Science.gov

Sample records for assessing individual interethnic

  1. Assessing individual interethnic admixture and population substructure using a 48-insertion-deletion (INSEL) ancestry-informative marker (AIM) panel.

    PubMed

    Santos, Ney P C; Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Elzemar M; Ribeiro-Dos-Santos, Andrea K C; Pereira, Rui; Gusmão, Leonor; Amorim, António; Guerreiro, Joáo F; Zago, Marco A; Matte, Cecília; Hutz, Mara H; Santos, Sidney E B

    2010-02-01

    Estimating the proportions of different ancestries in admixed populations is very important in population genetics studies, and it is particularly important for detecting population substructure effects in case-control association studies. In this work, a set of 48 ancestry-informative insertion-deletion polymorphisms (INDELs) were selected with the goal of efficiently measuring the proportions of three different ancestries (sub-Saharan African, European, and Native American) in mixed populations. All selected markers can be easily analyzed via multiplex PCR and detected with standard capillary electrophoresis. A total of 593 unrelated individuals representative of European, African, and Native American parental populations were typed, as were 380 individuals from three Brazilian populations with known admixture patterns. As expected, the interethnic admixture estimates show that individuals from southern Brazil present an almost exclusively European ancestry; Afro-descendant communities in the Amazon region, apart from the major African contribution, present some degree of admixture with Europeans and Native Americans; and a sample from Belém, in the northeastern Amazon, shows a significant contribution of the three ethnic groups, although with a greater European proportion. In summary, a panel of ancestry-informative INDELs was optimized and proven to be a valuable tool for estimating individual and global ancestry proportions in admixed populations. The ability to accurately infer interethnic admixtures highlights the usefulness of this marker set for assessing population substructure in association studies, particularly those conducted in Brazilian and other Latin American populations sharing trihybrid ancestry patterns.

  2. Self-Assessed Intelligence: Inter-Ethnic, Rural-Urban, and Sex Differences in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined inter-ethnic, rural-urban, and sex differences in self-assessed intelligence (SAI) in a Malaysian general population sample. In total, 633 individuals varying in rural or urban location, ethnicity (Malay, Kadazan, and Bajau), and sex (women versus men) provided their self-assessed overall intelligence and ten multiple…

  3. Self-Assessed Intelligence: Inter-Ethnic, Rural-Urban, and Sex Differences in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined inter-ethnic, rural-urban, and sex differences in self-assessed intelligence (SAI) in a Malaysian general population sample. In total, 633 individuals varying in rural or urban location, ethnicity (Malay, Kadazan, and Bajau), and sex (women versus men) provided their self-assessed overall intelligence and ten multiple…

  4. Assessing interethnic admixture using an X-linked insertion-deletion multiplex.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Elzemar Martins; dos Santos, Ney Pereira Carneiro; dos Santos, Andrea Kely Campos Ribeiro; Pereira, Rui; Amorim, António; Gusmão, Leonor; Zago, Marco Antonio; dos Santos, Sidney Emanuel Batista

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a PCR multiplex was optimized, allowing the simultaneous analysis of 13 X-chromosome Insertion/deletion polymorphisms (INDELs). Genetic variation observed in Africans, Europeans, and Native Americans reveals high inter-population variability. The estimated proportions of X-chromosomes in an admixed population from the Brazilian Amazon region show a predominant Amerindian contribution (approximately 41%), followed by European (approximately 32%) and African (approximately 27%) contributions. The proportion of Amerindian contribution based on X-linked data is similar to the expected value based on mtDNA and Y-chromosome information. The accuracy for assessing interethnic admixture, and the high differentiation between African, European, and Native American populations, demonstrates the suitability of this INDEL set to measure ancestry proportions in three-hybrid populations, as it is the case of Latin American populations.

  5. Framing interethnic ideology: effects of multicultural and color-blind perspectives on judgments of groups and individuals.

    PubMed

    Wolsko, C; Park, B; Judd, C M; Wittenbrink, B

    2000-04-01

    In 3 experiments, White American college students received a message advocating either a color-blind or a multicultural ideological approach to improving interethnic relations and then made judgments about various ethnic groups and individuals. Relative to a color-blind perspective, the multicultural perspective led to stronger stereotypes, greater accuracy in these stereotypes, and greater use of category information in judgments of individuals. This increase in between-category differentiation occurred both for attributes that favored the in-group and for attributes that favored the out-group and was also paired in some cases with greater overall positivity toward the out-group. The findings lead us to question the implicit assumption driving the majority of social psychological efforts at prejudice reduction: that the categorization process leads to prejudice, and that the relevance of social categories must therefore be de-emphasized.

  6. Relationship Quality in Interethnic Marriages and Cohabitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohmann-Marriott, Bryndl E.; Amato, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on the factors underlying differences in relationship quality between interethnic and same-ethnic couples. Using the National Survey of Families and Households and the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, we examine relationship satisfaction, interpartner conflict and subjective assessments of relationship instability in…

  7. School ethnic diversity and students' interethnic relations.

    PubMed

    Thijs, Jochem; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2014-03-01

    School ethnic desegregation has been a topic of strong societal and educational concern. Research has examined the effects of ethnic school composition on students' interethnic relations with diverging outcomes and sometimes inconsistent results. In this review paper, we provide an assessment of this literature to explain why and when school desegregation might improve or worsen ethnic relations and to identify important future research directions. We discuss different theoretical perspectives predicting positive versus negative aspects of school ethnic diversity: intergroup contact theory and the perspectives of group threat and power differences. Subsequently, we consider a number of school and educational characteristics that can moderate the impact of ethnic diversity on students' interethnic relations and that could be considered in future research. Furthermore, we discuss the need for studying underlying psychological and social processes as well as the importance of investigating interethnic relations in combination with academic adjustment. School ethnic diversity is not enough to promote interethnic tolerance. It is important to examine diversity in relation to other aspects of the school environment that may influence how students respond to the ethnic diversity within school. Important factors to consider are the presence of multicultural education and inclusive school identities, student-teacher relationships, and peer norms and networks, but also the role of parents and of peer relations outside the school context. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  8. [Interethnic marriage of Japanese-Brazilians associated with less healthy food habits and worse cardiometabolic profile].

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Carla; Damião, Renata; Chaim, Rita; Harima, Helena Aiko; Kikuchi, Mário; Franco, Laércio J; Ferreira, Sandra Roberta G

    2009-07-01

    Interethnic marriage between nikkey Brazilians and non-nikkey Brazilians may favor the westernization of diet. Dietary consumption, clinical data and frequencies of metabolic diseases were compared in a Japanese-Brazilian population, with intraethnic or interethnic marriage. T test, Mann-Whitney, chi-square and Person coefficient were used. Among 1009 Japanese-Brazilians there were 18.9% of interethnic marriage, being more frequent among nikkey men. These showed higher means of BMI, waist, blood pressure, glycemia and triglyceridemia than women. Overall frequencies of obesity, hypertrigliceridemia and metabolic syndrome were 47.7%, 68.1% and 45.2%, being higher in interethnic than intraethnic marriage. Comparing individuals with interethnic marriages, hypertriglyceridemia was more common among men while low-HDL among women. Energy, fat, groups of alcohol, sweets and oils were higher in interethnic marriage. Individuals with intraethnic marriage consumed more carbohydrate, proteins, fibers, vitamins, minerals, vegetables, fruits/juice, cereals and missoshiru. Comparing individuals with interethnic marriages, nikkey men showed a more westernized dietary pattern than nikkey women. Interethnic marriage was associated with less healthy food habits and worse cardiometabolic profile.

  9. Psychological essentialism and nationalism as determinants of interethnic bias.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Saori; Enright, Joe; Karasawa, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether individuals without strong national identity (i.e., low nationalism) would be susceptible to temporarily elicited essentialism to alter their mental representations of ethnic boundaries, and thus increase interethnic bias. To test these ideas we experimentally induced essentialist beliefs among Japanese subjects about the boundary between Japanese and Chinese ethnicities, while measuring the strength of nationalism as an individual variable. The results were generally consistent with predictions, suggesting that the activation of essentialist beliefs can strengthen interethnic biases among people without strong nationalism.

  10. The Alignment of Interethnic Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeau, Sidney; Hecht, Michael L.

    A study explored ways of improving satisfying and dissatisfying conversations in order to have more effective interethnic communication. Specifically, research questions based in accommodation theory addressed what blacks feel could be done to improve both successful and unsuccessful conversations with whites. Twenty-four undergraduates at a…

  11. Latinos' Perceptions of Interethnic Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Amber L.; Riggio, Heidi R.; Palavinelu, Subha; Culpepper, Lane Locher

    2012-01-01

    Numerous survey findings indicate that the majority of White Americans are accepting of interracial romantic relationships. However, relatively few studies have looked at how different American ethnic minority groups view such relationships. The current research examined Latinos' evaluations of intraethnic and interethnic couples. Latino…

  12. Interethnic Romantic Relationships: Enacting Affiliative Ethnic Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yodanis, Carrie; Lauer, Sean; Ota, Risako

    2012-01-01

    Through in-depth interviews with respondents who were in interethnic relationships (N = 28), the authors extended and refined a new approach to mate selection based on affiliative ethnic identities (T. Jimenez, 2010). Rather than assimilation and a breakdown of ethnic group boundaries, they found that people pursued interethnic relationships…

  13. Interethnic Interaction, Strategic Bargaining Power, and the Dynamics of Cultural Norms : A Field Study in an Amazonian Population.

    PubMed

    Bunce, John Andrew; McElreath, Richard

    2017-08-18

    Ethnic groups are universal and unique to human societies. Such groups sometimes have norms of behavior that are adaptively linked to their social and ecological circumstances, and ethnic boundaries may function to protect that variation from erosion by interethnic interaction. However, such interaction is often frequent and voluntary, suggesting that individuals may be able to strategically reduce its costs, allowing adaptive cultural variation to persist in spite of interaction with out-groups with different norms. We examine five mechanisms influencing the dynamics of ethnically distinct cultural norms, each focused on strategic individual-level choices in interethnic interaction: bargaining, interaction-frequency-biased norm adoption, assortment on norms, success-biased interethnic social learning, and childhood socialization. We use Bayesian item response models to analyze patterns of norm variation and interethnic interaction in an ethnically structured Amazonian population. We show that, among indigenous Matsigenka, interethnic education with colonial Mestizos is more strongly associated with Mestizo-typical norms than even extensive interethnic experience in commerce and wage labor is. Using ethnographic observations, we show that all five of the proposed mechanisms of norm adoption may contribute to this effect. However, of these mechanisms, we argue that changes in relative bargaining power are particularly important for ethnic minorities wishing to preserve distinctive norms while engaging in interethnic interaction in domains such as education. If this mechanism proves applicable in a range of other ethnographic contexts, it would constitute one cogent explanation for when and why ethnically structured cultural variation can either persist or erode given frequent, and often mutually beneficial, interethnic interaction.

  14. Individualized assessment and phenomenological psychology.

    PubMed

    Fischer, C T

    1979-04-01

    Although there is growing openness to tailoring of assessment procedures and reports to the particular client, these efforts typically have been sporadic and incomplete. This article reviews a systematic approach to individualized assessment, one whose practices are referred to as collaborative, contextual, and interventional. Clinical examples of these practices are presented in terms of their grounding in phenomenological psychology. Prior to that, themes such as intentionality, situatedness, dialectics, structuralism, and hermeneutics are introduced briefly. Phenomenological psychology as such is not seen here as necessary for all individualized practices, but it is seen as a critical touchpoint for development of theory and further practices.

  15. College Students' Intercultural Competence and Interethnic Tolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnyshev, A. D.; Karnysheva, O. A.; Ivanova, E. A.

    2014-01-01

    Data from studies of interethnic tolerance among college students in Russia show that positive or negative attitudes toward other ethnic groups is a factor of both personal characteristics and experience of and access to other groups. Levels of tolerance in turn are associated with different levels of interest in other groups and in building…

  16. College Students' Intercultural Competence and Interethnic Tolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnyshev, A. D.; Karnysheva, O. A.; Ivanova, E. A.

    2014-01-01

    Data from studies of interethnic tolerance among college students in Russia show that positive or negative attitudes toward other ethnic groups is a factor of both personal characteristics and experience of and access to other groups. Levels of tolerance in turn are associated with different levels of interest in other groups and in building…

  17. Interethnic marriage: bringing in the context through multilevel modelling.

    PubMed

    Lievens, J

    1998-06-01

    "This article deals with the underlying causes of interethnic marriages of Turks and Moroccans living in Belgium.... Higher odds [of interethnic marriage] are generally found for the second generation and at higher levels of age at marriage and educational attainment. Interethnic marriage is further promoted by a small size of the ethnic group, by low ethnic heterogeneity and by low correlation between the ethnic and the socio-economic dimension. Interethnic marriages are generally more prevalent in districts where the common language is French and where the majority of immigrants originate from urban regions in the country of origin." (EXCERPT)

  18. Interethnic variability in human drug responses.

    PubMed

    Evans, D A; McLeod, H L; Pritchard, S; Tariq, M; Mobarek, A

    2001-04-01

    The scientific study of interethnic differences in responses to drugs has been extant for 80 years. Many of these differences have been described at the phenotypic level, and some have been explained by genetic factors. However, it is frequently difficult to disentangle accurately the hereditary and environmental influences in phenotypic comparisons. This is where the recent developments in knowledge of the genes responsible for drug receptors are starting to make a big impact. The beta 2 adrenoceptor is described; it has three genetic polymorphisms. The different genotypes influence responses to agonists such as albuterol (Salbutamol). New gene frequency data including those for Saudi Arabians, Indians, and Africans are shown. The expanding body of knowledge about genetic (and interethnic) variability in drug receptors is likely to be important in clinical medicine.

  19. Interethnic difference in thiopurine methyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Klemetsdal, B; Tollefsen, E; Loennechen, T; Johnsen, K; Utsi, E; Gisholt, K; Wist, E; Aarbakke, J

    1992-01-01

    A number of metabolic pathways are subject to both genetic polymorphism and interethnic differences. A catabolic pathway of 6-mercaptopurine, red blood cell (RBC) thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) activity showed genetic polymorphism in Caucasians, but variation according to ethnicity has not been studied. We investigated if red blood cell thiopurine methyltransferase was subject to interethnic variation in a Saami (Lappish; n = 36) and a Caucasian population (n = 50). The Saami population sample had 29% higher thiopurine methyltransferase activity, 17.0 +/- 3.3 U/ml red blood cell compared with the Caucasian population sample, 13.1 +/- 2.9 U/ml red blood cell (p much less than 0.001). Probit plots and frequency distribution histograms supported bimodality consistent with genetic polymorphism in both study populations. Differences in chronic diseases, drug consumption, age, or gender could not explain the interethnic difference in red blood cell thiopurine methyltransferase activity. The higher red blood cell thiopurine methyltransferase activity in the Saami population group indicates that these subjects may require higher dosages of thiopurine drugs than Caucasians.

  20. Methodology of Diagnostics of Interethnic Relations and Ethnosocial Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maximova, Svetlana G.; Noyanzina, Oksana Ye.; Omelchenko, Daria A.; Maximov, Maxim B.; Avdeeva, Galina C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to research the methodological approaches to the study of interethnic relations and ethno-social processes. The analysis of the literature was conducted in three main areas: 1) the theoretical and methodological issues of organizing the research of inter-ethnic relations, allowing to highlight the current…

  1. Intimate Partner Violence and Alcohol Problems in Interethnic and Intraethnic Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chartier, Karen G.; Caetano, Raul

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing number of interethnic marriages in the United States, few studies have examined intimate partner violence (IPV) in interethnic couples. This article examined past-year occurrences of IPV across interethnic and intraethnic couples and tested correlates of IPV specifically in interethnic couples. Data were from a national survey…

  2. Intimate Partner Violence and Alcohol Problems in Interethnic and Intraethnic Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chartier, Karen G.; Caetano, Raul

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing number of interethnic marriages in the United States, few studies have examined intimate partner violence (IPV) in interethnic couples. This article examined past-year occurrences of IPV across interethnic and intraethnic couples and tested correlates of IPV specifically in interethnic couples. Data were from a national survey…

  3. Exploring Individual Differences in Workload Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-26

    relatively low performance and high subjective workload scores. To quantitatively test if the participants differed across both of the NASA-TLX and...EXPLORING INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN WORKLOAD ASSESSMENT THESIS Danielle K. Boeke, Captain...AFIT-ENV-MS-14-D-31 EXPLORING INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN WORKLOAD ASSESSMENT THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Systems

  4. Accountable Individual Assessment for Cooperative Performance Assignments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastick, Tony

    This paper aims to make the techniques of cooperative learning more attractive to teachers by presenting a method of assessment that avoids the drawbacks associated with trying to extract valid and reliable individual marks from cooperative performances. The paper presents an easy-to-use method of assessing an individual's contribution to a…

  5. Assessing and Managing Risk with Suicidal Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linehan, Marsh M.; Comtois, Katherine A.; Ward-Ciesielski, Erin F.

    2012-01-01

    The University of Washington Risk Assessment Protocol (UWRAP) and Risk Assessment and Management Protocol (UWRAMP) have been used in numerous clinical trials treating high-risk suicidal individuals over several years. These protocols structure assessors and treatment providers to provide a thorough suicide risk assessment, review standards of care…

  6. Assessing and Managing Risk with Suicidal Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linehan, Marsh M.; Comtois, Katherine A.; Ward-Ciesielski, Erin F.

    2012-01-01

    The University of Washington Risk Assessment Protocol (UWRAP) and Risk Assessment and Management Protocol (UWRAMP) have been used in numerous clinical trials treating high-risk suicidal individuals over several years. These protocols structure assessors and treatment providers to provide a thorough suicide risk assessment, review standards of care…

  7. Informal Assessment in Reading: Group vs. Individual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipman, Dorothy A.; Warncke, Edna W.

    A study was conducted to determine whether informal group assessment instruments could be used effectively to provide the same type of reading achievement information as that secured from informal individual instruments. The researchers developed group instruments comparable to individual instruments, including a group reading inventory for grades…

  8. A Quasi Actuarial Prospect for Individual Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, William A.

    A conceptual model of individual assessment through the use of biodata responses with minimal input information is outlined. The process is considered especially applicable to industrial psychology. A scored autobiographical data form, which measures the individual's past behavior and experiences, provides for assignment to a specific subgroup…

  9. The Individual Basic Facts Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait-McCutcheon, Sandi; Drake, Michael

    2015-01-01

    There is an identified and growing need for a levelled diagnostic basic facts assessment tool that provides teachers with formative information about students' mastery of a broad range of basic fact sets. The Individual Basic Facts Assessment tool has been iteratively and cumulatively developed, trialled, and refined with input from teachers and…

  10. Intimate Partner Violence and Alcohol Problems in Interethnic and Intra-ethnic Couples

    PubMed Central

    Chartier, Karen G.; Caetano, Raul

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growing number of interethnic marriages in the U.S., few studies have examined intimate partner violence (IPV) in interethnic couples. This article examined past-year occurrences of IPV across interethnic and intra-ethnic couples and tested correlates of IPV specifically in interethnic couples. Data were from a national survey of couples 18 years of age and older from the 48 contiguous states. Interethnic couples (n = 116) included partners from different ethnic backgrounds, including black-white, Hispanic-white, and black-Hispanic couples. White (n = 555), black (n = 358), and Hispanic (n = 527) intra-ethnic couples included partners with the same ethnicity. Data analyses were prevalence rates and logistic regressions. The analyses showed that interethnic couples were comparatively younger and had shorter relationships than intra-ethnic white, black, and Hispanic couples. Male partners in interethnic couples had higher rates of binge drinking and alcohol problems compared to male partners in intra-ethnic couples. Past year prevalence rates for any occurrence of IPV and acts of severe IPV were higher for interethnic couples relative to intra-ethnic couples. Most occurrences of IPV for interethnic couples were mutual. Factors predicting IPV among interethnic couples included marital status, couples’ age, male alcohol problems, and female impulsivity. Mounting evidence points to interethnic couples as a high risk group for IPV. Interethnic couples may be at greater risk for IPV because of their younger age, binge drinking and alcohol problems. Future research could build on this study by examining cohort effects and regional differences in IPV for interethnic couples, and the risk for IPV across interethnic couples of different ethnic compositions. PMID:22203625

  11. Intimate partner violence and alcohol problems in interethnic and intraethnic couples.

    PubMed

    Chartier, Karen G; Caetano, Raul

    2012-06-01

    Despite the growing number of interethnic marriages in the United States, few studies have examined intimate partner violence (IPV) in interethnic couples. This article examined past-year occurrences of IPV across interethnic and intraethnic couples and tested correlates of IPV specifically in interethnic couples. Data were from a national survey of couples 18 years of age and older from the 48 contiguous states. Interethnic couples (n = 116) included partners from different ethnic backgrounds, including Black-White, Hispanic-White, and Black-Hispanic couples. White (n = 555), Black (n = 358), and Hispanic (n = 527) intraethnic couples included partners with the same ethnicity. Data analyses were prevalence rates and logistic regressions. The analysis showed that interethnic couples were comparatively younger and had shorter relationships than intraethnic White, Black, and Hispanic couples. Male partners in interethnic couples had higher rates of binge drinking and alcohol problems compared with male partners in intraethnic couples. Past-year prevalence rates for any occurrence of IPV and acts of severe IPV were higher for interethnic couples relative to intraethnic couples. Most occurrences of IPV for interethnic couples were mutual. Factors predicting IPV among interethnic couples included marital status, couples' age, male alcohol problems, and female impulsivity. Mounting evidence points to interethnic couples as a high-risk group for IPV. Interethnic couples may be at greater risk for IPV because of their younger age, binge drinking, and alcohol problems. Future research could build on this study by examining cohort effects and regional differences in IPV for interethnic couples and the risk for IPV across interethnic couples of different ethnic compositions.

  12. Quality versus quantity: assessing individual research performance

    PubMed Central

    Sahel, José-Alain

    2011-01-01

    Evaluating individual research performance is a complex task that ideally examines productivity, scientific impact, and research quality––a task that metrics alone have been unable to achieve. In January 2011, the French Academy of Sciences published a report on current bibliometric (citation metric) methods for evaluating individual researchers, as well as recommendations for the integration of quality assessment. Here, we draw on key issues raised by this report and comment on the suggestions for improving existing research evaluation practices. PMID:21613620

  13. Interracial-Interethnic Unions and Fertility in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Vincent Kang

    2008-01-01

    How does the fertility of interracial and interethnic couples compare to the fertility of endogamous couples? If exogamous couples have transcended the boundary between them, then exogamy should not affect fertility. Alternatively, opposition to the relationship from the couple's family and friends may reduce fertility. This study uses 2000-2005…

  14. Masking Reality: An Indian View of Inter-Ethnic Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provost, Paul Jean

    Carnival, which falls within the category of events described by Edward Norbeck as rites of reversal, functions as a catharsis for modern Indian groups of northern Veracruz; it is a socially non-threatening mechanism whereby an oppressed minority identifies and deals with inter-ethnic group discrimination and oppression. Subcultures of the area…

  15. An Afro-American Perspective on Interethnic Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Michael L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reports the results of four studies examining how Afro-Americans perceive interethnic communication with Whites. Uses an interpretive, cultural perspective in questionnaires and interviews as well as quantitative and qualitative analyses to identify seven issues of communication satisfaction and five conversational improvement strategies,…

  16. Chicano Hip-Hop as Interethnic Contact Zone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Pancho

    2008-01-01

    Hip-hop is an interethnic contact zone that allows for the creation of new expressive cultures and new identities for young people. Its openness derives in part from the wide range of expression and interpretation allowed in 182 "McFarland" African musics. Moving beyond the often stifling options offered by an earlier generation that focused on…

  17. Interracial-Interethnic Unions and Fertility in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Vincent Kang

    2008-01-01

    How does the fertility of interracial and interethnic couples compare to the fertility of endogamous couples? If exogamous couples have transcended the boundary between them, then exogamy should not affect fertility. Alternatively, opposition to the relationship from the couple's family and friends may reduce fertility. This study uses 2000-2005…

  18. Chicano Hip-Hop as Interethnic Contact Zone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Pancho

    2008-01-01

    Hip-hop is an interethnic contact zone that allows for the creation of new expressive cultures and new identities for young people. Its openness derives in part from the wide range of expression and interpretation allowed in 182 "McFarland" African musics. Moving beyond the often stifling options offered by an earlier generation that focused on…

  19. Masking Reality: An Indian View of Inter-Ethnic Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provost, Paul Jean

    Carnival, which falls within the category of events described by Edward Norbeck as rites of reversal, functions as a catharsis for modern Indian groups of northern Veracruz; it is a socially non-threatening mechanism whereby an oppressed minority identifies and deals with inter-ethnic group discrimination and oppression. Subcultures of the area…

  20. Assessing individual frontline nurse critical thinking.

    PubMed

    Berkow, Steven; Virkstis, Katherine; Stewart, Jennifer; Aronson, Sarah; Donohue, Meghan

    2011-04-01

    Enhancing the critical thinking skills of frontline nurses has been a longstanding concern for hospital nursing leaders, but increased complexity of care now lends renewed urgency to this challenge. Rising patient acuity and decreasing length of stay contribute to an environment that challenges even tenured nurses long recognized as strong critical thinkers. To ensure safe patient care in a fast-paced care environment, nurse leaders must invest in more individualized development of key critical-thinking competencies. As part of a broader research initiative on elevating frontline critical thinking, the Nursing Executive Center has developed a diagnostic tool for assessing individual performance on 25 critical thinking skills. The authors discuss the tool's development, methodology, and potential applications.

  1. Implicit bias and contact: the role of interethnic friendships.

    PubMed

    Aberson, Christopher L; Shoemaker, Carl; Tomolillo, Christina

    2004-06-01

    In 2 studies, the authors examined the role of interethnic friendship with African Americans or Latinos in predicting implicit and explicit biases against these groups. White participants completed the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E., & Schwartz, J. L. K., 1998), several self-report bias measures, and a friendship questionnaire. Participants with close friends who were members of the target group exhibited less implicit prejudice than participants without close friends from the target group. Friendship influenced only 2 of the 7 explicit measures, a result that likely stems from social desirability bias rather than truly non-prejudiced attitudes. Results support the importance of contact, particularly interethnic friendship, in improving intergroup attitudes.

  2. Who Is to Blame? Rape of Hindu-Muslim Women in Interethnic Violence in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murthi, Meera

    2009-01-01

    This research examined attitudes that predict rape blame in contexts of interethnic violence between minority Muslims and dominant Hindu communities in Mumbai, India. I hypothesized that, in contexts of interethnic violence, prejudicial attitudes toward communities and attitudes that view rape as a conflict tool (i.e., an effective strategy to…

  3. Who Is to Blame? Rape of Hindu-Muslim Women in Interethnic Violence in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murthi, Meera

    2009-01-01

    This research examined attitudes that predict rape blame in contexts of interethnic violence between minority Muslims and dominant Hindu communities in Mumbai, India. I hypothesized that, in contexts of interethnic violence, prejudicial attitudes toward communities and attitudes that view rape as a conflict tool (i.e., an effective strategy to…

  4. The Effects of the Economic Crisis on Inter-Ethnic Relations in Cypriot Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vryonides, Marios

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to examine the effects of the current economic crisis in the way teenagers experience and report interethnic relations with emphasis on interethnic violence in the school environment in Cyprus. It will report findings from an EU funded project which was recently completed (2012) titled: "Children's voices: Exploring…

  5. Making Contact. Generating Interethnic Contact for Multicultural Integration and Tolerance in Amsterdam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Floris

    2012-01-01

    Interethnic contact is considered a potent tool for the generation of interethnic understanding and tolerance. This faith has engendered countless social projects that seek to stimulate contact between members of different ethnic groups under "optimal conditions". However, the academic literature does not stipulate how, if at all, these…

  6. Making Contact. Generating Interethnic Contact for Multicultural Integration and Tolerance in Amsterdam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Floris

    2012-01-01

    Interethnic contact is considered a potent tool for the generation of interethnic understanding and tolerance. This faith has engendered countless social projects that seek to stimulate contact between members of different ethnic groups under "optimal conditions". However, the academic literature does not stipulate how, if at all, these…

  7. Psychomotor Assessment of the Severely Handicapped Individual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowden, Joey

    Guidelines are presented to special educators and adapted physical educators for assessing the psychomotor development of severely handicapped students. The importance of determining whether there is an abnormality in central nervous system development is emphasized. Assessment information is presented for 15 topic areas: reflex analysis, muscle…

  8. Essentialism promotes children's inter-ethnic bias

    PubMed Central

    Diesendruck, Gil; Menahem, Roni

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the developmental foundation of the relation between social essentialism and attitudes. Forty-eight Jewish Israeli secular 6-year-olds were exposed to either a story emphasizing essentialism about ethnicity, or stories controlling for the salience of ethnicity or essentialism per se. After listening to a story, children's attitudes were assessed in a drawing and in an IAT task. Compared to the control conditions, children in the ethnic essentialism condition drew a Jewish and an Arab character as farther apart from each other, and the Jewish character with a more positive affect than the Arab character. Moreover, boys in the ethnic essentialism condition manifested a stronger bias in the IAT. These findings reveal an early link between essentialism and inter-group attitudes. PMID:26321992

  9. African American and European American Perceptions of Problematic Issues in Interethnic Communication Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Michael L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Investigates how ethnic identity is related to the issues that emerge in interethnic conversations. Examines issues related to communication satisfaction for African Americans and for European Americans and how relational closeness affects these relationships. Compares the two groups. (SR)

  10. Physical Activity Assessments for Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fittipaldi-Wert, Jeanine; Brock, Sheri J.

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity is important in maintaining and improving overall health for all. Students with disabilities tend to have lower fitness levels due to the lack of participation in physical activities, therefore, progressions and modifications to physical activities are needed. Assessing the physical activity levels of students with disabilities…

  11. Instant Feedback for Learner Training: Using Individual Assessment Cards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovelock, Clive

    2002-01-01

    Describes individual assessment cards devised by an English-as-a-Foreign-Language teacher in Japan. This system consists of giving each student her own individual assessment card at the beginning of each lesson. The focus of the information recorded on the card relates to the process of learning English. (Author/VWL)

  12. Predicting Optimal Preference Assessment Methods for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Kendra M.; Czarnecki, Diana; Martin, Toby L.; Yu, C. T.; Martin, Garry L.

    2007-01-01

    The single-stimulus (SS) preference assessment procedure has been described as more appropriate than the paired stimulus (PS) procedure for "lower functioning" individuals, but this guideline's vagueness limits its usefulness. We administered the SS and PS preference assessment procedures with food items to seven individuals with severe…

  13. Group Assessment: Comparing Group and Individual Undergraduate Module Marks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a small study that analysed module marks of one cohort of science undergraduates from one academic year. It explored how group summative assessment marking affected the overall marks in comparison with individual assessment. A tutor allocated students to mixed ability project groups. Individual marks for the group work…

  14. Group Assessment: Comparing Group and Individual Undergraduate Module Marks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a small study that analysed module marks of one cohort of science undergraduates from one academic year. It explored how group summative assessment marking affected the overall marks in comparison with individual assessment. A tutor allocated students to mixed ability project groups. Individual marks for the group work…

  15. Predicting Optimal Preference Assessment Methods for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Kendra M.; Czarnecki, Diana; Martin, Toby L.; Yu, C. T.; Martin, Garry L.

    2007-01-01

    The single-stimulus (SS) preference assessment procedure has been described as more appropriate than the paired stimulus (PS) procedure for "lower functioning" individuals, but this guideline's vagueness limits its usefulness. We administered the SS and PS preference assessment procedures with food items to seven individuals with severe…

  16. Early onset type 2 diabetes in Jamaica and in Mexico. Opportunities derived from an interethnic study.

    PubMed

    Irving, Rachael; Tusié-Luna, Ma Teresa; Mills, James; Wright-Pascoe, Rosemarie; McLaughlin, Wayne; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A

    2011-01-01

    Populations with Amerindian or African heritages are the one with the highest prevalence of diabetes worldwide. A large percentage of these individuals survived famine. However, the survival effect has become detrimental to their descendents living in an environment of caloric surplus. In countries, like Mexico and Jamaica, in which diabetes is highly prevalent, the onset of the disease happens at earlier ages. Our objective is to summarize diabetes data from Mexico and Jamaica and to discuss the opportunities that can result from an interethnic study. On one hand, the prevalence of diabetes in Jamaica is 17.9% in the 15+ age group. Jamaican researchers have built a cohort of families with early onset type 2 diabetes. In this population, this form of the disease is unrelated to MODY genes. On the other hand, the prevalence of diabetes in adult Mexicans is 14.4%. The group in which the greater percentual changes have occurred is the adults who are below the age of 40. More than two thirds of the early onset cases studied have a body mass index that is >25 kg/m2 and the clinical characteristics of metabolic syndrome. A minority of them has mutations in the MODY genes. The joint study of Mexican and Jamaican cohorts of early onset type 2 diabetes cases will be useful to identify new genetic and environmental players in the pathogenesis of this entity.

  17. The Well-Being of Children Living with Interethnic Parents: Are They at a Disadvantage?

    PubMed Central

    Pearce-Morris, Jennifer; King, Valarie

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of U.S. children are living with interethnic parents, yet we know relatively little about how they are faring. Using data from the first wave (1987–1988) of the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH), this study examines differences in child well-being between children living with interethnic parents and those living with same-ethnic parents. Results provide only limited evidence that child well-being is lower among children living with interethnic parents. Compared with children in same-ethnic families, children living with interethnic parents exhibited higher levels of negative affect, and this difference could not be explained by differences in background or family characteristics, levels of parents relationship stressors, or parenting quality. At the same time, however, no differences were found in global well-being, positive affect, or behavior problems. Children living with interethnic parents may face some greater difficulties that warrant concern, but they do not appear to face pervasive disadvantages. PMID:23372279

  18. How Tracking Structures Attitudes towards Ethnic Out-Groups and Interethnic Interactions in the Classroom: An Ethnographic Study in Belgium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Praag, Lore; Boone, Simon; Stevens, Peter A. J.; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the ethnic composition of schools on interethnic relations and attitudes has been studied extensively and has received ample interest from policy makers. However, less attention has been paid to the structures and processes inside schools that organize interethnic relations and attitudes. In Flanders (Belgium), secondary education…

  19. Assessing Individuals with Disabilities in Educational, Employment, and Counseling Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekstrom, Ruth B., Ed.; Smith, Douglas K., Ed.

    This book is designed to assist testing professionals as they face the challenge of how best to assess and test people with disabilities. Chapters include: (1) "Testing Individuals with Disabilities: Reconciling Social Science and Social Policy" (Diana Pullin); (2) "The Psychometrics of Testing Individuals with Disabilities"…

  20. Assessing Individuals with Disabilities in Educational, Employment, and Counseling Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekstrom, Ruth B., Ed.; Smith, Douglas K., Ed.

    This book is designed to assist testing professionals as they face the challenge of how best to assess and test people with disabilities. Chapters include: (1) "Testing Individuals with Disabilities: Reconciling Social Science and Social Policy" (Diana Pullin); (2) "The Psychometrics of Testing Individuals with Disabilities"…

  1. The assessment of biases in the acoustic discrimination of individuals

    PubMed Central

    Šálek, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Animal vocalizations contain information about individual identity that could potentially be used for the monitoring of individuals. However, the performance of individual discrimination is subjected to many biases depending on factors such as the amount of identity information, or methods used. These factors need to be taken into account when comparing results of different studies or selecting the most cost-effective solution for a particular species. In this study, we evaluate several biases associated with the discrimination of individuals. On a large sample of little owl male individuals, we assess how discrimination performance changes with methods of call description, an increasing number of individuals, and number of calls per male. Also, we test whether the discrimination performance within the whole population can be reliably estimated from a subsample of individuals in a pre-screening study. Assessment of discrimination performance at the level of the individual and at the level of call led to different conclusions. Hence, studies interested in individual discrimination should optimize methods at the level of individuals. The description of calls by their frequency modulation leads to the best discrimination performance. In agreement with our expectations, discrimination performance decreased with population size. Increasing the number of calls per individual linearly increased the discrimination of individuals (but not the discrimination of calls), likely because it allows distinction between individuals with very similar calls. The available pre-screening index does not allow precise estimation of the population size that could be reliably monitored. Overall, projects applying acoustic monitoring at the individual level in population need to consider limitations regarding the population size that can be reliably monitored and fine-tune their methods according to their needs and limitations. PMID:28486488

  2. Idea Bank: Individualized Assessment in the Choral Ensemble

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furby, Victoria J.

    2013-01-01

    Choral directors will always be assessed by the quality of their choral performances. The concepts presented in this article are designed to strengthen and improve choral performance. If choral directors can design an individualized assessment plan and implement some of these ideas during each grading period, grades will be more equitably…

  3. Person Characteristics of Individuals in Functional Assessment Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Horovitz, Max; Kozlowski, Alison M.; Sipes, Megan; Worley, Julie A.; Shoemaker, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a review of person characteristics that were present in 173 studies that were reviewed on functional assessment. The purpose was to give the reader an idea about the types of individuals for which functional assessment is appropriate and to outline persons and their characteristics which have the best research support. The majority…

  4. Revisiting Individual Creativity Assessment: Triangulation in Subjective and Objective Assessment Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Namgyoo K.; Chun, Monica Youngshin; Lee, Jinju

    2016-01-01

    Compared to the significant development of creativity studies, individual creativity research has not reached a meaningful consensus regarding the most valid and reliable method for assessing individual creativity. This study revisited 2 of the most popular methods for assessing individual creativity: subjective and objective methods. This study…

  5. Revisiting Individual Creativity Assessment: Triangulation in Subjective and Objective Assessment Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Namgyoo K.; Chun, Monica Youngshin; Lee, Jinju

    2016-01-01

    Compared to the significant development of creativity studies, individual creativity research has not reached a meaningful consensus regarding the most valid and reliable method for assessing individual creativity. This study revisited 2 of the most popular methods for assessing individual creativity: subjective and objective methods. This study…

  6. Integrating Individual Differences in Career Assessment: The Atlas Model of Individual Differences and the Strong Ring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Rounds, James

    2010-01-01

    Career assessment methods often include measures of individual differences constructs, such as interests, personality, abilities, and values. Although many researchers have recently called for the development of integrated models, career counseling professionals have long faced the challenge of integrating this information into their practice. The…

  7. Integrating Individual Differences in Career Assessment: The Atlas Model of Individual Differences and the Strong Ring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Rounds, James

    2010-01-01

    Career assessment methods often include measures of individual differences constructs, such as interests, personality, abilities, and values. Although many researchers have recently called for the development of integrated models, career counseling professionals have long faced the challenge of integrating this information into their practice. The…

  8. Communication Assessment for Individuals with Rett Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigafoos, Jeff; Kagohara, Debora; van der Meer, Larah; Green, Vanessa A.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Lang, Russell; Rispoli, Mandy; Zisimopoulos, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    We reviewed studies that aimed to determine whether behaviors, such as body movements, vocalizations, eye gaze, and facial expressions, served a communicative function for individuals with Rett syndrome. A systematic search identified eight studies, which were summarized in terms of (a) participants, (b) assessment targets, (c) assessment…

  9. An Assessment of Individualized Instruction in Navy Technical Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajkowski, M. Michael; And Others

    A study was conducted to establish the current status of Individualized Instruction (II) in the Navy and other services, identify the factors influencing its effectiveness, identify present or potential problem areas, and recommend strategies/policies to improve II in Navy technical training. Particular attention was given to an assessment of…

  10. Communication Assessment for Individuals with Rett Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigafoos, Jeff; Kagohara, Debora; van der Meer, Larah; Green, Vanessa A.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Lang, Russell; Rispoli, Mandy; Zisimopoulos, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    We reviewed studies that aimed to determine whether behaviors, such as body movements, vocalizations, eye gaze, and facial expressions, served a communicative function for individuals with Rett syndrome. A systematic search identified eight studies, which were summarized in terms of (a) participants, (b) assessment targets, (c) assessment…

  11. Assessing individual clinical performance: a primer for physicians.

    PubMed

    Scott, I A; Phelps, G; Brand, C

    2011-02-01

    The assessment of individual physician performance has attracted interest from several quarters, including statutory licensing agencies and credentialing bodies of healthcare institutions. Performance measures and assessment methods have been developed, although their validity, reliability and feasibility in regards to physician specialty practice are open to challenge. Despite this, professional colleges and societies will be increasingly obliged to ensure their members are demonstrating high-quality performance on the basis of assessment methods viewed as being transparent, impartial and reproducible. This article provides an overview of the current state of the art which hopefully will serve to inform future debate both within and outside professional circles.

  12. Evaluation Institute on Interethnic Aspects of Public School Education in West Virginia. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himelrick, John B.

    This evaluation of the Institute on Interethnic Aspects of Public School Education in West Virginia consisted of two district procedures. The first was intended to evaluate the effectiveness of the program in terms of the change occurring in the participants as perceived by the participants themselves. This was done by a pre- and post-program…

  13. Children's Perceptions of Interethnic and Interracial Friendships in a Multiethnic School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica-Smith, Cinzia

    2011-01-01

    Some literature exists on children's real-life interracial and interethnic friendships. However, a scarcity of research exists on children's perceptions of these relationships. This cross-sectional study investigated children's perceptions of interracial friendships by employing the Perceptions of Intergroup Friendships Questionnaire. A total of…

  14. Using the Multicultural Family Support Centers and Adjustment among Interethnic and Interracial Families in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Grace H.; Yoo, Joan P.

    2013-01-01

    The present study proposes a model of using the Multicultural Family Support Centers and adjustment among foreign brides and their interethnic and interracial families in South Korea based on the narratives of 10 foreign brides married to Korean men and 11 service providers who directly interact with these women and their families. The results…

  15. Children's Perceptions of Interethnic and Interracial Friendships in a Multiethnic School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica-Smith, Cinzia

    2011-01-01

    Some literature exists on children's real-life interracial and interethnic friendships. However, a scarcity of research exists on children's perceptions of these relationships. This cross-sectional study investigated children's perceptions of interracial friendships by employing the Perceptions of Intergroup Friendships Questionnaire. A total of…

  16. Sense of Community and Interethnic Relations: Comparing Local Communities Varying in Ethnic Heterogeneity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellini, Federica; Colombo, Monica; Maffeis, Daniele; Montali, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the sense of community and interethnic relations in two different metropolitan areas that vary in ethnic heterogeneity. The study was conducted in Milan, Italy using a sample of 318 participants living in different city districts that vary in ethnic heterogeneity (low vs. high). The participants completed a questionnaire…

  17. Using the Multicultural Family Support Centers and Adjustment among Interethnic and Interracial Families in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Grace H.; Yoo, Joan P.

    2013-01-01

    The present study proposes a model of using the Multicultural Family Support Centers and adjustment among foreign brides and their interethnic and interracial families in South Korea based on the narratives of 10 foreign brides married to Korean men and 11 service providers who directly interact with these women and their families. The results…

  18. Children Speak about Interethnic and Interracial Friendships in the Classroom: Lessons for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica-Smith, Cinzia

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses her research on children's perspectives of interracial and interethnic friendships in a multiethnic school and highlights children's voices on these intergroup friendships. Schools are important spaces in which social and cultural competencies necessary to the formation of intergroup friendships may be…

  19. Intercultural-Bilingual Education for an Interethnic-Plurilingual Society? The Case of Nicaragua's Caribbean Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, Jane

    2003-01-01

    Latin American models of "intercultural-bilingual" education may be inappropriate for multilingual, interethnic regions such as Nicaragua's Caribbean Coast, where five indigenous and Afro-Caribbean minorities interact in overlapping territories. Examination of one such program and of Coast people's complex linguistic and cultural…

  20. [Educative game on drugs for blind individuals: development and assessment].

    PubMed

    Mariano, Monaliza Ribeiro; Rebouças, Cristiana Brasil de Almeida; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag

    2013-08-01

    Study aimed to develop and assess an educational game on psychoactive drugs accessible to blind individuals, conducted in three steps: development of the educative game, evaluation by three special education experts, and assessment by twelve blind individuals. As a result, a board game called Drugs: staying clean was developed. In the Alpha version, experts made suggestions regarding the game rules and instructions and the board base, including square texture, game pieces, and Braille writing. In Beta version, we proceeded to the assessment by the blind participants, who suggested changes in the square texture and the addition of Velcro-type material to fix the counters on the board. Then, the Gamma version was played by the last pairs of blind players and was considered by them to be adequate. In the evaluation of the experts, the game was appropriate, as it allowed access to information on psychoactive drugs in a ludic and playful manner.

  1. A Systematic Review of Inter-ethnic Variability in Facial Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Frank; Clapham, Philip J.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2010-01-01

    Background The earliest recorded facial proportional analysis is in the Greek neoclassical canons (c. 450 B.C.). In contemporary times, there has not yet been a study that describes the relative differences in facial proportions among the world’s different ethnic groups. The specific aim of this project is to perform a systematic review of data from the existing literature in order to evaluate the degree of variability in the facial dimensions among various ethnic groups. Methods A PubMed database review identified primary articles containing measurements of facial proportions from various ethnic groups. Data extracted from these articles were the actual means and standard deviations of recorded facial measurements. These facial measurements included the heights and widths of the upper, middle, and lower face which are the features originally described by the neoclassical canons. Coefficients of variation (CV) were calculated to derive a unit-free comparison of the degree of variability among different ethnic groups in each of the neoclassically-measured facial dimensions. Results Our literature search identified 239 potential articles. After screening for the inclusion and exclusion criteria, seven relevant articles were selected. These articles contained data on 11 linear facial measurements from 2359 male and female individuals from 27 different ethnic groups. 95% confidence intervals of the CVs of the measurements indicated that the features that demonstrated the largest differences between the different ethnic populations are the forehead height, interocular distance, and nasal width. The least amount of variability is found in the ear height and upper, middle, and lower facial widths. Conclusions The greatest inter-ethnic variability in facial proportions exists in the height of the forehead. More pronounced difference among the ethnic groups is also present in the measurements of the eyes, nose, and mouth. There is no significant difference between sexes

  2. Genetic profiling and individualized assessment of fracture risk.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuan V; Eisman, John A

    2013-03-01

    Osteoporosis and its consequence of fragility fracture impose a considerable demand on health-care services because fracture is associated with a series of adverse events, including re-fracture and mortality. One of the major priorities in osteoporosis care is the development of predictive models to identify individuals at high risk of fracture for early intervention and management. Existing predictive models include clinical factors and anthropometric characteristics but have not considered genetic variants in the prediction. Genome-wide association studies conducted in the past decade have identified several genetic variants relevant to fracture risk. These genetic variants are common in frequency but have very modest effect sizes. A remaining challenge is to use these genetic data to individualize fracture risk assessment on the basis of an individual's genetic risk profile. Empirical and simulation studies have shown that the usefulness of a single genetic variant for fracture risk assessment is very limited, but a profile of 50 genetic variants, each with odds ratio ranging from 1.02 to 1.15, could improve the accuracy of fracture prediction beyond that obtained by use of existing clinical risk factors. Thus, genetic profiling when integrated with existing risk assessment models could inform a more accurate prediction of fracture risk in an individual.

  3. Preferences in Individuals with Angelman Syndrome Assessed by a Modified Choice Assessment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didden, R.; Korzilius, H.; Kamphuis, A.; Sturmey, P.; Lancioni, G.; Curfs, L. M. G.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Individuals with Angelman syndrome (AS) seem to have a strong preference for water-related items. Until present, preference assessment in AS has not been reported. Methods: An adapted Dutch version of the Choice Assessment Scale (CAS) was administered by parents and other caregivers to 105 individuals with AS. The CAS was adapted by…

  4. Preferences in Individuals with Angelman Syndrome Assessed by a Modified Choice Assessment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didden, R.; Korzilius, H.; Kamphuis, A.; Sturmey, P.; Lancioni, G.; Curfs, L. M. G.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Individuals with Angelman syndrome (AS) seem to have a strong preference for water-related items. Until present, preference assessment in AS has not been reported. Methods: An adapted Dutch version of the Choice Assessment Scale (CAS) was administered by parents and other caregivers to 105 individuals with AS. The CAS was adapted by…

  5. Individual differences and subjective workload assessment - Comparing pilots to nonpilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidulich, Michael A.; Pandit, Parimal

    1987-01-01

    Results by two groups of subjects, pilots and nonpilots, for two subjective workload assessment techniques (the SWAT and NASA-TLX tests) intended to evaluate individual differences in the perception and reporting of subjective workload are compared with results obtained for several traditional personality tests. The personality tests were found to discriminate between the groups while the workload tests did not. It is concluded that although the workload tests may provide useful information with respect to the interaction between tasks and personality, they are not effective as pure tests of individual differences.

  6. Algorithm to assess causality after individual adverse events following immunizations.

    PubMed

    Halsey, Neal A; Edwards, Kathryn M; Dekker, Cornelia L; Klein, Nicola P; Baxter, Roger; Larussa, Philip; Marchant, Colin; Slade, Barbara; Vellozzi, Claudia

    2012-08-24

    Assessing individual reports of adverse events following immunizations (AEFI) can be challenging. Most published reviews are based on expert opinions, but the methods and logic used to arrive at these opinions are neither well described nor understood by many health care providers and scientists. We developed a standardized algorithm to assist in collecting and interpreting data, and to help assess causality after individual AEFI. Key questions that should be asked during the assessment of AEFI include: Is the diagnosis of the AEFI correct? Does clinical or laboratory evidence exist that supports possible causes for the AEFI other than the vaccine in the affected individual? Is there a known causal association between the AEFI and the vaccine? Is there strong evidence against a causal association? Is there a specific laboratory test implicating the vaccine in the pathogenesis? An algorithm can assist with addressing these questions in a standardized, transparent manner which can be tracked and reassessed if additional information becomes available. Examples in this document illustrate the process of using the algorithm to determine causality. As new epidemiologic and clinical data become available, the algorithm and guidelines will need to be modified. Feedback from users of the algorithm will be invaluable in this process. We hope that this algorithm approach can assist with educational efforts to improve the collection of key information on AEFI and provide a platform for teaching about causality assessment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Psychophysical Assessment of Timing in Individuals With Autism

    PubMed Central

    Allman, Melissa J.; DeLeon, Iser G.; Wearden, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Perception of time, in the seconds to minutes range, is not well characterized in autism. The required interval timing system (ITS) develops at the same stages during infancy as communication, social reciprocity, and other cognitive and behavioral functions. The authors used two versions of a temporal bisection procedure to study the perception of duration in individuals with autism and observed quantifiable differences and characteristic patterns in participants’ timing functions. Measures of timing performance correlated with certain autism diagnostic and intelligence scores, and parents described individuals with autism as having a poor sense of time. The authors modeled the data to provide a relative assessment of ITS function in these individuals. The implications of these results for the understanding of autism are discussed. PMID:21381951

  8. Exercise and the Asymptomatic Individual: Assessment and Advice

    PubMed Central

    Skrastins, Roland; McCans, John L.

    1982-01-01

    With the current popularity of physical fitness, the family physician is often asked to advise asymptomatic individuals who wish to undertake an exercise program. In the majority of cases, adequate assessment consists of a thorough history and physical examination, along with a few simple investigations, including a resting electrocardiogram. Exercise stress testing of asymptomatic individuals produces an unacceptably high frequency of false-positive results, and its use should be restricted to those patients with cardiac symptoms or major cardiac risk factors. The potential benefits of a longterm commitment to regular exercise should be discussed with the patient and guidance provided on the optimal form of exercise program for that individual. Exercise must not be considered in isolation. Other major cardiovascular risk factors should be sought and dealt with appropriately. PMID:21286106

  9. Assessing the value of token reinforcement for individuals with autism.

    PubMed

    Fiske, Kate E; Isenhower, Robert W; Bamond, Meredith J; Delmolino, Lara; Sloman, Kimberly N; LaRue, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    The use of token systems has been supported across a variety of populations, but little research has evaluated the reinforcing value of token systems for individuals with autism. We used progressive-ratio schedules to compare the reinforcing value of an established token system, primary reinforcement, and tokens unpaired with reinforcement. Token systems were variably reinforcing for 2 students with autism and more so than primary reinforcement for 1 student. Results support formal assessment of the effectiveness of token systems.

  10. Behavioral assessment of feeding problems of individuals with severe disabilities.

    PubMed

    Munk, D D; Repp, A C

    1994-01-01

    As many as 80% of the individuals with severe or profound mental retardation exhibit feeding problems. Although behavioral interventions have been used to treat these problems, no assessment procedure for determining a functional relationship between a person's acceptance of food and the type and texture of that food has been reported. The purpose of this study was to test a behavioral assessment procedure for a feeding problem of limited intake. Five individuals with severe or profound mental retardation were fed 10 to 12 types of foods with one or more textures. Behavioral categories of acceptance, rejection, expulsion, and other negative behavior were recorded. Results indicated that each subject fit into one of four categories of feeding problems: (a) total refusal, (b) type selectivity, (c) texture selectivity, or (d) type and texture selectivity. Thus, although all 5 subjects exhibited limited intake, the food characteristics correlated with the problem were different for each individual. Results suggest that treatments for limited intake may be based on assessments that show the association of food type or texture to a person's rejection or expulsion of food.

