assess individual historical exposure to air pollution from traffic and house heating in Stockholm.

    PubMed Central

    Bellander, T; Berglind, N; Gustavsson, P; Jonson, T; Nyberg, F; Pershagen, G; Järup, L

    2001-01-01

    A specific aim of a population-based case-control study of lung cancer in Stockholm, Sweden, was to use emission data, dispersion models, and geographic information systems (GIS) to assess historical exposure to several components of ambient air pollution. Data collected for 1,042 lung cancer cases and 2,364 population controls included information on residence from 1955 to the end of follow-up for each individual, 1990-1995. We assessed ambient air concentrations of pollutants from road traffic and heating throughout the study area for three points in time (1960, 1970, and 1980) using reconstructed emission data for the index pollutants nitrogen oxides (NO(x)/NO(2)) and sulfur dioxide together with dispersion modeling. NO(2) estimates for 1980 compared well with actual measurements, but no independently measured (study-external) data were available for SO(2), precluding similar validation. Subsequently, we used linear intra- and extrapolation to obtain estimates for all other years 1955-1990. Eleven thousand individual addresses were transformed into geographic coordinates through automatic and manual procedures, with an estimated error of < 100 m for 90% of the addresses. Finally, we linked annual air pollution estimates to annual residence coordinates, yielding long-term residential exposure indices for each individual. There was a wide range of individual long-term average exposure, with an 11-fold interindividual difference in NO(2) and an 18-fold difference in SO(2). The 30-year average for all study subjects was 20 microg/m(3) NO(2) from traffic and 53 microg/m(3) SO(2) from heating. The results indicate that GIS can be useful for exposure assessment in environmental epidemiology studies, provided that detailed geographically related exposure data are available for relevant time periods. PMID:11445519

  13. Pesticide Environmental Accounting: a method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications.

    PubMed

    Leach, A W; Mumford, J D

    2008-01-01

    The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts.

  14. Unidirectional Expiratory Valve Method to Assess Maximal Inspiratory Pressure in Individuals without Artificial Airway

    PubMed Central

    Grams, Samantha Torres; Kimoto, Karen Yumi Mota; Azevedo, Elen Moda de Oliveira; Lança, Marina; de Albuquerque, André Luis Pereira; de Brito, Christina May Moran; Yamaguti, Wellington Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Maximal Inspiratory Pressure (MIP) is considered an effective method to estimate strength of inspiratory muscles, but still leads to false positive diagnosis. Although MIP assessment with unidirectional expiratory valve method has been used in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation, no previous studies investigated the application of this method in subjects without artificial airway. Objectives This study aimed to compare the MIP values assessed by standard method (MIPsta) and by unidirectional expiratory valve method (MIPuni) in subjects with spontaneous breathing without artificial airway. MIPuni reproducibility was also evaluated. Methods This was a crossover design study, and 31 subjects performed MIPsta and MIPuni in a random order. MIPsta measured MIP maintaining negative pressure for at least one second after forceful expiration. MIPuni evaluated MIP using a unidirectional expiratory valve attached to a face mask and was conducted by two evaluators (A and B) at two moments (Tests 1 and 2) to determine interobserver and intraobserver reproducibility of MIP values. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC[2,1]) was used to determine intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility. Results The mean values for MIPuni were 14.3% higher (-117.3 ± 24.8 cmH2O) than the mean values for MIPsta (-102.5 ± 23.9 cmH2O) (p<0.001). Interobserver reproducibility assessment showed very high correlation for Test 1 (ICC[2,1] = 0.91), and high correlation for Test 2 (ICC[2,1] = 0.88). The assessment of the intraobserver reproducibility showed high correlation for evaluator A (ICC[2,1] = 0.86) and evaluator B (ICC[2,1] = 0.77). Conclusions MIPuni presented higher values when compared with MIPsta and proved to be reproducible in subjects with spontaneous breathing without artificial airway. PMID:26360255

  15. Visual Evoked Responses and EEGS for Divers Breathing Hyperbaric Air: An Assessment of Individual Differences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-03

    PAGE THE PROBLEM To find and assess quantitatively electrophysiologieal corre- lates of nitrogen narcosis in divers. FINDINGS Marked decrements in...visual evoked responses were found in most divers under conditions conducive to nitrogen narcosis . Results of this study show the average sizes of...the decrements and their probability of occurrence in a large group of subjects. APPLICATION Since nitrogen narcosis is a major problem deterring air

  16. Individual-Based Model Framework to Assess Population Consequences of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Exposure in Bottlenose Dolphins

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Ailsa J.; McConnell, Bernie J.; Rowles, Teri K.; Aguilar, Alex; Borrell, Asuncion; Schwacke, Lori; Reijnders, Peter J.H.; Wells, Randall S.

    2006-01-01

    Marine mammals are susceptible to the effects of anthropogenic contaminants. Here we examine the effect of different polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) accumulation scenarios on potential population growth rates using, as an example, data obtained for the population of bottlenose dolphins from Sarasota Bay, Florida. To achieve this goal, we developed an individual-based model framework that simulates the accumulation of PCBs in the population and modifies first-year calf survival based on maternal blubber PCB levels. In our example the current estimated annual PCB accumulation rate for the Sarasota Bay dolphin population might be depressing the potential population growth rate. However, our predictions are limited both by model naivety and parameter uncertainty. We emphasize the need for more data collection on the relationship between maternal blubber PCB levels and calf survivorship, the annual accumulation of PCBs in the blubber of females, and the transfer of PCBs to the calf through the placenta and during lactation. Such data require continued efforts directed toward long-term studies of known individuals in wild and semi-wild populations. PMID:16818247

  17. Assessing visual green effects of individual urban trees using airborne Lidar data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ziyue; Xu, Bing; Gao, Bingbo

    2015-12-01

    Urban trees benefit people's daily life in terms of air quality, local climate, recreation and aesthetics. Among these functions, a growing number of studies have been conducted to understand the relationship between residents' preference towards local environments and visual green effects of urban greenery. However, except for on-site photography, there are few quantitative methods to calculate green visibility, especially tree green visibility, from viewers' perspectives. To fill this research gap, a case study was conducted in the city of Cambridge, which has a diversity of tree species, sizes and shapes. Firstly, a photograph-based survey was conducted to approximate the actual value of visual green effects of individual urban trees. In addition, small footprint airborne Lidar (Light detection and ranging) data was employed to measure the size and shape of individual trees. Next, correlations between visual tree green effects and tree structural parameters were examined. Through experiments and gradual refinement, a regression model with satisfactory R2 and limited large errors is proposed. Considering the diversity of sample trees and the result of cross-validation, this model has the potential to be applied to other study sites. This research provides urban planners and decision makers with an innovative method to analyse and evaluate landscape patterns in terms of tree greenness.

  18. Assessing risk prediction models using individual participant data from multiple studies.

    PubMed

    Pennells, Lisa; Kaptoge, Stephen; White, Ian R; Thompson, Simon G; Wood, Angela M

    2014-03-01

    Individual participant time-to-event data from multiple prospective epidemiologic studies enable detailed investigation into the predictive ability of risk models. Here we address the challenges in appropriately combining such information across studies. Methods are exemplified by analyses of log C-reactive protein and conventional risk factors for coronary heart disease in the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, a collation of individual data from multiple prospective studies with an average follow-up duration of 9.8 years (dates varied). We derive risk prediction models using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis stratified by study and obtain estimates of risk discrimination, Harrell's concordance index, and Royston's discrimination measure within each study; we then combine the estimates across studies using a weighted meta-analysis. Various weighting approaches are compared and lead us to recommend using the number of events in each study. We also discuss the calculation of measures of reclassification for multiple studies. We further show that comparison of differences in predictive ability across subgroups should be based only on within-study information and that combining measures of risk discrimination from case-control studies and prospective studies is problematic. The concordance index and discrimination measure gave qualitatively similar results throughout. While the concordance index was very heterogeneous between studies, principally because of differing age ranges, the increments in the concordance index from adding log C-reactive protein to conventional risk factors were more homogeneous.

  19. Assessment Data-Informed Guidance to Individualize Kindergarten Reading Instruction: Findings from a Cluster-Randomized Control Field Trial.

    PubMed

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Connor, Carol M; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Greulich, Luana; Meadows, Jane; Li, Zhi

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this cluster-randomized control field trial was to was to examine the extent to which kindergarten teachers could learn a promising instructional strategy, wherein kindergarten reading instruction was differentiated based upon students' ongoing assessments of language and literacy skills and documented child characteristic by instruction (CXI) interactions; and to test the efficacy of this differentiated reading instruction on the reading outcomes of students from culturally diverse backgrounds. The study involved 14 schools and included 23 treatment (n = 305 students) and 21 contrast teacher (n = 251 students). Teachers in the contrast condition received only a baseline professional development that included a researcher-delivered summer day-long workshop on individualized instruction. Data sources included parent surveys, individually administered child assessments of language, cognitive, and reading skills and videotapes of classroom instruction. Using Hierarchical Multivariate Linear Modeling (HMLM), we found students in treatment classrooms outperformed students in the contrast classrooms on a latent measure of reading skills, comprised of letter-word reading, decoding, alphabetic knowledge, and phonological awareness (ES = .52). Teachers in both conditions provided small group instruction, but teachers in the treatment condition provided significantly more individualized instruction. Our findings extend research on the efficacy of teachers using Individualized Student Instruction to individualize instruction based upon students' language and literacy skills in first through third grade. Findings are discussed regarding the value of professional development related to differentiating core reading instruction and the challenges of using Response to Intervention approaches to address students' needs in the areas of reading in general education contexts.

  20. Assessing individual bioequivalence with high-order cross-over designs: a unified procedure.

    PubMed

    Hsuan, Francis C; Reeve, Russell

    2003-09-30

    The U.S. FDA's newly issued guidance on bioequivalence recommends the use of individual bioequivalence (IBE) for highly variable drugs and possibly for modified release dosage forms. The recommended approach to the analysis is to follow the methodology of Hyslop, Hsuan and Holder (HHH), based on a linear mixed model. A limitation of the HHH method is that it works only for uniform designs, such as RTRT/TRTR. In this paper, we present an alternative approach based on a multivariate model. The multivariate model is shown to be a strict superset of the linear mixed model and can successfully model data where the mixed model fails. Our multivariate approach coincides with the HHH method where the HHH method applies, but generalizes to any high-order cross-over design, such as the Balaam design, RTR/TRT, and TRSS/RSTT/STRR. We present numerical examples to demonstrate the proposed method, and examine its properties with a simulation study.

  1. Assessment of passive knee stiffness and viscosity in individuals with spinal cord injury using pendulum test

    PubMed Central

    Joghtaei, Mahmoud; Arab, Amir Massoud; Hashemi-Nasl, Hamed; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Tokhi, Mohammad Osman

    2015-01-01

    Objective Stiffness and viscosity represent passive resistances to joint motion related with the structural properties of the joint tissue and of the musculotendinous complex. Both parameters can be affected in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). The purpose of this study was to measure passive knee stiffness and viscosity in patients with SCI with paraplegia and healthy subjects using Wartenberg pendulum test. Design Non-experimental, cross-sectional, case–control design. Setting An outpatient physical therapy clinic, University of social welfare and Rehabilitation Science, Iran. Patients A sample of convenience sample of 30 subjects participated in the study. Subjects were categorized into two groups: individuals with paraplegic SCI (n = 15, age: 34.60 ± 9.18 years) and 15 able-bodied individuals as control group (n = 15, age: 30.66 ± 11.13 years). Interventions Not applicable. Main measures Passive pendulum test of Wartenberg was used to measure passive viscous-elastic parameters of the knee (stiffness, viscosity) in all subjects. Results Statistical analysis (independent t-test) revealed significant difference in the joint stiffness between healthy subjects and those with paraplegic SCI (P = 0.01). However, no significant difference was found in the viscosity between two groups (P = 0.17). Except for first peak flexion angle, all other displacement kinematic parameters exhibited no statistically significant difference between normal subjects and subjects with SCI. Conclusions Patients with SCI have significantly greater joint stiffness compared to able-bodied subjects. PMID:25437824

  2. Monitoring signals for vaccine safety: the assessment of individual adverse event reports by an expert advisory committee. Advisory Committee on Causality Assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Collet, J. P.; MacDonald, N.; Cashman, N.; Pless, R.

    2000-01-01

    Monitoring vaccine safety is a complex and shared responsibility. It can be carried out in many ways, one of which is the reporting of individual cases of adverse reactions thought to be due to vaccination. The task is difficult because ascribing causality to an individual case report is fraught with challenges. A standardized evaluation instrument--known as the causality assessment form--was therefore developed for use by an expert advisory committee to facilitate the process. By following the several sections in this form, the members of the committee are taken through a series of points to establish causality. These points include the basic criteria for causation such as biological plausibility, the time elapsed between the vaccine administration and the onset of the adverse event, and whether other factors (drugs, chemicals or underlying disease) could account for the adverse symptoms. The form concludes with a consensus assessment of causality, a commentary about the assessment, and advice for further study or follow-up. This method of assessing the more serious cases of adverse reaction reported to vaccination has proven useful in evaluating ongoing safety of vaccines in Canada. Through analyses such as this, new signals can be identified and investigated further. PMID:10743282

  3. Reliability of the Adult Myopathy Assessment Tool in Individuals with Myositis

    PubMed Central

    Harris-Love, Michael O.; Joe, Galen; Davenport, Todd E.; Koziol, Deloris; Rose, Kristen Abbett; Shrader, Joseph A.; Vasconcelos, Olavo M.; McElroy, Beverly; Dalakas, Marinos C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Adult Myopathy Assessment Tool (AMAT) is a 13-item performance-based battery developed to assess functional status and muscle endurance. The purpose of this study was to determine the intrarater and interrater reliability of the AMAT in adults with myosits. Methods Nineteen raters (13 physical therapists and 6 physicians) scored videotaped recordings of patients with myositis performing the AMAT for a total of 114 tests and 1,482 item observations per session. Raters rescored the AMAT test and item observations during a follow up session (19 ±6 days between scoring sessions). All raters completed a single, self-directed, electronic training module prior to the initial scoring session. Results Intrarater and interrater reliability correlation coefficients were .94 or greater for the AMAT Functional Subscale, Endurance Subscale, and Total score (all p < 0.02 for Ho:ρ ≤ 0.75). All AMAT items had satisfactory intrarater agreement (Kappa statistics with Fleiss-Cohen weights, Kw = .57-1.00). Interrater agreement was acceptable for each AMAT item (K = .56-.89) except the sit up (K = .16). The standard error of measurement and 95% confidence interval range for the AMAT Total scores did not exceed 2 points across all observations (AMAT Total score range = 0-45). Conclusions The AMAT is a reliable, domain-specific assessment of functional status and muscle endurance for adult subjects with myositis. Results of this study suggest that physicians and physical therapists may reliably score the AMAT following a single training session. The AMAT Functional Subscale, Endurance Subscale, and Total score exhibit interrater and intrarater reliability suitable for clinical and research use. PMID:25201624

  4. Using the cervical range of motion (CROM) device to assess head repositioning accuracy in individuals with cervical radiculopathy in comparison to neck- healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Wibault, Johanna; Vaillant, Jacques; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Dedering, Åsa; Peolsson, Anneli

    2013-10-01

    This study had two purposes: to compare head repositioning accuracy (HRA) using the cervical range of motion (CROM) device between individuals with cervical radiculopathy caused by disc disease (CDD; n = 71) and neck- healthy individuals (n = 173); and to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the CROM device in individuals with CDD, and criterion validity between the CROM device and a laser in neck-healthy individuals, with quantification of measurement errors. Parameters of reliability and validity were expressed with intra- class- correlation coefficients (ICCs), and measurement errors with standard error of measurement (SEM) and Bland Altman limits of agreement. HRA (Mdn, IQR) differed significantly between individuals with CDD and neck- healthy individuals after rotation right 2.7° (6.0), 1.7° (2.7); and rotation left 2.7° (3.3), 1.3° (2.7) (p < = 0.021); 31% of individuals with CDD were classified as having impairment in HRA. The test-retest reliability of the CROM device in individuals with CDD showed ICCs of 0.79- 0.85, and SEMs of 1.4°- 2°. The criterion validity between the CROM device and the laser in neck-healthy individuals showed ICCs of 0.43- 0.91 and SEMs of 0.8°- 1.3°. The results support the use of the CROM device for quantifying HRA impairment in individuals with CDD in clinical practice; however, criterion validity between the CROM device and a laser in neck-healthy individuals was questionable. HRA impairment in individuals with CDD may be important to consider during rehabilitation and evaluated with the criterion established with the CROM device in neck-healthy individuals.

  5. STUDYING TRAVEL-RELATED INDIVIDUAL ASSESSMENTS AND DESIRES BY COMBINING HIERARCHICALLY STRUCTURED ORDINAL VARIABLES.

    PubMed

    Diana, Marco; Song, Tingting; Wittkowski, Knut M

    2009-03-01

    Ordinal measures are frequently encountered in travel behavior research. This paper presents a new method for combining them when a hierarchical structure of the data can be presumed. This method is applied to study the subjective assessment of the amount of travel by different transportation modes among a group of French clerical workers, along with the desire to increase or decrease the use of such modes. Some advantages of this approach over traditional data reduction technique such as factor analysis when applied to ordinal data are then illustrated. In this study, combining evidence from several variables sheds light on the observed moderately negative relationship between the personal assessment of the amount of travel and the desire to increase or decrease it, thus integrating previous partial (univariate) results. We find a latent demand for travel, thus contributing to clarify the behavioral mechanisms behind the induced traffic phenomenon. Categorizing the above relationship by transportation mode shows a desire for a less environmental-friendly mix of modes (i.e. a greater desire to use heavy motorized modes and a lower desire to use two-wheeled modes), whenever the respondents do not feel to travel extensively. This result, combined with previous theoretical investigations concerning the determinants of the desire to alter trips consumption levels, shows the importance of making people aware of how much they travel.

  6. Assessing the exposure risk and impacts of pharmaceuticals in the environment on individuals and ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Kathryn E; Boxall, Alistair B A; Brown, A Ross; Cuthbert, Richard J; Gaw, Sally; Hutchinson, Thomas H; Jobling, Susan; Madden, Judith C; Metcalfe, Chris D; Naidoo, Vinny; Shore, Richard F; Smits, Judit E; Taggart, Mark A; Thompson, Helen M

    2013-08-23

    The use of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals is increasing. Over the past decade, there has been a proliferation of research into potential environmental impacts of pharmaceuticals in the environment. A Royal Society-supported seminar brought together experts from diverse scientific fields to discuss the risks posed by pharmaceuticals to wildlife. Recent analytical advances have revealed that pharmaceuticals are entering habitats via water, sewage, manure and animal carcases, and dispersing through food chains. Pharmaceuticals are designed to alter physiology at low doses and so can be particularly potent contaminants. The near extinction of Asian vultures following exposure to diclofenac is the key example where exposure to a pharmaceutical caused a population-level impact on non-target wildlife. However, more subtle changes to behaviour and physiology are rarely studied and poorly understood. Grand challenges for the future include developing more realistic exposure assessments for wildlife, assessing the impacts of mixtures of pharmaceuticals in combination with other environmental stressors and estimating the risks from pharmaceutical manufacturing and usage in developing countries. We concluded that an integration of diverse approaches is required to predict 'unexpected' risks; specifically, ecologically relevant, often long-term and non-lethal, consequences of pharmaceuticals in the environment for wildlife and ecosystems.

  7. Microcirculation assessment using an individualized model for diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and conventional laser Doppler flowmetry.

    PubMed

    Strömberg, Tomas; Karlsson, Hanna; Fredriksson, Ingemar; Nyström, Fredrik H; Larsson, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    Microvascular assessment would benefit from co-registration of blood flow and hemoglobin oxygenation dynamics during stimulus response tests. We used a fiber-optic probe for simultaneous recording of white light diffuse reflectance (DRS; 475-850 nm) and laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF; 780 nm) spectra at two source-detector distances (0.4 and 1.2 mm). An inverse Monte Carlo algorithm, based on a multiparameter three-layer adaptive skin model, was used for analyzing DRS data. LDF spectra were conventionally processed for perfusion. The system was evaluated on volar forearm recordings of 33 healthy subjects during a 5-min systolic occlusion protocol. The calibration scheme and the optimal adaptive skin model fitted DRS spectra at both distances within 10%. During occlusion, perfusion decreased within 5 s while oxygenation decreased slowly (mean time constant 61 s; dissociation of oxygen from hemoglobin). After occlusion release, perfusion and oxygenation increased within 3 s (inflow of oxygenized blood). The increased perfusion was due to increased blood tissue fraction and speed. The supranormal hemoglobin oxygenation indicates a blood flow in excess of metabolic demands. In conclusion, by integrating DRS and LDF in a fiber-optic probe, a powerful tool for assessment of blood flow and oxygenation in the same microvascular bed has been presented.

  8. Microcirculation assessment using an individualized model for diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and conventional laser Doppler flowmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strömberg, Tomas; Karlsson, Hanna; Fredriksson, Ingemar; Nyström, Fredrik H.; Larsson, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    Microvascular assessment would benefit from co-registration of blood flow and hemoglobin oxygenation dynamics during stimulus response tests. We used a fiber-optic probe for simultaneous recording of white light diffuse reflectance (DRS; 475-850 nm) and laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF; 780 nm) spectra at two source-detector distances (0.4 and 1.2 mm). An inverse Monte Carlo algorithm, based on a multiparameter three-layer adaptive skin model, was used for analyzing DRS data. LDF spectra were conventionally processed for perfusion. The system was evaluated on volar forearm recordings of 33 healthy subjects during a 5-min systolic occlusion protocol. The calibration scheme and the optimal adaptive skin model fitted DRS spectra at both distances within 10%. During occlusion, perfusion decreased within 5 s while oxygenation decreased slowly (mean time constant 61 s dissociation of oxygen from hemoglobin). After occlusion release, perfusion and oxygenation increased within 3 s (inflow of oxygenized blood). The increased perfusion was due to increased blood tissue fraction and speed. The supranormal hemoglobin oxygenation indicates a blood flow in excess of metabolic demands. In conclusion, by integrating DRS and LDF in a fiber-optic probe, a powerful tool for assessment of blood flow and oxygenation in the same microvascular bed has been presented.

  9. STUDYING TRAVEL-RELATED INDIVIDUAL ASSESSMENTS AND DESIRES BY COMBINING HIERARCHICALLY STRUCTURED ORDINAL VARIABLES

    PubMed Central

    Song, Tingting; Wittkowski, Knut M.

    2010-01-01

    Ordinal measures are frequently encountered in travel behavior research. This paper presents a new method for combining them when a hierarchical structure of the data can be presumed. This method is applied to study the subjective assessment of the amount of travel by different transportation modes among a group of French clerical workers, along with the desire to increase or decrease the use of such modes. Some advantages of this approach over traditional data reduction technique such as factor analysis when applied to ordinal data are then illustrated. In this study, combining evidence from several variables sheds light on the observed moderately negative relationship between the personal assessment of the amount of travel and the desire to increase or decrease it, thus integrating previous partial (univariate) results. We find a latent demand for travel, thus contributing to clarify the behavioral mechanisms behind the induced traffic phenomenon. Categorizing the above relationship by transportation mode shows a desire for a less environmental-friendly mix of modes (i.e. a greater desire to use heavy motorized modes and a lower desire to use two-wheeled modes), whenever the respondents do not feel to travel extensively. This result, combined with previous theoretical investigations concerning the determinants of the desire to alter trips consumption levels, shows the importance of making people aware of how much they travel. PMID:20953273

  10. Individual participation in intergroup contests is mediated by numerical assessment strategies in black howler and tufted capuchin monkeys.

    PubMed

    Van Belle, Sarie; Scarry, Clara J

    2015-12-05

    Asymmetries in resource-holding potential between opposing groups frequently determine outcomes of intergroup contests. Since both numerical superiority and high intergroup dominance rank may confer competitive advantages, group members should benefit from assessing the relative strength of rivals prior to engaging in defensive displays. However, differences in individual assessment may emerge when cost-benefit trade-offs differ among group members. We examine the influence of numerical superiority and intergroup dominance relationships on individual participation in intergroup encounters in black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) and tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus nigritus). Black howlers responded with longer vocal displays during encounters with neighbours with an equal number of resident males, while tufted capuchins increased their participation with increasing relative male group size. Within each species, males and females responded similarly to varying numerical odds, suggesting that despite pay-off asymmetries between males and females, both sexes were similarly influenced by numerical asymmetries in deciding to participate in collective group defence. Whereas the outcome of contests among tufted capuchins was determined by relative male group size, reflected in a pronounced intergroup dominance hierarchy, the absence of dominance relationships among black howler groups may have provoked prolonged vocal displays in order to assess rival groups with matching competitive abilities.

  11. Individual participation in intergroup contests is mediated by numerical assessment strategies in black howler and tufted capuchin monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Van Belle, Sarie; Scarry, Clara J.

    2015-01-01

    Asymmetries in resource-holding potential between opposing groups frequently determine outcomes of intergroup contests. Since both numerical superiority and high intergroup dominance rank may confer competitive advantages, group members should benefit from assessing the relative strength of rivals prior to engaging in defensive displays. However, differences in individual assessment may emerge when cost–benefit trade-offs differ among group members. We examine the influence of numerical superiority and intergroup dominance relationships on individual participation in intergroup encounters in black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) and tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus nigritus). Black howlers responded with longer vocal displays during encounters with neighbours with an equal number of resident males, while tufted capuchins increased their participation with increasing relative male group size. Within each species, males and females responded similarly to varying numerical odds, suggesting that despite pay-off asymmetries between males and females, both sexes were similarly influenced by numerical asymmetries in deciding to participate in collective group defence. Whereas the outcome of contests among tufted capuchins was determined by relative male group size, reflected in a pronounced intergroup dominance hierarchy, the absence of dominance relationships among black howler groups may have provoked prolonged vocal displays in order to assess rival groups with matching competitive abilities. PMID:26503680

  12. Individuals in foraging groups may use vocal cues when assessing their need for anti-predator vigilance.

    PubMed

    Radford, Andrew N; Ridley, Amanda R

    2007-06-22

    Many studies of social species have reported variation in the anti-predator vigilance behaviour of foraging individuals depending on the presence and relative position of other group members. However, little attention has focused on how foragers assess these variables. It is commonly assumed that they do so visually, but many social species produce frequent calls while foraging, and these 'close' calls might provide valuable spatial information. Here, we show that foraging pied babblers (Turdoides bicolor) are less vigilant when in larger groups, in the centre of a group and in closer proximity to another group member. We then show that foragers are less vigilant during playbacks of close calling by more individuals and individuals on either side of them when compared with calls of fewer individuals and calls on one side of them. These results suggest that foragers can use vocal cues to gain information on group size and their spatial position within a group. Future studies of anti-predator vigilance should consider the relative importance of both visual and vocal monitoring of group members.

  13. Individual Differences in Response to Sleep Deprivation: Assessment of Fatigue Following Sleep Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carskadon, Mary A.

    1997-01-01

    Previous work has indicated that a small but significant number of participants in sleep deprivation studies or in simulated shift work experiments manifests an exaggerated performance decrement when they reach a critical point in the experiment, usually near the trough of the circadian cycle or the middle of the night. Those who show this exaggerated response do not appear to differ from other non-nal volunteers in any substantial way according to usual screening criteria or baseline values. The present study aims to examine factors that may provide the basis for this extreme response. We propose that a preexisting sleep deficit-as manifested by low values on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT)-may account for extreme responders. It has been shown that among normal volunteers screened for a variety of studies, approximately 20 to 25 percent show low (< 6 minutes) MSLT scores on a consistent basis, whereas a like proportion shows consistently high MSLT scores (> 13 minutes). Additionally, studies by this group have indicated that subjects with low MSLT scores may suffer from chronic insufficient sleep, as further substantiated by the finding that they have consistently higher nocturnal sleep efficiency and that their MSLT scores rise to normal values when sleep is extended. We hypothesize that the short MSLT subjects have a significant long-term sleep deficit that leads to a marked intolerance for sleep deprivation or shift work. We further suggest that this sleep debt may signify an increased sleep need in these individuals that is not met either due to personal preference or to societal pressures (or both). If this speculation is accurate, then we predict that the tolerance for sleep deprivation in such individuals can be increased by "pretreatment" with sleep extension. Thus, the present study is designed to test the following two hypotheses: (1) subjects with nominal sleep patterns who have low MSLT scores (e.g., Sleepy subjects) will show an exaggerated

  14. Individual Differences in Response to Sleep Deprivation: Assessment of Fatigue Following Sleep Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carskadon, Mary A.

    1997-01-01

    Previous work has indicated that a small but significant number of participants in sleep deprivation studies or in simulated shift work experiments manifests an exaggerated performance decrement when they reach a critical point in the experiment, usually near the trough of the circadian cycle or the middle of the night. Those who show this exaggerated response do not appear to differ from other normal volunteers in any substantial way according to usual screening criteria or baseline values. The present study aims to examine factors that may provide the basis for this extreme response. We propose that a preexisting sleep deficit-as manifested by low values on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT)-may account for extreme responders. Roth and colleagues (1993) have shown that among normal volunteers screened for a variety of studies, approximately 20 to 25 percent show low (< or = 6 minutes) MSLT scores on a consistent basis, whereas a like proportion shows consistently high MSLT scores (> or = 13 minutes). Additionally, studies by this group have indicated that subjects with low MSLT scores may suffer from chronic insufficient sleep (Roth et al., 1993), as further substantiated by the finding that they have consistently higher nocturnal sleep efficiency and that their MSLT scores rise to normal values when sleep is extended (Roehrs et al., 1996). We hypothesize that the short MSLT subjects have a significant long-term sleep deficit that leads to a marked intolerance for sleep deprivation or shift work. We further suggest that this sleep debt may signify an increased sleep need in these individuals that is not met either due to personal preference or to societal pressures (or both). If this speculation is accurate, then we predict that the tolerance for sleep deprivation in such individuals can be increased by "pretreatment" with sleep extension. Thus, the present study is designed to test the following two hypotheses: subjects with nominal sleep patterns who have

  15. Individual Differences in Response to Sleep Deprivation: Assessment of Fatigue Following Sleep Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carskadon, Mary A.

    1997-01-01

    Previous work has indicated that a small but significant number of participants in sleep deprivation studies or in simulated shift work experiments manifests an exaggerated performance decrement when they reach a critical point in the experiment, usually near the trough of the circadian cycle or the middle of the night. Those who show this exaggerated response do not appear to differ from other non-nal volunteers in any substantial way according to usual screening criteria or baseline values. The present study aims to examine factors that may provide the basis for this extreme response. We propose that a preexisting sleep deficit-as manifested by low values on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT)-may account for extreme responders. Roth and colleagues (1993) have shown that among normal volunteers screened for a variety of studies, approximately 20 to 25 percent show low (< 6 minutes) MSLT scores on a consistent basis, whereas a like proportion shows consistently high MSLT scores (> 13 minutes). Additionally, studies by this group have indicated that subjects with low MSLT scores may suffer from chronic insufficient sleep (Roth et al., 1993), as further substantiated by the finding that they have consistently higher nocturnal sleep efficiency and that their MSLT scores rise to normal values when sleep is extended (Roehrs et al., 1996). We hypothesize that the short MSLT subjects have a significant long-term sleep deficit that leads to a marked intolerance for sleep deprivation or shift work. We further suggest that this sleep debt may signify an increased sleep need in these individuals that is not met either due to personal preference or to societal pressures (or both). If this speculation is accurate, then we predict that the tolerance for sleep deprivation in such individuals can be increased by "pretreatment" with sleep extension. Thus, the present study is designed to test the following two hypotheses: subjects with nominal sleep patterns who have low MSLT

  16. Assessment of hemodialysis adequacy and its relationship with individual and personal factors

    PubMed Central

    Rezaiee, Ozra; Shahgholian, Nahid; Shahidi, Shahrzad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hemodialysis is the most common renal replacement therapy in the world, and hemodialysis adequacy is an important and influencial factor in the reduction of various complications experienced by these patients. Multiple factors influence hemodialysis adequacy. This study was conducted to determine hemodialysis adequacy and its relationship with individual and personal factors in patients undergoing hemodialysis in three hemodialysis centers of Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in partnership with 202 patients undergoing hemodialysis in three hemodialysis centers of Isfahan. The data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire, and hemodialysis adequacy was measured using the urea reduction ratio (URR). Data analysis was conducted using Spearman's correlation coefficient, Mann–Whitney and Kruskal–Wallis tests, and descriptive statistics (frequency distribution). In this study, the level of significance was considered to be 0.05. Results: Hemodialysis adequacy in 56.4% of patients was optimal, in 29.7% near optimum, and in 13.9% less than optimal. Statistical tests showed a significant correlation between hemodialysis adequacy and age (P = 0.05), prehemodialysis systolic blood pressure (BP) (P = 0.02) and diastolic BP (P = 0.04), the duration of hemodialysis in months (P = 0.02), and patients’ sex (P = 0.01). There was no significant correlation between hemodialysis adequacy and the number of hemodialysis cessations per week (P = 0.20), interdialytic weight gain (P = 0.40), prehemodialysis blood urea nitrogen (P = 0.40), creatinine (P = 0.10), hemoglobin (P = 0.20), hematocrit (P = 0.08), venous access type (P = 0.30), needle distance and direction (P = 0.70), underlying causes of end-stage renal disease (P = 0.50), and personnel's shift (P = 0.90). Conclusions: The results of the study showed that approximately half of the patients did not have an optimal level of hemodialysis

  17. Assessing Individual Risk for High-Risk Colorectal Adenoma at First-Time Screening Colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yin; Rosner, Bernard A.; Ma, Jing; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Chan, Andrew T.; Fuchs, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    Assessing risk of colorectal adenoma at first-time colonoscopy that are of higher likelihood of developing advanced neoplasia during surveillance could help tailor first-line colorectal cancer screening. We developed prediction models for high-risk colorectal adenoma (at least one adenoma ≥1 cm, or with advanced histology, or ≥3 adenomas) among 4,881 asymptomatic white men and 17,970 women who underwent colonoscopy as their first-time screening for colorectal cancer in two prospective U.S. studies using logistic regressions. C-statistics and Hosmer-Lemeshow tests were used to evaluate discrimination and calibration. Ten-fold cross-validation was used for internal validation. A total of 330 (6.7%) men and 678 (3.8%) women were diagnosed with high-risk adenoma at first-time screening colonoscopy. The model for men included age, family history of colorectal cancer, BMI, smoking, sitting watching TV/VCR, regular aspirin/NSAID use, physical activity, and a joint term of multivitamin and alcohol. For women, the model included age, family history of colorectal cancer, BMI, smoking, alcohol, beef/pork/lamb as main dish, regular aspirin/NSAID, calcium, and oral contraceptive use. The C-statistic of the model for men was 0.67 and 0.60 for women (0.64 and 0.57 in cross-validation). Both models calibrated well. The predicted risk of high-risk adenoma for men in the top decile was 15.4% vs 1.8% for men in the bottom decile (Odds Ratio[OR]=9.41), and 6.6% vs 2.1% for women (OR=3.48). In summary, we developed and internally validated an absolute risk assessment tool for high-risk colorectal adenoma among the U.S. population that may provide guidance for first-time colorectal cancer screening. PMID:25820865

  18. Assessing individual risk for high-risk colorectal adenoma at first-time screening colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yin; Rosner, Bernard A; Ma, Jing; Tamimi, Rulla M; Chan, Andrew T; Fuchs, Charles S; Wu, Kana; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2015-10-01

    Assessing risk of colorectal adenoma at first-time colonoscopy that are of higher likelihood of developing advanced neoplasia during surveillance could help tailor first-line colorectal cancer screening. We developed prediction models for high-risk colorectal adenoma (at least one adenoma ≥1 cm, or with advanced histology, or ≥3 adenomas) among 4,881 asymptomatic white men and 17,970 women who underwent colonoscopy as their first-time screening for colorectal cancer in two prospective US studies using logistic regressions. C-statistics and Hosmer-Lemeshow tests were used to evaluate discrimination and calibration. Ten-fold cross-validation was used for internal validation. A total of 330 (6.7%) men and 678 (3.8%) women were diagnosed with high-risk adenoma at first-time screening colonoscopy. The model for men included age, family history of colorectal cancer, BMI, smoking, sitting watching TV/VCR, regular aspirin/NSAID use, physical activity, and a joint term of multivitamin and alcohol. For women, the model included age, family history of colorectal cancer, BMI, smoking, alcohol, beef/pork/lamb as main dish, regular aspirin/NSAID, calcium, and oral contraceptive use. The C-statistic of the model for men was 0.67 and 0.60 for women (0.64 and 0.57 in cross-validation). Both models calibrated well. The predicted risk of high-risk adenoma for men in the top decile was 15.4% vs. 1.8% for men in the bottom decile (Odds Ratio [OR] = 9.41), and 6.6% vs. 2.1% for women (OR = 3.48). In summary, we developed and internally validated an absolute risk assessment tool for high-risk colorectal adenoma among the US population that may provide guidance for first-time colorectal cancer screening.

