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Sample records for assessing organ specific

  1. Development of a reliable and valid organization-specific professional practice assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Hitchings, Kim; Capuano, Terry; Bokovoy, Joanna; Houser, Janet

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a study to devise an organization-specific professional practice model (PPM) assessment that reflects actual unit involvement. A secondary study goal is the development of a unit-based index that can be used to conduct comparative analyses in an efficient way. Each of the 5 elements of the organization's PPM was represented by 1 or more items on an author-developed instrument. The tool was structured so that item scores could be summed to achieve a single subscale for each PPM element and further aggregated into a total score. The instrument was administered to a 40% random sample of all regularly scheduled, full- and part-time registered nurses in an academic, community Magnet hospital in 2003 and 2005. Descriptive statistics were calculated for items, subscales, and summary scores for each patient care unit and overall. A weighted, unit-based index was developed to reflect each unit's score on a scale of 100. The 2003 assessment response rate was 51% (n = 200); the 2005 response rate was 48% (n = 193). Subscale scores and a total PPM score were calculated by summing the values of each individual item. Submissions enabled calculations of total scores by unit, mean scores by item, and the development of a unit-specific PPM index of performance. Beyond shared principles of empowerment, the specifics of each organization's PPM may differ in those key components of care delivery nurses are empowered to effect. Thus, fidelity to the organization-specific PPM is not well tested with generic decisional-involvement instruments. An organization-specific assessment such as this one can provide evidence of not only organizational PPM fidelity but a quantitative method to ensure that staff nurse decisional involvement is continuously evolving to an ever higher state.

  2. Halogen-specific total organic halogen analysis: Assessment by recovery of total bromine.

    PubMed

    Langsa, Markus; Allard, Sebastien; Kristiana, Ina; Heitz, Anna; Joll, Cynthia A

    2017-08-01

    Determination of halogen-specific total organic halogen (TOX) is vital for studies of disinfection of waters containing bromide, since total organic bromine (TOBr) is likely to be more problematic than total organic chlorine. Here, we present further halogen-specific TOX method optimisation and validation, focusing on measurement of TOBr. The optimised halogen-specific TOX method was validated based on the recovery of model compounds covering different classes of disinfection by-products (haloacetic acids, haloacetonitriles, halophenols and halogenated benzenes) and the recovery of total bromine (mass balance of TOBr and bromide concentrations) during disinfection of waters containing dissolved organic matter and bromide. The validation of a halogen-specific TOX method based on the mass balance of total bromine has not previously been reported. Very good recoveries of organic halogen from all model compounds were obtained, indicating high or complete conversion of all organic halogen in the model compound solution through to halide in the absorber solution for ion chromatography analysis. The method was also successfully applied to monitor conversion of bromide to TOBr in a groundwater treatment plant. An excellent recovery (101%) of total bromine was observed from the raw water to the post-chlorination stage. Excellent recoveries of total bromine (92%-95%) were also obtained from chlorination of a synthetic water containing dissolved organic matter and bromide, demonstrating the validity of the halogen-specific TOX method for TOBr measurement. The halogen-specific TOX method is an important tool to monitor and better understand the formation of halogenated organic compounds, in particular brominated organic compounds, in drinking water systems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Establishment and use of surgical rat models for assessment of organ specific in vivo clearance.

    PubMed

    Vestergaard, Bill

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of clearance plays a key role in the development of new drug entities, especially in the development of improved analogues for treatment of chronic conditions. Improved pharmacokinetic properties can be used to increase dosing interval and thereby improve patient compliance. This will lead to improved treatment outcome or decreased risk of treatment failure when treating chronic conditions. Therefore, animal models for assessment of organ-specific clearance are of great value in preclinical drug development. These models can be used to obtain insights into the relative importance of a clearance organ and thereby guide drug design of new analogues in early drug discovery. The current PhD project was undertaken to explore surgical in vivo models, which could be used in the assessment of the relative importance of major clearance organs. It was the aim of the PhD project to establish and validate both a nephrectomy model and a hepatectomy model as tools to investigate relative importance of renal and hepatic clearance. Furthermore, the project aim was to investigate renal clearance of rFVIIa and rhGH using a nephrectomy model in rats. The thesis is composed of a short theoretical background, a literature review, two papers based on experimental work as well as experimental work not included in the papers. Chapter one is an introduction with the specific aims and hypotheses. The chapters from two to five contain theoretical background of the clearance concept, anatomical and physiological description of clearance organs and a brief overview of potential clearance models including in vivo models. Chapters six through nine highlight the experimental work with the results obtained during the PhD project. Lastly, the chapters from ten to twelve contain a general discussion, conclusion and perspectives of the current thesis. Paper I "Nephrectomized and hepatectomized animal models as tools in preclinical pharmacokinetics" provides a literature review of animal

  4. Multiplex assessment of non-organ-specific autoantibodies with a novel microbead-based immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Kai; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Schröder, Christian; Conrad, Karsten; Schierack, Peter; Sack, Ulrich

    2011-02-01

    Advances in immunofluorescence assay development paved the way for the simultaneous detection of several antibodies in one sample, for the serological diagnosis of systemic rheumatic diseases. Standardized automated screening of such antibodies can be achieved by HEp-2 cell-based indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) using a multicolor fluorescence imaging technical platform. To create a common platform for both screening and specific antibody assessment, multiplex measurement of antibodies using fluorescence-coded immobilized microbeads was employed on the same platform. The multicolor fluorescence detection system VideoScan (AKLIDES®) was used for the fluorescence analysis of a multiplex microbead-based immunoassay (MIA). First, immunoglobulin G (IgG) was covalently coupled to one microbead population in duplicate and in three independent experiments. The coupled IgG was detected by a Cy™5-conjugated secondary antibody. Thus, intra- and interassay coefficients of variation (CV) were obtained. Second, a multiplex determination of antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA) to Scl-70, Sm, dsDNA, SS-A (Ro60), CENP-B, and La/SS-B by solid-phase MIA was investigated, using 72 sera from patients with autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic sclerosis (SS). The reproducibility study revealed intra-assay CVs ranging from 3.2% to 9.9%, and interassay CVs ranging from 9.6% to 14.7%. The detection of Scl-70-, Sm-, CENP-B-, and La/SS-B-ANA with MIA showed very good agreement with the ELISA results (kappa = 1.0). The resulting relative sensitivities and specificities for Scl-70-, Sm-, CENP-B-, dsDNA-, and La/SS-B-ANA were 100%, respectively, with the exception of dsDNA (specificity 97%). Multiplex detection by immobilized fluorescence-coded microbeads using multicolor fluorescence is a reliable method for the assessment of rheumatic-disease-specific antibodies. Multicolor fluorescence analyses with pattern detection algorithms provide a common platform

  5. A Guide for Assessing Biodegradation and Source Identification of Organic Groundwater Contaminants Using Compound Specific Isotope Analysis (CSIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    When organic contaminants are degraded in the environment, the ratio of stable isotopes will often change, and the extent of degradation can be recognized and predicted from the change in the ratio of stable isotopes. Recent advances in analytical chemistry make it possible to p...

  6. A Guide for Assessing Biodegradation and Source Identification of Organic Groundwater Contaminants Using Compound Specific Isotope Analysis (CSIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    When organic contaminants are degraded in the environment, the ratio of stable isotopes will often change, and the extent of degradation can be recognized and predicted from the change in the ratio of stable isotopes. Recent advances in analytical chemistry make it possible to p...

  7. SU-F-I-38: Patient Organ Specific Dose Assessment in Coronary CT Angiograph Using Voxellaized Volume Dose Index in Monte Carlo Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Fallal, Mohammadi Gh.; Riyahi, Alam N.; Graily, Gh.; Paydar, R.