  11. Oral motor assessment in individuals with Moebius syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Adriana de Oliveira Lira; Marques-Dias, Maria Joaquina; Santos, Maria Teresa Botti Rodrigues dos; Castro, Talita; Gallottini, Marina

    2014-02-01

    Moebius syndrome (MS) is a rare congenital condition that is characterised by facial hypomimia and congenital strabismus caused by complete or partial impairment of the 6th and 7th cranial nerves. MS may be further associated with other nerves or malformations, mainly involving the extremities. The objective of this study was to quantify the decrease in oral motor performance in people with MS compared with normoreactive individuals using the Oral Motor Assessment Scale (OMAS). The study group comprised 33 subjects between the ages of 2 and 20 years (average age: 10 ± 5 years) with MS along with 46 age- and gender-matched control subjects. The study group displayed a lower average functional score than the control group (P < 0.0001). A significant lack of lip closure (P = 0.03) and anterior lingual seal during swallowing (P = 0.03) occurred in the study group; in most cases, the individuals with MS were classified as 'subfunctional'. In addition, individuals with MS in the older age group displayed better functional scores than those in the younger group (P = 0.05). Functional damage to oral motor function in individuals with MS is evident, but differs among patients with respect to severity and the movements that are compromised. However, overall, improvements in the functional patterns of these individuals can be observed as they mature in age. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Predicting the use of Individualized Risk Assessment for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Toviessi, Paula; Katafiasz, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the decision to obtain individualized risk assessment after a breast cancer education session. Methods A sample of both African American and Caucasian women was used to determine if there were differences by race/ethnicity in uptake of the assessment and differences in the variables that were most predictive of uptake. The sample included 166 women between the ages of 18 and 80. Sixty-two percent of the sample were African American women. Key Findings The results suggested that African American women and Caucasian women used different factors and used other factors differently to decide whether or not to obtain an individualized risk assessment. Conclusions and Implications These results are discussed within the context of health disparities among ethnic minority and Caucasian women with implications for breast cancer control programs. The results of this study would suggest that knowledge alone does not lead to opting for a personalized risk assessment, and that African American and Caucasian women use different pieces of information, or information differently to make decision about getting more personalized information about risk. PMID:18319147

  13. What standardized tests ignore when assessing individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tenorio, Marcela; Campos, Ruth; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2016-01-01

    In this article we critique the use of traditional standardized tests for the cognitive assessment of children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Limitations stem from the lack of integrating (a) results from research into the psychological functioning of these populations, and (b) the main arguments underlying models of human development. We identify four secondary issues in this discussion: (1) these instruments cannot be used with children who have particularly low cognitive functioning; (2) little or no variance in the scores obtained by individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders, because all are at floor, prevent adequate interpretations; (3) measurements do not provide information useful for the design of intervention strategies; and (4) different cognitive and/or neural processes may underlie behavioural scores ‘in the normal range’. Rethinking traditional assessment methods in favour of technologically-mediated games yields new cognitive assessment possibilities. PMID:26778874

  14. Self-assessment of individual differences in language switching.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Krämer, Ulrike M; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Festman, Julia; Münte, Thomas F

    2011-01-01

    Language switching is omnipresent in bilingual individuals. In fact, the ability to switch languages (code switching) is a very fast, efficient, and flexible process that seems to be a fundamental aspect of bilingual language processing. In this study, we aimed to characterize psychometrically self-perceived individual differences in language switching and to create a reliable measure of this behavioral pattern by introducing a bilingual switching questionnaire. As a working hypothesis based on the previous literature about code switching, we decomposed language switching into four constructs: (i) L1 switching tendencies (the tendency to switch to L1; L1-switch); (ii) L2 switching tendencies (L2-switch); (iii) contextual switch, which indexes the frequency of switches usually triggered by a particular situation, topic, or environment; and (iv) unintended switch, which measures the lack of intention and awareness of the language switches. A total of 582 Spanish-Catalan bilingual university students were studied. Twelve items were selected (three for each construct). The correlation matrix was factor-analyzed using minimum rank factor analysis followed by oblique direct oblimin rotation. The overall proportion of common variance explained by the four extracted factors was 0.86. Finally, to assess the external validity of the individual differences scored with the new questionnaire, we evaluated the correlations between these measures and several psychometric (language proficiency) and behavioral measures related to cognitive and attentional control. The present study highlights the importance of evaluating individual differences in language switching using self-assessment instruments when studying the interface between cognitive control and bilingualism.

  15. Self-Assessment of Individual Differences in Language Switching

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Krämer, Ulrike M.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Festman, Julia; Münte, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    Language switching is omnipresent in bilingual individuals. In fact, the ability to switch languages (code switching) is a very fast, efficient, and flexible process that seems to be a fundamental aspect of bilingual language processing. In this study, we aimed to characterize psychometrically self-perceived individual differences in language switching and to create a reliable measure of this behavioral pattern by introducing a bilingual switching questionnaire. As a working hypothesis based on the previous literature about code switching, we decomposed language switching into four constructs: (i) L1 switching tendencies (the tendency to switch to L1; L1-switch); (ii) L2 switching tendencies (L2-switch); (iii) contextual switch, which indexes the frequency of switches usually triggered by a particular situation, topic, or environment; and (iv) unintended switch, which measures the lack of intention and awareness of the language switches. A total of 582 Spanish–Catalan bilingual university students were studied. Twelve items were selected (three for each construct). The correlation matrix was factor-analyzed using minimum rank factor analysis followed by oblique direct oblimin rotation. The overall proportion of common variance explained by the four extracted factors was 0.86. Finally, to assess the external validity of the individual differences scored with the new questionnaire, we evaluated the correlations between these measures and several psychometric (language proficiency) and behavioral measures related to cognitive and attentional control. The present study highlights the importance of evaluating individual differences in language switching using self-assessment instruments when studying the interface between cognitive control and bilingualism. PMID:22291668

  16. Tertiary educational assessment with mean individual level knowledge.

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, C A; Paull, J D

    1981-01-01

    It is proposed that Tertiary Educational Assessment should be made using a Curve-Unifying Paradigm with its Scientific And Ultra-Conservative Experiment Ratio. Central Ranking Evaluation And Marking was used to process examination results, generating the Mean Individual Level Knowledge for the group. The concept of MILK grew from the need to encourage the average examination candidate and with it came the need for a Judgmental Understanding Goal. The results of some candidates required further handling by the addition of Student's Universal Grade Averaging Regimen. PMID:6797610

  17. Tertiary educational assessment with mean individual level knowledge.

    PubMed

    Shanks, C A; Paull, J D

    It is proposed that Tertiary Educational Assessment should be made using a Curve-Unifying Paradigm with its Scientific And Ultra-Conservative Experiment Ratio. Central Ranking Evaluation And Marking was used to process examination results, generating the Mean Individual Level Knowledge for the group. The concept of MILK grew from the need to encourage the average examination candidate and with it came the need for a Judgmental Understanding Goal. The results of some candidates required further handling by the addition of Student's Universal Grade Averaging Regimen.

  18. How School Norms, Peer Norms, and Discrimination Predict Interethnic Experiences among Ethnic Minority and Majority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tropp, Linda R.; O'Brien, Thomas C.; González Gutierrez, Roberto; Valdenegro, Daniel; Migacheva, Katya; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo; Berger, Christian; Cayul, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    This research tests how perceived school and peer norms predict interethnic experiences among ethnic minority and majority youth. With studies in Chile (654 nonindigenous and 244 Mapuche students, M = 11.20 and 11.31 years) and the United States (468 non-Hispanic White and 126 Latino students, M = 11.66 and 11.68 years), cross-sectional results…

  19. How School Norms, Peer Norms, and Discrimination Predict Interethnic Experiences among Ethnic Minority and Majority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tropp, Linda R.; O'Brien, Thomas C.; González Gutierrez, Roberto; Valdenegro, Daniel; Migacheva, Katya; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo; Berger, Christian; Cayul, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    This research tests how perceived school and peer norms predict interethnic experiences among ethnic minority and majority youth. With studies in Chile (654 nonindigenous and 244 Mapuche students, M = 11.20 and 11.31 years) and the United States (468 non-Hispanic White and 126 Latino students, M = 11.66 and 11.68 years), cross-sectional results…

  20. Intra-ethnic and inter-ethnic marriage and divorce in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Ho, F C; Johnson, R C

    1990-01-01

    A comparison of intra- and inter-ethnic divorce rates in Hawaii showed that inter-ethnic marriages resulted in a higher proportion of divorces than did intra-ethnic marriages when the marriage data used had to do with all marriages occurring in Hawaii. However, a sizeable portion of marriages in Hawaii are of nonresidents who, if they divorce, probably divorce elsewhere. Nonresident marriages are chiefly intra-ethnic marriages of Caucasians. When examining the proportions of divorces to resident marriages, within-group marriages are more at risk than inter-ethnic marriages. As in prior research, persons who marry members of other racial/ethnic groups tend to marry persons from groups with income levels similar to their own. As in previous reports, some cross-ethnic combinations appeared more at risk for divorce than did others. Group income appeared to be a predictor of risk. When considering only resident marriages as related to divorces, those marriages in which the bride was from a higher income group than the groom were at a significantly greater risk for divorce than marriage in which the bride came from an income group lower than that of the groom.

  1. Ethnic diversity, trust, and the mediating role of positive and negative interethnic contact: a priming experiment.

    PubMed

    Koopmans, Ruud; Veit, Susanne

    2014-09-01

    This study not only shows that the empirically well-established negative relationship between residential diversity and trust in neighbors holds for the case of Germany, but goes beyond existing research by providing experimental evidence on the causal nature of the diversity effect. Respondents exposed to experimental stimuli that made salient the ethnic or religious heterogeneity of their neighborhoods display significantly lower levels of trust in their neighbors than do respondents in the control group. Further, we explore the role of interethnic contact in mediating the relationship between diversity and trust in a degree of detail unmatched by earlier studies. We consider not only positive forms of interethnic contact such as friendships, but also neutral and negative encounters between people of native and immigrant origin. We find that interethnic contacts mediate negative diversity effects on trust in different ways for both groups. For natives, distant encounters and negative experiences with immigrants in diverse contexts reduce trust, whereas for people of immigrant origin trust in neighbors suffers from the relatively small number of native acquaintances in diverse neighborhoods.

  2. Study on inter-ethnic human differences in bioactivation and detoxification of estragole using physiologically based kinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Ning, Jia; Louisse, Jochem; Spenkelink, Bert; Wesseling, Sebastiaan; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2017-03-29

    Considering the rapid developments in food safety in the past decade in China, it is of importance to obtain insight into what extent safety and risk assessments of chemicals performed for the Caucasian population apply to the Chinese population. The aim of the present study was to determine physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modeling-based predictions for differences between Chinese and Caucasians in terms of metabolic bioactivation and detoxification of the food-borne genotoxic carcinogen estragole. The PBK models were defined based on kinetic constants for hepatic metabolism derived from in vitro incubations using liver fractions of the two ethnic groups, and used to evaluate the inter-ethnic differences in metabolic activation and detoxification of estragole. The models predicted that at realistic dietary intake levels, only 0.02% of the dose was converted to the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite 1'-sulfooxyestragole in Chinese subjects, whereas this amounted to 0.09% of the dose in Caucasian subjects. Detoxification of 1'-hydroxyestragole, mainly via conversion to 1'-oxoestragole, was similar within the two ethnic groups. The 4.5-fold variation in formation of the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of estragole accompanied by similar rates of detoxification may indicate a lower risk of estragole for the Chinese population at similar levels of exposure. The study provides a proof of principle for how PBK modeling can identify differences in ethnic sensitivity and provide a more refined risk assessment for a specific ethnic group for a compound of concern.

  3. Assessing facial attractiveness: individual decisions and evolutionary constraints

    PubMed Central

    Kocsor, Ferenc; Feldmann, Adam; Bereczkei, Tamas; Kállai, János

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies showed that facial attractiveness, as a highly salient social cue, influences behavioral responses. It has also been found that attractive faces evoke distinctive neural activation compared to unattractive or neutral faces. Objectives Our aim was to design a face recognition task where individual preferences for facial cues are controlled for, and to create conditions that are more similar to natural circumstances in terms of decision making. Design In an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, subjects were shown attractive and unattractive faces, categorized on the basis of their own individual ratings. Results Statistical analysis of all subjects showed elevated brain activation for attractive opposite-sex faces in contrast to less attractive ones in regions that previously have been reported to show enhanced activation with increasing attractiveness level (e.g. the medial and superior occipital gyri, fusiform gyrus, precentral gyrus, and anterior cingular cortex). Besides these, females showed additional brain activation in areas thought to be involved in basic emotions and desires (insula), detection of facial emotions (superior temporal gyrus), and memory retrieval (hippocampus). Conclusions From these data, we speculate that because of the risks involving mate choice faced by women during evolutionary times, selection might have preferred the development of an elaborated neural system in females to assess the attractiveness and social value of male faces. PMID:24693356

  4. Comparison of three methods to assess individual skeletal maturity.

    PubMed

    Pasciuti, Enzo; Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano; Milani, Silvano; Farronato, Giampietro

    2013-09-01

    The knowledge of facial growth and development is fundamental to determine the optimal timing for different treatment procedures in the growing patient. To analyze the reproducibility of three methods in assessing individual skeletal maturity, and to evaluate any degree of concordance among them. In all, 100 growing subjects were enrolled to test three methods: the hand-wrist, cervical vertebral maturation (CVM), and medial phalanges of the third finger method (MP3). Four operators determined the skeletal maturity of the subjects to evaluate the reproducibility of each method. After 30 days the operators repeated the analysis to assess the repeatability of each method. Finally, one operator examined all subjects' radiographs to detect any concordance among the three methods. The weighted kappa values for inter-operator variability were 0.94, 0.91, and 0.90, for the WRI, CVM, and MP3 methods, respectively. The weighted kappa values for intra-operator variability were 0.92, 0.91, and 0.92, for the WRI, CVM, and MP3 methods, respectively. The three methods revealed a high degree of repeatability and reproducibility. Complete agreement among the three methods was observed in 70% of the analyzed samples. The CVM method has the advantage of not necessitating an additional radiograph. The MP3 method is a simple and practical alternative as it requires only a standard dental x-ray device.

  5. The Personality Assessment Inventory in individuals with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Demakis, George J; Hammond, Flora; Knotts, Allison; Cooper, Douglas B; Clement, Pamelia; Kennedy, Jan; Sawyer, Tom

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) in 95 individuals who had suffered a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants were recruited from a rehabilitation hospital (n=60) and a military hospital (n=35); despite differences in demographics and injury characteristics groups did not differ on any of the clinical scales and were thus combined. In the combined group, the highest mean clinical scale elevations were on Somatic Complaints, Depression, and Borderline Features and the most common configural profiles, based on cluster analysis, were Cluster 1 (no prominent elevations), Cluster 6 (social isolation and confused thinking), and Cluster 2 (depression and withdrawal). Factor analysis indicated a robust three-factor solution that accounted for 74.86 percent of the variance and was similar to findings from the psychiatric and non-psychiatric populations in the standardization sample. The above findings are compared with the previous literature on psychopathology in TBI, particularly in regards to the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), as well as previous psychometric research on the PAI.

  6. A new instrument for intraoperative assessment of individual vocal folds.

    PubMed

    Heaton, James T; Kobler, James B; Hillman, Robert E; Zeitels, Steven M

    2005-07-01

    Intraoperative assessment of vocal fold vibration during phonomicrosurgery performed under general anesthesia may enhance surgical decision-making. We therefore developed and bench-tested a new device we refer to as the aerodynamic vocal fold driver (AVFD). The AVFD comprises a hand-held probe that uses airflow to drive individual vocal folds into phonatory-like vibration. This permits stroboscopic visualization of mucosal waves with simultaneous control of subglottal air pressure. In initial experiments to validate the technique, AVFD driven phonation and conventional whole-larynx phonation were compared using excised canine larynges (n = 14). Single vocal fold phonation using the AVFD and whole larynx phonation yielded similar, positive correlations between subglottal pressure and both amplitude and frequency of vibration. Experiments simulating vocal fold scar-related mucosal stiffening by subepithelial injection of fixative showed the expected elevation of phonation threshold pressures as measured with the AVFD. Likewise, unilateral tissue compression injury disrupted vocal fold vibration, and the AVFD was useful for quantifying improvement in the damaged vocal fold after repair with injection of cross-linked hyaluronic acid gel. These results show that this new instrument has the potential to provide novel and useful information for laryngeal experimentation and to improve phonosurgery.

  7. Individual-based model for radiation risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, O.

    A mathematical model is developed which enables one to predict the life span probability for mammals exposed to radiation. It relates statistical biometric functions with statistical and dynamic characteristics of an organism's critical system. To calculate the dynamics of the latter, the respective mathematical model is used too. This approach is applied to describe the effects of low level chronic irradiation on mice when the hematopoietic system (namely, thrombocytopoiesis) is the critical one. For identification of the joint model, experimental data on hematopoiesis in nonirradiated and irradiated mice, as well as on mortality dynamics of those in the absence of radiation are utilized. The life span probability and life span shortening predicted by the model agree with corresponding experimental data. Modeling results show the significance of ac- counting the variability of the individual radiosensitivity of critical system cells when estimating the radiation risk. These findings are corroborated by clinical data on persons involved in the elimination of the Chernobyl catastrophe after- effects. All this makes it feasible to use the model for radiation risk assessments for cosmonauts and astronauts on long-term missions such as a voyage to Mars or a lunar colony. In this case the model coefficients have to be determined by making use of the available data for humans. Scenarios for the dynamics of dose accumulation during space flights should also be taken into account.

  8. Individual fertility assessment and counselling in women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Kathrine Birch

    2016-10-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to validate the new concept of the Fertility Assessment and Counselling (FAC) Clinic at Rigshospitalet. The intention was to: explore the prognostic value of fertility risk factors by a risk score and provide an estimate of female fecundity, to quantify the impact of oral contraception (OC) on ovarian reserve parameters defined as Anti Müllerian Hormone (AMH), Antral Follicle Count (AFC) and ovarian volume, and to gain knowledge of attitudes and considerations toward family formation in women of advanced age. The thesis is based on the following four manuscripts:   Manuscript I describes the predictive value of individual fertility assessment and counselling in terms of subsequent time to pregnancy within two years after the initial consultation at the FAC Clinic. The follow up study comprised 519 women, of which 352 had tried to conceive. At the time of follow-up, 259/352 had achieved a pregnancy, 74/352 were still trying and 19/352 had given up. The remaining 167 women had no attempts to conceive. The risk assessment provided a score based on the appearance of fertility risk factors: green (low), yellow (low), orange (medium) and red (high). Two-thirds of the women with only low risk scores conceived spontaneously within 12 months (65%), while this figure was only 32% for women with at least one high risk score (n=82). Accordingly, presence of at least one high risk score reduced the odds of achieving a pregnancy within 12 months by 73% (OR 0.27, 95%CI 0.13-0.57). The FAC Clinic concept seems as a usable tool for fertility experts to guide women on how to fulfil their reproductive life-plan, but longer follow-up studies are needed. Manuscript II describes the impact of OC on ovarian reserve parameters in 887 women at the FAC Clinic. Of the 887 women, 244 (27.5%) used OC.  The 244 users of OC were significantly younger than non-users with a mean age of 31.5 (SD 4.3) vs. 34.1 (SD 4.3) years (p < 0.001). Overall, there was no

  9. Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of nitrazepam in healthy volunteers: an interethnic comparative study between Japanese and European volunteers.

    PubMed

    van Gerven, J M; Uchida, E; Uchida, N; Pieters, M S; Meinders, A J; Schoemaker, R C; Nanhekhan, L V; Kroon, J M; de Visser, S J; Altorf, B; Yasuda, K; Yasuhara, H; Cohen, A F

    1998-12-01

    Potential interethnic differences in drug disposition and effects between Japanese and white subjects hamper the registration in Japan of medications already used in Western countries. This double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was conducted to compare the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of nitrazepam (5 mg) in age- and sex-matched Japanese (n = 8) and white (n = 8) healthy volunteers. The study was performed in centers in Japan and the Netherlands using the same methods and study design. Subjects were individually matched for gender, age, and body stature. Drug effects were measured by means of saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements and visual analog lines obtained from the scales of Bond and Lader. There were no pharmacokinetic differences between the Japanese and white subjects. Clearance of nitrazepam was 0.91 +/- 0.165 mL/min/kg and 1.17 +/- 0.492 mL/min/kg, and half-life (t1/2) was 22.1 +/- 4.96 hours and 21.5 +/- 7.51 hours for the Japanese and European groups, respectively. Pharmacokinetic parameters showed no significant correlation with age, height, or weight. The average time-effect curves for the different parameters were comparable between groups. Compared with placebo, both groups showed similar significant reductions in average peak velocity and increases in saccadic inaccuracy and reaction time. Visual analog scores showed clear sedation in the white subjects, but insignificant effects in the Japanese subjects. Smooth pursuit did not change significantly in either group. Slope and intercept of the concentration-effect relationships for saccadic peak velocity showed considerable intersubject variability, but no clear differences between groups. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of nitrazepam were similar in matched healthy Japanese and white subjects. Interethnic comparative studies are feasible, and provide meaningful information about potential racial differences in disposition and action of drugs

  10. Two Thinking Skills Assessment Approaches: "Assessment of Pupils' Thinking Skills" and "Individual Thinking Skills Assessments"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Lynsey A.; Williams, Joanne M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is linked to a previous paper outlining an evaluation of a thinking skills intervention (Burke & Williams, 2008). Following extensive requests for the assessment tools used in the intervention, this short paper presents the development and potential uses of two thinking skills assessment tools. The aim of the paper is simply to make…

  11. Two Thinking Skills Assessment Approaches: "Assessment of Pupils' Thinking Skills" and "Individual Thinking Skills Assessments"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Lynsey A.; Williams, Joanne M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is linked to a previous paper outlining an evaluation of a thinking skills intervention (Burke & Williams, 2008). Following extensive requests for the assessment tools used in the intervention, this short paper presents the development and potential uses of two thinking skills assessment tools. The aim of the paper is simply to make…

  12. Assessment, Prevention, and Intervention for Abuse among Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilczynski, Susan M.; Connolly, Sarah; Dubard, Melanie; Henderson, Amanda; Mcintosh, David

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities are at increased risk for abuse by their parents, caretakers, and the staff who are entrusted with their care as well as from the general population. Many individuals with disabilities have cognitive or communication impairments that place them at even higher risk for abuse. These limitations also make it more…

  13. Assessment, Prevention, and Intervention for Abuse among Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilczynski, Susan M.; Connolly, Sarah; Dubard, Melanie; Henderson, Amanda; Mcintosh, David

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities are at increased risk for abuse by their parents, caretakers, and the staff who are entrusted with their care as well as from the general population. Many individuals with disabilities have cognitive or communication impairments that place them at even higher risk for abuse. These limitations also make it more…

  14. Individualizing generic decision models using assessments as evidence.

    PubMed

    Scott, George C; Shachter, Ross D

    2005-08-01

    Complex decision models in expert systems often depend upon a number of utilities and subjective probabilities for an individual. Although these values can be estimated for entire populations or demographic subgroups, a model should be customized to the individual's specific parameter values. This process can be onerous and inefficient for practical decisions. We propose an interactive approach for incrementally improving our knowledge about a specific individual's parameter values, including utilities and probabilities, given a decision model and a prior joint probability distribution over the parameter values. We define the concept of value of elicitation and use it to determine dynamically the next most informative elicitation for a given individual. We evaluated the approach using an example model and demonstrate that we can improve the decision quality by focusing on those parameter values most material to the decision.

  15. Assessing Students' Learning Styles and Teaching for Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papalia, Anthony

    1978-01-01

    Since it is assumed that students' classroom behaviors reflect learning modalities and attitudes, this investigation was undertaken to assist teachers in identifying their students' individual differences. (Author/NCR)

  16. Low ethnic identity exploration undermines positive interethnic relations: A study among Turkish immigrant-origin youth.

    PubMed

    Spiegler, Olivia; Verkuyten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem; Leyendecker, Birgit

    2016-10-01

    This longitudinal study investigates whether immigrant-origin youths' ethnic identity exploration moderates the link between ethnic identity commitment and positive interethnic relations, operationalized as cross-ethnic friendships. Turkish-German 4th graders (9-12 years old, n = 73) and 7th graders (13-15 years old, n = 67) reported on their cross-ethnic friendships at Time 1 and approximately 10 months later at Time 2. Commitment and exploration were measured at Time 1 with age appropriate versions of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure. About 40% of the children's friendships were cross-ethnic and the amount of cross-ethnic friendships did not change from Time 1 to Time 2. Ethnic identity commitment and exploration were unrelated to cross-ethnic friendships in both age groups. Yet, among the 7th graders, exploration moderated the link between commitment and cross-ethnic friendships: when exploration was low, a higher level of commitment was associated with fewer cross-ethnic friendships. These associations were not significant among 4th-grade children. We conclude that by the age of 13 years, ethnic identity exploration can improve interethnic relations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Supporting Interethnic and Interracial Friendships among Youth to Reduce Prejudice and Racism in Schools: The Role of the School Counselor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica-Smith, Cinzia; Poynton, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    Supporting interethnic and interracial friendships in schools among children and adolescents is an important part of a progressive educational agenda informed in equity, social justice frameworks, and critical multicultural education that leads to a reduction in racial prejudice. Positive intergroup contact is a necessary condition in prejudice…

  18. Ultrasonographic assessment of thyroid volume in oldest-old individuals.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Glaucia Cruzes; Araujo, Lara Miguel Quirino; Magalhães, Felix; Almada, Clineu Mello; Cendoroglo, Maysa Seabra

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between thyroid volume and age, gender, anthropometric characteristics, and echogenicity in oldest-old subjects in an iodine-sufficient area. The study included 81 independent elderly individuals aged ≥ 80 years (65 [80.2%] women). We determined these individuals' anthropometric characteristics, body mass index (BMI), and lean body mass, as well as thyroid volume and echogenicity by ultrasonography. We observed that octogenarians and nonagenarians had different profiles of thyroid echogenicity. The volume of the thyroid was smaller in nonagenarians than octogenarians (p = 0.012, r = 0.176), and subjects aged 80-89 years had more often hypoechoic glands than those aged ≥ 90 years (p = 0.01 versus 0.602). The identification of ultrasonographic differences in oldest-old individuals will contribute to establishing preclinical markers, such as echogenicity, to identify individuals at risk of developing autoimmune thyroid disease. Future prospective studies should identify if 80-89-year-old individuals with hypoechoic glands progress to hypothyroidism, and if the absence of changes in echogenicity (i.e. a normal thyroid parenchyma) would have a positive impact on longevity among nonagenarians.

  19. Supporting Peer Assessment of Individual Contributions in Groupwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raban, Richard; Litchfield, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The ability to assess the work of others is a core attribute for most professionals. To develop this graduate attribute in our students requires the learning of self and peer evaluation, feedback, and review skills. This paper discusses the changing design of peer assessment and the impact of a new groupwork support tool within a capstone…

  20. 30 CFR 724.17 - Procedure for assessment of individual civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... assessed an individual civil penalty, by certified mail, or by any alternative means consistent with the... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Procedure for assessment of individual civil..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS INDIVIDUAL CIVIL PENALTIES § 724.17 Procedure...

  1. 30 CFR 846.17 - Procedure for assessment of individual civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Procedure for assessment of individual civil..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM INSPECTION AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES INDIVIDUAL CIVIL PENALTIES § 846.17 Procedure for assessment of individual civil penalty. (a) Notice. The Office shall serve...

  2. 30 CFR 724.17 - Procedure for assessment of individual civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... assessed an individual civil penalty, by certified mail, or by any alternative means consistent with the... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Procedure for assessment of individual civil..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS INDIVIDUAL CIVIL PENALTIES § 724.17 Procedure...

  3. 30 CFR 846.17 - Procedure for assessment of individual civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Procedure for assessment of individual civil..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM INSPECTION AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES INDIVIDUAL CIVIL PENALTIES § 846.17 Procedure for assessment of individual civil penalty. (a) Notice. The Office shall serve...

  4. 30 CFR 724.12 - When an individual civil penalty may be assessed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When an individual civil penalty may be assessed. 724.12 Section 724.12 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS INDIVIDUAL CIVIL PENALTIES § 724.12 When an individual civil penalty may be assessed. (a) Except...

  5. 30 CFR 724.12 - When an individual civil penalty may be assessed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When an individual civil penalty may be assessed. 724.12 Section 724.12 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS INDIVIDUAL CIVIL PENALTIES § 724.12 When an individual civil penalty may be assessed. (a) Except...

  6. Interethnic variation of the MMP-9 microsatellite in Amerindian and Mexican Mestizo populations: considerations for genetic association studies.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Mejorado, R; Noris, G; Santana, C; Magaña, J J; Majluf-Cruz, A; Arellano-Galindo, J; De la Peña, A; Hernández-Juárez, J; Calderón-Aranda, E S; Meraz-Ríos, M A; Gómez, R

    2015-03-31

    We studied the interethnic variation of the MMP-9 microsatellite in the Mestizo and Amerindian populations using blood samples collected from 435 healthy unrelated individuals from the Central Valley of Mexico. DNA samples were genotyped using the -90 (CA)12-27 repeat near the MMP transcriptional start site using capillary electrophoresis. Our data were compared with those from African, Asian, and European populations (N = 729). Both Mestizo and Amerindian populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P ≥ 0.05). However, strong genetic heterogeneity was found within the Mestizo population (94%, P ≤ 0.0001), which exhibited the highest frequency of Amerindian, African, and European alleles. Likewise, Amerindians showed 6.7% variation among populations (P ≤ 0.0001), suggesting a genetic substructure potentially associated with linguistic affiliations. These findings were corroborated with principal component and population differentiation analyses, which showed relative proximity among the Mestizos and their historical parental populations: Asian (FST ≥ 0.05), European (FST ≥ 0.09), and African (FST ≥ 0.02). Nevertheless, important differences were found between Mestizo and Nahuas (P ≤ 0.0001), and between Mestizo and Me'Phaas (P ≤ 0.0001). These findings highlight the importance of determining local-specific patterns to establish the population variability of MMP-9 and other polymorphic markers. Validation of candidate markers is critical to identifying risk factors; however, this depends on knowledge of population genetic variation, which increases the possibility of finding true causative variants. We also show that dissimilar ethnic backgrounds might lead to spurious associations. Our study provides useful considerations for greater accuracy and robustness in future genetic association studies.

  7. Interethnic genetic differentiation: GM polymorphism in eastern Senegal.

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, M; Sanchez-Mazas, A; Van Blyenburgh, N H; Sevin, A; Pison, G; Langaney, A

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of GM polymorphism has been performed on 1,806 individuals representing three sympatric ethnic groups--Bedik, Fulani, and Mandenkalu--of eastern Senegal. Haplotype frequencies estimated by maximum likelihood have been used to compute common genetic pools between the three samples and a number of other sub-Saharan African populations. Despite extreme linguistic and sociocultural differentiations and very high levels of endogamy, especially in the Bedik and Niokholo Mandenkalu, the three populations share about 90%-95% of their haplotype frequencies in a system which commonly provides strong genetic differentiations. This supports the view that, despite its importance at a large continental scale level, as it is discussed for a set of populations from many regions of sub-Saharan Africa, sociocultural differentiation usually has little effect on local genetic diversity. PMID:2105642

  8. Assessing Soldier Individual Differences to Enable Tailored Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    Army Research Institute John Lipinski, U.S. Army Research Institute NOTICES DISTRIBUTION: Primary distribution of this Research...way to measure individual differences with strong criterion and face validity (Lievens, Peeters , & Schollaert, 2007). Attention to detail...Lievens, F., Peeters , G., & Schollaert, E. (2008). Situational judgment tests: a review of recent research. Personnel Review 37 (4), 426-441

  9. Assessing Behavioral Flexibility in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Vanessa A.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Pituch, Keenan A.; Itchon, Jonathan; O'Reilly, Mark; Lancioni, Giulio E.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers associate an insistence on sameness or lack of behavioral flexibility with autism and Asperger syndrome, but few studies have sought to identify specific situations in which individuals insist on sameness. Along these lines, we developed the "Behavioral Flexibility Rating Scale" (BFRS) and conducted an Internet survey of parents of…

  10. Assessing Individual Learning Styles: An Analysis of Five Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepke, Helen S.

    1978-01-01

    Describes features of Harry Reinert's "ELSIE"; Joseph Hill's "Cognitive Style Interest Inventory"; Anthony Papalia's "Learning Modalities and Individual Difference Inventories"; David Hunt's "Paragraph Completion Method"; and the Dunn, Dunn, and Price "Learning Style Inventory." Although dissimilar in scope and emphases, these instruments…

  11. Performance assessment in complex individual and team tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddy, Douglas R.

    1992-01-01

    Described here is an eclectic, performance based approach to assessing cognitive performance from multiple perspectives. The experience gained from assessing the effects of antihistamines and scenario difficulty on C (exp 2) decision making performance in Airborne Warning and Control Systems (AWACS) weapons director (WD) teams can serve as a model for realistic simulations in space operations. Emphasis is placed on the flexibility of measurement, hierarchical organization of measurement levels, data collection from multiple perspectives, and the difficulty of managing large amounts of data.

  12. Interethnic admixture and the evolution of Latin American populations.

    PubMed

    Salzano, Francisco Mauro; Sans, Mónica

    2014-03-01

    A general introduction to the origins and history of Latin American populations is followed by a systematic review of the data from molecular autosomal assessments of the ethnic/continental (European, African, Amerindian) ancestries for 24 Latin American countries or territories. The data surveyed are of varying quality but provide a general picture of the present constitution of these populations. A brief discussion about the applications of these results (admixture mapping) is also provided. Latin American populations can be viewed as natural experiments for the investigation of unique anthropological and epidemiological issues.

  13. Interethnic admixture and the evolution of Latin American populations

    PubMed Central

    Salzano, Francisco Mauro; Sans, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    A general introduction to the origins and history of Latin American populations is followed by a systematic review of the data from molecular autosomal assessments of the ethnic/continental (European, African, Amerindian) ancestries for 24 Latin American countries or territories. The data surveyed are of varying quality but provide a general picture of the present constitution of these populations. A brief discussion about the applications of these results (admixture mapping) is also provided. Latin American populations can be viewed as natural experiments for the investigation of unique anthropological and epidemiological issues. PMID:24764751

  14. A Survey of Individual Assessment Practices by I/O Psychologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Ann Marie; Sackett, Paul R.

    1987-01-01

    Examined individual assessment (making an assessment decision for a personnel-related purpose about one individual), within the Division of Industrial and Organizational Psychology of the American Psychological Association. Reports findings regarding types of assessment typically conducted, choice of methods, methods typically used, how findings…

  15. A Survey of Individual Assessment Practices by I/O Psychologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Ann Marie; Sackett, Paul R.

    1987-01-01

    Examined individual assessment (making an assessment decision for a personnel-related purpose about one individual), within the Division of Industrial and Organizational Psychology of the American Psychological Association. Reports findings regarding types of assessment typically conducted, choice of methods, methods typically used, how findings…

  16. 77 FR 43606 - Preliminary Damage Assessment for Individual Assistance Operations Manual (9327.2-PR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... extent of disaster damages and to determine the impact on individuals and communities while identifying... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Preliminary Damage Assessment for Individual Assistance... availability. SUMMARY: This document provides notice of the availability of the final Preliminary Damage...

  17. Concert hall acoustics assessment with individually elicited attributes.

    PubMed

    Lokki, Tapio; Patynen, Jukka; Kuusinen, Antti; Vertanen, Heikki; Tervo, Sakari

    2011-08-01

    Concert hall acoustics was evaluated with a descriptive sensory analysis method by employing an individual vocabulary development technique. The goal was to obtain sensory profiles of three concert halls by eliciting perceptual attributes for evaluation and comparison of the halls. The stimuli were gathered by playing back anechoic symphony music from 34 loudspeakers on stage in each concert hall and recording the sound field with a microphone array. Four musical programs were processed for multichannel 3D sound reproduction in the actual listening test. Twenty screened assessors developed their individual set of attributes and performed a comparative evaluation of nine seats, three in each hall. The results contain the distinctive groups of elicited attributes and show good agreement within assessors, even though they applied individual attributes when rating the samples. It was also found that loudness and distance gave the strongest perceptual direction to the principal component basis. In addition, the study revealed that the perception of reverberance is related to the size of the space or to the enveloping reverberance, depending on the assessor.

  18. Metabolomics of aging assessed in individual parasitoid wasps

    PubMed Central

    Kapranas, Apostolos; Snart, Charles J. P.; Williams, Huw; Hardy, Ian C. W.; Barrett, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomics studies of low-biomass organisms, such as small insects, have previously relied on the pooling of biological samples to overcome detection limits, particularly using NMR. We show that the differentiation of metabolite profiles of individual 1 mg parasitoid wasps of different ages is possible when using a modified sample preparation and a combination of untargeted NMR and LC-MS based metabolomics. Changes were observed between newly emerged and older wasps in glycerolipids, amino acids and circulatory sugars. This advance in chemical profiling has important implications for the study of the behaviour and ecology of parasitoids and many other species of small organisms because predictions and observations are typically made at the level of the individual. Thus, the metabolomic state of low-biomass individuals can now be related to their behaviour and ecological performance. We discuss specifically the utility of age-related metabolomic profiling but our new approach can be applied to a wide range of biological research. PMID:27713504

  19. Pennsylvania Training Model: Individual Assessment Guide. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerton-Fair, Ellen; Turner, Keith D.

    The guide provides information on four sequences in the instruction of severely and profoundly handicapped students. The Curriculum Assessment Guide produces an overview of the student's skill development in input modes (tactile, auditory, and visual development); output modes (gross motor and fine motor); activities of daily living…

  20. Assessment of Anger Coping Skills in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willner, P.; Brace, N.; Phillips, J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent controlled studies have supported the effectiveness of anger management training for people with intellectual disabilities (IDs). This report describes an evaluation instrument designed to assess their usage of specific anger coping skills. The Profile of Anger Coping Skills (PACS) is designed for completion by a staff member or carer.…

  1. Individual Student Assessment Process: Lincoln Public Schools, 1982-83.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heskett, Eldon; Sherrill, Don

    The paper describes a framework for assessing students with suspected learning or behavior problems. The process is outlined in sequences which are designed to guide staff from the point of identification to the point where an alternative program may be recommended. Each sequence is described in terms of a step title, a description of procedures…

  2. Assessment of Individual Student Performance in Online Team Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alden, Jay

    2011-01-01

    The use of team projects has been shown to be beneficial in higher education. There is also general agreement that team efforts should be assessed and that the grading ought to represent both (1) the quality of the product developed jointly by the team, as well as (2) the degree of participation and quality of contribution by each individual…

  3. Biomarker Based Individual Risk Assessment for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    objective and Chroma FITC filter set and captured as 12-bit gray scale files, at exposures of 250, 25, and 3 milliseconds, respectively, with the b/w CCD...camera. The 12-bit gray scale consists of 4096 divisions or units (gsu). Images of 200-400 individual microspheres per slide were segmented at a...yielded values of ca. 3200 gsu, i.e., 80% of maximum on the 12-bit gray scale . All frames were captured at this exposure setting, typically 100-200

  4. Alkaline Comet Assay for Assessing DNA Damage in Individual Cells.

    PubMed

    Pu, Xinzhu; Wang, Zemin; Klaunig, James E

    2015-08-06

    Single-cell gel electrophoresis, commonly called a comet assay, is a simple and sensitive method for assessing DNA damage at the single-cell level. It is an important technique in genetic toxicological studies. The comet assay performed under alkaline conditions (pH >13) is considered the optimal version for identifying agents with genotoxic activity. The alkaline comet assay is capable of detecting DNA double-strand breaks, single-strand breaks, alkali-labile sites, DNA-DNA/DNA-protein cross-linking, and incomplete excision repair sites. The inclusion of digestion of lesion-specific DNA repair enzymes in the procedure allows the detection of various DNA base alterations, such as oxidative base damage. This unit describes alkaline comet assay procedures for assessing DNA strand breaks and oxidative base alterations. These methods can be applied in a variety of cells from in vitro and in vivo experiments, as well as human studies.

  5. Camouflage simulation and effectiveness assessment for the individual soldier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepfinger, Lisa B.

    1990-09-01

    The mission of the Individual Protection Directorate of the U. S. Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center is to develop clothing and equipment to protect the individual combat soldier against battlefield chemical, ballistic, surveillance, environmental and nuclear hazards. In an effort to meet our countersurveillance mission, the Terrain Analysis Systn was developed by Natick in conjunction with Decilog, Inc., Melville, New York. The Terrain Analysis System was developed to satisfy the need for a scientific method of designing camouflage patterns based on natural terrain reflectance data. It functions as a portable, abridged spectrophotometer to obtain spectral refltance data in the visible and near-infrared on any scene of interest. Data is collected on videotape in the field, digitized into the computer back in the laboratory, and spectral reflectance factors determined for each pixel in the scene. The 1976 CIE L*a*b* color coordinates are calculated and the image is clustered to a user-specific number of color domains. Camouflage patterns can be designed based on these domains, and visual camouflage evaluations can be made by overlaying the designed patterns on any desired background scene. Additional capabilities include calculation of values analogous to the CIE values, which use infrared film or an image intensifier as the observer. The Terrain Analysis System is also capable of analyzing video data taken through an image intensifier or thermal imager and calculating the probability of detection of a user-defined target against the background. "What if" cases can be run to determine the detection probability under other sets of conditions, such as a detector with a different spectral response or under different atmospheric conditions.

  6. Pharmacogenetic versus clinical dosing of warfarin in individuals of Chinese and African-American ancestry: assessment using data simulation.

    PubMed

    Syn, Nicholas L X; Lee, Soo-Chin; Brunham, Liam R; Goh, Boon-Cher

    2015-10-01

    Clinical trials of genotype-guided dosing of warfarin have yielded mixed results, which may in part reflect ethnic differences among study participants. However, no previous study has compared genotype-guided versus clinically guided or standard-of-care dosing in a Chinese population, whereas those involving African-Americans were underpowered to detect significant differences. We present a preclinical strategy that integrates pharmacogenetics (PG) and pharmacometrics to predict the outcome or guide the design of dosing strategies for drugs that show large interindividual variability. We use the example of warfarin and focus on two underrepresented groups in warfarin research. We identified the parameters required to simulate a patient population and the outcome of dosing strategies. PG and pharmacogenetic plus loading (PG+L) algorithms that take into account a patient's VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotype status were considered and compared against a clinical (CA) algorithm for a simulated Chinese population using a predictive Monte Carlo and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic framework. We also examined a simulated population of African-American ancestry to assess the robustness of the model in relation to real-world clinical trial data. The simulations replicated similar trends observed with clinical data in African-Americans. They further predict that the PG+L regimen is superior to both the CA and the PG regimen in maximizing percentage time in therapeutic range in a Chinese cohort, whereas the CA regimen poses the highest risk of overanticoagulation during warfarin initiation. The findings supplement the literature with an unbiased comparison of warfarin dosing algorithms and highlights interethnic differences in anticoagulation control.

  7. Stereotypes and ethnocentrism: diverging interethnic perceptions of African American and white American youth.

    PubMed

    Judd, C M; Park, B; Ryan, C S; Brauer, M; Kraus, S

    1995-09-01

    Much recent work on stereotyping has dealt with groups that are either artificially created or that do not have an extensive history of conflict. The authors attempted to overcome this limitation by examining issues of perceived variability and ethnocentrism among samples of White American and African American youth. The goals were both to examine theoretical issues in stereotyping and to describe the current state of ethnic interrelations among young people. Four studies are reported. Throughout, the samples of African Americans demonstrate interethnic judgments that are consistent with existing work on stereotyping and ethnocentrism. White American students, however, reported judgements that replicate neither the out-group homogeneity effect nor ethnocentrism. Alternative explanations for this difference are considered, and the discussion focuses on differing views concerning the role of ethnic identity and diversity in our society.

  8. Assessing the benefits of multisensory audiotactile stimulation for overweight individuals.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiaoang; Spence, Charles; Mu, Bingbing; Zhou, Xi; Ho, Cristy

    2014-04-01

    We report an experiment designed to examine whether individuals who are overweight would perform differently when trying to detect and/or discriminate auditory, vibrotactile, and audiotactile targets. The vibrotactile stimuli were delivered either to the participant's abdomen or to his hand. Thirty-six young male participants were classified into normal, underweight, or overweight groups based on their body mass index. All three groups exhibited a significant benefit of multisensory (over the best of the unisensory) stimulation, but the magnitude of this benefit was modulated by the weight of the participant, the task, and the location from which the vibrotactile stimuli happened to be presented. For the detection task, the overweight group exhibited a significantly smaller benefit than the underweight group. In the discrimination task, the overweight group showed significantly more benefits than the other two groups when the vibrotactile stimuli were delivered to their hands, but not when the stimuli were delivered to their abdomens. These results might raise some interesting questions regarding the mechanisms underlying audiotactile information processing and have applied relevance for the design of the most effective warning signal (e.g., for drivers).

  9. Assessment of Individual Differences in Regulatory Focus among Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Haaga, David A. F.; Friedman-Wheeler, Dara G.; McIntosh, Elizabeth; Ahrens, Anthony H.

    2008-01-01

    Smoking cessation programs might benefit from tailoring messages to individual differences in regulatory focus (see Higgins, 1997), but there is little evidence on the stability or convergent validity of regulatory focus measures. In two studies, smokers completed four measures of regulatory focus: (a) Regulatory Focus Questionnaire (RFQ); (b) actual-ideal and actual-ought self-discrepancies; (c) response duration in naming name ideal or ought self-guides; and (d) reaction time for lexical decisions about one’s ideal or ought self-guides. Study 1 included a one-month retest. Retest reliability was adequate, but convergent validity was poor. Questionnaire and self-discrepancy measures were unrelated to each other or to the reaction time measures. To facilitate future studies of tailored health behavior change interventions, research is needed to determine whether weak convergent validity resulted from (a) invalidity of some or all of the regulatory focus measures or (b) validity of each for measuring a different aspect of the construct. PMID:18958291

  10. Assessing personality traits of individuals with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Zigler, Edward; Bennett-Gates, Dianne; Hodapp, Robert; Henrich, Christopher C

    2002-05-01

    Psychometric properties for a new instrument, the EZ-Personality Questionnaire designed to assess the functioning of students with cultural-familial mental retardation, are presented. The analysis of data from 661 participants yielded a 37-item, seven-scale instrument that confirmed the five hypothesized factors of Positive Reaction Tendency, Negative Reaction Tendency, Effectance Motivation, Expectancy of Success, and Outerdirectedness and identified two additional factors of Curiosity/Creativity and Obedience. Separate studies were conducted to establish the concurrent and construct validity of the instrument. Reliability was examined through split-half and test-retest analyses. All psychometric indices were within acceptable levels, resulting in an instrument with potential applications in research, education, and clinical settings.

  11. Measuring Motivation Multidimensionally: Development of the Assessment of Individual Motives-Questionnaire (AIM-Q)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Larry C.; Mills, Michael; Swenson, Leland; Walsh, R. Patricia

    2008-01-01

    We report the development of the Assessment of Individual Motives-Questionnaire (AIM-Q), a new instrument based on an evolutionary psychology theory of human motivation. It provides multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) assessment of individual differences on 15 motive scales. A total heterogeneous sample of N = 1,251 participated in eight studies that…

  12. 30 CFR 846.12 - When an individual civil penalty may be assessed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... this section, the Office may assess an individual civil penalty against any corporate director, officer or agent of a corporate permittee who knowingly and willfully authorized, ordered or carried out a violation, failure or refusal. (b) The Office shall not assess an individual civil penalty in situations...

  13. A Robust Approach for Mapping Group Marks to Individual Marks Using Peer Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spatar, Ciprian; Penna, Nigel; Mills, Henny; Kutija, Vedrana; Cooke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Group work can form a substantial component of degree programme assessments. To satisfy institutional and student expectations, students must often be assigned individual marks for their contributions to the group project, typically by mapping a single holistic group mark to individual marks using peer assessment scores. Since the early 1990s,…

  14. A Robust Approach for Mapping Group Marks to Individual Marks Using Peer Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spatar, Ciprian; Penna, Nigel; Mills, Henny; Kutija, Vedrana; Cooke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Group work can form a substantial component of degree programme assessments. To satisfy institutional and student expectations, students must often be assigned individual marks for their contributions to the group project, typically by mapping a single holistic group mark to individual marks using peer assessment scores. Since the early 1990s,…

  15. 28 CFR 105.11 - Individuals not requiring a security risk assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Individuals not requiring a security risk assessment. 105.11 Section 105.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIMINAL HISTORY BACKGROUND CHECKS Aviation Training for Aliens and Other Designated Individuals § 105.11 Individuals...

  16. 28 CFR 105.11 - Individuals not requiring a security risk assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Individuals not requiring a security risk assessment. 105.11 Section 105.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIMINAL HISTORY BACKGROUND CHECKS Aviation Training for Aliens and Other Designated Individuals § 105.11 Individuals...

  17. 28 CFR 105.11 - Individuals not requiring a security risk assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individuals not requiring a security risk assessment. 105.11 Section 105.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIMINAL HISTORY BACKGROUND CHECKS Aviation Training for Aliens and Other Designated Individuals § 105.11 Individuals...

  18. 28 CFR 105.11 - Individuals not requiring a security risk assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Individuals not requiring a security risk assessment. 105.11 Section 105.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIMINAL HISTORY BACKGROUND CHECKS Aviation Training for Aliens and Other Designated Individuals § 105.11 Individuals...

  19. 28 CFR 105.11 - Individuals not requiring a security risk assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Individuals not requiring a security risk assessment. 105.11 Section 105.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIMINAL HISTORY BACKGROUND CHECKS Aviation Training for Aliens and Other Designated Individuals § 105.11 Individuals...

  20. 30 CFR 846.12 - When an individual civil penalty may be assessed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When an individual civil penalty may be assessed. 846.12 Section 846.12 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM INSPECTION AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES INDIVIDUAL CIVIL PENALTIES § 846.12 When an individual civil penalty...

  1. 30 CFR 846.12 - When an individual civil penalty may be assessed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When an individual civil penalty may be assessed. 846.12 Section 846.12 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM INSPECTION AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES INDIVIDUAL CIVIL PENALTIES § 846.12 When an individual civil penalty...

  2. Neither bridging nor bonding: A test of socialization effects by ethnically diverse voluntary associations on participants' inter-ethnic tolerance, inter-ethnic trust and intra-ethnic belonging.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The distinction between bridging and bonding associations is a cornerstone of social capital research. Nevertheless, this study is the first to provide a direct test of the socialization mechanism that supposedly causes ethnically mixed (bridging) associations to generate interethnic tolerance and trust, and homogenous (bonding) associations to cement self-affirming identities. This multilevel analysis of the Citizenship, Involvement & Democracy (CID) 1999/2000 survey data on Mannheim (Germany), Enschede (the Netherlands), and Aberdeen (Scotland) covers 3166 active participants in 645 associations. The CID includes objective, exogenous measures of each association's composition and aim. Socialization and self-selection effects are pulled apart through interactions with detailed measures of associational involvement. The results display no evidence for (diverse and homogenous) associations as socializing agents. Although inter-ethnic tolerance is higher in ethnically diverse associations, this should be attributed to self-selection effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Body composition assessment in Taiwanese individuals with poliomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Lai, Chien-Hung; Chen, Shih-Ching; Hsiao, Wen-Tien; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Lee, Chi-Ming

    2011-07-01

    To measure the changes in the total and regional body fat mass, and assess the clinical usefulness of the body mass index (BMI) in detecting overweight subjects with sequelae of poliomyelitis. Prospective, cross-sectional study. General community. Subjects with poliomyelitis (n=17; age range, 42-57y; mean, 47y; 12 men, 5 women) and able-bodied people (n=17) matched by sex, age, body weight, and body height participated in the study. Not applicable. Total and regional body composition was measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Clinical characteristics such as blood pressure, serum biochemical studies, and habitual behaviors (daily cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and exercise regimen) of all participants were evaluated. Compared with able-bodied controls, subjects with poliomyelitis had a 50% greater total body fat mass, significant increases in the regional fat mass in every part of the body, and had the greatest increase of fat mass in the thorax. Nearly all the subjects (94%) with poliomyelitis were obese according to standards of body composition. However, one third of them had a BMI value of less than 25.0kg/m(2). People with poliomyelitis have a higher prevalence of obesity and a significant increase in total and regional fat mass. Current BMI underestimates the total body fat mass percentage compared with the control; therefore, a population-specific BMI should be used to address the prevalence of obesity in postpolio survivors. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. English Proficiency and Peer Interethnic Relations as Predictors of Math Achievement among Latino and Asian Immigrant Students

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Alice N.; Barile, John P.; Malm, Esther K.; Weaver, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    Studies show math achievement to be the best predictor of entering post-secondary education. However, less is known about the predictors of math achievement, particularly among immigrant youth. This study examined English proficiency and peer interethnic relations as predictors of mathematics achievement among Latino and Asian high school students, postulating an interaction between the predictors and mediation by academic motivation. A multilevel moderated-mediation model was used to analyze data from a national sample of 2,113 non-native English speaking Latino and Asian students attending high school in the U.S. We found that higher academic motivation mediated the relationship between English proficiency during their sophomore year and gains in senior math achievement scores for both Asian and Latino students. For Latino students however, this indirect path was only significant for students whose perceptions of positive peer interethnic relations at school were average or above average. PMID:22959129

  5. A Review of Biobehavioral State Assessment of Individuals with Profound Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Stephen B.; Taylor, Ronald L.

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of individuals with profound disabilities is problematic, particularly when traditional approaches are used. As a result, alternate assessments have been attempted that better suit the needs of these students. One approach that has shown some promise is biobehavioral state assessment. Initially used with infants without disabilities,…

  6. Environmental risk assessment of triclosan and ibuprofen in marine sediments using individual and sub-individual endpoints.

    PubMed

    Pusceddu, F H; Choueri, R B; Pereira, C D S; Cortez, F S; Santos, D R A; Moreno, B B; Santos, A R; Rogero, J R; Cesar, A

    2017-09-26

    The guidelines for the Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP) recommend the use of standard ecotoxicity assays and the assessment of endpoints at the individual level to evaluate potential effects of PPCP on biota. However, effects at the sub-individual level can also affect the ecological fitness of marine organisms chronically exposed to PPCP. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the environmental risk of two PPCP in marine sediments: triclosan (TCS) and ibuprofen (IBU), using sub-individual and developmental endpoints. The environmental levels of TCS and IBU were quantified in marine sediments from the vicinities of the Santos submarine sewage outfall (Santos Bay, São Paulo, Brazil) at 15.14 and 49.0 ng g(-1), respectively. A battery (n = 3) of chronic bioassays (embryo-larval development) with a sea urchin (Lytechinus variegatus) and a bivalve (Perna perna) were performed using two exposure conditions: sediment-water interface and elutriates. Moreover, physiological stress through the Neutral Red Retention Time Assay (NRRT) was assessed in the estuarine bivalve Mytella charruana exposed to TCS and IBU spiked sediments. These compounds affected the development of L. variegatus and P. perna (75 ng g(-1) for TCS and 15 ng g(-1) for IBU), and caused a significant decrease in M. charruana lysosomal membrane stability at environmentally relevant concentrations (0.08 ng g(-1) for TCS and 0.15 ng g(-1) for IBU). Chemical and ecotoxicological data were integrated and the risk quotient estimated for TCS and IBU were higher than 1.0, indicating a high environmental risk of these compounds in sediments. These are the first data of sediment risk assessment of pharmaceuticals and personal care products of Latin America. In addition, the results suggest that the ERA based only on individual-level and standard toxicity tests may overlook other biological effects that can affect the health of marine

  7. 30 CFR 724.17 - Procedure for assessment of individual civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... responsible corporate permittee agree within 30 days of service of the notice of proposed individual civil penalty assessment to a schedule or plan for the abatement or correction of the violation, failure or...