  19. Assessing quality of life in individuals with hereditary blood coagulation disorders.

    PubMed

    Solovieva, S; Santavirta, N; Santavirta, S; Konttinen, Y T

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the SF-36 questionnaire among the patients with hereditary blood coagulation disorders, to compare their quality of life (QoL) to that of healthy controls, and to identify the dimensions of life the patients consider most important. Results showed that the SF-36 questionnaire had good internal consistency reliability and construct and known group validity in individuals with hereditary blood coagulation disorders. Leisure activities/hobbies, availability of work/ study, followed by relationships with other people, own health and relationships with family/relatives appeared most frequently across the patients' and controls' priority ranks. The areas affected most by the disease were financial security, own health and relationships with family/relatives. A comparison of standardized scale scores suggests that blood coagulation disorders are diseases with a predominantly physical impact. Patients with blood coagulation disorders had health-related quality of life that was lower in most domains compared to healthy controls. However, when a wider concept of QoL was applied no differences between the patients' and controls' perceived QoL could be noted.

  20. Assessment of SOMNOwatch plus EEG for sleep monitoring in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Voinescu, Bogdan Ioan; Wislowska, Malgorzata; Schabus, Manuel

    2014-06-10

    Polysomnography (PSG) is still the standard in sleep monitoring, with several alternative solutions developed, including simplified electroencephalographic recorders such as SOMNOwatch plus EEG. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the validity of the recordings and of the analysis of the proprietary software of this solution, compared to PSG and semiautomatic scoring, respectively. From thirteen healthy adults, we recorded 27 nights simultaneously with a classical EEG amplifier (NeuroScan system) and the ambulatory SOMNOwatch plus EEG. Thereafter, we performed (semi-) automatic sleep analysis in Somnolyzer 24x7 and DOMINO Light (SOMNOwatch software). AASM scoring sensitivity of SOMNOwatch plus EEG, as revealed by Somnolyzer 24x7, was 97.79%, and specificity 87.19%. Paired T tests revealed no significant differences between the recordings of the two EEG systems, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from moderate to very good. When data were analyzed in DOMINO Light, sensitivity was 92.99% and specificity was 80.90%. Our data suggest that SOMNOwatch plus EEG might serve as a reliable instrument for recording sleep in healthy individuals, but its proprietary software, DOMINO Light, still seems to have weaknesses in terms of automatic sleep staging.

  1. Individual Muscle use in Hamstring Exercises by Soccer Players Assessed using Functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Gonzalo, R; Tesch, P A; Linnehan, R M; Kreider, R B; Di Salvo, V; Suarez-Arrones, L; Alomar, X; Mendez-Villanueva, A; Rodas, G

    2016-06-01

    This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare individual muscle use in exercises aimed at preventing hamstring injuries. Thirty-six professional soccer players were randomized into 4 groups, each performing either Nordic hamstring, flywheel leg curl, Russian belt or conic-pulley exercise. MRIs were performed before and immediately after a bout of 4 sets of 8 repetitions. Pre-post exercise differences in contrast shift (T2) were analyzed for the long (BFLh) and short head (BFSh) of biceps femoris, semitendinosus (ST), semimembranosus (SM) and gracilis (GR) muscles. Flywheel leg curl increased (P<0.001) T2 of GR (95%), ST (65%), BFSh (51%) and BFLh (14%). After the Nordic hamstring, GR (39%), ST (16%) and BFSh (14%) showed increased T2 (P<0.001). Russian belt and conic-pulley exercise produced subtle (P<0.02) T2 increases of ST (9 and 6%, respectively) and BFLh (7 and 6%, respectively). Russian belt increased T2 of SM (7%). Among exercises examined, flywheel leg curl showed the most substantial hamstring and GR muscle use. However, no single exercise executed was able to increase T2 of all hamstring and synergist muscles analyzed. It is therefore suggested that multiple exercises must be carried out to bring in, and fully activate all knee flexors and hip extensors.

  2. Electrochemical versus spectrophotometric assessment of antioxidant activity of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) products and individual compounds.

    PubMed

    Gorjanović, Stanislava; Pastor, Ferenc T; Vasić, Radica; Novaković, Miroslav; Simonović, Mladen; Milić, Sonja; Sužnjević, Desanka

    2013-09-25

    Antioxidant (AO) activity of extracts of hop cones (Serbian domestic varieties) and commercial hop products (Saaz, Spalter, Spalter select, and Magnum pellets) was determined by parallel application of recently developed direct current (DC) polarographic and widely used DPPH assay. Correlations between 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging and total phenolics (TPC) determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay (FC) (0.99), and between H2O2 scavenging (HPS) and humulone content (H) determined by conductometric method (0.94), total resins (TR) (0.85), and hop storage index (HIS) (-0.90), were found statistically significant at p < 0.05 level while complete lack of HPS correlation with TPC and DPPH was observed. To obtain an insight into differences between results of AO assays applied, activity of individual compounds, prevalent hop phenolics, and bitter acids was determined. By far superior HPS activity of humulone was followed by catechin, quercetin, xanthohumol, lupulone, and rutin. In contrast, DPPH scavenging activity of phenolics (quercetin > catechin > rutin > xantohumol) was found substantially higher than activity of bitter acids. According to ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and scavenging of 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), higher AO activity was ascribed to phenolics, while almost neglecting humulone. Besides reliability, low cost, and an easy-to-handle procedure, an ability to recognize humulone as the major contributor of hop AO activity could allow DC polarographic assay to be applied in analysis of various hop-derived products.

  3. Development and validation of an instrument to assess treatment adherence for each individual drug taken by a patient

    PubMed Central

    Sidorkiewicz, Stéphanie; Tran, Viet-Thi; Cousyn, Cécile; Perrodeau, Elodie; Ravaud, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate an instrument to assess adherence to each individual drug taken by patients undergoing long-term treatment. Design Multicentre prospective observational validation study. Setting Six general practitioners' clinics and 6 university hospitals in Paris, France. Participants Patients 18 years and older receiving at least one long-term treatment. Methods The instrument was developed from a literature search and interviews with experts. Clarity and wording were assessed during pilot testing with 51 patients. The tool was validated in a sample of consecutive patients. We assessed agreement between adherence measured with our tool and drug diaries and compared measurements from our instrument with (1) the Lu instrument; (2) the Adherence Estimator (AE); (3) patient's adherence assessed by physicians; (4) the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-4 items (MMAS-4); and (5) the Treatment Burden Questionnaire (TBQ). Reliability was assessed by a test–retest method. Results A total of 243 patients taking 961 drugs were recruited in 2014. We found good agreement between adherence measured by our tool and drug diaries (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.69, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.91) and a linear relationship between measurement with our tool and (1) the Lu instrument (p<0.01); (2) 2 items of the AE (perceived need for medication (p<0.01) and concerns about medication (p<0.01)); (3) patients' adherence assessed by their physicians (p<0.01); (4) the MMAS-4 (p<0.01) and (5) the TBQ (p<0.01). Reliability of the retest was good (ICC 0.67, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.85). Conclusions We developed an instrument with acceptable validity and reliability to assess adherence for each drug taken by patients, usable in hospital and primary care settings. PMID:27165645

  4. Inflammageing assessed by MMP9 in normal Japanese individuals and the patients with Werner syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Makoto; Chiba, Junji; Matsuura, Masaaki; Iwaki-Egawa, Sachiko; Watanabe, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Summary Age-associated minor inflammation: inflammageing may explain human ageing mechanism(s). Our previous study reported a significant increase in the serum level of highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) with normal ageing and the patients with Werner syndrome (WS). To further study the minor inflammatory condition associated with ageing, another possible ageing biomarker: matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) was examined in the sera from 217 normal Japanese individuals aged between 1 and 100 years and 41 mutation-proven Japanese WS aged between 32 and 70 years. MMP9 was assayed by ELISA. The serum level of MMP9 was elevated significantly (p < 0.001) with normal ageing from both sexes as hsCRP. In contrast to normal ageing, the serum MMP9 level in WS decreased significantly with calendar age (p < 0.05). The MMP9 level (ng/mL) in WS (147.2 ± 28.5) was not significantly different in comparison with those from age-matched normal adult population aged between 25 and 70 years (109.1 ± 9.4), nor normal elderly population aged between 71 and 100 years (179.9 ± 16.1). Although both normal ageing and WS were associated with minor inflammation, the inflammatory parameters such as serum MMP9 and hsCRP changed differently between normal ageing and WS. The WS-specific chronic inflammation including skin ulcer and diabetes mellitus may contribute the different behavior of both ageing biomarkers from normal ageing. PMID:27195193

  5. LiDAR Individual Tree Detection for Assessing Structurally Diverse Forest Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeronimo, Sean

    Contemporary forest management on public land incorporates a focus on restoration and maintenance of ecological functions through silvicultural manipulation of forest structure on a landscape scale. Incorporating reference conditions into restoration treatment planning and monitoring can improve treatment efficacy, but the typical ground-based methods of quantifying reference condition data---and comparing it to pre- and post-treatment stands---are expensive, time-consuming, and limited in scale. Airborne LiDAR may be part of the solution to this problem, since LiDAR acquisitions have both broad coverage and high resolution. I evaluated the ability of LiDAR Individual Tree Detection (ITD) to describe forest structure across a structurally variable landscape in support of large-scale forest restoration. I installed nineteen 0.25 ha stem map plots across a range of structural conditions in potential reference areas (Yosemite National Park) and potential restoration treatment areas (Sierra National Forest) in the Sierra Nevada of California. I used the plots to evaluate a common ITD algorithm, the watershed transform, compare it to past uses of ITD, and determine which aspects of forest structure contributed to errors in ITD. I found that ITD across this structurally diverse landscape was generally less accurate than across the smaller and less diverse areas over which it has previously been studied. However, the pattern of tree recognition is consistent: regardless of forest structure, canopy dominants are almost always detected and relatively shorter trees are almost never detected. Correspondingly, metrics dominated by large trees, such as biomass, basal area, and spatial heterogeneity, can be measured using ITD, while metrics dominated by smaller trees, such as stand density, cannot. Bearing these limitations in mind, ITD can be a powerful tool for describing forest structure across heterogeneous landscape restoration project areas.

  6. Hairpin-bisulfite PCR: Assessing epigenetic methylation patterns on complementary strands of individual DNA molecules

    PubMed Central

    Laird, Charles D.; Pleasant, Nicole D.; Clark, Aaron D.; Sneeden, Jessica L.; Hassan, K. M. Anwarul; Manley, Nathan C.; Vary, Jay C.; Morgan, Todd; Hansen, R. Scott; Stöger, Reinhard

    2004-01-01

    Epigenetic inheritance, the transmission of gene expression states from parent to daughter cells, often involves methylation of DNA. In eukaryotes, cytosine methylation is a frequent component of epigenetic mechanisms. Failure to transmit faithfully a methylated or an unmethylated state of cytosine can lead to altered phenotypes in plants and animals. A central unresolved question in epigenetics concerns the mechanisms by which a locus maintains, or changes, its state of cytosine methylation. We developed “hairpin-bisulfite PCR” to analyze these mechanisms. This method reveals the extent of methylation symmetry between the complementary strands of individual DNA molecules. Using hairpin-bisulfite PCR, we determined the fidelity of methylation transmission in the CpG island of the FMR1 gene in human lymphocytes. For the hypermethylated CpG island of this gene, characteristic of inactive-X alleles, we estimate a maintenance methylation efficiency of ≈0.96 per site per cell division. For de novo methylation efficiency (Ed), remarkably different estimates were obtained for the hypermethylated CpG island (Ed = 0.17), compared with the hypomethylated island on the active-X chromosome (Ed < 0.01). These results clarify the mechanisms by which the alternative hypomethylated and hypermethylated states of CpG islands are stably maintained through many cell divisions. We also analyzed a region of human L1 transposable elements. These L1 data provide accurate methylation patterns for the complementary strand of each repeat sequence analyzed. Hairpin-bisulfite PCR will be a powerful tool in studying other processes for which genetic or epigenetic information differs on the two complementary strands of DNA. PMID:14673087

  7. Assessing pathogenicity for novel mutation/sequence variants: the value of healthy older individuals.

    PubMed

    Zatz, Mayana; Pavanello, Rita de Cassia M; Lourenço, Naila Cristina V; Cerqueira, Antonia; Lazar, Monize; Vainzof, Mariz

    2012-12-01

    Improvement in DNA technology is increasingly revealing unexpected/unknown mutations in healthy persons and generating anxiety due to their still unknown health consequences. We report a 44-year-old healthy father of a 10-year-old daughter with bilateral coloboma and hearing loss, but without muscle weakness, in whom a whole-genome CGH revealed a deletion of exons 38-44 in the dystrophin gene. This mutation was inherited from her asymptomatic father, who was further clinically and molecularly evaluated for prognosis and genetic counseling (GC). This deletion was never identified by us in 982 Duchenne/Becker patients. To assess whether the present case represents a rare case of non-penetrance, and aiming to obtain more information for prognosis and GC, we suggested that healthy older relatives submit their DNA for analysis, to which several complied. Mutation analysis revealed that his mother, brother, and 56-year-old maternal uncle also carry the 38-44 deletion, suggesting it an unlikely cause of muscle weakness. Genome sequencing will disclose mutations and variants whose health impact are still unknown, raising important problems in interpreting results, defining prognosis, and discussing GC. We suggest that, in addition to family history, keeping the DNA of older relatives could be very informative, in particular for those interested in having their genome sequenced.

  8. Early Memories of Individuals on the Autism Spectrum Assessed Using Online Self-Reports

    PubMed Central

    Zamoscik, Vera; Mier, Daniela; Schmidt, Stephanie N. L.; Kirsch, Peter

    2016-01-01

    “When I was one and a half years old, I was on a ferry lying on red seats” – while several autobiographical accounts by people with autism reveal vivid memories of early childhood, the vast amount of experimental investigations found deficits in personal autobiographic memory in autism. To assess this contradiction empirically, we implemented an online questionnaire on early childhood events to compare people on the autism spectrum (AS) and non-autistic people with respect to their earliest autobiographical episodic memories and the earliest semantic know event as told by another person. Results indicate that people on the AS do not differ from non-autistic people in the age of their earliest know events but remember events from an earlier age in childhood and with more sensory details, contradicting the assumption of an overall deficit in personal episodic memory in autism. Furthermore, our results emphasize the supporting influence of language for memory formation and give evidence for an important role of sensory features in memories of people on the AS. PMID:27199786

  9. Content validation of a clinical assessment instrument for stair ascent and descent in individuals with hemiparesis

    PubMed Central

    Natalio, Mavie A.; Faria, Christina D. C. M.; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F.; Michaelsen, Stella M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Among the current instruments used to assess stair ambulation, none were observed that specifically evaluated the quality of movement or biomechanical strategies adopted by stroke patients. Objective: To evaluate the content validity of a clinical instrument designed to identify the qualitative and kinematic characteristics and strategies adopted by stroke patients during stair ascent and descent. Method: The first developed version, which comprised 80 items, had its content evaluated by an expert panel, which was composed of 9 well-known national and international professionals who are involved in stroke rehabilitation. The content validity index (CVI) and modified Kappa coefficients were employed for the statistical analyses. The items that demonstrated a CVI≥0.80 and Kappa≥0.75 were considered valid. Results: The content validation was performed in three stages. The final version of the instrument consisted of 38 items, which were divided into descriptive (8 items), a General Characteristics Domain (16 items) and adopted strategies (14 items) during stair ascent and descent. The total scores ranged from zero to 70 and zero to 74 for ascent and descent, respectively. Lower scores corresponded with better performance. Conclusion: Despite the satisfactory results obtained during the process of content validation, other psychometric properties of the instrument are necessary and must be evaluated. PMID:25054384

  10. The ABC’s of Suicide Risk Assessment: Applying a Tripartite Approach to Individual Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Keith M.; Syu, Jia-Jia; Lello, Owen D.; Chew, Y. L. Eileen; Willcox, Christopher H.; Ho, Roger H. M.

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable need for accurate suicide risk assessment for clinical, screening, and research purposes. This study applied the tripartite affect-behavior-cognition theory, the suicidal barometer model, classical test theory, and item response theory (IRT), to develop a brief self-report measure of suicide risk that is theoretically-grounded, reliable and valid. An initial survey (n = 359) employed an iterative process to an item pool, resulting in the six-item Suicidal Affect-Behavior-Cognition Scale (SABCS). Three additional studies tested the SABCS and a highly endorsed comparison measure. Studies included two online surveys (Ns = 1007, and 713), and one prospective clinical survey (n = 72; Time 2, n = 54). Factor analyses demonstrated SABCS construct validity through unidimensionality. Internal reliability was high (α = .86-.93, split-half = .90-.94)). The scale was predictive of future suicidal behaviors and suicidality (r = .68, .73, respectively), showed convergent validity, and the SABCS-4 demonstrated clinically relevant sensitivity to change. IRT analyses revealed the SABCS captured more information than the comparison measure, and better defined participants at low, moderate, and high risk. The SABCS is the first suicide risk measure to demonstrate no differential item functioning by sex, age, or ethnicity. In all comparisons, the SABCS showed incremental improvements over a highly endorsed scale through stronger predictive ability, reliability, and other properties. The SABCS is in the public domain, with this publication, and is suitable for clinical evaluations, public screening, and research. PMID:26030590

  11. The Two-Stage Examination: A Method to Assess Individual Competence and Collaborative Problem Solving in Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Morton, David A.; Pippitt, Karly; Lamb, Sara; Colbert-Getz, Jorie M.

    2016-01-01

    Problem Effectively solving problems as a team under stressful conditions is central to medical practice; however, because summative examinations in medical education must test individual competence, they are typically solitary assessments. Approach Using two-stage examinations, in which students first answer questions individually (Stage 1) and then discuss them in teams prior to resubmitting their answers (Stage 2), is one method for rectifying this discordance. On the basis of principles of social constructivism, the authors hypothesized that two-stage examinations would lead to better retention of, specifically, items answered incorrectly at Stage 1. In fall 2014, they divided 104 first-year medical students into two groups of 52 students. Groups alternated each week between taking one- and two-stage examinations such that each student completed 6 one-stage and 6 two-stage examinations. The authors reassessed 61 concepts on a final examination and, using the Wilcoxon signed ranked tests, compared performance for all concepts and for just those students initially missed, between Stages 1 and 2. Outcomes Final examination performance on all previously assessed concepts was not significantly different between the one-and two-stage conditions (P = .77); however, performance on only concepts that students initially answered incorrectly on a prior examination improved by 12% for the two-stage condition relative to the one-stage condition (P = .02, r = 0.17). Next Steps Team assessment may be most useful for assessing concepts students find difficult, as opposed to all content. More research is needed to determine whether these results apply to all medical school topics and student cohorts. PMID:27049544

  12. Aquatic toxicity and ecological risk assessment of seven parabens: Individual and additive approach.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Tamura, Ikumi; Hirata, Yoshiko; Kato, Jun; Kagota, Keiichiro; Katsuki, Shota; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Kagami, Yoshihiro; Tatarazako, Norihisa

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, aquatic concentrations of seven parabens were determined in urban streams highly affected by treated or untreated domestic sewage in Tokushima and Osaka, Japan. The detected highest concentrations were 670, 207, and 163ngl(-1) for methylparaben, n-propylparaben, and n-butylparaben, respectively in sampling sites with watershed area of no sewer system in Tokushima. Conventional acute/chronic toxicity tests were conducted using medaka (Oryzias latipes), Daphnia magna, and Psuedokirchneriella subcapitata for four parabens, which was consistent with our previous study on three parabens, n-butylparaben, i-butylparaben, and benzylparaben. The aquatic toxicity on fish, daphnia, and algae was weaker for the parabens with a shorter alkyl chain than those with a longer alkyl chain as predicted by their hydrophobicity. Medaka vitellogenin assays and DNA microarray analysis were carried out for methylparaben and found induction of significant vitellogenin in male medaka at 630μgl(-1) of methylparaben, while the expression levels of genes encoding proteins such as choriogenin and vitellogenin increased for concentrations at 10μgl(-1) of methylparaben. Measured environmental concentrations (MECs) of seven parabens in Tokushima and Osaka were divided by predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) and hazard quotient (MEC/PNEC) was determined for individual parabens. The MEC/PNEC was highest for n-propylparaben and was 0.010 followed by n-butylparaben (max. of 0.0086) and methylparaben (max. of 0.0042). The sum of the MEC/PNEC for the seven parabens was 0.0049. Equivalence factors were assigned for each paraben on the basis of the toxicity of n-butylparaben for each species, and n-butylparaben equivalence was calculated for the measured environmental concentrations. The MEC/PNEC approach was also conducted for the n-butylparaben-based equivalence values. The maximum MEC/PNEC was 0.018, which is lower than the trigger level for further detailed study such as

  13. Social emotional information processing in adults: Development and psychometrics of a computerized video assessment in healthy controls and aggressive individuals.

    PubMed

    Coccaro, Emil F; Fanning, Jennifer R; Fisher, Eliana; Couture, Laurel; Lee, Royce J

    2017-02-01

    A computerized version of an assessment of Social-Emotional Information Processing (SEIP) using audio-video film stimuli instead of written narrative vignettes was developed for use in adult participants. This task allows for an assessment of encoding or relevant/irrelevant social-emotional information, attribution bias, and endorsement of appropriate, physically aggressive, and relationally aggressive responses to aversive social-emotional stimuli. The psychometric properties of this Video-SEIP (V-SEIP) assessment were examined in 75 healthy controls (HC) and in 75 individuals with DSM-5 Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) and were also compared with the original questionnaire (SEIP-Q) version of the task (HC=26; IED=26). Internal consistency, inter-rater reliability, and test-retest properties of the V-SEIP were good to excellent. In addition, IED participants displayed reduced encoding of relevant information from the film clips, elevated hostile attribution bias, elevated negative emotional response, and elevated endorsement of physically aggressive and relationally aggressive responses to the ambiguous social-emotional stimuli presented in the V-SEIP. These data indicate that the V-SEIP represents a valid and comprehensive alternative to the paper-and-pencil assessment of social-emotional information processing biases in adults.

  14. Assessing transmissibility of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations from treated and from drug-naive individuals

    PubMed Central

    Winand, Raf; Theys, Kristof; Eusébio, Mónica; Aerts, Jan; Camacho, Ricardo J.; Gomes, Perpetua; Suchard, Marc A.; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Abecasis, Ana B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRMs) in drug-naive patients are typically used to survey HIV-1-transmitted drug resistance (TDR). We test here how SDRMs in patients failing treatment, the original source of TDR, contribute to assessing TDR, transmissibility and transmission source of SDRMs. Design: This is a retrospective observational study analyzing a Portuguese cohort of HIV-1-infected patients. Methods: The prevalence of SDRMs to protease inhibitors, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) in drug-naive and treatment-failing patients was measured for 3554 HIV-1 subtype B patients. Transmission ratio (prevalence in drug-naive/prevalence in treatment-failing patients), average viral load and robust linear regression with outlier detection (prevalence in drug-naive versus in treatment-failing patients) were analyzed and used to interpret transmissibility. Results: Prevalence of SDRMs in drug-naive and treatment-failing patients were linearly correlated, but some SDRMs were classified as outliers – above (PRO: D30N, N88D/S, L90 M, RT: G190A/S/E) or below (RT: M184I/V) expectations. The normalized regression slope was 0.073 for protease inhibitors, 0.084 for NRTIs and 0.116 for NNRTIs. Differences between SDRMs transmission ratios were not associated with differences in viral loads. Conclusion: The significant linear correlation between prevalence of SDRMs in drug-naive and in treatment-failing patients indicates that the prevalence in treatment-failing patients can be useful to predict levels of TDR. The slope is a cohort-dependent estimate of rate of TDR per drug class and outlier detection reveals comparative persistence of SDRMs. Outlier SDRMs with higher transmissibility are more persistent and more likely to have been acquired from drug-naive patients. Those with lower transmissibility have faster reversion dynamics after transmission and are associated with

  15. The utility of harvest recoveries of marked individuals to assess polar bear (Ursus maritimus) survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peacock, Elizabeth; Laake, Jeff; Laidre, Kristin L.; Born, Erik W.; Atkinson, Stephen N.

    2012-01-01

    Management of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) populations requires the periodic assessment of life history metrics such as survival rate. This information is frequently obtained during short-term capture and marking efforts (e.g., over the course of three years) that result in hundreds of marked bears remaining in the population after active marking is finished. Using 10 additional years of harvest recovery subsequent to a period of active marking, we provide updated estimates of annual survival for polar bears in the Baffin Bay population of Greenland and Canada. Our analysis suggests a decline in survival of polar bears since the period of active marking that ended in 1997; some of the decline in survival can likely be attributed to a decline in springtime ice concentration over the continental shelf of Baffin Island. The variance around the survival estimates is comparatively high because of the declining number of marks available; therefore, results must be interpreted with caution. The variance of the estimates of survival increased most substantially in the sixth year post-marking. When survival estimates calculated with recovery-only and recapture-recovery data sets from the period of active marking were compared, survival rates were indistinguishable. However, for the period when fewer marks were available, survival estimates were lower using the recovery-only data set, which indicates that part of the decline we detected for 2003 – 09 may be due to using only harvest recovery data. Nevertheless, the decline in the estimates of survival is consistent with population projections derived from harvest numbers and earlier vital rates, as well as with an observed decline in the extent of sea ice habitat.

  16. Development of a risk assessment tool for projecting individualized probabilities of developing breast cancer for Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Gao, Ying; Battsend, Munkhzul; Chen, Kexin; Lu, Wenli; Wang, Yaogang

    2014-11-01

    The optimal approach regarding breast cancer screening for Chinese women is unclear due to the relative low incidence rate. A risk assessment tool may be useful for selection of high-risk subsets of population for mammography screening in low-incidence and resource-limited developing country. The odd ratios for six main risk factors of breast cancer were pooled by review manager after a systematic research of literature. Health risk appraisal (HRA) model was developed to predict an individual's risk of developing breast cancer in the next 5 years from current age. The performance of this HRA model was assessed based on a first-round screening database. Estimated risk of breast cancer increased with age. Increases in the 5-year risk of developing breast cancer were found with the existence of any of included risk factors. When individuals who had risk above median risk (3.3‰) were selected from the validation database, the sensitivity is 60.0% and the specificity is 47.8%. The unweighted area under the curve (AUC) was 0.64 (95% CI = 0.50-0.78). The risk-prediction model reported in this article is based on a combination of risk factors and shows good overall predictive power, but it is still weak at predicting which particular women will develop the disease. It would be very helpful for the improvement of a current model if more population-based prospective follow-up studies were used for the validation.

  17. Randomized two-way cross-over bioequivalence study of two amoxicillin formulations and inter-ethnicity pharmacokinetic variation in healthy Malay volunteers.

    PubMed

    Liew, Kai Bin; Loh, Gabriel Onn Kit; Tan, Yvonne Tze Fung; Peh, Kok Khiang

    2014-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a new deproteinization method to extract amoxicillin from human plasma and evaluate the inter-ethnic variation of amoxicillin pharmacokinetics in healthy Malay volunteers. A single-dose, randomized, fasting, two-period, two-treatment, two-sequence crossover, open-label bioequivalence study was conducted in 18 healthy Malay adult male volunteers, with one week washout period. The drug concentration in the sample was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (UV-vis HPLC). The mean (standard deviation) pharmacokinetic parameter results of Moxilen® were: peak concentration (Cmax ), 6.72 (1.56) µg/mL; area under the concentration-time graph (AUC0-8 ), 17.79 (4.29) µg/mL h; AUC0-∞ , 18.84 (4.62) µg/mL h. Those of YSP Amoxicillin® capsule were: Cmax , 6.69 (1.44) µg/mL; AUC0-8 , 18.69 (3.78) µg/mL h; AUC00-∞ , 19.95 (3.81) µg/mL h. The 90% confidence intervals for the logarithmic transformed Cmax , AUC0-8 and AUC0-∞ of Moxilen® vs YSP Amoxicillin® capsule was between 0.80 and 1.25. Both Cmax and AUC met the predetermined criteria for assuming bioequivalence. Both formulations were well tolerated. The results showed significant inter-ethnicity variation in pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin. The Cmax and AUC of amoxicillin in Malay population were slightly lower compared with other populations.

  18. GPS-based Microenvironment Tracker (MicroTrac) Model to Estimate Time-Location of Individuals for Air Pollution Exposure Assessments: Model Evaluation in Central North Carolina

    EPA Science Inventory

    A critical aspect of air pollution exposure assessment is the estimation of the time spent by individuals in various microenvironments (ME). Accounting for the time spent in different ME with different pollutant concentrations can reduce exposure misclassifications, while failure...

  19. Effects of the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) at Age 8 Years: Preliminary Data

    PubMed Central

    McAnulty, Gloria B.; Duffy, Frank H.; Butler, Samantha C.; Bernstein, Jane H.; Zurakowski, David; Als, Heidelise

    2014-01-01

    The current study reports the effects of NIDCAP (Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program) at 8 years of age for a randomized controlled trial of 38 very early born (≤29 weeks postmenstrual age), high-risk preterm infants. It was hypothesized that the experimental group at school age in comparison with the control group would perform significantly better neuropsychologically and neuroelectrophysiologically. Twenty-two (11 control, 11 experimental) children of the original 38 (18 control, 20 experimental) participants were studied at school age with a detailed neuropsychological battery and with EEG spectral coherence measures. Results indicated significantly better right hemisphere and frontal lobe function in the experimental group than the control group, both neuropsychologically and neurophysiologically. Neurobehavioral and physiological results in the newborn period successfully predicted the beneficial brain function effects at age 8 years. Results support the conclusion that the NIDCAP intervention has lasting effects into school age. PMID:19448128

  20. Assessing Individuals' Global Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Kelly Carter; Braskamp, David C.; Braskamp, Larry A.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the Global Perspective Inventory (GPI), a survey instrument that measures participants' global perspective in terms of cognitive, intrapersonal, and interpersonal domains--each in terms of both development and acquisition. A summary of the recent research on the GPI is provided along with a discussion of potential uses.

  1. Assessing the Value of Television as Environmental Enrichment for Individually Housed Rhesus Monkeys: A Behavioral Economic Approach.

    PubMed

    Harris, Linda D.; Briand, Edward J.; Orth, Rushawn; Galbicka, Gregory

    1999-03-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate television as a source of environmental enrichment for individually housed rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) by using the concepts of behavioral economics. Phase I entailed the use of operant conditioning to assess the behavior of eight rhesus monkeys given the opportunity to control their environment through lever activation of a television (TV). Success in shaping was variable, and only two animals successfully acquired lever pressing. Phase II used an alternating reinforcement/ extinction procedure as a control method to determine the degree to which lever pressing depended on TV presentation. Both animals responded with more lever pressing on the days when lever pressing produced TV. The first animal, tested with the alternating reinforcement/extinction procedure for 12 weeks yielded a mean significant difference of 3.85 (p = 0.036); the second assessed for 9 weeks was associated with a mean significant difference of 6.0 (p = 0.018). Therefore, TV (and not lever pressing itself) was positively reinforcing. The final phase of the study progressively increased the fixed ratio (FR) from 1 to 8. Linear regression of the data points, plotted as the log of price (or FR) vs the consumption of TV, revealed a significantly negative slope (-2.179, p, 0.05) and accounted for 89% of the variance. The negative demand curve suggested that TV is not a valued commodity and is highly elastic. TV provided to individually housed rhesus monkeys appears to be a weakly positive reinforcer for some animals, which may contribute to overall environmental enrichment.

  2. Using regression equations built from summary data in the psychological assessment of the individual case: extension to multiple regression.

    PubMed

    Crawford, John R; Garthwaite, Paul H; Denham, Annie K; Chelune, Gordon J

    2012-12-01

    Regression equations have many useful roles in psychological assessment. Moreover, there is a large reservoir of published data that could be used to build regression equations; these equations could then be employed to test a wide variety of hypotheses concerning the functioning of individual cases. This resource is currently underused because (a) not all psychologists are aware that regression equations can be built not only from raw data but also using only basic summary data for a sample, and (b) the computations involved are tedious and prone to error. In an attempt to overcome these barriers, Crawford and Garthwaite (2007) provided methods to build and apply simple linear regression models using summary statistics as data. In the present study, we extend this work to set out the steps required to build multiple regression models from sample summary statistics and the further steps required to compute the associated statistics for drawing inferences concerning an individual case. We also develop, describe, and make available a computer program that implements these methods. Although there are caveats associated with the use of the methods, these need to be balanced against pragmatic considerations and against the alternative of either entirely ignoring a pertinent data set or using it informally to provide a clinical "guesstimate." Upgraded versions of earlier programs for regression in the single case are also provided; these add the point and interval estimates of effect size developed in the present article.