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Clinical use of multi detector computed tomography(MDCT) in diagnosis of diseases due to high speed in data acquisition and high spatial resolution is significantly increased. Regarding to the high radiation dose in CT and necessity of patient specific radiation risk assessment, the adoption of new method in the calculation of organ dose is completely required and necessary. In this study by introducing a conversion factor, patient organ dose in thorax region based on CT image data using MC system was calculated. Methods: The geometry of x-ray tube, inherent filter, bow tie filter and collimator were designed using EGSnrc/BEAMnrc MC-system component modules according to GE-Light-speed 64-slices CT-scanner geometry. CT-scan image of patient thorax as a specific phantom was voxellised with 6.25mm3 in voxel and 64×64×20 matrix size. Dose to thorax organ include esophagus, lung, heart, breast, ribs, muscle, spine, spinal cord with imaging technical condition of prospectively-gated-coronary CT-Angiography(PGT) as a step and shoot method, were calculated. Irradiation of patient specific phantom was performed using a dedicated MC-code as DOSXYZnrc with PGT-irradiation model. The ratio of organ dose value calculated in MC-method to the volume CT dose index(CTDIvol) reported by CT-scanner machine according to PGT radiation technique has been introduced as conversion factor. Results: In PGT method, CTDIvol was 10.6mGy and Organ Dose/CTDIvol conversion factor for esophagus, lung, heart, breast, ribs, muscle, spine and spinal cord were obtained as; 0.96, 1.46, 1.2, 3.28. 6.68. 1.35, 3.41 and 0.93 respectively. Conclusion: The results showed while, underestimation of patient dose was found in dose calculation based on CTDIvol, also dose to breast is higher than the other studies. Therefore, the method in this study can be used to provide the actual patient organ dose in CT imaging based on CTDIvol in order to calculation of real effective dose(ED) based on organ dose

  8. PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION AND LAWFUL SPECIFICATION

    PubMed Central

    Remez, Robert E.; Rubin, Philip E.

    2016-01-01

    When a listener can also see a talker, audible and visible properties are ineluctably combined, perceptually. This perceptual disposition to audiovisual integration has received widely ranging explanations. At one extreme, accounts have likened perception to a blind listener and a deaf viewer combined within a single skin, resolving discrepancies in identification by each modality. At the other extreme, perception has been described as necessarily and automatically synesthetic. Useful descriptive and explanatory evidence was provided in a study of auditory-haptic presentation by Fowler and Dekle (1991), showing that neither familiarity nor congruence is required for perceptual integration to occur across modalities. Instead, the notion of conjoint lawful specification was proposed as a governing constraint. This principle treats sensory activity as proximal sampling of the properties of distal objects and events, and this essay notes that its corollaries offer a broadly applicable guide in contemporary investigations of perception. PMID:27642242

  9. Quality of Life of Young Adult Survivors of Pediatric Burns Using World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale II and Burn Specific Health Scale-Brief: A Comparison.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Mary Elizabeth; Holzer, Charles E; Richardson, Lisa M; Epperson, Kathryn; Ojeda, Sylvia; Martinez, Erin M; Suman, Oscar E; Herndon, David N; Meyer, Walter J

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to determine long-term psychological distress and quality of life (QOL) in young adult survivors of pediatric burns using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale II (WHODAS) and the Burn Specific Health Scale-Brief (BSHS-B). Fifty burn survivors 2.5 to 12.5 years postburn (16-21.5 years old; 56% male, 82% Hispanic) completed the WHODAS and BSHS-B. The WHODAS measures health and disability and the BSHS-B measures psychosocial and physical difficulties. Scores were calculated for each instrument, and then grouped by years postburn, TBSA, sex, burn age, and survey age to compare the effects of each. Next, the instruments were compared with each other. The WHODAS disability score mean was 14.4 ± 2.1. BSHS-B domain scores ranged from 3 to 3.7. In general, as TBSA burned increased, QOL decreased. Female burn survivors, survivors burned prior to school entry, and adolescents who had yet to transition into adulthood reported better QOL than their counterparts. In all domains except Participation, the WHODAS consistently identified more individuals with lower QOL than the BSHS-B. Young adult burn survivors' QOL features more disability than their nonburned counterparts, but score in the upper 25% for QOL on the BSHS-B. This analysis revealed the need for long-term psychosocial intervention for survivors with larger TBSA, males, those burned after school entry, and those transitioning into adulthood. Both instruments are useful tools for assessing burn survivors' QOL and both should be given as they discern different individuals. However, the WHODAS is more sensitive than the BSHS-B in identifying QOL issues.

  10. Tissue-specific spatial organization of genomes.

    PubMed

    Parada, Luis A; McQueen, Philip G; Misteli, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Genomes are organized in vivo in the form of chromosomes. Each chromosome occupies a distinct nuclear subvolume in the form of a chromosome territory. The spatial positioning of chromosomes within the interphase nucleus is often nonrandom. It is unclear whether the nonrandom spatial arrangement of chromosomes is conserved among tissues or whether spatial genome organization is tissue-specific. Using two-dimensional and three-dimensional fluorescence in situ hybridization we have carried out a systematic analysis of the spatial positioning of a subset of mouse chromosomes in several tissues. We show that chromosomes exhibit tissue-specific organization. Chromosomes are distributed tissue-specifically with respect to their position relative to the center of the nucleus and also relative to each other. Subsets of chromosomes form distinct types of spatial clusters in different tissues and the relative distance between chromosome pairs varies among tissues. Consistent with the notion that nonrandom spatial proximity is functionally relevant in determining the outcome of chromosome translocation events, we find a correlation between tissue-specific spatial proximity and tissue-specific translocation prevalence. Our results demonstrate that the spatial organization of genomes is tissue-specific and point to a role for tissue-specific spatial genome organization in the formation of recurrent chromosome arrangements among tissues.

  11. Surviving at a distance: organ specific metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Obenauf, Anna C.; Massagué, Joan

    2015-01-01

    The clinical manifestation of metastasis in a vital organ is the final stage of cancer progression and the main culprit of cancer related mortality. Once established, metastasis is devastating, yet only a small proportion of the cancer cells that leave a tumor succeed at infiltrating, surviving, and ultimately overtaking a distant organ. The bottlenecks that challenge cancer cells in newly invaded microenvironments are organ specific and consequently demand distinct mechanisms for metastatic colonization. Here we review the metastatic traits that allow cancer cells to colonize distinct organ sites. PMID:26693180

  12. Quantification of the 35S promoter in DNA extracts from genetically modified organisms using real-time polymerase chain reaction and specificity assessment on various genetically modified organisms, part I: operating procedure.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Sophie; Charles-Delobel, Chrystèle; Geldreich, Angèle; Berthier, Georges; Boyer, Francine; Collonnier, Cécile; Coué-Philippe, Géraldine; Diolez, Annick; Duplan, Marie-Noëlle; Kebdani, Naïma; Romaniuk, Marcel; Feinberg, Max; Bertheau, Yves

    2005-01-01

    A highly sensitive quantitative real-time assay targeted on the 35S promoter of a commercial genetically modified organism (GMO) was characterized (sF/sR primers) and developed for an ABI Prism 7700 Sequence Detection System and TaqMan chemistry. The specificity assessment and performance criteria of sF/sR assay were compared to other P35S-targeted published assays. sF/sR primers amplified a 79 base pair DNA sequence located in a part of P35S that is highly conserved among many caulimovirus strains, i.e., this consensus part of CaMV P35S is likely to be present in many GM events. According to the experimental conditions, the absolute limit of detection for Bt176 corn was estimated between 0.2 and 2 copies of equivalent genome (CEG). The limit of quantification was reached below 0.1% Bt176 content. A Cauliflower Mosaic Virus control (CaMV) qualitative assay targeted on the ORF III of the viral genome was also used as a control (primers 3F/3R) to assess the presence of CaMV in plant-derived products. The specificity of this test was assessed on various CaMV strains, including the Figwort Mosaic Virus (FMV) and solanaceous CaMV strains. Considering the performance of sF/sR quantification test, the highly conserved sequence, and the small size of the amplicon, this assay was tested in a collaborative study in order to be proposed as an international standard.

  13. A new risk assessment approach for the prioritization of 500 classical and emerging organic microcontaminants as potential river basin specific pollutants under the European Water Framework Directive.

    PubMed

    von der Ohe, Peter Carsten; Dulio, Valeria; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; De Deckere, Eric; Kühne, Ralph; Ebert, Ralf-Uwe; Ginebreda, Antoni; De Cooman, Ward; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Brack, Werner

    2011-05-01

    Given the huge number of chemicals released into the environment and existing time and budget constraints, there is a need to prioritize chemicals for risk assessment and monitoring in the context of the European Union Water Framework Directive (EU WFD). This study is the first to assess the risk of 500 organic substances based on observations in the four European river basins of the Elbe, Scheldt, Danube and Llobregat. A decision tree is introduced that first classifies chemicals into six categories depending on the information available, which allows water managers to focus on the next steps (e.g. derivation of Environmental Quality Standards (EQS), improvement of analytical methods, etc.). The priority within each category is then evaluated based on two indicators, the Frequency of Exceedance and the Extent of Exceedance of Predicted No-Effect Concentrations (PNECs). These two indictors are based on maximum environmental concentrations (MEC), rather than the commonly used statistically based averages (Predicted Effect Concentration, PEC), and compared to the lowest acute-based (PNEC(acute)) or chronic-based thresholds (PNEC(chronic)). For 56% of the compounds, PNECs were available from existing risk assessments, and the majority of these PNECs were derived from chronic toxicity data or simulated ecosystem studies (mesocosm) with rather low assessment factors. The limitations of this concept for risk assessment purposes are discussed. For the remainder, provisional PNECs (P-PNECs) were established from read-across models for acute toxicity to the standard test organisms Daphnia magna, Pimephales promelas and Selenastrum capricornutum. On the one hand, the prioritization revealed that about three-quarter of the 44 substances with MEC/PNEC ratios above ten were pesticides. On the other hand, based on the monitoring data used in this study, no risk with regard to the water phase could be found for eight of the 41 priority substances, indicating a first success of

  14. Maize mitochondria synthesize organ-specific polypeptides

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, K.J.; Walbot, V.