  8. Assessing the criminal responsibility of individuals with multiple personality disorder: legal cases, legal theory.

    PubMed

    Behnke, S H

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the criminal responsibility of individuals diagnosed with multiple personality disorder (MPD). First, it reviews how courts understand and assess criminal responsibility. Second, it gives an overview of how courts have applied the doctrine of criminal responsibility to individuals with MPD. Third, it explains what legal theorists say about this question. Finally, it uses a case example to illustrate how various theorists would assess the responsibility of a criminal defendant with MPD.

  9. Relationships between migration rates and landscape resistance assessed using individual-based simulations

    Treesearch

    E. L. Landguth; S. A. Cushman; M. A. Murphy; G. Luikart

    2010-01-01

    Linking landscape effects on gene flow to processes such as dispersal and mating is essential to provide a conceptual foundation for landscape genetics. It is particularly important to determine how classical population genetic models relate to recent individual-based landscape genetic models when assessing individual movement and its influence on population genetic...

  10. Individualized Testing System: Performance Assessment Resources, ISCS Level III, WW-CP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathway, James A., Ed.

    This is one of four performance assessment resources booklets for Level III of the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS). The four booklets are considered one of four major subdivisions of a set of individualized evaluation materials for Level III developed as a part of the ISCS Individualized Teacher Preparation (ITP) program. Each of…

  11. Ignoring Individual Differences in Times of Assessment in Growth Curve Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulombe, Patrick; Selig, James P.; Delaney, Harold D.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers often collect longitudinal data to model change over time in a phenomenon of interest. Inevitably, there will be some variation across individuals in specific time intervals between assessments. In this simulation study of growth curve modeling, we investigate how ignoring individual differences in time points when modeling change over…

  12. Ignoring Individual Differences in Times of Assessment in Growth Curve Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulombe, Patrick; Selig, James P.; Delaney, Harold D.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers often collect longitudinal data to model change over time in a phenomenon of interest. Inevitably, there will be some variation across individuals in specific time intervals between assessments. In this simulation study of growth curve modeling, we investigate how ignoring individual differences in time points when modeling change over…

  13. Systematic Assessment of Caregiving Skill Performance by Individuals with Tetraplegia and Their Caregivers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Caregiving Skill Performance by Individuals with Tetraplegia and Their Caregivers PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jeanne M. Zanca, PhD, MPT...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Systematic Assessment of Caregiving Skill Performance by Individuals with Tetraplegia and Their Caregivers 5b. GRANT NUMBER...systematically evaluate and describe competence in self-direction of care by persons with tetraplegia (PWTs) and provision of care by their caregivers

  14. A meta-analysis of the relationship between individual assessments and job performance.

    PubMed

    Morris, Scott B; Daisley, Rebecca L; Wheeler, Megan; Boyer, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Though individual assessments are widely used in selection settings, very little research exists to support their criterion-related validity. A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted of 39 individual assessment validation studies. For the current research, individual assessments were defined as any employee selection procedure that involved (a) multiple assessment methods, (b) administered to an individual examinee, and (c) relying on assessor judgment to integrate the information into an overall evaluation of the candidate's suitability for a job. Assessor recommendations were found to be useful predictors of job performance, although the level of validity varied considerably across studies. Validity tended to be higher for managerial than nonmanagerial occupations and for assessments that included a cognitive ability test. Validity was not moderated by the degree of standardization of the assessment content or by use of multiple assessors for each candidate. However, higher validities were found when the same assessor was used across all candidates than when different assessors evaluated different candidates. These results should be interpreted with caution, given a small number of studies for many of the moderator subgroups as well as considerable evidence of publication bias. These limitations of the available research base highlight the need for additional empirical work to inform individual assessment practices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Clinical Decision Making and Preference Assessment for Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virués-Ortega, Javier; Pritchard, Kristen; Grant, Robin L.; North, Sebastian; Hurtado-Parrado, Camilo; Lee, May S. H.; Temple, Bev; Julio, Flavia; Yu, C. T.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual or developmental disabilities are able to reliably express their likes and dislikes through direct preference assessment. Preferred items tend to function as rewards and can therefore be used to facilitate the acquisition of new skills and promote task engagement. A number of preference assessment methods are…

  16. Toward Fairness in Assessing Student Groupwork: A Protocol for Peer Evaluation of Individual Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellenz, Martin R.

    2006-01-01

    A key challenge for management instructors using graded groupwork with students is to find ways to maximize student learning from group projects while ensuring fair and accurate assessment methods. This article presents the Groupwork Peer-Evaluation Protocol (GPEP) that enables the assessment of individual contributions to graded student…

  17. Clinical Decision Making and Preference Assessment for Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virués-Ortega, Javier; Pritchard, Kristen; Grant, Robin L.; North, Sebastian; Hurtado-Parrado, Camilo; Lee, May S. H.; Temple, Bev; Julio, Flavia; Yu, C. T.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual or developmental disabilities are able to reliably express their likes and dislikes through direct preference assessment. Preferred items tend to function as rewards and can therefore be used to facilitate the acquisition of new skills and promote task engagement. A number of preference assessment methods are…

  18. A Structural Equation Model at the Individual and Group Level for Assessing Faking-Related Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere Joan; Anguiano-Carrasco, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes a comprehensive approach based on structural equation modeling for assessing the amount of trait-level change derived from faking-motivating situations. The model is intended for a mixed 2-wave 2-group design, and assesses change at both the group and the individual level. Theoretically the model adopts an integrative…

  19. Utility of Formal Preference Assessments for Individuals Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaf, Justin B.; Leaf, Ronald; Alcalay, Aditt; Leaf, Jeremy A.; Ravid, Daniel; Dale, Stephanie; Kassardjian, Alyne; Tsuji, Kathleen; Taubman, Mitchell; McEachin, John; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty

    2015-01-01

    The systematic use of reinforcers is an essential component of behavioral intervention for individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Today, the use of rigorous formal preference assessments, including paired-preference assessments, are widely conducted to help determine which items to use as reinforcers during intervention. Although…

  20. The Individualized Needs for Service Assessment (INSA) for Children with Serious Emotional Disturbances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosser, Rene C.; Flisher, Alan J.

    This paper reports on efforts underway in New York State to develop the Individualized Needs for Services Assessment (INSA). The INSA is a set of standardized procedures and data definitions to guide assessment of service needs for children with serious emotional disturbances (SED). The INSA procedure for children with SED is designed to be…

  1. 76 FR 63628 - Preliminary Damage Assessment for Individual Assistance Operations Manual (9327.2-PR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ...) Preliminary Damage Assessments (PDAs) nationwide in response to an impacted State's request. The primary purpose for conducting IA PDAs is to identify the impact, type, and extent of disaster damages and to... [Docket ID FEMA-2011-0022] Preliminary Damage Assessment for Individual Assistance Operations Manual (9327...

  2. Individual Breast Cancer risk assessment in Underserved Populations: Integrating empirical Bioethics and Health Disparities Research

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Emily E.; Hoskins, Kent

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that individual breast cancer risk assessment may improve adherence to recommended screening and prevention guidelines, thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality. Further research on the use of risk assessment models in underserved minority populations is critical to informing national public health efforts to eliminate breast cancer disparities. However, implementing individual breast cancer risk assessment in underserved patient populations raises particular ethical issues that require further examination. After reviewing these issues, we will discuss how empirical bioethics research can be integrated with health disparities research to inform the translation of research findings. Our in-progress National Cancer Institute (NCI) funded study, How Do Underserved Minority Women Think About Breast Cancer?, conducted in the context of a larger study on individual breast cancer risk assessment, is presented as a model. PMID:23124498

  3. The Contribution of Project Environmental Assessment to Assessing and Managing Cumulative Effects: Individually and Collectively Insignificant?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Bram; Liu, Jialang; Hackett, Paul

    2017-04-01

    This paper explores the opportunities and constraints to project-based environmental assessment as a means to support the assessment and management of cumulative environmental effects. A case study of the hydroelectric sector is used to determine whether sufficient information is available over time through project-by-project assessments to support an adequate understanding of cumulative change. Results show inconsistency from one project to the next in terms of the components and indicators assessed, limited transfer of baseline information between project assessments over time, and the same issues and concerns being raised by review panels-even though the projects reviewed are operating in the same watershed and operated by the same proponent. Project environmental assessments must be managed, and coordinated, as part of a larger system of impact assessment, if project-by-project assessments are to provide a meaningful forum for learning and understanding cumulative change. The paper concludes with recommendations for improved project-based assessment practice in support of cumulative effects assessment and management.

  4. From group data to useful probabilities: the relevance of actuarial risk assessment in individual instances.

    PubMed

    Mossman, Douglas

    2015-03-01

    Probability plays a ubiquitous role in decision-making through a process in which we use data from groups of past outcomes to make inferences about new situations. Yet in recent years, many forensic mental health professionals have become persuaded that overly wide confidence intervals render actuarial risk assessment instruments virtually useless in individual assessments. If this were true, the mathematical properties of probabilistic judgments would preclude forensic clinicians from applying group-based findings about risk to individuals. As a consequence, actuarially based risk estimates might be barred from use in legal proceedings. Using a fictional scenario, I seek to show how group data have an obvious application to individual decisions. I also explain how misunderstanding the aims of risk assessment has led to mistakes about how, when, and why group data apply to individual instances. Although actuarially based statements about individuals' risk have many pitfalls, confidence intervals pose no barrier to using actuarial tools derived from group data to improve decision-making about individual instances.

  5. Scientific and social significance of assessing individual differences: "sinking shafts at a few critical points".

    PubMed

    Lubinski, D

    2000-01-01

    This chapter reviews empirical findings on the importance of assessing individual differences in human behavior. Traditional dimensions of human abilities, personality, and vocational interests play critical roles in structuring a variety of important behaviors and outcomes (e.g. achieved socioeconomic status, educational choices, work performance, delinquency, health risk behaviors, and income). In the review of their importance, the construct of general intelligence is featured, but attributes that routinely add incremental validity to cognitive assessments are also discussed. Recent experimental and methodological advances for better understanding how these dimensions may contribute to other psychological frameworks are reviewed, as are ways for determining their scientific significance within domains where they are not routinely assessed. Finally, some noteworthy models are outlined that highlight the importance of assessing relatively distinct classes of individual-differences attributes simultaneously. For understanding fully complex human phenomena such as crime, eminence, and educational-vocational development, such a multifaceted approach is likely to be the most productive.

  6. An occupational therapy work skills assessment for individuals with head injury.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Irene; Higham, Julie; McLean, Alison M

    2003-06-01

    Comprehensive and accurate evaluation is a critical step in the return-to-work process for individuals with head injury. Research findings have been reported on the barriers for a successful return to work. Assessment frameworks have been published, but they do not include a protocol that contains each component for the assessment. This paper describes an occupational therapy assessment protocol developed and used in the evaluation of the work skills of individuals with head injury. This protocol focuses on assessment of physical, cognitive and behavioural abilities in relation to the demands of the workplace and measures these within the framework of productivity, interpersonal skills and safety. The functional approach inherent in this protocol provides information to complement the findings of other interdisciplinary team members. This paper also explores the strengths and limitations of this protocol.

  7. Clinical decision making and preference assessment for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Virués-Ortega, Javier; Pritchard, Kristen; Grant, Robin L; North, Sebastian; Hurtado-Parrado, Camilo; Lee, May S H; Temple, Bev; Julio, Flávia; Yu, C T

    2014-03-01

    Individuals with intellectual or developmental disabilities are able to reliably express their likes and dislikes through direct preference assessment. Preferred items tend to function as rewards and can therefore be used to facilitate the acquisition of new skills and promote task engagement. A number of preference assessment methods are available and selecting the appropriate method is crucial to provide reliable and meaningful results. The authors conducted a systematic review of the preference assessment literature, and developed an evidence-informed, decision-making model to guide practitioners in the selection of preference assessment methods for a given assessment scenario. The proposed decision-making model could be a useful tool to increase the usability and uptake of preference assessment methodology in applied settings.

  8. Biomarkers for assessing population and individual health and disease related to stress and adaptation.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Bruce S

    2015-03-01

    Biomarkers are important in stress biology in relation to assessing individual and population health. They facilitate tapping meaningfully into the complex, non-linear interactions that affect the brain and multiple systems of the body and promote adaptation or, when dysregulated, they can accelerate disease processes. This has demanded a multifactorial approach to the choice of biomarkers. This is necessary in order to adequately describe and predict how an individual embedded in a particular social and physical environment, and with a unique genotype and set of lifetime experiences, will fare in terms of health and disease risk, as well as how that individual will respond to an intervention. Yet, at the same time, single biomarkers can have a predictive or diagnostic value when combined with carefully designed longitudinal assessment of behavior and disease related to stress. Moreover, the methods of brain imaging, themselves the reflection of the complexity of brain functional architecture, have provided new ways of diagnosing, and possibly differentiating, subtypes of depressive illness and anxiety disorders that are precipitated or exacerbated by stress. Furthermore, postmortem assessment of brain biomarkers provides important clues about individual vulnerability for suicide related to depression and this may lead to predictive biomarkers to better treat individuals with suicidal depression. Once biomarkers are available, approaches to prevention and treatment should take advantage of the emerging evidence that activating brain plasticity together with targeted behavioral interventions is a promising strategy.

  9. What Really Matters: Assessing Individual Problem-Solving Performance in the Context of Biological Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, William L.; Sensibaugh, Cheryl A.; Osgood, Marcy P.; Mitchell, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation of higher-level cognitive skills can augment traditional discipline-based knowledge testing by providing timely assessment of individual student problem-solving abilities that are critical for success in any professional development program. However, the wide-spread acceptance and implementation of higher level cognitive skills…

  10. Quantitative Approach to Collaborative Learning: Performance Prediction, Individual Assessment, and Group Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cen, Ling; Ruta, Dymitr; Powell, Leigh; Hirsch, Benjamin; Ng, Jason

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of collaborative learning, although widely reported, lack the quantitative rigor and detailed insight into the dynamics of interactions within the group, while individual contributions and their impacts on group members and their collaborative work remain hidden behind joint group assessment. To bridge this gap we intend to address…

  11. Towards a Personalised, Learning Style Based Collaborative Blended Learning Model with Individual Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Béres, Ilona; Magyar, Timea; Turcsányi-Szabó, Márta

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we aim to describe the process by which our personalised web-based collaborative teaching/learning methodology (CECIP--Collaboration--Evaluation--Critical thinking--Individual assessment--learner Profile) evolved originating from Vygotsky's theory and based on the (C) collaborative construction of student's knowledge, (E) developing…

  12. Sensitivity and Specificity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Modified for Individuals Who Are Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittich, Walter; Phillips, Natalie; Nasreddine, Ziad S.; Chertkow, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Evaluating the cognitive status of individuals who are visually impaired is limited by the design of the test that is used. This article presents data on the sensitivity and specificity of the version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment for people who are visually impaired. The original validation data were reanalyzed, excluding the five visual…

  13. Quantitative Approach to Collaborative Learning: Performance Prediction, Individual Assessment, and Group Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cen, Ling; Ruta, Dymitr; Powell, Leigh; Hirsch, Benjamin; Ng, Jason

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of collaborative learning, although widely reported, lack the quantitative rigor and detailed insight into the dynamics of interactions within the group, while individual contributions and their impacts on group members and their collaborative work remain hidden behind joint group assessment. To bridge this gap we intend to address…

  14. 7 CFR 1463.7 - Division of class assessment to individual entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Division of class assessment to individual entities. 1463.7 Section 1463.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS 2005-2014 TOBACCO...

  15. Contract Learning as an Approach to Individualizing EFL Education in the Context of Assessment for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zandi, Hamed; Kaivanpanah, Shiva; Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Contract learning as an approach to individualizing education in the context of assessment for learning is relatively underexplored in English as a Foreign Language instruction. The present study used a mixed-methods design to investigate its efficacy to provide feedback to students and improve self-directed learning. Furthermore, it studied…

  16. 30 CFR 724.12 - When an individual civil penalty may be assessed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... assess an individual civil penalty against any corporate director, officer or agent of a corporate permittee who knowingly and willfully authorized, ordered or carried out a violation, failure or refusal. (b... violation by a corporate permittee until a cessation order has been issued by the Office to the corporate...

  17. Assessment of Language and Literacy: A Process of Hypothesis Testing for Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Cheryl M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Older school-aged children and adolescents with persistent language and literacy impairments vary in their individual profiles of linguistic strengths and weaknesses. Given the multidimensional nature and complexity of language, designing an assessment protocol capable of uncovering linguistic variation is challenging. A process of…

  18. Assessing Same/Different Judgments in Individuals with Severe Intellectual Disabilities: A Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serna, Richard W.; Dube, William V.; McIlvane, William J.

    1997-01-01

    Summarizes state-of-the-art approaches for assessing visual stimulus same/different judgments in individuals with severe intellectual disabilities. Methodological investigations indicate that one can obtain reliable same/different judgments with a variety of stimuli in virtually anyone for whom a basal score on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test…

  19. Assessment of Preference for Edible and Leisure Items in Individuals with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Javier Virues; Iwata, Brian A.; Nogales-Gonzalez, Celia; Frades, Belen

    2012-01-01

    We conducted 2 studies on reinforcer preference in patients with dementia. Results of preference assessments yielded differential selections by 14 participants. Unlike prior studies with individuals with intellectual disabilities, all participants showed a noticeable preference for leisure items over edible items. Results of a subsequent analysis…

  20. Assessment of Cognitive and Adaptive Behaviour among Individuals with Congenital Insensitivity to Pain and Anhidrosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erez, Daniella Levy; Levy, Jacov; Friger, Michael; Aharoni-Mayer, Yael; Cohen-Iluz, Moran; Goldstein, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Individuals with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) are reported to have mental retardation but to our knowledge no detailed study on the subject has ever been published. The present study assessed and documented cognitive and adaptive behaviour among Arab Bedouin children with CIPA. Methods: Twenty-three Arab Bedouin…

  1. Welfare Policy and Subjective Well-Being across Nations: An Individual-Level Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacek, Alexander C.; Radcliff, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    In the vast and diverse literature on determinants of life-satisfaction and happiness, there is a relative dearth of empirical research on the role of specifically political factors. We identify one such possible factor, the industrial welfare state, and assess its impact on how individuals perceive their well-being. The voluminous literature on…

  2. Welfare Policy and Subjective Well-Being across Nations: An Individual-Level Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacek, Alexander C.; Radcliff, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    In the vast and diverse literature on determinants of life-satisfaction and happiness, there is a relative dearth of empirical research on the role of specifically political factors. We identify one such possible factor, the industrial welfare state, and assess its impact on how individuals perceive their well-being. The voluminous literature on…

  3. Individualizing Elementary General Music Instruction: Case Studies of Assessment and Differentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvador, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Elementary general music teachers typically teach hundreds of students every week. Each child has individual learning needs due to a variety of factors, such as prior experiences with music, music aptitude, learning style, and personality. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore ways that experienced teachers used assessments to…

  4. Sensitivity and Specificity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Modified for Individuals Who Are Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittich, Walter; Phillips, Natalie; Nasreddine, Ziad S.; Chertkow, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Evaluating the cognitive status of individuals who are visually impaired is limited by the design of the test that is used. This article presents data on the sensitivity and specificity of the version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment for people who are visually impaired. The original validation data were reanalyzed, excluding the five visual…

  5. The Assessment of Meta-Cognition in Different Contexts: Individualized vs. Peer Assisted Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamir, Adina; Mevarech, Zemira R.; Gida, Carmit

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of assessing young children's meta-cognition in different contexts (i.e., individual learning (IL), peer assisted learning (PAL) and self-reports). Additionally, the contributions of declarative and procedural meta-cognition in IL and PAL, TOM and language ability on children's cognitive performance…

  6. Assessment of Language and Literacy: A Process of Hypothesis Testing for Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Cheryl M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Older school-aged children and adolescents with persistent language and literacy impairments vary in their individual profiles of linguistic strengths and weaknesses. Given the multidimensional nature and complexity of language, designing an assessment protocol capable of uncovering linguistic variation is challenging. A process of…

  7. VULNERABILITY AS A FUNCTION OF INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP RESOURCES IN CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The field of risk assessment has focused on protecting the health of individual people or populations of wildlife from single risks, mostly from chemical exposure. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently began to address multiple risks to communities in the ...

  8. Individualized Sampling Parameters for Behavioral Observations: Enhancing the Predictive Validity of Competing Stimulus Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLeon, Iser G.; Toole, Lisa M.; Gutshall, Katharine A.; Bowman, Lynn G.

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have used pretreatment analyses, termed competing stimulus assessments, to identify items that most effectively displace the aberrant behavior of individuals with developmental disabilities. In most studies, there appeared to have been no systematic basis for selecting the sampling period (ranging from 30 s to 10 min) in which items…

  9. An Assessment-for-Learning System in Mathematics for Individuals with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Eric G.; Shute, Valerie J.; Landau, Steven

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the usability of an assessment-for-learning (AfL) system that provides audio-tactile graphics for algebra content (geometric sequences) for individuals with visual impairments--two who are blind and two with low vision. It found that the system is generally usable as a mathematics AfL system. (Contains 4 tables.)

  10. Defining Course Outcomes and Assessment Procedures: A Model for Individual Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, James K., Jr.; Marabeti, Hilary B.

    A description is provided of Tennessee's Volunteer State Community College's (VSCC's) approach to defining the goals, expected outcomes, and assessment procedures of individual courses, utilizing teacher-developed course instruction manuals and standardized course syllabi. Introductory material explains why and how the approach was developed,…

  11. Contract Learning as an Approach to Individualizing EFL Education in the Context of Assessment for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zandi, Hamed; Kaivanpanah, Shiva; Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Contract learning as an approach to individualizing education in the context of assessment for learning is relatively underexplored in English as a Foreign Language instruction. The present study used a mixed-methods design to investigate its efficacy to provide feedback to students and improve self-directed learning. Furthermore, it studied…

  12. Self-Reported versus Professionally Assessed Functional Limitations in Community-Dwelling Very Old Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlsson, Gunilla; Haak, Maria; Nygren, Carita; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported and professionally assessed functional limitations in community-dwelling very old individuals. In total, 306 single-living adults aged 81-90 years were included in this cross-sectional study. The main outcome measure was the presence and absence of self-reported and…

  13. Individualizing Elementary General Music Instruction: Case Studies of Assessment and Differentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvador, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Elementary general music teachers typically teach hundreds of students every week. Each child has individual learning needs due to a variety of factors, such as prior experiences with music, music aptitude, learning style, and personality. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore ways that experienced teachers used assessments to…

  14. VULNERABILITY AS A FUNCTION OF INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP RESOURCES IN CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The field of risk assessment has focused on protecting the health of individual people or populations of wildlife from single risks, mostly from chemical exposure. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently began to address multiple risks to communities in the ...

  15. Psychologists' Clinical Practices in Assessing Dementia in Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Ellen; Scior, Katrina

    2008-01-01

    There are now ample guidelines for the assessment and diagnosis of possible dementia in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) and Down syndrome. However, little is known about their implementation in clinical practice. This study set out to examine the clinical practice of one key professional group, namely clinical psychologists. A…

  16. Assessment of Preference for Edible and Leisure Items in Individuals with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Javier Virues; Iwata, Brian A.; Nogales-Gonzalez, Celia; Frades, Belen

    2012-01-01

    We conducted 2 studies on reinforcer preference in patients with dementia. Results of preference assessments yielded differential selections by 14 participants. Unlike prior studies with individuals with intellectual disabilities, all participants showed a noticeable preference for leisure items over edible items. Results of a subsequent analysis…

  17. Assessing English literacy as a predictor of postschool outcomes in the lives of deaf individuals.

    PubMed

    Garberoglio, Carrie Lou; Cawthon, Stephanie W; Bond, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Lower English literacy achievement of deaf students is often hypothesized to be an impediment for successful adult life experiences. Yet, literacy practices that individuals engage in throughout their daily lives are much more complex than what school-based measures of English can capture and particularly so for deaf individuals. A national large-scale data set with a sample of over 1,000 deaf youths was used to assess what, precisely, standardized measures of literacy may predict in terms of postschool outcomes in three domains: life, employment, and education. Regression analyses indicate that these measures predicted some postschool outcomes, but not all, and if significant, only a small amount of variation in the outcomes was explained. Findings suggest that English literacy, particularly the narrow conceptualization of English literacy skills that are measured through school-based assessments, may not play a significant role in the lives of deaf individuals, contrary to expectations.

  18. Constructing interethnic conflict and cooperation: why some people harmed Jews and others helped them during the Holocaust in Romania.

    PubMed

    Dumitru, Diana; Johnson, Carter

    2011-01-01

    The authors draw on a natural experiment to demonstrate that states can reconstruct conflictual interethnic relationships into cooperative relationships in relatively short periods of time. The article examines differences in how the gentile population in each of two neighboring territories in Romania treated its Jewish population during the Holocaust. These territories had been part of tsarist Russia and subject to state-sponsored anti-Semitism until 1917. During the interwar period one territory became part of Romania, which continued anti-Semitic policies, and the other became part of the Soviet Union, which pursued an inclusive nationality policy, fighting against inherited anti-Semitism and working to integrate its Jews. Both territories were then reunited under Romanian administration during World War II, when Romania began to destroy its Jewish population. The authors demonstrate that, despite a uniform Romanian state presence during the Holocaust that encouraged gentiles to victimize Jews, the civilian population in the area that had been part of the Soviet Union was less likely to harm and more likely to aid Jews as compared with the region that had been part of Romania. Their evidence suggests that the state construction of interethnic relationships can become internalized by civilians and outlive the life of the state itself.

  19. Assessment of soil pollution based on total petroleum hydrocarbons and individual oil substances.

    PubMed

    Pinedo, J; Ibáñez, R; Lijzen, J P A; Irabien, Á

    2013-11-30

    Different oil products like gasoline, diesel or heavy oils can cause soil contamination. The assessment of soils exposed to oil products can be conducted through the comparison between a measured concentration and an intervention value (IV). Several national policies include the IV based on the so called total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) measure. However, the TPH assessment does not indicate the individual substances that may produce contamination. The soil quality assessment can be improved by including common hazardous compounds as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aromatic volatile hydrocarbons like benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). This study, focused on 62 samples collected from different sites throughout The Netherlands, evaluates TPH, PAH and BTEX concentrations in soils. Several indices of pollution are defined for the assessment of individual variables (TPH, PAH, B, T, E, and X) and multivariables (MV, BTEX), allowing us to group the pollutants and simplify the methodology. TPH and PAH concentrations above the IV are mainly found in medium and heavy oil products such as diesel and heavy oil. On the other hand, unacceptable BTEX concentrations are reached in soils contaminated with gasoline and kerosene. The TPH assessment suggests the need for further action to include lighter products. The application of multivariable indices allows us to include these products in the soil quality assessment without changing the IV for TPH. This work provides useful information about the soil quality assessment methodology of oil products in soils, focussing the analysis into the substances that mainly cause the risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessing preferences of individuals with developmental disabilities: a survey of current practices.

    PubMed

    Graff, Richard B; Karsten, Amanda M

    2012-01-01

    Although professionals working with individuals with developmental disabilities have much to gain from using systematic methods of reinforcer identification, practitioner knowledge and use of stimulus preference assessments (SPA) has rarely been examined. The purpose of this survey was to assess awareness and implementation of SPAs among professionals who serve people with developmental disabilities within and outside the field of applied behavior analysis. A total of 406 individuals responded to the survey; 246 respondents were recruited via direct email, and 160 respondents were recruited from Internet postings. Fewer than 60% of respondents across all disciplines (i.e., applied behavior analysis, psychology, and special education) reported knowledge of the term stimulus preference assessment. While nearly 90% of behavior analysts reported using at least one direct method of SPA (i.e., an assessment involving direct observation and measurement of behavior), many reported personal lack of knowledge (18.6%) and lack of time (81.4%) as barriers to conducting these assessments on a regular basis. Survey results are discussed in terms of (1) the need for greater awareness and acceptance of reinforcer identification methods among behavior analysts, educators, and other service providers and (2) barrier-specific solutions to potentially increase the regularity of SPA usage in the education and treatment of individuals with developmental disabilities. 10.1007/BF03391822

  1. Parental Choice of Schooling, Learning Processes and Inter-Ethnic Friendship Patterns: The Case of Malay Students in Chinese Primary Schools in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sua, Tan Yao; Ngah, Kamarudin; Darit, Sezali Md.

    2013-01-01

    This study surveys 200 Malay students enrolled in three Chinese primary schools in relation to three issues, i.e., parental choice of schooling, learning processes and inter-ethnic friendship patterns. The three issues are explored through a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methodologies. Parental expectations for their…

  2. Romantic Relationships in Intra-Ethnic and Inter-Ethnic Adolescent Couples in Germany: The Role of Attachment to Parents, Self-Esteem, and Conflict Resolution Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucx, Freek; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    2010-01-01

    We investigated romantic relationships in a sample of 380 adolescents who formed 190 heterosexual couples (mean age: females 17 years; males 18 years): 173 intra-ethnic (German) couples and 17 inter-ethnic couples. Factor analyses revealed two types of love experiences: (a) experiences of attraction and a passionate focus on the partner…

  3. Asian American Interethnic Relations and Politics. Asians in America: The Peoples of East, Southeast, and South Asia in American Life and Culture Series, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Franklin, Ed.

    The articles in this anthology address the complex subject of interethnic relations and Asian American politics, transcending ideas of Asian Americans as the model minority. The articles are: (1) "Opening the American Mind and Body: The Role of Asian American Studies" (Shirley Hume); (2) "Surviving Democracy's 'Mistake":…

  4. Transformations in Kinship, Land Rights and Social Boundaries among the Wampar in Papua New Guinea and the Generative Agency of Children of Interethnic Marriages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schworer, Doris Bacalzo

    2012-01-01

    Among the Wampar in Papua New Guinea, children are active participants in the dynamics of kinship and identity construction. This article explores the transformative capabilities of children of interethnic marriages, particularly those with non-Wampar fathers. It examines children's notions of belonging and rights through their practices and…

  5. Asian American Interethnic Relations and Politics. Asians in America: The Peoples of East, Southeast, and South Asia in American Life and Culture Series, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Franklin, Ed.

    The articles in this anthology address the complex subject of interethnic relations and Asian American politics, transcending ideas of Asian Americans as the model minority. The articles are: (1) "Opening the American Mind and Body: The Role of Asian American Studies" (Shirley Hume); (2) "Surviving Democracy's 'Mistake":…

  6. Parental Choice of Schooling, Learning Processes and Inter-Ethnic Friendship Patterns: The Case of Malay Students in Chinese Primary Schools in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sua, Tan Yao; Ngah, Kamarudin; Darit, Sezali Md.

    2013-01-01

    This study surveys 200 Malay students enrolled in three Chinese primary schools in relation to three issues, i.e., parental choice of schooling, learning processes and inter-ethnic friendship patterns. The three issues are explored through a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methodologies. Parental expectations for their…

  7. Assessing preferences of individuals with acquired brain injury using alternative stimulus modalities.

    PubMed

    Heinicke, Megan R; Carr, James E; Eastridge, Dixie; Kupfer, Jeff; Mozzoni, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    To extend previous research on alternative stimulus preference assessment (SPA) modalities to individuals with severe ABI by evaluating the effects of pictorial, verbal and tangible item presentation. Paired-stimulus procedure used for SPA sessions with the order of modalities counterbalanced across participants. Reinforcer assessments (RAs) were experimentally evaluated using an alternating treatments design. A progressive-ratio procedure was used for reinforcer assessment (RA) sessions. Six adults with severe ABI. The Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities was conducted to assess discrimination skills; the Reinforcer Assessment for Individuals with Severe Disabilities structured interview was administered to identify items for subsequent evaluations. Three SPA sessions-one of each stimulus modality-were conducted with each participant. Subsequent RAs were conducted using the stimuli ranked as the most highly preferred for each participant. Each modality identified a different food item with the highest selection percentage for three participants, while three participants had highly consistent SPA results. Subsequent RAs demonstrated that all modalities made valid predictions of foods that would function as reinforcers for programming. Use of the different direct-observation methods to identify reinforcers for reductive and skill acquisition programming would likely be a useful addition to rehabilitation settings.

  8. Assessing welfare of individual sirenians in the wild and in captivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Mark; Bonde, Robert K.

    2017-01-01

    Assessing the welfare of wild populations of sirenians has required a “generalist” approach. The outcome has been a subjective decision as to whether what the observers are witnessing in an individual or group of animals is normal and whether that has positive or negative consequences. The understanding of sirenian welfare requirements, and a decision process for whether to support and maintain their natural habitats or to try to replicate it in a meaningful way in an artificial captive setting, is still in its early developmental stages and has dynamic qualities that are in need of urgent attention. In this chapter we use the knowledge and observations presented throughout the chapters on sirenians to outline a proposed standard approach for assessing welfare in individuals in wild populations, as well as guidelines for assessing captive groups of dugongs and manatees. In the wild, the suitability of the habitat and human impact on it, the limitations of carrying capacity, the dynamics of ecosystems, and the effects that the immediate environment will have on the known resident populations are examined. In captivity, we use the foundation of the Five Freedoms, based on experience derived from other captive species, and we combine this with experience from rehabilitating manatees in Europe and the United States and, more recently, dugongs in the Indo-Pacific, to identify requirements and to help us to assess the unique needs of these species when held in facilities. We present considerations and approaches to (1) holistically assess captive facilities and to assess the well-being of the individuals held in the facility, (2) derive a guideline for standard captive assessment, (3) determine if adequate welfare needs for the animals are being met, and (4) help to provide guidance on whether an animal is suitable for release after rehabilitation.

  9. An alternative approach towards assessing and accounting for individual motion in fMRI timeseries.

    PubMed

    Wilke, Marko

    2012-02-01

    Motion is a significant problem for the analysis of functional MRI data. This manuscript addresses the question of whether an individualized assessment of motion may be informative, and whether it may be beneficial with regard to explaining motion-related variance. Two independent datasets are used to explore and test this hypothesis, from a total of 21 healthy children, performing either no externally-cued task (resting state) or an active listening paradigm (beep story). Translations and rotations are combined into one single, individual measure of total displacement, which is demonstrated to be substantially different between brain regions as a function of their distance from the individual origin. An increasing number of covariates leads to a loss of detection power, but more so on the first than on the second level, and more so in less-powerful designs. Synthetic timeseries are calculated from which the direct effects of motion as well as motion*B0 effects can be isolated, allowing to extract individual timecourses which reflect both direct and indirect motion effects. Including three timecourses from such an individually-derived "motion fingerprint" into first-level statistical analyses explains variance to a similar degree as the commonly-used approach of including the realignment parameters, and performance is statistically equivalent to including the realignment parameters on the second level. A more individualized approach to explaining motion-related variance may therefore be beneficial, depending on the scenario. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Self-reported versus professionally assessed functional limitations in community-dwelling very old individuals.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Gunilla; Haak, Maria; Nygren, Carita; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported and professionally assessed functional limitations in community-dwelling very old individuals. In total, 306 single-living adults aged 81-90 years were included in this cross-sectional study. The main outcome measure was the presence and absence of self-reported and professionally assessed functional limitations. A significant correlation was found between the total number of self-reported and professionally assessed functional limitations in the total sample (intraclass correlation=0.65) as well as in subgroups with respect to sex, age, and depression. When item-wise differences in the two assessments were assessed, the results showed significant differences for nine of the 15 functional limitations. In general, the participants reported more functional limitations as present than the professional did. In conclusion, research on self-reported and professionally assessed functional limitations contributes toward the understanding of how different modes of data collection influence the results. In this study, functional limitations were examined on a broad basis, including physical as well as cognitive and perceptual limitations. Once the assessments of self-reporting have been refined, we will have a more nuanced picture of functional limitations, incorporating self-report as well as professional assessments.

  11. The assessment of individual usual food intake in large-scale prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Nöthlings, Ute; Wagner, Karen; Ward, Heather; Boeing, Heiner

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has called into question the current practice to estimate individual usual food intake in large-scale studies. In such studies, usual food intake has been defined as diet over the past year. The aim of this review is to summarise the concepts of dietary assessment methods providing food intake data over this time period. A conceptualised framework is given to help researchers to understand the more recent developments to improve dietary assessment in large-scale prospective studies, and also to help to spot the gaps that need to be addressed in future methodological research. The conceptual framework illustrates the current options for the assessment of an individual's food consumption over 1 year. Ideally, a person's food intake on each day of this year should be assessed. Due to participants' burden, and organisational and financial constraints, however, the options are limited to directly requesting the long-term average (e.g. food frequency questionnaires), or selecting a few days with detailed food consumption measurements (e.g. 24-hour dietary recalls) or using snapshot techniques (e.g. barcode scanning of purchases). It seems necessary and important to further evaluate the performance of statistical modelling of the individual usual food intake from all available sources. Future dietary assessment might profit from the growing prominence of internet and telecommunication technologies to further enhance the available data on food consumption for each study participant. Research is crucial to investigate the performance of innovative assessment tools. However, the self-reported nature of the data itself will always lead to bias.

  12. Vulnerability as a Function of Individual and Group Resources in Cumulative Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    deFur, Peter L.; Evans, Gary W.; Hubal, Elaine A. Cohen; Kyle, Amy D.; Morello-Frosch, Rachel A.; Williams, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Background The field of risk assessment has focused on protecting the health of individual people or populations of wildlife from single risks, mostly from chemical exposure. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently began to address multiple risks to communities in the “Framework for Cumulative Risk Assessment” [EPA/630/P02/001F. Washington DC:Risk Assessment Forum, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2003)]. Simultaneously, several reports concluded that some individuals and groups are more vulnerable to environmental risks than the general population. However, vulnerability has received little specific attention in the risk assessment literature. Objective Our objective is to examine the issue of vulnerability in cumulative risk assessment and present a conceptual framework rather than a comprehensive review of the literature. In this article we consider similarities between ecologic and human communities and the factors that make communities vulnerable to environmental risks. Discussion The literature provides substantial evidence on single environmental factors and simple conditions that increase vulnerability or reduce resilience for humans and ecologic systems. This observation is especially true for individual people and populations of wildlife. Little research directly addresses the topic of vulnerability in cumulative risk situations, especially at the community level. The community level of organization has not been adequately considered as an end point in either human or ecologic risk assessment. Furthermore, current information on human risk does not completely explain the level of response in cumulative risk conditions. Ecologic risk situations are similarly more complex and unpredictable for cases of cumulative risk. Conclusions Psychosocial conditions and responses are the principal missing element for humans. We propose a model for including psychologic and social factors as an integral component of cumulative risk assessment. PMID

  13. Long term post-flood damage assessments to analyze the strategies of adaptation at individual scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brémond, Pauline; Bonte, Bruno; Erdlenbruch, Katrin; Grelot, Frédéric; Richert, Claire

    2015-04-01

    RETINA is a project which studies the opportunity for adaptation in the aftermath of flood events. To handle this research question, we consider adaptation to flood risk at individual and collective scale as well as the influence of the urban planning regulation (Flood risk mapping). For the purpose of this research, collective adaptation means actions that are undertaken at collective scale such as dikes, relocation of collective infrastructures (roads, treatment plant...) and individual adaptation means actions decided at individual level (households, enterprises or farmers) such as relocation, elevation of critical components, new organization.... In this presentation, we focus on individual adaptation and analyse which are the mechanisms that incite or constrain the adaptation to flood risk of individual assets considering their own trajectory. The originality of our approach is to carry out long term post-flood assessments and comprehensive interviews at individual scale. To catch the drivers of adaptation, we sequenced the interview guide in three periods: 1/ the situation before the reference event occurred, 2/ what happened during and just after the flood event, 3/ what happened from the flood event until the moment of the interview. Two case studies have been chosen. The first case study is the Aude department where an exceptional flooding occurred in 1999. The second case study is the Var department where more recent and frequent flood events occurred in 2010, 2011, 2014. On each case study, we plan to conduct about fifty interviews including households and economic activities. In this presentation, we will develop methodological aspects on long term post-flood damage assessments. Carrying out a long term post-flood assessment enabled us to consider adaptation to flood risk among the whole of strategic decisions a household or an enterprise has to take. Moreover, we found out that contrary to what is usually assumed, the fact that the reference event was

  14. Smartphone-Based Self-Assessment of Stress in Healthy Adult Individuals: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Þórarinsdóttir, Helga; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria

    2017-02-13

    Stress is a common experience in today's society. Smartphone ownership is widespread, and smartphones can be used to monitor health and well-being. Smartphone-based self-assessment of stress can be done in naturalistic settings and may potentially reflect real-time stress level. The objectives of this systematic review were to evaluate (1) the use of smartphones to measure self-assessed stress in healthy adult individuals, (2) the validity of smartphone-based self-assessed stress compared with validated stress scales, and (3) the association between smartphone-based self-assessed stress and smartphone generated objective data. A systematic review of the scientific literature was reported and conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The scientific databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, IEEE, and ACM were searched and supplemented by a hand search of reference lists. The databases were searched for original studies involving healthy individuals older than 18 years, measuring self-assessed stress using smartphones. A total of 35 published articles comprising 1464 individuals were included for review. According to the objectives, (1) study designs were heterogeneous, and smartphone-based self-assessed stress was measured using various methods (e.g., dichotomized questions on stress, yes or no; Likert scales on stress; and questionnaires); (2) the validity of smartphone-based self-assessed stress compared with validated stress scales was investigated in 3 studies, and of these, only 1 study found a moderate statistically significant positive correlation (r=.4; P<.05); and (3) in exploratory analyses, smartphone-based self-assessed stress was found to correlate with some of the reported smartphone generated objective data, including voice features and data on activity and phone usage. Smartphones are being used to measure self-assessed stress in different contexts. The evidence of the validity of

  15. Smartphone-Based Self-Assessment of Stress in Healthy Adult Individuals: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Þórarinsdóttir, Helga; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2017-01-01

    Background Stress is a common experience in today’s society. Smartphone ownership is widespread, and smartphones can be used to monitor health and well-being. Smartphone-based self-assessment of stress can be done in naturalistic settings and may potentially reflect real-time stress level. Objective The objectives of this systematic review were to evaluate (1) the use of smartphones to measure self-assessed stress in healthy adult individuals, (2) the validity of smartphone-based self-assessed stress compared with validated stress scales, and (3) the association between smartphone-based self-assessed stress and smartphone generated objective data. Methods A systematic review of the scientific literature was reported and conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The scientific databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, IEEE, and ACM were searched and supplemented by a hand search of reference lists. The databases were searched for original studies involving healthy individuals older than 18 years, measuring self-assessed stress using smartphones. Results A total of 35 published articles comprising 1464 individuals were included for review. According to the objectives, (1) study designs were heterogeneous, and smartphone-based self-assessed stress was measured using various methods (e.g., dichotomized questions on stress, yes or no; Likert scales on stress; and questionnaires); (2) the validity of smartphone-based self-assessed stress compared with validated stress scales was investigated in 3 studies, and of these, only 1 study found a moderate statistically significant positive correlation (r=.4; P<.05); and (3) in exploratory analyses, smartphone-based self-assessed stress was found to correlate with some of the reported smartphone generated objective data, including voice features and data on activity and phone usage. Conclusions Smartphones are being used to measure self-assessed stress in

  16. Telepractice in the Assessment and Treatment of Individuals with Aphasia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Nerissa; Boisvert, Michelle; Steele, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Telepractice involves the application of technology to deliver services over a geographical distance. Studies in which telepractice procedures were used in the assessment or treatment of individuals with aphasia were reviewed. Systematic searches identified 10 studies meeting inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of the: (a) characteristics of the participants, (b) technology utilized (c), services delivered via telepractice, (d) research methodology, and (e) results and conclusions of the study. Telepractice was used by speech-language pathologists and allied health professionals to assist with the delivery of services to participants with aphasia by their caretakers or clinicians. The services delivered included appraisal, diagnostic assessments, interventions, and consultation. This review suggests that telepractice is a viable method of service delivery for individuals with aphasia, however further research is warranted. Guidelines for practitioners and potential directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25945211

  17. The German version of the Individualized Care Scale – assessing validity and reliability

    PubMed Central

    Köberich, Stefan; Suhonen, Riitta; Feuchtinger, Johanna; Farin, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Aim To assess validity and reliability of the German version of the Individualized Care Scale (ICS). Background Individualized nursing care plays a pivotal role in establishing patient-centered care. To assess individualized nursing care and to compare it in different settings and countries, valid and reliable instruments are needed. No psychometric-tested instrument for comparing individualized nursing care with other countries is available in Germany. Design Cross-sectional study. Methods Data were collected between September 2013 and June 2014 from 606 patients in 20 wards in five hospitals across Germany. Unidimensionality of the ICS scales ICSA (patients’ views on how individuality is supported through nursing interventions) and ICSB (patients’ perceptions of individualized nursing care) was analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency was assessed by calculating Cronbach’s alpha. The Smoliner Scale (patients’ perceptions of the decision-making process in nursing care) and results from participating hospitals’ assessment of the nursing care delivery systems were used to assess known-groups validity and concurrent validity. Results Fit indices of confirmatory factor analysis indicate unidimensionality of the ICSA (Comparative Fit Index: 0.92; Tucker-Lewis Index: 0.902; root mean square error of approximation: 0.09; standardized root mean square residual: 0.05) and the ICSB (Comparative Fit Index: 0.91; Tucker-Lewis Index: 0.89; root mean square error of approximation: 0.09; standardized root mean square residual: 0.05). Internal consistency using Cronbach’s alpha was 0.95 (95% confidence interval: 0.94–0.95) for ICSA and 0.93 (95% confidence interval: 0.92–0.94) for the ICSB. Concurrent validity was established by a significant relationship between the Smoliner Scale and ICSA (r=0.66; P<0.01) and ICSB (r=0.72; P<0.01). Known-groups validity was approved by ICSA/ICSB score differences related to nursing care delivery systems and

  18. An assessment of the effectiveness of individual pitch control on upscaled wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Z. J.; Stol, K. A.

    2014-06-01

    The use of individual pitch control (IPC) based on loads transformed into nonrotating coordinates is explored on a range of wind turbines with ratings between 5MW and 15MW. Turbine models are generated using classical upscaling based on properties of the NREL 5MW reference wind turbine. The Ziegler-Nichols method is used with a low order linear model of each turbine to objectively tune a gain-scheduled, proportional-integral individual pitch controller. The performance of IPC is assessed by measuring reductions in blade and tower root damage equivalent loads from simulations at several wind speeds spanning Region 3. It is observed that the load reductions obtained with individual pitch control are maintained on upscaled turbines, with minimal impact on tower root loads, while actuator usage scales at a rate lower than expected with classical scaling.

  19. Interethnic variability of pharmacogenetic biomarkers in Mexican healthy volunteers: a report from the RIBEF (Ibero-American Network of Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics).

    PubMed

    Fricke-Galindo, Ingrid; Jung-Cook, Helgi; LLerena, Adrián; López-López, Marisol

    2016-06-01

    Mexico presents a complex population diversity integrated by Mexican indigenous (MI) (7% of Mexico's population) and Mexican mestizos (MMs). This composition highlights the importance of pharmacogenetic studies in Mexican populations. The aims of this study were to analyze the reported frequencies of the most relevant pharmacogenetic biomarkers and metabolic phenotypes in healthy volunteers from Mexican populations and to assess its interethnic variability across MI and MM populations. After a literature search in PubMed, and according to previously defined inclusion criteria, 63 pharmacogenetic studies performed in Mexican healthy volunteers up to date were selected. These reports comprised 56,292 healthy volunteers (71.58% MM). Allele frequencies in 31 pharmacogenetic biomarkers, from 121 searched, are described. Nine of these biomarkers presented variation within MM and MI groups. The frequencies of CYP2D6*3, *4, *5, *10, *17, *35 and *41 alleles in the MM group were different from those reported in the MI group. CYP2C9*2 and *3 alleles were more frequent in MM than in MI populations (χ2 test, p<0.05). CYP2C19*3 allele was not found in the MM or MI populations reported. For UGT1A1*28, only one study was found. HLA-A*31:01 and HLA-B*15:02 were present in some MM and MI populations. Poor metabolizers for CYP2D6 and CYP2C9 were more frequent in MM than in MI groups (χ2 test, p<0.05). Only 26% of the relevant pharmacogenetic biomarkers searched have been studied in Mexican healthy volunteers; therefore, further studies are warranted. The frequency variation of biomarkers in MM and MI populations could be important for the clinical implementation of pharmacogenetics in Mexico.

  20. Radiation Risk Assessment of the Individual Astronaut: A Complement to Radiation Interests at the NIH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    Predicting human risks following exposure to space radiation is uncertain in part because of unpredictable distribution of high-LET and low-dose-derived damage amongst cells in tissues, unknown synergistic effects of microgravity upon gene- and protein-expression, and inadequately modeled processing of radiation-induced damage within cells to produce rare and late-appearing malignant cancers. Furthermore, estimation of risks of radiogenic outcome within small numbers of astronauts is not possible using classic epidemiologic study. It therefore seems useful to develop strategies of risk-assessment based upon large datasets acquired from correlated biological models useful for resolving radiogenic risk-assessment for irradiated individuals. In this regard, it is suggested that sensitive cellular biodosimeters that simultaneously report 1) the quantity of absorbed dose after exposure to ionizing radiation, 2) the quality of radiation delivering that dose, and 3) the biomolecular risk of malignant transformation be developed in order to resolve these NASA-specific challenges. Multiparametric cellular biodosimeters could be developed using analyses of gene-expression and protein-expression whereby large datasets of cellular response to radiation-induced damage are analyzed for markers predictive for acute response as well as cancer-risk. A new paradigm is accordingly addressed wherein genomic and proteomic datasets are registered and interrogated in order to provide statistically significant dose-dependent risk estimation in individual astronauts. This evaluation of the individual for assessment of radiogenic outcomes connects to NIH program in that such a paradigm also supports assignment of a given patient to a specific therapy, the diagnosis of response of that patient to therapy, and the prediction of risks accumulated by that patient during therapy - such as risks incurred by scatter and neutrons produced during high-energy Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy

  1. Radiation Risk Assessment of the Individual Astronaut: A Complement to Radiation Interests at the NIH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    Predicting human risks following exposure to space radiation is uncertain in part because of unpredictable distribution of high-LET and low-dose-derived damage amongst cells in tissues, unknown synergistic effects of microgravity upon gene- and protein-expression, and inadequately modeled processing of radiation-induced damage within cells to produce rare and late-appearing malignant cancers. Furthermore, estimation of risks of radiogenic outcome within small numbers of astronauts is not possible using classic epidemiologic study. It therefore seems useful to develop strategies of risk-assessment based upon large datasets acquired from correlated biological models useful for resolving radiogenic risk-assessment for irradiated individuals. In this regard, it is suggested that sensitive cellular biodosimeters that simultaneously report 1) the quantity of absorbed dose after exposure to ionizing radiation, 2) the quality of radiation delivering that dose, and 3) the biomolecular risk of malignant transformation be developed in order to resolve these NASA-specific challenges. Multiparametric cellular biodosimeters could be developed using analyses of gene-expression and protein-expression whereby large datasets of cellular response to radiation-induced damage are analyzed for markers predictive for acute response as well as cancer-risk. A new paradigm is accordingly addressed wherein genomic and proteomic datasets are registered and interrogated in order to provide statistically significant dose-dependent risk estimation in individual astronauts. This evaluation of the individual for assessment of radiogenic outcomes connects to NIH program in that such a paradigm also supports assignment of a given patient to a specific therapy, the diagnosis of response of that patient to therapy, and the prediction of risks accumulated by that patient during therapy - such as risks incurred by scatter and neutrons produced during high-energy Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy

  2. An interactive mapping tool to assess individual mobility patterns in neighborhood studies.

    PubMed

    Chaix, Basile; Kestens, Yan; Perchoux, Camille; Karusisi, Noëlla; Merlo, Juan; Labadi, Karima

    2012-10-01

    As their most critical limitation, neighborhood and health studies published to date have not taken into account nonresidential activity places where individuals travel in their daily lives. However, identifying low-mobility populations residing in low-resource environments, assessing cumulative environmental exposures over multiple activity places, and identifying specific activity locations for targeting interventions are important for health promotion. Daily mobility has not been given due consideration in part because of a lack of tools to collect locational information on activity spaces. Thus, the first aim of the current article is to describe VERITAS (Visualization and Evaluation of Route Itineraries, Travel Destinations, and Activity Spaces), an interactive web mapping application that can geolocate individuals' activity places, routes between locations, and relevant areas such as experienced or perceived neighborhoods. The second aim is to formalize the theoretic grounds of a contextual expology as a subdiscipline to better assess the spatiotemporal configuration of environmental exposures. Based on activity place data, various indicators of individual patterns of movement in space (spatial behavior) are described. Successive steps are outlined for elaborating variables of multiplace environmental exposure (collection of raw locational information, selection/exclusion of locational data, defining an exposure area for measurement, and calculation). Travel and activity place network areas are discussed as a relevant construct for environmental exposure assessment. Finally, a note of caution is provided that these measures require careful handling to avoid increasing the magnitude of confounding (selective daily mobility bias).

  3. Assessing individual risk for AMD with genetic counseling, family history, and genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Cascella, R; Strafella, C; Longo, G; Manzo, L; Ragazzo, M; De Felici, C; Gambardella, S; Marsella, L T; Novelli, G; Borgiani, P; Sangiuolo, F; Cusumano, A; Ricci, F; Giardina, E

    2017-09-15

    PurposeThe goal was to develop a simple model for predicting the individual risk profile for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) on the basis of genetic information, disease family history, and smoking habits.Patients and methodsThe study enrolled 151 AMD patients following specific clinical and environmental inclusion criteria: age >55 years, positive family history for AMD, presence of at least one first-degree relative affected by AMD, and smoking habits. All of the samples were genotyped for rs1061170 (CFH) and rs10490924 (ARMS2) with a TaqMan assay, using a 7500 Fast Real Time PCR device. Statistical analysis was subsequently employed to calculate the real individual risk (OR) based on the genetic data (ORgn), family history (ORf), and smoking habits (ORsm).Results and conclusionThe combination of ORgn, ORf, and ORsm allowed the calculation of the Ort that represented the realistic individual risk for developing AMD. In this report, we present a computational model for the estimation of the individual risk for AMD. Moreover, we show that the average distribution of risk alleles in the general population and the knowledge of parents' genotype can be decisive to assess the real disease risk. In this contest, genetic counseling is crucial to provide the patients with an understanding of their individual risk and the availability for preventive actions.Eye advance online publication, 15 September 2017; doi:10.1038/eye.2017.192.