  3. Assessing cognitive insight in nonpsychiatric individuals and outpatients with schizophrenia in Taiwan: an investigation using the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) was designed for the assessment of the cognitive processes involved in self-reflection and the ability to modify erroneous beliefs and misinterpretations. Studies investigating the factor structure of the BCIS have indicated a two-factor model in the psychotic population. The factor structure of the BCIS, however, has not received much consideration in the nonpsychiatric population. The present study examined the factor structure and validity of the BCIS and compared its scores between nonpsychiatric individuals and outpatients with psychosis. Method The Taiwanese version of the BCIS was administered to 507 nonpsychiatric individuals and 118 outpatients with schizophrenia. The psychometric properties of the BCIS were examined through the following analyses: exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, reliability, correlation analyses, and discriminative validity. Results The BCIS showed adequate internal consistency and stability over time. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on the 15-item measure indicated a two-factor solution that supported the two dimensions of the Taiwanese BCIS, which was also observed with the original BCIS. Following the construct validation, we obtained a composite index (self-reflectiveness minus self-certainty) of the Taiwanese BCIS that reflected cognitive insight. Consistent with previous studies, our results indicated that psychosis is associated with low self-reflectiveness and high self-certainty, which possibly reflect lower cognitive insight. Our results also showed that better cognitive insight is related to worse depression in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, but not in nonpsychiatric individuals. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses revealed that the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.731. A composite index of 3 was a good limit, with a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 51%. Conclusion The BCIS proved to be useful for measuring

  4. Skin-Picking in Individuals with Prader-Willi Syndrome: Prevalence, Functional Assessment, and Its Comorbidity with Compulsive and Self-Injurious Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert; Curfs, Leopold M. G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are at increased risk for mental health and behaviour problems, such as skin-picking and compulsive behaviours. Prevalence and functional assessment of skin-picking, and its association with compulsive behaviour and self-injury, were investigated in a large group of individuals with PWS (n =…

  5. Guidance in Individual and Family Assessment for the Child and Family Resource Program: A Child and Family Resource Program Guidance Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingle Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This paper describes the assessment procedures used by the Child and Family Resource Program (CFRP) to identify and address the needs of families and of individual family members. CFRP was developed as part of the Head Start Improvement and Innovation effort to provide individualized comprehensive developmental services to families with children…

  6. Individual Pheromone Signature in Males: Prerequisite for Pheromone-Mediated Mate Assessment in the Central American Locust, Schistocerca Piceifrons.

    PubMed

    Stahr, Christiane; Seidelmann, Karsten

    2016-12-01

    Living in high-density groups of animals has advantages and disadvantages for mating. The advantage of facilitated mate finding is compromised by difficulties in protecting a suitable partner from competitors. Thus, males regularly are faced with increased competition for sperm, and females with harassment by males at high population densities. To cope with these problems, mating tactics and mate choice mechanisms have to be adjusted. An adaptation to gregarious condition observed in locusts includes the use of male-emitted pheromones. Males of the Central American locust, Schistocerca piceifrons, release sex-specific volatiles, which were identified as phenethyl alcohol (synonym: phenyl-ethyl-alcohol, 2-phenyl-1-ethanol, 2-phenylethanol, PEA), (Z)-3-nonen-1-ol (3-Nol), and (Z)-2-octen-1-ol (2-Ool). The emission of the two major compounds, PEA and 3-Nol, was restricted to crowded conditions. Furthermore, the release of both volatiles was coupled to males reaching sexual maturity, indicating a function in reproductive behavior. However, neither the single substances nor their mixtures were attractive or repellent to the locusts. Instead, females prefer the sperm of high pheromone-emitting males to fertilize their ova. In this way, the male-specific volatiles act as mate assessment pheromones utilized in a context of cryptic female choice. This function is well supported by the highly variable but individual-specific emission rates of the three compounds. Schistocerca piceifrons males release a virtually unique personal pheromone signature, a prerequisite for mate assessment pheromones.

  7. Comparison of ante-mortem assays to assess progression/regression of paratuberculosis in individual dairy animals

    PubMed Central

    Van Kampen, Craig L

    2010-01-01

    Johne disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium, subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is becoming increasingly widespread on dairy farms worldwide, due in part, to the absence of vaccine/drug or curative modalities. This spread is of concern since MAP is at the center of a controversy as to its role in Crohn disease. None of the methods presently available to define paratuberculosis in cattle have been examined for their ability to assess progression/regression of any treatment or intervention of this disease. The research presented herein, therefore was designed to assess the reliability and accuracy of available ante-mortem assays to predict disease change of individual animals undergoing a probiotic, potentially therapeutic, treatment. Paratuberculosis positive (n = 75) and negative (n = 10) animals were longitudinally monitored over their natural lifetimes with specific serum antibody and fecal shedding assays, and for development of end-stage clinical disease. Longitudinal, increasing/decreasing serum ELISA values were associated with, and predictive of, progression/regression of disease. Changes in fecal shedding and serum AGID were of value at only specific stages. Documentation that ELISA-positive animals were positive for paratuberculosis was done by a compilation of ELISA-independent assays—succumbing with end-stage clinical disease, autopsy, AGID and MAP fecal shedding. PMID:21178432

  8. A descriptive study to assess the impact of surgical stomas on individuals' sleep perceptions & response to sleep hygiene.

    PubMed

    Vorbeck, Ellen; Willette-Murphy, Karen; Meiers, Sonja; Rudel, Rebecca; Alakhras, Mazen

    2010-01-01

    Multiple factors affect the sleep quality of individuals with surgically created stomas. Using Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation as the theoretical framework, a study was conducted to: 1) assess subjective sleep quality perceptions and objective sleep measurement in adults with stomas, 2) determine if there is a correlation between subjective and objective measurement of sleep in this group, and 3) implement a stoma-specific sleep hygiene intervention to improve these sleep quality perceptions. Subjective assessment focused on sleep subset questions from the Stoma Quality of Life Index (SQOLI) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Respondents' (n = 26) subjective sleep scores were 7.23 mean global score on seven questions (PSQI, range: 0 [no difficulty sleeping] to 3 [severe difficulty sleeping], total 0 to 21) with a mean score of 7.32 on three questions (SQOLI, range 1 [severe difficulty sleeping] to 4 [no difficulty sleeping], total 0 to 12) on sleep subset questions; composite scores of 5 or greater (PSQI) and 3 or less (SQOLI) indicating sleep problems. Scores showed that adults with stomas have increased sleep disruption and poor sleep quality. Five respondents who met intervention enrollment criteria participated in an objective sleep assessment using actigraphy, overnight oxygenation studies, and a 4-week sleep hygiene intervention. Mean PSQI score improved by 1.20 but the difference was not statistically significant. Because the results of this study confirm that sleep problems are common in older adults with a stoma, larger sample size studies of >4 weeks' duration are warranted. Until additional research results are available, the existence of sleep quality and overnight pouching concerns should be recognized and use of the low-cost, easy-to-use, stoma-specific sleep hygiene intervention considered.

  9. Objective assessment of internal nasal dimensions and speech resonance in individuals with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate after rhinoseptoplasty.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Inge Elly Kiemle; Bertier, Carlos Eduardo; Sampaio-Teixeira, Ana Claudia Martins

    2009-03-01

    The objective of the current study was to analyze the effects of rhinoseptoplasty on internal nasal dimensions and speech resonance of individuals with unilateral cleft lip and palate, estimated by acoustic rhinometry and nasometry, respectively. Twenty-one individuals (aged 15-46 years) with previously repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate were analyzed before (PRE), and 6 to 9 (POST1) and 12 to 18 months (POST2) after surgery. Acoustic rhinometry was used to measure the cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of segments corresponding to the nasal valve (CSA1), anterior portion (CSA2), and posterior portion (CSA3) of the lower turbinate, and the volumes at the nasal valve (V1) and turbinate (V2) regions at cleft and noncleft sides, before and after nasal decongestion with a topical vasoconstrictor. Nasometry was used to evaluate speech nasalance during the reading of a set of sentences containing nasal sounds and other devoid of nasal sounds. At the cleft side, before nasal decongestion, there was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in mean CSA1 and V1 values at POST1 and POST2 compared with PRE. After decongestion, increased values were also observed for CSA2 and V2 at POST2. No significant changes were observed at the noncleft side. Mean nasalance values at PRE, POST1, and POST2 were not different from each other in both oral and nasal sentences. The measurement of CSAs and volumes by acoustic rhinometry revealed that rhinoseptoplasty provided, in most cases analyzed, a significant increase in nasal patency, without concomitant changes in speech resonance, as estimated by nasalance assessment.

  10. The Effectiveness of FES-Evoked EMG Potentials to Assess Muscle Force and Fatigue in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ibitoye, Morufu Olusola; Estigoni, Eduardo H.; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Wahab, Ahmad Khairi Abdul; Davis, Glen M.

    2014-01-01

    The evoked electromyographic signal (eEMG) potential is the standard index used to monitor both electrical changes within the motor unit during muscular activity and the electrical patterns during evoked contraction. However, technical and physiological limitations often preclude the acquisition and analysis of the signal especially during functional electrical stimulation (FES)-evoked contractions. Hence, an accurate quantification of the relationship between the eEMG potential and FES-evoked muscle response remains elusive and continues to attract the attention of researchers due to its potential application in the fields of biomechanics, muscle physiology, and rehabilitation science. We conducted a systematic review to examine the effectiveness of eEMG potentials to assess muscle force and fatigue, particularly as a biofeedback descriptor of FES-evoked contractions in individuals with spinal cord injury. At the outset, 2867 citations were identified and, finally, fifty-nine trials met the inclusion criteria. Four hypotheses were proposed and evaluated to inform this review. The results showed that eEMG is effective at quantifying muscle force and fatigue during isometric contraction, but may not be effective during dynamic contractions including cycling and stepping. Positive correlation of up to r = 0.90 (p < 0.05) between the decline in the peak-to-peak amplitude of the eEMG and the decline in the force output during fatiguing isometric contractions has been reported. In the available prediction models, the performance index of the eEMG signal to estimate the generated muscle force ranged from 3.8% to 34% for 18 s to 70 s ahead of the actual muscle force generation. The strength and inherent limitations of the eEMG signal to assess muscle force and fatigue were evident from our findings with implications in clinical management of spinal cord injury (SCI) population. PMID:25025551

  11. Preliminary assessment of facial soft tissue thickness utilizing three-dimensional computed tomography models of living individuals.

    PubMed

    Parks, Connie L; Richard, Adam H; Monson, Keith L

    2014-04-01

    Facial approximation is the technique of developing a representation of the face from the skull of an unknown individual. Facial approximation relies heavily on average craniofacial soft tissue depths. For more than a century, researchers have employed a broad array of tissue depth collection methodologies, a practice which has resulted in a lack of standardization in craniofacial soft tissue depth research. To combat such methodological inconsistencies, Stephan and Simpson 2008 [15] examined and synthesized a large number of previously published soft tissue depth studies. Their comprehensive meta-analysis produced a pooled dataset of averaged tissue depths and a simplified methodology, which the researchers suggest be utilized as a minimum standard protocol for future craniofacial soft tissue depth research. The authors of the present paper collected craniofacial soft tissue depths using three-dimensional models generated from computed tomography scans of living males and females of four self-identified ancestry groups from the United States ranging in age from 18 to 62 years. This paper assesses the differences between: (i) the pooled mean tissue depth values from the sample utilized in this paper and those published by Stephan 2012 [21] and (ii) the mean tissue depth values of two demographically similar subsets of the sample utilized in this paper and those published by Rhine and Moore 1984 [16]. Statistical test results indicate that the tissue depths collected from the sample evaluated in this paper are significantly and consistently larger than those published by Stephan 2012 [21]. Although a lack of published variance data by Rhine and Moore 1984 [16] precluded a direct statistical assessment, a substantive difference was also concluded. Further, the dataset presented in this study is representative of modern American adults and is, therefore, appropriate for use in constructing contemporary facial approximations.

  12. Cytomorphometric analysis and morphological assessment of oral exfoliated cells in type 2 diabetes mellitus and healthy individuals: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Sahay, Khushboo; Rehani, Shweta; Kardam, Priyanka; Kumra, Madhumani; Sharma, Rashi; Singh, Nisha

    2017-01-01

    Context: Oral exfoliative cytology is a simple, nonaggressive technique that is well accepted by patients. Therefore, it is an attractive option, which aids in the diagnosis and observation of epithelial atypias associated with oral mucosal diseases. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the quantitative and qualitative alterations in exfoliative smears from type 2 diabetics and healthy individuals. Patients and Methods: The study includes 30 type 2 diabetics and 30 healthy persons of both sexes. PAP and hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stained smears were prepared from buccal mucosa (BM), tongue (T), floor of the mouth (FOM), and palate (P). Under a light microscope, 50 clearly defined unfolded epithelial cells were quantitatively evaluated for cellular area (CA), nuclear area (NA), and cellular-to-nuclear area ratio (CA:NA) and assessed for morphological features. Statistical Analysis: Collected data was manually entered into the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 13.5 for analysis. Student's t-test was used at 95% confidence interval. Results: Quantitative assessment of the overall mean CA was less, mean NA was more, and mean CA:NA was less in diabetics than that in healthy persons at all the four sites. Diabetic oral cells showed qualiative cytoplasmic and nuclear alterations: cytoplasmic vacuoles, karyorrhexis, karyolysis, pyknosis, peri-nuclear halo, binucleation, nuclear vacuoles, inflammation, and microbial colonies. Conclusion: Oral cytology from type 2 diabetics is associated with detectable cytomorphological changes with alteration in size of the cell and nucleus, which is site specific, indicating epithelial cell degeneration in cytoplasm and nucleus. PMID:28182082

  13. Assessing the Influence of an Individual Event in Complex Fault Spreading Network Based on Dynamic Uncertain Causality Graph.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chunling; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Qin

    2016-08-01

    Identifying the pivotal causes and highly influential spreaders in fault propagation processes is crucial for improving the maintenance decision making for complex systems under abnormal and emergency situations. A dynamic uncertain causality graph-based method is introduced in this paper to explicitly model the uncertain causalities among system components, identify fault conditions, locate the fault origins, and predict the spreading tendency by means of probabilistic reasoning. A new algorithm is proposed to assess the impacts of an individual event by investigating the corresponding node's time-variant betweenness centrality and the strength of global causal influence in the fault propagation network. The algorithm does not depend on the whole original and static network but on the real-time spreading behaviors and dynamics, which makes the algorithm to be specifically targeted and more efficient. Experiments on both simulated networks and real-world systems demonstrate the accuracy, effectiveness, and comprehensibility of the proposed method for the fault management of power grids and other complex networked systems.

  14. The Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) with Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC): Comprehensive Care for Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Als, Heidelise; McAnulty, Gloria B.

    2014-01-01

    State-of-the-art Newborn Intensive Care Units (NICUs), instrumental in the survival of high-risk and ever-earlier-born preterm infants, often have costly human repercussions. The developmental sequelae of newborn intensive care are largely misunderstood. Developed countries eager to export their technologies must also transfer the knowledge-base that encompasses all high-risk and preterm infants’ personhood as well as the neuro-essential importance of their parents. Without such understanding, the best medical care, while assuring survival jeopardizes infants’ long-term potential and deprives parents of their critical role. Exchanging the womb for the NICU environment at a time of rapid brain growth compromises preterm infants’ early development, which results in long-term physical and mental health problems and developmental disabilities. The Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) aims to prevent the iatrogenic sequelae of intensive care and to maintain the intimate connection between parent and infant, one expression of which is Kangaroo Mother Care. NIDCAP embeds the infant in the natural parent niche, avoids over-stimulation, stress, pain, and isolation while it supports self-regulation, competence, and goal orientation. Research demonstrates that NIDCAP improves brain development, functional competence, health, and life quality. It is cost effective, humane, and ethical, and promises to become the standard for all NICU care. PMID:25473384

  15. Increasing social support for depressed individuals: a cross-cultural assessment of an affect-expectancy approach.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Jason T; Alvaro, Eusebio M; Crano, William D; Lienemann, Brianna A; Hohman, Zachary P; O'Brien, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a mental illness affecting 121 million people. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration recently launched a national, bilingual (English and Spanish) campaign to motivate young adults to support friends with mental illness. This article highlights and assesses the usefulness of two theoretically derived variables for increasing the social support received by all depressed individuals: (a) affect and (b) social support outcome expectations. In accord with the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's bilingual campaign, the authors conducted two studies using intercepts at 2 swap meets in the U.S. Southwest. One study sample consisted of Spanish-dominant Hispanics, the other non-Hispanics. For both samples, results indicate that affect, social support outcome expectations, and their interaction accounted for more than 50% of the variance of social support intentions (67% in the Hispanic sample when familism was considered). Affect is commonplace in the helping behavior literature; results indicate social support outcome expectations deserve equal consideration. Moreover, an unexpected finding emerged: Perceiving a lack of willpower, need for attention, and lack of moral character to be the cause of depression resulted in increased sympathy among the Hispanic sample but increased anger among non-Hispanics.

  16. Selection, use and psychometric properties of physical activity measures to assess individuals with severe mental illness: a narrative synthesis.

    PubMed

    Soundy, Andrew; Roskell, Carolyn; Stubbs, Brendon; Vancampfort, Davy

    2014-04-01

    This research provides a critical consideration of the outcome measures used to assess physical activity in individuals with severe mental illness. A narrative synthesis was utilised to provide a simple juxtapose of the current research. A sensitive topic-based search strategy was conducted in order to identify studies that met the eligibility criteria. Fifty two studies met the inclusion criteria and 5 were identified specially as validation studies. The current research identified several methodological shortcomings. The justification and choice of outcome measure used is often weak and only five studies have validated a specific outcome measure of physical activity. Within these validation studies, the validation process often lacked a consideration of agreement between measures. Accelerometers have been most frequently used as a criterion measure, notably the RT3 tri-axial accelerometer. Objective based measures may be best placed to consider physical activity levels, although, methodological considerations for the utilization of such tools is required. Self-report questionnaires have benefits for use in this population but require further validation. Researchers and clinicians need to carefully consider what outcome measure they are using and be aware of the development, scope and purpose of that measure.

  17. Plant food supplement (PFS) market structure in EC Member States, methods and techniques for the assessment of individual PFS intake.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Murga, Liliana; Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Roman-Viñas, Blanca; Ngo, Joy; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; van den Berg, Suzanne J P L; Williamson, Gary; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2011-12-01

    The popularity of herbal products, especially plant food supplements (PFS) and herbal medicine is on the rise in Europe and other parts of the world, with increased use in the general population as well as among specific subgroups encompassing children, women or those suffering from diseases such as cancer. The aim of this paper is to examine the PFS market structures in European Community (EC) Member States as well as to examine issues addressing methodologies and consumption data relating to PFS use in Europe. A revision of recent reports on market data, trends and main distribution channels, in addition an example of the consumption of PFS in Spain, is presented. An overview of the methods and administration techniques used to assess individual food consumption as a starting point, including their uses and limitations, as well as some examples of studies that collect Food Supplement (FS) information, including herbal/botanical/plant-derived products are also discussed. Additionally, the intake estimation process of food nutrients is described and used to propose the PFS ingredients intake estimation process. Nationally representative PFS consumption data is scarce in Europe. The majority of studies have been conducted in Scandinavia and the UK. However the heterogeneity of definitions, study design and objectives make it difficult to compare results and extrapolate conclusions.

  18. The structured assessment of depression in brain-damaged individuals: translation and validation study of the Italian version.

    PubMed

    Monaco, F; Mazzini, L; Marchetti, C; Torta, R; Cicolin, A; Mantegazza, P; Pastore, I; Ruggerone, S; Mula, M

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this study was to translate the structured assessment of depression in brain-damaged individuals (SADBD) questionnaire into the Italian language, validate, and test reliability and validity of the Italian version. Consecutive patients with stroke were screened in the Department of Neurology, Avogadro University in Novara and the Department of Neurorehabilitation, Maugeri Foundation, Veruno, Italy. Thirty patients were included in the study. The internal consistency ranged between 0.78 and 0.87. The intra-rater test-retest reliability was 0.93 for BDIderived items and 0.82 for HRSD-derived items; while the inter-rater test-retest reliability was 0.94 for BDI-derived items and 0.93 for HRSD-derived items. Correlation between the SADBD diagnosis made by the physician and the nurse was 0.51; correlation between caregiver and physician diagnosis was 0.60. The Italian version of the SADBD was demonstrated to be acceptable, reliable and a valid measure of depression in patients with stroke.

  19. De-individualized psychophysiological strain assessment during a flight simulation test—Validation of a space methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannes, Bernd; Salnitski, Vyacheslav; Soll, Henning; Rauch, Melina; Hoermann, Hans-Juergen

    For the evaluation of an operator's skill reliability indicators of work quality as well as of psychophysiological states during the work have to be considered. The herein presented methodology and measurement equipment were developed and tested in numerous terrestrial and space experiments using a simulation of a spacecraft docking on a space station. However, in this study the method was applied to a comparable terrestrial task—the flight simulator test (FST) used in the DLR selection procedure for ab initio pilot applicants for passenger airlines. This provided a large amount of data for a statistical verification of the space methodology. For the evaluation of the strain level of applicants during the FST psychophysiological measurements were used to construct a "psychophysiological arousal vector" (PAV) which is sensitive to various individual reaction patterns of the autonomic nervous system to mental load. Its changes and increases will be interpreted as "strain". In the first evaluation study, 614 subjects were analyzed. The subjects first underwent a calibration procedure for the assessment of their autonomic outlet type (AOT) and on the following day they performed the FST, which included three tasks and was evaluated by instructors applying well-established and standardized rating scales. This new method will possibly promote a wide range of other future applications in aviation and space psychology.

  20. [DEVELOPMENTAL CARE IN THE NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT ACCORDING TO NEWBORN INDIVIDUALIZED DEVELOPMENTAL CARE AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (NIDCAP)].

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Dalia; Litmanovitz, Ita

    2016-01-01

    During hospitalization in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), the brain of the preterm infant undergoes a particularly vulnerable and sensitive period of development. Brain development might be negatively influenced by direct injury as well as by complications of prematurity. Over the past few years, stress has come to be increasingly recognized as a potential risk factor. The NICU environment contains numerous stress factors due to maternal deprivation and over-stimulation, such as light, sound and pain, which conflict with the brain's developmental requirements. Developmental care is a caregiving approach that addresses the early developmental needs of the preterm infant as an integral component of quality neonatal care. NIDCAP (Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program) is a comprehensive program that aims to reduce environmental stress, to support the infant's neuro-behavioral maturation and organization, and to promote early parent-infant relationships. The implementation of developmental care based on NIDCAP principles is a gradual, in-depth systems change process, which affects all aspects of care in the NICU. This review describes the theoretical basis of the NIDCAP approach, summarizes the scientific evidence and addresses some of the implications of the transition from a traditional to a developmental care NICU.

  1. Integrated intervention for mental health co-morbidity in HIV-positive individuals: A public health assessment.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Monika; Wolvaardt, Gustaaf

    2016-12-01

    In South Africa, where it is estimated that more people have HIV than anywhere else in the world, HIV/AIDS and psychological disorder co-morbidity have been shown both to exacerbate the late diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and to affect adherence to ARVs. Targeted, affordable and evidence-based strategies to reach these populations are essential. Against this backdrop, a pilot project and situational assessment aimed at determining the context of psychological care and HIV treatment services in South Africa was undertaken. The situational analysis consisted of individual interviews, a patient survey, and a retrospective medical record data review. Training and mentorship were conducted from 2011 to 2013 by the Foundation for Professional Development (FPD) in five anti-retroviral therapy (ART) clinics in the Tshwane-Metsweding area. Data were both descriptively and inferentially analysed. Outcomes indicate that the general structure of HIV services is well organised and well run in the sampled clinics. However, mental healthcare and HIV services need to be integrated further. There is also a need to develop and pilot-test appropriate materials and models for the delivery of mental healthcare within the parameters of affordability, acceptability and availability further, and to advocate the advancement of mental health and HIV treatment and policy integration.

  2. Demonstration of a method for assessing semantic organization and category membership in individuals with autism spectrum disorders and receptive vocabulary limitations.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Krista M; Rosenquist, Celia

    2006-12-01

    A recognized challenge in the field of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) is the assessment of the individual skills and preferences of potential users of AAC. Particularly in cognitive assessment, many traditional methods are inappropriate because they require the participant to produce a verbal response and/or involve complex verbal instructions. For individuals with limited verbal forms of language, failure at such tasks is relatively uninstructive, either for revealing their functional intellectual status or for developing effective interventions. This paper presents a demonstration of a method developed to evaluate category structure and, thus, semantic organization in individuals with limited verbal skills concomitant to autism spectrum disorder. This method offers a promising tool for assessing clients for AAC. Further potential uses of this method, both clinically and in research, are discussed.

  3. 20 CFR 641.230 - Must the individual assessment conducted by the SCSEP grantee or sub-recipient and the assessment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accepted for use by either entity to determine the individual's need for services in the SCSEP and adult... by either entity to determine the individual's need for services in the SCSEP and adult...

  4. 20 CFR 641.230 - Must the individual assessment conducted by the SCSEP grantee or sub-recipient and the assessment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... accepted for use by either entity to determine the individual's need for services in the SCSEP and adult... by either entity to determine the individual's need for services in the SCSEP and adult...

  5. Deterministic learning and attempted suicide among older depressed individuals: Cognitive assessment using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task

    PubMed Central

    McGirr, Alexander; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y.; Butters, Meryl A.; Clark, Luke; Szanto, Katalin

    2011-01-01

    Background Late-life suicide is an under-investigated public health problem. Among the putative vulnerabilities for this complex multifactorial behaviour are deficits in cognitive control, an ability to integrate and prioritize multiple cognitive processes in order to flexibly adapt behaviour and meet situational demands. We investigated cognitive control during rule learning in a complex and changing environment in older individuals with suicide attempts of varying lethality. Method Ninety-three participants over the age of 60 (30 healthy controls, 29 depressed never suicidal, 20 low-lethality suicide attempters, 14 high-lethality suicide attempters) underwent structured clinical and cognitive assessments. Participants then completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), a well-studied task of cognitive control during rule learning. Results High-lethality attempters demonstrated a pattern of deficits involving poor conceptual reasoning, perseverative errors and total errors. Compared to low-lethality attempters and healthy controls, high-lethality attempters demonstrated poor conceptual reasoning, as well as increased rates of perseverative errors and total errors. Compared to non-suicidal depressed participants, high-lethality attempters also made more conceptual errors. Conclusion High-lethality suicide attempts among older people are associated with impaired cognitive control during rule learning as detected by the WCST. Our data suggest that impairment in cognitive control during rule learning may represent a vulnerability distinct from the impulsive diathesis, typically manifesting in young, low-lethality attempters. This vulnerability may contribute to the high incidence of serious or, often, fatal suicidal acts in old age. PMID:22024486

  6. Assessment of Inter-Individual and Geographic Variability in Human Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter in Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Y; Frey, HC

    2010-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major contributor to indoor human exposures to fine particulate matter of 2.5 microns or smaller (PM2.5). The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation for Particulate Matter (SHEDS-PM) model developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency estimates distributions of outdoor and indoor PM2.5 exposure for a specified population based on ambient concentrations and indoor emissions sources. A critical assessment was conducted of the methodology and data used in SHEDS-PM for estimation of indoor exposure to ETS. For the residential microenvironment, SHEDS uses a mass-balance approach which is comparable to best practices. The default inputs in SHEDS-PM were reviewed and more recent and extensive data sources were identified. Sensitivity analysis was used to determine which inputs should be prioritized for updating. Data regarding the proportion of smokers and “other smokers,” and cigarette emission rate were found to be important. SHEDS-PM does not currently account for in-vehicle ETS exposure; however, in-vehicle ETS-related PM2.5 levels can exceed those in residential microenvironments by a factor of 10 or more. Therefore, a mass-balance based methodology for estimating in-vehicle ETS PM2.5 concentration is evaluated. Recommendations are made regarding updating of input data and algorithms related to ETS exposure in the SHEDS-PM model. Inter-individual variability for ETS exposure was quantified. Geographic variability in ETS exposure was quantified based on the varying prevalence of smokers in five selected locations in the U.S. PMID:21039708

  7. Assessment of the Sustainability of the Mediterranean Diet Combined with Organic Food Consumption: An Individual Behaviour Approach.

    PubMed

    Seconda, Louise; Baudry, Julia; Allès, Benjamin; Hamza, Oualid; Boizot-Szantai, Christine; Soler, Louis-Georges; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2017-01-12

    Mediterranean diets are promising sustainable food models and the organic food system may provide health and environmental benefits. Combining the two models could therefore be a favourable approach for food sustainability. The aim of this study was to draw up a comparative description of four diets differing in the level of organic foods consumption and the adherence to the Mediterranean diet, using multidisciplinary indicators to assess the sustainability of these diets. Four groups of participants were defined and compared, combining the proportion of organic food in their diet (Org versus Conv) and the adherence to the Mediterranean diet (Med versus NoMed). Conv-NoMed: Conventional consumers and non-Mediterranean diet followers; Conv-Med: Conventional consumers and Mediterranean diet followers; Org-NoMed: Organic consumers and non-Mediterranean diet followers; Org-Med: Organic consumers and Mediterranean diet followers. The adherence to nutritional recommendations was higher among the Org-Med and Conv-Med groups compared to the Conv-NoMed group (using the mPNNS-GS (modified-Programme National nutrition santé guidelines score/13.5 points): 9.29 (95% confidence intervals (CI) = 9.23-9.36) and 9.30 (95% CI = 9.24-9.35) versus 8.19 (95% CI = 8.17-8.22)) respectively. The mean plant/animal protein intake ratio was 1.38 (95% CI = 1.01-1.74) for the Org-Med group versus 0.44 (95% CI = 0.28-0.60) for the Conv-NoMed group. The average cost of the diet of Org-Med participants was the highest: 11.43 €/day (95% CI = 11.34-11.52). This study highlighted the importance of promoting the Mediterranean diet combined with organic food consumption for individual health and environmental aspects but challenges with regard to the cost remain.

  8. Group living enhances individual resources discrimination: the use of public information by cockroaches to assess shelter quality.

    PubMed

    Canonge, Stéphane; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis; Sempo, Grégory

    2011-01-01

    In group-living organisms, consensual decision of site selection results from the interplay between individual responses to site characteristics and to group-members. Individuals independently gather personal information by exploring their environment. Through social interaction, the presence of others provides public information that could be used by individuals and modulates the individual probability of joining/leaving a site. The way that individual's information processing and the network of interactions influence the dynamics of public information (depending on population size) that in turn affect discrimination in site quality is a central question. Using binary choice between sheltering sites of different quality, we demonstrate that cockroaches in group dramatically outperform the problem-solving ability of single individual. Such use of public information allows animals to discriminate between alternatives whereas isolated individuals are ineffective (i.e. the personal discrimination efficiency is weak). Our theoretical results, obtained from a mathematical model based on behavioral rules derived from experiments, highlight that the collective discrimination emerges from competing amplification processes relying on the modulation of the individual sheltering time without shelters comparison and communication modulation. Finally, we well demonstrated here the adaptive value of such decision algorithm. Without any behavioral change, the system is able to shift to a more effective strategy when alternatives are present: the modification of the spatio-temporal distributions of individuals leading to the collective selection of the best resource. This collective discrimination implying such parsimonious and widespread mechanism must be shared by many group living-species.

  9. The Use of the 6-Min Walk Test as a Proxy for the Assessment of Energy Expenditure during Gait in Individuals with Lower-Limb Amputation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kark, Laurena; McIntosh, Andrew S.B; Simmons, Annea

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine, and compare, the utility of the 6-min walk test (6 MWT) and self-selected walking speed over 15 m as proxies for the assessment of energy expenditure during gait in individuals with lower-limb amputation. Patients with unilateral, transfemoral amputation (n = 6) and patients with unilateral,…

  10. The Children's Social Understanding Scale: Construction and Validation of a Parent-Report Measure for Assessing Individual Differences in Children's Theories of Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tahiroglu, Deniz; Moses, Louis J.; Carlson, Stephanie M.; Mahy, Caitlin E. V.; Olofson, Eric L.; Sabbagh, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Children's theory of mind (ToM) is typically measured with laboratory assessments of performance. Although these measures have generated a wealth of informative data concerning developmental progressions in ToM, they may be less useful as the sole source of information about individual differences in ToM and their relation to other facets of…

  11. Assessment of the Sustainability of the Mediterranean Diet Combined with Organic Food Consumption: An Individual Behaviour Approach

    PubMed Central

    Seconda, Louise; Baudry, Julia; Allès, Benjamin; Hamza, Oualid; Boizot-Szantai, Christine; Soler, Louis-Georges; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2017-01-01

    Mediterranean diets are promising sustainable food models and the organic food system may provide health and environmental benefits. Combining the two models could therefore be a favourable approach for food sustainability. The aim of this study was to draw up a comparative description of four diets differing in the level of organic foods consumption and the adherence to the Mediterranean diet, using multidisciplinary indicators to assess the sustainability of these diets. Four groups of participants were defined and compared, combining the proportion of organic food in their diet (Org versus Conv) and the adherence to the Mediterranean diet (Med versus NoMed). Conv–NoMed: Conventional consumers and non-Mediterranean diet followers; Conv–Med: Conventional consumers and Mediterranean diet followers; Org–NoMed: Organic consumers and non-Mediterranean diet followers; Org–Med: Organic consumers and Mediterranean diet followers. The adherence to nutritional recommendations was higher among the Org–Med and Conv–Med groups compared to the Conv–NoMed group (using the mPNNS-GS (modified-Programme National nutrition santé guidelines score/13.5 points): 9.29 (95% confidence intervals (CI) = 9.23–9.36) and 9.30 (95% CI = 9.24–9.35) versus 8.19 (95% CI = 8.17–8.22)) respectively. The mean plant/animal protein intake ratio was 1.38 (95% CI = 1.01–1.74) for the Org–Med group versus 0.44 (95% CI = 0.28–0.60) for the Conv–NoMed group. The average cost of the diet of Org–Med participants was the highest: 11.43 €/day (95% CI = 11.34–11.52). This study highlighted the importance of promoting the Mediterranean diet combined with organic food consumption for individual health and environmental aspects but challenges with regard to the cost remain. PMID:28085096

  12. A Qualitative Assessment of Program Characteristics for Preventing Secondary Conditions in Individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Petrenko, Christie L. M.; Tahir, Naira; Mahoney, Erin C.; Chin, Nancy P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are a major public health problem that affects 2 to 5 percent of the population. Individuals with FASD are at high risk for secondary conditions, such as mental health problems, school disruptions, and trouble with the law. Evidence-based intervention programs are needed to prevent and treat secondary conditions in this population. Objectives The purpose of this study was to identify intervention program characteristics for preventing secondary conditions in individuals with FASD from the perspectives of parents and service providers. Methods This qualitative study utilized a phenomenological approach to identify program characteristics for preventing secondary conditions. Twenty-five parents of children (ages 3 to 33) with FASD and 18 service providers participated in focus groups or individual interviews. Data was systematically analyzed using a framework approach. Themes did not differ by participant type. Results Participants emphasized five primary characteristics of intervention programs for individuals with FASD. Programs need to 1) be available to individuals across the lifespan, 2) have a prevention focus, 3) be individualized, 4) be comprehensive, and 5) be coordinated across systems and developmental stages. Participants discussed a variety of specific intervention strategies for each developmental stage and setting. Conclusions Program characteristics identified in this study are consistent with a positive behavior support framework. This framework is discussed in the context of research on existing interventions for individuals with FASD, and recommendations for future intervention development and evaluation are highlighted. PMID:25032710

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF TOOLS TO ASSESS THE EFFECTS OF INDIVIDUAL, POPULATION, AND SPATIAL LEVELS: INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT OF MULTIPLE STRESSORS ON PISCIVOROUS BIRDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Health and Environmental Research Laboratory's Wildlife Risk Assessment program is to develop scientifically valid methods to assess risks to wildlife and aquatic organisms from multiple stressors. To this end, the Loo...