    1985-10-01

    The authors detected both quantitative and qualitative organ-specific differences in the total protein composition of mitochondria of maize. Labeling of isolated mitochondria from each organ demonstrated that a few protein differences are due to changes in the polypeptides synthesized by the organelle. The synthesis of developmental stage-specific mitochondrial polypeptides was found in the scutella of developing and germinating kernels. The approximately 13-kDa polypeptide synthesized by mitochondria from seedlings of the Texas (T) male-sterile cytoplasm was shown to be constitutively expressed in all organs of line B37T tested. Methomyl, an insecticide known to inhibit the growth of T sterile plants, was shown to be an effective inhibitor of protein synthesis in mitochondria from T plants.

  15. Contributions of root and shoot derived-C to soil organic matter throughout an agricultural soil profile assessed by compound-specific 13C analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez-Millan, Mercedes; Dignac, Marie-France; Rumpel, Cornelia; Rasse, Daniel P.; Derenne, Sylvie

    2010-05-01

    The turnover of soil organic matter (SOM) is generally studied in the topsoil horizons, where the highest concentrations of organic carbon (OC) are found. Subsoils, although containing lower amounts of organic carbon compared to topsoils, greatly contribute to the total carbon stocks within a soil profile. An increase in SOM aliphaticity was observed during SOM degradation, and also down the soil profile, suggesting that the stable pool of SOM is enriched in aliphatic structures. These alkyl-C structures might mainly derive from cutins and suberins, two biomacromolecules, which contain biomarkers specific for shoot and root plant biomass. The aim of this study was to use cutin and suberin structural units to follow the incorporation of plant biomass originating from roots and shoots throughout an agricultural soil profile. We measured the 13C natural abundance of root and shoot biomarkers in samples taken from 15 to 105 cm depth in a C3/C4 chronosequence. After 9 years of maize (C4) cropping, the distribution of root biomarkers (diacids) significantly changed and their concentration increased compared to the wheat (CC3) soil. The largest increase was observed at 60-75 cm where diacids reached up to 134 ?g/gOC compared to 23 ?g/gOC in the wheat soil. Higher inputs from maize root biomass are also suggested by an average 13C enrichment of the root markers in the maize compared to the wheat soil.

  16. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: SYNTHETIC ORGANIC ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate. Update 9/19/2006: Proposed Rule June 14, 2006 - Risk Assessment complete September 2005 and only available in the Docket.

  17. Assessments of Specific Behavioral Deficits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deckner, C. William; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Procedures were used to assess capacity to sustain adaptive responding and discrimination learning ability in 18 psychotic nonverbal children. It was concluded that the measures had good face validity with respect to assessment of discrimination, learning ability, and tolerance for intermittent reinforcement. (SB)

  18. Assessment of total and organic vanadium levels and their bioaccumulation in edible sea cucumbers: tissues distribution, inter-species-specific, locational differences and seasonal variations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanjun; Zhou, Qingxin; Xu, Jie; Xue, Yong; Liu, Xiaofang; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the levels, inter-species-specific, locational differences and seasonal variations of vanadium in sea cucumbers and to validate further several potential factors controlling the distribution of metals in sea cucumbers. Vanadium levels were evaluated in samples of edible sea cucumbers and were demonstrated exhibit differences in different seasons, species and sampling sites. High vanadium concentrations were measured in the sea cucumbers, and all of the vanadium detected was in an organic form. Mean vanadium concentrations were considerably higher in the blood (sea cucumber) than in the other studied tissues. The highest concentration of vanadium (2.56 μg g(-1)), as well as a higher degree of organic vanadium (85.5 %), was observed in the Holothuria scabra samples compared with all other samples. Vanadium levels in Apostichopus japonicus from Bohai Bay and Yellow Sea have marked seasonal variations. Average values of 1.09 μg g(-1) of total vanadium and 0.79 μg g(-1) of organic vanadium were obtained in various species of sea cucumbers. Significant positive correlations between vanadium in the seawater and V org in the sea cucumber (r = 81.67 %, p = 0.00), as well as between vanadium in the sediment and V org in the sea cucumber (r = 77.98 %, p = 0.00), were observed. Vanadium concentrations depend on the seasons (salinity, temperature), species, sampling sites and seawater environment (seawater, sediment). Given the adverse toxicological effects of inorganic vanadium and positive roles in controlling the development of diabetes in humans, a regular monitoring programme of vanadium content in edible sea cucumbers can be recommended.

  19. Sensitivity and Specificity of the World Health Organization Dengue Classification Schemes for Severe Dengue Assessment in Children in Rio de Janeiro

    PubMed Central

    Macedo, Gleicy A.; Gonin, Michelle Luiza C.; Pone, Sheila M.; Cruz, Oswaldo G.; Nobre, Flávio F.; Brasil, Patrícia

    2014-01-01

    Background The clinical definition of severe dengue fever remains a challenge for researchers in hyperendemic areas like Brazil. The ability of the traditional (1997) as well as the revised (2009) World Health Organization (WHO) dengue case classification schemes to detect severe dengue cases was evaluated in 267 children admitted to hospital with laboratory-confirmed dengue. Principal Findings Using the traditional scheme, 28.5% of patients could not be assigned to any category, while the revised scheme categorized all patients. Intensive therapeutic interventions were used as the reference standard to evaluate the ability of both the traditional and revised schemes to detect severe dengue cases. Analyses of the classified cases (n = 183) demonstrated that the revised scheme had better sensitivity (86.8%, P<0.001), while the traditional scheme had better specificity (93.4%, P<0.001) for the detection of severe forms of dengue. Conclusions/Significance This improved sensitivity of the revised scheme allows for better case capture and increased ICU admission, which may aid pediatricians in avoiding deaths due to severe dengue among children, but, in turn, it may also result in the misclassification of the patients' condition as severe, reflected in the observed lower positive predictive value (61.6%, P<0.001) when compared with the traditional scheme (82.6%, P<0.001). The inclusion of unusual dengue manifestations in the revised scheme has not shifted the emphasis from the most important aspects of dengue disease and the major factors contributing to fatality in this study: shock with consequent organ dysfunction. PMID:24777054

  20. Adaptive Assessments Using Open Specifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Hector Barbosa; Garcia-Penalvo, Francisco J.; Rodriguez-Conde, Maria Jose; Morales, Erla M.; de Pablos, Patricia Ordonez

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation is a key element in formal education processes; it must be constructed in a way that the item questions within help students understand by adapting them to the learning style as well. The focus of the present research work specifically in the convenience to adapt an associated multimedia material in each single question besides the…

  1. Drug delivery by organ-specific immunoliposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, Kazuo; Mori, Atsuhide; Hunag, Leaf . Dept. of Biochemistry); Kennel, S.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies highly specific to the mouse pulmonary endothelial cells were conjugated to liposomes. The resulting immunoliposomes showed high levels of lung accumulation when injected intravenously into mice. Optimal target binding and retention were achieved if the lipid composition included ganglioside GM{sub 1} to reduce the uptake of immunoliposomes by the reticuloendothelial system. Details of the construction and optimization of these organ-specific immunoliposomes are reviewed. The drug delivery potential of this novel liposome system was demonstrated in an experimental pulmonary metastasis model. Immunoliposomes containing a lipophilic prodrug of deoxyfluorouridine effectively prolonged the survival time of the tumor-bearing mice. This and other therapeutic applications of the immunoliposomes are discussed. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Site-Specific Carbon Isotopes in Organics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piasecki, A.; Eiler, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Natural organic molecules exhibit a wide range of internal site-specific isotope variation (i.e., molecules with same isotopic substitution type but different site). Such variations are generally unconstrained by bulk isotopic measurements. If known, site-specific variations might constrain temperatures of equilibrium, mechanisms of formation or consumption reactions, and possibly other details. For example, lipids can exhibit carbon isotope differences of up to 30‰ between adjacent carbon sites as a result of fractionations arising during decarboxylation of pyruvate and other steps in lipid biosynthesis(1). We present a method for site-specific carbon isotope analysis of propane, based on high-resolution, multi-collector gas source mass spectrometry, using a novel prototype instrument - the Thermo MAT 253 Ultra. This machine has an inlet system and electron bombardment ion source resembling those in conventional stable isotope gas source mass spectrometers, and the energy filter, magnet, and detector array resembling those in multi-collector ICPMS and TIMS. The detector array has 7 detector positions, 6 of which are movable, and each of which can collect ions with either a faraday cup (read through amplifiers ranging from 107-1012 ohms) or an SEM. High mass resolving power (up to 27,000, MRP = M/dM definition) is achieved through a narrow entrance slit, adjustable from 250 to 5 μm. Such resolution can cleanly separate isobaric interferences between isotopologues of organic molecules having the same cardinal mass (e.g., 13CH3 and 12CH2D). We use this technology to analyze the isotopologues and fragments of propane, and use such data to solve for the site-specific carbon isotope fractionation. By measuring isotopologues of both the one-carbon (13CH3) and the two-carbon (13C12CH4) fragment ion, we can solve for both bulk δ13C and the difference in δ13C between the terminal and central carbon position. We tested this method by analyzing mixtures between natural