  4. Feathers as a Tool to Assess Mercury Contamination in Gentoo Penguins: Variations at the Individual Level

    PubMed Central

    Pedro, Sara; Xavier, José C.; Tavares, Sílvia; Trathan, Phil N.; Ratcliffe, Norman; Paiva, Vitor H.; Medeiros, Renata; Pereira, Eduarda; Pardal, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Feathers have been widely used to assess mercury contamination in birds as they reflect metal concentrations accumulated between successive moult periods: they are also easy to sample and have minimum impact on the study birds. Moult is considered the major pathway for mercury excretion in seabirds. Penguins are widely believed to undergo a complete, annual moult during which they do not feed. As penguins lose all their feathers, they are expected to have a low individual-variability in feather mercury concentration as all feathers are formed simultaneously from the same somatic reserves. This assumption is central to penguin studies that use feathers to examine the annual or among-individual variation in mercury concentrations in penguins. To test this assumption, we measured the mercury concentrations in 3–5 body feathers of 52 gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) breeding at Bird Island, South Georgia (54°S 38°W). Twenty-five percent of the penguins studied showed substantial within-individual variation in the amount of mercury in their feathers (Coefficient of Variation: 34.7–96.7%). This variation may be caused by differences in moult patterns among individuals within the population leading to different interpretations in the overall population. Further investigation is now needed to fully understand individual variation in penguins’ moult. PMID:26352664

  5. Feathers as a Tool to Assess Mercury Contamination in Gentoo Penguins: Variations at the Individual Level.

    PubMed

    Pedro, Sara; Xavier, José C; Tavares, Sílvia; Trathan, Phil N; Ratcliffe, Norman; Paiva, Vitor H; Medeiros, Renata; Pereira, Eduarda; Pardal, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    Feathers have been widely used to assess mercury contamination in birds as they reflect metal concentrations accumulated between successive moult periods: they are also easy to sample and have minimum impact on the study birds. Moult is considered the major pathway for mercury excretion in seabirds. Penguins are widely believed to undergo a complete, annual moult during which they do not feed. As penguins lose all their feathers, they are expected to have a low individual-variability in feather mercury concentration as all feathers are formed simultaneously from the same somatic reserves. This assumption is central to penguin studies that use feathers to examine the annual or among-individual variation in mercury concentrations in penguins. To test this assumption, we measured the mercury concentrations in 3-5 body feathers of 52 gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) breeding at Bird Island, South Georgia (54°S 38°W). Twenty-five percent of the penguins studied showed substantial within-individual variation in the amount of mercury in their feathers (Coefficient of Variation: 34.7-96.7%). This variation may be caused by differences in moult patterns among individuals within the population leading to different interpretations in the overall population. Further investigation is now needed to fully understand individual variation in penguins' moult.

  6. Assessing bias against overweight individuals among nursing and psychology students: an implicit association test.

    PubMed

    Waller, Tabitha; Lampman, Claudia; Lupfer-Johnson, Gwen

    2012-12-01

    To determine the implicit or unconscious attitudes of Nursing and Psychology majors towards overweight individuals in medical and non-medical contexts. Obesity is a leading health concern today, which impacts both physical and psychological health. Overweight individuals confront social biases in many aspects of their lives including health care. Examining the views of Nursing and Psychology students may reveal implicit attitudes towards overweight individuals that may lead to prejudiced behaviours. A mixed design experiment with one between-subjects variable (student major: Nursing or Psychology) and one within-subjects variable (condition: congruent or incongruent) was used to assess implicit attitudes in two convenience samples of Nursing and Psychology students. A computerised implicit association test was used to determine implicit attitudes towards overweight individuals in medical and non-medical contexts. A total of 90 students from Nursing (n= 45) and Psychology (n = 45) were recruited to complete an implicit association test. Reaction times in milliseconds between the congruent trials (stereotype consistent) and incongruent trials (stereotype inconsistent) were compared with determine adherence to social stereotypes or weight bias. A statistically significant implicit bias towards overweight individuals was detected in both subject groups and in both target settings (medical vs. non-medical). Stronger weight bias was found when the stimulus targets were female than male. Findings from this study expand understanding of the implicit attitudes and social biases of Nursing and Psychology students. The views held by these future healthcare professionals may negatively impact patient care. Providing education and support to overweight individuals is central to Nursing practice in a society struggling to manage obesity. Negative stereotypes or beliefs about these individuals may result in poor patient care. Therefore, nurses and other healthcare professionals

  7. Assessment and treatment of challenging behaviour for individuals with intellectual disability: a research review.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Blair P; Kennedy, Craig H

    2014-05-01

    Challenging behaviour is frequently associated with the presence of intellectual disability. If not effectively treated, chronic challenging behaviour can negatively impact a variety of quality of life outcomes for individuals with intellectual disability. We review the current status of research relating to the assessment and treatment of challenging behaviour for people with intellectual disability. We briefly review the history of interventions for challenging behaviour that led to the development of function-based approaches widely in use today. We then discuss the various operant functions of challenging behaviour, functional behaviour assessment technologies and reinforcement-based interventions. We conclude with a discussion of future directions that include models of prevention, ecological validity of assessment procedures and the widespread use of comprehensive behavioural support programmes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Assessment of causality of individual adverse events following immunization (AEFI): a WHO tool for global use.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Alberto E; Asturias, Edwin J; Balakrishnan, Madhava Ram; Halsey, Neal A; Law, Barbara; Zuber, Patrick L F

    2013-10-17

    Serious illnesses or even deaths may rarely occur after childhood vaccinations. Public health programs are faced with great challenges to establish if the events presenting after the administration of a vaccine are due to other conditions, and hence a coincidental presentation, rather than caused by the administered vaccines. Given its priority, the Global Advisory Committee for Vaccine Safety (GACVS) commissioned a group of experts to review the previously published World Health Organization (WHO) Adverse Event Following Immunization (AEFI) causality assessment methodology and aide-memoire, and to develop a standardized and user friendly tool to assist health care personnel in the processing and interpretation of data on individual events, and to assess the causality after AEFIs. We describe a tool developed for causality assessment of individual AEFIs that includes: (a) an eligibility component for the assessment that reviews the diagnosis associated with the event and identifies the administered vaccines; (b) a checklist that systematically guides users to gather available information to feed a decision algorithm; and (c) a decision support algorithm that assists the assessors to come to a classification of the individual AEFI. Final classification generated by the process includes four categories in which the event is either: (1) consistent; (2) inconsistent; or (3) indeterminate with respect of causal association; or (4) unclassifiable. Subcategories are identified to assist assessors in resulting public health decisions that can be used for action. This proposed tool should support the classification of AEFI cases in a standardized, transparent manner and to collect essential information during AEFI investigation. The algorithm should provide countries and health officials at the global level with an instrument to respond to vaccine safety alerts, and support the education, research and policy decisions on immunization safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd

  9. Symbolic bones and interethnic violence in a frontier zone, northwest Mexico, ca. 500–900 C.E.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Ben A.; Martin, Debra L.

    2015-01-01

    Although extensive deposits of disarticulated, commingled human bones are common in the prehispanic Northern Frontier of Mesoamerica, detailed bioarchaeological analyses of them are not. To our knowledge, this article provides the first such analysis of bone from a full residential-ceremonial complex and evaluates multiple hypotheses about its significance, concluding that the bones actively represented interethnic violence as well as other relationships among persons living and dead. Description of these practices is important to the discussion of multiethnic societies because the frontier was a context where urbanism and complexity were emerging and groups with the potential to form multiethnic societies were interacting, possibly in the same ways that groups did before the formation of larger multiethnic city-states in the core of Mesoamerica. PMID:25941398

  10. Symbolic bones and interethnic violence in a frontier zone, northwest Mexico, ca. 500-900 C.E.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Ben A; Martin, Debra L

    2015-07-28

    Although extensive deposits of disarticulated, commingled human bones are common in the prehispanic Northern Frontier of Mesoamerica, detailed bioarchaeological analyses of them are not. To our knowledge, this article provides the first such analysis of bone from a full residential-ceremonial complex and evaluates multiple hypotheses about its significance, concluding that the bones actively represented interethnic violence as well as other relationships among persons living and dead. Description of these practices is important to the discussion of multiethnic societies because the frontier was a context where urbanism and complexity were emerging and groups with the potential to form multiethnic societies were interacting, possibly in the same ways that groups did before the formation of larger multiethnic city-states in the core of Mesoamerica.

  11. Living in a Genetic World: How Learning About Interethnic Genetic Similarities and Differences Affects Peace and Conflict.

    PubMed

    Kimel, Sasha Y; Huesmann, Rowell; Kunst, Jonas R; Halperin, Eran

    2016-05-01

    Information about the degree of one's genetic overlap with ethnic outgroups has been emphasized in genocides, is frequently learned about through media reporting, and is increasingly being accessed via personal genetic testing services. However, the consequence of learning about whether your own ethnic group is either genetically related to or genetically distinct from a disliked ethnic group remains unknown. Across four experiments, using diverse samples, measures and contexts, we demonstrate that altering perceptions of genetic overlap between groups in conflict--in this case Arabs and Jews--impacts factors that are directly related to interethnic hostility (e.g., aggressive behaviors, support of conflict-related policies). Our findings indicate that learning about the genetic difference between oneself and an ethnic outgroup may contribute to the promotion of violence, whereas learning about the similarities may be a vital step toward fostering peace in some contexts. Possible interventions and implications are discussed.

  12. Combined neuropsychological and neurophysiological assessment of drug effects on groups and individuals.

    PubMed

    Gevins, Alan; Ilan, Aaron B; Jiang, An; Sam-Vargas, Lita; Baum, Cliff; Chan, Cynthia S

    2011-08-01

    An initial standardized approach for combining neuropsychological and neurophysiological measures in order to assess the neurocognitive effects of drugs in groups and individuals is introduced. Its application is illustrated with sedatives, antiepileptic drugs, psychostimulants, antihistamines, and intoxicants. Task performance, electroencephalography, and evoked potential measures during computerized attention and memory testing that are most sensitive to drug effects are identified in a sample population and then applied to individuals. In six example exploratory studies, drug effects were detected with an average area under curve (AUC) of 0.97 (p < 0.0001; 95% sensitivity, 96% specificity). In 10 example validation studies with other drugs and/or different subjects and populations, detection was strong in the eight studies with drugs and doses known to have significant neurocognitive effects (AUC 0.83, p < 0.0001; 82% sensitivity, 89% specificity), whereas no effect was detected in the two studies with drugs known to have faint neurocognitive effects (AUC 0.56, p > 0.10). Individual differences in response to different drugs with similar clinical uses, to varying doses of the same drug, and in pharmacodynamic response were then demonstrated. The significant (p < 0.01) increase in sensitivity and specificity of combined neuropsychological and neurophysiological measures compared with the former alone suggests that fewer subjects may be needed to assess the neurocognitive effects of drugs in future studies. The findings suggest that the concept of combining neuropsychological testing with simultaneous measures of neurophysiological function is worth further exploration.

  13. Helping individuals to understand synergistic risks: an assessment of message contents depicting mechanistic and probabilistic concepts.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Ian G J; Johnson, Johnnie E V; Luke, Michelle A

    2013-05-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that certain hazard combinations interact to present synergistic risks. However, little is known about the most effective ways of helping individuals to understand this complex risk concept. More specifically, there is an absence of empirical research that has assessed the relative efficacy of messages that explain either the causal mechanism and/or the probabilistic components of synergistic risks. In an experiment designed to address this issue, we presented participants with messages concerning the synergistic risk of developing esophageal cancer for individuals who consume both tobacco and alcohol. Relative to a control group, we compared the extent to which messages featuring content detailing the underlying biological mechanism, the probabilistic risk, or both improved understanding of the synergistic risk. Our results showed that messages containing details of both the mechanism and probabilistic information were most effective at enabling individuals to understand that the alcohol-tobacco combination presents a synergistic risk. In addition, large improvements in the accuracy of cancer frequency estimates were observed amongst individuals who received probabilistic information, and the highest relative increase in professed willingness to adopt precautionary behaviors was observed amongst individuals who received the mechanism information only. Importantly, these findings could be utilized in the development of a general model for the communication of synergistic risks. Furthermore, in contrast to previous findings, our study demonstrates that risk messages can be both effective and efficient in helping individuals to acquire a greater understanding of synergistic risks. Acquiring such knowledge could lead to significant improvements in risk-related decisions concerning combined hazards.

  14. Nutrient Status Assessment in Individuals and Populations for Healthy Aging—Statement from an Expert Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Péter, Szabolcs; Saris, Wim H. M.; Mathers, John C.; Feskens, Edith; Schols, Annemie; Navis, Gerjan; Kuipers, Folkert; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    A workshop organized by the University Medical Center Groningen addressed various current issues regarding nutrient status of individuals and populations, tools and strategies for its assessment, and opportunities to intervene. The importance of nutrient deficiencies and information on nutrient status for health has been illustrated, in particular for elderly and specific patient groups. The nutrient profile of individuals can be connected to phenotypes, like hypertension or obesity, as well as to socio-economic data. This approach provides information on the relationship between nutrition (nutrient intake and status) and health outcomes and, for instance, allows us to use the findings to communicate and advocate a healthy lifestyle. Nutrition is complex: a broader profile of nutrients should be considered rather than focusing solely on a single nutrient. Evaluating food patterns instead of intake of individual nutrients provides better insight into relationships between nutrition and health and disease. This approach would allow us to provide feedback to individuals about their status and ways to improve their nutritional habits. In addition, it would provide tools for scientists and health authorities to update and develop public health recommendations. PMID:26694458

  15. Preliminary performance assessment of computer automated facial approximations using computed tomography scans of living individuals.

    PubMed

    Parks, Connie L; Richard, Adam H; Monson, Keith L

    2013-12-10

    ReFace (Reality Enhancement Facial Approximation by Computational Estimation) is a computer-automated facial approximation application jointly developed by the Federal Bureau of Investigation and GE Global Research. The application derives a statistically based approximation of a face from a unidentified skull using a dataset of ~400 human head computer tomography (CT) scans of living adult American individuals from four ancestry groups: African, Asian, European and Hispanic (self-identified). To date only one unpublished subjective recognition study has been conducted using ReFace approximations. It indicated that approximations produced by ReFace were recognized above chance rates (10%). This preliminary study assesses: (i) the recognizability of five ReFace approximations; (ii) the recognizability of CT-derived skin surface replicas of the same individuals whose skulls were used to create the ReFace approximations; and (iii) the relationship between recognition performance and resemblance ratings of target individuals. All five skin surface replicas were recognized at rates statistically significant above chance (22-50%). Four of five ReFace approximations were recognized above chance (5-18%), although with statistical significance only at the higher rate. Such results suggest reconsideration of the usefulness of the type of output format utilized in this study, particularly in regard to facial approximations employed as a means of identifying unknown individuals.

  16. Fall risk assessment using the Tinetti mobility test in individuals with Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Kloos, Anne D; Kegelmeyer, Deb A; Young, Gregory S; Kostyk, Sandra K

    2010-12-15

    The Tinetti Mobility Test (TMT) is a clinical balance and gait test that predicts fall risk in the elderly. This study examined the concurrent validity, usefulness of the TMT as a fall risk screening tool, and the potential ability of the TMT to predict falls in individuals with Huntington's disease (HD). Data from a retrospective review of 94 patient records were used. TMT scores were correlated with Unified Huntington Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) motor scores. The ability of the TMT to accurately assess fall risk was determined using validity index measures. Logistic regression was used to assess the ability of the TMT to predict falls. TMT scores correlated with UHDRS motor scores (r(s) = -0.751, P < 0.0001). Using a cutoff value of 21, the TMT had a sensitivity of 74% and a specificity of 60% to identify fallers. Lower TMT scores and younger age were significant predictors of falls. The TMT is a valid tool for assessing balance and gait status and fall risk of individuals with HD. © 2010 Movement Disorder Society.

  17. [Occupational toxic exposure in the pregnant woman. 1: principles fo individual risk assessment ].

    PubMed

    Testud, F; Lambert-Chhum, R; Bellemin, B; Descotes, J

    2001-12-01

    Many women of childbearing age are occupationally exposed to chemicals and concerned with the ensuing risk when pregnant. To describe the principles of individual risk assessment to be applied in pregnant women or women wishing to become pregnant that are exposed to chemicals at the workplace. Each request for risk assessment is based on a comprehensive review of the hazards of the handled products together with a thorough evaluation of the actual exposure at the workplace. A toxicological advice is then written to the gynecologist or the general practitioner in charge of the patient. When the exposure is estimated to be hazardous for the pregnancy, either total withdrawal, avoidance of certain activities or improvements of individual protective devices are recommended. The outcome of the pregnancy is systematically followed-up. An objective assessment of toxic risks in pregnant women exposed to chemicals at the workplace can be done. Thus, patients who must be withdrawn or benefit from improvements of their workstation can be selected.

  18. The development of a rubric for peer assessment of individual teamwork skills in undergraduate midwifery students.

    PubMed

    Hastie, Carolyn; Fahy, Kathleen; Parratt, Jenny

    2014-09-01

    Poor teamwork is cited as one of the major root causes of adverse events in healthcare. Bullying, resulting in illness for staff, is an expression of poor teamwork skills. Despite this knowledge, poor teamwork persists in healthcare and teamwork skills are rarely the focus of teaching and assessment in undergraduate health courses. To develop and implement an assessment tool for use in facilitating midwifery students' learning of teamwork skills. This paper describes how the TeamUP rubric tool was developed. A review of the literature found no research reports on how to teach and assess health students' teamwork skills in standing teams. The literature, however, gives guidance about how university educators should evaluate individual students using peer assessment. The developmental processes of the rubric were grounded in the theoretical literature and feminist collaborative conversations. The rubric incorporates five domains of teamwork skills: Fostering a Team Climate; Project Planning; Facilitating Teams; Managing Conflict and Quality Individual Contribution. The process and outcomes of student and academic content validation are described. The TeamUP rubric is useful for articulating, teaching and assessing teamwork skills for health professional students. The TeamUP rubric is a robust, theoretically grounded model that defines and details effective teamwork skills and related behaviours. If these skills are mastered, we predict that graduates will be more effective in teams. Our assumption is that graduates, empowered by having these skills, are more likely to manage conflict effectively and less likely to engage in bullying behaviours. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Communication Services and Supports for Individuals With Severe Disabilities: Guidance for Assessment and Intervention.

    PubMed

    Brady, Nancy C; Bruce, Susan; Goldman, Amy; Erickson, Karen; Mineo, Beth; Ogletree, Bill T; Paul, Diane; Romski, Mary Ann; Sevcik, Rose; Siegel, Ellin; Schoonover, Judith; Snell, Marti; Sylvester, Lorraine; Wilkinson, Krista

    2016-03-01

    The National Joint Committee for the Communication Needs of People With Severe Disabilities (NJC) reviewed literature regarding practices for people with severe disabilities in order to update guidance provided in documents originally published in 1992. Changes in laws, definitions, and policies that affect communication attainments by persons with severe disabilities are presented, along with guidance regarding assessment and intervention practices. A revised version of the Communication Bill of Rights, a powerful document that describes the communication rights of all individuals, including those with severe disabilities is included in this article. The information contained within this article is intended to be used by professionals, family members, and individuals with severe disabilities to inform and advocate for effective communication services and opportunities.

  20. Communication Services and Supports for Individuals with Severe Disabilities: Guidance for Assessment and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Nancy C.; Bruce, Susan; Goldman, Amy; Erickson, Karen; Mineo, Beth; Ogletree, Bill T.; Paul, Diane; Romski, Mary Ann; Sevcik, Rose; Siegel, Ellin; Schoonover, Judith; Snell, Marti; Sylvester, Lorraine; Wilkinson, Krista

    2015-01-01

    The National Joint Committee for the Communication Needs of People with Severe Disabilities (NJC) reviewed literature regarding practices for people with severe disabilities in order to update guidance provided in documents originally published in 1992. Changes in laws, definitions, and policies that affect communication attainments by persons with severe disabilities are presented, along with guidance regarding assessment and intervention practices. A revised version of the Communication Bill of Rights, a powerful document that describes the communication rights of all individuals, including those with severe disabilities is included in this article. The information contained within this article is intended to be used by professionals, family members, and individuals with severe disabilities to inform and advocate for effective communication services and opportunities. PMID:26914467

  1. The Key to Individualized Addiction Treatment is Comprehensive Assessment and Monitoring of Symptoms and Behavioral Change

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Thomas F.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Modern health services now strive for individualized treatment. This approach has been enabled by the increase in knowledge derived from neuroscience and genomics. Substance use disorders are no exception to individualized treatment even though there are no gene-specific medications yet available. What is available is the ability to quickly and precisely assess and monitor biopsychosocial variables known to vary during addiction recovery and which place addicts at increased risk of relapse. Monitoring a broad spectrum of biopsychosocial health enables providers to address diverse genome-specific changes that might trigger withdrawal from treatment or recovery relapse in time to prevent that from occurring. This paper describes modern measurement tools contained in the NIH Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) and the NIH Toolbox and suggests how they might be applied to support recovery from alcohol and other substance use disorders in both pharmacological and abstinence-oriented modalities of care. PMID:26529025

  2. 14 CFR 13.18 - Civil penalties: Administrative assessment against an individual acting as a pilot, flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman. 13.18 Section 13.18... assessment against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman. (a) General. (1... procedures against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman, under 49 U.S.C...

  3. 14 CFR 13.18 - Civil penalties: Administrative assessment against an individual acting as a pilot, flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman. 13.18 Section 13.18... assessment against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman. (a) General. (1... procedures against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman, under 49 U.S.C...

  4. 14 CFR 13.18 - Civil penalties: Administrative assessment against an individual acting as a pilot, flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman. 13.18 Section 13.18... assessment against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman. (a) General. (1... procedures against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman, under 49 U.S.C...

  5. 14 CFR 13.18 - Civil penalties: Administrative assessment against an individual acting as a pilot, flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman. 13.18 Section 13.18... assessment against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman. (a) General. (1... procedures against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman, under 49 U.S.C...

  6. 14 CFR 13.18 - Civil penalties: Administrative assessment against an individual acting as a pilot, flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman. 13.18 Section 13.18... assessment against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman. (a) General. (1... procedures against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman, under 49 U.S.C...

  7. Comparison of individual answer and group answer with and without structured peer assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kablan, Zeynel

    2014-09-01

    Background:Cooperative learning activities provide active participation of students leading to better learning. The literature suggests that cooperative learning activities need to be structured for a more effective and productive interaction. Purpose: This study aimed to test the differences among three instructional conditions in terms of science achievement. Sample:A total of 79 fifth-grade students, 42 males (53%) and 37 females (47%), participated in the study. Design and Methods:In the first condition, students answered the teacher's questions individually by raising hands. In the second condition, students discussed the answer in groups and came up with a single group answer. In this condition, the teacher provided only verbal directions to the groups without using any strategy or material. In the third condition, students used a 'peer assessment form' before giving the group answer. A pre-/post-test experimental design was used. Multiple-choice and open-ended tests were used for data collection. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to test the differences in the test scores between the three groups (individual answer, unstructured group answer and structured group answer). Results:Results showed that there were no significant differences among the three learning conditions in terms of their multiple-choice test scores. In terms of the open-ended test scores, students in the structured group answer condition scored significantly higher than the students in the individual answer condition. Conclusions:Structuring the group work through peer assessment helped to monitor the group discussion, provided a better learning compared to the individual answer condition, and helped students to participate in the activity equally.

  8. Assessment of individual agreements with repeated measurements based on generalized confidence intervals.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Jorge; Burdick, Richard K

    2009-01-01

    Individual agreement between two measurement systems is determined using the total deviation index (TDI) or the coverage probability (CP) criteria as proposed by Lin (2000) and Lin et al. (2002). We used a variance component model as proposed by Choudhary (2007). Using the bootstrap approach, Choudhary (2007), and generalized confidence intervals, we construct bounds on TDI and CP. A simulation study was conducted to assess whether the bounds maintain the stated type I error probability of the test. We also present a computational example to demonstrate the statistical methods described in the paper.

  9. Use of body mass index of adults in assessing individual and community nutritional status.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, K. V.; Ferro-Luzzi, A.

    1995-01-01

    Adult malnutrition is much more widespread than is commonly recognized. Described in this article is the use of body mass index (BMI = weight in kg/(height in metres)2) as a measure of adult nutritional status, both of individuals and of communities. Concurrent assessment of the nutritional status of children and adults permits conclusions to be drawn about whether there is generalized undernutrition in a community or whether other factors (e.g., childhood infections or feeding practices) are more important in childhood malnutrition. Included is a tabular presentation that permits rapid assessment of both thinness or underweight (BMI values < 16, 17 and 18.5) and overweight (BMI > 25, 30 and 40). Examples of the use of BMI in both clinical and public health practice are also given. PMID:8846494

  10. Group Collaboration in Assessment: Competing Objectives, Processes, and Outcomes. Project 2.1: Designs for Assessing Individual and Group Problem Solving. Effects of Group Characteristics on Groups and Individual Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Noreen M.

    A number of theoretical and practical issues are explored that need to be considered in the design of assessments that use group collaboration to be sure that collaboration works toward, rather than away from, the purpose of the assessment. The traditional purpose of assessment has been to measure individual competence of students in thinking…

  11. Assessment of Executive Functions in Methamphetamine-addicted Individuals: Emphasis on Duration of Addiction and Abstinence.

    PubMed

    Farhadian, Majid; Akbarfahimi, Malahat; Hassani Abharian, Peyman; Hosseini, Seyedeh Golaleh; Shokri, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have conducted on impairments of executive functions in individuals with methamphetamine addiction; however, only a few have investigated the relationship between executive functions and duration of addiction or abstinence. This study was designed to assess the executive functions in methamphetamine-addicted individuals in relation to the duration of addiction or abstinence. A total of 161 subjects aged between 20 and 45 years were categorized into three subgroups: currently abusing (n=41), abstinent (n=60), and control healthy individuals (n=60). A battery of standardized executive function tasks, including Stroop test, Wisconsin Card Sorting test, and Tower of London task, were administered. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient, analysis of variance, and post hoc Bonferroni test with SPSS16.0. Methamphetamine-addicted and abstinent subjects performed worse than the controls. Methamphetamine-abstinent subjects performed better than the currently methamphetamine abusers in most executive functions. Duration of addiction and abstinence were correlated with executive dysfunctions. This study revealed that although executive functions may be improved by protracted abstinence, executive dysfunctions are not completely relieved, and specific attention to planning and implementation of intervention programs are necessary.

  12. Clonality assessment and clonal ordering of individual neoplastic crypts shows polyclonality of colorectal adenomas.

    PubMed

    Thirlwell, Christina; Will, Olivia C C; Domingo, E; Graham, Trevor A; McDonald, Stuart A C; Oukrif, Dahmane; Jeffrey, Rosemary; Gorman, Maggie; Rodriguez-Justo, Manuel; Chin-Aleong, Joanne; Clark, Sue K; Novelli, Marco R; Jankowski, Janusz A; Wright, Nicholas A; Tomlinson, Ian P M; Leedham, Simon J

    2010-04-01

    According to the somatic mutation theory, monoclonal colorectal lesions arise from sequential mutations in the progeny of a single stem cell. However, studies in a sex chromosome mixoploid mosaic (XO/XY) patient indicated that colorectal adenomas were polyclonal. We assessed adenoma clonality on an individual crypt basis and completed a genetic dependency analysis in carcinomas-in-adenomas to assess mutation order and timing. Polyp samples were analyzed from the XO/XY individual, patients with familial adenomatous polyposis and attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis, patients with small sporadic adenomas, and patients with sporadic carcinoma-in-adenomas. Clonality was analyzed using X/Y chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization, analysis of 5q loss of heterozygosity in XO/XY tissue, and sequencing of adenomatous polyposis coli. Individual crypts and different phenotypic areas of carcinoma-in-adenoma lesions were analyzed for mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli, p53, and K-RAS; loss of heterozygosity at 5q, 17p, and 18q; and aneuploidy. Phylogenetic trees were constructed. All familial adenomatous polyposis-associated adenomas and some sporadic lesions had polyclonal genetic defects. Some independent clones appeared to be maintained in advanced adenomas. No clear obligate order of genetic events was established. Top-down growth of dysplastic tissue into neighboring crypts was a possible mechanism of clonal competition. Human colorectal microadenomas are polyclonal and may arise from a combination of host genetic features, mucosal exposures, and active crypt interactions. Analyses of tumor phylogenies show that most lesions undergo intermittent genetic homogenization, but heterotypic mutation patterns indicate that independent clonal evolution can occur throughout adenoma development. Based on observations of clonal ordering the requirement and timing of genetic events during neoplastic progression may be more variable than previously thought. 2010 AGA

  13. Individualized Risk of Surgical Complications: An Application of the Breast Reconstruction Risk Assessment Score

    PubMed Central

    Mlodinow, Alexei S.; Khavanin, Nima; Hume, Keith M.; Simmons, Christopher J.; Weiss, Michael J.; Murphy, Robert X.; Gutowski, Karol A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Risk discussion is a central tenet of the dialogue between surgeon and patient. Risk calculators have recently offered a new way to integrate evidence-based practice into the discussion of individualized patient risk and expectation management. Focusing on the comprehensive Tracking Operations and Outcomes for Plastic Surgeons (TOPS) database, we endeavored to add plastic surgical outcomes to the previously developed Breast Reconstruction Risk Assessment (BRA) score. Methods: The TOPS database from 2008 to 2011 was queried for patients undergoing breast reconstruction. Regression models were constructed for the following complications: seroma, dehiscence, surgical site infection (SSI), explantation, flap failure, reoperation, and overall complications. Results: Of 11,992 cases, 4439 met inclusion criteria. Overall complication rate was 15.9%, with rates of 3.4% for seroma, 4.0% for SSI, 6.1% for dehiscence, 3.7% for explantation, 7.0% for flap loss, and 6.4% for reoperation. Individualized risk models were developed with acceptable goodness of fit, accuracy, and internal validity. Distribution of overall complication risk was broad and asymmetric, meaning that the average risk was often a poor estimate of the risk for any given patient. These models were added to the previously developed open-access version of the risk calculator, available at http://www.BRAscore.org. Conclusions: Population-based measures of risk may not accurately reflect risk for many individual patients. In this era of increasing emphasis on evidence-based medicine, we have developed a breast reconstruction risk assessment calculator from the robust TOPS database. The BRA Score tool can aid in individualizing—and quantifying—risk to better inform surgical decision making and better manage patient expectations. PMID:26090295

  14. Kinematic measures for assessing gait stability in elderly individuals: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hamacher, D.; Singh, N.B.; Van Dieën, J.H.; Heller, M.O.; Taylor, W.R.

    2011-01-01

    Falls not only present a considerable health threat, but the resulting treatment and loss of working days also place a heavy economic burden on society. Gait instability is a major fall risk factor, particularly in geriatric patients, and walking is one of the most frequent dynamic activities of daily living. To allow preventive strategies to become effective, it is therefore imperative to identify individuals with an unstable gait. Assessment of dynamic stability and gait variability via biomechanical measures of foot kinematics provides a viable option for quantitative evaluation of gait stability, but the ability of these methods to predict falls has generally not been assessed. Although various methods for assessing gait stability exist, their sensitivity and applicability in a clinical setting, as well as their cost-effectiveness, need verification. The objective of this systematic review was therefore to evaluate the sensitivity of biomechanical measures that quantify gait stability among elderly individuals and to evaluate the cost of measurement instrumentation required for application in a clinical setting. To assess gait stability, a comparative effect size (Cohen's d) analysis of variability and dynamic stability of foot trajectories during level walking was performed on 29 of an initial yield of 9889 articles from four electronic databases. The results of this survey demonstrate that linear variability of temporal measures of swing and stance was most capable of distinguishing between fallers and non-fallers, whereas step width and stride velocity prove more capable of discriminating between old versus young (OY) adults. In addition, while orbital stability measures (Floquet multipliers) applied to gait have been shown to distinguish between both elderly fallers and non-fallers as well as between young and old adults, local stability measures (λs) have been able to distinguish between young and old adults. Both linear and nonlinear measures of foot

  15. Accuracy Assessment of Crown Delineation Methods for the Individual Trees Using LIDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, K. T.; Lin, C.; Lin, Y. C.; Liu, J. K.

    2016-06-01

    Forest canopy density and height are used as variables in a number of environmental applications, including the estimation of biomass, forest extent and condition, and biodiversity. The airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is very useful to estimate forest canopy parameters according to the generated canopy height models (CHMs). The purpose of this work is to introduce an algorithm to delineate crown parameters, e.g. tree height and crown radii based on the generated rasterized CHMs. And accuracy assessment for the extraction of volumetric parameters of a single tree is also performed via manual measurement using corresponding aerial photo pairs. A LiDAR dataset of a golf course acquired by Leica ALS70-HP is used in this study. Two algorithms, i.e. a traditional one with the subtraction of a digital elevation model (DEM) from a digital surface model (DSM), and a pit-free approach are conducted to generate the CHMs firstly. Then two algorithms, a multilevel morphological active-contour (MMAC) and a variable window filter (VWF), are implemented and used in this study for individual tree delineation. Finally, experimental results of two automatic estimation methods for individual trees can be evaluated with manually measured stand-level parameters, i.e. tree height and crown diameter. The resulting CHM generated by a simple subtraction is full of empty pixels (called "pits") that will give vital impact on subsequent analysis for individual tree delineation. The experimental results indicated that if more individual trees can be extracted, tree crown shape will became more completely in the CHM data after the pit-free process.

  16. Neurophysiological assessment of Alzheimer's disease individuals by a single electroencephalographic marker.

    PubMed

    Lizio, Roberta; Del Percio, Claudio; Marzano, Nicola; Soricelli, Andrea; Yener, Görsev G; Başar, Erol; Mundi, Ciro; De Rosa, Salvatore; Triggiani, Antonio Ivano; Ferri, Raffaele; Arnaldi, Dario; Nobili, Flavio Mariano; Cordone, Susanna; Lopez, Susanna; Carducci, Filippo; Santi, Giulia; Gesualdo, Loreto; Rossini, Paolo M; Cavedo, Enrica; Mauri, Margherita; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Babiloni, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Here we presented a single electroencephalographic (EEG) marker for a neurophysiological assessment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients already diagnosed by current guidelines. The ability of the EEG marker to classify 127 AD individuals and 121 matched cognitively intact normal elderly (Nold) individuals was tested. Furthermore, its relationship to AD patients' cognitive status and structural brain integrity was examined. Low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) freeware estimated cortical sources of resting state eyes-closed EEG rhythms. The EEG marker was defined as the ratio between the activity of parieto-occipital cortical sources of delta (2-4 Hz) and low-frequency alpha (8-10.5 Hz) rhythms. Results showed 77.2% of sensitivity in the recognition of the AD individuals; 65% of specificity in the recognition of the Nold individuals; and 0.75 of area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve. Compared to the AD subgroup with the EEG maker within one standard deviation of the Nold mean (EEG-), the AD subgroup with EEG+ showed lower global cognitive status, as revealed by Mini-Mental State Evaluation score, and more abnormal values of white-matter and cerebrospinal fluid normalized volumes, as revealed by structural magnetic resonance imaging. We posit that cognitive and functional status being equal, AD patients with EEG+ should receive special clinical attention due to a neurophysiological "frailty". EEG+ label can be also used in clinical trials (i) to form homogeneous groups of AD patients diagnosed by current guidelines and (ii) as end-point to evaluate intervention effects.

  17. Assessing individual employee risk factors for occupational asthma in primary aluminium smelting

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, C; McBride, D; Firth, H; Herbison, G

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To assess the significance of individual risk factors in the development of occupational asthma of aluminium smelting (OAAS). Methods: A matched case-control study nested in a cohort of 545 workers employed in areas with moderate to high levels of smelting dust and fume. The cohort comprised those who had their first pre-employment medical examination between 1 July 1982 and 1 July 1995; follow up was until 31 December 2000. Forty five cases diagnosed with OAAS and four controls per case were matched for the same year of pre-employment and age within ±5 years. The pre-employment medical questionnaires were examined, blinded as to case-control status, and information obtained on demographics and details of allergic symptoms, respiratory risk factors, respiratory symptoms, and spirometry. Data from the subsequent medical notes yielded subsequent history of hay fever, family history of asthma, full work history, date of termination or diagnosis, and tobacco smoking history at the end-point. Results: There was a significant positive association between hay fever diagnosed either at or during employment and OAAS (adjusted OR 3.58, 95% CI 1.57 to 8.21). A higher forced expiratory ratio (FEV1/FVC%) at employment reduced the risk of developing OAAS (adjusted OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.88 to 0.99). The risk of OAAS was more than three times higher in individuals with an FER of 70.0–74.9% than in individuals with an FER ⩾80.0% (adjusted OR 3.46, 95% CI 1.01 to 11.89). Conclusions: Individuals with hay fever may be more susceptible to occupational asthma when exposed to airborne irritants in aluminium smelting. The pathological basis may be reduced nasal filtration and increased bronchial hyperresponsiveness. PMID:15208376

  18. Assessment of neuromuscular and haemodynamic activity in individuals with and without chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    McKeon, Melissa D; Albert, Wayne J; Neary, J Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Background Biering-Sørenson (1984) found that individuals with less lumbar extensor muscle endurance had an increased occurrence of first episode low back pain. As a result, back endurance tests have been recommended for inclusion in health assessment protocols. However, different studies have reported markedly different values for endurance times, leading some researchers to believe that the back is receiving support from the biceps femoris and gluteus maximus. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the haemodynamic and neuromuscular activity of the erector spinae, biceps femoris, and gluteus maximus musculature during the Biering-Sørenson Muscular Endurance Test (BSME). Methods Seventeen healthy individuals and 46 individuals with chronic low back pain performed the Biering-Sørenson Muscular Endurance Test while surface electromyography was used to quantify neuromuscular activity. Disposable silver-silver-chloride electrodes were placed in a bipolar arrangement over the right or left biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, and the lumbosacral paraspinal muscles at the level of L3. Near Infrared Spectroscopy was used simultaneously to measure tissue oxygenation and blood volume changes of the erector spinae and biceps femoris. Results The healthy group displayed a significantly longer time to fatigue (Healthy: 168.5s, LBP: 111.1s; p ≤ 0.05). Significant differences were shown in the median frequency slope of the erector spinae between the two groups at 90–100% of the time to fatigue while no significant differences were noted in the haemodynamic data for the two groups. Conclusion Although the BSME has been recognized as a test for back endurance, individuals with chronic LBP appear to incorporate a strategy that may help support the back musculature by utilizing the biceps femoris and gluteus maximus to a greater degree than their healthy counterparts. PMID:16734915

  19. Assessment of the motivation to use artificial sweetener among individuals with an eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Schebendach, Janet; Klein, Diane A; Mayer, Laurel E S; Attia, Evelyn; Devlin, Michael J; Foltin, Richard W; Walsh, B Timothy

    2017-02-01

    Eating disorders are associated with a range of abnormalities in eating behavior. Some individuals consume large amounts of non-caloric artificial sweeteners, suggesting abnormalities in appetitive responding. The current study aimed to quantify hedonic and motivating effects of artificial sweetener in individuals with and without an eating disorder. Two laboratory studies were conducted. Hedonic preference was estimated using the number of artificial sweetener packets (0-10) added to unsweetened cherry flavored Kool-Aid (study 1). Motivation to obtain sweetener was assessed by a progressive ratio (PR) work task (study 2). Ninety-three participants (25 anorexia nervosa restricting type (AN-R), 23 AN binge/purge type (AN-B/P), 20 bulimia nervosa (BN), and 25 normal controls (NC)) completed the study. No significant difference in hedonic preference was found among participant groups. Work completed at the PR task ranged from 0 to 9500 key-board presses. The AN-B/P group had a significantly higher breakpoint and performed significantly more work for sweetener compared to the BN and NC groups. Among AN-B/P and AN-R participants, the preferred number of Equal packets was significantly correlated with the breakpoint and total work. The increased amount of work for sweetener among individuals with AN-B/P supports an enhanced reward value of sweet taste in this population, and suggests that the characteristic food avoidance in AN cannot be accounted for by decreased reward value of all taste-related stimuli. This study also supports the novel application of a PR ratio task to quantify the motivating effect of sweet taste among individuals with an eating disorder.

  20. Individual Differences in the Post-Illumination Pupil Response to Blue Light: Assessment without Mydriatics.

    PubMed

    Bruijel, Jessica; van der Meijden, Wisse P; Bijlenga, Denise; Dorani, Farangis; Coppens, Joris E; Te Lindert, Bart H W; Kooij, J J Sandra; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2016-09-09

    Melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells play an important role in the non-image forming effects of light, through their direct projections on brain circuits involved in circadian rhythms, mood and alertness. Individual differences in the functionality of the melanopsin-signaling circuitry can be reliably quantified using the maximum post-illumination pupil response (PIPR) after blue light. Previous protocols for acquiring PIPR relied on the use of mydriatics to dilate the light-exposed eye. However, pharmacological pupil dilation is uncomfortable for the participants and requires ophthalmological expertise. Hence, we here investigated whether an individual's maximum PIPR can be validly obtained in a protocol that does not use mydriatics but rather increases the intensity of the light stimulus. In 18 participants (5 males, mean age ± SD: 34.6 ± 13.6 years) we evaluated the PIPR after exposure to intensified blue light (550 µW/cm²) provided to an undilated dynamic pupil. The test-retest reliability of the primary PIPR outcome parameter was very high, both between day-to-day assessments (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) = 0.85), as well as between winter and summer assessments (ICC = 0.83). Compared to the PIPR obtained with the use of mydriatics and 160 µW/cm² blue light exposure, the method with intensified light without mydriatics showed almost zero bias according to Bland-Altman plots and had moderate to strong reliability (ICC = 0.67). In conclusion, for PIPR assessments, increasing the light intensity is a feasible and reliable alternative to pupil dilation to relieve the participant's burden and to allow for performance outside the ophthalmological clinic.

  1. An Investigation of the Development of Pre-Service Teacher Assessment Literacy through Individualized Tutoring and Peer Debriefing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odo, Dennis Murphy

    2016-01-01

    Many pre-service teachers lack deep understanding of assessment concepts and have low selfefficacy for using assessments but pre-service on-campus programs have been shown to support their assessment literacy development. Likewise, individualized tutoring has helped pre-service candidates improve instructional practice and peer debriefing has been…

  2. 49 CFR 1548.15 - Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for individuals having unescorted access to cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for... SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY INDIRECT AIR CARRIER SECURITY § 1548.15 Access to cargo: Security threat... individual must successfully complete a security threat assessment or comparable security threat assessment...

  3. Housing and mobility demands of individual households and their life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Saner, Dominik; Heeren, Niko; Jäggi, Boris; Waraich, Rashid A; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2013-06-04

    Household consumption, apart from governmental consumption, is the main driver of worldwide economy. Attached to each household purchase are economic activities along the preceding supply chain, with the associated resource use and emissions. A method to capture and assess all these resource uses and emissions is life cycle assessment. We developed a model for the life cycle assessment of housing and land-based mobility (excluding air travel) consumption of individual households a small village in Switzerland. Statistical census and dwelling register data are the foundations of the model. In a case study performed on a midsized community, we found a median value of greenhouse gas emissions of 3.12 t CO2 equiv and a mean value of 4.30 t CO2 equiv per capita and year for housing and mobility. Twenty-one percent of the households in the investigated region were responsible for 50% of the total greenhouse gas emissions, meaning that if their emissions could be halved the total emissions of the community would be reduced by 25%. Furthermore, a cluster analysis revealed that driving factors for large environmental footprints are demands of large living area heated by fossil energy carriers, as well as large demands of motorized private transportation.

  4. Uncertainty in assessment of radiation-induced diffusion index changes in individual patients

    PubMed Central

    Nazem-Zadeh, Mohammad-Reza; Chapman, Christopher H; Lawrence, Theodore S; Tsien, Christina I; Cao, Yue

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate repeatability coefficients of diffusion tensor indices to assess whether longitudinal changes in diffusion indices were true changes beyond the uncertainty for individual patients undergoing radiation therapy (RT). Twenty-two patients who had low-grade or benign tumors and were treated by partial brain radiation therapy (PBRT) participated in an IRB-approved MRI protocol. The diffusion tensor images in the patients were acquired pre-RT, week 3 during RT, at the end of RT, and 1, 6, and 18 months after RT. As a measure of uncertainty, repeatability coefficients (RC) of diffusion indices in the segmented cingulum, corpus callosum, and fornix were estimated by using test–retest diffusion tensor datasets from the National Biomedical Imaging Archive (NBIA) database. The upper and lower limits of the 95% confidence interval of the estimated RC from the test and retest data were used to evaluate whether the longitudinal percentage changes in diffusion indices in the segmented structures in the individual patients were beyond the uncertainty and thus could be considered as true radiation-induced changes. Diffusion indices in different white matter structures showed different uncertainty ranges. The estimated RC for fractional anisotropy (FA) ranged from 5.3% to 9.6%, for mean diffusivity (MD) from 2.2% to 6.8%, for axial diffusivity (AD) from 2.4% to 5.5%, and for radial diffusivity (RD) from 2.9% to 9.7%. Overall, 23% of the patients treated by RT had FA changes, 44% had MD changes, 50% had AD changes, and 50% had RD changes beyond the uncertainty ranges. In the fornix, 85.7% and 100% of the patients showed changes beyond the uncertainty range at 6 and 18 months after RT, demonstrating that radiation has a pronounced late effect on the fornix compared to other segmented structures. It is critical to determine reliability of a change observed in an individual patient for clinical decision making. Assessments of the repeatability

  5. Uncertainty in assessment of radiation-induced diffusion index changes in individual patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazem-Zadeh, Mohammad-Reza; Chapman, Christopher H.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Tsien, Christina I.; Cao, Yue

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate repeatability coefficients of diffusion tensor indices to assess whether longitudinal changes in diffusion indices were true changes beyond the uncertainty for individual patients undergoing radiation therapy (RT). Twenty-two patients who had low-grade or benign tumors and were treated by partial brain radiation therapy (PBRT) participated in an IRB-approved MRI protocol. The diffusion tensor images in the patients were acquired pre-RT, week 3 during RT, at the end of RT, and 1, 6, and 18 months after RT. As a measure of uncertainty, repeatability coefficients (RC) of diffusion indices in the segmented cingulum, corpus callosum, and fornix were estimated by using test-retest diffusion tensor datasets from the National Biomedical Imaging Archive (NBIA) database. The upper and lower limits of the 95% confidence interval of the estimated RC from the test and retest data were used to evaluate whether the longitudinal percentage changes in diffusion indices in the segmented structures in the individual patients were beyond the uncertainty and thus could be considered as true radiation-induced changes. Diffusion indices in different white matter structures showed different uncertainty ranges. The estimated RC for fractional anisotropy (FA) ranged from 5.3% to 9.6%, for mean diffusivity (MD) from 2.2% to 6.8%, for axial diffusivity (AD) from 2.4% to 5.5%, and for radial diffusivity (RD) from 2.9% to 9.7%. Overall, 23% of the patients treated by RT had FA changes, 44% had MD changes, 50% had AD changes, and 50% had RD changes beyond the uncertainty ranges. In the fornix, 85.7% and 100% of the patients showed changes beyond the uncertainty range at 6 and 18 months after RT, demonstrating that radiation has a pronounced late effect on the fornix compared to other segmented structures. It is critical to determine reliability of a change observed in an individual patient for clinical decision making. Assessments of the repeatability and

  6. Introducing efficiency into the analysis of individual lifetime performance variability: a key to assess herd management.

    PubMed

    Puillet, L; Martin, O; Sauvant, D; Tichit, M

    2011-01-01

    fixed production costs (i.e. maintenance requirements). Management options led to similar production and feed efficiencies at the herd level while giving large contrasts in the proportions of individuals at equilibrium with their production potential. These results suggested that analysing individual variability on the basis of criteria related to production processes could improve the assessment of herd management. The herd model opens promising perspectives in studying whether individual variability represents an advantage for herd performance.

  7. Assessment of the relative success of sporozoite inoculations in individuals exposed to moderate seasonal transmission

    PubMed Central

    Tall, Adama; Sokhna, Cheikh; Perraut, Ronald; Fontenille, Didier; Marrama, Laurence; Ly, Alioune B; Sarr, Fatoumata D; Toure, Aïssatou; Trape, Jean-François; Spiegel, André; Rogier, Christophe; Druilhe, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Background The time necessary for malaria parasite to re-appear in the blood following treatment (re-infection time) is an indirect method for evaluating the immune defences operating against pre-erythrocytic and early erythrocytic malaria stages. Few longitudinal data are available in populations in whom malaria transmission level had also been measured. Methods One hundred and ten individuals from the village of Ndiop (Senegal), aged between one and 72 years, were cured of malaria by quinine (25 mg/day oral Quinimax™ in three equal daily doses, for seven days). Thereafter, thick blood films were examined to detect the reappearance of Plasmodium falciparum every week, for 11 weeks after treatment. Malaria transmission was simultaneously measured weekly by night collection of biting mosquitoes. Results Malaria transmission was on average 15.3 infective bites per person during the 77 days follow up. The median reappearance time for the whole study population was 46.8 days, whereas individuals would have received an average one infective bite every 5 days. At the end of the follow-up, after 77 days, 103 of the 110 individuals (93.6%; CI 95% [89.0–98.2]) had been re-infected with P. falciparum. The median reappearance time ('re-positivation') was longer in subjects with patent parasitaemia at enrolment than in parasitologically-negative individuals (58 days vs. 45.9; p = 0.03) and in adults > 30 years than in younger subjects (58.6 days vs. 42.7; p = 0.0002). In a multivariate Cox PH model controlling for the sickle cell trait, G6PD deficiency and the type of habitat, the presence of parasitaemia at enrolment and age ≥ 30 years were independently predictive of a reduced risk of re-infection (PH = 0.5 [95% CI: 0.3–0.9] and 0.4; [95% CI: 0.2–0.6] respectively). Conclusion Results indicate the existence of a substantial resistance to sporozoites inoculations, but which was ultimately overcome in almost every individual after 2 1/2 months of natural challenges

  8. A Bayesian approach to the group versus individual prediction controversy in actuarial risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Scurich, Nicholas; John, Richard S

    2012-06-01

    Recent attempts to indict the use of actuarial risk assessment instruments have relied on confidence intervals to demonstrate that risk estimates derived at the group level do not necessarily apply to any specific individual within that group. This article contends that frequentist confidence intervals are inapposite to the current debate. Instead, Bayesian credible intervals are necessary-in principle-to accomplish what commentators are concerned about: describing the precision of an actuarial risk estimate. After illustrating both the calculation and interpretation of credible intervals, this article shows how such intervals can be used to characterize the precision of actuarial risk estimates. It then explores the legal implications of wide and overlapping intervals. Contrary to what detractors claim, the fact that risk estimate intervals overlap is not a germane to legal (logical) relevance, and therefore actuarial risk estimates cannot be per se "inadmissible" on this basis.

  9. A novel paradigm for engineering education: virtual internships with individualized mentoring and assessment of engineering thinking.

    PubMed

    Chesler, Naomi C; Ruis, A R; Collier, Wesley; Swiecki, Zachari; Arastoopour, Golnaz; Williamson Shaffer, David

    2015-02-01

    Engineering virtual internships are a novel paradigm for providing authentic engineering experiences in the first-year curriculum. They are both individualized and accommodate large numbers of students. As we describe in this report, this approach can (a) enable students to solve complex engineering problems in a mentored, collaborative environment; (b) allow educators to assess engineering thinking; and (c) provide an introductory experience that students enjoy and find valuable. Furthermore, engineering virtual internships have been shown to increase students'-and especially women's-interest in and motivation to pursue engineering degrees. When implemented in first-year engineering curricula more broadly, the potential impact of engineering virtual internships on the size and diversity of the engineering workforce could be dramatic.

  10. Review of Individual Technology Assessment Reports (ITAR) for industrial boiler applications

    SciTech Connect

    Archer, T.; Bakshi, P.; Weisenberg, I.J.

    1980-01-01

    Eight Individual Technology Assessment Reports and one Background Study in Support of New Source Performance Standards for Industrial Boilers are reviewed. These ITARs were prepared for the EPA and include studies of particulate control, flue-gas desulfurization, fluidized-bed combustion, NO/sub x/ combustion modification, NO/sub x/ flue-gas treatment, coal cleaning, synthetic fuels, and oil cleaning. The ITARs provide engineering and cost data for the air pollution control technologies that will be required to meet the New Source Performance Standards for industrial boilers. The pollutants considered were SO/sub x/, NO/sub x/, and particulates. Each ITAR is reviewed from the standpoint of engineering, demonstrated technology, and costing methodology. The cost review includes a comparison of the costing methodology of each ITAR with the costing methodology recommended by the EPA background document.

  11. Application of bioreactance for cardiac output assessment during exercise in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Adrian; Hull, James H; Nunan, David; Jakovljevic, Djordje G; Brodie, David; Ansley, Lesley

    2010-07-01

    In patients with cardiac failure, bioreactance-based cardiac output (CO) monitoring provides a valid non-invasive method for assessing cardiac performance during exercise. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of this technique during strenuous exercise in healthy, trained individuals. Fourteen recreational cyclists, mean (SD) age of 34 (8) years and relative peak oxygen uptake of (VO(2)) 56 (6) ml kg(-1) min(-1), underwent incremental maximal exercise testing, whilst CO was recorded continuously using a novel bioreactance-based device (CO(bio)). The CO(bio) was evaluated against relationship with VO(2), theoretical calculation of arterial-venous oxygen difference (C(a - v) O(2)) and level of agreement with an inert gas rebreathing method (CO(rb)) using a Bland-Altman plot. Bioreactance-based CO measurement was practical and straightforward in application, although there was intermittent loss of electrocardiograph signal at high-intensity exercise. At rest and during exercise, CO(bio) was strongly correlated with VO(2) (r = 0.84; P < 0.001), however, there was evidence of systematic bias with CO(bio) providing lower values than CO(rb); mean bias (limits of agreement) -19% (14.6 to -53%). Likewise, calculated (C(a - v) O(2)) was greater when determined using CO(bio) than CO(rb) (P < 0.001), although both devices provided values in excess of those reported in invasive studies. Bioreactance-based determination of CO provides a pragmatic approach to the continuous assessment of cardiac performance during strenuous exercise in trained individuals. Our findings, however, suggest that further work is needed to refine the key measurement determinants of CO using this device to improve measurement accuracy in this setting.