  14. The Bridge: An Authentic Literacy Assessment Strategy for Individualizing and Informing Practice with Young Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Patsy L.; Summer, Gail; O'deKirk, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Early literacy development, assessment, and teaching have been significant foci of research and practice in the 21st, century. Multiple new early literacy curricula and assessments for preschoolers have been created since 2001. Tracking the emergent literacy growth of developmentally young children is essential to planning appropriate programs…

  15. The Use of Learner-Centered Assessment Practices in the United States: The Influence of Individual and Institutional Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carrie B.; Myers, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    Research examining the contexts that influence the use of learner-centered assessment (LCA) practices in undergraduate courses has not kept pace with those focusing on teaching practices. Such research is needed given that conceptualizations of effective pedagogy generally include both teaching and assessment. The authors examined a range of…

  16. Aggregate versus Individual-Level Sexual Behavior Assessment: How Much Detail Is Needed to Accurately Estimate HIV/STI Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkerton, Steven D.; Galletly, Carol L.; McAuliffe, Timothy L.; DiFranceisco, Wayne; Raymond, H. Fisher; Chesson, Harrell W.

    2010-01-01

    The sexual behaviors of HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention intervention participants can be assessed on a partner-by-partner basis: in aggregate (i.e., total numbers of sex acts, collapsed across partners) or using a combination of these two methods (e.g., assessing five partners in detail and any remaining partners in aggregate).…

  17. An Assessment Instrument for Families: Evaluating Community-Based Residential Programs for Individuals with Deaf-Blindness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helen Keller National Center - Technical Assistance Center, Sands Point, NY.

    This community living assessment tool for parents of children with deaf-blindness was developed to help parents identify the strengths and weaknesses of their child's residential program using a user-friendly instrument. Three areas of assessment are covered: physical attributes of the home, available resources for promoting capabilities, and…

  18. RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF A MODIFIED ISOMETRIC DYNAMOMETER IN THE ASSESSMENT OF MUSCULAR PERFORMANCE IN INDIVIDUALS WITH ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION

    PubMed Central

    de Vasconcelos, Rodrigo Antunes; Bevilaqua-Grossi, Débora; Shimano, Antonio Carlos; Paccola, Cleber Jansen; Salvini, Tânia Fátima; Prado, Christiane Lanatovits; Junior, Wilson A. Mello

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of a modified isometric dynamometer (MID) in performance deficits of the knee extensor and flexor muscles in normal individuals and in those with ACL reconstructions. Methods: Sixty male subjects were invited to participate of the study, being divided into three groups with 20 subjects each: control group (GC), group of individuals with ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon graft (GTP, and group of individuals with ACL reconstruction with hamstrings graft (GTF). All individuals performed isometric tests in the MID, muscular strength deficits collected were subsequently compared to the tests performed on the Biodex System 3 operating in the isometric and isokinetic mode at speeds of 60°/s and 180o/s. Intraclass ICC correlation calculations were done in order to assess MID reliability, specificity, sensitivity and Kappa's consistency coefficient calculations, respectively, for assessing the MID's validity in detecting muscular deficits and intra- and intergroup comparisons when performing the four strength tests using the ANOVA method. Results: The modified isometric dynamometer (MID) showed excellent reliability and good validity in the assessment of the performance of the knee extensor and flexor muscles groups. In the comparison between groups, the GTP showed significantly greater deficits as compared to the GTF and GC groups. Conclusion: Isometric dynamometers connected to mechanotherapy equipments could be an alternative option to collect data concerning performance deficits of the extensor and flexor muscles groups of the knee in subjects with ACL reconstruction. PMID:27004175

  19. Individual and large-group identity: parallels in development and characteristics in stability and crisis.

    PubMed

    Volkan, V D

    1999-12-01

    A comprehensive understanding of international and interethnic conflict must include a psychological dimension. This paper explores concepts of individual and large-group identity, their inherent connection, and some essential large-group rituals that aim to repair and maintain them. Human psychological development not only involves dynamics associated with one's parents, family, and intimate environment, but also those of one's ethic, religious or national group. Although this may simply be called "acculturation", the evolution of large-group identity involves specific psychological processes. When a large group perceives that its identity is threatened, the group and its individual members typically experience anxiety which is then expressed in certain ritualistic behaviors that can range from benign to highly malignant. Social scientists, diplomats and others who seek to analyze social and political phenomena and formulate policies related to them could benefit from a better understanding of these aspects of human interaction.

  20. Interethnic differences in the relevance of CYP2C9 genotype and environmental factors for diclofenac metabolism in Hispanics from Cuba and Spain.

    PubMed

    Llerena, A; Alvarez, M; Dorado, P; González, I; Peñas-LLedó, E; Pérez, B; Cobaleda, J; Calzadilla, L R

    2014-06-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the diclofenac metabolism in Hispanics from Cuba and Spain and its relation to ethnicity, CYP2C9 genotypes and environmental factors. Diclofenac hydroxylation capacity (concentration ratios of diclofenac/metabolites in 8-h urine) was studied in 160 Cuban (classified as 76 Cuban-Whites-CWs and 84 Cuban-Mestizos-CMs) and 148 Spaniard (SPs) healthy volunteers. Diclofenac and its main metabolites, 4'-hydroxy (OH), 3'-OH and 5-OH diclofenac, and CYP2C9*2 to *6 and *8 alleles were also determined in 132 and 128 CWs and CMs, respectively. Gender, tobacco, caffeine and ethanol consumption were also evaluated. The mean diclofenac/4'-OH diclofenac ratio was higher in CMs (0.72±0.25) than in CWs (0.64±0.20; P<0.05) and SPs (0.57±0.26; P<0.001). The mean diclofenac/4'-OH diclofenac ratio was higher (P<0.05) in subjects with CYP2C9*1/*3 (0.77±0.19; n=22) and CYP2C9*1/*8 (0.93±0.33; n=4) genotypes than with CYP2C9*1/*1 (0.65±0.24; n=90). Environmental factors did not seem to influence the diclofenac metabolism in these populations. The present findings show for the first time interethnic differences between Hispanic groups in urinary diclofenac/4'-OH diclofenac ratios, and the relevance of CYP2C9*3 and CYP2C9*8 alleles.

  1. [A method for performing a study and assessment of the individual neurodynamic properties of human higher nervous activity].

    PubMed

    Makarenko, M V

    1999-01-01

    The proposed methods are directed at unification of conducting and assessing neurodynamic properties of the higher nervous activity of a human that are related to the processing of visual information of various complexity levels. It should be considered that the conducting of examinations in maximum close conditions of the same tests and assessment criteria will increase the possibilities and the value of the analysis of various experimental materials.

  2. The Role of Self-Monitoring in Assessing Individual Students' Quantity and Quality of Comments in Large-Class Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carstens, B. A.; Wright, J. M.; Coles, J. T.; McCleary, L. N.; Williams, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    This study developed a reliable and valid self-monitoring procedure for student use in recording and rating the quality of their individual comments in large college classes. Students used daily record cards immediately to record and rate each comment they made each day. However, a limit was set on the amount of credit students could claim for…

  3. Peer Assessments of Normative and Individual Teacher-Student Support Predict Social Acceptance and Engagement among Low-Achieving Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jan N.; Zhang, Duan; Hill, Crystal R.

    2006-01-01

    This study used hierarchical linear modeling to predict first grade students' peer acceptance, classroom engagement, and sense of school belonging from measures of normative classroom teacher-student support and individual teacher-student support. Participants were 509 (54.4% male) ethnically diverse, first grade children attending one of three…

  4. An Investigative Assessment of the Need for Individual Learning Support for a Y9 Pupil with Learning Difficulties and ADHD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pester, James

    2002-01-01

    A year nine pupil with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in a residential school was not accessing the curriculum due to distractibility and aggressive behavior. Analysis of data gathered through individual interviews, analysis of daily staff reports, and structured behavioral observation, indicate the student functions more successfully…

  5. Assessments and Intervention for Pupils with Reading Difficulties in Sweden--A Text Analysis of Individual Education Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreasson, Ingela; Wolff, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    Since 1995 all Swedish compulsory schools have been required to establish Individual Educational Plans (IEPs) for pupils with special educational needs. According to the Swedish Education Act such a plan should be drawn up if pupils do not achieve the goals in the curriculum or the syllabus. The process of IEPs covers a prior investigation to…

  6. Assessment Data-Informed Guidance to Individualize Kindergarten Reading Instruction: Findings from a Cluster-Randomized Control Field Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Connor, Carol M.; Folsom, Jessica S.; Greulich, Luana; Meadows, Jane; Li, Zhi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this cluster-randomized control field trial was to examine whether kindergarten teachers could learn to differentiate classroom reading instruction using Individualized Student Instruction for Kindergarten (ISI-K) and to test the efficacy of differentiation on reading outcomes. The study involved 14 schools, 23 ISI-K (n = 305…

  7. Thinking about going to the dentist: a Contemplation Ladder to assess dentally-avoidant individuals' readiness to go to a dentist

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Transtheoretical Model suggests that individuals vary according to their readiness to change behavior. Previous work in smoking cessation and other health areas suggests that interventions are more successful when they are tailored to an individual's stage of change with regards to the specific behavior. We report on the performance of a single-item measure ("Ladder") to assess the readiness to change dental-avoidant behavior. Methods An existing Contemplation Ladder for assessing stage of change in smoking cessation was modified to assess readiness to go to a dentist. The resulting Ladder was administered to samples of English-speaking adolescents (USA), Spanish-speaking adults (USA), and Norwegian military recruits (Norway) in order to assess construct validity. The Ladder was also administered to a sample of English-speaking avoidant adolescents and young adults who were enrolled in an intervention study (USA) in order to assess criterion validity. All participants also had dental examinations, and completed other questionnaires. Correlations, chi square, t tests and one-way ANOVAs were used to assess relationships between variables. Results In two samples, participants who do not go to the dentist had significantly more teeth with caries; in a third sample, participants who do not go to the dentist had significantly worse caries. Ladder scores were not significantly related to age, gender, caries, or dental fear. However, Ladder scores were significantly related to statements of intention to visit a dentist in the future and the importance of oral health. In a preliminary finding, Ladder scores at baseline also predicted whether or not the participants decided to go to a dentist in the intervention sample. Conclusions The data provide support for the convergent and divergent construct validity of the Ladder, and preliminary support for its criterion validity. The lack of relationship between dental fear and Ladder scores suggests that avoidant

  8. Aggregate versus individual-level sexual behavior assessment: how much detail is needed to accurately estimate HIV/STI risk?

    PubMed

    Pinkerton, Steven D; Galletly, Carol L; McAuliffe, Timothy L; DiFranceisco, Wayne; Raymond, H Fisher; Chesson, Harrell W

    2010-02-01

    The sexual behaviors of HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention intervention participants can be assessed on a partner-by-partner basis: in aggregate (i.e., total numbers of sex acts, collapsed across partners) or using a combination of these two methods (e.g., assessing five partners in detail and any remaining partners in aggregate). There is a natural trade-off between the level of sexual behavior detail and the precision of HIV/STI acquisition risk estimates. The results of this study indicate that relatively simple aggregate data collection techniques suffice to adequately estimate HIV risk. For highly infectious STIs, in contrast, accurate STI risk assessment requires more intensive partner-by-partner methods.

  9. A laboratory assessment of the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor (WIBS-4) using individual samples of pollen and fungal spore material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, David A.; O'Connor, David J.; Burke, Aoife M.; Sodeau, John R.

    2012-12-01

    A Bioaerosol sensing instrument referred to as WIBS-4, designed to continuously monitor ambient bioaerosols on-line, has been used to record a multiparameter “signature” from each of a number of Primary Biological Aerosol Particulate (PBAP) samples found in air. These signatures were obtained in a controlled laboratory environment and are based on the size, asymmetry (“shape”) and auto-fluorescence of the particles. Fifteen samples from two separate taxonomic ranks (kingdoms), Plantae (×8) and Fungi (×7) were individually introduced to the WIBS-4 for measurement along with two non-fluorescing chemical solids, common salt and chalk. Over 2000 individual-particle measurements were recorded for each sample type and the ability of the WIBS spectroscopic technique to distinguish between chemicals, pollen and fungal spore material was examined by identifying individual PBAP signatures. The results obtained show that WIBS-4 could potentially be a very useful analytical tool for distinguishing between natural airborne PBAP samples, such as the fungal spores and may potentially play an important role in detecting and discriminating the toxic fungal spore, Aspergillus fumigatus, from others in real-time. If the sizing range of the commercial instrument was customarily increased and permitted to operate simultaneously in its two sizing ranges, pollen and spores could potentially be discriminated between. The data also suggest that the gain setting sensitivity on the detector would also have to be reduced by a factor >5, to routinely detect, in-range fluorescence measurements for pollen samples.

  10. Further Explorations of Perceptual Speed Abilities in the Context of Assessment Methods, Cognitive Abilities, and Individual Differences during Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Phillip L.; Beier, Margaret E.

    2007-01-01

    Measures of perceptual speed ability have been shown to be an important part of assessment batteries for predicting performance on tasks and jobs that require a high level of speed and accuracy. However, traditional measures of perceptual speed ability sometimes have limited cost-effectiveness because of the requirements for administration and…

  11. Individualizing Functional Assessments for Children with Autism: The Contribution of Perseverative Behavior and Sensory Disturbances to Disruptive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, R. Matthew; Richman, David M.; Zarcone, Jennifer; Zarcone, Troy

    2003-01-01

    A functional assessment interview was conducted with care providers of 100 children (ages 2-5) with autism regarding reinforcement contingencies contributing to maintenance of disruptive behavior. Gaining access to perseverative activities and escaping demands while engaged in these activities frequently contributed to disruptive behavior in the…

  12. Assessing the health of colonies and individual honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in a commercial beekeeping operation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metrics of honey bee health were assessed every six weeks over three years in colonies owned by a migratory beekeeper. The colonies were located in six apiaries during the summer months in North Dakota and were transported to California for almond pollination every winter. We previously characteri...

  13. Assessing Self-Regulation in Individuals with Visual Impairments: Generality versus Specificity in Self-Regulatory Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argyropoulos, Vassilios; Sideridis, Georgios D.; Botsas, George; Padeliadu, Susana

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess self-regulation of students with visual impairments across two academic subjects, language and math. The participants were 46 Greek students with visual impairments who completed self-regulation measures across the subject matters of language and math. Initially, the factorial validity of the scale…

  14. Brief Opioid Overdose Knowledge (BOOK): A Questionnaire to Assess Overdose Knowledge in Individuals Who Use Illicit or Prescribed Opioids

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Kelly E.; Barrett, Frederick S.; Yepez-Laubach, Claudia; Meyer, Andrew C.; Hruska, Bryce J.; Sigmon, Stacey C.; Fingerhood, Michael; Bigelow, George E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Opioid overdose is a public health crisis. This study describes efforts to develop and validate the Brief Opioid Overdose Knowledge (BOOK) questionnaire to assess patient knowledge gaps related to opioid overdose risks. Methods: Two samples of illicit opioid users and a third sample of patients receiving an opioid for the treatment of chronic pain (total N = 848) completed self-report items pertaining to opioid overdose risks. Results: A 3-factor scale was established, representing Opioid Knowledge (4 items), Opioid Overdose Knowledge (4 items), and Opioid Overdose Response Knowledge (4 items). The scale had strong internal and face validity. Patients with chronic pain performed worse than illicit drug users in almost all items assessed, highlighting the need to increase knowledge of opioid overdose risk to this population. Conclusions: This study sought to develop a brief, internally valid method for quickly assessing deficits in opioid overdose risk areas within users of illicit and prescribed opioids, to provide an efficient metric for assessing and comparing educational interventions, facilitate conversations between physicians and patients about overdose risks, and help formally identify knowledge deficits in other patient populations. PMID:27504923

  15. Blank-Comparison Assessment of Stimulus-Stimulus Relations in Individuals with Mental Retardation: A Methodological Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serna, Richard W.; Wilkinson, Krista M.; McIlvane, William J.

    1998-01-01

    Two experiments illustrate using blank-comparison matching to sample with adolescents with mental retardation. In the first experiment, the method was used to explore bases for emergent symbolic mapping performances. In the second, similarity judgments between form stimuli were assessed. Both experiments confirmed the feasibility and utility of…

  16. Food Safety Practices Assessment Tool: An Innovative Way to Test Food Safety Skills among Individuals with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbone, Elena T.; Scarpati, Stanley E.; Pivarnik, Lori F.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an innovative assessment tool designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a food safety skills curriculum for learners receiving special education services. As schools respond to the increased demand for training students with special needs about food safety, the need for effective curricula and tools is also increasing. A…

  17. Scaling up from an individual to a population-level assessment for risks of pesticides to threatened and endangered birds

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in collaboration with the National Marine Fisheries Service and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is currently developing a methodology to assess the risks of pesticides to federally-listed threatened and endangered species. In thi...

  18. 49 CFR 1548.15 - Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for individuals having unescorted access to cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for... transportation, dispatch or security of cargo for transport on a passenger aircraft or all-cargo aircraft,...

  19. 49 CFR 1548.15 - Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for individuals having unescorted access to cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for... transportation, dispatch or security of cargo for transport on a passenger aircraft or all-cargo aircraft,...

  20. 49 CFR 1548.15 - Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for individuals having unescorted access to cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for... transportation, dispatch or security of cargo for transport on a passenger aircraft or all-cargo aircraft,...

  1. Concern and Helplessness: Citizens' Assessments of Individual and Collective Action on the Provision of Environmental Public Goods in a Coastal City at Risk of Inundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunyan, Sabrina; Collins, Alan; Duffy, David

    2016-09-01

    Survey data from a representative sample of 1005 households in the UK coastal city of Portsmouth are examined to discern commonalities and contrasts in their assessment of actions to address the related environmental threats of climate change and flooding. The city of Portsmouth is at risk of inundation from rising sea levels and the city has recent experience of flooding. A simple local and global public good framework is used to organize the understanding of reported attitudes and their determinants. The findings show that it is not always the same individuals who express concern about both climate change and flooding. Investigation into perceptions of helplessness in tackling climate change indicates that individuals more often perceived themselves to be helpless in tackling climate but perceived local collective action to be more effective. Individuals considered local collective action to be more effective in tackling climate change. Perceptions of individual helplessness are in turn related to reported concern. Several socioeconomic characteristics of individuals are shown to be useful in explaining the determinants of concern and perceptions of helplessness among respondents. As other cities face climate change-related challenges, the empirical findings, based upon attitudes from an alert urban population, are informative to policy design.

  2. Concern and Helplessness: Citizens' Assessments of Individual and Collective Action on the Provision of Environmental Public Goods in a Coastal City at Risk of Inundation.

    PubMed

    Bunyan, Sabrina; Collins, Alan; Duffy, David

    2016-09-01

    Survey data from a representative sample of 1005 households in the UK coastal city of Portsmouth are examined to discern commonalities and contrasts in their assessment of actions to address the related environmental threats of climate change and flooding. The city of Portsmouth is at risk of inundation from rising sea levels and the city has recent experience of flooding. A simple local and global public good framework is used to organize the understanding of reported attitudes and their determinants. The findings show that it is not always the same individuals who express concern about both climate change and flooding. Investigation into perceptions of helplessness in tackling climate change indicates that individuals more often perceived themselves to be helpless in tackling climate but perceived local collective action to be more effective. Individuals considered local collective action to be more effective in tackling climate change. Perceptions of individual helplessness are in turn related to reported concern. Several socioeconomic characteristics of individuals are shown to be useful in explaining the determinants of concern and perceptions of helplessness among respondents. As other cities face climate change-related challenges, the empirical findings, based upon attitudes from an alert urban population, are informative to policy design.

  3. In vivo MRI quantification of individual muscle and organ volumes for assessment of anabolic steroid growth effects.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ed X; Tang, Haiying; Tong, Christopher; Heymsfield, Steve B; Vasselli, Joseph R

    2008-04-01

    This study aimed to develop a quantitative and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to investigate the muscle growth effects of anabolic steroids. A protocol of MRI acquisition on a standard clinical 1.5 T scanner and quantitative image analysis was established and employed to measure the individual muscle and organ volumes in the intact and castrated guinea pigs undergoing a 16-week treatment protocol by two well-documented anabolic steroids, testosterone and nandrolone, via implanted silastic capsules. High correlations between the in vivo MRI and postmortem dissection measurements were observed for shoulder muscle complex (R=0.86), masseter (R=0.79), temporalis (R=0.95), neck muscle complex (R=0.58), prostate gland and seminal vesicles (R=0.98), and testis (R=0.96). Furthermore, the longitudinal MRI measurements yielded adequate sensitivity to detect the restoration of growth to or towards normal in castrated guinea pigs by replacing circulating steroid levels to physiological or slightly higher levels, as expected. These results demonstrated that quantitative MRI using a standard clinical scanner provides accurate and sensitive measurement of individual muscles and organs, and this in vivo MRI protocol in conjunction with the castrated guinea pig model constitutes an effective platform to investigate the longitudinal and cross-sectional growth effects of other potential anabolic steroids. The quantitative MRI protocol developed can also be readily adapted for human studies on most clinical MRI scanner to investigate the anabolic steroid growth effects, or monitor the changes in individual muscle and organ volume and geometry following injury, strength training, neuromuscular disorders, and pharmacological or surgical interventions.

  4. Gastrointestinal microbiota of wild and inbred individuals of two house mouse subspecies assessed using high-throughput parallel pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Kreisinger, Jakub; Cížková, Dagmar; Vohánka, Jaroslav; Piálek, Jaroslav

    2014-10-01

    The effects of gastrointestinal tract microbiota (GTM) on host physiology and health have been the subject of considerable interest in recent years. While a variety of captive bred species have been used in experiments, the extent to which GTM of captive and/or inbred individuals resembles natural composition and variation in wild populations is poorly understood. Using 454 pyrosequencing, we performed 16S rDNA GTM barcoding for 30 wild house mice (Mus musculus) and wild-derived inbred strain mice belonging to two subspecies (M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus). Sequenced individuals were selected according to a 2 × 2 experimental design: wild (14) vs. inbred origin (16) and M. m. musculus (15) vs. M. m. domesticus (15). We compared alpha diversity (i.e. number of operational taxonomic units - OTUs), beta diversity (i.e. interindividual variability) and microbiota composition across the four groups. We found no difference between M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus subspecies, suggesting low effect of genetic differentiation between these two subspecies on GTM structure. Both inbred and wild populations showed the same level of microbial alpha and beta diversity; however, we found strong differentiation in microbiota composition between wild and inbred populations. Relative abundance of ~ 16% of OTUs differed significantly between wild and inbred individuals. As laboratory mice represent the most abundant model for studying the effects of gut microbiota on host metabolism, immunity and neurology, we suggest that the distinctness of laboratory-kept mouse microbiota, which differs from wild mouse microbiota, needs to be considered in future biomedical research.

  5. Disease, predation and demography: Assessing the impacts of bovine tuberculosis on African buffalo by monitoring at individual and population levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, P.C.; Heisey, D.M.; Bowers, J.A.; Hay, C.T.; Wolhuter, J.; Buss, P.; Hofmeyr, M.; Michel, A.L.; Bengis, Roy G.; Bird, T.L.F.; Du Toit, J.T.; Getz, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    1. Understanding the effects of disease is critical to determining appropriate management responses, but estimating those effects in wildlife species is challenging. We used bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in the African buffalo Syncerus caffer population of Kruger National Park, South Africa, as a case study to highlight the issues associated with estimating chronic disease effects in a long-lived host. 2. We used known and radiocollared buffalo, aerial census data, and a natural gradient in pathogen prevalence to investigate if: (i) at the individual level, BTB infection reduces reproduction; (ii) BTB infection increases vulnerability to predation; and (iii) at the population level, increased BTB prevalence causes reduced population growth. 3. There was only a marginal reduction in calving success associated with BTB infection, as indexed by the probability of sighting a known adult female with or without a calf (P = 0??065). 4. Since 1991, BTB prevalence increased from 27 to 45% in the southern region and from 4 to 28% in the central region of Kruger National Park. The prevalence in the northern regions was only 1??5% in 1998. Buffalo population growth rates, however, were neither statistically different among regions nor declining over time. 5. Lions Panthera leo did not appear to preferentially kill test-positive buffalo. The best (Akaike's Information Criterion corrected for small sample size) AICc model with BTB as a covariate [exp(??) = 0??49; 95% CI = (0??24-1??02)] suggested that the mortality hazard for positive individuals was no greater than for test-negative individuals. 6. Synthesis and applications. Test accuracy, time-varying disease status, and movement among populations are some of the issues that make the detection of chronic disease impacts challenging. For these reasons, the demographic impacts of bovine tuberculosis in the Kruger National Park remain undetectable despite 6 years of study on known individuals and 40 years of population counts

  6. Modeling individual movement decisions of brown hare (Lepus europaeus) as a key concept for realistic spatial behavior and exposure - A population model for landscape level risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Kleinmann, Joachim U; Wang, Magnus

    2017-02-07

    Spatial behavior is of crucial importance for the risk assessment of pesticides and for the assessment of effects of agricultural practice or multiple stressors, because it determines field use, exposition and recovery. Recently, population models have increasingly been used to understand the mechanisms driving risk and recovery or to conduct landscape level risk assessments. To include spatial behavior appropriately in population models for use in risk assessments a new method, "probabilistic walk", was developed, which simulates the detailed daily movement of individuals by taking food resources, vegetation cover and presence of conspecifics, into account. At each movement step animals decide where to move next based on probabilities being determined from this information. The model was parameterized to simulate populations of brown hares (Lepus europaeus). A detailed validation of the model demonstrated that it can realistically reproduce various natural patterns of brown hare ecology and behavior. Simulated proportions of time animals spent in fields (PT-values) were also comparable to field observations. It is shown that these important parameters for the risk assessment may, however, vary in different landscapes. These results demonstrate the value of using population models to reduce uncertainties in risk assessment and to better understand which factors determine risk in a landscape context. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of micronuclei frequency in individuals with a habit of tobacco by means of exfoliated oral buccal cells

    PubMed Central

    Dosi, Tanvi; Gupta, Dhaman; Hazari, Alka; Rajput, Rajan; Chauhan, Prabhav; Rajapuri, Anushri S.

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To study the genotoxic effects of tobacco on the exfoliated buccal epithelial cells in patients with oral precancerous lesions (OPLs) and Patients with tobacco habit but without oral precancerous lesion(habit controls) by using micronucleus assay as well as the quantification and detection of the biomarkers in these premalignant lesions which will be helpful in finding those patients who are at higher risk for malignant transformation. Materials and Methods: Forty samples were collected from the right and left side of buccal epithelial cells obtained from 20 individuals, i.e., 10 patients with habit control and 10 patients with OPLs. Statistical analysis was performed by the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 21.0 Unpaired t-test was performed to determine the micronucleated cell (MNC) and micronuclei (MN) frequencies in individuals; significance was set at P > 0.05. Results: There was an increase in both the MNC and MN frequency from habit controls to OPLs, indicating that the number of cells with chromosomal damage and extent of chromosomal damage in each cell was high in OPLs. Conclusion: The MN count can be used as a noninvasive tool for early detection, educating patients, screening a large population, and to check the risk for malignancy, which in turn may help in treatment planning. PMID:27652247

  8. A method to assess the influence of individual player performance distribution on match outcome in team sports.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Sam; Gupta, Ritu; McIntosh, Sam

    2016-10-01

    This study developed a method to determine whether the distribution of individual player performances can be modelled to explain match outcome in team sports, using Australian Rules football as an example. Player-recorded values (converted to a percentage of team total) in 11 commonly reported performance indicators were obtained for all regular season matches played during the 2014 Australian Football League season, with team totals also recorded. Multiple features relating to heuristically determined percentiles for each performance indicator were then extracted for each team and match, along with the outcome (win/loss). A generalised estimating equation model comprising eight key features was developed, explaining match outcome at a median accuracy of 63.9% under 10-fold cross-validation. Lower 75th, 90th and 95th percentile values for team goals and higher 25th and 50th percentile values for disposals were linked with winning. Lower 95th and higher 25th percentile values for Inside 50s and Marks, respectively, were also important contributors. These results provide evidence supporting team strategies which aim to obtain an even spread of goal scorers in Australian Rules football. The method developed in this investigation could be used to quantify the importance of individual contributions to overall team performance in team sports.

  9. Assessing the Ecological Response of Dung Beetles in an Agricultural Landscape Using Number of Individuals and Biomass in Diversity Measures.

    PubMed

    Cultid-Medina, C A; Escobar, F

    2016-04-01

    The global increase in demand for productive land requires us to increase our knowledge of the value of agricultural landscapes for the management and conservation of biodiversity, particularly in tropical regions. Thus, comparative studies of how different community attributes respond to changes in land use under different levels of deforestation intensity would be useful. We analyzed patterns of dung beetle diversity in an Andean region dominated by sun-grown coffee. Diversity was estimated using two measures of species abundance (the number of individuals and biomass) and was compared among four types of vegetation cover (forest, riparian forest, sun-grown coffee, and pastures) in three landscape plots with different degrees of deforestation intensity (low, intermediate, and high). We found that dung beetle diversity patterns differed between types of vegetation cover and degree of deforestation, depending on whether the number of individuals or biomass was used. Based on biomass, inequality in the dung beetle community was lowest in the forest, and increased in the sun-grown coffee and pastures across all levels of deforestation, particularly for the increasing dominance of large species. The number of beetles and biomass indicate that the spatial dominance of sun-grown coffee does not necessarily imply the drastic impoverishment of dung beetle diversity. In fact, for these beetles, it would seem that the landscape studied has not yet crossed "a point of no return." This system offers a starting point for exploring biodiversity management and conservation options in the sun-grown coffee landscapes of the Colombian Andes.

  10. Toxicity assessment due to sub-chronic exposure to individual and mixtures of four toxic heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Cobbina, Samuel J; Chen, Yao; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Wu, Xueshan; Zhao, Ting; Zhang, Zhen; Feng, Weiwei; Wang, Wei; Li, Qian; Wu, Xiangyang; Yang, Liuqing

    2015-08-30

    Humans are exposed to a cocktail of heavy metal toxicants in the environment. Though heavy metals are deleterious, there is a paucity of information on toxicity of low dose mixtures. In this study, lead (Pb) (0.01mg/L), mercury (Hg) (0.001mg/L), cadmium (Cd) (0.005mg/L) and arsenic (As) (0.01mg/L) were administered individually and as mixtures to 10 groups of 40 three-week old mice (20 males and 20 females), for 120 days. The study established that low dose exposures induced toxicity to the brain, liver, and kidney of mice. Metal mixtures showed higher toxicities compared to individual metals, as exposure to low dose Pb+Hg+Cd reduced brain weight and induced structural lesions, such as neuronal degeneration in 30-days. Pb+Hg+Cd and Pb+Hg+As+Cd exposure induced hepatocellular injury to mice evidenced by decreased antioxidant activities with marginal increases in MDA. These were accentuated by increases in ALT, AST and ALP. Interactions in metal mixtures were basically synergistic in nature and exposure to Pb+Hg+As+Cd induced renal tubular necrosis in kidneys of mice. This study underlines the importance of elucidating the toxicity of low dose metal mixtures so as to protect public health.

  11. Therapist adherence in individual cognitive-behavioral therapy for binge-eating disorder: assessment, course, and predictors.

    PubMed

    Brauhardt, Anne; de Zwaan, Martina; Herpertz, Stephan; Zipfel, Stephan; Svaldi, Jennifer; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Hilbert, Anja

    2014-10-01

    While cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the most well-established treatment for binge-eating disorder (BED), little is known about process factors influencing its outcome. The present study sought to explore the assessment of therapist adherence, its course over treatment, and its associations with patient and therapist characteristics, and the therapeutic alliance. In a prospective multicenter randomized-controlled trial comparing CBT to internet-based guided self-help (INTERBED-study), therapist adherence using the newly developed Adherence Control Form (ACF) was determined by trained raters in randomly selected 418 audio-taped CBT sessions of 89 patients (25% of all sessions). Observer-rated therapeutic alliance, interview-based and self-reported patient and therapist characteristics were assessed. Three-level multilevel modeling was applied. The ACF showed adequate psychometric properties. Therapist adherence was excellent. While significant between-therapist variability in therapist adherence was found, within-therapist variability was non-significant. Patient and therapist characteristics did not predict the therapist adherence. The therapist adherence positively predicted the therapeutic alliance. The ACF demonstrated its utility to assess therapist adherence in CBT for BED. The excellent levels of therapist adherence point to the internal validity of the CBT within the INTERBED-study serving as a prerequisite for empirical comparisons between treatments. Variability between therapists should be addressed in therapist trainings and dissemination trials.

  12. The Dynamic Risk Assessment and Management System: An Assessment of Immediate Risk of Violence for Individuals with Offending and Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, William R.; Murphy, Lesley; Smith, Gordon; Murphy, Daniel; Edwards, Zoe; Chittock, Chris; Grieve, Alan; Young, Steven J.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Research on dynamic risk assessment has developed over the last 10 years and a number of variables have emerged as being possible predictors of future sexual and violent offences. These variables include hostile attitude/anger and compliance with routine. In 2002, Thornton ("Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research & Treatment" 14, 139)…

  13. Attitudes of Special Education Teachers and School Psychologists toward Individualized Education Plan IEPs Developed Using Traditional Assessments versus IEPs Developed Using a Multiple Intelligence Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhajri, Meshari A SH A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the usefulness of Multiple Intelligence for educational planning for students in special education. More specifically, this study applied the Multiple Intelligences Developmental Assessment Scales (MIDAS) to a sample of students receiving special education services who had IEPs developed using…

  14. Assessment of the 3 D Pore Structure and Individual Components of Preshaped Catalyst Bodies by X-Ray Imaging.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Julio C; Mader, Kevin; Holler, Mirko; Haberthür, David; Diaz, Ana; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Cheng, Wu-Cheng; Shu, Yuying; Raabe, Jörg; Menzel, Andreas; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A

    2015-02-01

    Porosity in catalyst particles is essential because it enables reactants to reach the active sites and it enables products to leave the catalyst. The engineering of composite-particle catalysts through the tuning of pore-size distribution and connectivity is hampered by the inability to visualize structure and porosity at critical-length scales. Herein, it is shown that the combination of phase-contrast X-ray microtomography and high-resolution ptychographic X-ray tomography allows the visualization and characterization of the interparticle pores at micro- and nanometer-length scales. Furthermore, individual components in preshaped catalyst bodies used in fluid catalytic cracking, one of the most used catalysts, could be visualized and identified. The distribution of pore sizes, as well as enclosed pores, which cannot be probed by traditional methods, such as nitrogen physisorption and isotherm analysis, were determined.