  3. Site-Specific Rules for Risk Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, William; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This article examines the development of regulatory guidance upon which the technology of risk assessment has matured into a decision-making method of choice. It examines in particular the role of site-specific risk assessment at Superfund sites. (LZ)

  4. Site-Specific Rules for Risk Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, William; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This article examines the development of regulatory guidance upon which the technology of risk assessment has matured into a decision-making method of choice. It examines in particular the role of site-specific risk assessment at Superfund sites. (LZ)

  5. DOE site-specific threat assessment

    SciTech Connect

    West, D.J.; Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.

    1985-07-12

    A facility manager faced with the challenges of protecting a nuclear facility against potential threats must consider the likelihood and consequences of such threats, know the capabilities of the facility safeguards and security systems, and make informed decisions about the cost-effectivness of safeguards and security upgrades. To help meet these challenges, the San Francisco Operations Office of the Department of Energy, in conjunction with the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, has developed a site-specific threat assessment approach and a quantitative model to improve the quality and consistency of site-specific threat assessment and resultant security upgrade decisions at sensitive Department of Energy facilities. 5 figs.

  6. Specificity of Structural Assessment of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumpower, David L.; Sharara, Harold; Goldsmith, Timothy E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the specificity of information provided by structural assessment of knowledge (SAK). SAK is a technique which uses the Pathfinder scaling algorithm to transform ratings of concept relatedness into network representations (PFnets) of individuals' knowledge. Inferences about individuals' overall domain knowledge based on the…

  7. Assessing the Learning Organization: Part 2--Exploring Practical Assessment Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosey, Paul; Smith, Peter A. C.

    1999-01-01

    Presents two approaches to assessing learning organizations: (1) Focus, Will, Capability, Performance System and (2) organizations as energies. Describes ways in which behavior change is measured in each approach. (SK)

  8. Homologous recombination in plants is organ specific.

    PubMed

    Boyko, Alexander; Filkowski, Jody; Hudson, Darryl; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2006-03-20

    In this paper we analysed the genome stability of various Arabidopsis thaliana plant organs using a transgenic recombination system. The system was based on two copies of non-functional GUS (lines #651 and #11) or LUC (line #15D8) reporter genes serving as a recombination substrate. Both reporter assays showed that recombination in flowers or stems were rare events. Most of the recombination sectors were found in leaves and roots, with leaves having over 2-fold greater number of the recombination events per single cell genome as compared to roots. The recombination events per single genome were 9.7-fold more frequent on the lateral half of the leaves than on the medial halves. This correlated with a 2.5-fold higher metabolic activity in the energy source (lateral) versus energy sink (medial) of leaves. Higher metabolic activity was paralleled by a higher anthocyanin production in lateral halves. The level of double strand break (DSB) occurrence was also different among plant organs; the highest level was observed in roots and the lowest in leaves. High level of DSBs strongly positively correlated with the activity of the key repair enzymes, AtKU70 and AtRAD51. The ratio of AtRAD51 to AtKU70 expression was the highest in leaves, supporting the more active involvement of homologous recombination pathway in the repair of DSBs in this organ. Western blot analysis confirmed the real time PCR expression data for AtKU70 gene.

  9. Development of Organ-Specific Donor Risk Indices

    PubMed Central

    Akkina, Sanjeev K.; Asrani, Sumeet K.; Peng, Yi; Stock, Peter; Kim, Ray; Israni, Ajay K.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the shortage of deceased donor organs, transplant centers accept organs from marginal deceased donors, including older donors. Organ-specific donor risk indices have been developed to predict graft survival using various combinations of donor and recipient characteristics. We will review the kidney donor risk index (KDRI) and liver donor risk index (LDRI) and compare and contrast their strengths, limitations, and potential uses. The Kidney Donor Risk Index has a potential role in developing new kidney allocation algorithms. The Liver Donor Risk Index allows for greater appreciation of the importance of donor factors, particularly for hepatitis C-positive recipients; as the donor risk index increases, rates of allograft and patient survival among these recipients decrease disproportionately. Use of livers with high donor risk index is associated with increased hospital costs independent of recipient risk factors, and transplanting livers with high donor risk index into patients with Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores < 15 is associated with lower allograft survival; use of the Liver Donor Risk Index has limited this practice. Significant regional variation in donor quality, as measured by the Liver Donor Risk Index, remains in the United States. We also review other potential indices for liver transplant, including donor-recipient matching and the retransplant donor risk index. While substantial progress has been made in developing donor risk indices to objectively assess donor variables that affect transplant outcomes, continued efforts are warranted to improve these indices to enhance organ allocation policies and optimize allograft survival. PMID:22287036

  10. Geography Assessment and Exercise Specifications for the 1994 National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. for Research, Washington, DC. Washington Research Center.

    This document lists and outlines the specific educational objectives of the content of the 1994 National Assessment of Educational Progress's Geography Assessment. The document is divided into two sections: "Assessment Specifications" and "Exercise Specifications." The "Assessment Specifications" provide an overall…

  11. Using Assessment Centers in Smaller Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Seymour

    1978-01-01

    The author discusses the assessment center approach for selecting managerial personnel and notes some special considerations for smaller organizations in deciding whether to use such selection procedures: selection tests and techniques, their predictive validity, assessors, and time constraints. (MF)

  12. Quality of Life of Young Adult Survivors of Pediatric Burns Using World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale II (WHODAS) and Burn Specific Health Scale-Brief (BSHS-B): A Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Mary Elizabeth; Holzer, Charles E.; Richardson, Lisa M.; Epperson, Kathryn; Ojeda, Sylvia; Martinez, Erin M.; Suman, Oscar E.; Herndon, David N.; Meyer, Walter J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine long term psychological distress and quality of life (QOL) in young adult survivors of pediatric burns using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale II (WHODAS) and the Burn Specific Health Scale- Brief (BSHS-B). Methods Fifty burn survivors 2.5–12.5 years post-burn (16–21.5 years old; 56% male, 82% Hispanic) completed the WHODAS and BSHS-B. The WHODAS measures health and disability and the BSHS-B measures psychosocial and physical difficulties. Scores were calculated for each instrument, and then grouped by years post-burn, TBSA, sex, burn age, and survey age to compare the effects of each. Next, the instruments were compared to each other. Results The WHODAS disability score mean was 14.4 ± 2.1. BSHS-B domain scores ranged from 3–3.7. In general, as Total Body Surface Area Burned (TBSA) increased, QOL decreased. Female burn survivors, survivors burned prior to school entry and adolescents who had yet to transition into adulthood reported better QOL than their counterparts. In all domains except Participation, the WHODAS consistently identified more individuals with lower QOL than the BSHS-B. Conclusions Young adult burn survivors’ QOL features more disability than their non-burned counterparts, but score in the upper 25% for QOL on the BSHS-B. This analysis revealed the need for long term psychosocial intervention for survivors with larger TBSA, males, those burned after school entry, and those transitioning into adulthood. Both instruments are useful tools for assessing burn survivors’ QOL and both should be given as they discern different individuals. However, the WHODAS is more sensitive than BSHS-B in identifying QOL issues. PMID:25167373

  13. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for organization 1700.

    SciTech Connect

    Gerard, Morgan Evan

    2007-06-01

    This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Organization 1700 in June, 2006. The primary purpose of this PPOA is to provide recommendations to assist Organization 1700 in reducing the generation of waste and improving the efficiency of their processes and procedures. This report contains a summary of the information collected, analyses performed and recommended options for implementation. The Sandia National Laboratories Pollution Prevention staff will continue to work with Organization 1700 to implement the recommendations.