  12. CASIG: a consumer-centered assessment for planning individualized treatment and evaluating program outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wallace, C J; Lecomte, T; Wilde, J; Liberman, R P

    2001-05-30

    This paper reports the psychometric characteristics of a measure that assesses the treatment outcomes of individuals with serious and persistent mental illness. Unlike other outcome measures, this one is designed to be embedded in the clinical process of planning and evaluating treatment. It collects individualized data, structures how the data are used to plan and evaluate a client's treatment, and produces aggregate information relevant for research and program purposes. Two parallel versions were developed: one for the client's self-report, and one for an informant's report. The self-report measure was administered by peer-interviewers to 244 community interviewees, and by inpatient peer-interviewers to 93 inpatient interviewees. The community interviewees also completed the BASIS-32 and SF-36. Informants for 103 of the community interviewees completed the informant version of the measure, and the CCAR. Inpatient staff completed the informant version for 161 inpatient residents without regard for matching the 93 inpatient interviewees. The two versions had acceptable internal consistency, test--retest, and interrater reliabilities. Correlations of the community interviewees' and informants' results with the BASIS-32, SF-36, and CCAR provided evidence of convergent and discriminant validity, as did contrasts between community and inpatients interviewees. The usefulness of the instrument for clinical, program and research purposes is discussed, with emphasis on the characteristics that enhance its value in clinical practice --- assessment of meaningful outcomes, operationalization of client empowerment, comprehensiveness, easy administration, and continuity across time and provider. Also discussed is a computer-based program to summarize and present the results in a rapid, clinically meaningful manner.

  13. Computed tomography assessment of hip joints in asymptomatic individuals in relation to femoroacetabular impingement.

    PubMed

    Kang, Alan C L; Gooding, Andrew J; Coates, Mark H; Goh, Tony D; Armour, Paul; Rietveld, John

    2010-06-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement has become a well-recognized entity predisposing to acetabular labral tears and chondral damage, and subsequently development of osteoarthritis of the hip joint. In the authors' experience, it is common to see bony abnormalities predisposing to femoroacetabular impingement in the contralateral asymptomatic hips in patients with unilateral femoroacetabular impingement. This study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of bony abnormalities predisposing to femoroacetabular impingement in asymptomatic individuals without exposing study participants to unnecessary radiation. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 4. Fifty individuals (100 hip joints), ranging from 15 to 40 years of age, who were seen at a local hospital between March and August 2008 with abdominal trauma or nonspecific abdominal pain in whom abdominal computed tomography was performed to aid diagnosis were prospectively studied. These patients were not known to have any history of hip-related problems. Raw data from the abdominal computed tomography scan, performed on a 64-slice multidetector computed tomography scanner, were reformatted using bone algorithm into several different planes. Several measurements and observations of the hip joints were made in relation to femoroacetabular impingement. The 100 hip joints from 50 patients with no history of hip problems demonstrated that 39% of the joints (31% of female, 48% of male joints) have at least 1 morphologic aspect predisposing to femoroacetabular impingement. The majority (66% to 100% ) of the findings were bilateral; 33% of female and 52% of male asymptomatic participants in our study had at least 1 predisposing factor for femoroacetabular impingement in 1 or both of their hip joints. Based on the data collected from this study, the acetabular crossover sign had a 71% sensitivity and 88% specificity for detecting acetabular retroversion. Nonquantitative assessment of the femoral head at the anterior

  14. Student Attainment of Proficiency in a Clinical Skill: The Assessment of Individual Learning Curves

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Robert D.; Hecker, Kent G.; Biau, David J.; Pang, Daniel S. J.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if the learning curve cumulative summation test (LC-CUSUM) can differentiate proficiency in placing intravenous catheters by novice learners, and identify the cause of failure when it occurred. In a prospective, observational study design 6 undergraduate students with no previous experience of placing intravenous catheters received standardized training by a board certified veterinary anesthesiologist in intravenous catheter placement technique. Immediately following training, each student attempted 60 intravenous catheterizations in a dog mannequin thoracic limb model. Results were scored as a success or failure based upon completion of four specific criteria, and where catheter placement failure occurred, the cause was recorded according to pre-defined criteria. Initial acceptable and unacceptable failure rates were set by the study team and the LC-CUSUM was used to generate a learning curve for each student. Using 10% and 25% acceptable and unacceptable failure rates, 3 out of 6 students attained proficiency, requiring between 26 to 48 attempts. Applying 25% and 50% acceptable and unacceptable failure rates, 5 of 6 students obtained proficiency, requiring between 18 and 55 attempts. Wide inter-individual variability was observed and the majority of failed catheterisation attempts were limited to two of the four pre-defined criteria. These data indicate that the LC-CUSUM can be used to generate individual learning curves, inter-individual variability in catheter placement ability is wide, and that specific steps in catheter placement are responsible for the majority of failures. These findings may have profound implications for how we teach and assess technical skills. PMID:24586337

  15. Toxicity assessment of individual ingredients of synthetic-based drilling muds (SBMs).

    PubMed

    Bakhtyar, Sajida; Gagnon, Marthe Monique

    2012-09-01

    Synthetic-based drilling muds (SBMs) offer excellent technical characteristics while providing improved environmental performance over other drilling muds. The low acute toxicity and high biodegradability of SBMs suggest their discharge at sea would cause minimal impacts on marine ecosystems, however, chronic toxicity testing has demonstrated adverse effects of SBMs on fish health. Sparse environmental monitoring data indicate effects of SBMs on bottom invertebrates. However, no environmental toxicity assessment has been performed on fish attracted to the cutting piles. SBM formulations are mostly composed of synthetic base oils, weighting agents, and drilling additives such as emulsifiers, fluid loss agents, wetting agents, and brine. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of exposure to individual ingredients of SBMs on fish health. To do so, a suite of biomarkers [ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, biliary metabolites, sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, DNA damage, and heat shock protein] have been measured in pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) exposed for 21 days to individual ingredients of SBMs. The primary emulsifier (Emul S50) followed by the fluid loss agent (LSL 50) caused the strongest biochemical responses in fish. The synthetic base oil (Rheosyn) caused the least response in juvenile fish. The results suggest that the impact of Syndrill 80:20 on fish health might be reduced by replacement of the primary emulsifier Emul S50 with an alternative ingredient of less toxicity to aquatic biota. The research provides a basis for improving the environmental performance of SBMs by reducing the environmental risk of their discharge and providing environmental managers with information regarding the potential toxicity of individual ingredients.

  16. Assessing vocational outcome expectancy in individuals with serious mental illness: a factor-analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Kanako; Umucu, Emre; Wu, Jia-Rung; Yaghmaian, Rana; Lee, Hui-Ling; Fitzgerald, Sandra; Chan, Fong

    2017-07-04

    Self-determination theory (SDT) and self-efficacy theory (SET) can be used to conceptualize self-determined motivation to engage in mental health and vocational rehabilitation (VR) services and to predict recovery. To incorporate SDT and SET as a framework for vocational recovery, developing and validating SDT/SET measures in vocational rehabilitation is warranted. Outcome expectancy is an important SDT/SET variable affecting rehabilitation engagement and recovery. The purpose of this study was to validate the Vocational Outcome Expectancy Scale (VOES) for use within the SDT/SET vocational recovery framework. One hundred and twenty-four individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) participated in this study. Measurement structure of the VOES was evaluated using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Both EFA and CFA results supported a two-factor structure: (a) positive outcome expectancy, and (b) negative outcome expectancy. The internal consistency reliability coefficients for both factors were acceptable. In addition, positive outcome expectancy correlated stronger than negative outcome expectancy with other SDT/SET constructs in the expected directions. The VOES is a brief, reliable and valid instrument for assessing vocational outcome expectancy in individuals with SMI that can be integrated into SDT/SET as a vocational rehabilitation engagement and recovery model in psychiatric rehabilitation.

  17. Assessing Adolescents’ Attachment Hierarchies: Differences Across Developmental Periods and Associations With Individual Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Natalie L.; Kobak, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents’ attachment hierarchies were assessed in a sample of 212 high school and 198 college students. The Important People Interview (IPI) differentiated attachment bonds from other supportive or affiliative relationships and indicated that adolescents show a hierarchical ordering of preferences for multiple attachment figures. Differences in the composition and structure of adolescents’ attachment hierarchies were found between the early high school (9th and 10th grades), later high school (11th and 12th grades), and college samples. In the college sample, romantic partners were placed in higher positions in adolescents’ hierarchies, fathers were placed in lower positions, and the structure of adolescents’ hierarchies were less differentiated than in the high school samples. Individual differences in the composition of adolescents’ hierarchies were associated with adjustment outcomes. Friends’ placement in higher positions and fathers’ exclusion from or placement in quaternary positions was associated with increased behavior problems. Findings demonstrate that the IPI provides a measure of adolescents’ attachment hierarchies that is sensitive to developmental stage and individual differences. PMID:22545000

  18. Assessment of repeated relational patterns for individual cases using the SASB-based Intrex questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Critchfield, Kenneth L.; Benjamin, Lorna Smith

    2010-01-01

    Repeated interpersonal patterns are central to case conceptualization and treatment planning in interpersonal and attachment-based approaches to therapy. In this study, raters (133 college students, 165 inpatients) provided data on the SASB-based Intrex questionnaire about self-treatment, relationship with a significant other, and remembered interactions with parents in childhood. Within-subject profiles were inspected for precise behavioral matches conforming to three “copy process” patterns: Identification (behaving like an important other), Recapitulation (behaving as if the other person is still present and in charge), and Introjection (treating the self the way another did). Copy process evidence was observed in most individual ratings. Consistent with expectation, non-clinical raters tended to copy a securely-attached pattern of affiliation, low hostility, and moderate degrees of enmeshment and differentiation. Only patients copied maladaptive behavior at greater than base rate expectation. Implications are discussed and recommendations provided for use of Intrex in individual assessment of copy process. PMID:20954050

  19. Naturalistic Assessment of Everyday Functioning in Individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment: The Day Out Task

    PubMed Central

    Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; McAlister, Courtney; Weakley, Alyssa

    2012-01-01

    Objective The Day Out Task (DOT), a naturalistic task that requires multitasking in a real-world setting, was used to examine everyday functioning in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Method Thirty-eight participants with MCI and 38 cognitively healthy older adult controls prioritized, organized, initiated and completed a number of subtasks in a campus apartment to prepare for a day out (e.g., determine and gather change for bus, bring a magazine). Participants also completed tests assessing cognitive constructs important in multitasking (i.e., retrospective memory, prospective memory, planning). Results Compared to controls, the MCI group required more time to complete the DOT and demonstrated poorer task accuracy, performing more subtasks incompletely and inaccurately. Despite poorer DOT task accuracy, the MCI and control groups approached completion of the DOT in a similar manner. For the MCI group, retrospective memory was a unique predictor of the number of subtasks left incomplete and inaccurate, while prospective memory was a unique predictor of DOT sequencing. The DOT measures, but not the cognitive tests, were predictive of knowledgeable informant report of everyday functioning. Conclusions These findings suggest that difficulty remembering and keeping track of multiple goals and subgoals may contribute to the poorer performance of individuals with MCI in complex everyday situations. PMID:22846035

  20. A proposed metric for assessing the measurement quality of individual microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoungmi; Page, Grier P; Beasley, T Mark; Barnes, Stephen; Scheirer, Katherine E; Allison, David B

    2006-01-01

    Background High-density microarray technology is increasingly applied to study gene expression levels on a large scale. Microarray experiments rely on several critical steps that may introduce error and uncertainty in analyses. These steps include mRNA sample extraction, amplification and labeling, hybridization, and scanning. In some cases this may be manifested as systematic spatial variation on the surface of microarray in which expression measurements within an individual array may vary as a function of geographic position on the array surface. Results We hypothesized that an index of the degree of spatiality of gene expression measurements associated with their physical geographic locations on an array could indicate the summary of the physical reliability of the microarray. We introduced a novel way to formulate this index using a statistical analysis tool. Our approach regressed gene expression intensity measurements on a polynomial response surface of the microarray's Cartesian coordinates. We demonstrated this method using a fixed model and presented results from real and simulated datasets. Conclusion We demonstrated the potential of such a quantitative metric for assessing the reliability of individual arrays. Moreover, we showed that this procedure can be incorporated into laboratory practice as a means to set quality control specifications and as a tool to determine whether an array has sufficient quality to be retained in terms of spatial correlation of gene expression measurements. PMID:16430768

  1. Approaches for assessment of terrestrial vertebrate responses to contaminants: moving beyond individual organisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Heinz, G.H.; Hall, R.J.; Albers, Peter H.; Heinz, Gary H.; Ohlendorf, Harry M.

    2000-01-01

    Conclusions: A need for a broader range ofinformation on effects of contaminants on individuals exists among the 4 classes of terrestrial vertebrates, especially mammals, reptiles, and amphibians. Separation of contaminant effects from other effects and reduction of speculative extrapolation within and among species requires information that can be produced only by combined field and laboratory investigations that incorporate seasonal or annual cycles and important spatial and interaction conditions. Assessments of contaminant effects at the population level and higher are frequently dependent on extrapolations from a lower organizational level. Actual measurements of the effects of contaminants on populations or communities, possibly in conjunction with case studies that establish relations between effects on individuals and effects on populations, are needed to reduce the uncertainty associated with these extrapolations. Associated with these assessment levels is the need for acceptable definitions of what we mean when we refer to a 'meaningful population change' or an 'effect on communities or ecosystems.' At these higher levels of organization we are also confronted with the need for procedures useful for separating contaminant effects from effects caused by other environmental conditions. Although the bulk of literature surveyed was of the focused cause-and-effect type that is necessary for proving relations between contaminants and wildlife, community or ecosystem field assessments, as sometimes performed with reptiles and amphibians, might be a useful alternative for estimating the potential of a contaminant to cause environmental harm. Assumptions about the special usefulness of reptiles and amphibians as environmental indicators ought to be tested with comparisons to mammals and birds. Information on the effects of contaminants above the individual level is needed to generate accurate estimates of the potential consequences of anthropogenic pollution (e

  2. Framework for Risk Analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems: Modeling Individual Steps of a Risk Assessment Process

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Anuj; Castleton, Karl J.; Hoopes, Bonnie L.

    2004-06-01

    The study of the release and effects of chemicals in the environment and their associated risks to humans is central to public and private decision making. FRAMES 1.X, Framework for Risk Analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems, is a systems modeling software platform, developed by PNNL, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, that helps scientists study the release and effects of chemicals on a source to outcome basis, create environmental models for similar risk assessment and management problems. The unique aspect of FRAMES is to dynamically introduce software modules representing individual components of a risk assessment (e.g., source release of contaminants, fate and transport in various environmental media, exposure, etc.) within a software framework, manipulate their attributes and run simulations to obtain results. This paper outlines the fundamental constituents of FRAMES 2.X, an enhanced version of FRAMES 1.X, that greatly improve the ability of the module developers to “plug” their self-developed software modules into the system. The basic design, the underlying principles and a discussion of the guidelines for module developers are presented.

  3. Repeatability and reproducibility of individual abutment impression, assessed with a blue light scanner.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jin-Hun; Kim, Dong-Yeon; Lee, Jae-Jun; Kim, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Woong-Chul

    2016-06-01

    We assessed the repeatability and reproducibility of abutment teeth dental impressions, digitized with a blue light scanner, by comparing the discrepancies in repeatability and reproducibility values for different types of abutment teeth. To evaluate repeatability, impressions of the canine, first premolar, and first molar, prepared for ceramic crowns, were repeatedly scanned to acquire 5 sets of 3-dimensional data via stereolithography (STL) files. Point clouds were compared and the error sizes were measured (n=10, per type). To evaluate reproducibility, the impressions were rotated by 10-20° on the table and scanned. These data were compared to the first STL data and the error sizes were measured (n=5, per type). One-way analysis of variance was used to assess the repeatability and reproducibility of the 3 types of teeth, and Tukey honest significant differences (HSD) multiple comparison test was used for post hoc comparisons (α=.05). The differences with regard to repeatability were 4.5, 2.7, and 3.1 µm for the canine, premolar, and molar, indicating the poorest repeatability for the canine (P<.001). For reproducibility, the differences were 6.6, 5.8, and 11.0 µm indicating the poorest reproducibility for the molar (P=.007). Our results indicated that impressions of individual abutment teeth, digitized with a blue light scanner, had good repeatability and reproducibility.

  4. Repeatability and reproducibility of individual abutment impression, assessed with a blue light scanner

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Yeon; Lee, Jae-Jun; Kim, Ji-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We assessed the repeatability and reproducibility of abutment teeth dental impressions, digitized with a blue light scanner, by comparing the discrepancies in repeatability and reproducibility values for different types of abutment teeth. MATERIALS AND METHODS To evaluate repeatability, impressions of the canine, first premolar, and first molar, prepared for ceramic crowns, were repeatedly scanned to acquire 5 sets of 3-dimensional data via stereolithography (STL) files. Point clouds were compared and the error sizes were measured (n=10, per type). To evaluate reproducibility, the impressions were rotated by 10-20° on the table and scanned. These data were compared to the first STL data and the error sizes were measured (n=5, per type). One-way analysis of variance was used to assess the repeatability and reproducibility of the 3 types of teeth, and Tukey honest significant differences (HSD) multiple comparison test was used for post hoc comparisons (α=.05). RESULTS The differences with regard to repeatability were 4.5, 2.7, and 3.1 µm for the canine, premolar, and molar, indicating the poorest repeatability for the canine (P<.001). For reproducibility, the differences were 6.6, 5.8, and 11.0 µm indicating the poorest reproducibility for the molar (P=.007). CONCLUSION Our results indicated that impressions of individual abutment teeth, digitized with a blue light scanner, had good repeatability and reproducibility. PMID:27350856

  5. The importance of individual protein molecule dynamics in developing and assessing solid state protein preparations.

    PubMed

    Hill, John J; Shalaev, Evgenyi Y; Zografi, George

    2014-09-01

    Processing protein solutions into the solid state is a common approach for generating stable amorphous protein mixtures that are suitable for long-term storage. Great care is typically given to protecting the protein native structure during the various drying steps that render it into the amorphous solid state. However, many studies illustrate that chemical and physical degradations still occur in spite of this amorphous material having good glassy properties and it being stored at temperatures below its glass transition temperature (Tg). Because of these persistent issues and recent biophysical studies that have refined the debate ascribing meaning to the molecular dynamical transition temperature and Tg of protein molecules, we provide an updated discussion on the impact of assessing and managing localized, individual protein molecule nondiffusive motions in the context of proteins being prepared into bulk amorphous mixtures. Our aim is to bridge the pharmaceutical studies addressing bulk amorphous preparations and their glassy behavior, with the biophysical studies historically focused on the nondiffusive internal protein dynamics and a protein's activity, along with their combined efforts in assessing the impact of solvent hydrogen-bonding networks on local stability. We also provide recommendations for future research efforts in solid-state formulation approaches.

  6. The Academic Diligence Task (ADT): Assessing Individual Differences in Effort on Tedious but Important Schoolwork

    PubMed Central

    Galla, Brian M.; Plummer, Benjamin D.; White, Rachel E.; Meketon, David; D’Mello, Sidney K.; Duckworth, Angela L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study reports on the development and validation of the Academic Diligence Task (ADT), designed to assess the tendency to expend effort on academic tasks which are tedious in the moment but valued in the long-term. In this novel online task, students allocate their time between solving simple math problems (framed as beneficial for problem solving skills) and, alternatively, playing Tetris or watching entertaining videos. Using a large sample of high school seniors (N = 921), the ADT demonstrated convergent validity with self-report ratings of Big Five conscientiousness and its facets, self-control and grit, as well as discriminant validity from theoretically unrelated constructs, such as Big Five extraversion, openness, and emotional stability, test anxiety, life satisfaction, and positive and negative affect. The ADT also demonstrated incremental predictive validity for objectively measured GPA, standardized math and reading achievement test scores, high school graduation, and college enrollment, over and beyond demographics and intelligence. Collectively, findings suggest the feasibility of online behavioral measures to assess noncognitive individual differences that predict academic outcomes. PMID:25258470

  7. Examining the Reliability of Scores from the Consensual Assessment Technique in the Measurement of Individual and Small Group Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefanic, Nicholas; Randles, Clint

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the reliability of measures of both individual and group creative work using the consensual assessment technique (CAT). CAT was used to measure individual and group creativity among a population of pre-service music teachers enrolled in a secondary general music class (n = 23) and was evaluated from…

  8. 14 CFR 13.16 - Civil Penalties: Administrative assessment against a person other than an individual acting as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... against a person other than an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman... assessment against a person other than an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or... as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman for a violation cited in the first sentence of 49...

  9. 14 CFR 13.16 - Civil Penalties: Administrative assessment against a person other than an individual acting as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... against a person other than an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman... assessment against a person other than an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or... as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman for a violation cited in the first sentence of 49...

  10. 14 CFR 13.16 - Civil Penalties: Administrative assessment against a person other than an individual acting as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... against a person other than an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman... assessment against a person other than an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or... as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman for a violation cited in the first sentence of 49...

  11. 14 CFR 13.16 - Civil Penalties: Administrative assessment against a person other than an individual acting as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... against a person other than an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman... assessment against a person other than an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or... as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman for a violation cited in the first sentence of 49...

  12. 14 CFR 13.16 - Civil Penalties: Administrative assessment against a person other than an individual acting as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... against a person other than an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman... assessment against a person other than an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or... as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman for a violation cited in the first sentence of 49...

  13. Individual Differences in the Post-Illumination Pupil Response to Blue Light: Assessment without Mydriatics

    PubMed Central

    Bruijel, Jessica; van der Meijden, Wisse P.; Bijlenga, Denise; Dorani, Farangis; Coppens, Joris E.; te Lindert, Bart H. W.; Kooij, J. J. Sandra; Van Someren, Eus J. W.

    2016-01-01

    Melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells play an important role in the non-image forming effects of light, through their direct projections on brain circuits involved in circadian rhythms, mood and alertness. Individual differences in the functionality of the melanopsin-signaling circuitry can be reliably quantified using the maximum post-illumination pupil response (PIPR) after blue light. Previous protocols for acquiring PIPR relied on the use of mydriatics to dilate the light-exposed eye. However, pharmacological pupil dilation is uncomfortable for the participants and requires ophthalmological expertise. Hence, we here investigated whether an individual’s maximum PIPR can be validly obtained in a protocol that does not use mydriatics but rather increases the intensity of the light stimulus. In 18 participants (5 males, mean age ± SD: 34.6 ± 13.6 years) we evaluated the PIPR after exposure to intensified blue light (550 µW/cm2) provided to an undilated dynamic pupil. The test-retest reliability of the primary PIPR outcome parameter was very high, both between day-to-day assessments (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) = 0.85), as well as between winter and summer assessments (ICC = 0.83). Compared to the PIPR obtained with the use of mydriatics and 160 µW/cm2 blue light exposure, the method with intensified light without mydriatics showed almost zero bias according to Bland-Altman plots and had moderate to strong reliability (ICC = 0.67). In conclusion, for PIPR assessments, increasing the light intensity is a feasible and reliable alternative to pupil dilation to relieve the participant’s burden and to allow for performance outside the ophthalmological clinic. PMID:27618116

  14. Driving assessment and rehabilitation using a driving simulator in individuals with traumatic brain injury: A scoping review.

    PubMed

    Imhoff, Sarah; Lavallière, Martin; Teasdale, Normand; Fait, Philippe

    2016-06-30

    Due to the heterogeneity of the lesion following a traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the complexity of the driving task, driving assessment and rehabilitation in TBI individuals is challenging. Conventional driving assessment (on-road and in-clinic evaluations) has failed demonstrating effectiveness to assess fitness to drive in TBI individuals. We aimed to determine if driving simulators represent an interesting opportunity in assessing and rehabilitating driving skills in TBI individuals. We searched PubMed, CINAHL and Cochrane library databases between 27-02-2014 and 08-04-2014 for articles published since 2000 with the contents of simulator driving assessment and rehabilitation. Out of 488, eight articles with the subject of simulator driving assessment and two with the subject of simulator driving rehabilitation in individuals with TBI were reviewed. Driving simulators represent a promising avenue for the assessment and rehabilitation of driving skills in TBI individuals as it allows control of stimuli in a safe, challenging and ecologically valid environment and offer the opportunity to measure and record driving performance. Additional studies, however, are needed to document strengths and limitations of this method.

  15. 20 CFR 641.230 - Must the individual assessment conducted by the SCSEP grantee or sub-recipient and the assessment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE SENIOR COMMUNITY SERVICE EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Must the individual assessment conducted by... accepted for use by either entity to determine the individual's need for services in the SCSEP and...

  16. 20 CFR 641.230 - Must the individual assessment conducted by the SCSEP grantee or sub-recipient and the assessment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE SENIOR COMMUNITY SERVICE EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Must the individual assessment conducted by... accepted for use by either entity to determine the individual's need for services in the SCSEP and...

  17. Justification of CT for Individual Health Assessment of Asymptomatic Persons: A World Health Organization Consultation.

    PubMed

    Malone, Jim; Del Rosario Perez, Maria; Friberg, Eva Godske; Prokop, Mathias; Jung, Seung Eun; Griebel, Jurgen; Ebdon-Jackson, Steve

    2016-12-01

    An international expert consultation was convened by the World Health Organization (WHO). The purpose of the meeting was to review the use of CT in examining asymptomatic people. This is often referred to as individual health assessment (IHA). IHA was identified as a global phenomenon unenthusiastically tolerated, and not actively promoted, structured, or regulated in most countries. This paper identifies the state of the art for IHA and some considerations in relation to its justification, in different regions of the world. The outcomes reached include the following: questions around terminology and culture of IHA practice; review of IHA in some countries, regions, and international bodies; dilemmas for participants in IHA; risk communication, education, and training for professions and public; the desirability of guidelines and clinical audit; social, ethical, public health, and resource considerations; and a framework for IHA and regulatory considerations. Three subcategories of examination for asymptomatic individuals were identified: formal screening programs; examinations for which the evidence base or risk profile is incomplete; and opportunistic examinations with little or no evidence or risk profile to suggest they have any merit. The latter challenges the justification principle of radiation protection. In addition, the issue of the costs, direct and indirect, associated with false positives and/or equivocal/incidental findings were highlighted. These and other considerations make it difficult to view some IHA as a bona fide medical activity. To allow it to be viewed as such requires that it be conducted within a robust clinical governance framework that includes regulatory dimensions. Copyright © 2016 The World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of radiofrequency ablation on individual renal function: assessment by technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine renal scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Takashi; Sato, Shuhei; Iguchi, Toshihiro; Mimura, Hidefumi; Yasui, Kotaro; Gobara, Hideo; Saika, Takashi; Nasu, Yasutomo; Kumon, Hiromi; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2006-04-01

    We quantitatively evaluated total and individual renal function by technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (Tc-99m MAG3) renal scintigraphy before and after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of renal tumors. Eleven patients who underwent Tc-99m MAG3 renal scintigraphy 1 week before and after RFA were evaluated (7 men and 4 women; age range: 23-83 years; mean age: 60.6 years). Five patients had solitary kidneys, and five had normally or minimally functioning contralateral kidneys. One patient had a renal cell carcinoma in the contralateral kidney. One patient with a solitary kidney underwent RFA a second time for a residual tumor. In patients with a solitary kidney, MAG3 clearance decreased after 5 of 6 RFAs, and in patients with a normally functioning contralateral kidney, MAG3 clearance decreased after 4 of 5 RFAs, but no significant differences were observed between before and after treatments. In addition to the total MAG3 clearance, the split MAG3 clearance was evaluated in patients with a normally functioning contralateral kidney. MAG3 clearance decreased in 4 of 5 treated kidneys, while it adversely increased in the contralateral kidneys after 4 of 5 RFAs. No significant differences, however, were observed between before and after treatments. The results of our study revealed no significant differences in sCr, BUN, CCr, or MAG3 clearance between pre- and post-RFA values. These results support data regarding the functional impact and safety of renal RFA in published reports. We evaluated total and individual renal function quantitatively using Tc-99m MAG3 renal scintigraphy before and after treatment. This scintigraphy was very useful in assessing the effects of RFA on renal function.

  19. Velar activity in individuals with velopharyngeal insufficiency assessed by acoustic rhinometry

    PubMed Central

    TRINDADE, Inge Elly Kiemle; ARAÚJO, Bruna Mara Adorno Marmontel; TEIXEIRA, Ana Claudia Martins Sampaio; da SILVA, Andressa Sharllene Carneiro; TRINDADE-SUEDAM, Ivy Kiemle

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic rhinometry is routinely used for the evaluation of nasal patency. Objective To investigate whether the technique is able to identify the impairment of velopharyngeal (VP) activity in individuals with clinical diagnosis of velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI). Methods Twenty subjects with repaired cleft palate and inadequate velopharyngeal function (IVF) and 18 non-cleft controls with adequate velopharyngeal function (AVF), adults, of both genders, were evaluated. Area-distance curves were obtained during VP rest and speech activity, using an Eccovision Acoustic Rhinometry system. Volume was determined by integrating the area under the curve at the segment corresponding to the nasopharynx. VP activity (∆V) was estimated by the absolute and relative differences between nasopharyngeal volume at rest (Vr) and during an unreleased /k/ production (Vk). The efficiency of the technique to discriminate IVF and AVF was assessed by a ROC curve. Results Mean Vk and Vr values (±SD) obtained were: 23.2±3.6 cm3 and 15.9±3.8 cm3 (AVF group), and 22.7±7.9 cm3 and 20.7±7.4 cm3 (IVF group), corresponding to a mean ∆V decay of 7.3 cm3 (31%) for the AVF group and a significantly smaller ∆V decay of 2.0 cm3 (9%) for the IVF group (p<0.05). Seventy percent of the IVF individuals showed a ∆V suggesting impaired VP function (below the cutoff score of 3.0 cm3 which maximized both sensitivity and specificity of the test), confirming clinical diagnosis. Conclusion Acoustic rhinometry was able to identify, with a good discriminatory power, the impairment of VP activity which characterizes VPI. PMID:25141205

  20. The Utility and Psychometric Properties of the Abel-Blasingame Assessment System for "Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasingame, Gerry D.; Abel, Gene G.; Jordan, Alan; Wiegel, Markus

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development and utility of the Abel-Blasingame Assessment System for "individuals with intellectual disabilities" (ABID) for assessment of sexual interest and problematic sexual behaviors. The study examined the preliminary psychometric properties and evaluated the clinical utility of the ABID based on a sample…

  1. Use of articulated registration for response assessment of individual metastatic bone lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yip, Stephen; Jeraj, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Accurate skeleton registration is necessary to match corresponding metastatic bone lesions for response assessment over multiple scans. In articulated registration (ART), whole-body skeletons are registered by auto-segmenting individual bones, then rigidly aligning them. Performance and robustness of the ART in lesion matching were evaluated and compared to other commonly used registration techniques. Sixteen prostate cancer patients were treated either with molecular targeted therapy or chemotherapy. Ten out of the 16 patients underwent the double baseline whole-body [F-18]NaF PET/CT scans for test-retest (TRT) evaluation. Twelve of the 16 patients underwent pre- and mid-treatment [F-18]NaF PET/CT scans. Skeletons at different time points were registered using ART, rigid, and deformable (DR) registration algorithms. The corresponding lesions were contoured and identified on successive PET images based on including the voxels with the standardized uptake value over 15. Each algorithm was evaluated for its ability to accurately align corresponding lesions via skeleton registration. A lesion matching score (MS) was measured for each lesion, which quantified the per cent overlap between the lesion's two corresponding contours. Three separate sensitivity studies were conducted to investigate the robustness of ART in matching: sensitivity of lesion matching to various contouring threshold levels, effects of imperfections in the bone auto-segmentation and sensitivity of mis-registration. The performance of ART (MS = 82% for both datasets, p ≪ 0.001) in lesion matching was significantly better than rigid (MSTRT = 53%, MSResponse = 46%) and DR (MSTRT = 46%, MSResponse = 45%) algorithms. Neither varying threshold levels for lesion contouring nor imperfect bone segmentation had significant (p∼0.10) impact on the ART matching performance as the MS remained unchanged. Despite the mis-registration reduced MS for ART, as low as 67% (p ≪ 0.001), the performance remained to

  2. Interethnic variability of CYP4F2 (V433M) in admixed population of Roma and Hungarians.

    PubMed

    Sipeky, Csilla; Weber, Agnes; Melegh, Bela I; Matyas, Petra; Janicsek, Ingrid; Szalai, Renata; Szabo, Istvan; Varnai, Reka; Tarlos, Greta; Ganczer, Alma; Melegh, Bela

    2015-07-01

    Pharmacogenetic based dosing recommendations are provided in FDA-approved warfarin label for Caucasians. Evidence of notable difference in dosing algorithms of under-represented populations forced us to explore the genetic variability of CYP4F2 gene in Roma and Hungarian populations. 484 Roma, 493 Hungarian untreated subjects were genotyped for the CYP4F2*3 (rs2108622) variant by PCR-RFLP assay. We firstly report, that frequencies of the CYP4F2 rs2108622 GG, GA, AA genotypes and A allele in the Roma population were 46.5%, 42.6%, 10.9% and 32.2%; in Hungarians 50.1%, 42.2%, 7.7% and 22.8%, respectively. Bearing of two minor alleles of CYP4F2 missense variant (AA genotype) modestly explains inter-ethnic differences of studied populations (p<0.08). CYP4F2*3 (V433M) risk allele frequency of Roma (0.32) was in higher range, and of Hungarians (0.23) in lower range, as compared with other world populations. Roma have an elevated chance for higher mean warfarin dose, besides a decreased risk of major bleeding events in long-term warfarin use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of cognitive and adaptive behaviour among individuals with congenital insensitivity to pain and anhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Levy Erez, Daniella; Levy, Jacov; Friger, Michael; Aharoni-Mayer, Yael; Cohen-Iluz, Moran; Goldstein, Esther

    2010-06-01

    Individuals with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) are reported to have mental retardation* but to our knowledge no detailed study on the subject has ever been published. The present study assessed and documented cognitive and adaptive behaviour among Arab Bedouin children with CIPA. Twenty-three Arab Bedouin children (12 females, 11 males) with CIPA aged between 3 and 17 years (mean 9 y 7 mo, SD 4 y 2 mo) were assessed. They were compared with 19 healthy siblings of the affected children aged between 5 and 13 years (mean 8 y 11 mo, SD 2 y 10 m). All of the children in the comparison group, but only half of the CIPA group, were attending school. The children were evaluated using a standardized, non-verbal intelligence test, the Leiter International Performance Scale--Revised, and an adaptive behaviour questionnaire, the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales, 2nd edition. Based on scores on the intelligence test and the adaptive behaviour scale, children with CIPA functioned in the mental retardation range (mean IQ scores: CIPA group 53.8, comparison group 83.32 [p<0.001]; adaptive behaviour: CIPA group 68.1, comparison group 104.88 [p<0.001]). IQ was significantly higher among the children with CIPA aged up to 7 years 11 months than among the older children 73.83 vs 45.21 (p<0.001). As a group, the younger children with CIPA may be functioning above the mental retardation range. We propose that early intervention addressing these children's needs and developing an appropriate educational system, might improve their outcome.

  4. Converging Indicators for Assessing Individual Differences in Adaptation to Extreme Environments: Preliminary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; DeRoshia, Charles W.; Taylor, Bruce; Hines, Seleimah; Bright, Andrew; Dodds, Anika

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of a new methodology for assessing the deleterious effects of spaceflight on crew health and performance. It is well known that microgravity results in various physiological alterations, e.g., headward fluid shifts which can impede physiological adaptation. Other factors that may affect crew operational efficiency include disruption of sleep-wake cycles, high workload, isolation, confinement, stress and fatigue. From an operational perspective, it is difficult to predict which individuals will be most or least affected in this unique environment given that most astronauts are first-time flyers. During future lunar and Mars missions space crews will include both men and women of multi-national origins, different professional backgrounds, and various states of physical condition. Therefore, new methods or technologies are needed to monitor and predict astronaut performance and health, and to evaluate the effects of various countermeasures on crew during long duration missions. This paper reviews several studies conducted in both laboratory and operational environments with men and women ranging in age between 18 to 50 years. The studies included the following: soldiers performing command and control functions during mobile operations in enclosed armored vehicles; subjects participating in laboratory tests of an anti-motion sickness medication; subjects exposed to chronic hypergravity aboard a centrifuge, and subject responses to 36-hours of sleep deprivation. Physiological measurements, performance metrics, and subjective self-reports were collected in each study. The results demonstrate that multivariate converging indicators provide a significantly more reliable method for assessing environmental effects on performance and health than any single indicator.

  5. Converging indicators for assessing individual differences in adaptation to extreme environments.

    PubMed

    Cowings, Patricia; Toscano, William; Deroshia, Charles; Taylor, Bruce; Hines, A'Liah; Bright, Andrew; Dodds, Anika

    2007-05-01

    It is well known that microgravity results in various physiological alterations, for example, head-ward fluid shifts which can impede physiological adaptation. Other factors that may affect crew operational efficiency include disruption of sleep-wake cycles, high workload, isolation, confinement, stress, and fatigue. From an operational perspective, it is difficult to predict which individuals will be most or least affected in this unique environment given that most astronauts are first-time flyers. During future lunar and Mars missions space crews will include both men and women of multi-national origins, different professional backgrounds, and various states of physical condition. Therefore, new methods or technologies are needed to monitor and predict astronaut performance and health, and to evaluate the effects of various countermeasures on crew during long-duration missions. Herein we describe the development and validation of a new methodology for assessing the deleterious effects of spaceflight on crew health and performance. We reviewed several studies conducted in both laboratory and operational environments with men and women ranging in age between 18 to 50 yr. The studies included the following: soldiers performing command and control functions during mobile operations in enclosed armored vehicles; subjects participating in laboratory tests of an anti-motion sickness medication; subjects exposed to chronic hypergravity aboard a centrifuge; and subject responses to 36-h of sleep deprivation. Physiological measurements, performance metrics, and subjective self-reports were collected in each study. The results demonstrate that multivariate converging indicators provide a significantly more reliable method for assessing environmental effects on performance and health than any single indicator.

  6. Midpalatal suture maturation: Classification method for individual assessment before rapid maxillary expansion

    PubMed Central

    Angelieri, Fernanda; Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Franchi, Lorenzo; Gonçalves, João R.; Benavides, Erika; McNamara, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In this study, we present a novel classification method for individual assessment of midpalatal suture morphology. Methods Cone-beam computed tomography images from 140 subjects (ages, 5.6-58.4 years) were examined to define the radiographic stages of midpalatal suture maturation. Five stages of maturation of the midpalatal suture were identified and defined: stage A, straight high-density sutural line, with no or little interdigitation; stage B, scalloped appearance of the high-density sutural line; stage C, 2 parallel, scalloped, high-density lines that were close to each other, separated in some areas by small low-density spaces; stage D, fusion completed in the palatine bone, with no evidence of a suture; and stage E, fusion anteriorly in the maxilla. Intraexaminer and interexaminer agreements were evaluated by weighted kappa tests. Results Stages A and B typically were observed up to 13 years of age, whereas stage C was noted primarily from 11 to 17 years but occasionally in younger and older age groups. Fusion of the palatine (stage D) and maxillary (stage E) regions of the midpalatal suture was completed after 11 years only in girls. From 14 to 17 years, 3 of 13 (23%) boys showed fusion only in the palatine bone (stage D). Conclusions This new classification method has the potential to avoid the side effects of rapid maxillary expansion failure or unnecessary surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion for late adolescents and young adults. PMID:24182592

  7. Assessing individual radial junction solar cells over millions on VLS-grown silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Linwei; Rigutti, Lorenzo; Tchernycheva, Maria; Misra, Soumyadeep; Foldyna, Martin; Picardi, Gennaro; Cabarrocas, Pere Roca i.

    2013-07-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) grown on low-cost substrates provide an ideal framework for the monolithic fabrication of radial junction photovoltaics. However, the quality of junction formation over a random matrix of SiNWs, fabricated via a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism, has never been assessed in a realistic context. To address this, we probe the current response of individual radial junction solar cells under electron-beam and optical-beam excitations. Excellent current generation from the radial junction units, compared to their planar counterparts, has been recorded, indicating a high junction quality and effective doping in the ultra-thin SiNWs with diameters thinner than 20 nm. Interestingly, we found that the formation of radial junctions by plasma deposition can be quite robust against geometrical disorder and even the crossings of neighboring cell units. These results provide a strong support to the feasibility of building high-quality radial junction solar cells over high-throughput VLS-grown SiNWs on low-cost substrates.

  8. Communication in Individuals with Rett Syndrome: an Assessment of Forms and Functions.

    PubMed

    Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert; Smeets, Eric; Green, Vanessa A; Lang, Russell; Lancioni, Giulio E; Curfs, Leopold M

    2010-04-01

    In the present study we assessed the forms and functions of prelinguistic communicative behaviors for 120 children and adults with Rett syndrome using the Inventory of Potential Communicative Acts (IPCA) (Sigafoos et al. Communication Disorders Quarterly 21:77-86, 2000a). Informants completed the IPCA and the results were analysed to provide a systematic inventory and objective description of the communicative forms and functions present in each individual's repertoire. Results show that respondents reported a wide variety of communicative forms and functions. By far most girls used prelinguistic communicative behaviors of which eye contact/gazing was the most common form. The most often endorsed communicative functions were social convention, commenting, answering, requesting and choice-making. Problematic topographies (e.g., self-injury, screaming, non-compliance) were being used for communicative purposes in 10 to 41% of the sample. Exploratory analyses revealed that several communicative forms and functions were related to living environment, presence/absence of epilepsy, and age. That is, higher percentages of girls who showed some forms/functions were found in those who lived at home, who had no epilepsy and who were relatively young.

  9. Assessing individual radial junction solar cells over millions on VLS-grown silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Yu, Linwei; Rigutti, Lorenzo; Tchernycheva, Maria; Misra, Soumyadeep; Foldyna, Martin; Picardi, Gennaro; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere

    2013-07-12

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) grown on low-cost substrates provide an ideal framework for the monolithic fabrication of radial junction photovoltaics. However, the quality of junction formation over a random matrix of SiNWs, fabricated via a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism, has never been assessed in a realistic context. To address this, we probe the current response of individual radial junction solar cells under electron-beam and optical-beam excitations. Excellent current generation from the radial junction units, compared to their planar counterparts, has been recorded, indicating a high junction quality and effective doping in the ultra-thin SiNWs with diameters thinner than 20 nm. Interestingly, we found that the formation of radial junctions by plasma deposition can be quite robust against geometrical disorder and even the crossings of neighboring cell units. These results provide a strong support to the feasibility of building high-quality radial junction solar cells over high-throughput VLS-grown SiNWs on low-cost substrates.

  10. Individual assessment of antihypertensive response by self-starting cumulative sums.

    PubMed

    Cornélissen, G; Halberg, F; Hawkins, D; Otsuka, K; Henke, W

    1997-01-01

    A self-interpreted control chart, on an individualized basis, assesses the effect of a switch from beta-blockers to an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor in a patient with occasional blood pressure (BP) excess. In dense and long data series, the BP and heart rate (HR) of this patient respond to the change in treatment by the test criterion of a self-starting Cumulative Sum (cusum), which reaches values outside a decision interval with a lowering of BP and an increase in HR and vice versa, at least for BP, after treatment cessation. Thereafter, minimal sampling requirements are sought in the same data by applying the same control chart approach to decimated data. Skeleton sampling schemes in a system of chronobiologic self-analysis and interpretation of manually recorded data obtained at strategically placed times (established on the basis of data decimations) could complement control charts that are used on a home computer or preferably would be built into the output of ambulatory monitors used at the outset as a minimum and routinely as an optimum.

  11. Peer support services for individuals with serious mental illnesses: assessing the evidence.

    PubMed

    Chinman, Matthew; George, Preethy; Dougherty, Richard H; Daniels, Allen S; Ghose, Sushmita Shoma; Swift, Anita; Delphin-Rittmon, Miriam E

    2014-04-01

    This review assessed the level of evidence and effectiveness of peer support services delivered by individuals in recovery to those with serious mental illnesses or co-occurring mental and substance use disorders. Authors searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress, the Educational Resources Information Center, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature for outcome studies of peer support services from 1995 through 2012. They found 20 studies across three service types: peers added to traditional services, peers in existing clinical roles, and peers delivering structured curricula. Authors judged the methodological quality of the studies using three levels of evidence (high, moderate, and low). They also described the evidence of service effectiveness. The level of evidence for each type of peer support service was moderate. Many studies had methodological shortcomings, and outcome measures varied. The effectiveness varied by service type. Across the range of methodological rigor, a majority of studies of two service types--peers added and peers delivering curricula--showed some improvement favoring peers. Compared with professional staff, peers were better able to reduce inpatient use and improve a range of recovery outcomes, although one study found a negative impact. Effectiveness of peers in existing clinical roles was mixed. Peer support services have demonstrated many notable outcomes. However, studies that better differentiate the contributions of the peer role and are conducted with greater specificity, consistency, and rigor would strengthen the evidence.

  12. Assessing age in the desert tortoise Gopherus agassizii: Testing skeletochronology with individuals of known age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, A.J.; Zug, G.R.; Medica, P.A.; Spotila, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Eight desert tortoises Gopherus agassizii from a long-term mark-recapture study in the Mojave Desert, Nevada, USA, afforded an opportunity to examine the accuracy of skeletochronological age estimation on tortoises from a seasonal, yet environmentally erratic environment. These 8 tortoises were marked as hatchlings or within the first 2 yr of life, and their carcasses were salvaged from predator kills. Using d blind protocol, 2 skeletochronological protocols (correction-factor and ranking) provided age estimates for a set of 4 bony elements (humerus, scapula, femur, ilium) from these tortoises of known age. The age at death of the tortoises ranged from 15 to 50 yr. The most accurate protocol - ranking using the growth layers within each of the 4 elements - provided estimates from 21 to 47 yr, with the highest accuracy from the ilia. The results indicate that skeletochronological age estimation provides a reasonably accurate method for assessing the age at death of desert tortoises and, if used with a large sample of individuals, will provide a valuable tool for examining age-related mortality parameters in desert tortoise and likely in other gopher tortoises (Gopherus). ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  13. Assessment of nutritional status in free-living elderly individuals by bioelectrical impedance vector analysis.

    PubMed

    Buffa, Roberto; Floris, Giovanni; Marini, Elisabetta

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to examine bioelectrical vector changes in relation to nutritional status in a sample of healthy free-living elderly people. The study group consisted of 170 men and women 70 to 99 y of age. Anthropometric and bioelectrical (resistance and reactance, 50 kHz, 800 muA) measurements were taken. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis was applied. Nutritional status was determined by the Mini-Nutritional Assessment. Bioelectrical characteristics of normal and undernourished individuals were compared statistically with Hotelling's T(2) test and graphically with 95% probability confidence ellipses. The impedance and multidimensional approaches showed a clear association. Undernourished subjects had a smaller phase angle (men 5.2 +/- 1.3 versus 5.7 +/- 1.0 degrees, P = 0.027; women 5.0 +/- 1.0 versus 5.4 +/- 0.9 degrees, P = 0.065) than normally nourished subjects. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis represents a promising indicator of nutritional status, suitable in screening programs and clinical practice.

  14. Performance assessment of individual and ensemble data-mining techniques for gully erosion modeling.

    PubMed

    Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza; Yousefi, Saleh; Kornejady, Aiding; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-12-31

    Gully erosion is identified as an important sediment source in a range of environments and plays a conclusive role in redistribution of eroded soils on a slope. Hence, addressing spatial occurrence pattern of this phenomenon is very important. Different ensemble models and their single counterparts, mostly data mining methods, have been used for gully erosion susceptibility mapping; however, their calibration and validation procedures need to be thoroughly addressed. The current study presents a series of individual and ensemble data mining methods including artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM), maximum entropy (ME), ANN-SVM, ANN-ME, and SVM-ME to map gully erosion susceptibility in Aghemam watershed, Iran. To this aim, a gully inventory map along with sixteen gully conditioning factors was used. A 70:30% randomly partitioned sets were used to assess goodness-of-fit and prediction power of the models. The robustness, as the stability of models' performance in response to changes in the dataset, was assessed through three training/test replicates. As a result, conducted preliminary statistical tests showed that ANN has the highest concordance and spatial differentiation with a chi-square value of 36,656 at 95% confidence level, while the ME appeared to have the lowest concordance (1772). The ME model showed an impractical result where 45% of the study area was introduced as highly susceptible to gullying, in contrast, ANN-SVM indicated a practical result with focusing only on 34% of the study area. Through all three replicates, the ANN-SVM ensemble showed the highest goodness-of-fit and predictive power with a respective values of 0.897 (area under the success rate curve) and 0.879 (area under the prediction rate curve), on average, and correspondingly the highest robustness. This attests the important role of ensemble modeling in congruently building accurate and generalized models which emphasizes the necessity to examine different models

  15. Assessment of the retinal nerve fiber layer in individuals with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Ferrandez, Blanca; Ferreras, Antonio; Calvo, Pilar; Abadia, Beatriz; Marin, Jose M; Pajarin, Ana B

    2016-04-18

    The effect of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome in the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess RNFL measurements acquired using scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with OSA. The sample of this cross-sectional study included 40 OSA patients and 45 age-matched controls, consecutively and prospectively selected. All participants underwent at least one reliable standard automated perimetry (SAP) test, while RNFL measurements were obtained using the SLP and OCT. The OSA group was divided into 3 sub-groups based on the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI): mild, moderate, or severe OSA. SAP, SLP, and OCT outcomes were compared between the control and OSA groups. The relationship between AHI and RNFL parameters was also evaluated. Age was not different between both groups. Mean deviation of SAP was -0.47 ± 0.9 dB and -1.43 ± 2.3 dB in the control and OSA groups, respectively (p = 0.01). RNFL thickness measured with OCT was similar between groups. OSA patients showed increased nerve fiber indicator (NFI; 20.9 ± 7.9 versus 16.42 ± 7.82; p = 0.01) and decreased superior average (59.74 ± 10.35 versus 63.73 ± 6.58; p = 0.03) obtained with SLP compared with healthy individuals. In the total sample, NFI and AHI were moderately correlated (r = 0.358; p = 0.001). In severe OSA subjects (n = 22), NFI and AHI had a Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.44 (p = 0.04). RNFL thickness measured with OCT did not differ significantly between groups. Severe OSA was related to a reduction of the RNFL thickness assessed by SLP.

  16. Assessment of Active Video Gaming Using Adapted Controllers by Individuals With Physical Disabilities: A Protocol.

    PubMed

    Malone, Laurie A; Padalabalanarayanan, Sangeetha; McCroskey, Justin; Thirumalai, Mohanraj

    2017-06-16

    Individuals with disabilities are typically more sedentary and less fit compared to their peers without disabilities. Furthermore, engaging in physical activity can be extremely challenging due to physical impairments associated with disability and fewer opportunities to participate. One option for increasing physical activity is playing active video games (AVG), a category of video games that requires much more body movement for successful play than conventional push-button or joystick actions. However, many current AVGs are inaccessible or offer limited play options for individuals who are unable to stand, have balance issues, poor motor control, or cannot use their lower body to perform game activities. Making AVGs accessible to people with disabilities offers an innovative approach to overcoming various barriers to participation in physical activity. Our aim was to compare the effect of off-the-shelf and adapted game controllers on quality of game play, enjoyment, and energy expenditure during active video gaming in persons with physical disabilities, specifically those with mobility impairments (ie, unable to stand, balance issues, poor motor control, unable to use lower extremity for gameplay). The gaming controllers to be evaluated include off-the-shelf and adapted versions of the Wii Fit balance board and gaming mat. Participants (10-60 years old) came to the laboratory a total of three times. During the first visit, participants completed a functional assessment and became familiar with the equipment and games to be played. For the functional assessment, participants performed 18 functional movement tasks from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. They also answered a series of questions from the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System and Quality of Life in Neurological Conditions measurement tools, to provide a personal perspective regarding their own functional ability. For Visit 2, metabolic data were

  17. Assessment of Active Video Gaming Using Adapted Controllers by Individuals With Physical Disabilities: A Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Padalabalanarayanan, Sangeetha; McCroskey, Justin; Thirumalai, Mohanraj

    2017-01-01

    Background Individuals with disabilities are typically more sedentary and less fit compared to their peers without disabilities. Furthermore, engaging in physical activity can be extremely challenging due to physical impairments associated with disability and fewer opportunities to participate. One option for increasing physical activity is playing active video games (AVG), a category of video games that requires much more body movement for successful play than conventional push-button or joystick actions. However, many current AVGs are inaccessible or offer limited play options for individuals who are unable to stand, have balance issues, poor motor control, or cannot use their lower body to perform game activities. Making AVGs accessible to people with disabilities offers an innovative approach to overcoming various barriers to participation in physical activity. Objective Our aim was to compare the effect of off-the-shelf and adapted game controllers on quality of game play, enjoyment, and energy expenditure during active video gaming in persons with physical disabilities, specifically those with mobility impairments (ie, unable to stand, balance issues, poor motor control, unable to use lower extremity for gameplay). The gaming controllers to be evaluated include off-the-shelf and adapted versions of the Wii Fit balance board and gaming mat. Methods Participants (10-60 years old) came to the laboratory a total of three times. During the first visit, participants completed a functional assessment and became familiar with the equipment and games to be played. For the functional assessment, participants performed 18 functional movement tasks from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. They also answered a series of questions from the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System and Quality of Life in Neurological Conditions measurement tools, to provide a personal perspective regarding their own functional ability. For

  18. Calling 911 in response to stroke: a nationwide study assessing definitive individual behavior.

    PubMed

    Mikulík, Robert; Bunt, Laura; Hrdlicka, Daniel; Dusek, Ladislav; Václavík, Daniel; Kryza, Jirí

    2008-06-01

    Stroke treatment is time-dependent, yet no study has systematically examined response to individual stroke symptoms in the general population. This nationwide study identifies which specific factors prompt correct response (calling 911) to stroke. Between November and December of 2005, a survey using a 3-stage random-sampling method including area, household, and household member sampling was conducted throughout the Czech Republic. Participants >40 years old were personally interviewed via a structured and standardized questionnaire concerning general knowledge and correct response to stroke as assessed by the Stroke Action Test (STAT). Predictors of scoring >50% on STAT were identified by multiple regression. A total of 650 households were contacted, yielding 592 interviews (response rate 91%). Mean age was 58+/-12, 55% women. Sixty-nine percent thought stroke was serious condition, and 57% thought it could be treated. Also 54% correctly named >/=2 risk factors, and 46% named >/=2 warning signs. Eighteen percent of respondents scored >50% on STAT. The predictors of such a score were age (for each 10-year increment, OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.7), secondary school education (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.6), knowing that stroke is a serious disease (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.1), and knowing that stroke is treatable (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.2). Knowledge about stroke in the Czech Republic was fair, yet response to warning signs was poor. Our study is the first to identify that calling 911 was influenced by knowledge that stroke is a serious and treatable disease and not by recognition of symptoms.