  15. New salivary anti-haemostatics containing protective epitopes from Ornithodoros moubata ticks: Assessment of their individual and combined vaccine efficacy.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Martín, Verónica; Manzano-Román, Raúl; Oleaga, Ana; Pérez-Sánchez, Ricardo

    2015-09-15

    Ornithodoros moubata is the main vector of the pathogens causing African swine fever and human relapsing fever in Africa. The development of an efficient vaccine against this tick would facilitate its control and the prevention of the diseases it transmits to a considerable extent. Previous efforts to identify vaccine target candidates led us to the discovery of novel salivary proteins that probably act as anti-haemostatics at the host-tick interface, including a secreted phospholipase A2 (PLA2), a 7DB-like protein (7DB-like), a riboprotein 60S L10 (RP-60S), an apyrase (APY), and a new platelet aggregation inhibitor peptide, designated mougrin (MOU). In this work, the corresponding recombinant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and their individual vaccine efficacy was tested in rabbit vaccination trials. All of them, except the less immunogenic RP-60S, induced strong humoral responses that reduced tick feeding and survival, providing vaccine efficacies of 44.2%, 43.2% and 27.2%, 19.9% and 17.3% for PLA2, APY, MOU, RP-60S and 7DB-like, respectively. In the case of the more protective recombinant antigens (PLA2, APY and MOU), the immunodominant protective linear B-cell epitopes were identified and their combined vaccine efficacy was tested in a second vaccine trial using different adjuvants. In comparison with the best efficacy of individual antigens, the multicomponent vaccine increased vaccine efficacy by 13.6%, indicating additive protective effects rather than a synergistic effect. Tick saliva inoculated during natural tick-host contacts had a boosting effect on vaccinated animals, increasing specific antibody levels and protection.

  16. Histomorphometric Assessment of Cancellous and Cortical Bone Material Distribution in the Proximal Humerus of Normal and Osteoporotic Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Sprecher, Christoph M.; Schmidutz, Florian; Helfen, Tobias; Richards, R. Geoff; Blauth, Michael; Milz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Osteoporosis is a systemic disorder predominantly affecting postmenopausal women but also men at an advanced age. Both genders may suffer from low-energy fractures of, for example, the proximal humerus when reduction of the bone stock or/and quality has occurred. The aim of the current study was to compare the amount of bone in typical fracture zones of the proximal humerus in osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic individuals. The amount of bone in the proximal humerus was determined histomorphometrically in frontal plane sections. The donor bones were allocated to normal and osteoporotic groups using the T-score from distal radius DXA measurements of the same extremities. The T-score evaluation was done according to WHO criteria. Regional thickness of the subchondral plate and the metaphyseal cortical bone were measured using interactive image analysis. At all measured locations the amount of cancellous bone was significantly lower in individuals from the osteoporotic group compared to the non-osteoporotic one. The osteoporotic group showed more significant differences between regions of the same bone than the non-osteoporotic group. In both groups the subchondral cancellous bone and the subchondral plate were least affected by bone loss. In contrast, the medial metaphyseal region in the osteoporotic group exhibited higher bone loss in comparison to the lateral side. This observation may explain prevailing fracture patterns, which frequently involve compression fractures and certainly has an influence on the stability of implants placed in this medial region. It should be considered when planning the anchoring of osteosynthesis materials in osteoporotic patients with fractures of the proximal humerus. PMID:26705200

  17. The mental health of individuals referred for assessment of autism spectrum disorder in adulthood: A clinic report.

    PubMed

    Russell, Ailsa J; Murphy, Clodagh M; Wilson, Ellie; Gillan, Nicola; Brown, Cordelia; Robertson, Dene M; Craig, Michael C; Deeley, Quinton; Zinkstok, Janneke; Johnston, Kate; McAlonan, Grainne M; Spain, Deborah; Murphy, Declan Gm

    2016-07-01

    Growing awareness of autism spectrum disorders has increased the demand for diagnostic services in adulthood. High rates of mental health problems have been reported in young people and adults with autism spectrum disorder. However, sampling and methodological issues mean prevalence estimates and conclusions about specificity in psychiatric co-morbidity in autism spectrum disorder remain unclear. A retrospective case review of 859 adults referred for assessment of autism spectrum disorder compares International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision diagnoses in those that met criteria for autism spectrum disorder (n = 474) with those that did not (n = 385). Rates of psychiatric diagnosis (>57%) were equivalent across both groups and exceeded general population rates for a number of conditions. The prevalence of anxiety disorders, particularly obsessive compulsive disorder, was significantly higher in adults with autism spectrum disorder than adults without autism spectrum disorder. Limitations of this observational clinic study, which may impact generalisability of the findings, include the lack of standardised structured psychiatric diagnostic assessments by assessors blind to autism spectrum disorder diagnosis and inter-rater reliability. The implications of this study highlight the need for careful consideration of mental health needs in all adults referred for autism spectrum disorder diagnosis.

  18. A newly developed tool for intra-tracheal temperature and humidity assessment in laryngectomized individuals: the Airway Climate Explorer (ACE).

    PubMed

    Zuur, J K; Muller, S H; de Jongh, F H C; van der Horst, M J; Shehata, M; van Leeuwen, J; Sinaasappel, M; Hilgers, F J M

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a postlaryngectomy airway climate explorer (ACE) for assessment of intratracheal temperature and humidity and of influence of heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs). Engineering goals were within-device condensation prevention and fast response time characteristics. The ACE consists of a small diameter, heated air-sampling catheter connected to a heated sensor house, containing a humidity sensor. Air is sucked through the catheter by a controlled-flow pump. Validation was performed in a climate chamber using a calibrated reference sensor and in a two-flow system. Additionally, the analyser was tested in vivo. Over the clinically relevant range of humidity values (5-42 mg H2O/l air) the sensor output highly correlates with the reference sensor readings (R2 > 0.99). The 1-1/e response times are all <0.5 s. A first in vivo pilot measurement was successful. The newly developed, verified, fast-responding ACE is suitable for postlaryngectomy airway climate assessment.

  19. DNA Damage Signaling Assessed in Individual Cells in Relation to the Cell Cycle Phase and Induction of Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Zhao, Hong; Halicka, H. Dorota; Rybak, Paulina; Dobrucki, Jurek; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Reviewed are the phosphorylation events reporting activation of protein kinases and the key substrates critical for the DNA damage signaling (DDS). These DDS events are detected immunocytochemically using phospho-specific Abs; flow cytometry or image-assisted cytometry provide the means to quantitatively assess them on a cell by cell basis. The multiparameter analysis of the data is used to correlate these events with each other and relate to the cell cycle phase, DNA replication and induction of apoptosis. Expression of γH2AX as a possible marker of induction of DNA double strand breaks is the most widely studied event of DDS. Reviewed are applications of this multiparameter approach to investigate constitutive DDS reporting DNA damage by endogenous oxidants byproducts of oxidative phosphorylation. Also reviewed are its applications to detect and explore mechanisms of DDS induced by variety of exogenous agents targeting DNA such as exogenous oxidants, ionizing radiation, radiomimetic drugs, UV light, DNA topoisomerase I and II inhibitors, DNA crosslinking drugs and variety of environmental genotoxins. Analysis of DDS induced by these agents provides often a wealth of information about mechanism of induction and the type of DNA damage (lesion) and is reviewed in the context of cell cycle phase specificity, DNA replication, and induction of apoptosis or cell senescence. Critically assessed is interpretation of the data as to whether the observed DDS events report induction of a particular type of DNA lesion. PMID:23137030

  20. A newly developed tool for intra-tracheal temperature and humidity assessment in laryngectomized individuals: the Airway Climate Explorer (ACE)

    PubMed Central

    Zuur, J. K.; Muller, S. H.; de Jongh, F. H. C.; van der Horst, M. J.; Shehata, M.; van Leeuwen, J.; Sinaasappel, M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a postlaryngectomy airway climate explorer (ACE) for assessment of intratracheal temperature and humidity and of influence of heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs). Engineering goals were within-device condensation prevention and fast response time characteristics. The ACE consists of a small diameter, heated air-sampling catheter connected to a heated sensor house, containing a humidity sensor. Air is sucked through the catheter by a controlled-flow pump. Validation was performed in a climate chamber using a calibrated reference sensor and in a two-flow system. Additionally, the analyser was tested in vivo. Over the clinically relevant range of humidity values (5–42 mg H2O/l air) the sensor output highly correlates with the reference sensor readings (R2 > 0.99). The 1–1/e response times are all <0.5 s. A first in vivo pilot measurement was successful. The newly developed, verified, fast-responding ACE is suitable for postlaryngectomy airway climate assessment. PMID:17629761

  1. The frontal assessment battery (FAB) reveals neurocognitive dysfunction in substance-dependent individuals in distinct executive domains: Abstract reasoning, motor programming, and cognitive flexibility.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi; Nicastri, Sergio; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra; Bolla, Karen I

    2010-10-01

    Substance-dependence is highly associated with executive cognitive function (ECF) impairments. However, considering that it is difficult to assess ECF clinically, the aim of the present study was to examine the feasibility of a brief neuropsychological tool (the Frontal Assessment Battery - FAB) to detect specific ECF impairments in a sample of substance-dependent individuals (SDI). Sixty-two subjects participated in this study. Thirty DSM-IV-diagnosed SDI, after 2weeks of abstinence, and 32 healthy individuals (control group) were evaluated with FAB and other ECF-related tasks: digits forward (DF), digits backward (DB), Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT), and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). SDI did not differ from the control group on sociodemographic variables or IQ. However, SDI performed below the controls in DF, DB, and FAB. The SDI were cognitively impaired in 3 of the 6 cognitive domains assessed by the FAB: abstract reasoning, motor programming, and cognitive flexibility. The FAB correlated with DF, SCWT, and WCST. In addition, some neuropsychological measures were correlated with the amount of alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine use. In conclusion, SDI performed more poorly than the comparison group on the FAB and the FAB's results were associated with other ECF-related tasks. The results suggested a negative impact of alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine use on the ECF. The FAB may be useful in assisting professionals as an instrument to screen for ECF-related deficits in SDI.

  2. Individual and health-related quality of life assessment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and their caregivers.

    PubMed

    Lo Coco, Gianluca; Lo Coco, Daniele; Cicero, Viviana; Oliveri, Antonino; Lo Verso, Girolamo; Piccoli, Federico; La Bella, Vincenzo

    2005-11-15

    We performed a cross-sectional study aimed to address the quality of life (QoL) and putative associated variables in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and their respective caregivers, using both health-related (WHOQOL-BREF) and individual (SEIQoL-DW) QoL instruments. Further, we sought to investigate concordance within patient-caregiver pairs for ratings of respective QoL. Thirty-seven patient-caregiver pairs were included in the study. QoL was rated low by both patients and caregivers, and there was no significant difference between them on scores of overall QoL, even if caregivers showed higher scores on the physical and psychological WHOQOL-BREF domains compared to patients. No correlation could be found between QoL of both patients and caregivers and all the examined socio-demographic variables. Moreover, concordance between patients and respective caregivers was low for ratings of QoL, suggesting that their QoL is not necessarily interrelated, and that these couples do not actually represent a unique psychological entity. Interestingly, physical dysfunction, measured with the ALS-FRS, was not significantly correlated with caregivers' individual QoL scores. The most frequently nominated SEIQoL-DW cues were related to health (physical and psychological) and family for both patients and caregivers, and there was high agreement for the choice of areas important for subject's QoL. Interestingly, patients and caregivers who endorsed spirituality as a significant domain reported better QoL. Our study confirms that ALS has a negative impact on QoL in both patients and caregivers. However, caregivers who present lower QoL levels are not always those who have to look after the most physically or psychologically impaired patients. Major attention on QoL issues of both patients and caregivers, family status, and health perception, integrated with the medical evaluation, could lead to a better understanding of the problems related to the caregiving experience

  3. Radiation risk models for all solid cancers other than those types of cancer requiring individual assessments after a nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Linda; Zhang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    In the assessment of health risks after nuclear accidents, some health consequences require special attention. For example, in their 2013 report on health risk assessment after the Fukushima nuclear accident, the World Health Organisation (WHO) panel of experts considered risks of breast cancer, thyroid cancer and leukaemia. For these specific cancer types, use was made of already published excess relative risk (ERR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) models for radiation-related cancer incidence fitted to the epidemiological data from the Japanese A-bomb Life Span Study (LSS). However, it was also considered important to assess all other types of solid cancer together and the WHO, in their above-mentioned report, stated "No model to calculate the risk for all other solid cancer excluding breast and thyroid cancer risks is available from the LSS data". Applying the LSS models for all solid cancers along with the models for the specific sites means that some cancers have an overlap in the risk evaluations. Thus, calculating the total solid cancer risk plus the breast cancer risk plus the thyroid cancer risk can overestimate the total risk by several per cent. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to publish the required models for all other solid cancers, i.e. all solid cancers other than those types of cancer requiring special attention after a nuclear accident. The new models presented here have been fitted to the same LSS data set from which the risks provided by the WHO were derived. Although it is known already that the EAR and ERR effect modifications by sex are statistically significant for the outcome "all solid cancer", it is shown here that sex modification is not statistically significant for the outcome "all solid cancer other than thyroid and breast cancer". It is also shown here that the sex-averaged solid cancer risks with and without the sex modification are very similar once breast and thyroid cancers are factored out. Some other notable model

  4. Assessment of Oral Conditions and Quality of Life in Morbid Obese and Normal Weight Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Joselene Martinelli; Moura-Grec, Patrícia Garcia de; Freitas, Adriana Rodrigues de; Sales-Peres, Arsênio; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; Ceneviva, Reginaldo; Sales-Peres, Sílvia Helena de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the impact of oral disease on the quality of life of morbid obese and normal weight individuals. Cohort was composed of 100 morbid-obese and 50 normal-weight subjects. Dental caries, community periodontal index, gingival bleeding on probing (BOP), calculus, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, dental wear, stimulated salivary flow, and salivary pH were used to evaluate oral diseases. Socioeconomic and the oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP) questionnaires showed the quality of life in both groups. Unpaired Student, Fisher's Exact, Chi-Square, Mann-Whitney, and Multiple Regression tests were used (p<0.05). Obese showed lower socio-economic level than control group, but no differences were found considering OIDP. No significant differences were observed between groups considering the number of absent teeth, bruxism, difficult mastication, calculus, initial caries lesion, and caries. However, saliva flow was low, and the salivary pH was changed in the obese group. Enamel wear was lower and dentine wear was higher in obese. More BOP, insertion loss, and periodontal pocket, especially the deeper ones, were found in obese subjects. The regression model showed gender, smoking, salivary pH, socio-economic level, periodontal pocket, and periodontal insertion loss significantly associated to obesity. However, both OIDP and BOP did not show significant contribution to the model. The quality of life of morbid obese was more negatively influenced by oral disease and socio-economic factors than in normal weight subjects.

  5. Pb-Pb dating of individual chondrules from the CBa chondrite Gujba: Assessment of the impact plume formation model

    PubMed Central

    Bollard, Jean; Connelly, James N.; Bizzarro, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The CB chondrites are metal-rich meteorites with characteristics that sharply distinguish them from other chondrite groups. Their unusual chemical and petrologic features and a young formation age of bulk chondrules dated from the CBa chondrite Gujba are interpreted to reflect a single-stage impact origin. Here, we report high-precision internal isochrons for four individual chondrules of the Gujba chondrite to probe the formation history of CB chondrites and evaluate the concordancy of relevant short-lived radionuclide chronometers. All four chondrules define a brief formation interval with a weighted mean age of 4562.49 ± 0.21 Myr, consistent with its origin from the vapor-melt impact plume generated by colliding planetesimals. Formation in a debris disk mostly devoid of nebular gas and dust sets an upper limit for the solar protoplanetary disk lifetime at 4.8 ± 0.3 Myr. Finally, given the well-behaved Pb-Pb systematics of all four chondrules, a precise formation age and the concordancy of the Mn-Cr, Hf-W, and I-Xe short-lived radionuclide relative chronometers, we propose that Gujba may serve as a suitable time anchor for these systems. PMID:27429545

  6. Work or place? Assessing the concurrent effects of workplace exploitation and area-of-residence economic inequality on individual health.

    PubMed

    Muntaner, Carles; Li, Yong; Ng, Edwin; Benach, Joan; Chung, Haejoo

    2011-01-01

    Building on previous multilevel studies in social epidemiology, this cross-sectional study examines, simultaneously, the contextual effects of workplace exploitation and area-of-residence economic inequality on social inequalities in health among low-income nursing assistants. A total of 868 nursing assistants recruited from 55 nursing homes in Kentucky, Ohio, and West Virginia were surveyed between 1999 and 2001. Using a cross-classified multilevel design, the authors tested the effects of area-of-residence (income inequality and racial segregation), workplace (type of nursing home ownership and managerial pressure), and individual-level (age, gender, race/ethnicity, health insurance, length of employment, social support, type of nursing unit, preexisting psychopathology, physical health, education, and income) variables on health (self-reported health and activity limitations) and behavioral outcomes (alcohol use and caffeine consumption). Findings reveal that overall health was associated with both workplace exploitation and area-of-residence income inequality; area of residence was associated with activity limitations and binge drinking; and workplace exploitation was associated with caffeine consumption. This study explicitly accounts for the multiple contextual structure and effects of economic inequality on health. More work is necessary to replicate the current findings and establish robust conclusions on workplace and area of residence that might help inform interventions.

  7. Assessing consumer expectations about pizza: A study on celiac and non-celiac individuals using the word association technique.

    PubMed

    Pontual, I; Amaral, G V; Esmerino, E A; Pimentel, T C; Freitas, M Q; Fukuda, R K; Sant'Ana, I L; Silva, L G; Cruz, A G

    2017-04-01

    The word association (WA) technique was used to investigate the perception of two groups of consumers (72 celiac and 78 non-celiac individuals; 150 in total) to pizza dough (thick or thin) and the raw material used at the manufacture (cassava flour or rice flour). Different perceptions of the four stimuli were detected by Chi-square test (X(2)=314.393, p<0.0001) for both groups. Seven categories were used for both groups: food/composition, health, doubt/uncertainty, novelty, negative feelings, positive feelings, and sensory aspects. The stimulus 'pizza dough made with cassava flour' was associated with the category "food/composition" and the stimuli 'pizza made with rice flour', 'pizza made with cassava flour' and 'thin dough' were associated with "positive feelings". The stimulus 'thick dough' was related only to the category "negative feelings". WA indicated that gluten-free pizza should have thin dough and us cassava flour or rice flour as the raw material.

  8. An assessment of fixed interval timing in free-flying honey bees (Apis mellifera ligustica): an analysis of individual performance.

    PubMed

    Craig, David Philip Arthur; Varnon, Christopher A; Sokolowski, Michel B C; Wells, Harrington; Abramson, Charles I

    2014-01-01

    Interval timing is a key element of foraging theory, models of predator avoidance, and competitive interactions. Although interval timing is well documented in vertebrate species, it is virtually unstudied in invertebrates. In the present experiment, we used free-flying honey bees (Apis mellifera ligustica) as a model for timing behaviors. Subjects were trained to enter a hole in an automated artificial flower to receive a nectar reinforcer (i.e. reward). Responses were continuously reinforced prior to exposure to either a fixed interval (FI) 15-sec, FI 30-sec, FI 60-sec, or FI 120-sec reinforcement schedule. We measured response rate and post-reinforcement pause within each fixed interval trial between reinforcers. Honey bees responded at higher frequencies earlier in the fixed interval suggesting subject responding did not come under traditional forms of temporal control. Response rates were lower during FI conditions compared to performance on continuous reinforcement schedules, and responding was more resistant to extinction when previously reinforced on FI schedules. However, no "scalloped" or "break-and-run" patterns of group or individual responses reinforced on FI schedules were observed; no traditional evidence of temporal control was found. Finally, longer FI schedules eventually caused all subjects to cease returning to the operant chamber indicating subjects did not tolerate the longer FI schedules.

  9. An Assessment of Fixed Interval Timing in Free-Flying Honey Bees (Apis mellifera ligustica): An Analysis of Individual Performance

    PubMed Central

    Craig, David Philip Arthur; Varnon, Christopher A.; Sokolowski, Michel B. C.; Wells, Harrington; Abramson, Charles I.

    2014-01-01

    Interval timing is a key element of foraging theory, models of predator avoidance, and competitive interactions. Although interval timing is well documented in vertebrate species, it is virtually unstudied in invertebrates. In the present experiment, we used free-flying honey bees (Apis mellifera ligustica) as a model for timing behaviors. Subjects were trained to enter a hole in an automated artificial flower to receive a nectar reinforcer (i.e. reward). Responses were continuously reinforced prior to exposure to either a fixed interval (FI) 15-sec, FI 30-sec, FI 60-sec, or FI 120-sec reinforcement schedule. We measured response rate and post-reinforcement pause within each fixed interval trial between reinforcers. Honey bees responded at higher frequencies earlier in the fixed interval suggesting subject responding did not come under traditional forms of temporal control. Response rates were lower during FI conditions compared to performance on continuous reinforcement schedules, and responding was more resistant to extinction when previously reinforced on FI schedules. However, no “scalloped” or “break-and-run” patterns of group or individual responses reinforced on FI schedules were observed; no traditional evidence of temporal control was found. Finally, longer FI schedules eventually caused all subjects to cease returning to the operant chamber indicating subjects did not tolerate the longer FI schedules. PMID:24983960

  10. Assessing Individual Intellectual Output in Scientific Research: Mexico's National System for Evaluating Scholars Performance in the Humanities and the Behavioral Sciences.

    PubMed

    Frixione, Eugenio; Ruiz-Zamarripa, Lourdes; Hernández, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Assessing the research of individual scholars is currently a matter of serious concern and worldwide debate. In order to gauge the long-term efficacy and efficiency of this practice, we carried out a limited survey of the operation and outcome of Mexico's 30-year old National System of Investigators or SNI, the country's main instrument for stimulating competitive research in science and technology. A statistical random sample of researchers listed in the area of Humanities and Behavioral Sciences-one of SNI's first and better consolidated academic divisions comprising a wide range of research disciplines, from philosophy to pedagogy to archaeology to experimental brain research-was screened comparing individual ranks or "Levels of distinction" to actual compliance with the SNI's own evaluation criteria, as reflected in major public databases of scholarly production. The same analysis was applied to members of a recent Review Committee, integrated by top-level researchers belonging to that general area of knowledge, who have been in charge of assessing and ranking their colleagues. Our results for both sets of scholars show wide disparity of individual productivity within the same SNI Level, according to all key indicators officially required (books issued by prestigious publishers, research articles appeared in indexed journals, and formation of new scientists), as well as in impact estimated by numbers of citations. Statistical calculation from the data indicates that 36% of members in the Review Committee and 53% of researchers in the random sample do not satisfy the official criteria requested for their appointed SNI Levels. The findings are discussed in terms of possible methodological errors in our study, of relevance for the SNI at large in relation to independent appraisals, of the cost-benefit balance of the organization as a research policy tool, and of possible alternatives for its thorough restructuring. As it currently stands SNI is not a model for

  11. Assessing Individual Intellectual Output in Scientific Research: Mexico’s National System for Evaluating Scholars Performance in the Humanities and the Behavioral Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Frixione, Eugenio; Ruiz-Zamarripa, Lourdes; Hernández, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Assessing the research of individual scholars is currently a matter of serious concern and worldwide debate. In order to gauge the long-term efficacy and efficiency of this practice, we carried out a limited survey of the operation and outcome of Mexico’s 30-year old National System of Investigators or SNI, the country’s main instrument for stimulating competitive research in science and technology. A statistical random sample of researchers listed in the area of Humanities and Behavioral Sciences—one of SNI’s first and better consolidated academic divisions comprising a wide range of research disciplines, from philosophy to pedagogy to archaeology to experimental brain research—was screened comparing individual ranks or "Levels of distinction" to actual compliance with the SNI’s own evaluation criteria, as reflected in major public databases of scholarly production. The same analysis was applied to members of a recent Review Committee, integrated by top-level researchers belonging to that general area of knowledge, who have been in charge of assessing and ranking their colleagues. Our results for both sets of scholars show wide disparity of individual productivity within the same SNI Level, according to all key indicators officially required (books issued by prestigious publishers, research articles appeared in indexed journals, and formation of new scientists), as well as in impact estimated by numbers of citations. Statistical calculation from the data indicates that 36% of members in the Review Committee and 53% of researchers in the random sample do not satisfy the official criteria requested for their appointed SNI Levels. The findings are discussed in terms of possible methodological errors in our study, of relevance for the SNI at large in relation to independent appraisals, of the cost-benefit balance of the organization as a research policy tool, and of possible alternatives for its thorough restructuring. As it currently stands SNI is not a

  12. Inadequacy of 3-month Oswestry Disability Index outcome for assessing individual longer-term patient experience after lumbar spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Asher, Anthony L; Chotai, Silky; Devin, Clinton J; Speroff, Theodore; Harrell, Frank E; Nian, Hui; Dittus, Robert S; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Knightly, John J; Glassman, Steven D; Bydon, Mohamad; Archer, Kristin R; Foley, Kevin T; McGirt, Matthew J

    2016-08-01

    MCID at 3 and 12 months. The discordance rates of achieving or not achieving MCID for ODI were in the range of 19% to 27% for all diagnoses and treatments (decompression with and without fusion). The positive and negative predictive value of 3-months ODI to predict 12-month ODI was 86% and 60% for MCID and 82% and 67% for SCB. CONCLUSIONS Based on their findings, the authors conclude the following: 1) Predictive methods for functional outcome based on early patient experience (i.e., baseline and/or 3-month data) should be used to help evaluate the effectiveness of procedures in patient populations, rather than serving as a proxy for long-term individual patient experience. 2) Prospective longitudinal registries need to span at least 12 months to determine the effectiveness of spine care at the individual patient and practitioner level.

  13. Assessment of Oral Conditions and Quality of Life in Morbid Obese and Normal Weight Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Adriana Rodrigues; Sales-Peres, Arsênio; Ceneviva, Reginaldo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the impact of oral disease on the quality of life of morbid obese and normal weight individuals. Cohort was composed of 100 morbid-obese and 50 normal-weight subjects. Dental caries, community periodontal index, gingival bleeding on probing (BOP), calculus, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, dental wear, stimulated salivary flow, and salivary pH were used to evaluate oral diseases. Socioeconomic and the oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP) questionnaires showed the quality of life in both groups. Unpaired Student, Fisher’s Exact, Chi-Square, Mann-Whitney, and Multiple Regression tests were used (p<0.05). Obese showed lower socio-economic level than control group, but no differences were found considering OIDP. No significant differences were observed between groups considering the number of absent teeth, bruxism, difficult mastication, calculus, initial caries lesion, and caries. However, saliva flow was low, and the salivary pH was changed in the obese group. Enamel wear was lower and dentine wear was higher in obese. More BOP, insertion loss, and periodontal pocket, especially the deeper ones, were found in obese subjects. The regression model showed gender, smoking, salivary pH, socio-economic level, periodontal pocket, and periodontal insertion loss significantly associated to obesity. However, both OIDP and BOP did not show significant contribution to the model. The quality of life of morbid obese was more negatively influenced by oral disease and socio-economic factors than in normal weight subjects. PMID:26177268

  14. Construction and assessment of individualized proteogenomic databases for large-scale analysis of nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants.

    PubMed

    Krug, Karsten; Popic, Sasa; Carpy, Alejandro; Taumer, Christoph; Macek, Boris

    2014-12-01

    Next-generation sequencing projects focusing on genomes and transcriptomes identify millions of single nucleotide variants (SNVs), many of which result in single amino acid substitutions. These nonsynonymous (ns) SNVs are typically not incorporated into protein sequence databases used to identify MS/MS data. Here, we perform a comparative analysis of the assembly of nsSNV-containing proteogenomic databases. We use a comprehensive transcriptome and proteome dataset of HeLa cells from the literature to derive and to incorporate SNVs into databases applicable to proteomics search engines, and to assess their performance in the identification of nsSNVs. We assemble the databases by (1) translation of SNV-containing transcripts into all possible reading frames, (2) translation of predicted reading frame, (3) prediction of nsSNVs and subsequent incorporation into canonical protein sequences. We show substantial differences between generated databases in terms of represented nsSNVs and theoretical search space, affecting sensitivity and specificity of database search. We query the databases with >2.2M high-resolution MS/MS spectra using MaxQuant software and identify 451 variant peptides, containing 401 nsSNVs. We conclude that prediction of reading frame and, if applicable, SNV effect result in comprehensive yet compact databases necessary to retain sensitivity in large-scale analysis of nsSNVs called from transcriptomics data.

  15. Measurement Invariance and Latent Mean Differences in the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS): Does the German Version of the RIAS Allow a Valid Assessment of Individuals with a Migration Background?

    PubMed Central

    Gygi, Jasmin T.; Fux, Elodie; Grob, Alexander; Hagmann-von Arx, Priska

    2016-01-01

    This study examined measurement invariance and latent mean differences in the German version of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS) for 316 individuals with a migration background (defined as speaking German as a second language) and 316 sex- and age-matched natives. The RIAS measures general intelligence (single-factor structure) and its two components, verbal and nonverbal intelligence (two-factor structure). Results of a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed scalar invariance for the two-factor and partial scalar invariance for the single-factor structure. We conclude that the two-factor structure of the RIAS is comparable across groups. Hence, verbal and nonverbal intelligence but not general intelligence should be considered when comparing RIAS test results of individuals with and without a migration background. Further, latent mean differences especially on the verbal, but also on the nonverbal intelligence index indicate language barriers for individuals with a migration background, as subtests corresponding to verbal intelligence require higher skills in German language. Moreover, cultural, environmental, and social factors that have to be taken into account when assessing individuals with a migration background are discussed. PMID:27846270

  16. Measurement Invariance and Latent Mean Differences in the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS): Does the German Version of the RIAS Allow a Valid Assessment of Individuals with a Migration Background?

    PubMed

    Gygi, Jasmin T; Fux, Elodie; Grob, Alexander; Hagmann-von Arx, Priska

    2016-01-01

    This study examined measurement invariance and latent mean differences in the German version of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS) for 316 individuals with a migration background (defined as speaking German as a second language) and 316 sex- and age-matched natives. The RIAS measures general intelligence (single-factor structure) and its two components, verbal and nonverbal intelligence (two-factor structure). Results of a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed scalar invariance for the two-factor and partial scalar invariance for the single-factor structure. We conclude that the two-factor structure of the RIAS is comparable across groups. Hence, verbal and nonverbal intelligence but not general intelligence should be considered when comparing RIAS test results of individuals with and without a migration background. Further, latent mean differences especially on the verbal, but also on the nonverbal intelligence index indicate language barriers for individuals with a migration background, as subtests corresponding to verbal intelligence require higher skills in German language. Moreover, cultural, environmental, and social factors that have to be taken into account when assessing individuals with a migration background are discussed.

  17. Quantitative farm-to-fork human norovirus exposure assessment of individually quick frozen raspberries and raspberry puree.

    PubMed

    Jacxsens, L; Stals, A; De Keuckelaere, A; Deliens, B; Rajkovic, A; Uyttendaele, M

    2017-02-02

    A quantitative human norovirus (NoV) exposure model describing transmission of NoV during pre-harvest, harvest and further processing of soft red fruits exemplified by raspberries is presented. The outcomes of the model demonstrate the presence of NoV in raspberry puree or individual quick frozen (IQF) raspberry fruits and were generated by Monte Carlo simulations by combining GoldSim® and @Risk® software. Input data were collected from scientific literature, observational studies and assumptions. NoV contamination of soft red fruits is assumed to take place at farms by application of contaminated water for pesticides dilution or by berries' pickers shedding NoV. The model was built simulating that a collection center received berries from ten farms with a total of 245 food handlers picking soft red fruits during a 10-hour day shift. Given 0, 5 and 20 out of 245 berries' pickers were shedding NoV, these conditions were calculated to result in a mean NoV contamination of respectively 0.47, 14.1 and 36.2 NoV particles per kg raspberries in case all raspberries are mixed to one day-batch of 11tons. The NoV contamination of the fruits was mainly driven by the route of NoV shedding food pickers (95.8%) rather than by spraying contaminated pesticide water (4.2%) (baseline scenario with 5 shedding pickers and contaminated pesticide water). Inclusion of appropriate hand washing procedures or hand washing followed by hand disinfection resulted in estimated reductions of the mean NoV levels from 14.1 to 0.16 and 0.17 NoV particles per kg raspberries, respectively, for the baseline scenario with 5 out of 245 food pickers shedding NoV. The use of a mild heat treatment (30s at 75°C) during further processing of berries to purees was noted to reduce mean NoV levels substantially from 14.1 to 0.2 NoV particles per kg raspberry puree. For IQF raspberries, the NoV contamination is heterogeneously distributed and resulted in a mean contamination of 3.1 NoV particles per 250g

  18. Repeated Assessment of Exploration and Novelty Seeking in the Human Behavioral Pattern Monitor in Bipolar Disorder Patients and Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Minassian, Arpi; Henry, Brook L.; Young, Jared W.; Masten, Virginia; Geyer, Mark A.; Perry, William

    2011-01-01

    Background Exploration and novelty seeking are cross-species adaptive behaviors that are dysregulated in bipolar disorder (BD) and are critical features of the illness. While these behaviors have been extensively quantified in animals, multivariate human paradigms of exploration are lacking. The human Behavioral Pattern Monitor (hBPM), a human version of the animal open field, identified a signature pattern of hyper-exploration in manic BD patients, but whether exploratory behavior changes with treatment is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the sensitivity of the hBPM to changes in manic symptoms, a necessary step towards elucidating the neurobiology underlying BD. Methodology and Principal Findings Twelve acutely hospitalized manic BD subjects and 21 healthy volunteers were tested in the hBPM over three sessions; all subjects were retested one week after their first session and two weeks after their second session. Motor activity, spatial and entropic (degree of unpredictability) patterns of exploration, and interactions with novel objects were quantified. Manic BD patients demonstrated greater motor activity, extensive and more unpredictable patterns of exploration, and more object interactions than healthy volunteers during all three sessions. Exploration and novelty-seeking slightly decreased in manic BD subjects over the three sessions as their symptoms responded to treatment, but never to the level of healthy volunteers. Among healthy volunteers, exploration did not significantly decrease over time, and hBPM measures were highly correlated between sessions. Conclusions/Significance Manic BD patients showed a modest reduction in symptoms yet still demonstrated hyper-exploration and novelty seeking in the hBPM, suggesting that these illness features may be enduring characteristics of BD. Furthermore, behavior in the hBPM is not subject to marked habituation effects. The hBPM can be reliably used in a repeated-measures design to characterize

  19. Assessing the impacts of future climate change on protected area networks: a method to simulate individual species' responses.

    PubMed

    Willis, Stephen G; Hole, Dave G; Collingham, Yvonne C; Hilton, Geoff; Rahbek, Carsten; Huntley, Brian

    2009-05-01

    Global climate change, along with continued habitat loss and fragmentation, is now recognized as being a major threat to future biodiversity. There is a very real threat to species, arising from the need to shift their ranges in the future to track regions of suitable climate. The Important Bird Area (IBA) network is a series of sites designed to conserve avian diversity in the face of current threats from factors such as habitat loss and fragmentation. However, in common with other networks, the IBA network is based on the assumption that the climate will remain unchanged in the future. In this article, we provide a method to simulate the occurrence of species of conservation concern in protected areas, which could be used as a first-step approach to assess the potential impacts of climate change upon such species in protected areas. We use species-climate response surface models to relate the occurrence of 12 biome-restricted African species to climate data at a coarse (quarter degree-degree latitude-longitude) resolution and then intersect the grid model output with IBA outlines to simulate the occurrence of the species in South African IBAs. Our results demonstrate that this relatively simple technique provides good simulations of current species' occurrence in protected areas. We then use basic habitat data for IBAs along with habitat preference data for the species to reduce over-prediction and further improve predictive ability. This approach can be used with future climate change scenarios to highlight vulnerable species in IBAs in the future and allow practical recommendations to be made to enhance the IBA network and minimize the predicted impacts of climate change.