  14. Angiocrine functions of organ-specific endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Rafii, Shahin; Butler, Jason M; Ding, Bi-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Preface Endothelial cells lining blood vessel capillaries are not just passive conduits for delivering blood. Tissue-specific endothelium establish specialized vascular niches that deploy specific sets of growth factors, known as angiocrine factors, which actively participate in inducing, specifying, patterning, and guiding organ regeneration and maintaining homeostasis and metabolism. Angiocrine factors upregulated in response to injury orchestrates self-renewal and differentiation of tissue-specific repopulating resident stem and progenitor cells into functional organs. Uncovering the precise mechanisms whereby physiological-levels of angiocrine factors are spatially and temporally produced, and distributed by organotypic endothelium to repopulating cells, will lay the foundation for driving organ repair without scarring. PMID:26791722

  15. Teaching about Assessment in Professional Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurylo, Anastacia

    2007-01-01

    Students learning about professional communication are not often taught about assessment as indicated by its omission as a chapter topic in many major textbooks in the field. Nonetheless, students need to be educated on this topic because, increasingly, there is a push towards instituting assessment practices in business organizations.…

  16. Teaching about Assessment in Professional Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurylo, Anastacia

    2007-01-01

    Students learning about professional communication are not often taught about assessment as indicated by its omission as a chapter topic in many major textbooks in the field. Nonetheless, students need to be educated on this topic because, increasingly, there is a push towards instituting assessment practices in business organizations.…

  17. The Education Policies of International Organizations: Specific Differences and Convergences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkari, Abdeljalil; Lauwerier, Thibaut

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the role that international organizations play in orienting education reforms and changes, based on an examination of key texts these organizations produced in the 1990s. The analysis shows that some specific trends persist: UNESCO and UNICEF centre their philosophy on a humanistic and child-centered vision of education,…

  18. The Education Policies of International Organizations: Specific Differences and Convergences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkari, Abdeljalil; Lauwerier, Thibaut

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the role that international organizations play in orienting education reforms and changes, based on an examination of key texts these organizations produced in the 1990s. The analysis shows that some specific trends persist: UNESCO and UNICEF centre their philosophy on a humanistic and child-centered vision of education,…

  19. Differences in DNA Binding Specificity of Floral Homeotic Protein Complexes Predict Organ-Specific Target Genes.

    PubMed

    Smaczniak, Cezary; Muiño, Jose M; Chen, Dijun; Angenent, Gerco C; Kaufmann, Kerstin

    2017-08-01

    Floral organ identities in plants are specified by the combinatorial action of homeotic master regulatory transcription factors. However, how these factors achieve their regulatory specificities is still largely unclear. Genome-wide in vivo DNA binding data show that homeotic MADS domain proteins recognize partly distinct genomic regions, suggesting that DNA binding specificity contributes to functional differences of homeotic protein complexes. We used in vitro systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment followed by high-throughput DNA sequencing (SELEX-seq) on several floral MADS domain protein homo- and heterodimers to measure their DNA binding specificities. We show that specification of reproductive organs is associated with distinct binding preferences of a complex formed by SEPALLATA3 and AGAMOUS. Binding specificity is further modulated by different binding site spacing preferences. Combination of SELEX-seq and genome-wide DNA binding data allows differentiation between targets in specification of reproductive versus perianth organs in the flower. We validate the importance of DNA binding specificity for organ-specific gene regulation by modulating promoter activity through targeted mutagenesis. Our study shows that intrafamily protein interactions affect DNA binding specificity of floral MADS domain proteins. Differential DNA binding of MADS domain protein complexes plays a role in the specificity of target gene regulation. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  20. Specific organization of Golgi apparatus in plant cells.

    PubMed

    Vildanova, M S; Wang, W; Smirnova, E A

    2014-09-01

    Microtubules, actin filaments, and Golgi apparatus are connected both directly and indirectly, but it is manifested differently depending on the cell organization and specialization, and these connections are considered in many original studies and reviews. In this review we would like to discuss what underlies differences in the structural organization of the Golgi apparatus in animal and plant cells: specific features of the microtubule cytoskeleton organization, the use of different cytoskeleton components for Golgi apparatus movement and maintenance of its integrity, or specific features of synthetic and secretory processes. We suppose that a dispersed state of the Golgi apparatus in higher plant cells cannot be explained only by specific features of the microtubule system organization and by the absence of centrosome as an active center of their organization because the Golgi apparatus is organized similarly in the cells of other organisms that possess the centrosome and centrosomal microtubules. One of the key factors determining the Golgi apparatus state in plant cells is the functional uniformity or functional specialization of stacks. The functional specialization does not suggest the joining of the stacks to form a ribbon; therefore, the disperse state of the Golgi apparatus needs to be supported, but it also can exist "by default". We believe that the dispersed state of the Golgi apparatus in plants is supported, on one hand, by dynamic connections of the Golgi apparatus stacks with the actin filament system and, on the other hand, with the endoplasmic reticulum exit sites distributed throughout the endoplasmic reticulum.

  1. Situation-Specific Assessment of Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Bergman, Mindy E.; Buchanan, NiCole T.; Drasgow, Fritz; Fitzgerald, Louise F.

    2001-01-01

    A survey of 13,743 women in the armed forces used an instrument to identify specific experiences of sexual harassment rather than aggregate approaches. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the measure's construct validity. Reasons for using aggregate versus situation-specific approaches were identified. (Contains 19 references.) (SK)

  2. Situation-Specific Assessment of Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Bergman, Mindy E.; Buchanan, NiCole T.; Drasgow, Fritz; Fitzgerald, Louise F.

    2001-01-01

    A survey of 13,743 women in the armed forces used an instrument to identify specific experiences of sexual harassment rather than aggregate approaches. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the measure's construct validity. Reasons for using aggregate versus situation-specific approaches were identified. (Contains 19 references.) (SK)

  3. Lexical-Semantic Organization in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Li; McGregor, Karla K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) show deficits in lexical-semantic organization and, if so, whether these deficits are commensurate with their delay in vocabulary size and whether the deficits affect all children with SLI. Method: Fourteen children with SLI, 14 age matches (AM), and 14 expressive…

  4. Lexical-Semantic Organization in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Li; McGregor, Karla K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) show deficits in lexical-semantic organization and, if so, whether these deficits are commensurate with their delay in vocabulary size and whether the deficits affect all children with SLI. Method: Fourteen children with SLI, 14 age matches (AM), and 14 expressive…

  5. [Specific psychomotor organization in a child with phocomelia].

    PubMed

    Nikolić, V; Vlajković, K; Flego, D

    1990-01-01

    The authors follow the specific development of a child with phocomelia. Psychomotoric organization was analyzed in the period prior to starting school and before the child became literate. The existence of specific forms and outlines of catching movements was established. The lower extremities developed a compensatory--fine motorics mechanism of toe abduction. A drawing of a human figure expressed the specific experiencing of the body scheme as the "losing" of the upper extremities. Left-handedness was discovered. Typical difficulties exist in the forming of the number conception. Preparations are being done for the mastering of the use of the intelectual prosthesis-computer.

  6. Comparing Running Specific and Traditional Prostheses During Running: Assessing Performance and Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0518 TITLE: Comparing Running-Specific and Traditional Prostheses during Running: Assessing Performance and Risk...2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Comparing Running-Specific and Traditional Prostheses During Running: Assessing Performance and Risk 5a. CONTRACT...bbaum@regis.edu 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Regis

  7. Assessing cultural competence of policy organizations.

    PubMed

    Mays, Rose M; Siantz, Mary Lou de Leon; Viehweg, Stephan A

    2002-04-01

    Assessment of the capabilities of human service providers to care for individuals from diverse cultures has been widely discussed in the literature. However, a less examined area is the appraisal of the cultural competence of the administrative or policy bodies whose actions shape the character of these human services. This article demonstrates an approach for evaluating a policy organization's cultural competence using a governmental agency as a case study. Findings from this assessment prompted this agency to generate plans to further enhance its cultural competence.

  8. Assessment Issues in Languages for Specific Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Barry

    2012-01-01

    While Grosse and Voght (1991) set out a well-considered overview of LSP and identified areas in need of development, they limited their observations on the topic of assessment to a short section devoted to what they called the "proficiency movement." While it is true that they really did not have a lot to report on at the time they wrote their…

  9. Assessing and Improving Student Organizations: Student Workbook. The Assessing and Improving Student Organization (AISO) Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolfi, Tricia; Ruben, Brent D.

    2010-01-01

    This "Workbook" is intended for student participants during the AISO (Assessing and Improving Student Organization) assessment and planning sessions, and to be used in tandem with the "Guide for Students". Each page presents an action or reflection slide from the "Guide" with a space below for participants to note their own ideas, outcomes of…

  10. [Risk assessment of genetically modified organisms].