  19. Third trimester growth restriction patterns: individualized assessment using a fetal growth pathology score.

    PubMed

    Deter, Russell L; Lee, Wesley; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Kingdom, John; Romero, Roberto

    2017-07-06

    To qualitatively and quantitatively characterize third trimester growth patterns in fetuses/neonates with growth restriction using Individualized Growth Assessment. Serial fetal size measurements from 73 fetuses with proven growth restriction were evaluated using a novel composite parameter, the Fetal Growth Pathology Score (FGPS1). Third trimester FGPS1 measurements plotted against fetal age were examined for patterns. Identified patterns were characterized using the four components of the FGP1 [head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), femur diaphysis length (FDL), estimated weight (EWT)]. A secondary characterization using age of onset, duration and magnitude of the growth abnormality process was also performed. Frequencies and magnitudes of abnormal values in different FGPS1 patterns were compared. Five growth restriction patterns were found in 70/73 (95.9%) of the cases, with progressive worsening [Pattern 1 (37.0%)] and abnormal growth identified only at last scan [Pattern 2 (27.4%)] being the most common. These two patterns were usually statistically different from each other and the other three with respect to size parameter abnormalities and abnormal growth process characteristics (MANOVA). Growth abnormalities in all parameters of the FGPS1 contributed to the five abnormality patterns although AC and EWT were most important. The age of onset, duration and magnitude were similar between patterns except for Pattern 2, which had a late onset and a short duration (GLM + contrasts). Our study represents the first detailed evaluation of third trimester growth restriction using methods that consider the growth potential of each fetus. Five distinctive and repetitive patterns were found, suggesting that fetal growth restriction evolves in different ways. Further research is needed to determine the relationships of these patterns to physiological/biochemical changes and adverse outcomes associated with growth restriction.

  20. An assessment of genetic counseling services for individuals with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Stephanie; Guimond, Colleen; Butler, Rachel; Dwosh, Emily; Traboulsee, Anthony L; Sadovnick, A Dessa

    2015-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects up to 1/500 Canadians. The University of British Columbia MS Clinic (UBC Clinic) is the only MS clinic in Canada (and likely internationally) that routinely offers genetic counseling to patients and their families. A typical session includes the collection of family history and demographic data, discussion of the inheritance of MS, interpretation of family-specific recurrence risks and psychosocial counseling. The aims of this study were to explore patients': 1) expectations of the genetic counseling session; 2) understanding of the etiology of MS (both pre and post-session); and 3) post-session perceptions of genetic counseling. A two-part questionnaire to assess genetic counseling services was distributed before and after sessions to all consenting patients seen during the period October 1, 2008 to February 28, 2009 inclusive. Sixty-two completed questionnaires were analysed. Genetic counseling was found to significantly increase the number of individuals who were able to correctly identify the etiology of MS (p < 0.001). Patient satisfaction with genetic counseling was high, with an average satisfaction score of 32.4/35 (92.6 %). Of those who provided comments (n = 42/60) regarding the usefulness of the genetic counseling session, 95.2 % reported it useful (n = 40/42). Findings suggest that genetic counseling is effective in increasing patients' knowledge of the etiology of MS and is viewed by patients as a useful service. Based on the high level of positive feedback regarding genetic counseling by the study sample, this study suggests that the services provided by genetic counselors may be beneficial for patients with MS seen in other centers.

  1. Architecture and Design Process of the Individualized Assessment System Integrable to Distance Education Softwares

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozyurt, Hacer; Ozyurt, Ozcan; Baki, Adnan

    2012-01-01

    Assessment is one of the methods used for evaluation of the learning outputs. Nowadays, use of adaptive assessment systems estimating ability level and abilities of the students is becoming widespread instead of traditional assessment systems. Adaptive assessment system evaluates students not only according to their marks that they take in test…

  2. 20 CFR 641.230 - Must the individual assessment conducted by the SCSEP grantee and the assessment performed by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the SCSEP grantee and the assessment performed by the One-Stop Delivery System be accepted for use by... and the assessment performed by the One-Stop Delivery System be accepted for use by either entity to... condition for an assessment, service strategy, or IEP completed at the One-Stop and vice-versa....

  3. Assessing Individual Social Capital Capacity: The Development and Validation of a Network Accessibility Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatala, John-Paul

    2009-01-01

    Any organization that is able to promote the importance of increased levels of social capital and individuals who can leverage and use the resources that exist within the network may experience higher levels of performance. This study sought to add to our knowledge about individuals' accessing social resources for the purpose of accomplishing…

  4. Rapid Assessment of Severe Cognitive Impairment in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, D. M.; Finwall, J.; Touchette, P. E.; McGregor, M. R.; Fernandez, G. E.; Lott, I. T.; Sandman, C. A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Most standardized intelligence tests require more than 1hour for administration, which is problematic when evaluating individuals with intellectual disabilities and developmental disabilities (IDDD), because a significant proportion of these individuals can not tolerate lengthy evaluations. Furthermore, most standardized intelligence…

  5. Beating the Odds: Assessment Results from the 2006-2007 School Year. Individual District Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of the Great City Schools, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report includes quantitative information by individual urban school district for the 2006-2007 school year. Data includes: (1) Total Students; (2) Free/Reduced Price Lunch Eligible Students; (3) Students with Individual Educational Plans; (4) English Language Learners; (5) American Indian/Alaskan Native Students; (6) Asian/Pacific Islander…

  6. Assessing the Effects of Organizational Culture, Rewards, and Individual Creativity on Technical Workgroup Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navaresse, Daniel O.; Yauch, Charlene A.; Goff, Kathy; Fonseca, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    This study used an experimental approach to investigate the conditions under which creative outcomes should be expected from the interplay of individual creativity, the innovation orientation of the organizational culture, and the rewards distribution rules. The results of this study suggest that the individual creativity of technically educated…

  7. Assessing the Effects of Organizational Culture, Rewards, and Individual Creativity on Technical Workgroup Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navaresse, Daniel O.; Yauch, Charlene A.; Goff, Kathy; Fonseca, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    This study used an experimental approach to investigate the conditions under which creative outcomes should be expected from the interplay of individual creativity, the innovation orientation of the organizational culture, and the rewards distribution rules. The results of this study suggest that the individual creativity of technically educated…

  8. Detection of abnormal resting-state networks in individual patients suffering from focal epilepsy: an initial step toward individual connectivity assessment

    PubMed Central

    Dansereau, Christian L.; Bellec, Pierre; Lee, Kangjoo; Pittau, Francesca; Gotman, Jean; Grova, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The spatial coherence of spontaneous slow fluctuations in the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal at rest is routinely used to characterize the underlying resting-state networks (RSNs). Studies have demonstrated that these patterns are organized in space and highly reproducible from subject to subject. Moreover, RSNs reorganizations have been suggested in pathological conditions. Comparisons of RSNs organization have been performed between groups of subjects but have rarely been applied at the individual level, a step required for clinical application. Defining the notion of modularity as the organization of brain activity in stable networks, we propose Detection of Abnormal Networks in Individuals (DANI) to identify modularity changes at the individual level. The stability of each RSN was estimated using a spatial clustering method: Bootstrap Analysis of Stable Clusters (BASC) (Bellec et al., 2010). Our contributions consisted in (i) providing functional maps of the most stable cores of each networks and (ii) in detecting “abnormal” individual changes in networks organization when compared to a population of healthy controls. DANI was first evaluated using realistic simulated data, showing that focussing on a conservative core size (50% most stable regions) improved the sensitivity to detect modularity changes. DANI was then applied to resting state fMRI data of six patients with focal epilepsy who underwent multimodal assessment using simultaneous EEG/fMRI acquisition followed by surgery. Only patient with a seizure free outcome were selected and the resected area was identified using a post-operative MRI. DANI automatically detected abnormal changes in 5 out of 6 patients, with excellent sensitivity, showing for each of them at least one “abnormal” lateralized network closely related to the epileptic focus. For each patient, we also detected some distant networks as abnormal, suggesting some remote reorganization in the epileptic brain. PMID

  9. Bridging the etiologic and prognostic outlooks in individualized assessment of absolute risk of an illness: application in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Karp, Igor; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Leffondré, Karen; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2016-11-01

    Assessment of individual risk of illness is an important activity in preventive medicine. Development of risk-assessment models has heretofore relied predominantly on studies involving follow-up of cohort-type populations, while case-control studies have generally been considered unfit for this purpose. To present a method for individualized assessment of absolute risk of an illness (as illustrated by lung cancer) based on data from a 'non-nested' case-control study. We used data from a case-control study conducted in Montreal, Canada in 1996-2001. Individuals diagnosed with lung cancer (n = 920) and age- and sex-matched lung-cancer-free subjects (n = 1288) completed questionnaires documenting life-time cigarette-smoking history and occupational, medical, and family history. Unweighted and weighted logistic models were fitted. Model overfitting was assessed using bootstrap-based cross-validation and 'shrinkage.' The discriminating ability was assessed by the c-statistic, and the risk-stratifying performance was assessed by examination of the variability in risk estimates over hypothetical risk-profiles. In the logistic models, the logarithm of incidence-density of lung cancer was expressed as a function of age, sex, cigarette-smoking history, history of respiratory conditions and exposure to occupational carcinogens, and family history of lung cancer. The models entailed a minimal degree of overfitting ('shrinkage' factor: 0.97 for both unweighted and weighted models) and moderately high discriminating ability (c-statistic: 0.82 for the unweighted model and 0.66 for the weighted model). The method's risk-stratifying performance was quite high. The presented method allows for individualized assessment of risk of lung cancer and can be used for development of risk-assessment models for other illnesses.

  10. When community reintegration is not the best option: interethnic violence and the trauma of parental loss in South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Muller, Brigitte; Munslow, Barry; O'Dempsey, Tim

    2017-01-01

    The magnitude of violence and human loss in conflict settings often exceeds the caring capacity of traditional support systems for orphans. The aim of this study is to understand the developmental context for children experiencing armed conflict, parental loss, extreme poverty, violence and social exclusion in a setting affected by interethnic violence. This article challenges the received wisdom that community reintegration is always better than institutional provision. Using a case study employing interviews, focus groups, workshops and observations, we examined how children's experiences of armed violence and parental loss affected their mental well-being, and their relationships within their community. Emerging findings such as experienced violence and psychological distress were further investigated using a cross-sectional survey design to explore the generalisability or transferability of theories or conclusions drawn from qualitative data. Findings showed that parental loss had a major impact on children's lives in the context of armed violence. Four main outcomes of orphanhood emerged: (i) facing the situation and evading harm (feelings of rejection and stigmatisation); (ii) trauma exposure and mental health effects (associations of orphanhood with adverse mental health outcomes and the number and type of experienced trauma); (iii) dealing with psychological distress (seeking caring connections and decreased feelings of isolation); and (iv) education and acceptance (increasing knowledge, skills and attitude and being respected in their community). We discuss the role that contexts such as armed violence, parental loss and social exclusion play for children's mental well-being and their implications for psychosocial interventions and orphan care in humanitarian settings. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Driving evaluation methods for able-bodied persons and individuals with lower extremity disabilities: a review of assessment modalities

    PubMed Central

    Greve, Julia Maria D'Andréa; Santos, Luciana; Alonso, Angelica Castilho; Tate, Denise G

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the driving abilities of individuals with disabilities is often a very challenging task because each medical condition is accompanied by physical impairments and because relative individual functional performance may vary depending on personal characteristics. We identified existing driving evaluation modalities for able-bodied and lower extremity-impaired subjects (spinal cord injury patients and amputees) and evaluated the potential relationships between driving performance and the motor component of driving. An extensive scoping review of the literature was conducted to identify driving assessment tools that are currently used for able-bodied individuals and for those with spinal cord injury or lower extremity amputation. The literature search focused on the assessment of the motor component of driving. References were electronically obtained via Medline from the PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases. This article compares the current assessments of driving performance for those with lower extremity impairments with the assessments used for able-bodied persons. Very few articles were found concerning “Lower Extremity Disabilities,” thus confirming the need for further studies that can provide evidence and guidance for such assessments in the future. Little is known about the motor component of driving and its association with the other driving domains, such as vision and cognition. The available research demonstrates the need for a more evidenced-based understanding of how to best evaluate persons with lower extremity impairment. PMID:26375567

  12. Individual Action and Reflection: Four Case Studies of Teachers' Responses to a Statewide Assessment Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Patricia A.

    The success of alternative assessments such as the Vermont Assessment Program (VAP) is heavily dependent on the involvement and commitment of teachers. This paper focuses on the implementation of the writing portfolio component of the VAP in the classrooms of four teachers who have different knowledge and beliefs about teaching and assessment. The…

  13. Urine TMPRSS2:ERG Plus PCA3 for Individualized Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Tomlins, Scott A; Day, John R; Lonigro, Robert J; Hovelson, Daniel H; Siddiqui, Javed; Kunju, L Priya; Dunn, Rodney L; Meyer, Sarah; Hodge, Petrea; Groskopf, Jack; Wei, John T; Chinnaiyan, Arul M

    2016-07-01

    TMPRSS2:ERG (T2:ERG) and prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) are the most advanced urine-based prostate cancer (PCa) early detection biomarkers. Validate logistic regression models, termed Mi-Prostate Score (MiPS), that incorporate serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA; or the multivariate Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial risk calculator version 1.0 [PCPTrc]) and urine T2:ERG and PCA3 scores for predicting PCa and high-grade PCa on biopsy. T2:ERG and PCA3 scores were generated using clinical-grade transcription-mediated amplification assays. Pretrained MiPS models were applied to a validation cohort of whole urine samples prospectively collected after digital rectal examination from 1244 men presenting for biopsy. Area under the curve (AUC) was used to compare the performance of serum PSA (or the PCPTrc) alone and MiPS models. Decision curve analysis (DCA) was used to assess clinical benefit. Among informative validation cohort samples (n=1225 [98%], 80% from patients presenting for initial biopsy), models incorporating T2:ERG had significantly greater AUC than PSA (or PCPTrc) for predicting PCa (PSA: 0.693 vs 0.585; PCPTrc: 0.718 vs 0.639; both p<0.001) or high-grade (Gleason score >6) PCa on biopsy (PSA: 0.729 vs 0.651, p<0.001; PCPTrc: 0.754 vs 0.707, p=0.006). MiPS models incorporating T2:ERG score had significantly greater AUC (all p<0.001) than models incorporating only PCA3 plus PSA (or PCPTrc or high-grade cancer PCPTrc [PCPThg]). DCA demonstrated net benefit of the MiPS_PCPTrc (or MiPS_PCPThg) model compared with the PCPTrc (or PCPThg) across relevant threshold probabilities. Incorporating urine T2:ERG and PCA3 scores improves the performance of serum PSA (or PCPTrc) for predicting PCa and high-grade PCa on biopsy. Incorporation of two prostate cancer (PCa)-specific biomarkers (TMPRSS2:ERG and PCA3) measured in the urine improved on serum prostate-specific antigen (or a multivariate risk calculator) for predicting the presence of PCa and high-grade PCa on

  14. Individual housing and handling procedures modify anxiety levels of Tg2576 mice assessed in the zero maze test.

    PubMed

    Heredia, Luis; Torrente, Margarita; Domingo, José L; Colomina, María T

    2012-09-10

    The zero maze is an unconditioned anxiety test for mice, in which a number of environmental variables can modify the anxiety levels of the animals. In the present study, we have assessed how individual housing, handling procedure and interaction between individual housing and handling procedure affect the baseline anxiety of mice. Thirty-seven wild type mice and eighteen Tg2576 mice were used (obtained from crossing APPSWE hemizygous male C57BL6/SJL background with C57BL6/SJL female). Wild type mice were randomly assigned to four experimental groups: 1) group housed and unhandled, 2) group housed but handled, 3) individually housed, unhandled, and 4) individually housed and handled. In turn, Tg2576 mice were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: 1) individually housed, unhandled, and 2) individually housed and handled. The results show that individually housed mice exhibited more anxiety-related behaviors over a 5 min testing period than the other experimental groups. Use of the handling procedure was associated with a statistically significant reduction in anxiety-related behaviors among individually housed mice. No effects on anxiety-related behavior levels were observed when group housed animals were handled. When activity levels were significantly increased, a new parameter, "Time by Entries", helped to prevent activity from influencing anxiety parameters such as time in the open section of the zero maze test. This knowledge can help to design more efficient experiments without bias from data obtained by means of unconditioned tests.

  15. The Ability of Individuals with Psychoactive Substance Use Disorders to Escape Detection by the Personality Assessment Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fals-Stewart, William

    1996-01-01

    The ability of individuals with psychoactive substance use disorders to dissimulate successfully on the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) was evaluated with 236 adults from treatment, nonclinical, control, and forensically referred groups. Findings indicate that the PAI scales measuring drug and alcohol problems are susceptible to…

  16. Assessing age- and silt index-independent diameter growth models of individual-tree Southern Appalachian hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Henry W. Mcnab; Thomas F. Lloyd

    1999-01-01

    Models of forest vegetation dynamics based on characteristics of individual trees are more suitable to predicting growth of multiple species and age classes than those based on stands. The objective of this study was to assess age- and site index-independent relationships between periodic diameter increment and tree and site effects for 11 major hardwood tree species....

  17. The Ability of Individuals with Psychoactive Substance Use Disorders to Escape Detection by the Personality Assessment Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fals-Stewart, William

    1996-01-01

    The ability of individuals with psychoactive substance use disorders to dissimulate successfully on the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) was evaluated with 236 adults from treatment, nonclinical, control, and forensically referred groups. Findings indicate that the PAI scales measuring drug and alcohol problems are susceptible to…

  18. A Needs-Assessment of Agencies Serving Individuals with Deaf-Blindness: A National Profile of Transitional Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiler, Lauren H.; And Others

    A national needs assessment of 719 educational and adult service agencies providing or proposing to provide transitional services to individuals with deaf-blindness was conducted to determine national and regional technical assistance needs. On average, each agency expressed a need for technical assistance in 20 separate areas. In the area of…

  19. Parental Stress and Child Behavior and Temperament in the First Year after the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Pal, Sylvia; Maguire, Celeste M.; Le Cessie, Saskia; Veen, Sylvia; Wit, Jan M.; Walther, Frans J.; Bruil, Jeanet

    2008-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial involving 128 infants born prematurely compared basic developmental care (nests and incubator covers) and the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) intervention (behavior observations and guidance by a trained developmental specialist) in relation to effects on parental stress and…

  20. Proposal and content validation of an orofacial myofunctional assessment protocol for individuals with cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Graziani, Andréia Fernandes; Fukushiro, Ana Paula; Genaro, Katia Flores

    2015-01-01

    To create and validate the content of an orofacial myofunctional assessment protocol for individuals with cleft lip and palate. The first version of an orofacial myofunctional assessment protocol for individuals with cleft lip and palate was created by two speech-language pathologists, who contemplated the structural and functional aspects of the stomatognathic system. This version was analyzed by other two speech-language pathologists experienced in cleft lip and palate assessment, who suggested changes that led to the second version of the protocol. Dynamic and static images necessary for performing the orofacial myofunctional examination were recorded from three individuals with cleft lip and palate, who represented three life stages: childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Five examiners evaluated the images, applied the proposed protocol, and judged each item regarding its clarity to validate the content, from Content Validity Index. The assessment protocol was finalized with 13 items, ten related to structural aspects and three related to functional aspects, with their corresponding sub-items. The general agreement in the validation of its content was 100%, so that only one stage was required. A protocol to evaluate the orofacial myofunctional aspects of individuals with cleft lip and palate was created with 13 items, as well as their corresponding sub-items, and its content was validated.

  1. How Does Early Developmental Assessment Predict Academic and Attentional-Behavioural Skills at Group and Individual Levels?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valtonen, Riitta; Ahonen, Timo; Tolvanen, Asko; Lyytinen, Paula

    2009-01-01

    The main aim of the study was to explore the ability of a brief developmental assessment to predict teacher-rated learning and attentional and behavioural skills in the first grade of school at both the group and individual levels. A sample of 394 children (181 males, 213 females) aged 4 years were followed to the age of 6 years, and 283 of the…

  2. Using Regression Equations Built from Summary Data in the Psychological Assessment of the Individual Case: Extension to Multiple Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, John R.; Garthwaite, Paul H.; Denham, Annie K.; Chelune, Gordon J.

    2012-01-01

    Regression equations have many useful roles in psychological assessment. Moreover, there is a large reservoir of published data that could be used to build regression equations; these equations could then be employed to test a wide variety of hypotheses concerning the functioning of individual cases. This resource is currently underused because…

  3. Parental Stress and Child Behavior and Temperament in the First Year after the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Pal, Sylvia; Maguire, Celeste M.; Le Cessie, Saskia; Veen, Sylvia; Wit, Jan M.; Walther, Frans J.; Bruil, Jeanet

    2008-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial involving 128 infants born prematurely compared basic developmental care (nests and incubator covers) and the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) intervention (behavior observations and guidance by a trained developmental specialist) in relation to effects on parental stress and…

  4. Exploring Individual and Item Factors that Affect Assessment Validity for Diverse Learners: Results from a Large-Scale Cognitive Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Phoebe C.; Kopriva, Rebecca J.; Chen, Chen-Su; Emick, Jessica E.

    2006-01-01

    A cognitive lab technique (n=156) was used to investigate interactions between individual factors and item factors presumed to affect assessment validity for diverse students, including English language learners. Findings support the concept of "access"--an interaction between specific construct-irrelevant item features and individual…

  5. A Cross-sectional Study to Assess Disability and Its Correlates among Treatment Seeking Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Singh, Shalini; Modak, Tamonud; Sarkar, Siddharth

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Alcohol use is a major risk factor for global disease burden, and excessive use leads to disability in the individual. This study aimed to assess the disability and its correlates among individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). In addition, it assessed the quality of life measures in this population group. Methodology: A cross-sectional study on a sample (N = 62) from among treatment seekers for alcohol dependence. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria were used to assess disorder severity. The WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS) 2.0 and World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF were used to assess disability and quality of life, respectively. Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and linear regression analysis were used for comparative assessments. The level of statistical significance was kept at P < 0.05 for all the tests. Results: DSM-5 diagnosis of the individuals suggested a high severity of substance use disorder as an average of 8.8 (±1.8) criteria were fulfilled. WHODAS 2.0 revealed maximum disability in the domains of “participation in the society,” “household and work-related activities” and “cognitive functioning.” The quality of life measures indicate poor physical health, reduced work capacity, and cognitive dysfunction. A negative correlation was seen between the social dimensions of disability (getting along) and quality of life measures of psychological health (P = 0.026) and social relationships (P = 0.046), work domain of disability schedule and physical health score on quality of life evaluation (P = 0.001). Older age had greater impairment in the work domain (P = 0.040), and unemployment was associated with higher disability (P = 0.001). Unemployment and duration of alcohol use were the independent predictors of greater disability. Conclusions: Disability assessment using WHODAS 2.0 shows significant impairment in individuals with AUDs that is

  6. Client-centred assessment and the identification of meaningful treatment goals for individuals with a spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Catherine; Eng, Janice J; Hall, Jill; Alford, Lindsay; Giachino, Rob; Norton, Kathy; Kerr, Debbie Scott

    2011-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective analysis. Objectives 1) describe the self-care, productivity and leisure problems identified by individuals with a spinal cord injury during rehabilitation, 2) describe the perceived level of satisfaction and performance with self-care, productivity and leisure activities following a spinal cord injury, 3) quantify the relationship between the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), a client-centred, individualized measure of function, and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). Setting Tertiary rehabilitation centre, spinal cord injury unit, GF Strong Rehabilitation Centre, Vancouver, Canada. Methods Health records from 41 individuals with a SCI admitted between 2000 and 2002 were reviewed. Information was obtained from assessments performed on admission and discharge. Self-care, productivity and leisure problems identified by individuals with a SCI were described and their perceived level of performance and satisfaction was calculated. The relationship between the COPM and the FIM was measured by the Pearson product correlation. Results Self-care goals were identified most frequently (79%) followed by productivity (12%) and leisure (9%) goals. The top three problems identified by individuals with a SCI were functional mobility (including transfers and wheelchair use), dressing and grooming. A fair relationship was found between the COPM and the FIM (r between .351 to .514, p<.05) Conclusions The results highlight the importance of including a client-centred outcome measure in the assessment of individual’s with a SCI. Initial support is provided for use of the COPM in individuals with a SCI. PMID:14993893

  7. 30 CFR 846.17 - Procedure for assessment of individual civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....; or (2) The Office and the individual or responsible corporate permittee agree within 30 days of... abatement or correction of the violation, failure or refusal. (c) Service. For purposes of this section...

  8. Behavioral assessment of intermittent wheel running and individual housing in mice in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Pham, Therese M; Brené, Stefan; Baumans, Vera

    2005-01-01

    Physical cage enrichment--exercise devices for rodents in the laboratory--often includes running wheels. This study compared responses of mice in enriched physical and social conditions and in standard social conditions to wheel running, individual housing, and open-field test. The study divided into 6 groups, 48 female BALB/c mice group housed in enriched and standard conditions. On alternate days, the study exposed 2 groups to individual running wheel cages. It intermittently separated from their cage mates and housed individually 2 groups with no running wheels; 2 control groups remained in enriched or standard condition cages. There were no significant differences between enriched and standard group housed mice in alternate days' wheel running. Over time, enriched, group housed mice ran less. Both groups responded similarly to individual housing. In open-field test, mice exposed to individual housing without running wheel moved more and faster than wheel running and home cage control mice. They have lower body weights than group housed and wheel running mice. Intermittent withdrawal of individual housing affects the animals more than other commodities. Wheel running normalizes some effects of intermittent separation from the enriched, social home cage.

  9. One (rating) from many (observations): Factors affecting the individual assessment of voice behavior in groups.

    PubMed

    Podsakoff, Nathan P; Maynes, Timothy D; Whiting, Steven W; Podsakoff, Philip M

    2015-07-01

    This article reports an investigation into how individuals form perceptions of overall voice behavior in group contexts. More specifically, the authors examine the effect of the proportion of group members exhibiting voice behavior in the group, the frequency of voice events in the group, and the measurement item referent (group vs. individual) on an individual's ratings of group voice behavior. In addition, the authors examine the effect that measurement item referent has on the magnitude of the relationship observed between an individual's ratings of group voice behavior and perceptions of group performance. Consistent with hypotheses, the results from 1 field study (N = 220) and 1 laboratory experiment (N = 366) indicate that: (a) When group referents were used, raters relied on the frequency of voice events (and not the proportion of group members exhibiting voice) to inform their ratings of voice behavior, whereas the opposite was true when individual-referent items were used, and (b) the magnitude of the relationship between observers' ratings of group voice behavior and their perceptions of group performance was higher when raters used group-referent, as opposed to an individual-referent, items. The authors discuss the implications of their findings for scholars interested in studying behavioral phenomena occurring in teams, groups, and work units in organizational behavior research.

  10. The ability of individuals to assess population density influences the evolution of emigration propensity and dispersal distance.

    PubMed

    Poethke, Hans Joachim; Gros, Andreas; Hovestadt, Thomas

    2011-08-07

    We analyze the simultaneous evolution of emigration and settlement decisions for actively dispersing species differing in their ability to assess population density. Using an individual-based model we simulate dispersal as a multi-step (patch to patch) movement in a world consisting of habitat patches surrounded by a hostile matrix. Each such step is associated with the same mortality risk. Our simulations show that individuals following an informed strategy, where emigration (and settlement) probability depends on local population density, evolve a lower (natal) emigration propensity but disperse over significantly larger distances - i.e. postpone settlement longer - than individuals performing density-independent emigration. This holds especially when variation in environmental conditions is spatially correlated. Both effects can be traced to the informed individuals' ability to better exploit existing heterogeneity in reproductive chances. Yet, already moderate distance-dependent dispersal costs prevent the evolution of multi-step (long-distance) dispersal, irrespective of the dispersal strategy.

  11. Assessment of first and second degree relatives of individuals with bipolar disorder shows increased genetic risk scores in both affected relatives and young At-Risk Individuals.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Janice M; Koller, Daniel L; Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana; Liu, Hai; Glowinski, Anne L; McInnis, Melvin G; Wilcox, Holly C; Frankland, Andrew; Roberts, Gloria; Schofield, Peter R; Mitchell, Philip B; Nurnberger, John I

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have revealed the polygenic nature of bipolar disorder (BP), and identified common risk variants associated with illness. However, the role of common polygenic risk in multiplex families has not previously been examined. The present study examined 249 European-ancestry families from the NIMH Genetics Initiative sample, comparing subjects with narrowly defined BP (excluding bipolar II and recurrent unipolar depression; n = 601) and their adult relatives without BP (n = 695). Unrelated adult controls (n = 266) were from the NIMH TGEN control dataset. We also examined a prospective cohort of young (12-30 years) offspring and siblings of individuals with BPI and BPII disorder (at risk; n = 367) and psychiatrically screened controls (n = 229), ascertained from five sites in the US and Australia and assessed with standardized clinical protocols. Thirty-two disease-associated SNPs from the PGC-BP Working Group report (2011) were genotyped and additive polygenic risk scores (PRS) derived. We show increased PRS in adult cases compared to unrelated controls (P = 3.4 × 10(-5) , AUC = 0.60). In families with a high-polygenic load (PRS score ≥32 in two or more subjects), PRS distinguished cases with BPI/SAB from other relatives (P = 0.014, RR = 1.32). Secondly, a higher PRS was observed in at-risk youth, regardless of affected status, compared to unrelated controls (GEE-χ(2) = 5.15, P = 0.012). This report is the first to explore common polygenic risk in multiplex families, albeit using only a small number of robustly associated risk variants. We show that individuals with BP have a higher load of common disease-associated variants than unrelated controls and first-degree relatives, and illustrate the potential utility of PRS assessment in a family context.

  12. Assessing Activity and Location of Individual Laying Hens in Large Groups Using Modern Technology

    PubMed Central

    Siegford, Janice M.; Berezowski, John; Biswas, Subir K.; Daigle, Courtney L.; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G.; Hernandez, Carlos E.; Thurner, Stefan; Toscano, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Tracking of individual animals within large groups is increasingly possible offering an exciting opportunity to researchers. Whereas previously only relatively indistinguishable groups of individual animals could be observed and combined into pen level data, we can now focus on individual actors and track their activities across time and space with minimal intervention and disturbance. We describe several tracking systems that are currently in use for laying hens and review each, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses, as well as environments or conditions for which they may be most suited, and relevant issues to fit the best technology for the intended purpose. Abstract Tracking individual animals within large groups is increasingly possible, offering an exciting opportunity to researchers. Whereas previously only relatively indistinguishable groups of individual animals could be observed and combined into pen level data, we can now focus on individual actors within these large groups and track their activities across time and space with minimal intervention and disturbance. The development is particularly relevant to the poultry industry as, due to a shift away from battery cages, flock sizes are increasingly becoming larger and environments more complex. Many efforts have been made to track individual bird behavior and activity in large groups using a variety of methodologies with variable success. Of the technologies in use, each has associated benefits and detriments, which can make the approach more or less suitable for certain environments and experiments. Within this article, we have divided several tracking systems that are currently available into two major categories (radio frequency identification and radio signal strength) and review the strengths and weaknesses of each, as well as environments or conditions for which they may be most suitable. We also describe related topics including types of analysis for the data and concerns

  13. Recent advances in the assessment of aberrant behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement in individuals with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, L A; Patel, M R; Carr, J E

    2000-06-01

    Many aberrant behaviors exhibited by individuals with developmental disabilities are maintained by "automatic reinforcement". These behaviors are often difficult to treat, with the most effective behavioral interventions often resulting in only moderate success. However, a series of recent studies has advanced our ability to understand and treat these behaviors through the innovative use of behavioral assessment. We review the recent development of three categories of assessments: (a) nonhypothesis-based stimulus preference assessments, (b) hypothesis-based stimulus preference assessments, and (c) hypothesis-based assessments incorporating noncontingent reinforcement and sensory extinction procedures. We consider each category's contribution to both our ability to prescribe effective behavioral interventions and our ability to more fully understand the concept of automatic reinforcement.

  14. Evidence-based guideline: Assessment and management of psychiatric disorders in individuals with MS

    PubMed Central

    Minden, Sarah L.; Feinstein, Anthony; Kalb, Rosalind C.; Miller, Deborah; Mohr, David C.; Patten, Scott B.; Bever, Christopher; Schiffer, Randolph B.; Gronseth, Gary S.; Narayanaswami, Pushpa

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To make evidence-based recommendations for screening, diagnosing, and treating psychiatric disorders in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: We reviewed the literature (1950 to August 2011) and evaluated the available evidence. Results and recommendations: Clinicians may consider using the Center for Neurologic Study Emotional Lability Scale to screen for pseudobulbar affect (Level C). Clinicians may consider the Beck Depression Inventory and a 2-question tool to screen for depressive disorders and the General Health Questionnaire to screen for broadly defined emotional disturbances (Level C). Evidence is insufficient to support/refute the use of other screening tools, the possibility that somatic/neurovegetative symptoms affect these tools' accuracy, or the use of diagnostic instruments or clinical evaluation procedures for identifying psychiatric disorders in MS (Level U). Clinicians may consider a telephone-administered cognitive behavioral therapy program for treating depressive symptoms (Level C). Although pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies are widely used to treat depressive and anxiety disorders in individuals with MS, evidence is insufficient to support/refute the use of the antidepressants and individual and group therapies reviewed herein (Level U). For pseudobulbar affect, a combination of dextromethorphan and quinidine may be considered (Level C). Evidence is insufficient to determine the psychiatric effects in individuals with MS of disease-modifying and symptomatic therapies and corticosteroids; risk factors for suicide; and treatment of psychotic disorders (Level U). Research is needed on the effectiveness in individuals with MS of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments frequently used in the non-MS population. PMID:24376275

  15. What about Me?: Individual Self-Assessment by Skill and Level of Language Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantmeier, Cindy; Vanderplank, Robert; Strube, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In an investigation with advanced language learners, Brantmeier [Brantmeier, C., 2006. "Advanced L2 learners and reading placement: self-assessment, computer based testing, and subsequent performance." "System" 34 (1), 15-35.] reports that self-assessment (SA) of second language (L2) reading ability, when measured with self-rated scales, is not an…

  16. Faculty Perspectives on Programme Curricular Assessment: Individual and Institutional Characteristics That Influence Participation Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emil, Serap; Cress, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Driven by issues of accountability, the assessment movement in higher education has gained significant momentum in recent years. However, successful implementation of assessment processes varies radically across institutions. A key issue is faculty engagement. This qualitative inquiry explored factors that impact faculty participation in a…

  17. Faculty Perspectives on Programme Curricular Assessment: Individual and Institutional Characteristics That Influence Participation Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emil, Serap; Cress, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Driven by issues of accountability, the assessment movement in higher education has gained significant momentum in recent years. However, successful implementation of assessment processes varies radically across institutions. A key issue is faculty engagement. This qualitative inquiry explored factors that impact faculty participation in a…

  18. African Americans and Mathematics Outcomes on National Assessment of Educational Progress: Parental and Individual Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Richard, III; Morton, Crystal Hill

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated within group differences between African American female and male students who participated in the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress mathematics assessment. Using results from participating states, we compare average scale scores of African American students based on home regulatory environment and interest…

  19. Combining the Tasks of Grading Individual Assignments and Assessing Student Outcomes in Project-Based Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahm, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    ABET requires that engineering programs demonstrate continuous assessment and continuous improvement in order to be accredited. Central to the process is establishing and assessing measurable "student outcomes" that reflect whether the goals and objectives of the program are being met. This paper examines effective strategies for…

  20. African Americans and Mathematics Outcomes on National Assessment of Educational Progress: Parental and Individual Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Richard, III; Morton, Crystal Hill

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated within group differences between African American female and male students who participated in the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress mathematics assessment. Using results from participating states, we compare average scale scores of African American students based on home regulatory environment and interest…

  1. Student Online Self-Assessment: Structuring Individual-Level Learning in a New Venture Creation Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human, Sherrie E.; Clark, Thomas; Baucus, Melissa S.

    2005-01-01

    The use of self-assessment instruments to determine students' entrepreneurial characteristics represents a well-accepted practice in entrepreneurship courses, and many professors are only now beginning to embrace Web-based instruments. We describe how we use a comprehensive array of online self-assessments in an undergraduate New Venture Creation…

  2. Enabling Teachers to Explore Grade Patterns to Identify Individual Needs and Promote Fairer Student Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedler, Sorelle A.; Tan, Yee Lin; Peer, Nir J.; Shneiderman, Ben

    2008-01-01

    Exploring student test, homework, and other assessment scores is a challenge for most teachers, especially when attempting to identify cross-assessment weaknesses and produce final course grades. During the course, teachers need to identify subject weaknesses in order to help students who are struggling with a particular topic. This identification…

  3. Characterization of individual barium titanate nanorods and their assessment as building blocks of new circuit architectures.

    PubMed

    Zagar, Kristina; Hernandez-Ramirez, Francisco; Prades, Joan Daniel; Morante, Joan Ramon; Rečnik, Aleksander; Ceh, Miran

    2011-09-23

    In this work, we report on the integration of individual BaTiO(3) nanorods into simple circuit architectures. Polycrystalline BaTiO(3) nanorods were synthesized by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of barium titanate sol into aluminium oxide (AAO) templates and subsequent annealing. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations revealed the presence of slabs of hexagonal polymorphs intergrown within cubic grains, resulting from the local reducing atmosphere during the thermal treatment. Electrical measurements performed on individual BaTiO(3) nanorods revealed resistivity values between 10 and 100 Ω cm, which is in good agreement with typical values reported in the past for oxygen-deficient barium titanate films. Consequently the presence of oxygen vacancies in their structure was indirectly validated. Some of these nanorods were tested as proof-of-concept humidity sensors. They showed reproducible responses towards different moisture concentrations, demonstrating that individual BaTiO(3) nanorods may be integrated in complex circuit architectures with functional capacities.

  4. Individual rights advocacy in tobacco control policies: an assessment and recommendation

    PubMed Central

    Katz, J

    2005-01-01

    Efforts to control environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) could be assisted if the tobacco control movement gave greater emphasis to the issue of individual rights. Benefits that may accrue from the promotion of a clear individual rights perspective in tobacco control include adding coherence to the tobacco control advocacy agenda and winning support from those who may have been concerned about loss of personal freedom, excessive governmental power, use of social coercion, or the rights of smokers. Risks also attend to such a policy. It might inadvertently assist the tobacco industry, stir resistance to ETS limitation efforts, or confuse tobacco control supporters. On balance, though, liabilities are outweighed by the ethical and operational merits in tobacco control of a heightened pro-individual rights stance. PMID:16046700

  5. Characterization of individual barium titanate nanorods and their assessment as building blocks of new circuit architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žagar, Kristina; Hernandez-Ramirez, Francisco; Prades, Joan Daniel; Morante, Joan Ramon; Rečnik, Aleksander; Čeh, Miran

    2011-09-01

    In this work, we report on the integration of individual BaTiO3 nanorods into simple circuit architectures. Polycrystalline BaTiO3 nanorods were synthesized by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of barium titanate sol into aluminium oxide (AAO) templates and subsequent annealing. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations revealed the presence of slabs of hexagonal polymorphs intergrown within cubic grains, resulting from the local reducing atmosphere during the thermal treatment. Electrical measurements performed on individual BaTiO3 nanorods revealed resistivity values between 10 and 100 Ω cm, which is in good agreement with typical values reported in the past for oxygen-deficient barium titanate films. Consequently the presence of oxygen vacancies in their structure was indirectly validated. Some of these nanorods were tested as proof-of-concept humidity sensors. They showed reproducible responses towards different moisture concentrations, demonstrating that individual BaTiO3 nanorods may be integrated in complex circuit architectures with functional capacities.

  6. Interethnic Group and Intraethnic Group Racism: Perceptions and Coping in Black University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Rodney

    2004-01-01

    This study explored perceived racism and the usual ways of coping with these perceptions in a sample of 269 Black university students (53% female). Perceptions of inter- and intragroup racism were assessed with the Life Experiences and Stress scale, and coping was measured with the Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced scale. A principal…

  7. Assessment of individual differences in the rat nucleus accumbens transcriptome following taste-heroin extended access.

    PubMed

    Imperio, Caesar G; McFalls, Ashley J; Colechio, Elizabeth M; Masser, Dustin R; Vrana, Kent E; Grigson, Patricia S; Freeman, Willard M

    2016-05-01

    Heroin addiction is a disease of chronic relapse that harms the individual through devaluation of personal responsibilities in favor of finding and using drugs. Only some recreational heroin users devolve into addiction but the basis of these individual differences is not known. We have shown in rats that avoidance of a heroin-paired taste cue reliably identifies individual animals with greater addiction-like behavior for heroin. Here rats received 5min access to a 0.15% saccharin solution followed by the opportunity to self-administer either saline or heroin for 6h. Large Suppressors of the heroin-paired taste cue displayed increased drug escalation, motivation for drug, and drug loading behavior compared with Small Suppressors. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of these individual differences in addiction-like behavior. We examined the individual differences in mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rats that were behaviorally stratified by addiction-like behavior using next-generation sequencing. We hypothesized that based on the avoidance of the drug-paired cue there will be a unique mRNA profile in the NAc. Analysis of strand-specific whole genome RNA-Seq data revealed a number of genes differentially regulated in NAc based on the suppression of the natural saccharine reward. Large Suppressors exhibited a unique mRNA prolife compared to Saline controls and Small Suppressors. Genes related to immunity, neuronal activity, and behavior were differentially expressed among the 3 groups. In total, individual differences in avoidance of a heroin-paired taste cue are associated with addiction-like behavior along with differential NAc gene expression.

  8. Assessing Individual Differences in Adaptation to Extreme Environments: A 36-Hour Sleep Deprivation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Jacqueline; Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.

    2012-01-01

    In space, astronauts may experience effects of cumulative sleep loss due to demanding work schedules that can result in cognitive performance impairments, mood state deteriorations, and sleep-wake cycle disruption. Individuals who experience sleep deprivation of six hours beyond normal sleep times experience detrimental changes in their mood and performance states. Hence, the potential for life threatening errors increases exponentially with sleep deprivation. We explored the effects of 36-hours of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance, mood states, and physiological responses to identify which metrics may best predict fatigue induced performance decrements of individuals.

  9. Non-intrusive activity assessment of a vulnerable individual for real living environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shaoqiu; Jones, Gordon R.

    2008-04-01

    A system for addressing the scale of activity and detecting periods of immobility of a vulnerable individual is described. The system does not invade the privacy of the individual, is robust to ambient changes and is economic in terms of cost and the amount of data captured. The system is based upon the cross-correlation of changes in the chromatic signatures of a limited number of locations in an environment with the outputs from a triggerable infrared sensor. Results are presented to indicate the system performance.

  10. Discrimination and the Stress Response: Psychological and Physiological Consequences of Anticipating Prejudice in Interethnic Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, Pamela J.; Casad, Bettina J.; Townsend, Sarah S. M.; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to demonstrate that individuals who anticipate interacting with a prejudiced cross-race/ethnicity partner show an exacerbated stress response, as measured through both self-report and hemodynamic and vascular responses, compared with individuals anticipating interacting with a nonprejudiced cross-race/ethnicity partner. Methods. Through a questionnaire exchange with a White interaction partner (a confederate) Latina participants learned that their partner had racial/ethnic biased or egalitarian attitudes. Latina participants reported their cognitive and emotional states, and cardiovascular responses were measured while participants prepared and delivered a speech to the White confederate. Results. Participants who believed that their interaction partner held prejudiced attitudes reported greater concern and more threat emotions before the interaction, and more stress after the interaction, and showed greater cardiovascular response than did participants who believed that their partner had egalitarian attitudes. Conclusions. This study shows that merely anticipating prejudice leads to both psychological and cardiovascular stress responses. These results are consistent with the conceptualization of anticipated discrimination as a stressor and suggest that vigilance for prejudice may be a contributing factor to racial/ethnic health disparities in the United States. PMID:22420818

  11. Dynamic Assessment of Social Cognition in Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Genova, Helen M; Cagna, Christopher J; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D; DeLuca, John; Lengenfelder, Jean

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been reported that individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) are impaired on tasks requiring emotional processing and social cognition, including tasks of Theory of Mind (ToM) and facial affect recognition. The current pilot study examined the ability of individuals with MS to understand and interpret lies and sarcasm using a dynamic task: The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT). Fifteen individuals with MS and 15 healthy controls (HCs) performed the Social Inference-Enriched subtest of the TASIT, in which they viewed video-taped social interactions in which lies and sarcasm are presented. Additionally, tests of cognition were also administered to better understand the relationship between specific cognitive abilities and the ability to understand lies and sarcasm. The MS group showed impairments in the ability to interpret and understand lies and sarcasm relative to HCs. These impairments were correlated with several cognitive abilities including processing speed, working memory, learning and memory, and premorbid IQ. The results indicate that the TASIT is a sensitive measure of social cognition in individuals with MS. Furthermore, performance on the TASIT was related to cognitive abilities. Results are discussed in terms of social cognition deficits in MS and how they relate to cognitive abilities. (JINS, 2016, 22, 83-88).

  12. An Assessment of Publication Productivity in Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals: 1978-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unger, Darlene D.; Rumrill, Phillip D., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This literature review examined publication patterns in the journal of "Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals" across 35 years of publication. Overall, 732 contributors affiliated with 267 organizations were identified in our analysis of 436 articles. Frequency counts identified the most productive scholars in…

  13. Ability and Motivation: Assessing Individual Factors that Contribute to University Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alarcon, Gene M.; Edwards, Jean M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study explored individual differences in ability and motivation factors of retention in first-year college students. We used discrete-time survival mixture analysis to model university retention. Parents' education, gender, American College Test (ACT) scores, conscientiousness, and trait affectivity were explored as predictors of…

  14. Assessment of Fat Taste in Individuals With and Without Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Schebendach, Janet E.; Klein, Diane A.; Mayer, Laurel E.S.; Devlin, Michael J.; Attia, Evelyn; Walsh, B. Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Objective Avoidance of dietary fat is a highly characteristic eating behavior of individuals with Anorexia Nervosa (AN). To date, no study has determined whether these individuals are better able to perceive the fat content of foods than individuals without AN. The goal of this study was to compare blinded taste ratings of fat free, low fat, and regular cream cheese in patients with AN and in normal controls (NC). Methods AN (n=25) and control (NC; n=25) participants were presented with a series of nine cream cheese samples of three differing fat contents and asked to taste and rate each sample from very low to very high fat. Results Repeated measures ANOVA found no significant main effect of fat content and no interaction between fat content and diagnosis; however, a significant three-way interaction between fat content, diagnosis, and trial was observed. Post-hoc analysis revealed a significant fat content by trial interaction within the AN group, suggesting a significant trial effect for the fat free samples only with improving ability to detect fat-free samples over repeated trials. Conclusions The current study suggests that individuals with AN do not have a markedly greater ability to taste fat than NC, and that; therefore, fat avoidance is likely primarily based on cognitive factors. PMID:24282163

  15. Assessing Activity and Location of Individual Laying Hens in Large Groups Using Modern Technology.

    PubMed

    Siegford, Janice M; Berezowski, John; Biswas, Subir K; Daigle, Courtney L; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Hernandez, Carlos E; Thurner, Stefan; Toscano, Michael J

    2016-02-02

    Tracking individual animals within large groups is increasingly possible, offering an exciting opportunity to researchers. Whereas previously only relatively indistinguishable groups of individual animals could be observed and combined into pen level data, we can now focus on individual actors within these large groups and track their activities across time and space with minimal intervention and disturbance. The development is particularly relevant to the poultry industry as, due to a shift away from battery cages, flock sizes are increasingly becoming larger and environments more complex. Many efforts have been made to track individual bird behavior and activity in large groups using a variety of methodologies with variable success. Of the technologies in use, each has associated benefits and detriments, which can make the approach more or less suitable for certain environments and experiments. Within this article, we have divided several tracking systems that are currently available into two major categories (radio frequency identification and radio signal strength) and review the strengths and weaknesses of each, as well as environments or conditions for which they may be most suitable. We also describe related topics including types of analysis for the data and concerns with selecting focal birds.

  16. Parental Assessment of Pain Coping in Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkitt, Chantel C.; Breau, Lynn M.; Zabalia, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Pain coping is thought to be the most significant behavioural contribution to the adjustment to pain. Little is known about how those with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) cope with pain. We describe parental reported coping styles and how coping relates to individual factors. Seventy-seven caregivers of children and adults with…

  17. A Profiling System for the Assessment of Individual Needs for Rehabilitation With Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    de Ronde-Brons, I.

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the development of a profiling system to specify the needs of hearing-aid candidates. As a basis for the profile of compensation needs, we used a slightly modified version of the Amsterdam Inventory of Disability and Handicap, combined with the well-known Client-Oriented Scale of Improvement (COSI). The first questionnaire results in scores for six audiological dimensions: detection, speech in quiet, speech in noise, localization, focus or discrimination, and noise tolerance. The goal of this study was to determine whether the six dimensions derived from the disability questionnaire are appropriate to also categorize individual COSI targets. The results show a good agreement between eight audiologists in the categorization of COSI goals along the six dimensions. The results per dimension show that the dimension focus or discrimination can be regarded as superfluous. Possible additional dimensions were tinnitus and listening effort. The results indicate that it is possible to translate individual user needs (administered using COSI) into more general dimensions derived from a disability questionnaire. This allows to summarize the compensation needs for individual patients in a profile of general dimensions, based on the degree of disability and the individual user needs. This profile can be used as a starting point in hearing aid selection. This approach also offers a well-structured method for the evaluation of the postfitting results. PMID:27815547

  18. Cognitive Flexibility among Individuals with Down Syndrome: Assessing the Influence of Verbal and Nonverbal Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Colin; Landry, Oriane; Russo, Natalie; Flores, Heidi; Jacques, Sophie; Burack, Jacob A.

    2013-01-01

    The influences of verbal mental age (VMA) and performance mental age (PMA) on cognitive flexibility were examined among a group of participants with Down syndrome (DS), in order to disentangle the relative contributions of each. The impaired cognitive flexibility typically observed among individuals with DS in combination with uneven VMA and PMA…

  19. The Assessment of Social Functioning in Individuals with Mental Retardation: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bielecki, Joanne; Swender, Stephen L.

    2004-01-01

    Social skills deficits and excesses are a defining aspect of mental retardation (MR). Research indicates that there is an established relationship between social skills and maladaptive behaviors. A number of studies demonstrate that the social competence of individuals with MR and comorbid psychopathology can be enhanced with social skills…

  20. Does Negative Mood Influence Self-Report Assessment of Individual and Relational Measures? An Experimental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heene, Els; De Raedt, Rudi; Buysse, Ann; Van Oost, Paulette

    2007-01-01

    The present study was designed to test the influence of negative mood on the self-report of individual and relational correlates of depression and marital distress. The authors applied a combined experimental mood induction procedure, based on music, autobiographical recall, and environmental manipulation. Results showed that the mood manipulation…

  1. An Assessment of the Tinder Mobile Dating Application for Individuals Who Are Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapperman, Gaylen; Kelly, Stacy M.; Kilmer, Kylie; Smith, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    People with visual impairments (that is, those who are blind or have low vision) have a disadvantage in the process of being selected as a romantic partner. It is further underscored that these difficulties with dating and fitting in among sighted individuals extend beyond formative years into adulthood (Sacks & Wolffe, 2006). Thus, the…

  2. Parental Assessment of Pain Coping in Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkitt, Chantel C.; Breau, Lynn M.; Zabalia, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Pain coping is thought to be the most significant behavioural contribution to the adjustment to pain. Little is known about how those with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) cope with pain. We describe parental reported coping styles and how coping relates to individual factors. Seventy-seven caregivers of children and adults with…

  3. Cognitive Flexibility among Individuals with Down Syndrome: Assessing the Influence of Verbal and Nonverbal Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Colin; Landry, Oriane; Russo, Natalie; Flores, Heidi; Jacques, Sophie; Burack, Jacob A.

    2013-01-01

    The influences of verbal mental age (VMA) and performance mental age (PMA) on cognitive flexibility were examined among a group of participants with Down syndrome (DS), in order to disentangle the relative contributions of each. The impaired cognitive flexibility typically observed among individuals with DS in combination with uneven VMA and PMA…

  4. Does Negative Mood Influence Self-Report Assessment of Individual and Relational Measures? An Experimental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heene, Els; De Raedt, Rudi; Buysse, Ann; Van Oost, Paulette

    2007-01-01

    The present study was designed to test the influence of negative mood on the self-report of individual and relational correlates of depression and marital distress. The authors applied a combined experimental mood induction procedure, based on music, autobiographical recall, and environmental manipulation. Results showed that the mood manipulation…

  5. Assessment of Aging Individuals with Down Syndrome in Clinical Trials: Results of Baseline Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sano, Mary; Aisen, Paul S.; Dalton, Arthur J.; Andrews, Howard F.; Tsai, Wei-Yann

    2005-01-01

    A major challenge to developing therapeutic interventions for cognitive loss and dementia in aging individuals with Down syndrome (DS) is the selection of appropriate outcome measures. This report describes the adaptation of the Brief Praxis Test (a nonverbal cognitive test) as a primary outcome measure, as well as the selection of secondary…

  6. Assessment of Aging Individuals with Down Syndrome in Clinical Trials: Results of Baseline Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sano, Mary; Aisen, Paul S.; Dalton, Arthur J.; Andrews, Howard F.; Tsai, Wei-Yann

    2005-01-01

    A major challenge to developing therapeutic interventions for cognitive loss and dementia in aging individuals with Down syndrome (DS) is the selection of appropriate outcome measures. This report describes the adaptation of the Brief Praxis Test (a nonverbal cognitive test) as a primary outcome measure, as well as the selection of secondary…

  7. Cognitive Dysfunction and Psychoeducational Assessment in Individuals with Acquired Brain Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obrzut, John E.; Hynd, George W.