  20. Assessment of intraocular pressure measured by Reichert Ocular Response Analyzer, Goldmann Applanation Tonometry, and Dynamic Contour Tonometry in healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Ping-Bo; Li, Cong-Yi; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Duan, Xuan-Chu

    2012-01-01

    AIM To investigate the accuracy of intraocular pressure (IOP) as measured by a Reichert Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA), as well as the relationship between central corneal thickness (CCT) and IOP as measured by ORA, Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT), and dynamic contour tonometry (DCT). METHODS A total of 158 healthy individuals (296 eyes) were chosen randomly for measurement of IOP. After CCT was measured using A-ultrasound (A-US), IOP was measured by ORA, GAT, and DCT devices in a randomized order. The IOP values acquired using each of the three tonometries were compared, and the relationship between CCT and IOP values were analyzed separately. Two IOP values, Goldmann-correlated IOP value (IOPg) and corneal-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc), were got using ORA. Three groups were defined according to CCT: 1) thin cornea (CCT<520µm); 2) normal-thickness cornea (CCT: 520–580µm); and 3) thick cornea (CCT>580µm) groups. RESULTS In normal subjects, IOP measurements were 14.95±2.99mmHg with ORA (IOPg), 15.21±2.77mmHg with ORA (IOPcc), 15.22±2.77mmHg with GAT, and 15.49±2.56mmHg with DCT. Mean differences were 0.01±2.29mmHg between IOPcc and GAT (P>0.05) and 0.28±2.20mmHg between IOPcc and DCT (P>0.05). There was a greater correlation between IOPcc and DCT (r=0.946, P=0.000) than that between IOPcc and GAT (r=0.845, P=0.000). DCT had a significant correlation with GAT (r=0.854, P=0.000). GAT was moderately correlated with CCT (r=0.296, P<0.001), while IOPcc showed a weak but significant correlation with CCT (r=−0.155, P=0.007). There was a strong negative correlation between CCT and the difference between IOPcc and GAT(r=-0.803, P=0.000), with every 10µm increase in CCT resulting in an increase in this difference of 0.35mmHg. The thick cornea group (CCT>580µm) showed the least significant correlation between IOPcc and GAT (r=0.859, P=0.000); while the thin cornea group (CCT<520µm) had the most significant correlation between IOPcc and GAT (r=0

  1. An assessment of a massively parallel sequencing approach for the identification of individuals from mass graves of the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939).

    PubMed

    Calafell, Francesc; Anglada, Roger; Bonet, Núria; González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Prats-Muñoz, Gemma; Rasal, Raquel; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Malgosa, Assumpció; Casals, Ferran

    2016-10-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have opened new opportunities in forensic genetics. Here, we assess the applicability and performance of the MiSeq FGx™ & ForenSeq™ DNA Signature Prep Kit (Illumina) for the identification of individuals from the mass graves of the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939). The main limitations for individual identification are the low number of possible first-degree living relatives and the high levels of DNA degradation reported in previous studies. Massively parallel sequencing technologies enabling the analysis of hundreds of regions and prioritizing short length amplicons constitute a promising tool for this kind of approaches. In this study, we first explore the power of this new technology to detect first- and second-degree kinship given different scenarios of DNA degradation. Second, we specifically assess its performance in a set of low DNA input samples previously analyzed with CE technologies. We conclude that this methodology will allow identification of up to second-degree relatives, even in situations with low sequencing performance and important levels of allele drop-out; it is thus a technology that resolves previous drawbacks and that will allow a successful approximation to the identification of remains.

  2. Assessment of the individual and mixture toxicity of cadmium, copper and oxytetracycline, on the embryo-larval development of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    PubMed

    Gharred, Tahar; Jebali, Jamel; Belgacem, Mariem; Mannai, Rabeb; Achour, Sami

    2016-09-01

    Multiple pollutions by trace metals and pharmaceuticals have become one of the most important problems in marine coastal areas because of its excessive toxicity on organisms living in this area. This study aimed to assess the individual and mixture toxicity of Cu, Cd, and oxytetracycline frequently existing in the contaminated marine areas and the embryo-larval development of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. The individual contamination of the spermatozoid for 1 h with the increasing concentrations of Cd, Cu, and OTC decreases the fertility rate and increases larvae anomalies in the order Cu > Cd > OTC. Moreover, the normal larva frequency and the length of spicules were more sensitive than the fertilization rate and normal gastrula frequency endpoints. The mixture toxicity assessed by multiple experimental designs showed clearly that concentrations of Cd, Cu, and OTC superior to 338 μg/L, 0.56 μg/L, and 0.83 mg/L, respectively, cause significant larva malformations.

  3. The Children's Social Understanding Scale: construction and validation of a parent-report measure for assessing individual differences in children's theories of mind.

    PubMed

    Tahiroglu, Deniz; Moses, Louis J; Carlson, Stephanie M; Mahy, Caitlin E V; Olofson, Eric L; Sabbagh, Mark A

    2014-11-01

    Children's theory of mind (ToM) is typically measured with laboratory assessments of performance. Although these measures have generated a wealth of informative data concerning developmental progressions in ToM, they may be less useful as the sole source of information about individual differences in ToM and their relation to other facets of development. In the current research, we aimed to expand the repertoire of methods available for measuring ToM by developing and validating a parent-report ToM measure: the Children's Social Understanding Scale (CSUS). We present 3 studies assessing the psychometric properties of the CSUS. Study 1 describes item analysis, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and relation of the scale to children's performance on laboratory ToM tasks. Study 2 presents cross-validation data for the scale in a different sample of preschool children with a different set of ToM tasks. Study 3 presents further validation data for the scale with a slightly older age group and a more advanced ToM task, while controlling for several other relevant cognitive abilities. The findings indicate that the CSUS is a reliable and valid measure of individual differences in children's ToM that may be of great value as a complement to standard ToM tasks in many different research contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Interethnic differences in the accuracy of anthropometric indicators of obesity in screening for high risk of coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, VM; Casas, JP; Miranda, JJ; Perel, P; Pichardo, R; González, A; Sanchez, JR; Ferreccio, C; Aguilera, X; Silva, E; Oróstegui, M; Gómez, LF; Chirinos, JA; Medina-Lezama, J; Pérez, CM; Suárez, E; Ortiz, AP; Rosero, L; Schapochnik, N; Ortiz, Z; Ferrante, D; Diaz, M; Bautista, LE

    2009-01-01

    Background Cut points for defining obesity have been derived from mortality data among Whites from Europe and the United States and their accuracy to screen for high risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in other ethnic groups has been questioned. Objective To compare the accuracy and to define ethnic and gender-specific optimal cut points for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) when they are used in screening for high risk of CHD in the Latin-American and the US populations. Methods We estimated the accuracy and optimal cut points for BMI, WC and WHR to screen for CHD risk in Latin Americans (n=18 976), non-Hispanic Whites (Whites; n=8956), non-Hispanic Blacks (Blacks; n=5205) and Hispanics (n=5803). High risk of CHD was defined as a 10-year risk ≥20% (Framingham equation). The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) and the misclassification-cost term were used to assess accuracy and to identify optimal cut points. Results WHR had the highest AUC in all ethnic groups (from 0.75 to 0.82) and BMI had the lowest (from 0.50 to 0.59). Optimal cut point for BMI was similar across ethnic/gender groups (27 kg/m2). In women, cut points for WC (94 cm) and WHR (0.91) were consistent by ethnicity. In men, cut points for WC and WHR varied significantly with ethnicity: from 91 cm in Latin Americans to 102 cm in Whites, and from 0.94 in Latin Americans to 0.99 in Hispanics, respectively. Conclusion WHR is the most accurate anthropometric indicator to screen for high risk of CHD, whereas BMI is almost uninformative. The same BMI cut point should be used in all men and women. Unique cut points for WC and WHR should be used in all women, but ethnic-specific cut points seem warranted among men. PMID:19238159

  5. Mobile phone tracking: in support of modelling traffic-related air pollution contribution to individual exposure and its implications for public health impact assessment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new approach to assess the impact of traffic-related air pollution on public health by mapping personal trajectories using mobile phone tracking technology in an urban environment. Although this approach is not based on any empirical studies, we believe that this method has great potential and deserves serious attention. Mobile phone tracking technology makes it feasible to generate millions of personal trajectories and thereby cover a large fraction of an urban population. Through analysis, personal trajectories are not only associated to persons, but it can also be associated with vehicles, vehicle type, vehicle speed, vehicle emission rates, and sources of vehicle emissions. Pollution levels can be estimated by dispersion models from calculated traffic emissions. Traffic pollution exposure to individuals can be estimated based on the exposure along the individual human trajectories in the estimated pollution concentration fields by utilizing modelling tools. By data integration, one may identify trajectory patterns of particularly exposed human groups. The approach of personal trajectories may open a new paradigm in understanding urban dynamics and new perspectives in population-wide empirical public health research. This new approach can be further applied to individual commuter route planning, land use planning, urban traffic network planning, and used by authorities to formulate air pollution mitigation policies and regulations. PMID:24188173

  6. Evaluating the Cognition, Behavior, and Social Profile of an Adolescent With Learning Disabilities and Assessing the Effectiveness of an Individualized Educational Program

    PubMed Central

    Tabitha Louis, Preeti; Arnold Emerson, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study seeks to outline a holistic assessment method that was used in understanding problems experienced by an adolescent boy and in designing and implementing an individualized educational program. Methods: An adolescent child referred for concerns in learning was screened for learning disability using standardized inventories and test batteries. The Connors Parent and Teacher Rating Scales (short forms), Wechsler's Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), the Vineland Social Maturity Scale (VSMS), and the Kinetic Family Drawing (KFD) test were used to assess the behavior, cognition, and social profile of the child. An individualized educational program was designed and this intervention was provided for 6 months by using parents as co-therapists. Participant and parent interview schedules were used in identifying underlying issues of concern. The child was reassessed 6 months after the intervention was provided. Results: Findings on the Connors Parent Rating Scale revealed scores that were greater than the 50th percentile on the domains of inattention and cognitive problems. On the Connors Teacher Rating Scale, we observed scores greater than the 50th percentile on the hyperactivity, cognitive problems, and the inattention domains. The WISC revealed that the child had a "Dull Normal" Intellectual functioning and there was also a deficit of 2 years on the social skills as tested by the Vineland Social Maturity Scale (VSMS). The Kinetic Family Drawing Test revealed negative emotions within the child. Post intervention, we noticed a remarkable improvement in the scores across all domains of behavior, social, and cognitive functioning. Conclusion: Designing an individualized education program that is tailored to the specific needs of the child and using parents as co-therapists proved to be an effective intervention. PMID:25053954

  7. Evaluation of the experimental basis for assessment factors to protect individuals with asthma from health effects during short-term exposure to airborne chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Mia K. V.; Johanson, Gunnar; Öberg, Mattias

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Asthmatic individuals constitute a large sub-population that is often considered particularly susceptible to the deleterious effects of inhalation of airborne chemicals. However, for most such chemicals information on asthmatics is lacking and inter-individual assessment factors (AFs) of 3–25 have been proposed for use in the derivation of health-based guideline values. Objective: To evaluate available information in attempt to determine whether a general difference in airway response during short-term exposure between healthy and asthmatic individuals can be identified, and whether current AFs for inter-individual variability provide sufficient protection for asthmatics. Methods: After performing systematic review of relevant documents and the scientific literature estimated differential response factors (EDRF) were derived as the ratio between the lowest observed adverse effect levels for healthy and asthmatic subjects based on studies in which both groups were tested under the same conditions. Thereafter, the concentration–response relationships for healthy and asthmatic subjects exposed separately to four extensively tested chemicals (nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide) were compared on the basis of combined data. Finally, a Benchmark Concentration (BMC) analysis was performed for sulfur dioxide. Results: We found evidence of higher sensitivity among asthmatics (EDRF > 1) to 8 of 19 tested chemicals, and to 3 of 11 mixtures. Thereafter, we confirmed the higher sensitivity of asthmatics to sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide. No difference was observed in the case of ozone and nitrogen dioxide. Finally, our BMC analysis of sulfur dioxide indicated a ninefold higher sensitivity among asthmatics. Conclusion: Although experimental data are often inconclusive, our analyses suggest that an AF of 10 is adequate to protect asthmatics from the deleterious respiratory effects of airborne chemicals. PMID:26515429

  8. Integrating real-time feedback of outcome assessment for individual patients in an inpatient psychiatric setting: a case study of personalized psychiatric medicine.

    PubMed

    Confer, Jacob R; White, Melissa; Groat, Michael M; Madan, Alok; Allen, Jon G; Fowler, J Christopher; Kahn, David A

    2015-01-01

    Routine assessment of psychiatric patient outcomes is rare, despite growing evidence that feedback to clinicians and patients concerning patient progress improves treatment outcomes. The authors present a case in which real-time feedback proved beneficial in the treatment of a woman with a personality disorder admitted for inpatient treatment due to worsening depression, anxiety, severe suicide risk, and decline in functioning. During the course of her 10-week hospitalization, she completed standardized assessments of symptoms/functioning at admission, at 2 week intervals, and at discharge. The distinctive feature of this case is the way in which real-time feedback to the treatment team, psychiatrist, and patient exposed hidden treatment barriers. In the midst of an improving profile with decreasing symptom severity, the patient experienced a spike in distress and symptoms, prompting her treatment team to examine the treatment plan and to engage the patient around understanding the decline in functioning. This intervention revealed a replay of a familiar pattern in the patient's life that led to the identification and repair of a rupture in the therapeutic alliance and to an improvement in the patient's functioning. This case expands on previous research concerning the integration of individualized assessments into outpatient treatment and it illustrates the need to extend outpatient research to inpatient settings.

  9. Assessment of Cognitive Scales to Examine Memory, Executive Function and Language in Individuals with Down Syndrome: Implications of a 6-month Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Liogier d'Ardhuy, Xavier; Edgin, Jamie O.; Bouis, Charles; de Sola, Susana; Goeldner, Celia; Kishnani, Priya; Nöldeke, Jana; Rice, Sydney; Sacco, Silvia; Squassante, Lisa; Spiridigliozzi, Gail; Visootsak, Jeannie; Heller, James; Khwaja, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most commonly identifiable genetic form of intellectual disability. Individuals with DS have considerable deficits in intellectual functioning (i.e., low intellectual quotient, delayed learning and/or impaired language development) and adaptive behavior. Previous pharmacological studies in this population have been limited by a lack of appropriate endpoints that accurately measured change in cognitive and functional abilities. Therefore, the current longitudinal observational study assessed the suitability and reliability of existing cognitive scales to determine which tools would be the most effective in future interventional clinical studies. Subtests of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), and Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool-2 (CELF-P-2), and the Observer Memory Questionnaire-Parent Form (OMQ-PF), Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function®–Preschool Version (BRIEF-P) and Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised were assessed. The results reported here have contributed to the optimization of trial design and endpoint selection for the Phase 2 study of a new selective negative allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor α5-subtype (Basmisanil), and can be applied to other studies in the DS population. PMID:26635554

  10. Specific Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program Movements Are Associated With Acute Pain in Preterm Infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Grunau, Ruth E.; Oberlander, Tim F.; Whitfield, Michael F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective. The Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) is widely used in neonatal intensive care units and comprises 85 discrete infant behaviors, some of which may communicate infant distress. The objective of this study was to identify developmentally relevant movements indicative of pain in preterm infants. Methods. Forty-four preterm infants were assessed at 32 weeks' gestational age (GA) during 3 phases (baseline, lance/squeeze, and recovery) of routine blood collection in the neonatal intensive care unit. The NIDCAP and Neonatal Facial Coding System (NFCS) were coded from separate continuous bedside video recordings; mean heart rate (mHR) was derived from digitally sampled continuous electrographic recordings. Analysis of variance (phase × gender) with Bonferroni corrections was used to compare differences in NIDCAP, NFCS, and mHR. Pearson correlations were used to examine relationships between the NIDCAP and infant background characteristics. Results. NFCS and mHR increased significantly to lance/squeeze. Eight NIDCAP behaviors also increased significantly to lance/squeeze. Another 5 NIDCAP behaviors decreased significantly to lance/squeeze. Infants who had lower GA at birth, had been sicker, had experienced more painful procedures, or had greater morphine exposure showed increased hand movements indicative of increased distress. Conclusions. Of the 85 NIDCAP behaviors, a subset of 8 NIDCAP movements were associated with pain. Particularly for infants who are born at early GAs, addition of these movements to commonly used measures may improve the accuracy of pain assessment. PMID:15231909

  11. Sociometric and ethological approach to the assessment of individual and group behavior in extra long-term isolation during simulated interplanetary mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gushin, Vadim; Tafforin, Carole; Kuznetsova, Polina; Vinokhodova, Alla; Chekalina, Angelina

    Several factors, such as hazard to life, reduced social communications, isolation, high workload, monotony, etc., can cause deconditioning of individual status and group dynamics in long-term spaceflight. New approaches to the assessment of group behavior are being developed in order to create necessary counter-measures and to keep optimal psychological climate in the crew. Psychological methods combined with ethological approach to dynamic monitoring of the isolated crew had been tested and validated in Mars-500 experiment. The experiment (duration of 520 days) was designed to simulate the living and working conditions of a piloted mission to Mars. The Mars-500 crew was composed of three Russians, two Europeans and one Chinese. We used psychological tests: sociometric questionnaire to assess group status (popularity) of the crewmembers (monthly), color choice test to assess the level of frustration and anxiety (twice a month). We performed observations from video recordings of group discussions (monthly) and during breakfast time (twice a month). The video analysis was supplied with a software based-solution: The Observer XT®. The results showed that occurrence of collateral acts may indicate psychological stress and fatigue in crewmembers under isolation and that facial expressions may indicate less anxiety. The data of psychological tests allowed to define two subgroups in the crew. The first one consisted of the subjects with high group status and lower level of frustration (not anxious), the second one consisted of less popular subjects, having respectively higher anxiety level. The video analysis showed two times more manifestations of facial expressions and interpersonal communications for the first subgroup. We also identified the subgroups on the basis of their verbal expressions in Russian and in English. Video observation of individual and group behavior, combined with other psychological tests gives opportunity to emphasize more objectively the signs

  12. Event-related assessment of hypermedia-based e-learning materials with an HRV-based method that considers individual differences in users.

    PubMed

    Hercegfi, Károly

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports results of an assessment of e-learning materials with the INTERFACE software evaluation methodology. On the one hand, this method of analysis allows us to identify ergonomics problems; on the other, to decide to what extent those problems and their severity concern all users in general and to what extent they depend on the users? type and characteristics. This is the first publication to apply the new marking, export, and statistical features of INTERFACE used in a quantitative analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) curves instead of earlier time-based statistics and qualitative methods. It presents correlations between event-related characteristics of human-computer interaction and the currently required mental effort showed with HRV. The paper also discusses correlations between variables and cognitive-style test scores which indicate the role of individual differences in ergonomics.

  13. Individualized Assessment of Differential Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J.

    Today's psychological measurement depends almost exclusively on the "standardized test." A certain amount of non-standardization, however, exists in the administration of any standardized test, with the amount unknown for any given test score. Time limits on tests pose a bigger problem since another variable is introduced, pressure. Test taking…

  14. Heart rate and heart rate variability assessment identifies individual differences in fear response magnitudes to earthquake, free fall, and air puff in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Wei, Wei; Kuang, Hui; Tsien, Joe Z; Zhao, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Fear behaviors and fear memories in rodents have been traditionally assessed by the amount of freezing upon the presentation of conditioned cues or unconditioned stimuli. However, many experiences, such as encountering earthquakes or accidental fall from tree branches, may produce long-lasting fear memories but are behaviorally difficult to measure using freezing parameters. Here, we have examined changes in heartbeat interval dynamics as physiological readout for assessing fearful reactions as mice were subjected to sudden air puff, free-fall drop inside a small elevator, and a laboratory-version earthquake. We showed that these fearful events rapidly increased heart rate (HR) with simultaneous reduction of heart rate variability (HRV). Cardiac changes can be further analyzed in details by measuring three distinct phases: namely, the rapid rising phase in HR, the maximum plateau phase during which HRV is greatly decreased, and the recovery phase during which HR gradually recovers to baseline values. We showed that durations of the maximum plateau phase and HR recovery speed were quite sensitive to habituation over repeated trials. Moreover, we have developed the fear resistance index based on specific cardiac response features. We demonstrated that the fear resistance index remained largely consistent across distinct fearful events in a given animal, thereby enabling us to compare and rank individual mouse's fear responsiveness among the group. Therefore, the fear resistance index described here can represent a useful parameter for measuring personality traits or individual differences in stress-susceptibility in both wild-type mice and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) models.

  15. Individual classification of ADHD children by right prefrontal hemodynamic responses during a go/no-go task as assessed by fNIRS

    PubMed Central

    Monden, Yukifumi; Dan, Ippeita; Nagashima, Masako; Dan, Haruka; Uga, Minako; Ikeda, Takahiro; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Kyutoku, Yasushi; Gunji, Yuji; Hirano, Daisuke; Taniguchi, Takamichi; Shimoizumi, Hideo; Watanabe, Eiju; Yamagata, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    While a growing body of neurocognitive research has explored the neural substrates associated with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD), an objective biomarker for diagnosis has not been established. The advent of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), which is a noninvasive and unrestrictive method of functional neuroimaging, raised the possibility of introducing functional neuroimaging diagnosis in young ADHD children. Previously, our fNIRS-based measurements successfully visualized the hypoactivation pattern in the right prefrontal cortex during a go/no-go task in ADHD children compared with typically developing control children at a group level. The current study aimed to explore a method of individual differentiation between ADHD and typically developing control children using multichannel fNIRS, emphasizing how spatial distribution and amplitude of hemodynamic response are associated with inhibition-related right prefrontal dysfunction. Thirty ADHD and thirty typically developing control children underwent a go/no-go task, and their cortical hemodynamics were assessed using fNIRS. We explored specific regions of interest (ROIs) and cut-off amplitudes for cortical activation to distinguish ADHD children from control children. The ROI located on the border of inferior and middle frontal gyri yielded the most accurate discrimination. Furthermore, we adapted well-formed formulae for the constituent channels of the optimized ROI, leading to improved classification accuracy with an area under the curve value of 85% and with 90% sensitivity. Thus, the right prefrontal hypoactivation assessed by fNIRS would serve as a potentially effective biomarker for classifying ADHD children at the individual level. PMID:26266096

  16. GPS-based microenvironment tracker (MicroTrac) model to estimate time–location of individuals for air pollution exposure assessments: Model evaluation in central North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Breen, Michael S.; Long, Thomas C.; Schultz, Bradley D.; Crooks, James; Breen, Miyuki; Langstaff, John E.; Isaacs, Kristin K.; Tan, Yu-Mei; Williams, Ronald W.; Cao, Ye; Geller, Andrew M.; Devlin, Robert B.; Batterman, Stuart A.; Buckley, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    A critical aspect of air pollution exposure assessment is the estimation of the time spent by individuals in various microenvironments (ME). Accounting for the time spent in different ME with different pollutant concentrations can reduce exposure misclassifications, while failure to do so can add uncertainty and bias to risk estimates. In this study, a classification model, called MicroTrac, was developed to estimate time of day and duration spent in eight ME (indoors and outdoors at home, work, school; inside vehicles; other locations) from global positioning system (GPS) data and geocoded building boundaries. Based on a panel study, MicroTrac estimates were compared with 24-h diary data from nine participants, with corresponding GPS data and building boundaries of home, school, and work. MicroTrac correctly classified the ME for 99.5% of the daily time spent by the participants. The capability of MicroTrac could help to reduce the time–location uncertainty in air pollution exposure models and exposure metrics for individuals in health studies. PMID:24619294

  17. Validity of the 12-Item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) in individuals with Huntington disease (HD)

    PubMed Central

    Carlozzi, Noelle E.; Kratz, Anna L.; Downing, Nancy R.; Goodnight, Siera; Miner, Jennifer A.; Migliore, Nicholas; Paulsen, Jane S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The reliability and construct validity of the 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) was examined in individuals with Huntington disease (HD). Methods We examined factor structure (confirmatory factor analysis), internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha), floor and ceiling effects, convergent validity (Pearson correlations), and known-groups validity (multivariate analysis). Results Results of a confirmatory factor analysis replicated the six factor latent model that reflects the six separate scales within the WHODAS 2.0 (understanding and communicating; getting around; self-care; getting along with others, life activities; participation). Cronbach’s alpha for the scale was 0.94, suggesting good internal consistency reliability. The WHODAS demonstrated a ceiling effect for 19.5% of participants; there were no floor effects. There was evidence for convergent validity; the WHODAS demonstrated moderate significant correlations with other general measures of health-related quality of life (HRQOL; i.e., RAND-12, EQ5D). Multivariate analyses indicated that late-stage HD participants indicated poorer HRQOL than both early-stage HD and prodromal HD participants for all HRQOL measures. Conclusions Findings provide support for both the reliability and validity of the WHODAS 2.0 in individuals with HD. PMID:25636661

  18. Assessing Psychological Functioning in Metabolic Disorders: Validation of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition (ABAS-II), and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) for Identification of Individuals at Risk.

    PubMed

    Waisbren, Susan E; He, Jianping; McCarter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Long-term follow-up of neuropsychological functioning in metabolic disorders remains difficult due to limited opportunities for comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations. This study examined the validity of using the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition (ABAS-II), and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) for assessing developmental status in metabolic disorders and for identifying individuals at risk for cognitive deficits. Results from individuals with urea cycle disorders, phenylketonuria, galactosemia, and fatty acid oxidation disorders were obtained on the ABAS-II and BRIEF and were compared to results obtained from neuropsychological testing performed on the same day. Correlations between scores on the ABAS-II and developmental or IQ tests for individuals with urea cycle disorders ranged from 0.48 to 0.72 and concordance rates for scores greater than a standard deviation below the normative mean ranged from 69 to 89%. Correlations ranged from 0.20 to 0.68 with concordance ranging from 73 to 90% in the other metabolic disorders. For the BRIEF, correlations with other tests of executive functioning were significant for urea cycle disorders, with concordance ranging from 52 to 80%. For the other metabolic disorders, correlations ranged from -0.09 to -0.55. Concordance rates for at-risk status on the BRIEF and executive functioning tests ranged from 55% in adults to 80% in children with other metabolic disorders. These results indicate that the ABAS-II and BRIEF together can confidently be used as an adjunct or supplementary method for clinical follow-up and for research on functional status involving infants, children, and adults with metabolic disorders.

  19. Individual Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsini, Raymond

    1981-01-01

    Paper presented at the 66th Convention of the International Association of Pupil Personnel Workers, October 20, 1980, Baltimore, Maryland, describes individual education based on the principles of Alfred Adler. Defines six advantages of individual education, emphasizing student responsibility, mutual respect, and allowing students to progress at…

  20. Protocol for the development and validation of a questionnaire to assess concerning behaviours and mental health in individuals with autism spectrum disorders: the Assessment of Concerning Behaviour (ACB) scale

    PubMed Central

    Santosh, Paramala; Tarver, Joanne; Gibbons, Felicity; Vitoratou, Silia; Simonoff, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Co-occurring psychiatric conditions and concerning behaviours are prevalent in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and are likely to be detrimental to functioning and long-term outcomes. The cognitive rigidity and deficits in emotional literacy and verbal behaviour that commonly occur in ASD can adversely affect clinicians’ confidence to identify concerning behaviours and mental health problems. There is a need to develop a measure that is tailored towards individuals with ASD, and differentiates between symptoms of psychopathology and core ASD symptoms. Furthermore, it should be modified to capture internalising symptoms that individuals with ASD may find difficult or be unable to verbalise. This protocol describes the intended development and validation of the Assessment of Concerning Behaviour (ACB) scale. The ACB will aim to be a multidimensional measure of concerning behaviours in ASD incorporating self-report, parent/carer, teacher/employer and clinician report versions that can be used across the lifespan and spectrum of intellectual ability. Methods and analysis This study will be guided by the methods described in the US Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry Patient-reported Outcome Measures. A literature review, cognitive interviews and focus groups with individuals who have experience of working or living with ASDs will be used for item generation. A sample of children and adults with ASD will complete the ACB, in addition to other gold standard measures of concerning behaviour in order to establish the initial psychometric properties of the scale. Ethics and dissemination This study has received ethical approval from the NHS Research Ethics Committee: London-Camden and King's Cross (ref: 15/LO/0085). Study findings will be disseminated to healthcare professionals and scientists in the field through publication in peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations. PMID:27006345

  1. Novel Method for Recruiting Representative At-Risk Individuals into Cancer Prevention Trials: Online Health Risk Assessment in Employee Wellness Programs.

    PubMed

    Hui, Siu-Kuen Azor; Miller, Suzanne M; Hazuda, Leah; Engelman, Kimberly; Ellerbeck, Edward F

    2016-09-01

    Participation in cancer prevention trials (CPT) is lower than 3 % among high-risk healthy individuals, and racial/ethnic minorities are the most under-represented. Novel recruitment strategies are therefore needed. Online health risk assessment (HRA) serves as a gateway component of nearly all employee wellness programs (EWPs) and may be a missed opportunity. This study aimed to explore employees' interest, willingness, motivators, and barriers of releasing their HRA responses to an external secure research database for recruitment purpose. We used qualitative research methods (focus group and individual interviews) to examine employees' interest and willingness in releasing their online HRA responses to an external, secure database to register as potential CPT participants. Fifteen structured interviews (40 % of study participants were of racial/ethnic minority) were conducted, and responses reached saturation after four interviews. All employees showed interest and willingness to release their online HRA responses to register as a potential CPT participant. Content analyses revealed that 91 % of participants were motivated to do so, and the major motivators were to (1) obtain help in finding personally relevant prevention trials, (2) help people they know who are affected by cancer, and/or (3) increase knowledge about CPT. A subset of participants (45 %) expressed barriers of releasing their HRA responses due to concerns about credibility and security of the external database. Online HRA may be a feasible but underutilized recruitment method for cancer prevention trials. EWP-sponsored HRA shows promise for the development of a large, centralized registry of racially/ethnically representative CPT potential participants.

  2. Assessing Sexual Orientation-Related Obsessions and Compulsions in Italian Heterosexual Individuals: Development and Validation of the Sexual Orientation Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (SO-OCS).

    PubMed

    Melli, Gabriele; Moulding, Richard; Gelli, Simona; Chiorri, Carlo; Pinto, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Sexual Orientation-Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (SO-OCD) is characterized by intrusive thoughts, images, and urges related to one's sexual orientation, and by consequent avoidance, reassurance seeking, and overt and covert compulsions. Currently there is no short self-report measure that assesses SO-OCD symptoms. The current article describes two studies that develop and evaluate the first version of the Sexual Orientation Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (SO-OCS), a 14-item Italian self-report measure targeted towards heterosexual individuals. In Study 1, the SO-OCS was developed and refined through item analysis and exploratory factor analysis from an initial pool of 33 items administered to 732 Italian nonclinical participants. The SO-OCS showed a unidimensional structure and an acceptable internal consistency. In Study 2, the factor structure, internal consistency, temporal stability, construct and criterion validity, and diagnostic sensitivity of the SO-OCS were investigated in three samples of Italian participants (294 from the general population, 52 OCD patients who reported sexual orientation-related symptoms or concerns as a primary complaint, and 51 OCD patients who did not report these symptoms as primary complaint). The SO-OCS was again found to have a unidimensional structure and good internal consistency, as well as to exhibit strong construct validity. Specifically, the SO-OCS showed an excellent criterion validity and diagnostic sensitivity, as it successfully discriminated between those with SO-OCD and all other groups of participants. Finally, evidence of temporal stability of the SO-OCS in a nonclinical subsample was found. The SO-OCS holds promise as a measure of SO-OCD symptoms in heterosexual individuals.

  3. A pilot study to assess the feasibility of a submaximal exercise test to measure individual response to cardiac medication in dogs with acquired heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ferasin, L; Marcora, S

    2007-08-01

    Exercise testing is not commonly used in canine medicine because of several limitations. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of a treadmill test to measure the exercise capacity of untrained canine cardiac patients and to measure some biological parameters that might reflect the tolerance of dogs with heart failure to submaximal exercise. The exercise capacity of seven dogs with naturally occurring heart failure was evaluated before the institution of cardiac medication and 7 days after the beginning of the study. An additional re-examination was requested after 28 days. The exercise test was performed on a motorized treadmill at three different speeds (0.5 m/s, 1.0 m/s and 1.5 m/s). The following parameters were measured at the end of each stage and after 20 min recovery: heart rate, rectal temperature, glucose, lactate, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, PvO(2), PvCO(2), pH, haematocrit, bicarbonate, sodium, potassium and chloride. Serum cardiac troponin-I was also measured at the beginning of the test and at the end of the recovery period. Owners' perception reflected the ability of their dogs to exercise on the treadmill. Lactate level increased noticeably with the intensity of the exercise test, and its variation coincided with different exercise tolerance observed by the owners. Heart rate seemed to follow a similar trend in the few dogs presented in sinus rhythm. None of the remaining parameters appeared to be sensitive indicators of activity level in the dogs used in this study. The treadmill exercise test in dogs with acquired heart failure is feasible and might provide useful information for assessing individual response to cardiac medication. Lactate and heart rate seemed to reflect individual levels of exercise tolerance, although further studies are necessary to confirm the reliability and repeatability of this test.

  4. Novel slanted incidence air-coupled ultrasound method for delamination assessment in individual bonding planes of structural multi-layered glued timber laminates.

    PubMed

    Sanabria, Sergio J; Furrer, Roman; Neuenschwander, Jürg; Niemz, Peter; Sennhauser, Urs

    2013-09-01

    Non-destructive assessment of delaminations in glued laminated timber structures is required during their full life cycle. A novel air-coupled ultrasound (ACU) method has been developed, which is able to separately detect delaminations in individual bonding planes of arbitrarily high and long laminated stacks and typically 200 mm wide. The 120 kHz ACU transmitter-receiver pair is positioned at two opposite lateral faces of the sample, with a small inclination with respect to the inspected bonding planes, so that an ultrasound beam is excited at a user-defined refraction angle within the sample, interacting with defects in a limited height portion of the stack. The attenuation of the ultrasound beam transmitted across the defect (negative detection) provided better sensitivity to defects than the scattered fields (positive detection), which are masked by spurious fields. Dedicated finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations provided understanding on the wave propagation and defect detectability limits, with respect to the heterogeneous anisotropic material structure introduced by the curvature of the annual rings in individual timber lamellas. A simplified analytical expression was derived to calculate refraction angles in timber in function of insonification angle and ring angle. Experimental results show that the method is able to detect >20% wide defects in both isotropic material and in glulam with straight year rings, and >50% wide and 100mm long defects in commercial glulam beams. The discrimination of defects from background variability is optimized by normalizing the images with respect to reference defect-free sample sections (normalization) or previous measurements (difference imaging), and by combining readings obtained with distinct ultrasound beam refraction angles (spatial diversity). Future work aims at the development of a tomographic defect inspection by combining the described theoretical and experimental methods.