    PubMed

    Costa, Thadeu Estevam Moreira Maramaldo; Dias, Aline Peçanha Muzy; Scheidegger, Erica Miranda Damasio; Marin, Victor Augustus

    2011-01-01

    Since the commercial approve in 1996, the global area of transgenic crops has raised more than 50 times. In the last two decades, governments have been planning strategies and protocols for safety assessment of food and feed genetically modified (GM). Evaluation of food safety should be taken on a case-by-case analysis depending on the specific traits of the modified crops and the changes introduced by the genetic modification, using for this the concept of substantial equivalence. This work presents approaches for the risk assessment of GM food, as well as some problems related with the genetic construction or even with the expression of the inserted gene.

  11. Circulating Organ-Specific MicroRNAs Serve as Biomarkers in Organ-Specific Diseases: Implications for Organ Allo- and Xeno-Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ming; Hara, Hidetaka; Dai, Yifan; Mou, Lisha; Cooper, David K. C.; Wu, Changyou; Cai, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    Different cell types possess different miRNA expression profiles, and cell/tissue/organ-specific miRNAs (or profiles) indicate different diseases. Circulating miRNA is either actively secreted by living cells or passively released during cell death. Circulating cell/tissue/organ-specific miRNA may serve as a non-invasive biomarker for allo- or xeno-transplantation to monitor organ survival and immune rejection. In this review, we summarize the proof of concept that circulating organ-specific miRNAs serve as non-invasive biomarkers for a wide spectrum of clinical organ-specific manifestations such as liver-related disease, heart-related disease, kidney-related disease, and lung-related disease. Furthermore, we summarize how circulating organ-specific miRNAs may have advantages over conventional methods for monitoring immune rejection in organ transplantation. Finally, we discuss the implications and challenges of applying miRNA to monitor organ survival and immune rejection in allo- or xeno-transplantation. PMID:27490531

  12. Circulating Organ-Specific MicroRNAs Serve as Biomarkers in Organ-Specific Diseases: Implications for Organ Allo- and Xeno-Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ming; Hara, Hidetaka; Dai, Yifan; Mou, Lisha; Cooper, David K C; Wu, Changyou; Cai, Zhiming

    2016-08-01

    Different cell types possess different miRNA expression profiles, and cell/tissue/organ-specific miRNAs (or profiles) indicate different diseases. Circulating miRNA is either actively secreted by living cells or passively released during cell death. Circulating cell/tissue/organ-specific miRNA may serve as a non-invasive biomarker for allo- or xeno-transplantation to monitor organ survival and immune rejection. In this review, we summarize the proof of concept that circulating organ-specific miRNAs serve as non-invasive biomarkers for a wide spectrum of clinical organ-specific manifestations such as liver-related disease, heart-related disease, kidney-related disease, and lung-related disease. Furthermore, we summarize how circulating organ-specific miRNAs may have advantages over conventional methods for monitoring immune rejection in organ transplantation. Finally, we discuss the implications and challenges of applying miRNA to monitor organ survival and immune rejection in allo- or xeno-transplantation.

  13. Neighbor Detection Induces Organ-Specific Transcriptomes, Revealing Patterns Underlying Hypocotyl-Specific Growth.

    PubMed

    Kohnen, Markus V; Schmid-Siegert, Emanuel; Trevisan, Martine; Petrolati, Laure Allenbach; Sénéchal, Fabien; Müller-Moulé, Patricia; Maloof, Julin; Xenarios, Ioannis; Fankhauser, Christian

    2016-12-01

    In response to neighbor proximity, plants increase the growth of specific organs (e.g., hypocotyls) to enhance access to sunlight. Shade enhances the activity of Phytochrome Interacting Factors (PIFs) by releasing these bHLH transcription factors from phytochrome B-mediated inhibition. PIFs promote elongation by inducing auxin production in cotyledons. In order to elucidate spatiotemporal aspects of the neighbor proximity response, we separately analyzed gene expression patterns in the major light-sensing organ (cotyledons) and in rapidly elongating hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana PIFs initiate transcriptional reprogramming in both organs within 15 min, comprising regulated expression of several early auxin response genes. This suggests that hypocotyl growth is elicited by both local and distal auxin signals. We show that cotyledon-derived auxin is both necessary and sufficient to initiate hypocotyl growth, but we also provide evidence for the functional importance of the local PIF-induced response. With time, the transcriptional response diverges increasingly between organs. We identify genes whose differential expression may underlie organ-specific elongation. Finally, we uncover a growth promotion gene expression signature shared between different developmentally regulated growth processes and responses to the environment in different organs. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  14. Neighbor Detection Induces Organ-Specific Transcriptomes, Revealing Patterns Underlying Hypocotyl-Specific Growth[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Trevisan, Martine; Petrolati, Laure Allenbach

    2016-01-01

    In response to neighbor proximity, plants increase the growth of specific organs (e.g., hypocotyls) to enhance access to sunlight. Shade enhances the activity of Phytochrome Interacting Factors (PIFs) by releasing these bHLH transcription factors from phytochrome B-mediated inhibition. PIFs promote elongation by inducing auxin production in cotyledons. In order to elucidate spatiotemporal aspects of the neighbor proximity response, we separately analyzed gene expression patterns in the major light-sensing organ (cotyledons) and in rapidly elongating hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana. PIFs initiate transcriptional reprogramming in both organs within 15 min, comprising regulated expression of several early auxin response genes. This suggests that hypocotyl growth is elicited by both local and distal auxin signals. We show that cotyledon-derived auxin is both necessary and sufficient to initiate hypocotyl growth, but we also provide evidence for the functional importance of the local PIF-induced response. With time, the transcriptional response diverges increasingly between organs. We identify genes whose differential expression may underlie organ-specific elongation. Finally, we uncover a growth promotion gene expression signature shared between different developmentally regulated growth processes and responses to the environment in different organs. PMID:27923878

  15. Systems engineering process and organization assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, Robert G.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to briefly summarize the results of an eight week assessment of NASA/MSFC Phase A and Phase B systems engineering processes, methodologies, and activities. Specifically, fourteen inconsistencies or weaknesses were identified and recommendations for corrective action were generated. A 1.5 hour briefing on these results was given in EL51 on 8-11-92; that documentation is available from the author or either NASA Colleague.

  16. Lineage-specific laminar organization of cortical GABAergic interneurons.

    PubMed

    Ciceri, Gabriele; Dehorter, Nathalie; Sols, Ignasi; Huang, Z Josh; Maravall, Miguel; Marín, Oscar

    2013-09-01

    In the cerebral cortex, pyramidal cells and interneurons are generated in distant germinal zones, and so the mechanisms that control their precise assembly into specific microcircuits remain an enigma. Here we report that cortical interneurons labeled at the clonal level do not distribute randomly but rather have a strong tendency to cluster in the mouse neocortex. This behavior is common to different classes of interneurons, independently of their origin. Interneuron clusters are typically contained within one or two adjacent cortical layers, are largely formed by isochronically generated neurons and populate specific layers, as revealed by unbiased hierarchical clustering methods. Our results suggest that different progenitor cells give rise to interneurons populating infra- and supragranular cortical layers, which challenges current views of cortical neurogenesis. Thus, specific lineages of cortical interneurons seem to be produced to primarily mirror the laminar structure of the cerebral cortex, rather than its columnar organization.

  17. Structuring of bacterioplankton communities by specific dissolved organic carbon compounds.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Consarnau, Laura; Lindh, Markus V; Gasol, Josep M; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2012-09-01

    The main role of microorganisms in the cycling of the bulk dissolved organic carbon pool in the ocean is well established. Nevertheless, it remains unclear if particular bacteria preferentially utilize specific carbon compounds and whether such compounds have the potential to shape bacterial community composition. Enrichment experiments in the Mediterranean Sea, Baltic Sea and the North Sea (Skagerrak) showed that different low-molecular-weight organic compounds, with a proven importance for the growth of marine bacteria (e.g. amino acids, glucose, dimethylsulphoniopropionate, acetate or pyruvate), in most cases differentially stimulated bacterial growth. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis 'fingerprints' and 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that some bacterial phylotypes that became abundant were highly specific to enrichment with specific carbon compounds (e.g. Acinetobacter sp. B1-A3 with acetate or Psychromonas sp. B3-U1 with glucose). In contrast, other phylotypes increased in relative abundance in response to enrichment with several, or all, of the investigated carbon compounds (e.g. Neptuniibacter sp. M2-A4 with acetate, pyruvate and dimethylsulphoniopropionate, and Thalassobacter sp. M3-A3 with pyruvate and amino acids). Furthermore, different carbon compounds triggered the development of unique combinations of dominant phylotypes in several of the experiments. These results suggest that bacteria differ substantially in their abilities to utilize specific carbon compounds, with some bacteria being specialists and others having a more generalist strategy. Thus, changes in the supply or composition of the dissolved organic carbon pool can act as selective forces structuring bacterioplankton communities.