    1987-01-01

    Issues and developmental considerations in outcome and treatment of head injury in children are considered. Focus is on appropriate assessment practices in the areas of psychoeducational development, motor and cognitive deficits, and neuropsychological deficits. (Author/DB)

  8. Individual social security accounts: issues in assessing administrative feasibility and costs.

    PubMed

    Olsen, K A; Salisbury, D L

    1998-11-01

    Whether to add individual accounts (IAs) to the Social Security system is a highly political issue. But almost lost in the debate so far have been any practical considerations about how to administer such accounts. Any discussion of whether to create individual accounts must also address the basic but critical questions of how they would work: Who would run them? What would they cost? Logistically, are they even possible? This EBRI Issue Brief provides an overview of the most salient administrative issues facing the current Social Security reform debate--issues that challenge proponents to carefully think through how their proposals could be implemented so as to achieve their policy goals. The options and difficulties in administering IAs raise concerns that cut across ideology. The object of this report is neither to dissuade the advocates nor support the critics of individual accounts. Rather, it is to bring practical considerations to a political debate that has largely ignored the pragmatic challenges of whether IAs would be too complex for participants to understand or too difficult for record keepers to administer. The major findings in this analysis include: Adding individual accounts to Social Security could be the largest undertaking in the history of the U.S. financial market, and no system to date has the capacity to administer such a system. The number of workers currently covered by Social Security--the largest single entitlement program in the nation--is at least four times higher than the combined number of all tax-favored employment-based retirement accounts in the United States, which are administered by hundreds of entities. Direct comparisons between employment-based retirement savings plans and Social Security reform are tenuous at best. Social Security covers workers and businesses that are disproportionately excluded from employment-based plans. Because of these differences, a system of individual Social Security accounts would be more

  9. Assessing meiofaunal variation among individuals utilising morphological and molecular approaches: an example using the Tardigrada

    PubMed Central

    Sands, Chester J; Convey, Peter; Linse, Katrin; McInnes, Sandra J

    2008-01-01

    Background Meiofauna – multicellular animals captured between sieve size 45 μm and 1000 μm – are a fundamental component of terrestrial, and marine benthic ecosystems, forming an integral element of food webs, and playing a critical roll in nutrient recycling. Most phyla have meiofaunal representatives and studies of these taxa impact on a wide variety of sub-disciplines as well as having social and economic implications. However, studies of variation in meiofauna are presented with several important challenges. Isolating individuals from a sample substrate is a time consuming process, and identification requires increasingly scarce taxonomic expertise. Finding suitable morphological characters in many of these organisms is often difficult even for experts. Molecular markers are extremely useful for identifying variation in morphologically conserved organisms. However, for many species markers need to be developed de novo, while DNA can often only be extracted from pooled samples in order to obtain sufficient quantity and quality. Importantly, multiple independent markers are required to reconcile gene evolution with species evolution. In this primarily methodological paper we provide a proof of principle of a novel and effective protocol for the isolation of meiofauna from an environmental sample. We also go on to illustrate examples of the implications arising from subsequent screening for genetic variation at the level of the individual using ribosomal, mitochondrial and single copy nuclear markers. Results To isolate individual tardigrades from their habitat substrate we used a non-toxic density gradient media that did not interfere with downstream biochemical processes. Using a simple DNA release technique and nested polymerase chain reaction with universal primers we were able amplify multi-copy and, to some extent, single copy genes from individual tardigrades. Maximum likelihood trees from ribosomal 18S, mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1, and

  10. Assessing meiofaunal variation among individuals utilising morphological and molecular approaches: an example using the Tardigrada.

    PubMed

    Sands, Chester J; Convey, Peter; Linse, Katrin; McInnes, Sandra J

    2008-04-30

    Meiofauna - multicellular animals captured between sieve size 45 mum and 1000 mum - are a fundamental component of terrestrial, and marine benthic ecosystems, forming an integral element of food webs, and playing a critical roll in nutrient recycling. Most phyla have meiofaunal representatives and studies of these taxa impact on a wide variety of sub-disciplines as well as having social and economic implications. However, studies of variation in meiofauna are presented with several important challenges. Isolating individuals from a sample substrate is a time consuming process, and identification requires increasingly scarce taxonomic expertise. Finding suitable morphological characters in many of these organisms is often difficult even for experts. Molecular markers are extremely useful for identifying variation in morphologically conserved organisms. However, for many species markers need to be developed de novo, while DNA can often only be extracted from pooled samples in order to obtain sufficient quantity and quality. Importantly, multiple independent markers are required to reconcile gene evolution with species evolution. In this primarily methodological paper we provide a proof of principle of a novel and effective protocol for the isolation of meiofauna from an environmental sample. We also go on to illustrate examples of the implications arising from subsequent screening for genetic variation at the level of the individual using ribosomal, mitochondrial and single copy nuclear markers. To isolate individual tardigrades from their habitat substrate we used a non-toxic density gradient media that did not interfere with downstream biochemical processes. Using a simple DNA release technique and nested polymerase chain reaction with universal primers we were able amplify multi-copy and, to some extent, single copy genes from individual tardigrades. Maximum likelihood trees from ribosomal 18S, mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1, and the single copy

  11. Sequential Learning Models for the Wisconsin Card Sort Task: Assessing Processes in Substance Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Bishara, Anthony J.; Kruschke, John K.; Stout, Julie C.; Bechara, Antoine; McCabe, David P.; Busemeyer, Jerome R.

    2010-01-01

    The Wisconsin Card Sort Task (WCST) is a commonly used neuropsychological test of executive or frontal lobe functioning. Traditional behavioral measures from the task (e.g., perseverative errors) distinguish healthy controls from clinical populations, but such measures can be difficult to interpret. In an attempt to supplement traditional measures, we developed and tested a family of sequential learning models that allowed for estimation of processes at the individual subject level in the WCST. Testing the model with substance dependent individuals and healthy controls, the model parameters significantly predicted group membership even when controlling for traditional behavioral measures from the task. Substance dependence was associated with a) slower attention shifting following punished trials and b) reduced decision consistency. Results suggest that model parameters may offer both incremental content validity and incremental predictive validity. PMID:20495607

  12. Individualized nutritional recommendations: do we have the measurements needed to assess risk and make dietary recommendations?

    PubMed

    Arab, Lenore

    2004-02-01

    Is the information currently available to adjust nutritional recommendations and develop individualized nutrition? No. There is not even the information needed for setting dietary recommendations with confidence now at the group level. Will it be available soon? The answer to this question depends on the drive and will of the nutritional community, the success in recruiting funding to the area, the education of nutritionists and the spawning of great ideas and approaches. The emerging tools of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are enabling the in-depth study of relationships between diet, genetics and metabolism. The advent of technologies can be compared with the discovery of the microscope and the new dimensions of scientific visualization enabled by that discovery. Nutritionists stand at the crest of new waves of data that can be generated, and new methods for their digestion will be required. To date, the study of dietary requirements has been based largely on a black box approach. Subjects are supplemented or depleted and clinical outcomes are observed. Few recommendations are based on metabolic outcomes. Metabolomics and nutrigenomics promise tools with which recommendations can be refined to meet individual requirements and the potential of individualized nutrition can be explored. As yet, these tools are not being widely applied in nutritional research and are rarely being applied by nutritionists. The result is often interesting research that is frequently nutritionally flawed, resulting in inappropriate conclusions. Nutritional education is needed to put nutritionists at the forefront of the development of applications for these technologies, creating a generation of nutrigenomicists. A new generation of nutritionists should be working interdisciplinarily with geneticists, molecular biologists and bioinformaticians in the development of research strategies. The present paper reviews the current status of nutrigenomic research, the current

  13. Inter-individual susceptibility to environmental toxicants-A current assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Nebert, Daniel W. . E-mail: dan.nebert@uc.edu

    2005-09-01

    Virtually all diseases have an environmental component. The two most important factors affecting your unique risk of an environmental disease (toxicity or cancer) are (a) your exposure to the environmental agent and (b) your genes. Epidemiologists have found ways to calculate inter-individual risk-if the exposure to environmental agents is sufficiently high and can be documented (e.g., years of cigarette smoking, taking prescribed drugs, drinking alcohol, or exposure to radon or other radioactive material, etc.). If the dose of environmental agents is lower and more ambiguous (e.g., exposure to chemicals on the job, herbicides sprayed on a golf course, outdoor or indoor air pollution, endocrine disruptors in cans of food, living near a toxic waste dump site, etc.), however, calculations of inter-individual risk become much more difficult. Highly accurate DNA tests for genetic susceptibility to toxicity and cancer have been sought in order to identify individuals at increased risk; this type of research represents the leading edge of phenotype-genotype association studies and is the major goal of most public health and preventive medicine programs. The task, however, has turned out to be far more challenging than anticipated. The major stumbling block has been the difficulty in determining an unequivocal phenotype or an unequivocal genotype. We were quite optimistic 5-10 years ago that this would be easy, but now we are beginning to appreciate how difficult it is to determine an unequivocal phenotype or genotype with certainty. For many reasons set forth in this overview, it appears that DNA testing alone, to predict and prevent environmental disease on an individual basis, may be virtually impossible with current knowledge and technologies and will require novel insights before major practical applications will evolve.

  14. Risk assessment for incident heart failure in individuals with atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Schnabel, Renate B.; Rienstra, Michiel; Sullivan, Lisa M.; Sun, Jenny X.; Moser, Carlee B.; Levy, Daniel; Pencina, Michael J.; Fontes, João D.; Magnani, Jared W.; McManus, David D.; Lubitz, Steven A.; Tadros, Thomas M.; Wang, Thomas J.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a strong risk factor for heart failure (HF); HF onset in patients with AF is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Risk factors that predict HF in individuals with AF in the community are not well established. Methods and results We examined clinical variables related to the 10-year incidence of HF in 725 individuals (mean 73.3 years, 45% women) with documented AF in the Framingham Heart Study. Event rates for incident HF (n = 161, 48% in women) were comparable in women (4.30 per 100 person-years) and men (3.34 per 100 person-years). Age, body mass index, ECG LV hypertrophy, diabetes, significant murmur, and history of myocardial infarction were positively associated with incident HF in multivariable models (C-statistic 0.71; 95% confidence interval 0.67–0.75). We developed a risk algorithm for estimating absolute risk of HF in AF patients with good model fit and calibration (adjusted calibration χ2 statistic 7.29; Pχ2 = 0.61). Applying the algorithm, 47.6% of HF events occurred in the top tertile in men compared with 13.1% in the bottom tertile, and 58.4% in women in the upper tertile compared with 18.2% in the lowest category. For HF type, women had a non-significantly higher incidence of HF with preserved EF compared with men. Conclusions We describe advancing age, LV hypertrophy, body mass index, diabetes, significant heart murmur, and history of myocardial infarction as clinical predictors of incident HF in individuals with AF. A risk algorithm may help identify individuals with AF at high risk of developing HF. PMID:23594831

  15. Assessing geographic and individual level factors associated with arrests among injection drug users in California.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Alexis N; Bluthenthal, Ricky N; Neilands, Torsten; Kral, Alex H

    2011-11-01

    Law enforcement strategies to reduce street-based drug activity are often concentrated in neighborhoods with high levels of social and economic disadvantage. Intensive street-level policing is associated with fear and reluctance on the part of injection drug users (IDUs) to utilize syringe exchange programs (SEPs). We aim to build on previous research by analyzing the influence of zip code and individual level factors on the probability of arrest among IDUs in California. Individual characteristics and behaviors were more strongly associated with arrest than zip code characteristics. However, living in a disadvantaged zip code exerted a protective effect against arrest after adjusting for individual level factors (AOR 0.7, 95% 0.5, 0.9). Further efforts to contextualize the circumstances surrounding an arrest, including the characteristics of the geographic setting, may be useful for understanding how law enforcement practices impact the success of SEPs and the health of injection drug users. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ensuring Confidentiality of Geocoded Health Data: Assessing Geographic Masking Strategies for Individual-Level Data

    PubMed Central

    Zandbergen, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Public health datasets increasingly use geographic identifiers such as an individual's address. Geocoding these addresses often provides new insights since it becomes possible to examine spatial patterns and associations. Address information is typically considered confidential and is therefore not released or shared with others. Publishing maps with the locations of individuals, however, may also breach confidentiality since addresses and associated identities can be discovered through reverse geocoding. One commonly used technique to protect confidentiality when releasing individual-level geocoded data is geographic masking. This typically consists of applying a certain amount of random perturbation in a systematic manner to reduce the risk of reidentification. A number of geographic masking techniques have been developed as well as methods to quantity the risk of reidentification associated with a particular masking method. This paper presents a review of the current state-of-the-art in geographic masking, summarizing the various methods and their strengths and weaknesses. Despite recent progress, no universally accepted or endorsed geographic masking technique has emerged. Researchers on the other hand are publishing maps using geographic masking of confidential locations. Any researcher publishing such maps is advised to become familiar with the different masking techniques available and their associated reidentification risks. PMID:26556417

  17. Optical molecular imaging approach for rapid assessment of response of individual cancer cells to chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhen; Tikekar, Rohan Vijay; Samadzadeh, Kiana Michelle; Nitin, Nitin

    2012-10-01

    Predicting the response of individual patients to cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs is critical for developing individualized therapies. With this motivation, an optical molecular imaging approach was developed to detect cisplatin induced changes in the uptake and intracellular retention of choline. Intracellular uptake of choline was characterized using a click chemistry reaction between propargyl choline and Alexa-488 azide. Cisplatin induced changes in the uptake of propargyl choline in cells and tumor spheroids were compared with similar measurements using a fluorescent analogue of deoxyglucose and conventional cell viability assays. Uptake and intracellular retention of propargyl choline decreased with an increase in concentration of cisplatin. Intracellular uptake of propargyl choline was significantly reduced within 3 h of incubation with a sub-lethal dose of cisplatin. Results demonstrate that the imaging approach based on propargyl choline was more sensitive in detecting the early response of cancer cells to cisplatin as compared to the imaging based on fluorescent analogue of deoxyglucose and cell viability assays. Imaging measurements in tumor spheroids show a significant decrease in the uptake of propargyl choline following treatment with cisplatin. Overall, the results demonstrate a novel optical molecular imaging approach for rapid measurement of the response of individual cancer cells to cisplatin treatment.

  18. Assessment of the Exercise Intensity of Short Stick Exercises in Elderly Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Kurasawa, Shigeki; Yokoi, Katsushi; Miyai, Nobuyuki; Takemura, Shigeki; Miyashita, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    The present study was to obtain basic data for applying the short stick exercises to frail elderly individuals. A total of 20 individuals aged ≥60 years (10 men, and 10 women) with independence in activities of daily living participated in a short stick exercise program. During the exercise program, the time required and the number of times the short stick was dropped were investigated. The exercise intensity was also evaluated based on expired gas and heart rate measurements. The mean exercise intensity of the short stick exercises was 1.9 ± 0.3 metabolic equivalents (METs), equivalent to talking while standing or walking indoors. Compared to the early elderly (those aged 60 to 74 years), the late elderly (those aged ≥75 years) had a significantly higher number of stick drops and significantly lower increase in heart rate from resting to the warming-up exercise. The short stick exercises had a low exercise intensity and can be applicable to exercise interventions of the frail elderly individuals. However, in the case of the late elderly, the high frequency of short stick drops and the change in heart rate during warming up must be considered. PMID:25734017

  19. A clinical assessment of cochlear implant recipient performance: implications for individualized map settings in specific environments.

    PubMed

    Hey, Matthias; Hocke, Thomas; Mauger, Stefan; Müller-Deile, Joachim

    2016-11-01

    Individual speech intelligibility was measured in quiet and noise for cochlear Implant recipients upgrading from the Freedom to the CP900 series sound processor. The postlingually deafened participants (n = 23) used either Nucleus CI24RE or CI512 cochlear implant, and currently wore a Freedom sound processor. A significant group mean improvement in speech intelligibility was found in quiet (Freiburg monosyllabic words at 50 dBSPL) and in noise (adaptive Oldenburger sentences in noise) for the two CP900 series SmartSound programs compared to the Freedom program. Further analysis was carried out on individual's speech intelligibility outcomes in quiet and in noise. Results showed a significant improvement or decrement for some recipients when upgrading to the new programs. To further increase speech intelligibility outcomes when upgrading, an enhanced upgrade procedure is proposed that includes additional testing with different signal-processing schemes. Implications of this research are that future automated scene analysis and switching technologies could provide additional performance improvements by introducing individualized scene-dependent settings.

  20. A New Way of Assessing Foraging Behaviour at the Individual Level Using Faeces Marking and Satellite Telemetry

    PubMed Central

    Giroux, Marie-Andrée; Dussault, Christian; Lecomte, Nicolas; Tremblay, Jean-Pierre; Côté, Steeve D.

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneity in foraging behaviour can profoundly influence ecological processes shaping populations. To scale-up from individual foraging behaviour to processes occurring at the population scale, one needs to sample foraging behaviour at the individual level, and over large temporal scales or during critical seasons known to influence life-history traits. We developed an innovative technique to monitor foraging behaviour at the individual level in secretive species, a technique that can be ultimately used to investigate the links between foraging behaviour and life-history traits. First, the technique used a novel approach, namely the combination of telemetry tracking and biomarking of faeces with food dyes to locate fresh signs of presence left by individuals equipped with GPS collars. Second, the technique is based on the simultaneous or successive sampling of life-history traits and individual foraging behaviour, using tracks with high probabilities of recovery of dyed faeces. We first describe our methodological approach, using a case study of a large herbivore, and then provide recommendations and guidelines for its use. Sampling single snow tracks of individuals equipped with a GPS collar was a reliable way to assess individual winter foraging behaviour in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann) population. During that period, the probability of recovery of dyed faeces within the range of the collar precision was very high for single snow tracks of equipped deer (97%). Our approach is well suited to study individual foraging behaviour, and could ultimately be used to investigate the interplay between intra-population heterogeneity in foraging behaviour, life-history traits, and demographic processes. PMID:23166754

  1. Assessment of first and second degree relatives of individuals with bipolar disorder shows increased genetic risk scores in both affected relatives and young At‐Risk Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Koller, Daniel L.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Foroud, Tatiana; Liu, Hai; Glowinski, Anne L.; McInnis, Melvin G.; Wilcox, Holly C.; Frankland, Andrew; Roberts, Gloria; Schofield, Peter R.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Nurnberger, John I.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed the polygenic nature of bipolar disorder (BP), and identified common risk variants associated with illness. However, the role of common polygenic risk in multiplex families has not previously been examined. The present study examined 249 European‐ancestry families from the NIMH Genetics Initiative sample, comparing subjects with narrowly defined BP (excluding bipolar II and recurrent unipolar depression; n = 601) and their adult relatives without BP (n = 695). Unrelated adult controls (n = 266) were from the NIMH TGEN control dataset. We also examined a prospective cohort of young (12–30 years) offspring and siblings of individuals with BPI and BPII disorder (at risk; n = 367) and psychiatrically screened controls (n = 229), ascertained from five sites in the US and Australia and assessed with standardized clinical protocols. Thirty‐two disease‐associated SNPs from the PGC‐BP Working Group report (2011) were genotyped and additive polygenic risk scores (PRS) derived. We show increased PRS in adult cases compared to unrelated controls (P = 3.4 × 10−5, AUC = 0.60). In families with a high‐polygenic load (PRS score ≥32 in two or more subjects), PRS distinguished cases with BPI/SAB from other relatives (P = 0.014, RR = 1.32). Secondly, a higher PRS was observed in at‐risk youth, regardless of affected status, compared to unrelated controls (GEE‐χ2 = 5.15, P = 0.012). This report is the first to explore common polygenic risk in multiplex families, albeit using only a small number of robustly associated risk variants. We show that individuals with BP have a higher load of common disease‐associated variants than unrelated controls and first‐degree relatives, and illustrate the potential utility of PRS assessment in a family context. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID

  2. [Reliability of the individual age assessment at the time of death based on sternal rib end morphology in Balkan population].

    PubMed

    Donić, Danijela; Durić, Marija; Babić, Dragan; Popović, Dorde

    2005-06-01

    This paper analyzes the reliability of the Iscan's sternal rib-ends phase method for the assessment of individual age at the time of death in the Balkan population. The method is based on the morphological age changes of the sternal rib ends. The tested samples consisted of 65 ribs from autopsy cases in the Institute for Forensic Medicine, University of Belgrade, during 1999-2002 (23 females, and 42 males of various ages, ranged from 17-91 years), according to the forensic documents. Significant differences between the real chronological age of the individuals and the values established by the Iscan's method was found, especially in the older categories (phases 6 and 7), in both males and females. The results of the discriminative analysis showed the values of the highest diagnostic relevance for the assessment of age in our population: the change of the depth of the articular fossa, the thickness of its walls, and the quality of the bones.

  3. A Multifactorial Approach to Predicting Death Anxiety: Assessing the Role of Religiosity, Susceptibility to Mortality Cues, and Individual Differences.

    PubMed

    French, Carrie; Greenauer, Nathan; Mello, Catherine

    2017-06-14

    Death anxiety is not only experienced by individuals receiving end-of-life care, but also by family members, social workers, and other service providers who support these individuals. Thus, identifying predictors of individual differences in experienced death anxiety levels may have both theoretical and clinical ramifications. The present study assessed the relative influence of religiosity, susceptibility to mortality cues, state and trait anxiety, and demographic factors in the experience of death anxiety through an online survey distributed to members of two online communities related to end-of-life care. Results indicated that cognitive and emotional susceptibility to mortality cues, as well as gender, predicted differences in death anxiety. Conversely, religiosity and age did not increase the predictive power of the model. Thus, death anxiety may be a function of emotional, cognitive, and sociocultural factors that interact in complex, but predictable, ways to modulate the response to mortality cues that occur in one's life.

  4. Reliability of thyroglobulin in serum compared with urinary iodine when assessing individual and population iodine nutrition status.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stig; Noahsen, Paneeraq; Westergaard, Louise; Laurberg, Peter

    2017-02-01

    The occurrence of thyroid disorders relies on I nutrition and monitoring of all populations is recommended. Measuring I in urine is standard but thyroglobulin in serum is an alternative. This led us to assess the reliability of studies using serum thyroglobulin compared with urinary I to assess the I nutrition level and calculate the number of participants needed in a study with repeated data sampling in the same individuals for 1 year. Diet, supplement use and life style factors were assessed by questionnaires. We measured thyroglobulin and thyroglobulin antibodies in serum and I in urine. Participants were thirty-three Caucasians and sixty-four Inuit living in Greenland aged 30-49 years. Serum thyroglobulin decreased with rising I excretion (Kendall's τ -0·29, P=0·005) and did not differ with ethnicity. Variation in individuals was lower for serum-thyroglobulin than for urinary I (mean individual CV: 15·1 v. 46·1 %; P<0·01). It required 245 urine samples to be 95 % certain of having a urinary I excretion within 10 % of the true mean of the population. For serum-thyroglobulin the same precision required 206 samples. In an individual ten times more samples were needed to depict I deficiency when using urinary I excretion compared with serum-thyroglobulin. In conclusion, more participants are need to portray I deficiency in a population when using urinary I compared with serum-thyroglobulin, and about ten times more samples are needed in an individual. Adding serum-thyroglobulin to urinary I may inform surveys of I nutrition by allowing subgroup analysis with similar reliability.

  5. Evaluation of a behavioral assessment tool for the individual unable to self-report pain.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Rob W; Tucker, William F; Kim, Sunghyun; Gilder, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Assessment of pain intensity using a standard self-reported pain score is standard practice in most institutions. These instruments require the cognitive ability to process the pain intensity into a numeric or descriptive value. Many institutions are considering adopting an assessment tool for cognitive impairment. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a clinician-administered assessment tool, PAINAD, in patients with cognitive impairment. Opioid consumption and frequency of documented unknown pain were collected in 2 cognitive impaired groups. In the control group, a self-reporting pain intensity tool was used, and in a second group, the PAINAD was used. Opioid use was significantly higher (P = .003) and the rates of reported unknown pain were significantly lower (P < .01) in the group using the PAINAD instrument compared to the control group of patients with cognitive impairment. There were no noted differences in opioid-induced adverse reactions in either group.

  6. A model to assess the emission of individual isoprenoids emitted from Italian ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper Pacheco, C. J.; Fares, S.; Loreto, F.; Ciccioli, P.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a GIS-based model to estimate the emissions from the Italian forest ecosystems. The model was aimed at generating a species-specific emission inventory for isoprene and individual monoterpenes that could have been validated with experimental data collected in selected sites of the CARBOITALY network. The model was develop for the year 2006. At a resolution of 1 km2 with a daily time resolution. By using the emission rates of individual components obtained through several laboratory and field experiments carried out on different vegetation species of the Mediterranean basin, maps of individual isoprenoids were generated for the Italian ecosystems. The spatial distribution and fractional contents of vegetation species present in the Italian forest ecosystems was obtained by combining the CORINE IV land cover map with National Forest Inventory based on ground observations performed at local levels by individual Italian regions (22) in which the country is divided. In general, basal emission rates for individual isoprenoids was reported by Steinbrecher et al. 1997 and Karl et al. 2009 were used. In this case, classes were further subdivided into T and L+T emitters as functions of the active pool. In many instances, however they were revised based on the results obtained in our Institute through determinations performed at leaf, branch (cuvette method) or ecosystem level (REA and the gradient method). In the latter case, studies performed in Italy and/or Mediterranean countries were used. An empirical light extinction function as a function of the canopy type and structure was introduced. The algorithms proposed by (Guenther et al. 1993) were used, but, they were often adapted to fit with the experimental observations made in the Mediterranean Areas. They were corrected for a seasonality factor (Steinbrecher et al. 2009) taking into account a time lag in leaf sprouting due to the plant elevation. A simple parameterization with LAI was

  7. Another look at the (im-)precision of individual risk estimates made using actuarial risk assessment instruments.

    PubMed

    Hart, Stephen D; Cooke, David J

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the precision of individual risk estimates made using actuarial risk assessment instruments (ARAIs) by discussing some major conceptual issues and then illustrating them by analyzing new data. We used a standard multivariate statistical procedure, logistic regression, to create a new ARAI based on data from a follow-up study of 90 adult male sex offenders. We indexed predictive precision at the group level using confidence intervals for group mean probability estimates, and at the individual level using prediction intervals for individual probability estimates. Consistent with past research, ARAI scores were moderately and significantly predictive of failure in the aggregate, but group probability estimates had substantial margins of error and individual probability estimates had very large margins of error. We conclude that, without major advances in our understanding of the causes of violence, ARAIs cannot be used to estimate the specific probability or absolute likelihood of future violence with any reasonable degree of precision or certainty. The implications for conducting violence risk assessments in forensic mental health are discussed.

  8. How artificial intelligence tools can be used to assess individual patient risk in cardiovascular disease: problems with the current methods

    PubMed Central

    Grossi, Enzo

    2006-01-01

    Background In recent years a number of algorithms for cardiovascular risk assessment has been proposed to the medical community. These algorithms consider a number of variables and express their results as the percentage risk of developing a major fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular event in the following 10 to 20 years Discussion The author has identified three major pitfalls of these algorithms, linked to the limitation of the classical statistical approach in dealing with this kind of non linear and complex information. The pitfalls are the inability to capture the disease complexity, the inability to capture process dynamics, and the wide confidence interval of individual risk assessment. Artificial Intelligence tools can provide potential advantage in trying to overcome these limitations. The theoretical background and some application examples related to artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic have been reviewed and discussed. Summary The use of predictive algorithms to assess individual absolute risk of cardiovascular future events is currently hampered by methodological and mathematical flaws. The use of newer approaches, such as fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks, linked to artificial intelligence, seems to better address both the challenge of increasing complexity resulting from a correlation between predisposing factors, data on the occurrence of cardiovascular events, and the prediction of future events on an individual level. PMID:16672045

  9. How artificial intelligence tools can be used to assess individual patient risk in cardiovascular disease: problems with the current methods.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Enzo

    2006-05-03

    In recent years a number of algorithms for cardiovascular risk assessment has been proposed to the medical community. These algorithms consider a number of variables and express their results as the percentage risk of developing a major fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular event in the following 10 to 20 years The author has identified three major pitfalls of these algorithms, linked to the limitation of the classical statistical approach in dealing with this kind of non linear and complex information. The pitfalls are the inability to capture the disease complexity, the inability to capture process dynamics, and the wide confidence interval of individual risk assessment. Artificial Intelligence tools can provide potential advantage in trying to overcome these limitations. The theoretical background and some application examples related to artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic have been reviewed and discussed. The use of predictive algorithms to assess individual absolute risk of cardiovascular future events is currently hampered by methodological and mathematical flaws. The use of newer approaches, such as fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks, linked to artificial intelligence, seems to better address both the challenge of increasing complexity resulting from a correlation between predisposing factors, data on the occurrence of cardiovascular events, and the prediction of future events on an individual level.

  10. Individualized Skill Assessment in Digital Learning Games: Basic Definitions and Mathematical Formalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustin, T.; Hockemeyer, C.; Kickmeier-Rust, M.; Albert, D.

    2011-01-01

    The assessment of knowledge and learning progress in the context of game-based learning requires novel, noninvasive, and embedded approaches. In the present paper, we introduce a mathematical framework which relates the (problem solution) behavior of a learner in the game context to the learner's available and lacking competencies. We argue that a…

  11. Assessing Teamwork in Undergraduate Education: A Measurement Tool to Evaluate Individual Teamwork Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Emily; Simper, Natalie; Leger, Andrew; Stephenson, Jenn

    2017-01-01

    Effective teamwork skills are essential for success in an increasingly team-based workplace. However, research suggests that there is often confusion concerning how teamwork is measured and assessed, making it difficult to develop these skills in undergraduate curricula. The goal of the present study was to develop a sustainable tool for assessing…

  12. The Viability of Individual Oral Assessments for Learners: Insights Gained from Two Intervention Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinsloo, C. H.; Harvey, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    It is essential for learners to develop foundational literacy skills, ideally, in the first grade of formal education. These skills are then firmly entrenched and can be expanded in the following grades to form a basis for all future academic studies. Appropriate assessment practices and tools to aid this process can inform the achievement of…

  13. Advancing individual tree biomass prediction: assessment and alternatives to the component ratio method

    Treesearch

    Aaron Weiskittel; Jereme Frank; David Walker; Phil Radtke; David Macfarlane; James. Westfall

    2015-01-01

    Prediction of forest biomass and carbon is becoming important issues in the United States. However, estimating forest biomass and carbon is difficult and relies on empirically-derived regression equations. Based on recent findings from a national gap analysis and comprehensive assessment of the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (USFS-FIA) component...

  14. Using Assessment in Counseling Supervision: Individual Differences in Self-Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haverkamp, Beth E.

    1994-01-01

    Considered construct of self-monitoring as potential variable for supervisor assessment of counseling trainees. Data from 65 doctoral students from 4 counseling psychology programs suggest that counseling trainee's self-monitoring status was related to additional counseling and personality variables, particularly relationship between…

  15. A Survey of Methods of Deriving Individual Grades from Group Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejk, Mark; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The literature pertaining to evaluation of student work in groups is reviewed, and a number of group assessment methods are identified. Two alternative methods used at the University of Sunderland (England) are described. Issues and practical considerations in peer and self-evaluation of work in groups are also examined, particularly the tendency…

  16. Individualized Skill Assessment in Digital Learning Games: Basic Definitions and Mathematical Formalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustin, T.; Hockemeyer, C.; Kickmeier-Rust, M.; Albert, D.

    2011-01-01

    The assessment of knowledge and learning progress in the context of game-based learning requires novel, noninvasive, and embedded approaches. In the present paper, we introduce a mathematical framework which relates the (problem solution) behavior of a learner in the game context to the learner's available and lacking competencies. We argue that a…

  17. The Assessment of Pain and Discomfort in Individuals with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Angela; Edwards, Christopher L.; Robinson, Elwood L.

    2005-01-01

    This research was conducted to replicate and expanded the work of Bodfish et al. [Bodfish, J. W., Harper, V. N., Deacon, J. R., & Symons, F. J. (2001, May). "Identifying and measuring pain in persons with developmental disabilities: A manual for the Pain and Discomfort Scale (PADS)." Western Carolina Center Research Reports] by assessing the…

  18. Assessment Instruments Measuring Malingering Used with Individuals Who Have Mental Retardation: Potential Problems and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Kolleen E.; Deal, William Paul

    2006-01-01

    "Malingering," the exaggeration or fabrication of physical and/or psychological symptoms, can threaten the psychological assessment process (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). To enhance the validity of psychological evaluations, researchers have studied trends in malingering and developed instruments for its detection (Rogers, Bagby, &…

  19. Assessment Instruments Measuring Malingering Used with Individuals Who Have Mental Retardation: Potential Problems and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Kolleen E.; Deal, William Paul

    2006-01-01

    "Malingering," the exaggeration or fabrication of physical and/or psychological symptoms, can threaten the psychological assessment process (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). To enhance the validity of psychological evaluations, researchers have studied trends in malingering and developed instruments for its detection (Rogers, Bagby, &…

  20. The United Kingdom's Research Assessment Exercise: Impact on Institutions, Departments, Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Paul G.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the United Kingdom's Research Assessment Exercises (RAE) affect institutional grants for university-based research projects. Explains the RAE system, discussing its advantages and disadvantages, outlines a framework within which it can be analyzed, and examines some of the available evidence about the impact of the RAE. (SWM)

  1. Assessing Teamwork in Undergraduate Education: A Measurement Tool to Evaluate Individual Teamwork Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Emily; Simper, Natalie; Leger, Andrew; Stephenson, Jenn

    2017-01-01

    Effective teamwork skills are essential for success in an increasingly team-based workplace. However, research suggests that there is often confusion concerning how teamwork is measured and assessed, making it difficult to develop these skills in undergraduate curricula. The goal of the present study was to develop a sustainable tool for assessing…

  2. Systematic Assessment of Caregiving Skill Performance by Individuals with Tetraplegia and Their Caregivers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    performance (a key criterion for determining readiness for discharge) in the scoring system. An assessment tool (“ Teaching Effective Assistance...the TEAM Tool (TEAM = “ Teaching Effective Assistance Management”) to emphasize the importance of collaboration and interpersonal interaction to the...Several products have been created during the current reporting period: 1. Teaching Effective Assistance Management (TEAM) Tool The TEAM Tool

  3. Moving the Risk and Protective Factor Framework toward Individualized Assessment in Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Matthew J.; Loneck, Barry; Videka, Lynn; Brown, M. Craig

    2007-01-01

    The field of substance abuse prevention has evolved towards a risk and protective factor paradigm in explaining the onset and escalation of adolescent substance use. This framework for understanding the problem has been developed and employed by researchers at the University of Washington, under Doctors Hawkins and Catalano, to assess communities…

  4. Assessing Adolescents' Attachment Hierarchies: Differences across Developmental Periods and Associations with Individual Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Natalie L.; Kobak, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents' attachment hierarchies were assessed in a sample of 212 high school and 198 college students. The Important People Interview (IPI) differentiated attachment bonds from other supportive or affiliative relationships and indicated that adolescents show a hierarchical ordering of preferences for multiple attachment figures. Differences in…

  5. Using a Quality Indicator Checklist To Assess Technical Needs for Individuals and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Paro, Karen M.; And Others

    This paper describes a needs assessment instrument that is intended to effectively communicate recommended practice ideas for serving children with disabilities to teachers, families, and service delivery personnel. The instrument is in the form of a quality indicators checklist and utilizes 143 statements of recommended practice. The inclusion of…

  6. An Occupational Therapy Work Skills Assessment for Individuals with Head Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Irene; Higham, Julie; McLean, Alison M.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an occupational therapy skills assessment protocol developed and used to evaluate physical, cognitive, and behavioral abilities for persons seeking to return to work following head injuries. It measures them within the framework of productivity, interpersonal skills, and safety. (Contains 48 references.) (Author/JOW)

  7. Teaching Medieval Towns: Group Exercises, Individual Presentations and Self-Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Andrew; Gunn, Vicky

    2002-01-01

    Examines the use of innovative collaborative small group activities in a Medieval History undergraduate honors course. Discusses student evaluations and feedback from a focus group to investigate the use of group exercises that involve the construction of three-dimensional models of medieval towns and the use of self-assessment. (Author/LRW)

  8. Assessing the Micro-Environments of Individual Preschool Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dopyera, John

    The work completed to date on the development and validation of a procedure for assessing the micro-environments of preschool children is summarized. It was speculated that the lack of evidence that compensatory programs facilitate developmental changes in children might be due to actual lack of influence by the programs, to the subtlety of the…

  9. The United Kingdom's Research Assessment Exercise: Impact on Institutions, Departments, Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Paul G.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the United Kingdom's Research Assessment Exercises (RAE) affect institutional grants for university-based research projects. Explains the RAE system, discussing its advantages and disadvantages, outlines a framework within which it can be analyzed, and examines some of the available evidence about the impact of the RAE. (SWM)

  10. Assessing Students' Theories of Success in Mathematics: Individual and Classroom Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, John G.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Assessed were second grade students to determine whether their beliefs about causes of success in mathematics were related to their personal goals in mathematics. One class that experienced mathematics instruction consistent with a constructivist view rated higher than traditional classes on Task Orientation, attempting to gain understanding.…

  11. The Assessment of Pain and Discomfort in Individuals with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Angela; Edwards, Christopher L.; Robinson, Elwood L.

    2005-01-01

    This research was conducted to replicate and expanded the work of Bodfish et al. [Bodfish, J. W., Harper, V. N., Deacon, J. R., & Symons, F. J. (2001, May). "Identifying and measuring pain in persons with developmental disabilities: A manual for the Pain and Discomfort Scale (PADS)." Western Carolina Center Research Reports] by assessing the…

  12. An Assessment Instrument for Families: Evaluating Employment Programs for Individuals with Deaf-Blindness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helen Keller National Center - Technical Assistance Center, Sands Point, NY.

    This employment assessment tool for parents of young adults with deaf-blindness was created to assist in examining strengths and weaknesses of various employment programs in relation to their child's employment wants and needs, to guide parents in advocating for what is needed from a specific job to ensure their child's success, and to provide a…

  13. Assessment of agonist-antagonist shoulder torque ratios in individuals with paraplegia: a new interpretative approach.

    PubMed

    Dehail, P; Gagnon, D; Noreau, L; Nadeau, S

    2008-08-01

    Cross-sectional study. To evaluate isokinetic shoulder flexor-extensor (F/E) and abductor-adductor (Ab/Ad) torque ratios in individuals with paraplegia using a new interpretative approach. We proposed to study torque ratios according to joint angle sections (15 degrees angle subgroups) over a selected range of motion. Pathokinesiology Laboratory, Montreal, Canada. Sixteen individuals with complete motor paraplegia, without shoulder pain or impairment, were included in this study. After a preloading period of 1 s, maximum isokinetic concentric contractions of all muscle groups were completed at 30, 60 and 120 degrees s(-1) over the entire tested ranges of motion (70 to -35 degrees for the flexion-extension and 15 to 60 degrees for the abduction-adduction). After the continuous torque curves were rebuilt, the mean F/E and Ab/Ad torque ratios were calculated and analyzed every 15 degrees. A significant modification of the F/E (F=66.3; P<0.001) and Ab/Ad (F=100.6; P<0.001) torque ratios was observed according to the 15 degrees angle subgroup evaluated. More precisely, a progressive decline of both the F/E and Ab/Ad ratios was noted as the shoulder flexion or abduction progressed. Angular velocity did not have any influence on torque ratio values. Angle subgroup torque ratio analysis leads to a better estimation of the balance between the agonist and antagonist muscle groups than does traditional peak torque ratio analysis. In individuals with paraplegia, this precise estimation of torque ratios may lead to the development of specific shoulder strengthening programs to prevent muscle imbalance and its consequences.

  14. A detailed phenotypic assessment of individuals affected by MFRP-related oculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sergouniotis, Panagiotis I.; Mackay, Donna S.; Day, Alexander C.; Wright, Genevieve; Devery, Sophie; Leroy, Bart P.; Robson, Anthony G.; Holder, Graham E.; Li, Zheng; Webster, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine the spectrum of mutations and phenotypic variability within patients with mutations in membrane-type frizzled related protein gene (MFRP). Methods Individuals were initially ascertained based on a phenotype similar to that previously published in association with MFRP mutations. Affected patients underwent a full ophthalmic examination (best-corrected visual acuity, slit-lamp examination, applanation tonometry, and fundoscopy), color fundus photography, optical coherence tomography, autofluorescence imaging, and electrophysiology. MFRP was identified by a genome-wide scan in the fourth-largest autozygous region in one consanguineous family. Sanger sequencing of all the exons and intron-exon boundaries of MFRP was undertaken in the affected individuals. Results Seven affected individuals from four families were identified as having mutations in MFRP. Patients from two families were homozygous for mutations already previously described (c.1143_1144 insC and c.492 delC), while those from the other two were compound heterozygous for mutations (c.201G>A and c.491_492 insT, and c.492 delC, and c.1622_1625 delTCTG), three of which were novel. There was considerable phenotypic variability within and among families. Autofluorescence imaging revealed the central macula to be relatively well preserved. Foveal cysts and optic nerve head drusen were present in two of the four families. Electrophysiology results showed rod-cone dystrophy with mild to moderate reduction in macular function in all affected members. Conclusions We report three novel MFRP mutations and expand the phenotypic data available on patients with MFRP mutations. PMID:20361016

  15. Retest reliability of individual p3 topography assessed by high density electroencephalography.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Marrufo, Manuel; González-Rosa, Javier J; Galvao-Carmona, Alejandro; Hidalgo-Muñoz, Antonio; Borges, Mónica; Peña, Juan Luis Ruiz; Izquierdo, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Some controversy remains about the potential applicability of cognitive potentials for evaluating the cerebral activity associated with cognitive capacity. A fundamental requirement is that these neurophysiological parameters show a high level of stability over time. Previous studies have shown that the reliability of diverse parameters of the P3 component (latency and amplitude) ranges between moderate and high. However, few studies have paid attention to the retest reliability of the P3 topography in groups or individuals. Considering that changes in P3 topography have been related to different pathologies and healthy aging, the main objective of this article was to evaluate in a longitudinal study (two sessions) the reliability of P3 topography in a group and at the individual level. The correlation between sessions for P3 topography in the grand average of groups was high (r = 0.977, p<0.001). The within-subject correlation values ranged from 0.626 to 0.981 (mean: 0.888). In the between-subjects topography comparisons, the correlation was always lower for comparisons between different subjects than for within-subjects correlations in the first session but not in the second session. The present study shows that P3 topography is highly reliable for group analysis (comprising the same subjects) in different sessions. The results also confirmed that retest reliability for individual P3 maps is suitable for follow-up studies for a particular subject. Moreover, P3 topography appears to be a specific marker considering that the between-subjects correlations were lower than the within-subject correlations. However, P3 topography appears more similar between subjects in the second session, demonstrating that is modulated by experience. Possible clinical applications of all these results are discussed.

  16. Performance and Health Risk Assessment of Commercial Off-the-Shelf Individual Water Purifiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-26

    Individual Water Purifiers F-6-4 General Chlorine dioxide ( ClO2 ) was discovered in 1811 (reference 2). It’s widely used in numerous...including primarily chlorite ion ( ClO2 -) and to a lesser extent chlorate ion (ClO3-). Chloride (Cl-) is also formed to a lesser extent. The reaction...of chlorine dioxide in water at pH 6-8 containing organic matter is suggested to be (reference 6): ClO2 + e- → ClO2 - ClO2 - + H+ ↔ HClO2

  17. Estimated effects of ionizing radiation upon military task performance: individual combat crewmember assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Anno, G.H.; Wilson, D.B.

    1984-04-01

    Quantitative estimates are developed of the performance levels for selected individual Army combat crewmembers exposed to prompt ionizing radiation from nuclear weapons. The performance levels, expressed in percent of normal (baseline) task performance, provide information for military operations planning, combat training, and computer simulation modeling of combat crew and unit effectiveness. The methodology is described where data from two separate bodies of information: acute radiation sickness symptomatology, and judgment of task performance time from Army combat crew questionnaires - are integrated to compute performance levels as a function of dose (free-in-air) and post-exposure time.

  18. Who gets evicted? Assessing individual, neighborhood, and network factors.

    PubMed

    Desmond, Matthew; Gershenson, Carl

    2017-02-01

    The prevalence and consequences of eviction have transformed the lived experience of urban poverty in America, yet little is known about why some families avoid eviction while others do not. Applying discrete hazard models to a unique dataset of renters, this study empirically evaluates individual, neighborhood, and social network characteristics that explain disparities in displacement from housing. Family size, job loss, neighborhood crime and eviction rates, and network disadvantage are identified as significant and robust predictors of eviction, net of missed rental payments and other relevant factors. This study advances urban sociology and inequality research and informs policy interventions designed to prevent eviction and stem its consequences.

  19. Effectiveness of a web-based health risk assessment with individually-tailored feedback on lifestyle behaviour: study protocol.

    PubMed

    Laan, Eva K; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A; Peek, Niels; Busschers, Wim B; Deutekom, Marije; Bossuyt, Patrick M; Stronks, Karien; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2012-03-19

    Physical inactivity, unhealthy dietary habits, smoking and high alcohol consumption are recognized risk factors for cardiovascular disease and cancer. Web-based health risk assessments with tailored feedback seem promising in promoting a healthy lifestyle. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a web-based health risk assessment with individually-tailored feedback on lifestyle behaviour, conducted in a worksite setting. The web-based health risk assessment starts with a questionnaire covering socio-demographic variables, family and personal medical history, lifestyle behaviour and psychological variables. Prognostic models are used to estimate individual cardiovascular risks. In case of high risk further biometric and laboratory evaluation is advised. All participants receive individually-tailored feedback on their responses to the health risk assessment questionnaire. The study uses a quasi-experimental design with a waiting list control group. Data are collected at baseline (T0) and after six months (T1). Within each company, clusters of employees are allocated to either the intervention or the control group. Primary outcome is lifestyle behaviour, expressed as the sum of five indicators namely physical activity, nutrition, smoking behaviour, alcohol consumption, and symptoms of burnout. Multilevel regression analysis will be used to answer the main research question and to correct for clustering effects. Baseline differences between the intervention and control group in the distribution of characteristics with a potential effect on lifestyle change will be taken into account in further analyses using propensity scores. This study will increase insight into the effectiveness of health risk assessments with tailored feedback and into conditions that may modify the effectiveness. This information can be used to design effective interventions for lifestyle behaviour change among employees. Dutch Trial Register NTR8148.

  20. Inter-ethnic differences in youth tobacco language and cigarette brand preferences.

    PubMed

    Gittelsohn, J; McCormick, L K; Allen, P; Grieser, M; Crawford, M; Davis, S

    1999-11-01

    To describe and understand variations in cigarette brand preferences between adolescents from varying ethnic and gender groups around the US. A qualitative study where adolescents, both smokers and nonsmokers, were interviewed individually in depth. Schools and recreation centers in four sites: urban Maryland (Baltimore), urban Texas (Houston), rural Alabama and rural New Mexico. 121 adolescent volunteers 13-19 years of age, representing African American, white, American Indian and Hispanic ethnic groups, from both genders. Considerable geographic and ethnic variation exists in terminology used by youth to refer to cigarettes and to their use. Clear patterns in brand preference by ethnic group were found that follow patterns of targeted marketing by ethnicity. White teens preferred Marlboro brand cigarettes, while African-American teens who smoke preferred Newports. Hispanic and American Indian teens were more likely to smoke Marlboro or Camel cigarettes. Hispanic teens were most likely to mention low price as a reason for choosing a particular brand or to state that the brand does not matter. Tobacco advertisements targeting ethnic groups and the use of promotional items to encourage teen smoking were also recognized as factors influencing brand preferences. These findings have implications for the design of intervention programs aimed at curbing teen smoking. When working with teens who already smoke, using youth language to target messages at perceived characteristics of commonly used brands may be more effective and meaningful than talking about cigarette use in general. Another implication of this work is to shed light on what impact an advertising ban would have on teen brand preferences, brand loyalty, and prevalence of smoking.

  1. Variability in vulnerability assessment of older people by individual general practitioners: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Drewes, Yvonne M; Blom, Jeanet W; Assendelft, Willem J J; Stijnen, Theo; den Elzen, Wendy P J; Gussekloo, Jacobijn

    2014-01-01

    In clinical practice, GPs appeared to have an internalized concept of "vulnerability." This study investigates the variability between general practitioners (GPs) in their vulnerability-assessment of older persons. Seventy-seven GPs categorized their 75-plus patients (n = 11392) into non-vulnerable, possibly vulnerable, and vulnerable patients. GPs personal and practice characteristics were collected. From a sample of 2828 patients the following domains were recorded: sociodemographic, functional [instrumental activities in daily living (IADL), basic activities in daily living (BADL)], somatic (number of diseases, polypharmacy), psychological (Mini-Mental State Examination, 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale; GDS-15) and social (De Jong-Gierveld Loneliness Scale; DJG). Variability in GPs' assessment of vulnerability was tested with mixed effects logistic regression. P-values for variability (pvar) were calculated by the log-likelihood ratio test. Participating GPs assessed the vulnerability of 10,361 patients. The median percentage of vulnerable patients was 32.0% (IQR 19.5 to 40.1%). From the somatic and psychological domains, GPs uniformly took into account the patient characteristics 'total number of diseases' (OR 1.7, 90% range  = 0, p var = 1), 'polypharmacy' (OR 2.3, 90% range  = 0, p var = 1) and 'GDS-15' (OR 1.6, 90% range  = 0, p var = 1). GPs vary in the way they assessed their patients' vulnerability in the functional domain (IADL: median OR 2.8, 90% range 1.6, p var < 0.001, BADL: median OR 2.4, 90% range 2.9, p var < 0.001) and the social domain (DJG: median OR 1.2, 90% range  = 1.2, p var < 0.001). GPs seem to share a medical concept of vulnerability, since they take somatic and psychological characteristics uniformly into account in the vulnerability-assessment of older persons. In the functional and social domains, however, variability was found. Vulnerability assessment by GPs might be a promising instrument to select older people for

  2. Assessing visual green effects of individual urban trees using airborne Lidar data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ziyue; Xu, Bing; Gao, Bingbo

    2015-12-01

    Urban trees benefit people's daily life in terms of air quality, local climate, recreation and aesthetics. Among these functions, a growing number of studies have been conducted to understand the relationship between residents' preference towards local environments and visual green effects of urban greenery. However, except for on-site photography, there are few quantitative methods to calculate green visibility, especially tree green visibility, from viewers' perspectives. To fill this research gap, a case study was conducted in the city of Cambridge, which has a diversity of tree species, sizes and shapes. Firstly, a photograph-based survey was conducted to approximate the actual value of visual green effects of individual urban trees. In addition, small footprint airborne Lidar (Light detection and ranging) data was employed to measure the size and shape of individual trees. Next, correlations between visual tree green effects and tree structural parameters were examined. Through experiments and gradual refinement, a regression model with satisfactory R2 and limited large errors is proposed. Considering the diversity of sample trees and the result of cross-validation, this model has the potential to be applied to other study sites. This research provides urban planners and decision makers with an innovative method to analyse and evaluate landscape patterns in terms of tree greenness.