  5. Assessment of the Microbial Constituents of the Home Environment of Individuals with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) and Their Association with Lower Airways Infections

    PubMed Central

    Heirali, Alya; McKeon, Suzanne; Purighalla, Swathi; Storey, Douglas G.; Rossi, Laura; Costilhes, Geoffrey; Drews, Steven J.; Rabin, Harvey R.; Surette, Michael G.; Parkins, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cystic fibrosis (CF) airways are colonized by a polymicrobial community of organisms, termed the CF microbiota. We sought to define the microbial constituents of the home environment of individuals with CF and determine if it may serve as a latent reservoir for infection. Methods Six patients with newly identified CF pathogens were included. An investigator collected repeat sputum and multiple environmental samples from their homes. Bacteria were cultured under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Morphologically distinct colonies were selected, purified and identified to the genus and species level through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. When concordant organisms were identified in sputum and environment, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed to determine relatedness. Culture-independent bacterial profiling of each sample was carried out by Illumina sequencing of the V3 region of the 16s RNA gene. Results New respiratory pathogens prompting investigation included: Mycobacterium abscessus(2), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia(3), Pseudomonas aeruginosa(3), Pseudomonas fluorescens(1), Nocardia spp.(1), and Achromobacter xylosoxidans(1). A median 25 organisms/patient were cultured from sputum. A median 125 organisms/home were cultured from environmental sites. Several organisms commonly found in the CF lung microbiome were identified within the home environments of these patients. Concordant species included members of the following genera: Brevibacterium(1), Microbacterium(1), Staphylococcus(3), Stenotrophomonas(2), Streptococcus(2), Sphingomonas(1), and Pseudomonas(4). PFGE confirmed related strains (one episode each of Sphinogomonas and P. aeruginosa) from the environment and airways were identified in two patients. Culture-independent assessment confirmed that many organisms were not identified using culture-dependent techniques. Conclusions Members of the CF microbiota can be found as constituents of the home environment in individuals with

  6. The body composition and excretory burden of lean, obese, and severely obese individuals has implications for the assessment of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Fotheringham, James; Weatherley, Nicholas; Kawar, Bisher; Fogarty, Damian G; Ellam, Timothy

    2014-12-01

    Obesity could affect associations between creatinine generation, estimated body surface area, and excretory burden, with effects on chronic kidney disease assessment. We therefore examined the impact of obesity on the performances of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), the urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR), and excretory burden in 3611 participants of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort. Urine creatinine excretion significantly increased with body mass index (BMI) (34 and 31% greater at 40 kg/m(2) or more versus the normal of 18.5-25 kg/m(2)) in men and women, respectively, such that patients with a normal BMI and an ACR of 30 mg/g had the same 24-h albuminuria as severely obese patients with ACR 23 mg/g. The bias of eGFR (referenced to body surface area-indexed iothalamate (i-)GFR) had a U-shaped relationship to obesity in men but progressively increased in women. Nevertheless, obesity-associated body surface area increases were accompanied by a greater absolute (non-indexed) iGFR for a given eGFR, particularly in men. Two men with eGFRs of 45 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), height 1.76 m, and BMI 22 or 45 kg/m(2) had absolute iGFRs of 46 and 62 ml/min, respectively. The excretory burden, assessed as urine urea nitrogen and estimated dietary phosphorus, sodium, and potassium intakes, also increased in obesity. However, obese men had lower odds of anemia, hyperkalemia, and hyperphosphatemia. Thus, for a given ACR and eGFR, obese individuals have greater albuminuria, absolute GFR, and excretory burden. This has implications for chronic kidney disease management, screening, and research.

  7. Preliminary Evidence for Feasibility, Use, and Acceptability of Individualized Texting for Adherence Building for Antiretroviral Adherence and Substance Use Assessment among HIV-Infected Methamphetamine Users

    PubMed Central

    Moore, David J.; Montoya, Jessica L.; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Depp, Colin A.; Atkinson, J. Hampton; TMARC Group, The

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility, use, and acceptability of text messages to track methamphetamine use and promote antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence among HIV-infected methamphetamine users was examined. From an ongoing randomized controlled trial, 30-day text response rates of participants assigned to the intervention (individualized texting for adherence building (iTAB), n = 20) were compared to those in the active comparison condition (n = 9). Both groups received daily texts assessing methamphetamine use, and the iTAB group additionally received personalized daily ART adherence reminder texts. Response rate for methamphetamine use texts was 72.9% with methamphetamine use endorsed 14.7% of the time. Text-derived methamphetamine use data was correlated with data from a structured substance use interview covering the same time period (P < 0.05). The iTAB group responded to 69.0% of adherence reminder texts; among those responses, 81.8% endorsed taking ART medication. Standardized feedback questionnaire responses indicated little difficulty with the texts, satisfaction with the study, and beliefs that future text-based interventions would be helpful. Moreover, most participants believed the intervention reduced methamphetamine use and improved adherence. Qualitative feedback regarding the intervention was positive. Future studies will refine and improve iTAB for optimal acceptability and efficacy. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01317277. PMID:24078868

  8. Individualizing Medicare.

    PubMed

    Chollet, D J

    1999-05-01

    Despite the enactment of significant changes to the Medicare program in 1997, Medicare's Hospital Insurance trust fund is projected to be exhausted just as the baby boom enters retirement. To address Medicare's financial difficulties, a number of reform proposals have been offered, including several to individualize Medicare financing and benefits. These proposals would attempt to increase Medicare revenues and reduce Medicare expenditures by having individuals bear risk--investment market risk before retirement and insurance market risk after retirement. Many fundamental aspects of these proposals have yet to be worked out, including how to guarantee a baseline level of saving for health insurance after retirement, how retirees might finance unanticipated health insurance price increases after retirement, the potential implications for Medicaid of inadequate individual saving, and whether the administrative cost of making the system fair and adequate ultimately would eliminate any rate-of-return advantages from allowing workers to invest their Medicare contributions in corporate stocks and bonds.

  9. Metrics for expert judgement in volcanic hazard assessment: comparing the Cooke classical model with a new method based on individual performance likelihood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flandoli, F.; Giorgi, E.; Aspinall, W. A.; Neri, A.

    2009-04-01

    Expert elicitation is a method to obtain estimates for variables of interest when data is sparse or ambiguous. A team of experts is created and each is asked to provide three values for each target variable (typically the 5% quantile, the median, and the 95% quantile). If some weight can be associated with each expert, then different opinions can be pooled to generate a weighted mean, thus providing an estimate of the uncertain variable. The key challenge is to assign a proper weight to each expert. To determine this weight empirically, the experts can be asked a set of 'seed' questions, whose values are known by the analyst (facilitator). In this approach, the experts provide three separate quantile values for each question, and the expert's capability of quantifying uncertainty can be evaluated. For instance, the Cooke classical model quantifies the collective scientific uncertainty through an expert scoring scheme by which weights are ascribed to individual experts on the basis of empirically determined calibration and informativeness scores obtained from a probability analysis of individual performances. In our work, we compare such a method to a new algorithm in which the calibration score is substituted by a one based on the likelihood of observing these expert performances. The simple idea behind this is that of rewarding more strongly those experts whose seed item median values are systematically closer to the true values. Given the three quantile values provided by every expert for each question, we fit a Beta distribution to each test item response, and compute the probability that the location parameter of that distribution corresponds to the real value, by chance. For each expert, the geometric mean of these probabilities is computed as the likelihood factor, L(e), of the expert, thus providing an alternative ‘calibration' score. An information factor, I(e), is also computed as arithmetic mean of the relative entropies of the expert's distributions

  10. Prospective Dynamic Assessment of Risk of Sexual Reoffending in Individuals with an Intellectual Disability and a History of Sexual Offending Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofthouse, Rachael E.; Lindsay, William R.; Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P.; Boer, Douglas P.; Haaven, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present study was to add to the literature on the predictive accuracy of a dynamic intellectual disability specific risk assessment tool. Method: A dynamic risk assessment for sexual reoffending (ARMIDILO-S), a static risk assessment for sexual offending (STATIC-99), and a static risk assessment for violence…

  11. A clinical study of the efficacy of a single session of individual exercise for depressive patients, assessed by the change in saliva free cortisol level

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The efficacy of physical exercise as an augmentation to pharmacotherapy with antidepressants for depressive patients has been documented. However, to clarify the effectiveness of exercise in the treatment of depression, it is necessary to distinguish the effect of the exercise itself from the effect of group dynamics. Furthermore, an objective measurement for estimation of the effect is needed. Previous reports adopted a series of group exercises as the exercise intervention and mainly psychometric instruments for the measurement of effectiveness. Therefore, this clinical study was done to examine the effectiveness of a single session of individual exercise on depressive symptoms by assessing the change in saliva free cortisol level, which reflects hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis function that is disturbed in depressive patients. Method Eighteen medicated patients, who met the DSM-IV-TR criteria for major depressive disorder, were examined for the change in saliva free cortisol levels and the change in subjective depressive symptoms before and after pedaling a bicycle ergometer for fifteen minutes. Within a month after the exercise session, participants conducted a non-exercise control session, which was sitting quietly at the same time of day as the exercise session. Results Depressed patients who participated in this study were in remission or in mild depressive state. However, they suffered chronic depression and had disturbed quality of life. The saliva free cortisol level and subjective depressive symptoms significantly decreased after the exercise session. Moreover, the changes in these variables were significantly, positively correlated. On the other hand, although the subjective depressive symptoms improved in the control session, the saliva free cortisol level did not change. Conclusion For the first time in depressive patients, we were able to show a decrease in the saliva free cortisol level due to physical exercise, accompanied by

  12. [Individualizing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrigan, William J.

    The individually guided education (IGE) program developed by the Kettering Foundation was implemented in September of 1973 at the John F. Kennedy Memorial Junior High School in Woburn, Massachusetts. The components of the program described in this speech include pupil and teacher scheduling, physical layout, pupil selection and adjustment,…

  13. Dopaminergic Modulation of Effort-Related Choice Behavior as Assessed by a Progressive Ratio Chow Feeding Choice Task: Pharmacological Studies and the Role of Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Patrick A.; Pardo, Marta; Nunes, Eric J.; López Cruz, Laura; Vemuri, V. Kiran; Makriyannis, Alex; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E.; Correa, Mercè; Salamone, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA) is involved in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response requirements, and instead select less effortful food-seeking behaviors. In the present study, the effects of several drug treatments were assessed using a progressive ratio (PROG)/chow feeding concurrent choice task. With this task, rats can lever press on a PROG schedule reinforced by a preferred high-carbohydrate food pellet, or alternatively approach and consume the less-preferred but concurrently available laboratory chow. Rats pass through each ratio level 15 times, after which the ratio requirement is incremented by one additional response. The DA D2 antagonist haloperidol (0.025–0.1 mg/kg) reduced number of lever presses and highest ratio achieved but did not reduce chow intake. In contrast, the adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 increased lever presses and highest ratio achieved, but decreased chow consumption. The cannabinoid CB1 inverse agonist and putative appetite suppressant AM251 decreased lever presses, highest ratio achieved, and chow intake; this effect was similar to that produced by pre-feeding. Furthermore, DA-related signal transduction activity (pDARPP-32(Thr34) expression) was greater in nucleus accumbens core of high responders (rats with high lever pressing output) compared to low responders. Thus, the effects of DA antagonism differed greatly from those produced by pre-feeding or reduced CB1 transmission, and it appears unlikely that haloperidol reduces PROG responding because of a general reduction in primary food motivation or the unconditioned reinforcing properties of food. Furthermore, accumbens core signal transduction activity is related to individual differences in work output. PMID:23110135

  14. Dopaminergic modulation of effort-related choice behavior as assessed by a progressive ratio chow feeding choice task: pharmacological studies and the role of individual differences.

    PubMed

    Randall, Patrick A; Pardo, Marta; Nunes, Eric J; López Cruz, Laura; Vemuri, V Kiran; Makriyannis, Alex; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Correa, Mercè; Salamone, John D

    2012-01-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA) is involved in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response requirements, and instead select less effortful food-seeking behaviors. In the present study, the effects of several drug treatments were assessed using a progressive ratio (PROG)/chow feeding concurrent choice task. With this task, rats can lever press on a PROG schedule reinforced by a preferred high-carbohydrate food pellet, or alternatively approach and consume the less-preferred but concurrently available laboratory chow. Rats pass through each ratio level 15 times, after which the ratio requirement is incremented by one additional response. The DA D(2) antagonist haloperidol (0.025-0.1 mg/kg) reduced number of lever presses and highest ratio achieved but did not reduce chow intake. In contrast, the adenosine A(2A) antagonist MSX-3 increased lever presses and highest ratio achieved, but decreased chow consumption. The cannabinoid CB1 inverse agonist and putative appetite suppressant AM251 decreased lever presses, highest ratio achieved, and chow intake; this effect was similar to that produced by pre-feeding. Furthermore, DA-related signal transduction activity (pDARPP-32(Thr34) expression) was greater in nucleus accumbens core of high responders (rats with high lever pressing output) compared to low responders. Thus, the effects of DA antagonism differed greatly from those produced by pre-feeding or reduced CB1 transmission, and it appears unlikely that haloperidol reduces PROG responding because of a general reduction in primary food motivation or the unconditioned reinforcing properties of food. Furthermore, accumbens core signal transduction activity is related to individual differences in work output.

  15. Individual venom profiling of Crotalus durissus terrificus specimens from a geographically limited region: crotamine assessment and captivity evaluation on the biological activities.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Airton; Zorzella Creste, Camila Fernanda; de Barros, Luciana Curtolo; Delazari dos Santos, Lucilene; Pimenta, Daniel C; Barraviera, Benedito; Ferreira, Rui Seabra

    2013-07-01

    Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt) venom major components comprise crotoxin, crotamine, gyroxin and convulxin. Crotamine exerts a myotoxic action, among others, but its expression varies even amid snakes from the same region. Biochemical, enzymatic and pharmacological variations of venoms may be associated with the geography, climate, gender, age, and diet, as well as captivity time and venom extraction intervals. The present study aimed to characterize the Cdt venom from the Botucatu region, (SP, Brazil), by assessing its biochemical, pharmacological and enzymatic properties. Venoms from newly captured snakes and already-captured animals were characterized comparatively to verify the sexual, environmental (length of captivity) and ontogenetic variations that could influence the venom composition. Protein concentration, SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC were performed and the coagulant, toxic (LD50) and crotamine activities were assayed. Individual SDS-PAGE analyses (315 samples) were performed and the biological activities of the venom of 60 adults (captive and newly captured males and females) and 18 newborns were compared with the Brazilian Reference Venom. Crotamine was found in 39.7% (125/315) of the samples, as determined by SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC. Protein concentration differed significantly between adults (75%) and newborns (60%). RP-HPLC and SDS-PAGE analyses showed highly variable protein concentration and copious crotoxin isoforms; however, the LD50 values decreased during the captivity time. Cdt venom biological activities were similar among adult groups, but diminished during the captivity period. The current findings demonstrate that venoms vary significantly in terms activity and protein concentration, despite originating from the same specie and region.

  16. Attendance at Cervical Cancer Screening and Use of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures on the Uterine Cervix Assessed from Individual Health Insurance Data (Belgium, 2002-2006)

    PubMed Central

    Arbyn, Marc; Fabri, Valérie; Temmerman, Marleen; Simoens, Cindy

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the coverage for cervical cancer screening as well as the use of cervical cytology, colposcopy and other diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on the uterine cervix in Belgium, using individual health insurance data. Methods The Intermutualistic Agency compiled a database containing 14 million records from reimbursement claims for Pap smears, colposcopies, cervical biopsies and surgery, performed between 2002 and 2006. Cervical cancer screening coverage was defined as the proportion of women aged 25–64 that had a Pap smear within the last 3 years. Results Cervical cancer screening coverage was 61% at national level, for the target population of women between 25 and 64 years old, in the period 2004–2006. Differences between the 3 regions were small, but varied more substantially between provinces. Coverage was 70% for 25–34 year old women, 67% for those aged 35–39 years, and decreased to 44% in the age group of 60–64 years. The median screening interval was 13 months. The screening coverage varied substantially by social category: 40% and 64%, in women categorised as beneficiary or not-beneficiary of increased reimbursement from social insurance, respectively. In the 3-year period 2004–2006, 3.2 million screen tests were done in the target group consisting of 2.8 million women. However, only 1.7 million women got one or more smears and 1.1 million women had no smears, corresponding to an average of 1.88 smears per woman in three years of time. Colposcopy was excessively used (number of Pap smears over colposcopies = 3.2). The proportion of women with a history of conisation or hysterectomy, before the age of 65, was 7% and 19%, respectively. Conclusion The screening coverage increased slightly from 59% in 2000 to 61% in 2006. The screening intensity remained at a high level, and the number of cytological examinations was theoretically sufficient to cover more than the whole target population. PMID:24690620

  17. Individualized Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    IntelliWeb and IntelliPrint, products from MicroMass Communications, utilize C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS), a development and delivery expert systems tool developed at Johnson Space Center. IntelliWeb delivers personalized messages by dynamically creating single web pages or entire web sites based on information provided by each website visitor. IntelliPrint is a product designed to create tailored, individualized messages via printed media. The software uses proprietary technology to generate printed messages that are personally relevant and tailored to meet each individual's needs. Intelliprint is in use in many operations including Brystol-Myers Squibb's personalized newsletter, "Living at Your Best," geared to each recipient based on a health and lifestyle survey taken earlier; and SmithKline Beecham's "Nicorette Committed Quitters Program," in which customized motivational materials support participants in their attempt to quit smoking.

  18. Assessing Cortisol Reactivity to a Linguistic Task as a Marker of Stress in Individuals with Left-Hemisphere Stroke and Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laures-Gore, Jacqueline; Heim, Christine M.; Hsu, Yu-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors explore a method of measuring physiologic and perceived stress in individuals with aphasia by investigating salivary cortisol reactivity and subjectively perceived stress in response to a standardized linguistic task. Method: Fifteen individuals with aphasia and 15 age-matched healthy controls participated in a…

  19. Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reising, Bob

    1998-01-01

    Argues (guided by "The Challenge of Change: Assessment in the 21st Century") that in the decades ahead, assessment will play an unprecedented role as the vehicle that will influence and guide scheduling, curriculum, and instruction. (SR)

  20. A Comparison of Experimental Functional Analysis and the Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF) in the Assessment of Challenging Behavior of Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Olive; Brett, Denise; Leader, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    We compared two functional behavioral assessment methods: the Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF; a standardized test) and experimental functional analysis (EFA) to identify behavioral functions of aggressive/destructive behavior, self-injurious behavior and stereotypy in 32 people diagnosed with autism. Both assessments found that self…

  1. [Individual consciousness].

    PubMed

    Chaĭlakhian, L M

    2009-01-01

    The main modern concepts on the consciousness nature are considered. Together with the dualistic concepts, there exist concepts the adherents of which find it possible to get to know the origin of consciousness on the basis of natural science. A critical analysis of those concepts brings the author to the conclusion that they do not solve the main problem of individual consciousness: how subjective elements of consciousness arise in the brain as a result of objectively registered processes. The main reason of failures to solve said problem is considered by the author in the fact that the subjective categories of consciousness are not really subject to science. Nevertheless, it does not mean the dualism is to be inevitably accepted. In fact, the subjective categories arise in the limits of a life the area of which is substantially wider than that of science. An original information and physical hypothesis is being set up that provides for necessary premises and conditions enabling the origination of subjective categories of consciousness during the progressive natural evolution of living systems.

  2. Evaluating the Relationship between Individualized Education Program Compliance for Middle School Students with Specific Learning Disabilities and Academic Achievement Based upon State Reading Summative Assessment Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Donnita

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 37 years, the Individualized Education Program (IEP) has been the guiding document that outlines the needs of a student who receives special education services. Washington State utilizes an IEP Review form as the means to determine if an IEP has been properly written and formulated. This information partially fulfills the Federal…

  3. Project HAPI (Handicapped Achievement Program Improvement): Assessment plus Intervention equals IEP. A Handbook on How to Write an Individualized Education Program for the Educationally Handicapped. Book Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Jean; And Others

    The second of five handbooks developed by Project HAPI (Handicapped Achievement Program Improvement), a multimedia staff development program to help teachers and specialists write effective individualized education programs (IEPs), is in looseleaf workbook format and focuses on children with severe education handicaps. It is reported that students…

  4. Alcohol Consumption, Craving, and Craving Control Efforts Assessed Daily in the Context of Readiness to Change Among Individuals with Alcohol Dependence and PTSD.

    PubMed

    Browne, Kendall C; Wray, Tyler B; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Krenek, Marketa; Simpson, Tracy L

    2016-02-01

    Research has demonstrated the positive association between alcohol craving and alcohol use and has identified craving as a central component of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Despite potential clinical implications, few studies have examined the relationship between craving and alcohol use in individuals with AUD and common psychiatric comorbidities or explored possible moderators of the craving-alcohol use relationship. The current study used daily monitoring data to: 1) replicate previous findings detecting a positive relationship between craving and alcohol use in individuals with AUD and co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 2) extend these findings by examining the influence of initial change motivation on the craving-use relationship and within-day associations among craving, efforts to control craving, and alcohol consumption. Participants were 84 individuals with alcohol dependence and PTSD enrolled in an intervention study. Generalized estimating equations using pre-treatment baseline daily data revealed significant main effects for craving, craving control, and motivation to change alcohol use. Daily craving was positively related to alcohol use. Greater change motivation and craving control (i.e., efforts to resist craving, avoidance of thoughts and feelings related to craving) were negatively related to alcohol use. A significant interaction was detected between baseline change motivation and daily craving indicating that the association between craving and alcohol use was significantly stronger for those with low baseline change motivation. A significant interaction was also detected between craving control and daily craving, suggesting that participants were more likely to consume alcohol when experiencing high levels of craving if they reported low levels of craving control. Findings bolster the idea that efforts to prevent or ameliorate craving are critical to treatment success for individuals with AUD and PTSD who are seeking to

  5. Intra-Individual Response Variability Assessed by Ex-Gaussian Analysis may be a New Endophenotype for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Henríquez-Henríquez, Marcela Patricia; Billeke, Pablo; Henríquez, Hugo; Zamorano, Francisco Javier; Rothhammer, Francisco; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Intra-individual variability of response times (RTisv) is considered as potential endophenotype for attentional deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Traditional methods for estimating RTisv lose information regarding response times (RTs) distribution along the task, with eventual effects on statistical power. Ex-Gaussian analysis captures the dynamic nature of RTisv, estimating normal and exponential components for RT distribution, with specific phenomenological correlates. Here, we applied ex-Gaussian analysis to explore whether intra-individual variability of RTs agrees with criteria proposed by Gottesman and Gould for endophenotypes. Specifically, we evaluated if normal and/or exponential components of RTs may (a) present the stair-like distribution expected for endophenotypes (ADHD > siblings > typically developing children (TD) without familiar history of ADHD) and (b) represent a phenotypic correlate for previously described genetic risk variants. This is a pilot study including 55 subjects (20 ADHD-discordant sibling-pairs and 15 TD children), all aged between 8 and 13 years. Participants resolved a visual Go/Nogo with 10% Nogo probability. Ex-Gaussian distributions were fitted to individual RT data and compared among the three samples. In order to test whether intra-individual variability may represent a correlate for previously described genetic risk variants, VNTRs at DRD4 and SLC6A3 were identified in all sibling-pairs following standard protocols. Groups were compared adjusting independent general linear models for the exponential and normal components from the ex-Gaussian analysis. Identified trends were confirmed by the non-parametric Jonckheere-Terpstra test. Stair-like distributions were observed for μ (p = 0.036) and σ (p = 0.009). An additional "DRD4-genotype" × "clinical status" interaction was present for τ (p = 0.014) reflecting a possible severity factor. Thus, normal and exponential RTisv components are

  6. [Individual quality of life of drug addicted patients during a drug withdrawal programme: Self assessment on a drug withdrawal and transition unit for adults].

    PubMed

    Frei-Rhein, Geneviève; Hantikainen, Virpi

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was twofold: to examine the individual quality of life of drug addicted patients after being admitted to a drug withdrawal programme in a psychiatric hospital in Switzerland, and to check whether the individual quality of life changes over a period of three weeks. Within three days following admission, thirty patients (23 men, 7 women) were interviewed, using the half structured instrument Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life: a Direct Weighting Procedure for Quality of Life Domains (SEIQoL-DW). Three weeks later, 16 patients (who were still participating in the drug withdrawal programme) were interviewed for a second time. The 46 interviews were analysed by means of qualitative content analysis according to Morse and Field (1998). In the 30 interviews that were conducted within the first three days following hospital admission, 269 individual quality of life domains (QLD) were described, from which 37 categories of QLD could be derived, which in turn were classified into nine main themes. In the second round of interviews conducted after three weeks in hospital, the QLD categories and the main themes remained nearly identical to those derived from the first round. Only one new category of QLD, , could be identified and was assigned to the main QLD "distress factors". The rankings of some QLDs changed. The median of the Global Quality of Life (GLQ) index of all 30 patients amounted to 48.5 out of 100 points. The initial value for 16 patients who were interviewed for a second time was 57.7 while the value for the 14 drop outs amounted to 39.9. After three weeks, the median of the GLQ of the remaining 16 patients increased from 57.7 to 63.1. Compared to a healthy population, drug addicts have a lower quality of life, while compared to other psychiatric groups similar quality of life can be observed. The SEIQoL-DW method was well accepted among patients without distressing them. This study shows that

  7. Development of the Contextual Assessment of Social Skills (CASS): A Role Play Measure of Social Skill for Individuals with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratto, Allison B.; Turner-Brown, Lauren; Rupp, Betty M.; Mesibov, Gary B.; Penn, David L.

    2011-01-01

    This study piloted a role play assessment of conversational skills for adolescents and young adults with high-functioning autism/Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS). Participants completed two semi-structured role plays, in which social context was manipulated by changing the confederate's level of interest in the conversation. Participants' social…

  8. Relationship between Pre-Intervention Data and Post-Intervention Reading Fluency and Growth: A Meta-Analysis of Assessment Data for Individual Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholin, Sarah E.; Burns, Matthew K.

    2012-01-01

    Curriculum-based measurement is commonly used within a response-to-intervention framework to assess the effectiveness of intervention and to triage students into intervention tiers (e.g., the lowest 10% receive a Tier 3 intervention, and those in the 11th to 25th percentiles receive a Tier 2 intervention). We conducted a meta-analysis of 18…

  9. What Do We Know About Teaching and Learning in Urban Schools? Volume 3: Assessment that Respects Complexity in Individuals and Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Judah L.

    Educational assessment tools are used for accountability; selection and licensure, and to measure the effects of instruction for student diagnosis and treatment. Psychometric instruments currently in use are flawed in two ways: they attempt to rank people on fundamentally multidimensional traits, and the problem of the validity of these…

  10. Using Distractor-Driven Standards-Based Multiple-Choice Assessments and Rasch Modeling to Investigate Hierarchies of Chemistry Misconceptions and Detect Structural Problems with Individual Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann-Abell, Cari F.; DeBoer, George E.

    2011-01-01

    Distractor-driven multiple-choice assessment items and Rasch modeling were used as diagnostic tools to investigate students' understanding of middle school chemistry ideas. Ninety-one items were developed according to a procedure that ensured content alignment to the targeted standards and construct validity. The items were administered to 13360…

  11. Urine-based Metabolomics with Fish: Use of Repeat Sampling (of an individual) to Non-lethally Assess Temporal Effects of Contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental metabolomics is a rapidly developing field for assessing the global metabolite profiles of tissues and/or biofluids from ecologically relevant organisms to identify biomarkers of exposure to various stressors, elucidate a chemical’s mode(s)-of-action, and decipher t...

  12. CLAS: Assessing the Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Bobbi

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that assessment has become a leading national educational issue. Presents a chronology of events in California related to student assessment reform. Identifies the California Learning Assessment System (CLAS) three key elements: (1) individual student scores; (2) performance testing; and (3) curriculum improvement. (CFR)

  13. Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Theodore E., Ed.

    "The Role of the State in Performance-Based Teacher Education-Certification" by Robert Roth creates a context for viewing how state agencies are approaching performance education. Peter Airasian then explores the value questions that are at the heart of evaluation issues. Fred McDonald looks at "The State of the Art in Performance Assessment," and…

  14. Functional capacity, physical activity and muscle strength assessment of individuals with non-small cell lung cancer: a systematic review of instruments and their measurement properties

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The measurement properties of instruments used to assess functional capacity, physical activity and muscle strength in participants with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have not been systematically reviewed. Method Objectives: To identify outcome measures used to assess these outcomes in participants with NSCLC; and to evaluate, synthesise and compare the measurement properties of the outcome measures identified. Data Sources: A systematic review of articles using electronic databases MEDLINE (1950–2012), CINAHL (1982–2012), EMBASE (1980–2012), Cochrane Library (2012), Expanded Academic ASAP (1994–2012), Health Collection Informit (1995–2012) and PEDRO (1999–2012). Additional studies were identified by searching personal files and cross referencing. Eligibility Criteria for Study Selection: Search one: studies which assessed functional capacity, physical activity or muscle strength in participants with NSCLC using non-laboratory objective tests were included. Search two: studies which evaluated a measurement property (inter- or intra-rater reliability; measurement error; criterion or construct validity; or responsiveness) in NSCLC for one of the outcome measures identified in search one. Studies published in English from 1980 were eligible. Data Extraction and Methodological Quality Assessment: data collection form was developed and data extracted. Methodological quality of studies was assessed by two independent reviewers using the 4-point COSMIN checklist. Results Thirteen outcome measures were identified. Thirty-one studies evaluating measurement properties of the outcome measures in participants with NSCLC were included. Functional capacity was assessed using the six- and twelve-minute walk tests; incremental- and endurance-shuttle walk tests; and the stair-climbing test. Criterion validity for three of these measures was established in NSCLC but not the reliability or responsiveness. Physical activity was measured using accelerometers

  15. Assessment of individual cognitive changes after deep brain stimulation surgery in Parkinson's disease using the Neuropsychological Test Battery Vienna short version.

    PubMed

    Foki, Thomas; Hitzl, Daniela; Pirker, Walter; Novak, Klaus; Pusswald, Gisela; Auff, Eduard; Lehrner, Johann

    2017-02-07

    Long-term therapy of Parkinson's disease with L‑DOPA is associated with a high risk of developing motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) can improve these motor complications. Although the positive effect on motor symptoms has been proven, postoperative cognitive decline has been documented. To tackle the impact of DBS on cognition, 18 DBS patients were compared to 25 best medically treated Parkinson's patients, 24 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 12 healthy controls using the Neuropsychological Test Battery Vienna short version (NTBV-short) for cognitive outcome 12 months after the first examination. Reliable change index methodology was used. Roughly 10% of DBS patients showed cognitive decline mainly affecting the domains attention and executive functioning (phonemic fluency). Further research is needed to identify the mechanisms that lead to improvement or deterioration of cognitive functions in individual cases.

  16. The Myth of “The Vulnerable Plaque”: Transitioning from a Focus on Individual Lesions to Atherosclerotic Disease Burden for Coronary Artery Disease Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Arbab-Zadeh, Armin; Fuster, Valentin

    2014-01-01

    The cardiovascular science community has pursued the quest to identify vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque in patients for decades, hoping to prevent acute coronary events. However, despite major advancements in imaging technology that allow visualization of rupture-prone plaques, clinical studies have not demonstrated improved risk prediction compared to traditional approaches. Considering the complex relationship between plaque rupture and acute coronary event risk suggested by pathology studies and confirmed by clinical investigations, these results are not surprising. This review summarizes the evidence supporting a multifaceted hypothesis of the natural history of atherosclerotic plaque rupture. Managing patients at risk of suffering acute coronary events mandates a greater focus on the atherosclerotic disease burden, rather than on features of individual plaques. PMID:25601032

  17. Salmonella enterica Infections in the United States and Assessment of Coefficients of Variation: A Novel Approach to Identify Epidemiologic Characteristics of Individual Serotypes, 1996–2011

    PubMed Central

    Boore, Amy L.; Hoekstra, R. Michael; Iwamoto, Martha; Fields, Patricia I.; Bishop, Richard D.; Swerdlow, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite control efforts, salmonellosis continues to cause an estimated 1.2 million infections in the United States (US) annually. We describe the incidence of salmonellosis in the US and introduce a novel approach to examine the epidemiologic similarities and differences of individual serotypes. Methods Cases of salmonellosis in humans reported to the laboratory-based National Salmonella Surveillance System during 1996–2011 from US states were included. Coefficients of variation were used to describe distribution of incidence rates of common Salmonella serotypes by geographic region, age group and sex of patient, and month of sample isolation. Results During 1996–2011, more than 600,000 Salmonella isolates from humans were reported, with an average annual incidence of 13.1 cases/100,000 persons. The annual reported rate of Salmonella infections did not decrease during the study period. The top five most commonly reported serotypes, Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Newport, Heidelberg, and Javiana, accounted for 62% of fully serotyped isolates. Coefficients of variation showed the most geographically concentrated serotypes were often clustered in Gulf Coast states and were also more frequently found to be increasing in incidence. Serotypes clustered in particular months, age groups, and sex were also identified and described. Conclusions Although overall incidence rates of Salmonella did not change over time, trends and epidemiological factors differed remarkably by serotype. A better understanding of Salmonella, facilitated by this comprehensive description of overall trends and unique characteristics of individual serotypes, will assist in responding to this disease and in planning and implementing prevention activities. PMID:26701276

  18. Absorption, Metabolism and Excretion of Cranberry (Poly)phenols in Humans: A Dose Response Study and Assessment of Inter-Individual Variability

    PubMed Central

    Feliciano, Rodrigo P.; Mills, Charlotte E.; Istas, Geoffrey; Heiss, Christian; Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana

    2017-01-01

    The beneficial health effects of cranberries have been attributed to their (poly)phenol content. Recent studies have investigated the absorption, metabolism and excretion of cranberry (poly)phenols; however, little is known about whether they follow a dose response in vivo at different levels of intake. An acute double-blind randomized controlled trial in 10 healthy men with cranberry juices containing 409, 787, 1238, 1534 and 1910 mg total (poly)phenols was performed. Blood and urine were analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Sixty metabolites were identified in plasma and urine including cinnamic acids, dihydrocinnamic, flavonols, benzoic acids, phenylacetic acids, benzaldehydes, valerolactones, hippuric acids, catechols, and pyrogallols. Total plasma, but not excreted urinary (poly)phenol metabolites, exhibited a linear dose response (r2 = 0.74, p < 0.05), driven by caffeic acid 4-O-ß-d-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-ß-d-glucuronide, ferulic acid 4-O-ß-d-glucuronide, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid 3-O-ß-d-glucuronide, sinapic acid, ferulic acid 4-O-sulfate, 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid-4-O-sulfate, (4R)-5-(3′-hydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone-4′-O-sulfate, 4-methylgallic acid-3-O-sulfate, and isoferulic acid 3-O-sulfate (all r2 ≥ 0.89, p < 0.05). Inter-individual variability of the plasma metabolite concentration was broad and dependent on the metabolite. Herein, we show that specific plasma (poly)phenol metabolites are linearly related to the amount of (poly)phenols consumed in cranberry juice. The large inter-individual variation in metabolite profile may be due to variations in the gut microbiome. PMID:28287476

  19. Comparison of two expert-based assessments of diesel exhaust exposure in a case-control study: Programmable decision rules versus expert review of individual jobs

    PubMed Central

    Pronk, Anjoeka; Stewart, Patricia A.; Coble, Joseph B.; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Wheeler, David C.; Colt, Joanne S.; Baris, Dalsu; Schwenn, Molly; Karagas, Margaret R.; Johnson, Alison; Waddell, Richard; Verrill, Castine; Cherala, Sai; Silverman, Debra T.; Friesen, Melissa C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Professional judgment is necessary to assess occupational exposure in population-based case-control studies; however, the assessments lack transparency and are time-consuming to perform. To improve transparency and efficiency, we systematically applied decision rules to the questionnaire responses to assess diesel exhaust exposure in the New England Bladder Cancer Study, a population-based case-control study. Methods 2,631 participants reported 14,983 jobs; 2,749 jobs were administered questionnaires (‘modules’) with diesel-relevant questions. We applied decision rules to assign exposure metrics based solely on the occupational history responses (OH estimates) and based on the module responses (module estimates); we combined the separate OH and module estimates (OH/module estimates). Each job was also reviewed one at a time to assign exposure (one-by-one review estimates). We evaluated the agreement between the OH, OH/module, and one-by-one review estimates. Results The proportion of exposed jobs was 20–25% for all jobs, depending on approach, and 54–60% for jobs with diesel-relevant modules. The OH/module and one-by-one review had moderately high agreement for all jobs (κw=0.68–0.81) and for jobs with diesel-relevant modules (κw=0.62–0.78) for the probability, intensity, and frequency metrics. For exposed subjects, the Spearman correlation statistic was 0.72 between the cumulative OH/module and one-by-one review estimates. Conclusions The agreement seen here may represent an upper level of agreement because the algorithm and one-by-one review estimates were not fully independent. This study shows that applying decision-based rules can reproduce a one-by-one review, increase transparency and efficiency, and provide a mechanism to replicate exposure decisions in other studies. PMID:22843440

  20. Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Cocaine Selective Severity Assessment to evaluate cocaine withdrawal in treatment-seeking individuals.