  18. Guidelines for potential multiple organ donors (adult). Part III: organ-specific recommendations.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Glauco Adrieno; Caldeira Filho, Milton; Vieira, Kalinca Daberkow; Zaclikevis, Viviane Renata; Bartz, Miriam Cristine Machado; Wanzuita, Raquel; Réa-Neto, Alvaro; Teixeira, Cassiano; Franke, Cristiano; Machado, Fernando Osni; Andrade, Joel de; Matos, Jorge Dias de; Gerent, Karine Becker; Fiorelli, Alfredo; Gonçalves, Anderson Ricardo Roman; Ferraz Neto, Ben-Hur; Dias, Fernando Suparregui; Carvalho, Frederico Bruzzi de; Costa, Gerson; Camargo, José Jesus; Teles, José Mário Meira; Maia, Marcelo; Nogara, Marcelo; Coelho, Maria Emília; Mazzali, Marilda; Youssef, Nazah Cherif Mohamad; Duarte, Péricles; Souza, Rafael Lisboa de; Fernandes, Rogério; Camargo, Spencer; Garcia, Valter Duro

    2011-12-01

    Brain death (BD) alters the pathophysiology of patients and may damage the kidneys, the lungs, the heart and the liver. To obtain better quality transplant organs, intensive care physicians in charge of the maintenance of deceased donors should attentively monitor these organs. Careful hemodynamic, ventilatory and bronchial clearance management minimizes the loss of kidneys and lungs. The evaluation of cardiac function and morphology supports the transplant viability assessment of the heart. The monitoring of liver function, the management of the patient's metabolic status and the evaluation of viral serology are fundamental for organ selection by the transplant teams and for the care of the transplant recipient.

  19. Building an organ-specific carcinogenic database for SAR analyses.

    PubMed

    Young, John; Tong, Weida; Fang, Hong; Xie, Qian; Pearce, Bruce; Hashemi, Ray; Beger, Richard; Cheeseman, Mitchell; Chen, James; Chang, Yuan-Chin; Kodell, Ralph

    2004-09-10

    FDA reviewers need a means to rapidly predict organ-specific carcinogenicity to aid in evaluating new chemicals submitted for approval. This research addressed the building of a database to use in developing a predictive model for such an application based on structure-activity relationships (SAR). The Internet availability of the Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) provided a solid foundation on which to base such a model. The addition of molecular structures to the CPDB provided the extra ingredient necessary for SAR analyses. However, the CPDB had to be compressed from a multirecord to a single record per chemical database; multiple records representing each gender, species, route of administration, and organ-specific toxicity had to be summarized into a single record for each study. Multiple studies on a single chemical had to be further reduced based on a hierarchical scheme. Structural cleanup involved removal of all chemicals that would impede the accurate generation of SAR type descriptors from commercial software programs; that is, inorganic chemicals, mixtures, and organometallics were removed. Counterions such as Na, K, sulfates, hydrates, and salts were also removed for structural consistency. Structural modification sometimes resulted in duplicate records that also had to be reduced to a single record based on the hierarchical scheme. The modified database containing 999 chemicals was evaluated for liver-specific carcinogenicity using a variety of analysis techniques. These preliminary analyses all yielded approximately the same results with an overall predictability of about 63%, which was comprised of a sensitivity of about 30% and a specificity of about 77%. Copyright Taylor & Francis Inc.

  20. Assessment of avionics technology in European aerospace organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinec, D. A.; Baumbick, Robert; Hitt, Ellis; Leondes, Cornelius; Mayton, Monica; Schwind, Joseph; Traybar, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the observations and recommendations made by a technical panel formed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The panel, comprising prominent experts in the avionics field, was tasked to visit various organizations in Europe to assess the level of technology planned for use in manufactured civil avionics in the future. The primary purpose of the study was to assess avionics systems planned for implementation or already employed on civil aircraft and to evaluate future research, development, and engineering (RD&E) programs, address avionic systems and aircraft programs. The ultimate goal is to ensure that the technology addressed by NASa programs is commensurate with the needs of the aerospace industry at an international level. The panel focused on specific technologies, including guidance and control systems, advanced cockpit displays, sensors and data networks, and fly-by-wire/fly-by-light systems. However, discussions the panel had with the European organizations were not limited to these topics.

  1. In vivo organ specific drug delivery with implantable peristaltic pumps.

    PubMed

    Speed, Joshua S; Hyndman, Kelly A

    2016-05-17

    Classic methods for delivery of agents to specific organs are technically challenging and causes superfluous stress. The current study describes a method using programmable, implantable peristaltic pumps to chronically deliver drugs in vivo, while allowing animals to remain undisturbed for accurate physiological measurements. In this study, two protocols were used to demonstrate accurate drug delivery to the renal medulla. First, the vasopressin receptor-2 agonist, dDAVP, was delivered to the renal medulla resulting in a significant increase in water retention, urine osmolality and aquaporin-2 expression and phosphorylation. Second, in a separate group of rats, the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, MS275, was delivered to the renal medulla. HDAC inhibition resulted in a significant increase in histone H3-acetylation, the hallmark for histone deacetylase inhibition. However, this was confined to the medulla, as the histone H3-acetylation was similar in the cortex of vehicle and MS275 infused rats, suggesting targeted drug delivery without systemic spillover. Thus, implantable, peristaltic pumps provide a number of benefits compared to externalized chronic catheters and confer specific delivery to target organs.

  2. In vivo organ specific drug delivery with implantable peristaltic pumps

    PubMed Central

    Speed, Joshua S.; Hyndman, Kelly A.

    2016-01-01

    Classic methods for delivery of agents to specific organs are technically challenging and causes superfluous stress. The current study describes a method using programmable, implantable peristaltic pumps to chronically deliver drugs in vivo, while allowing animals to remain undisturbed for accurate physiological measurements. In this study, two protocols were used to demonstrate accurate drug delivery to the renal medulla. First, the vasopressin receptor-2 agonist, dDAVP, was delivered to the renal medulla resulting in a significant increase in water retention, urine osmolality and aquaporin-2 expression and phosphorylation. Second, in a separate group of rats, the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, MS275, was delivered to the renal medulla. HDAC inhibition resulted in a significant increase in histone H3-acetylation, the hallmark for histone deacetylase inhibition. However, this was confined to the medulla, as the histone H3-acetylation was similar in the cortex of vehicle and MS275 infused rats, suggesting targeted drug delivery without systemic spillover. Thus, implantable, peristaltic pumps provide a number of benefits compared to externalized chronic catheters and confer specific delivery to target organs. PMID:27185292

  3. Lexical–Semantic Organization in Children With Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Li; McGregor, Karla K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) show deficits in lexical–semantic organization and, if so, whether these deficits are commensurate with their delay in vocabulary size and whether the deficits affect all children with SLI. Method Fourteen children with SLI, 14 age matches (AM), and 14 expressive vocabulary matches (VM) generated 3 associations to each of 48 words. Associations were coded as semantic (e.g., dog–pet), clang (e.g., cow–how), or erroneous (e.g., spoon–Disney). Results Relative to the AM children, children with SLI produced fewer semantic responses, more clangs, and more errors. Relative to the VM children, fewer semantic responses and more errors in the children with SLI were found in by-item analyses. Across elicitation trials, semantic responses decreased in the AM and VM children but remained stable in the SLI children. Examination of individual performance in the SLI group revealed that poor semantic performance was associated with a deficit in expressive vocabulary and a gap between receptive and expressive vocabularies. Conclusions Significant variability in lexical–semantic organization skills exists among children with SLI. Deficits in lexical–semantic organization were demonstrated by a subgroup of children with SLI who likely had concomitant word-finding difficulties. PMID:20150406

  4. Prostate-Specific Antigen: Nonspecific in Deceased Organ Donors.

    PubMed

    Pabisiak, K; Ostrowski, M; Kram, A; Safranow, K; Myślak, M; Sieńko, J; Sulikowski, T; Ciechanowski, K