  3. Assessing Risk Prediction Models Using Individual Participant Data From Multiple Studies

    PubMed Central

    Pennells, Lisa; Kaptoge, Stephen; White, Ian R.; Thompson, Simon G.; Wood, Angela M.; Tipping, Robert W.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Couper, David J.; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Coresh, Josef; Goya Wannamethee, S.; Morris, Richard W.; Kiechl, Stefan; Willeit, Johann; Willeit, Peter; Schett, Georg; Ebrahim, Shah; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Yarnell, John W.; Gallacher, John; Cushman, Mary; Psaty, Bruce M.; Tracy, Russ; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Price, Jackie F.; Lee, Amanda J.; McLachlan, Stela; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Brenner, Hermann; Schöttker, Ben; Müller, Heiko; Jansson, Jan-Håkan; Wennberg, Patrik; Salomaa, Veikko; Harald, Kennet; Jousilahti, Pekka; Vartiainen, Erkki; Woodward, Mark; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Jørgensen, Torben; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Arima, Hisatomi; Doi, Yasufumi; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Dekker, Jacqueline M.; Nijpels, Giel; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.; Kauhanen, Jussi; Salonen, Jukka T.; Meade, Tom W.; Cooper, Jackie A.; Cushman, Mary; Folsom, Aaron R.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Shea, Steven; Döring, Angela; Kuller, Lewis H.; Grandits, Greg; Gillum, Richard F.; Mussolino, Michael; Rimm, Eric B.; Hankinson, Sue E.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Pai, Jennifer K.; Kirkland, Susan; Shaffer, Jonathan A.; Shimbo, Daichi; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Hillege, Hans L.; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Evans, Alun; Ferrières, Jean; Sattar, Naveed; Westendorp, Rudi G.; Buckley, Brendan M.; Cantin, Bernard; Lamarche, Benoît; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Wingard, Deborah L.; Bettencourt, Richele; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Aspelund, Thor; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Thorsson, Bolli; Kavousi, Maryam; Witteman, Jacqueline C.; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H.; Howard, Barbara V.; Zhang, Ying; Best, Lyle; Umans, Jason G.; Onat, Altan; Sundström, Johan; Michael Gaziano, J.; Stampfer, Meir; Ridker, Paul M.; Michael Gaziano, J.; Ridker, Paul M.; Marmot, Michael; Clarke, Robert; Collins, Rory; Fletcher, Astrid; Brunner, Eric; Shipley, Martin; Kivimäki, Mika; Ridker, Paul M.; Buring, Julie; Cook, Nancy; Ford, Ian; Shepherd, James; Cobbe, Stuart M.; Robertson, Michele; Walker, Matthew; Watson, Sarah; Alexander, Myriam; Butterworth, Adam S.; Angelantonio, Emanuele Di; Gao, Pei; Haycock, Philip; Kaptoge, Stephen; Pennells, Lisa; Thompson, Simon G.; Walker, Matthew; Watson, Sarah; White, Ian R.; Wood, Angela M.; Wormser, David; Danesh, John

    2014-01-01

    Individual participant time-to-event data from multiple prospective epidemiologic studies enable detailed investigation into the predictive ability of risk models. Here we address the challenges in appropriately combining such information across studies. Methods are exemplified by analyses of log C-reactive protein and conventional risk factors for coronary heart disease in the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, a collation of individual data from multiple prospective studies with an average follow-up duration of 9.8 years (dates varied). We derive risk prediction models using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis stratified by study and obtain estimates of risk discrimination, Harrell's concordance index, and Royston's discrimination measure within each study; we then combine the estimates across studies using a weighted meta-analysis. Various weighting approaches are compared and lead us to recommend using the number of events in each study. We also discuss the calculation of measures of reclassification for multiple studies. We further show that comparison of differences in predictive ability across subgroups should be based only on within-study information and that combining measures of risk discrimination from case-control studies and prospective studies is problematic. The concordance index and discrimination measure gave qualitatively similar results throughout. While the concordance index was very heterogeneous between studies, principally because of differing age ranges, the increments in the concordance index from adding log C-reactive protein to conventional risk factors were more homogeneous. PMID:24366051

  4. Esthetic, Functional, and Everyday Life Assessment of Individuals with Cleft Lip and/or Palate

    PubMed Central

    Papamanou, Despina A.; Karamolegkou, Marina; Dorotheou, Domna

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the level of satisfaction of individuals with cleft lip and/or palate (CLP) and their parents concerning the esthetic and functional treatment outcomes, the impact of the cleft on everyday life, and potential associations with treatment outcome satisfaction. Subjects and Methods. The sample consisted of 33 patients (7 CP, 20 unilateral CLP, and 6 bilateral CLP; median age: 17.1, range: 9.0–33.1 years) and 30 parents, who responded to a questionnaire in an interview-guided session. All participants received their orthodontic treatment at the Department of Orthodontics in the University of Athens. Results. Patients and their parents were quite satisfied with esthetics and function. Patients with UCLP primarily were concerned about nose esthetics (BCLP about lip esthetics and CP about speech). Increased satisfaction was associated with decreased influence of the cleft in everyday life (0.35 < rho < 0.64, P < 0.05). Parents reported significant influence of the cleft on family life, while patients did not. Conclusions. Despite the limited sample size of subgroups, the main concerns of patients with different cleft types and the importance of satisfying lip, nose, and speech outcomes for an undisturbed everyday life were quite evident. Thus, the need for targeted treatment strategies is highlighted for individuals with cleft lip and/or palate. PMID:26064918

  5. Individual-Based Model Framework to Assess Population Consequences of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Exposure in Bottlenose Dolphins

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Ailsa J.; McConnell, Bernie J.; Rowles, Teri K.; Aguilar, Alex; Borrell, Asuncion; Schwacke, Lori; Reijnders, Peter J.H.; Wells, Randall S.

    2006-01-01

    Marine mammals are susceptible to the effects of anthropogenic contaminants. Here we examine the effect of different polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) accumulation scenarios on potential population growth rates using, as an example, data obtained for the population of bottlenose dolphins from Sarasota Bay, Florida. To achieve this goal, we developed an individual-based model framework that simulates the accumulation of PCBs in the population and modifies first-year calf survival based on maternal blubber PCB levels. In our example the current estimated annual PCB accumulation rate for the Sarasota Bay dolphin population might be depressing the potential population growth rate. However, our predictions are limited both by model naivety and parameter uncertainty. We emphasize the need for more data collection on the relationship between maternal blubber PCB levels and calf survivorship, the annual accumulation of PCBs in the blubber of females, and the transfer of PCBs to the calf through the placenta and during lactation. Such data require continued efforts directed toward long-term studies of known individuals in wild and semi-wild populations. PMID:16818247

  6. Individual estimates of age at detectable amyloid onset for risk factor assessment.

    PubMed

    Bilgel, Murat; An, Yang; Zhou, Yun; Wong, Dean F; Prince, Jerry L; Ferrucci, Luigi; Resnick, Susan M

    2016-04-01

    Individualized estimates of age at detectable amyloid-beta (Aβ) accumulation, distinct from amyloid positivity, allow for analysis of onset age of Aβ accumulation as an outcome measure to understand risk factors. Using longitudinal Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography data from Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, we estimated the age at which each PiB+ individual began accumulating Aβ. We used survival analysis methods to quantify risk of accumulating Aβ and differences in onset age of Aβ accumulation in relation to APOE ε4 status and sex among 36 APOE ε4 carriers and 83 noncarriers. Age at onset of Aβ accumulation for the APOE ε4- and ε4+ groups was 73.1 and 60.7, respectively. APOE ε4 positivity conferred a threefold risk of accumulating Aβ after adjusting for sex and education. Estimation of onset age of amyloid accumulation may help gauge treatment efficacy in interventions to delay symptom onset in Alzheimer's disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Are implicit self-esteem measures valid for assessing individual and cultural differences?

    PubMed

    Falk, Carl F; Heine, Steven J; Takemura, Kosuke; Zhang, Cathy X J; Hsu, Chih-Wei

    2015-02-01

    Our research utilized two popular theoretical conceptualizations of implicit self-esteem: 1) implicit self-esteem as a global automatic reaction to the self; and 2) implicit self-esteem as a context/domain specific construct. Under this framework, we present an extensive search for implicit self-esteem measure validity among different cultural groups (Study 1) and under several experimental manipulations (Study 2). In Study 1, Euro-Canadians (N = 107), Asian-Canadians (N = 187), and Japanese (N = 112) completed a battery of implicit self-esteem, explicit self-esteem, and criterion measures. Included implicit self-esteem measures were either popular or provided methodological improvements upon older methods. Criterion measures were sampled from previous research on implicit self-esteem and included self-report and independent ratings. In Study 2, Americans (N = 582) completed a shorter battery of these same types of measures under either a control condition, an explicit prime meant to activate the self-concept in a particular context, or prime meant to activate self-competence related implicit attitudes. Across both studies, explicit self-esteem measures far outperformed implicit self-esteem measures in all cultural groups and under all experimental manipulations. Implicit self-esteem measures are not valid for individual or cross-cultural comparisons. We speculate that individuals may not form implicit associations with the self as an attitudinal object. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Assessment of passive knee stiffness and viscosity in individuals with spinal cord injury using pendulum test.

    PubMed

    Joghtaei, Mahmoud; Arab, Amir Massoud; Hashemi-Nasl, Hamed; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Tokhi, Mohammad Osman

    2015-03-01

    Stiffness and viscosity represent passive resistances to joint motion related with the structural properties of the joint tissue and of the musculotendinous complex. Both parameters can be affected in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). The purpose of this study was to measure passive knee stiffness and viscosity in patients with SCI with paraplegia and healthy subjects using Wartenberg pendulum test. Non-experimental, cross-sectional, case-control design. An outpatient physical therapy clinic, University of social welfare and Rehabilitation Science, Iran. A sample of convenience sample of 30 subjects participated in the study. Subjects were categorized into two groups: individuals with paraplegic SCI (n = 15, age: 34.60 ± 9.18 years) and 15 able-bodied individuals as control group (n = 15, age: 30.66 ± 11.13 years). Not applicable. Passive pendulum test of Wartenberg was used to measure passive viscous-elastic parameters of the knee (stiffness, viscosity) in all subjects. Statistical analysis (independent t-test) revealed significant difference in the joint stiffness between healthy subjects and those with paraplegic SCI (P = 0.01). However, no significant difference was found in the viscosity between two groups (P = 0.17). Except for first peak flexion angle, all other displacement kinematic parameters exhibited no statistically significant difference between normal subjects and subjects with SCI. Patients with SCI have significantly greater joint stiffness compared to able-bodied subjects.

  9. Individual-based model framework to assess population consequences of polychlorinated biphenyl exposure in bottlenose dolphins.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ailsa J; McConnell, Bernie J; Rowles, Teri K; Aguilar, Alex; Borrell, Asuncion; Schwacke, Lori; Reijnders, Peter J H; Wells, Randall S

    2006-04-01

    Marine mammals are susceptible to the effects of anthropogenic contaminants. Here we examine the effect of different polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) accumulation scenarios on potential population growth rates using, as an example, data obtained for the population of bottlenose dolphins from Sarasota Bay, Florida. To achieve this goal, we developed an individual-based model framework that simulates the accumulation of PCBs in the population and modifies first-year calf survival based on maternal blubber PCB levels. In our example the current estimated annual PCB accumulation rate for the Sarasota Bay dolphin population might be depressing the potential population growth rate. However, our predictions are limited both by model naivety and parameter uncertainty. We emphasize the need for more data collection on the relationship between maternal blubber PCB levels and calf survivorship, the annual accumulation of PCBs in the blubber of females, and the transfer of PCBs to the calf through the placenta and during lactation. Such data require continued efforts directed toward long-term studies of known individuals in wild and semiwild populations.

  10. Assessing risk prediction models using individual participant data from multiple studies.

    PubMed

    Pennells, Lisa; Kaptoge, Stephen; White, Ian R; Thompson, Simon G; Wood, Angela M

    2014-03-01

    Individual participant time-to-event data from multiple prospective epidemiologic studies enable detailed investigation into the predictive ability of risk models. Here we address the challenges in appropriately combining such information across studies. Methods are exemplified by analyses of log C-reactive protein and conventional risk factors for coronary heart disease in the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, a collation of individual data from multiple prospective studies with an average follow-up duration of 9.8 years (dates varied). We derive risk prediction models using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis stratified by study and obtain estimates of risk discrimination, Harrell's concordance index, and Royston's discrimination measure within each study; we then combine the estimates across studies using a weighted meta-analysis. Various weighting approaches are compared and lead us to recommend using the number of events in each study. We also discuss the calculation of measures of reclassification for multiple studies. We further show that comparison of differences in predictive ability across subgroups should be based only on within-study information and that combining measures of risk discrimination from case-control studies and prospective studies is problematic. The concordance index and discrimination measure gave qualitatively similar results throughout. While the concordance index was very heterogeneous between studies, principally because of differing age ranges, the increments in the concordance index from adding log C-reactive protein to conventional risk factors were more homogeneous.

  11. Pesticide Environmental Accounting: a method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications.

    PubMed

    Leach, A W; Mumford, J D

    2008-01-01

    The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts.

  12. [Cardiovascular risk assessment and risk stratification- guided therapy: predict, prevent and individualize].

    PubMed

    Ural, Dilek

    2011-09-01

    Modern concept in primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) entails assessing the person's global risk and making the right management in accordance with these results. Correspondingly, 3 steps recommended for the prevention of CVD under risk guidance are: (a) risk assessment via a proper system like Framingham Risk Score, SCORE, QRISK, PROCAM; (b) decision-making in the proper management in terms of informing the patient about lifestyle changes that he or she can cope and drug selection; and (c) evaluation of treatment decision in terms of cost effectiveness. Although, a significant decline is observed in CVD morbidity and mortality, particularly in the western countries, we still are trying to approach to competent quality measures about management under CV risk guidance. This review summarizes the main challenges regarding risk stratification-guided management strategy in primary prevention of CVD.

  13. Isometric abdominal wall muscle strength assessment in individuals with incisional hernia: a prospective reliability study.

    PubMed

    Jensen, K K; Kjaer, M; Jorgensen, L N

    2016-12-01

    To determine the reliability of measurements obtained by the Good Strength dynamometer, determining isometric abdominal wall and back muscle strength in patients with ventral incisional hernia (VIH) and healthy volunteers with an intact abdominal wall. Ten patients with VIH and ten healthy volunteers with an intact abdominal wall were each examined twice with a 1 week interval. Examination included the assessment of truncal flexion and extension as measured with the Good Strength dynamometer, the completion of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and the self-assessment of truncal strength on a visual analogue scale (SATS). The test-retest reliability of truncal flexion and extension was assessed by interclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Bland and Altman graphs. Finally, correlations between truncal strength, and IPAQ and SATS were examined. Truncal flexion and extension showed excellent test-retest reliability for both patients with VIH (ICC 0.91 and 0.99) and healthy controls (ICC 0.97 and 0.96). Bland and Altman plots showed that no systematic bias was present for neither truncal flexion nor extension when assessing reliability. For patients with VIH, no significant correlations between objective measures of truncal strength and IPAQ or SATS were found. For healthy controls, both truncal flexion (τ 0.58, p = 0.025) and extension (τ 0.58, p = 0.025) correlated significantly with SATS, while no other significant correlation between truncal strength measures and IPAQ was found. The Good Strength dynamometer provided a reliable, low-cost measure of truncal flexion and extension in patients with VIH.

  14. Unidirectional Expiratory Valve Method to Assess Maximal Inspiratory Pressure in Individuals without Artificial Airway

    PubMed Central

    Grams, Samantha Torres; Kimoto, Karen Yumi Mota; Azevedo, Elen Moda de Oliveira; Lança, Marina; de Albuquerque, André Luis Pereira; de Brito, Christina May Moran; Yamaguti, Wellington Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Maximal Inspiratory Pressure (MIP) is considered an effective method to estimate strength of inspiratory muscles, but still leads to false positive diagnosis. Although MIP assessment with unidirectional expiratory valve method has been used in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation, no previous studies investigated the application of this method in subjects without artificial airway. Objectives This study aimed to compare the MIP values assessed by standard method (MIPsta) and by unidirectional expiratory valve method (MIPuni) in subjects with spontaneous breathing without artificial airway. MIPuni reproducibility was also evaluated. Methods This was a crossover design study, and 31 subjects performed MIPsta and MIPuni in a random order. MIPsta measured MIP maintaining negative pressure for at least one second after forceful expiration. MIPuni evaluated MIP using a unidirectional expiratory valve attached to a face mask and was conducted by two evaluators (A and B) at two moments (Tests 1 and 2) to determine interobserver and intraobserver reproducibility of MIP values. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC[2,1]) was used to determine intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility. Results The mean values for MIPuni were 14.3% higher (-117.3 ± 24.8 cmH2O) than the mean values for MIPsta (-102.5 ± 23.9 cmH2O) (p<0.001). Interobserver reproducibility assessment showed very high correlation for Test 1 (ICC[2,1] = 0.91), and high correlation for Test 2 (ICC[2,1] = 0.88). The assessment of the intraobserver reproducibility showed high correlation for evaluator A (ICC[2,1] = 0.86) and evaluator B (ICC[2,1] = 0.77). Conclusions MIPuni presented higher values when compared with MIPsta and proved to be reproducible in subjects with spontaneous breathing without artificial airway. PMID:26360255

  15. Protein and vitamin B6 intake are associated with liver steatosis assessed by transient elastography, especially in obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Yvelise; Carè, Ilaria; Mazza, Elisa; Provenzano, Francesco; Colica, Carmela; Torti, Carlo; Romeo, Stefano; Pujia, Arturo; Montalcini, Tiziana

    2017-07-28

    Although the detrimental effects of several dietary components on the promotion of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are well known, no studies have assessed the role of dietary vitamin B6. Moreover, studies on the associations between dietary components or body composition indices and liver steatosis assessed by transient elastography are rare. Our aim was to identify the nutritional factors and anthropometric parameters associated with liver steatosis. In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 168 individuals (35% obese) who underwent a liver steatosis assessment by Controlled Attenuation Parameter measurement and nutritional assessment. Tertiles of vitamin B6 intake were positively associated with hepatic steatosis (B=1.89, P=0.026, confidence interval [CI] 0.03-0.80) as well as with triglycerides, glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and body mass index . In obese individuals, after multivariable analysis, the Controlled Attenuation Parameter score was still associated with triglycerides, ALT, and total protein intake (B=0.56, P=0.01, CI 0.10-1.02). Participants in tertile I (low intake) had a lower Controlled Attenuation Parameter than those in tertile III (P=0.01). We found a positive association between hepatic steatosis or Controlled Attenuation Parameter score and vitamin B6/total protein intake, probably related to the high intake of meat. Vitamin B6 might have a pathogenic role related to the increase of hepatic steatosis.

  16. Using geographic information systems to assess individual historical exposure to air pollution from traffic and house heating in Stockholm.

    PubMed Central

    Bellander, T; Berglind, N; Gustavsson, P; Jonson, T; Nyberg, F; Pershagen, G; Järup, L

    2001-01-01

    A specific aim of a population-based case-control study of lung cancer in Stockholm, Sweden, was to use emission data, dispersion models, and geographic information systems (GIS) to assess historical exposure to several components of ambient air pollution. Data collected for 1,042 lung cancer cases and 2,364 population controls included information on residence from 1955 to the end of follow-up for each individual, 1990-1995. We assessed ambient air concentrations of pollutants from road traffic and heating throughout the study area for three points in time (1960, 1970, and 1980) using reconstructed emission data for the index pollutants nitrogen oxides (NO(x)/NO(2)) and sulfur dioxide together with dispersion modeling. NO(2) estimates for 1980 compared well with actual measurements, but no independently measured (study-external) data were available for SO(2), precluding similar validation. Subsequently, we used linear intra- and extrapolation to obtain estimates for all other years 1955-1990. Eleven thousand individual addresses were transformed into geographic coordinates through automatic and manual procedures, with an estimated error of < 100 m for 90% of the addresses. Finally, we linked annual air pollution estimates to annual residence coordinates, yielding long-term residential exposure indices for each individual. There was a wide range of individual long-term average exposure, with an 11-fold interindividual difference in NO(2) and an 18-fold difference in SO(2). The 30-year average for all study subjects was 20 microg/m(3) NO(2) from traffic and 53 microg/m(3) SO(2) from heating. The results indicate that GIS can be useful for exposure assessment in environmental epidemiology studies, provided that detailed geographically related exposure data are available for relevant time periods. PMID:11445519

  17. Assessment Data-Informed Guidance to Individualize Kindergarten Reading Instruction: Findings from a Cluster-Randomized Control Field Trial.

    PubMed

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Connor, Carol M; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Greulich, Luana; Meadows, Jane; Li, Zhi

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this cluster-randomized control field trial was to was to examine the extent to which kindergarten teachers could learn a promising instructional strategy, wherein kindergarten reading instruction was differentiated based upon students' ongoing assessments of language and literacy skills and documented child characteristic by instruction (CXI) interactions; and to test the efficacy of this differentiated reading instruction on the reading outcomes of students from culturally diverse backgrounds. The study involved 14 schools and included 23 treatment (n = 305 students) and 21 contrast teacher (n = 251 students). Teachers in the contrast condition received only a baseline professional development that included a researcher-delivered summer day-long workshop on individualized instruction. Data sources included parent surveys, individually administered child assessments of language, cognitive, and reading skills and videotapes of classroom instruction. Using Hierarchical Multivariate Linear Modeling (HMLM), we found students in treatment classrooms outperformed students in the contrast classrooms on a latent measure of reading skills, comprised of letter-word reading, decoding, alphabetic knowledge, and phonological awareness (ES = .52). Teachers in both conditions provided small group instruction, but teachers in the treatment condition provided significantly more individualized instruction. Our findings extend research on the efficacy of teachers using Individualized Student Instruction to individualize instruction based upon students' language and literacy skills in first through third grade. Findings are discussed regarding the value of professional development related to differentiating core reading instruction and the challenges of using Response to Intervention approaches to address students' needs in the areas of reading in general education contexts.

  18. Assessment Data-Informed Guidance to Individualize Kindergarten Reading Instruction: Findings from a Cluster-Randomized Control Field Trial

    PubMed Central

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Connor, Carol M; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Greulich, Luana; Meadows, Jane; Li, Zhi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this cluster-randomized control field trial was to was to examine the extent to which kindergarten teachers could learn a promising instructional strategy, wherein kindergarten reading instruction was differentiated based upon students’ ongoing assessments of language and literacy skills and documented child characteristic by instruction (CXI) interactions; and to test the efficacy of this differentiated reading instruction on the reading outcomes of students from culturally diverse backgrounds. The study involved 14 schools and included 23 treatment (n = 305 students) and 21 contrast teacher (n = 251 students). Teachers in the contrast condition received only a baseline professional development that included a researcher-delivered summer day-long workshop on individualized instruction. Data sources included parent surveys, individually administered child assessments of language, cognitive, and reading skills and videotapes of classroom instruction. Using Hierarchical Multivariate Linear Modeling (HMLM), we found students in treatment classrooms outperformed students in the contrast classrooms on a latent measure of reading skills, comprised of letter-word reading, decoding, alphabetic knowledge, and phonological awareness (ES = .52). Teachers in both conditions provided small group instruction, but teachers in the treatment condition provided significantly more individualized instruction. Our findings extend research on the efficacy of teachers using Individualized Student Instruction to individualize instruction based upon students’ language and literacy skills in first through third grade. Findings are discussed regarding the value of professional development related to differentiating core reading instruction and the challenges of using Response to Intervention approaches to address students’ needs in the areas of reading in general education contexts. PMID:21818158

  19. The Assessment of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use Among Individuals with HIV: A Systematic Review and Recommendations for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    DePadilla, Lara; DiClemente, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), a group of health care practices and products that are not considered part of conventional medicine, has increased in recent years, particularly among individuals with human immune deficiency virus (HIV). Assessing the prevalence and predictors of CAM use among HIV-positive populations is important because some CAM therapies may adversely affect the efficacy of conventional HIV medications. Unfortunately, CAM use is not comprehensively or systematically assessed among HIV-positive populations. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the quality of the instruments employed in observational studies assessing CAM use among HIV-positive populations by examining the degree to which these studies (1) evaluated the psychometric properties of their CAM instruments and (2) assessed the multidimensional nature of CAM use. Design A systematic review of studies was undertaken and specific review criteria were used to guide the inclusion of studies. Specifically, articles were included that were published in English and in a peer-reviewed journal between 1997 and 2007, recruited HIV-positive study participants, and assessed CAM use. Thirty-two (32) studies met these inclusion criteria. Results Results suggest that CAM assessment among HIV-positive populations continues to be problematic. For example, approximately 20% of the studies assessed the reliability and 3% assessed the validity of the CAM instrument employed. Conclusions CAM assessment—regardless of the specific study population—is a complex and challenging task. However, CAM instruments will not become more refined over time in the absence of rigorous psychometric evaluation. Future research must assess reliability and validity and report these data in a clear and nuanced manner. PMID:21875350

  20. Assessing individual bioequivalence with high-order cross-over designs: a unified procedure.

    PubMed

    Hsuan, Francis C; Reeve, Russell

    2003-09-30

    The U.S. FDA's newly issued guidance on bioequivalence recommends the use of individual bioequivalence (IBE) for highly variable drugs and possibly for modified release dosage forms. The recommended approach to the analysis is to follow the methodology of Hyslop, Hsuan and Holder (HHH), based on a linear mixed model. A limitation of the HHH method is that it works only for uniform designs, such as RTRT/TRTR. In this paper, we present an alternative approach based on a multivariate model. The multivariate model is shown to be a strict superset of the linear mixed model and can successfully model data where the mixed model fails. Our multivariate approach coincides with the HHH method where the HHH method applies, but generalizes to any high-order cross-over design, such as the Balaam design, RTR/TRT, and TRSS/RSTT/STRR. We present numerical examples to demonstrate the proposed method, and examine its properties with a simulation study.

  1. POSTURAL CONTROL ASSESSMENT IN PHYSICALLY ACTIVE AND SEDENTARY INDIVIDUALS WITH PARAPLEGIA

    PubMed Central

    Magnani, Paola Errera; Cliquet, Alberto; de Abreu, Daniela Cristina Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate functional independence and trunk control during maximum-range tasks in individuals with spinal cord injuries, who were divided into sedentary (SSI, n=10) and physically active (PASI, n=10) groups . Methods: Anamnesis was conducted and level and type of injury were identified (according to the American Spinal Injury Association protocol, ASIA) and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) questionnaire was applied. For the forward and lateral reach task, the subjects were instructed to reach as far as possible. Mean data were compared using the unpaired t test and Mann-Whitney test and differences were considered significant when p<0.05 . Results: The PASI group performed better in self-care activities (PASI: 40.8±0.42 points, SSI: 38.0±3.58 points, p=0.01), sphincter control (PASI: 10.5±1.84 points, SSI: 8.2±3.04 points, p=0.02), transfers (PASI: 20.7±0.48 points, SSI: 16.9±4.27 points, p=0.04), and total FIM score (PASI: 104.0±2.30 points, SSI 105.1±8.56 points, p=0.01). On the maximum reach task, the PASI group had a greater average range in all directions evaluated (p<0.05) . Conclusion: The continuous practice of exercise increased motor function independence and trunk control in individuals with complete spinal cord injury. Level of Evidence II, Prospective Comparative Study. PMID:28955171

  2. POSTURAL CONTROL ASSESSMENT IN PHYSICALLY ACTIVE AND SEDENTARY INDIVIDUALS WITH PARAPLEGIA.

    PubMed

    Magnani, Paola Errera; Cliquet, Alberto; de Abreu, Daniela Cristina Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate functional independence and trunk control during maximum-range tasks in individuals with spinal cord injuries, who were divided into sedentary (SSI, n=10) and physically active (PASI, n=10) groups . Anamnesis was conducted and level and type of injury were identified (according to the American Spinal Injury Association protocol, ASIA) and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) questionnaire was applied. For the forward and lateral reach task, the subjects were instructed to reach as far as possible. Mean data were compared using the unpaired t test and Mann-Whitney test and differences were considered significant when p<0.05 . The PASI group performed better in self-care activities (PASI: 40.8±0.42 points, SSI: 38.0±3.58 points, p=0.01), sphincter control (PASI: 10.5±1.84 points, SSI: 8.2±3.04 points, p=0.02), transfers (PASI: 20.7±0.48 points, SSI: 16.9±4.27 points, p=0.04), and total FIM score (PASI: 104.0±2.30 points, SSI 105.1±8.56 points, p=0.01). On the maximum reach task, the PASI group had a greater average range in all directions evaluated (p<0.05) . The continuous practice of exercise increased motor function independence and trunk control in individuals with complete spinal cord injury. Level of Evidence II, Prospective Comparative Study.

  3. Assessment of passive knee stiffness and viscosity in individuals with spinal cord injury using pendulum test

    PubMed Central

    Joghtaei, Mahmoud; Arab, Amir Massoud; Hashemi-Nasl, Hamed; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Tokhi, Mohammad Osman

    2015-01-01

    Objective Stiffness and viscosity represent passive resistances to joint motion related with the structural properties of the joint tissue and of the musculotendinous complex. Both parameters can be affected in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). The purpose of this study was to measure passive knee stiffness and viscosity in patients with SCI with paraplegia and healthy subjects using Wartenberg pendulum test. Design Non-experimental, cross-sectional, case–control design. Setting An outpatient physical therapy clinic, University of social welfare and Rehabilitation Science, Iran. Patients A sample of convenience sample of 30 subjects participated in the study. Subjects were categorized into two groups: individuals with paraplegic SCI (n = 15, age: 34.60 ± 9.18 years) and 15 able-bodied individuals as control group (n = 15, age: 30.66 ± 11.13 years). Interventions Not applicable. Main measures Passive pendulum test of Wartenberg was used to measure passive viscous-elastic parameters of the knee (stiffness, viscosity) in all subjects. Results Statistical analysis (independent t-test) revealed significant difference in the joint stiffness between healthy subjects and those with paraplegic SCI (P = 0.01). However, no significant difference was found in the viscosity between two groups (P = 0.17). Except for first peak flexion angle, all other displacement kinematic parameters exhibited no statistically significant difference between normal subjects and subjects with SCI. Conclusions Patients with SCI have significantly greater joint stiffness compared to able-bodied subjects. PMID:25437824

  4. Reliability of the Adult Myopathy Assessment Tool in Individuals with Myositis

    PubMed Central

    Harris-Love, Michael O.; Joe, Galen; Davenport, Todd E.; Koziol, Deloris; Rose, Kristen Abbett; Shrader, Joseph A.; Vasconcelos, Olavo M.; McElroy, Beverly; Dalakas, Marinos C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Adult Myopathy Assessment Tool (AMAT) is a 13-item performance-based battery developed to assess functional status and muscle endurance. The purpose of this study was to determine the intrarater and interrater reliability of the AMAT in adults with myosits. Methods Nineteen raters (13 physical therapists and 6 physicians) scored videotaped recordings of patients with myositis performing the AMAT for a total of 114 tests and 1,482 item observations per session. Raters rescored the AMAT test and item observations during a follow up session (19 ±6 days between scoring sessions). All raters completed a single, self-directed, electronic training module prior to the initial scoring session. Results Intrarater and interrater reliability correlation coefficients were .94 or greater for the AMAT Functional Subscale, Endurance Subscale, and Total score (all p < 0.02 for Ho:ρ ≤ 0.75). All AMAT items had satisfactory intrarater agreement (Kappa statistics with Fleiss-Cohen weights, Kw = .57-1.00). Interrater agreement was acceptable for each AMAT item (K = .56-.89) except the sit up (K = .16). The standard error of measurement and 95% confidence interval range for the AMAT Total scores did not exceed 2 points across all observations (AMAT Total score range = 0-45). Conclusions The AMAT is a reliable, domain-specific assessment of functional status and muscle endurance for adult subjects with myositis. Results of this study suggest that physicians and physical therapists may reliably score the AMAT following a single training session. The AMAT Functional Subscale, Endurance Subscale, and Total score exhibit interrater and intrarater reliability suitable for clinical and research use. PMID:25201624

  5. Video-imaging assessment of nasal morphology in individuals with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Russell, K A; Waldman, S D; Lee, J M

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a video-imaging mathematical method to assess nostril morphology. This retrospective study involved two age-matched groups: 28 subjects with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (CUCLP) and 19 noncleft controls. Nose casts were reproducibly oriented in a jig such that the casts could be rotated about the coronal axis. Video images of the nostrils were captured and then analyzed for area, perimeter, centroid, principal axis, moments about the major and minor axes (I11, I22), anisometry, bulkiness, lateral offset, internostril angle, and rotational angle. All parameters identified nostril asymmetry in both groups. The results of the analyses using anisometry, I11, and I22 showed that, in both groups, one nostril was rounder and one was more elliptical. This asymmetry, however, differed between the two groups, and the difference was primarily based on the degree of ellipticity of the nostrils. Maximum dimension, perimeter, lateral offset, I11, and I22 were more asymmetric in the cleft group. In the control group, the right nostril was more elliptical and had a greater perimeter, and the left-side nostril had a greater bulkiness (enfolding). The method developed was validated for assessment of nasal morphology in cleft and noncleft samples. Nostril morphology was asymmetric in both groups but more asymmetric in the cleft group than the control group. The dominant influence of the cleft resulted in more elliptical noncleft nostrils and greater nostril shape asymmetry in the cleft group. The validated video-imaging method can now be used to assess the efficacy of treatment on nasal morphology.

  6. Assessment of liver fibrosis and associated risk factors in HIV-infected individuals using transient elastography and serum biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Liver fibrosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals is mostly attributable to co-infection with hepatitis B or C. The impact of other risk factors, including prolonged exposure to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) is poorly understood. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of liver fibrosis and associated risk factors in HIV-infected individuals based on non-invasive fibrosis assessment using transient elastography (TE) and serum biomarkers (Fibrotest [FT]). Methods In 202 consecutive HIV-infected individuals (159 men; mean age 47 ± 9 years; 35 with hepatitis-C-virus [HCV] co-infection), TE and FT were performed. Repeat TE examinations were conducted 1 and 2 years after study inclusion. Results Significant liver fibrosis was present in 16% and 29% of patients, respectively, when assessed by TE (≥ 7.1 kPa) and FT (> 0.48). A combination of TE and FT predicted significant fibrosis in 8% of all patients (31% in HIV/HCV co-infected and 3% in HIV mono-infected individuals). Chronic ALT, AST and γ-GT elevation was present in 29%, 20% and 51% of all cART-exposed patients and in 19%, 8% and 45.5% of HIV mono-infected individuals. Overall, factors independently associated with significant fibrosis as assessed by TE (OR, 95% CI) were co-infection with HCV (7.29, 1.95-27.34), chronic AST (6.58, 1.30-33.25) and γ-GT (5.17, 1.56-17.08) elevation and time on dideoxynucleoside therapy (1.01, 1.00-1.02). In 68 HIV mono-infected individuals who had repeat TE examinations, TE values did not differ significantly during a median follow-up time of 24 months (median intra-patient changes at last TE examination relative to baseline: -0.2 kPa, p = 0.20). Conclusions Chronic elevation of liver enzymes was observed in up to 45.5% of HIV mono-infected patients on cART. However, only a small subset had significant fibrosis as predicted by TE and FT. There was no evidence for fibrosis progression during follow-up TE examinations. PMID:22453133

  7. Assessment of liver fibrosis and associated risk factors in HIV-infected individuals using transient elastography and serum biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Vermehren, Johannes; Vermehren, Annika; Mueller, Axel; Carlebach, Amina; Lutz, Thomas; Gute, Peter; Knecht, Gaby; Sarrazin, Christoph; Friedrich-Rust, Mireen; Forestier, Nicole; Poynard, Thierry; Zeuzem, Stefan; Herrmann, Eva; Hofmann, Wolf Peter

    2012-03-27

    Liver fibrosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals is mostly attributable to co-infection with hepatitis B or C. The impact of other risk factors, including prolonged exposure to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) is poorly understood. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of liver fibrosis and associated risk factors in HIV-infected individuals based on non-invasive fibrosis assessment using transient elastography (TE) and serum biomarkers (Fibrotest [FT]). In 202 consecutive HIV-infected individuals (159 men; mean age 47 ± 9 years; 35 with hepatitis-C-virus [HCV] co-infection), TE and FT were performed. Repeat TE examinations were conducted 1 and 2 years after study inclusion. Significant liver fibrosis was present in 16% and 29% of patients, respectively, when assessed by TE (≥ 7.1 kPa) and FT (> 0.48). A combination of TE and FT predicted significant fibrosis in 8% of all patients (31% in HIV/HCV co-infected and 3% in HIV mono-infected individuals). Chronic ALT, AST and γ-GT elevation was present in 29%, 20% and 51% of all cART-exposed patients and in 19%, 8% and 45.5% of HIV mono-infected individuals. Overall, factors independently associated with significant fibrosis as assessed by TE (OR, 95% CI) were co-infection with HCV (7.29, 1.95-27.34), chronic AST (6.58, 1.30-33.25) and γ-GT (5.17, 1.56-17.08) elevation and time on dideoxynucleoside therapy (1.01, 1.00-1.02). In 68 HIV mono-infected individuals who had repeat TE examinations, TE values did not differ significantly during a median follow-up time of 24 months (median intra-patient changes at last TE examination relative to baseline: -0.2 kPa, p = 0.20). Chronic elevation of liver enzymes was observed in up to 45.5% of HIV mono-infected patients on cART. However, only a small subset had significant fibrosis as predicted by TE and FT. There was no evidence for fibrosis progression during follow-up TE examinations.

  8. Using the cervical range of motion (CROM) device to assess head repositioning accuracy in individuals with cervical radiculopathy in comparison to neck- healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Wibault, Johanna; Vaillant, Jacques; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Dedering, Åsa; Peolsson, Anneli

    2013-10-01

    This study had two purposes: to compare head repositioning accuracy (HRA) using the cervical range of motion (CROM) device between individuals with cervical radiculopathy caused by disc disease (CDD; n = 71) and neck- healthy individuals (n = 173); and to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the CROM device in individuals with CDD, and criterion validity between the CROM device and a laser in neck-healthy individuals, with quantification of measurement errors. Parameters of reliability and validity were expressed with intra- class- correlation coefficients (ICCs), and measurement errors with standard error of measurement (SEM) and Bland Altman limits of agreement. HRA (Mdn, IQR) differed significantly between individuals with CDD and neck- healthy individuals after rotation right 2.7° (6.0), 1.7° (2.7); and rotation left 2.7° (3.3), 1.3° (2.7) (p < = 0.021); 31% of individuals with CDD were classified as having impairment in HRA. The test-retest reliability of the CROM device in individuals with CDD showed ICCs of 0.79- 0.85, and SEMs of 1.4°- 2°. The criterion validity between the CROM device and the laser in neck-healthy individuals showed ICCs of 0.43- 0.91 and SEMs of 0.8°- 1.3°. The results support the use of the CROM device for quantifying HRA impairment in individuals with CDD in clinical practice; however, criterion validity between the CROM device and a laser in neck-healthy individuals was questionable. HRA impairment in individuals with CDD may be important to consider during rehabilitation and evaluated with the criterion established with the CROM device in neck-healthy individuals.

  9. STUDYING TRAVEL-RELATED INDIVIDUAL ASSESSMENTS AND DESIRES BY COMBINING HIERARCHICALLY STRUCTURED ORDINAL VARIABLES

    PubMed Central

    Song, Tingting; Wittkowski, Knut M.

    2010-01-01

    Ordinal measures are frequently encountered in travel behavior research. This paper presents a new method for combining them when a hierarchical structure of the data can be presumed. This method is applied to study the subjective assessment of the amount of travel by different transportation modes among a group of French clerical workers, along with the desire to increase or decrease the use of such modes. Some advantages of this approach over traditional data reduction technique such as factor analysis when applied to ordinal data are then illustrated. In this study, combining evidence from several variables sheds light on the observed moderately negative relationship between the personal assessment of the amount of travel and the desire to increase or decrease it, thus integrating previous partial (univariate) results. We find a latent demand for travel, thus contributing to clarify the behavioral mechanisms behind the induced traffic phenomenon. Categorizing the above relationship by transportation mode shows a desire for a less environmental-friendly mix of modes (i.e. a greater desire to use heavy motorized modes and a lower desire to use two-wheeled modes), whenever the respondents do not feel to travel extensively. This result, combined with previous theoretical investigations concerning the determinants of the desire to alter trips consumption levels, shows the importance of making people aware of how much they travel. PMID:20953273

  10. Assessment of VOR gain function and its test-retest reliability in normal hearing individuals.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Shalini; Sinha, Sujeet Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Video head impulse test (vHIT) aids to assess all three pairs of semi-circular canals (SCCs) separately and can be utilized to find out the exact site of lesion in any three SCCs by measuring vestibulo ocular reflex (VOR) gain. VOR gain value of vHIT has been used to diagnose different vestibular pathologies. Hence, it is important to establish the test-retest reliability of the VOR gain parameters before it could be administered to the patients. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to obtain VOR gain data, correlate all planes in both sides of head (right and left) and assess the test-retest reliability of VOR gain measure using vHIT in 25 normal young adult participants. Video head impulse test tests were carried out with prototype ICS impulse video goggles with a camera speed of 250 frames/s, recording motion of the right eye in all three planes (lateral, right anterior left posterior, left anterior right posterior) for all the participants. vHIT testing was repeated for all the participants after 15 days. Statistical analysis revealed that mean VOR gain for right horizontal canal was higher than the left horizontal canal; right anterior canal was higher than left anterior canal and left anterior was higher than right posterior canal. Horizontal canals have more gain compared to anterior and posterior canals. There was no significant difference between the VOR gain of session 1 and session 2 for each SCC.

  11. Microcirculation assessment using an individualized model for diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and conventional laser Doppler flowmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strömberg, Tomas; Karlsson, Hanna; Fredriksson, Ingemar; Nyström, Fredrik H.; Larsson, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    Microvascular assessment would benefit from co-registration of blood flow and hemoglobin oxygenation dynamics during stimulus response tests. We used a fiber-optic probe for simultaneous recording of white light diffuse reflectance (DRS; 475-850 nm) and laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF; 780 nm) spectra at two source-detector distances (0.4 and 1.2 mm). An inverse Monte Carlo algorithm, based on a multiparameter three-layer adaptive skin model, was used for analyzing DRS data. LDF spectra were conventionally processed for perfusion. The system was evaluated on volar forearm recordings of 33 healthy subjects during a 5-min systolic occlusion protocol. The calibration scheme and the optimal adaptive skin model fitted DRS spectra at both distances within 10%. During occlusion, perfusion decreased within 5 s while oxygenation decreased slowly (mean time constant 61 s dissociation of oxygen from hemoglobin). After occlusion release, perfusion and oxygenation increased within 3 s (inflow of oxygenized blood). The increased perfusion was due to increased blood tissue fraction and speed. The supranormal hemoglobin oxygenation indicates a blood flow in excess of metabolic demands. In conclusion, by integrating DRS and LDF in a fiber-optic probe, a powerful tool for assessment of blood flow and oxygenation in the same microvascular bed has been presented.

  12. Assessing the exposure risk and impacts of pharmaceuticals in the environment on individuals and ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Kathryn E; Boxall, Alistair B A; Brown, A Ross; Cuthbert, Richard J; Gaw, Sally; Hutchinson, Thomas H; Jobling, Susan; Madden, Judith C; Metcalfe, Chris D; Naidoo, Vinny; Shore, Richard F; Smits, Judit E; Taggart, Mark A; Thompson, Helen M

    2013-08-23

    The use of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals is increasing. Over the past decade, there has been a proliferation of research into potential environmental impacts of pharmaceuticals in the environment. A Royal Society-supported seminar brought together experts from diverse scientific fields to discuss the risks posed by pharmaceuticals to wildlife. Recent analytical advances have revealed that pharmaceuticals are entering habitats via water, sewage, manure and animal carcases, and dispersing through food chains. Pharmaceuticals are designed to alter physiology at low doses and so can be particularly potent contaminants. The near extinction of Asian vultures following exposure to diclofenac is the key example where exposure to a pharmaceutical caused a population-level impact on non-target wildlife. However, more subtle changes to behaviour and physiology are rarely studied and poorly understood. Grand challenges for the future include developing more realistic exposure assessments for wildlife, assessing the impacts of mixtures of pharmaceuticals in combination with other environmental stressors and estimating the risks from pharmaceutical manufacturing and usage in developing countries. We concluded that an integration of diverse approaches is required to predict 'unexpected' risks; specifically, ecologically relevant, often long-term and non-lethal, consequences of pharmaceuticals in the environment for wildlife and ecosystems.

  13. Assessing the exposure risk and impacts of pharmaceuticals in the environment on individuals and ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Kathryn E.; Boxall, Alistair B. A.; Brown, A. Ross; Cuthbert, Richard J.; Gaw, Sally; Hutchinson, Thomas H.; Jobling, Susan; Madden, Judith C.; Metcalfe, Chris D.; Naidoo, Vinny; Shore, Richard F.; Smits, Judit E.; Taggart, Mark A.; Thompson, Helen M.

    2013-01-01

    The use of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals is increasing. Over the past decade, there has been a proliferation of research into potential environmental impacts of pharmaceuticals in the environment. A Royal Society-supported seminar brought together experts from diverse scientific fields to discuss the risks posed by pharmaceuticals to wildlife. Recent analytical advances have revealed that pharmaceuticals are entering habitats via water, sewage, manure and animal carcases, and dispersing through food chains. Pharmaceuticals are designed to alter physiology at low doses and so can be particularly potent contaminants. The near extinction of Asian vultures following exposure to diclofenac is the key example where exposure to a pharmaceutical caused a population-level impact on non-target wildlife. However, more subtle changes to behaviour and physiology are rarely studied and poorly understood. Grand challenges for the future include developing more realistic exposure assessments for wildlife, assessing the impacts of mixtures of pharmaceuticals in combination with other environmental stressors and estimating the risks from pharmaceutical manufacturing and usage in developing countries. We concluded that an integration of diverse approaches is required to predict ‘unexpected’ risks; specifically, ecologically relevant, often long-term and non-lethal, consequences of pharmaceuticals in the environment for wildlife and ecosystems. PMID:23804293

  14. Microcirculation assessment using an individualized model for diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and conventional laser Doppler flowmetry.

    PubMed

    Strömberg, Tomas; Karlsson, Hanna; Fredriksson, Ingemar; Nyström, Fredrik H; Larsson, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    Microvascular assessment would benefit from co-registration of blood flow and hemoglobin oxygenation dynamics during stimulus response tests. We used a fiber-optic probe for simultaneous recording of white light diffuse reflectance (DRS; 475-850 nm) and laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF; 780 nm) spectra at two source-detector distances (0.4 and 1.2 mm). An inverse Monte Carlo algorithm, based on a multiparameter three-layer adaptive skin model, was used for analyzing DRS data. LDF spectra were conventionally processed for perfusion. The system was evaluated on volar forearm recordings of 33 healthy subjects during a 5-min systolic occlusion protocol. The calibration scheme and the optimal adaptive skin model fitted DRS spectra at both distances within 10%. During occlusion, perfusion decreased within 5 s while oxygenation decreased slowly (mean time constant 61 s; dissociation of oxygen from hemoglobin). After occlusion release, perfusion and oxygenation increased within 3 s (inflow of oxygenized blood). The increased perfusion was due to increased blood tissue fraction and speed. The supranormal hemoglobin oxygenation indicates a blood flow in excess of metabolic demands. In conclusion, by integrating DRS and LDF in a fiber-optic probe, a powerful tool for assessment of blood flow and oxygenation in the same microvascular bed has been presented.

  15. STUDYING TRAVEL-RELATED INDIVIDUAL ASSESSMENTS AND DESIRES BY COMBINING HIERARCHICALLY STRUCTURED ORDINAL VARIABLES.

    PubMed

    Diana, Marco; Song, Tingting; Wittkowski, Knut M

    2009-03-01

    Ordinal measures are frequently encountered in travel behavior research. This paper presents a new method for combining them when a hierarchical structure of the data can be presumed. This method is applied to study the subjective assessment of the amount of travel by different transportation modes among a group of French clerical workers, along with the desire to increase or decrease the use of such modes. Some advantages of this approach over traditional data reduction technique such as factor analysis when applied to ordinal data are then illustrated. In this study, combining evidence from several variables sheds light on the observed moderately negative relationship between the personal assessment of the amount of travel and the desire to increase or decrease it, thus integrating previous partial (univariate) results. We find a latent demand for travel, thus contributing to clarify the behavioral mechanisms behind the induced traffic phenomenon. Categorizing the above relationship by transportation mode shows a desire for a less environmental-friendly mix of modes (i.e. a greater desire to use heavy motorized modes and a lower desire to use two-wheeled modes), whenever the respondents do not feel to travel extensively. This result, combined with previous theoretical investigations concerning the determinants of the desire to alter trips consumption levels, shows the importance of making people aware of how much they travel.

  16. Pitfalls in the assessment of disability in individuals with low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Påhlson, Anneli; Ek, Lena; Ahlström, Gerd; Smits, Anja

    2003-11-01

    In this study, the presence of motor and cognitive disability is described in a cohort of patients with low-grade glioma recruited from a geographical area with a well-defined population located in the middle of Sweden. The study group consisted of 35 patients, of which 24 were evaluated by both a neurologist and a neuropsychologist, and 11 only by a neurologist. The test battery according to EFIT (Edinburgh Functional Impairment Test) was used by the neurologist to measure impairments of limb function, memory and speech. Patients were asked to self-evaluate their deficits in motor function and cognition by responding to a specific questionnaire. In addition, a neuropsychological test battery was used by an experienced neuropsychologist who had no previous contact with the patients. In general, motor impairment was mild and predominantly found in the upper limb. Neuropsychological assessment revealed moderate or severe cognitive impairment in more than half of the patients. This impairment was not detected by neurological examination, and only to some extent reported by the patients them selves. The results show statistical differences in cognitive function, memory and language as recorded by the three assessors. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the usefulness of neuropsychological assessment as a complement to neurological examination to detect cognitive dysfunction in patients with low-grade gliomas.

  17. Individual Differences in Response to Sleep Deprivation: Assessment of Fatigue Following Sleep Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carskadon, Mary A.

    1997-01-01

    Previous work has indicated that a small but significant number of participants in sleep deprivation studies or in simulated shift work experiments manifests an exaggerated performance decrement when they reach a critical point in the experiment, usually near the trough of the circadian cycle or the middle of the night. Those who show this exaggerated response do not appear to differ from other normal volunteers in any substantial way according to usual screening criteria or baseline values. The present study aims to examine factors that may provide the basis for this extreme response. We propose that a preexisting sleep deficit-as manifested by low values on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT)-may account for extreme responders. Roth and colleagues (1993) have shown that among normal volunteers screened for a variety of studies, approximately 20 to 25 percent show low (< or = 6 minutes) MSLT scores on a consistent basis, whereas a like proportion shows consistently high MSLT scores (> or = 13 minutes). Additionally, studies by this group have indicated that subjects with low MSLT scores may suffer from chronic insufficient sleep (Roth et al., 1993), as further substantiated by the finding that they have consistently higher nocturnal sleep efficiency and that their MSLT scores rise to normal values when sleep is extended (Roehrs et al., 1996). We hypothesize that the short MSLT subjects have a significant long-term sleep deficit that leads to a marked intolerance for sleep deprivation or shift work. We further suggest that this sleep debt may signify an increased sleep need in these individuals that is not met either due to personal preference or to societal pressures (or both). If this speculation is accurate, then we predict that the tolerance for sleep deprivation in such individuals can be increased by "pretreatment" with sleep extension. Thus, the present study is designed to test the following two hypotheses: subjects with nominal sleep patterns who have

  18. Individual Differences in Response to Sleep Deprivation: Assessment of Fatigue Following Sleep Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carskadon, Mary A.

    1997-01-01

    Previous work has indicated that a small but significant number of participants in sleep deprivation studies or in simulated shift work experiments manifests an exaggerated performance decrement when they reach a critical point in the experiment, usually near the trough of the circadian cycle or the middle of the night. Those who show this exaggerated response do not appear to differ from other non-nal volunteers in any substantial way according to usual screening criteria or baseline values. The present study aims to examine factors that may provide the basis for this extreme response. We propose that a preexisting sleep deficit-as manifested by low values on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT)-may account for extreme responders. Roth and colleagues (1993) have shown that among normal volunteers screened for a variety of studies, approximately 20 to 25 percent show low (< 6 minutes) MSLT scores on a consistent basis, whereas a like proportion shows consistently high MSLT scores (> 13 minutes). Additionally, studies by this group have indicated that subjects with low MSLT scores may suffer from chronic insufficient sleep (Roth et al., 1993), as further substantiated by the finding that they have consistently higher nocturnal sleep efficiency and that their MSLT scores rise to normal values when sleep is extended (Roehrs et al., 1996). We hypothesize that the short MSLT subjects have a significant long-term sleep deficit that leads to a marked intolerance for sleep deprivation or shift work. We further suggest that this sleep debt may signify an increased sleep need in these individuals that is not met either due to personal preference or to societal pressures (or both). If this speculation is accurate, then we predict that the tolerance for sleep deprivation in such individuals can be increased by "pretreatment" with sleep extension. Thus, the present study is designed to test the following two hypotheses: subjects with nominal sleep patterns who have low MSLT

  19. Individual Differences in Response to Sleep Deprivation: Assessment of Fatigue Following Sleep Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carskadon, Mary A.

    1997-01-01

    Previous work has indicated that a small but significant number of participants in sleep deprivation studies or in simulated shift work experiments manifests an exaggerated performance decrement when they reach a critical point in the experiment, usually near the trough of the circadian cycle or the middle of the night. Those who show this exaggerated response do not appear to differ from other non-nal volunteers in any substantial way according to usual screening criteria or baseline values. The present study aims to examine factors that may provide the basis for this extreme response. We propose that a preexisting sleep deficit-as manifested by low values on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT)-may account for extreme responders. It has been shown that among normal volunteers screened for a variety of studies, approximately 20 to 25 percent show low (< 6 minutes) MSLT scores on a consistent basis, whereas a like proportion shows consistently high MSLT scores (> 13 minutes). Additionally, studies by this group have indicated that subjects with low MSLT scores may suffer from chronic insufficient sleep, as further substantiated by the finding that they have consistently higher nocturnal sleep efficiency and that their MSLT scores rise to normal values when sleep is extended. We hypothesize that the short MSLT subjects have a significant long-term sleep deficit that leads to a marked intolerance for sleep deprivation or shift work. We further suggest that this sleep debt may signify an increased sleep need in these individuals that is not met either due to personal preference or to societal pressures (or both). If this speculation is accurate, then we predict that the tolerance for sleep deprivation in such individuals can be increased by "pretreatment" with sleep extension. Thus, the present study is designed to test the following two hypotheses: (1) subjects with nominal sleep patterns who have low MSLT scores (e.g., Sleepy subjects) will show an exaggerated

  20. BurnCalc assessment study of computer-aided individual three-dimensional burn area calculation.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Wen-bo; Zeng, Ding; Wan, Yan; Yao, Li; Tang, Hong-tai; Xia, Zhao-fan

    2014-09-10

    Accurate estimation of a burned area is crucial to decisions about fluid resuscitation, surgical options, nutritional support, and prognosis. Widely used clinical methods to estimate a burn area are two-dimensional. They do not consider age, sex, body mass, physical deformities, or other relevant factors. Computer-aided methods have improved the accuracy of estimating burned areas by including data analysis and reducing subjective differences. Three-dimensional (3D) scanning allows us to determine body dimensions rapidly and reproducibly. We describe an individualized, cost-efficient, portable 3D scanning system, BurnCalc, that can create an individual 3D model and then calculate body surface area (BSA) and the burn area accurately and quickly. The BurnCalc system was validated by verifying the accuracy and stability of BSA calculation. We measured 10 regular objects in experiment 1, using Student's t-test and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) in the analysis. In experiment 2, artificial paper patches of known dimensions were attached to various parts of the body of 40 volunteers. Their sizes were then calculated using BurnCalc. The BurnCalc data were compared to actually measured values to verify accuracy and stability. Total BSAs of these 40 volunteers were also calculated by BurnCalc and compared to those derived from an accepted formula. In experiment 3, four experts using Chinese Rule-of-Nines or Rule-of-Palms methods calculated the percentages of the total BSA in 17 volunteers. Student's t-test and ICC, respectively, were used to compare the results obtained with the BurnCalc technique. Statistically, in experiment 1, p = 0.834 and ICC = 0.999, demonstrating that there was no difference between the BurnCalc and real measurements. Also, the hypothesis of null difference among measures (experiment 2) was true because p > 0.05 and ICC = 0.999, indicating that calculations of the total BSA and the burn area were more accurate using the Burn