    PubMed

    Pérez de los Cobos, José; Trujols, Joan; Siñol, Núria; Vasconcelos e Rego, Lisiane; Iraurgi, Ioseba; Batlle, Francesca

    2014-09-01

    Reliable and valid assessment of cocaine withdrawal is relevant for treating cocaine-dependent patients. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Cocaine Selective Severity Assessment (CSSA), an instrument that measures cocaine withdrawal. Participants were 170 cocaine-dependent inpatients receiving detoxification treatment. Principal component analysis revealed a 4-factor structure for CSSA that included the following components: 'Cocaine Craving and Psychological Distress', 'Lethargy', 'Carbohydrate Craving and Irritability', and 'Somatic Depressive Symptoms'. These 4 components accounted for 56.0% of total variance. Internal reliability for these components ranged from unacceptable to good (Chronbach's alpha: 0.87, 0.65, 0.55, and 0.22, respectively). All components except Somatic Depressive Symptoms presented concurrent validity with cocaine use. In summary, while some properties of the Spanish version of the CSSA are satisfactory, such as interpretability of factor structure and test-retest reliability, other properties, such as internal reliability and concurrent validity of some factors, are inadequate.

  1. Development of the Contextual Assessment of Social Skills (CASS): a role play measure of social skill for individuals with high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Ratto, Allison B; Turner-Brown, Lauren; Rupp, Betty M; Mesibov, Gary B; Penn, David L

    2011-09-01

    This study piloted a role play assessment of conversational skills for adolescents and young adults with high-functioning autism/Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS). Participants completed two semi-structured role plays, in which social context was manipulated by changing the confederate's level of interest in the conversation. Participants' social behavior was rated via a behavioral coding system, and performance was compared across contexts and groups. An interaction effect was found for several items, whereby control participants showed significant change across context, while participants with HFA/AS showed little or no change. Total change across contexts was significantly correlated with related social constructs and significantly predicted ASD. The findings are discussed in terms of the potential utility of the CASS in the evaluation of social skill.

  2. Usage of Social Media and Smartphone Application in Assessment of Physical and Psychological Well-Being of Individuals in Times of a Major Air Pollution Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Cyrus SH; Fang, Pan; Lu, Yanxia; Ho, Roger CM

    2014-01-01

    Background Crisis situations bring about many challenges to researchers, public institutions, and governments in collecting data and conducting research in affected individuals. Recent developments in Web-based and smartphone technologies have offered government and nongovernment organizations a new system to disseminate and acquire information. However, research into this area is still lacking. The current study focuses largely on how new social networking websites and, in particular, smartphone technologies could have helped in the acquisition of crucial research data from the general population during the recent 2013 Southeast Asian Haze. This crisis lasted only for 1 week, and is unlike other crisis where there are large-scale consequential after-effects. Objective To determine whether respondents will make use of Internet, social media, and smartphone technologies to provide feedback regarding their physical and psychological wellbeing during a crisis, and if so, will these new mechanisms be as effective as conventional, technological, Internet-based website technologies. Methods A Web-based database and a smartphone application were developed. Participants were recruited by snowball sampling. The participants were recruited either via a self-sponsored Facebook post featuring a direct link to the questionnaire on physical and psychological wellbeing and also a smartphone Web-based application; or via dissemination of the questionnaire link by emails, directed to the same group of participants. Information pertaining to physical and psychological wellbeing was collated. Results A total of 298 respondents took part in the survey. Most of them were between the ages of 20 to 29 years and had a university education. More individuals preferred the option of accessing and providing feedback to a survey on physical and psychological wellbeing via direct access to a Web-based questionnaire. Statistical analysis showed that demographic variables like age, gender, and

  3. Assessing the consistency assumption by exploring treatment by covariate interactions in mixed treatment comparison meta-analysis: individual patient-level covariates versus aggregate trial-level covariates.

    PubMed

    Donegan, Sarah; Williamson, Paula; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Tudur Smith, Catrin

    2012-12-20

    Mixed treatment comparison (MTC) meta-analysis allows several treatments to be compared in a single analysis while utilising direct and indirect evidence. Treatment by covariate interactions can be included in MTC models to explore how the covariate modifies the treatment effects. If interactions exist, the assumptions underlying MTCs may be invalidated. For conventional pair-wise meta-analysis, important benefits regarding the investigation of such interactions, gained from using individual patient data (IPD) rather than aggregate data (AD), have been described. We aim to compare IPD MTC models including patient-level covariates with AD MTC models including study-level covariates. IPD and AD random-effects MTC models for dichotomous outcomes are specified. Three assumptions are made regarding the interactions (i.e. independent, exchangeable and common interactions). The models are applied to a dataset to compare four drugs for treating malaria (i.e. amodiaquine-artesunate, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHAPQ), artemether-lumefantrine and chlorproguanil-dapsone plus artesunate) using the outcome unadjusted treatment success at day 28. The treatment effects and regression coefficients for interactions from the IPD models were more precise than those from AD models. Using IPD, assuming independent or exchangeable interactions, the regression coefficient for chlorproguanil-dapsone plus artesunate versus DHAPQ was statistically significant and assuming common interactions, the common coefficient was significant; whereas using AD, no coefficients were significant. Using IPD, DHAPQ was the best drug; whereas using AD, the best drug varied. Using AD models, there was no evidence that the consistency assumption was invalid; whereas, the assumption was questionable based on the IPD models. The AD analyses were misleading.

  4. Male ancestry structure and interethnic admixture in African-descent communities from the Amazon as revealed by Y-chromosome Strs.

    PubMed

    Palha, Teresinha de Jesus Brabo Ferreira; Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Elzemar Martins; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Andrea; Guerreiro, João Farias; de Moura, Luciene Soraya Souza; Santos, Sidney

    2011-03-01

    Some genetic markers on both the Y chromosome and mtDNA are highly polymorphic and population-specific in humans, representing useful tools for reconstructing the past history of populations with poor historical records. Such lack of information is usually true in the case of recent African-descent populations of the New World founded by fugitive slaves throughout the slavery period in the Americas, particularly in Brazil, where those communities are known as quilombos. Aiming to recover male-derived ethnic structure of nine quilombos from the Brazilian Amazon, a total of 300 individuals, belonging to Mazagão Velho (N = 24), Curiaú (N = 48), Mazagão (N = 36), Trombetas (N = 20), Itacoã (N = 22), Saracura (N = 46), Marajó (N = 58), Pitimandeua (N = 26), and Pontal (N = 20), were investigated for nine Y-STRs (DYS393, DYS19, DYS390, DYS389 I, DYS389 II, DYS392, DYS391, DYS385 I/II). From the 169 distinct haplotypes obtained, 120 were singletons. The results suggest the West African coast as the main origin of slaves brought to Brazil (54% of male contribution); the European contribution was high (41%), while the Amerindian's was low (5%). Those results contrast with previous mtDNA data that showed high Amerindian female contribution (46.6%) in African-descent populations. AMOVA suggests that the genetic differentiation among the quilombos is mainly influenced by admixture with European. However, when restricting AMOVA to African-specific haplotypes, low differentiation was detected, suggesting great genetic homogeneity of the African founding populations and/or a later homogenization by intense slave trade inside Brazil.

  5. When "health" is not enough: societal, individual and biomedical assessments of well-being among the Matsigenka of the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Carolina

    2005-08-01

    Although biomedical indicators of health status show that physical health for the Matsigenka of the Peruvian Amazon has significantly improved over the past 20-30 years, the Matsigenka perceive their health and well-being to have severely declined during this period. This discrepancy between empirical measures and local perceptions of health and well-being points to the central tension inherent in measuring and defining "health." While biomedical parameters of health are generally linked to notions of the body free of illness, measurable by physiological means, the Matsigenka define physical health as only one component of what it means to be healthy and to experience well-being. For the Matsigenka, notions of health and well-being are linked fundamentally to ideals about happiness, productivity and goodness, in addition to biomedical health. The Matsigenka attribute the decrease in their well-being to newly instigated sorcery and stressors resulting from outside influences and morality institutionalized by cultural "outsiders", such as missionaries, school teachers, health personnel, oil company employees and government officials. This article explores the relationships between biomedical, societal and personal assessments of health and well-being among the Matsigenka as they seek to preserve their sense of wellness in spite of their rapidly changing social and economic environment. By using longitudinal qualitative and quantitative ethnographic and health data, this paper shows that, for the Matsigenka, increases in acculturation and permanent settlement result in an alarming decrease in their health and well-being.

  6. A 3D individual-based aquatic transport model for the assessment of the potential dispersal of planktonic larvae of an invasive bivalve.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Andrea B; Wittmann, Marion E; Chandra, Sudeep; Schladow, S Geoffrey; Rueda, Francisco J

    2014-12-01

    The unwanted impacts of non-indigenous species have become one of the major ecological and economic threats to aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Assessing the potential dispersal and colonization of non-indigenous species is necessary to prevent or reduce deleterious effects that may lead to ecosystem degradation and a range of economic impacts. A three dimensional (3D) numerical model has been developed to evaluate the local dispersal of the planktonic larvae of an invasive bivalve, Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea), by passive hydraulic transport in Lake Tahoe, USA. The probability of dispersal of Asian clam larvae from the existing high density populations to novel habitats is determined by the magnitude and timing of strong wind events. The probability of colonization of new near-shore areas outside the existing beds is low, but sensitive to the larvae settling velocity ws. High larvae mortality was observed due to settling in unsuitable deep habitats. The impact of UV-radiation during the pelagic stages, on the Asian clam mortality was low. This work provides a quantification of the number of propagules that may be successfully transported as a result of natural processes and in function of population size. The knowledge and understanding of the relative contribution of different dispersal pathways, may directly inform decision-making and resource allocation associated with invasive species management.

  7. Assessment of exposure to PCB 153 from breast feeding and normal food intake in individual children using a system approach model

    PubMed Central

    Trnovec, Tomáš; Dedík, Ladislav; Jusko, Todd A.; Lancz, Kinga; Palkovičová, Ľubica; Kočan, Anton; Šovčíková, Eva; Wimmerová, Soňa; Tihányi, Juraj; Patayová, Henrieta; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2011-01-01

    Investigators have typically relied on a single or few discrete time points as measures of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden, however health effects are more likely to be the result of integrative exposure in time, optionally expressed as an area under the time curve (AUC) of PCB serum concentration. Using data from a subgroup of 93 infants from a birth cohort in eastern Slovakia—a region highly polluted by PCBs—we fit a system type model, customized to our longitudinal measures of serum PCB concentrations in cord, 6, 16, and, 45 month blood specimens. The most abundant congener, PCB 153, was chosen for modeling purposes. In addition to currently used methods of exposure assessment, our approach estimates a concentration time profile for each subject, taking into account mean residence time of PCB 153 molecules in the body, duration of breast feeding, hypothetical PCB 153 concentration in steady-state without breast feeding and alternately without normal food intake. Hypothetical PCB 153 concentration in steady-state without normal food intake correlates with AUC (r=0.84, p<0.001) as well as with duration of breast feeding (r=0.64, p<0.001). It makes possible to determine each subject’s exposure profile expressed as AUC of PCBs serum concentration with a minimum model parameters. PCB body burden in most infants was strongly associated with duration of breast feeding in most, but not all children, was apparent from model output. PMID:22051344

  8. HLA class II alleles in the Otomi population of the Mezquital Valley: a genetic approach to the history of interethnic migrations in the Mexican Central Plateau.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Martín, Ana Itzel; González-Sobrino, Blanca Zoila; Olvera, Ángel Eduardo Camarena; Falfán-Valencia, Ramcés

    2014-01-01

    From a historical and genetic point of view, the Otomi of the Mezquital Valley are a frontier people that have played an important role in the population dynamics of the Mexican Central Plateau. Due to the antiquity of their presence in the area, the Otomi may be bearers of ancient genetic variability, shared mainly today with other groups belonging to the Otomanguean linguistic family and with the Nahua. In this study we analyzed the HLA class II allele frequencies reported in Mexican indigenous populations, in order to provide an intraregional-level historical perspective of the genetic relationships between the Otomi of the Mezquital Valley and indigenous populations from other regions of Mexico. We examined genetic variation in HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 loci in 66 nonrelated individuals belonging to seven indigenous communities from the Ixmiquilpan municipality in the Mezquital Valley, in the State of Hidalgo, Mexico. The variability of the HLA-DRB1 gene among the Otomi of the Mezquital Valley was mainly concentrated in five alleles: -DRB1*08:02 (31.06%), -DRB1*04:07 (25.77%), -DRB1*14:06 (7.55%), -DRB1*14:02 (6.06%), and -DRB1*16:02 (4.55%); these alleles have been previously described in other indigenous populations. The most frequent alleles at the HLA-DQB1 locus were -DQB1*03:02 (34.09%), -DQB1*04:02 (31.03%), and -DQB1*03:01 (19.7%). Furthermore, the HLA-DQB1*02:02 allele was found in the Otomi group with a frequency of 2.27%; this allele has not been reported in Mexican indigenous populations. In conclusion, the genetic constitution of the Otomi population is intermediate to the northern groups and the genetic variability shared by the peoples of the central regions of Mexico. Furthermore, HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 allelic variability among the Otomi provides insight into the historical processes implied in the biological admixture with European, Asian, and African populations as well as in the admixture with the population of Mexico City associated with long

  9. Model assessment of individual tumor control rate and adverse effects in comparing locally advanced cervical cancer treatment using intracavitary with and without interstitial brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Keyur J; Yaparpalvi, Ravindra; Shankar, Viswanathan; Bodner, William; Garg, Madhur; Rivera, Amanda; Tomé, Wolfgang A.; Kalnicki, Shalom

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study assessed the modeled probability of tumor control and organ at risk toxicities in locally advanced cervical cancer in patients treated by external beam radiation plus brachytherapy using intracavitary combined with interstitial brachytherapy (IC/IS) vs. intracavitary brachytherapy (IC) alone. Material and methods Twenty cervical cancer patients with a mean HR-CTV volume of 47.4 cm3 and a mean width of 54 mm were planned with both IC/IS and IC brachytherapy alone. A probit model was utilized to model 3-year (3-yr) local control rate (LC), 3-yr cancer specific survival rate (CSS), and the adverse effect (AE) of the organ at risk by using a modeled data set from multiple institutions. Modeling results were used to estimate the LC, CSS, and AE of the treatments in this study. Results Using the IC/IS technique, an EQD2 increase of 12.3 Gy to D90 (from 76.1 Gy to 88.3 Gy) of HR-CTV is expected to increase 3-yr LC and 3-yr CSS by 12.5%, and 11.0%, respectively. Comparing IC/IS to IC alone, the expected G2+ AE were 7.7% vs. 7.9% for the bladder, and 5.9% vs. 6.8% for the rectum. Conclusions The IC/IS technique improved dose coverage to the HR-CTV without significantly increasing dose to 2 cm3 of the organ at risk (OAR) surrounding it. With different regimens of EBRT combined with BT, IC/IS can be used to increase the probability of LC and CSS, or decrease the risk of AE. PMID:28115959

  10. Three- and four-element Windkessel models: assessment of their fitting performance in a large cohort of healthy middle-aged individuals.

    PubMed

    Segers, P; Rietzschel, E R; De Buyzere, M L; Stergiopulos, N; Westerhof, N; Van Bortel, L M; Gillebert, T; Verdonck, P R

    2008-05-01

    Lumped-parameter models are used to estimate the global arterial properties by fitting the model to measured (aortic) pressure and flow. Different model configurations coexist, and it is still an open question as to which model optimally reflects the arterial tree and leads to correct estimates of arterial properties. An assessment was made of the performance of (a) the three-element Windkessel model (WK3) consisting of vascular resistance R, total arterial compliance C, and characteristic impedance Zc; (b) a four-element model with an inertance element L placed in parallel with Zc (WK4-p); and (c) a four-element model with L placed in series with Zc (WK4-s). Models were fitted to data measured non-invasively in 2404 healthy subjects, aged between 35 and 55 years. It was found that model performance segregated into two groups. In a group containing 20 per cent of the dataset (characterized by low blood pressure and wave reflection) the WK4-p model outperformed the other models, with model behaviour as envisioned by its promoters. In these cases, the WK3 and WK4-s models led to increased overestimation of total arterial compliance and underestimation of characteristic impedance. However, in about 80 per cent of the cases, the WK4-p model showed a behaviour that was very similar to that of the WK3 and WK4-s models. Here, the WK4-s model yielded the best quality of fit, although model parameters reached physically impossible values for L in about 12 per cent of all cases. The debate about which lumped-parameter model is the better approximation of the arterial tree is therefore still not fully resolved.

  11. Assessment of individual organ doses in a realistic human phantom from neutron and gamma stimulated spectroscopy of the breast and liver

    SciTech Connect

    Belley, Matthew D.; Segars, William Paul; Kapadia, Anuj J.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Understanding the radiation dose to a patient is essential when considering the use of an ionizing diagnostic imaging test for clinical diagnosis and screening. Using Monte Carlo simulations, the authors estimated the three-dimensional organ-dose distribution from neutron and gamma irradiation of the male liver, female liver, and female breasts for neutron- and gamma-stimulated spectroscopic imaging. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations were developed using the Geant4 GATE application and a voxelized XCAT human phantom. A male and a female whole body XCAT phantom was voxelized into 256 × 256 × 600 voxels (3.125 × 3.125 × 3.125 mm{sup 3}). A monoenergetic rectangular beam of 5.0 MeV neutrons or 7.0 MeV photons was made incident on a 2 cm thick slice of the phantom. The beam was rotated at eight different angles around the phantom ranging from 0° to 180°. Absorbed dose was calculated for each individual organ in the body and dose volume histograms were computed to analyze the absolute and relative doses in each organ. Results: The neutron irradiations of the liver showed the highest organ dose absorption in the liver, with appreciably lower doses in other proximal organs. The dose distribution within the irradiated slice exhibited substantial attenuation with increasing depth along the beam path, attenuating to ∼15% of the maximum value at the beam exit side. The gamma irradiation of the liver imparted the highest organ dose to the stomach wall. The dose distribution from the gammas showed a region of dose buildup at the beam entrance, followed by a relatively uniform dose distribution to all of the deep tissue structures, attenuating to ∼75% of the maximum value at the beam exit side. For the breast scans, both the neutron and gamma irradiation registered maximum organ doses in the breasts, with all other organs receiving less than 1% of the breast dose. Effective doses ranged from 0.22 to 0.37 mSv for the neutron scans and 41 to 66 mSv for the gamma

  12. Assessment of individual organ doses in a realistic human phantom from neutron and gamma stimulated spectroscopy of the breast and liver

    PubMed Central

    Belley, Matthew D.; Segars, William Paul; Kapadia, Anuj J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Understanding the radiation dose to a patient is essential when considering the use of an ionizing diagnostic imaging test for clinical diagnosis and screening. Using Monte Carlo simulations, the authors estimated the three-dimensional organ-dose distribution from neutron and gamma irradiation of the male liver, female liver, and female breasts for neutron- and gamma-stimulated spectroscopic imaging. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations were developed using the Geant4 GATE application and a voxelized XCAT human phantom. A male and a female whole body XCAT phantom was voxelized into 256 × 256 × 600 voxels (3.125 × 3.125 × 3.125 mm3). A monoenergetic rectangular beam of 5.0 MeV neutrons or 7.0 MeV photons was made incident on a 2 cm thick slice of the phantom. The beam was rotated at eight different angles around the phantom ranging from 0° to 180°. Absorbed dose was calculated for each individual organ in the body and dose volume histograms were computed to analyze the absolute and relative doses in each organ. Results: The neutron irradiations of the liver showed the highest organ dose absorption in the liver, with appreciably lower doses in other proximal organs. The dose distribution within the irradiated slice exhibited substantial attenuation with increasing depth along the beam path, attenuating to ∼15% of the maximum value at the beam exit side. The gamma irradiation of the liver imparted the highest organ dose to the stomach wall. The dose distribution from the gammas showed a region of dose buildup at the beam entrance, followed by a relatively uniform dose distribution to all of the deep tissue structures, attenuating to ∼75% of the maximum value at the beam exit side. For the breast scans, both the neutron and gamma irradiation registered maximum organ doses in the breasts, with all other organs receiving less than 1% of the breast dose. Effective doses ranged from 0.22 to 0.37 mSv for the neutron scans and 41 to 66 mSv for the gamma scans

  13. Pressure pain thresholds assessed over temporalis, masseter, and frontalis muscles in healthy individuals, patients with tension-type headache, and those with migraine--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Sanne; Petersen, Marie Weinreich; Svendsen, Anette Sand; Gazerani, Parisa

    2015-08-01

    A systematic review was conducted to identify and summarize the available scientific literature addressing pressure pain threshold (PPT) values over the temporalis, masseter, and frontalis muscles in healthy humans, patients with tension-type headache (TTH), and those with migraine both in males and females. Six relevant medical databases for the literature search were included: PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, CINAHL, BioMed Central, and Embase. The search strategy was performed applying 15 keywords (eg, pressure pain threshold, temporalis muscle, tension type headache, pressure algometer) and their combinations. A total of 156 articles were identified, and 40 relevant articles were included. The main outcomes of the systematic review were extracted, and it was demonstrated that the PPT values in general were lower in patients compared with healthy subjects, and this was especially noted for temporalis in both females (migraine: 231.2 ± 38.3 kPa < TTH: 248.4 ± 39.3 kPa < healthy: 282.1 ± 70.8 kPa) and males (migraine: 225.5 ± 61.2 kPa < TTH: 264.2 ± 32.5 kPa < healthy: 314.8 ± 63.3 kPa). The masseter muscle seemed to be more sensitive than the other 2 muscles, in both females (healthy: masseter 194.1 ± 62.7 kPa < frontalis 277.5 ± 51.1 kPa < temporalis 282.1 ± 70.8 kPa) and males (healthy: masseter 248.2 ± 48.4 kPa < temporalis 314.8 ± 63.3 < frontalis 388 kPa). Females had lower PPT values than those of males in temporalis, masseter, and frontalis muscles. This work is the first to systematically review the scientific literature addressing PPT values over craniofacial muscles of healthy subjects, patients with TTH, and those with migraine to provide the PPT value ranges. Based on these findings, a set of guidelines was established to assist future studies including PPT assessments over craniofacial muscles.

  14. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for liver metastasis in an experimental model: dose–response at five-week follow-up based on retrospective dose assessment in individual rats.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Emiliano C C; Trivillin, Verónica A; Colombo, Lucas L; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Thorp, Silvia I; Cardoso, Jorge E; Garabalino, Marcela A; Molinari, Ana J; Heber, Elisa M; Curotto, Paula; Miller, Marcelo; Itoiz, Maria E; Aromando, Romina F; Nigg, David W; Schwint, Amanda E

    2013-11-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was proposed for untreatable colorectal liver metastases. Employing an experimental model of liver metastases in rats, we recently demonstrated that BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA-BNCT) at 13 Gy prescribed to tumor is therapeutically useful at 3-week follow-up. The aim of the present study was to evaluate dose–response at 5-week follow-up, based on retrospective dose assessment in individual rats. BDIX rats were inoculated with syngeneic colon cancer cells DHD/K12/TRb. Tumor-bearing animals were divided into three groups: BPA-BNCT (n = 19), Beam only (n = 8) and Sham (n = 7) (matched manipulation, no treatment). For each rat, neutron flux was measured in situ and boron content was measured in a pre-irradiation blood sample for retrospective individual dose assessment. For statistical analysis (ANOVA), individual data for the BPA-BNCT group were pooled according to absorbed tumor dose, BPA-BNCT I: 4.5–8.9 Gy and BPA-BNCT II: 9.2–16 Gy. At 5 weeks post-irradiation, the tumor surface area post-treatment/pre-treatment ratio was 12.2 ± 6.6 for Sham, 7.8 ± 4.1 for Beam only, 4.4 ± 5.6 for BPA-BNCT I and 0.45 ± 0.20 for BPA-BNCT II; tumor nodule weight was 750 ± 480 mg for Sham, 960 ± 620 mg for Beam only, 380 ± 720 mg for BPA-BNCT I and 7.3 ± 5.9 mg for BPA-BNCT II. The BPA-BNCT II group exhibited statistically significant tumor control with no contributory liver toxicity. Potential threshold doses for tumor response and significant tumor control were established at 6.1 and 9.2 Gy, respectively.

  15. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for liver metastasis in an experimental model: dose–response at five-week follow-up based on retrospective dose assessment in individual rats

    SciTech Connect

    Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; Veronica A. Trivilin; Lucas L. Colombo; Andrea Monti Hughes; Silvia I. Thorp; Jorge E. Cardoso; Marcel A. Garabalino; Ana J. Molinari; Elisa M. Heber; Paula Curotto; Marcelo Miller; Maria E. Itoiz; Romina F. Aromando; David W. Nigg; Amanda E. Schwint

    2013-11-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was proposed for untreatable colorectal liver metastases. Employing an experimental model of liver metastases in rats, we recently demonstrated that BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA-BNCT) at 13 Gy prescribed to tumor is therapeutically useful at 3-week follow-up. The aim of the present study was to evaluate dose–response at 5-week follow-up, based on retrospective dose assessment in individual rats. BDIX rats were inoculated with syngeneic colon cancer cells DHD/K12/TRb. Tumor-bearing animals were divided into three groups: BPA-BNCT (n = 19), Beam only (n = 8) and Sham (n = 7) (matched manipulation, no treatment). For each rat, neutron flux was measured in situ and boron content was measured in a pre-irradiation blood sample for retrospective individual dose assessment. For statistical analysis (ANOVA), individual data for the BPA-BNCT group were pooled according to absorbed tumor dose, BPA-BNCT I: 4.5–8.9 Gy and BPA-BNCT II: 9.2–16 Gy. At 5 weeks post-irradiation, the tumor surface area post-treatment/pre-treatment ratio was 12.2 +/- 6.6 for Sham, 7.8 +/- 4.1 for Beam only, 4.4 +/- 5.6 for BPA-BNCT I and 0.45 +/- 0.20 for BPA-BNCT II; tumor nodule weight was 750 +/- 480 mg for Sham, 960 +/- 620 mg for Beam only, 380 +/- 720 mg for BPA-BNCT I and 7.3 +/- 5.9 mg for BPA-BNCT II. The BPA-BNCT II group exhibited statistically significant tumor control with no contributory liver toxicity. Potential threshold doses for tumor response and significant tumor control were established at 6.1 and 9.2 Gy, respectively.

  16. Assessment of Social Support and Its Association to Depression, Self-Perceived Health and Chronic Diseases in Elderly Individuals Residing in an Area of Poverty and Social Vulnerability in Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lino, Valeria T. S.; Portela, Margareth C.; Camacho, Luiz A. B.; Atie, Soraya; Lima, Maria J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Social support (SS) influences the elderly ability to cope with the losses of ageing process. This study was aimed at assessing SS among elderly users of a primary healthcare unit in a poor and violent area of Rio de Janeiro City, and at verifying its association with depression, self-perceived health (SPH), marital status and chronic illnesses. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed based on a convenience sample of 180 individuals aged 60 years or older. SS was measured with part of the Brazilian version of Medical Outcomes Study's SS scale, and SPH and depression were assessed, respectively, through one question and the Brazilian version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. SS medians were calculated for the categories of SPH, depression, marital status and chronic illnesses variables, and differences were evaluated with the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Additionally, Pearson's chi-square test and logistic regression were employed to identify unadjusted and adjusted associations between SS and those variables. Results The participant’s mean age was 73 years old, and level of education was 3 years of school education on average. They were predominantly females (73.3%), and non-married (55.0%). Among them, 74.4% perceived their SS as satisfactory, 55.0% perceived their health as good, 27.8% were diagnosed with major depression and 83.3% had hypertension. Especially for those depressed and with bad SPH, the medians of SS measure were much lower than for others, reaching an unsatisfactory level. Moreover, controlling for other factors, non-depressed individuals were more likely (OR = 2.32) to have satisfactory SS. Conclusion in the violent and poor area explored in this research low SS is highly prevalent in the elderly. Depressed individuals are more likely to have low SS and this condition should be investigated in depressed elderly. The reduced scale is useful for low education individuals. PMID

  17. Exploring Individual Differences in Workload Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-26

    15 Figure 4: Operator Workload & Red-line (Adapted from (Cassenti and Kelley 2006)) .. 17 Figure 5: ECG Signal...times and Goal attainment Human Physiologic Response Electrocardiography ( ECG ) and Electrooculography (EOG) 8 NASA-TLX is a multi-dimensional...Electrooculography (EOG) signals, and heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) as determined from Electrocardiography ( ECG

  18. HUMAN CAPITAL AND INTERETHNIC MARRIAGE DECISIONS

    PubMed Central

    FURTADO, DELIA

    2014-01-01

    Common explanations for the generally negative relationship between education and ethnic endogamy include (1) education makes immigrants and their children better able to adapt to native culture thereby eliminating the need for a same-ethnicity spouse and (2) education raises the likelihood of leaving ethnic enclaves, thereby decreasing the probability of meeting potential same-ethnicity spouses. This paper considers a third option, the role of assortative matching on education. If education distributions differ by ethnicity, then spouse-searchers may trade similarities in ethnicity for similarities in education when choosing spouses. U.S. Census data on second-generation immigrants provide strong support for the assortative matching mechanism. PMID:22329050

  19. Circulating Endocannabinoids and the Polymorphism 385C>A in Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) Gene May Identify the Obesity Phenotype Related to Cardiometabolic Risk: A Study Conducted in a Brazilian Population of Complex Interethnic Admixture.

    PubMed

    Martins, Cyro José de Moraes; Genelhu, Virginia; Pimentel, Marcia Mattos Gonçalves; Celoria, Bruno Miguel Jorge; Mangia, Rogerio Fabris; Aveta, Teresa; Silvestri, Cristoforo; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Francischetti, Emilio Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system is associated with cardiometabolic complications of obesity. Allelic variants in coding genes for this system components may contribute to differences in the susceptibility to obesity and related health hazards. These data have mostly been shown in Caucasian populations and in severely obese individuals. We investigated a multiethnic Brazilian population to study the relationships among the polymorphism 385C>A in an endocannabinoid degrading enzyme gene (FAAH), endocannabinoid levels and markers of cardiometabolic risk. Fasting plasma levels of endocannabinoids and congeners (anandamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, N-oleoylethanolamide and N-palmitoylethanolamide) were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in 200 apparently healthy individuals of both genders with body mass indices from 22.5 ± 1.8 to 35.9 ± 5.5 kg/m2 (mean ± 1 SD) and ages between 18 and 60 years. All were evaluated for anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, metabolic variables, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), adiponectin, leptin, C-reactive protein, and genotyping. The endocannabinoid levels increased as a function of obesity and insulin resistance. The homozygous genotype AA was associated with higher levels of anandamide and lower levels of adiponectin versus wild homozygous CC and heterozygotes combined. The levels of anandamide were independent and positively associated with the genotype AA position 385 of FAAH, C-reactive protein levels and body mass index. Our findings provide evidence for an endocannabinoid-related phenotype that may be identified by the combination of circulating anandamide levels with genotyping of the FAAH 385C>A; this phenotype is not exclusive to mono-ethnoracial populations nor to individuals with severe obesity.

  20. Circulating Endocannabinoids and the Polymorphism 385C>A in Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) Gene May Identify the Obesity Phenotype Related to Cardiometabolic Risk: A Study Conducted in a Brazilian Population of Complex Interethnic Admixture

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Cyro José de Moraes; Genelhu, Virginia; Pimentel, Marcia Mattos Gonçalves; Celoria, Bruno Miguel Jorge; Mangia, Rogerio Fabris; Aveta, Teresa; Silvestri, Cristoforo; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Francischetti, Emilio Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system is associated with cardiometabolic complications of obesity. Allelic variants in coding genes for this system components may contribute to differences in the susceptibility to obesity and related health hazards. These data have mostly been shown in Caucasian populations and in severely obese individuals. We investigated a multiethnic Brazilian population to study the relationships among the polymorphism 385C>A in an endocannabinoid degrading enzyme gene (FAAH), endocannabinoid levels and markers of cardiometabolic risk. Fasting plasma levels of endocannabinoids and congeners (anandamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, N-oleoylethanolamide and N-palmitoylethanolamide) were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in 200 apparently healthy individuals of both genders with body mass indices from 22.5 ± 1.8 to 35.9 ± 5.5 kg/m2 (mean ± 1 SD) and ages between 18 and 60 years. All were evaluated for anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, metabolic variables, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), adiponectin, leptin, C-reactive protein, and genotyping. The endocannabinoid levels increased as a function of obesity and insulin resistance. The homozygous genotype AA was associated with higher levels of anandamide and lower levels of adiponectin versus wild homozygous CC and heterozygotes combined. The levels of anandamide were independent and positively associated with the genotype AA position 385 of FAAH, C-reactive protein levels and body mass index. Our findings provide evidence for an endocannabinoid-related phenotype that may be identified by the combination of circulating anandamide levels with genotyping of the FAAH 385C>A; this phenotype is not exclusive to mono-ethnoracial populations nor to individuals with severe obesity. PMID:26561012