    2016-06-01

    Currently, there is no clear position regarding the donation of organs from donors with prostate carcinoma (CaP) in European countries, except Italy. The lengthening of life expectancy increases the probability of prostate cancer among potential organ donors. The concentration of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) >2 ng/mL at 60 years of age is related to the increasing possibility of identifying an advanced form of CaP. In recent years in Poland, the recommendation has been to determine tumor markers in potential donors. In the first year of the recommendation, 10% of potential male cadaveric donors were disqualified in West Pomerania, Poland, on the basis of elevated PSA levels (>10 ng/mL). To avoid reduction of the actual donor pool, each potential male donor reported to the center since January 2010 undergoes a routine histologic evaluation of the whole prostate, regardless of the PSA level, before organ implantation. In the study group (N = 52), histopathologic evaluation revealed 6 cases of CaP (12%). In CaP positive group Gleason score range from 2+2 to 3+4. In CaP donors PSA level have been noticed in range 1.79 ng/mL - 7.66 ng/mL. There was no correlation between histologically confirmed CaP and the PSA level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Organ-Specific and Memory Treg Cells: Specificity, Development, Function, and Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Gratz, Iris K.; Campbell, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg cells) are essential for establishing and maintaining self-tolerance, and also inhibit immune responses to innocuous environmental antigens. Imbalances and dysfunction in Treg cells lead to a variety of immune-mediated diseases, as deficits in Treg cell function contribute to the development autoimmune disease and pathological tissue damage, whereas overabundance of Treg cells can promote chronic infection and tumorigenesis. Recent studies have highlighted the fact that Treg cells themselves are a diverse collection of phenotypically and functionally specialized populations, with distinct developmental origins, antigen-specificities, tissue-tropisms, and homeostatic requirements. The signals directing the differentiation of these populations, their specificities and the mechanisms by which they combine to promote organ-specific and systemic tolerance, and how they embody the emerging property of regulatory memory are the focus of this review. PMID:25076948

  6. DEVELOP NEW TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON/SPECIFIC UV ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of this project is to provide a total organic carbon (TOC)/specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) method that will be used by the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water (OGWDW) to support monitoring requirements of the Stage 2 Disinfectant/Disinfection By-products (D/DBP) Rule. The Stage 2 Rule requires that enhanced water treatment be used if the source water is high in aquatic organic matter prior to the application of a disinfectant. Disinfectants (chlorine, ozone, etc.) are used in the production of drinking water in order to reduce the risk of microbial disease. These disinfectants react with the organic material that is naturally present in the source water to form disinfection by-products (DBPs). Exposure to some of these by-products may pose a long term health risk. The number and nature of DBPs make it impossible to fully characterize all of the by-products formed during the treatment of drinking water and it is more cost effective to reduce formation of DBPs than to remove them from the water after they are formed. Two measurements (TOC and SUVA) are believed to be predictive of the amount of by-products that can be formed during the disinfection of drinking water and are considered to be surrogates for DBP precursors. SUVA is calculated as the ultraviolet absorption at 254nm (UV254) in cm-1 divided by the mg/L dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration (measured after filtration of the water through a 0.45um pore-diameter filte

  7. Assessing the bioaccumulation potential of ionizable organic ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The objective of the present study is to review current knowledge regarding the bioaccumulation potential of IOCs, with a focus on the availability of empirical data for fish. Aspects of the bioaccumulation potential of IOCs in fish that can be characterized relatively well include the pH-dependence of gill uptake and elimination, uptake in the gut, and sorption to phospholipids (membrane-water partitioning). Key challenges include the lack of empirical data for biotransformation and binding in plasma. Fish possess a diverse array of proteins which may transport IOCs across cell membranes. Except in a few cases, however, the significance of this transport for uptake and accumulation of environmental contaminants is unknown. Two case studies are presented. The first describes modeled effects of pH and biotransformation on bioconcentration of organic acids and bases, while the second employs an updated model to investigate factors responsible for accumulation of perfluoroalkylated acids (PFAA). The PFAA case study is notable insofar as it illustrates the likely importance of membrane transporters in the kidney and highlights the potential value of read across approaches. Recognizing the current need to perform bioaccumulation hazard assessments and ecological and exposure risk assessment for IOCs, we provide a tiered strategy that progresses (as needed) from conservative assumptions (models and associated data) to more sophisticated models requiring chemical-speci

  8. Vitamin D in systemic and organ-specific autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Theodor, Emanuel; Segal, Ramit Maoz; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2013-10-01

    Lately, vitamin D has been linked with metabolic and immunological processes, which established its role as an essential component of human health preservation. Vitamin D has been defined as natural immune modulators, and upon activation of its receptors (VDRs), it regulates calcium metabolism, cellular growth, proliferation and apoptosis, and other immunological functions. Epidemiological data underline a strong correlation between poor vitamin D status and higher risk for chronic inflammatory illnesses of various etiologies, including autoimmune diseases. Epidemiological, genetic, and basic studies indicated a potential role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of certain systemic and organ-specific autoimmune diseases. These studies demonstrate correlation between low vitamin D and prevalence of diseases. In addition, VDRs' polymorphisms observed in some of these autoimmune diseases may further support a plausible pathogenic link. Notably, for some autoimmune disease, no correlation with vitamin D levels could be confirmed. Thus, in the current review we present the body of evidence regarding the plausible roles of vitamin D and VDR's polymorphism in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. We summarize the data regarding systemic (i.e., systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, etc.) and organ-specific (i.e., multiple sclerosis, diabetes mellitus, primary biliary cirrhosis, etc.) autoimmune diseases, in which low level of vitamin D was found comparing to healthy subjects. In addition, we discuss the correlations between vitamin D levels and clinical manifestations and/or activity of diseases. In this context, we address the rational for vitamin D supplementation in patients suffering from autoimmune diseases. Further studies addressing the mechanisms by which vitamin D affects autoimmunity and the proper supplementation required are needed.

  9. Organ-specificity of placebo effects on blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Meissner, Karin; Ziep, Dagmar

    2011-10-28

    There is increasing evidence that verbal suggestions accompanying placebo interventions can alter autonomic functions. The underlying mechanisms of these changes are not well understood. However, previous studies point at the specificity of such effects. The aim of the experiment was to lower blood pressure by a placebo intervention and to investigate the specificity of autonomic changes. Forty-five healthy participants received a single administration of an active drug (a homeopathic remedy), an identically-looking placebo drug, or no drug. Active drugs and placebo drugs were administered in a double-blind design and were accompanied by verbal suggestions of a blood-pressure lowering effect. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, the electrocardiogram, electrodermal activity, and the electrogastrogram were recorded during 30min before and after the intervention, and changes in situational anxiety were assessed. Results indicated a decrease of systolic blood pressure in the placebo group, as compared to the control group. Diastolic blood pressure levels, heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, skin conductance, gastric slow-wave frequency and situational anxiety did not change differentially between groups. In conclusion, the reduction in systolic blood pressure following the placebo intervention could not be attributed to stress relief or anxiety reduction. Rather, results suggest that the placebo intervention specifically reduced systolic blood pressure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Radiation exposure and risk assessment for critical female body organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, William; Weyland, Mark D.; Hardy, Alva C.

    1991-01-01

    Space radiation exposure limits for astronauts are based on recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. These limits now include the age at exposure and sex of the astronaut. A recently-developed computerized anatomical female (CAF) model is discussed in detail. Computer-generated, cross-sectional data are presented to illustrate the completeness of the CAF model. By applying ray-tracing techniques, shield distribution functions have been computed to calculate absorbed dose and dose equivalent values for a variety of critical body organs (e.g., breasts, lungs, thyroid gland, etc.) and mission scenarios. Specific risk assessments, i.e., cancer induction and mortality, are reviewed.

  11. Radiation exposure and risk assessment for critical female body organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, William; Weyland, Mark D.; Hardy, Alva C.

    1991-01-01

    Space radiation exposure limits for astronauts are based on recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. These limits now include the age at exposure and sex of the astronaut. A recently-developed computerized anatomical female (CAF) model is discussed in detail. Computer-generated, cross-sectional data are presented to illustrate the completeness of the CAF model. By applying ray-tracing techniques, shield distribution functions have been computed to calculate absorbed dose and dose equivalent values for a variety of critical body organs (e.g., breasts, lungs, thyroid gland, etc.) and mission scenarios. Specific risk assessments, i.e., cancer induction and mortality, are reviewed.

  12. Organ-specific scaffolds for in vitro expansion, differentiation, and organization of primary lung cells.

    PubMed

    Shamis, Yulia; Hasson, Eilat; Soroker, Avigail; Bassat, Elad; Shimoni, Yael; Ziv, Tamar; Sionov, Ronit Vogt; Mitrani, Eduardo

    2011-08-01

    In light of the increasing need for differentiated primary cells for cell therapy and the rapid dedifferentiation occurring during standard in vitro cultivation techniques, there is an urgent need for developing three-dimensional in vitro systems in which expanded cells display in vivo-like differentiated phenotypes. It is becoming clear that the natural microenvironment provides the optimal conditions for achieving this aim. To this end, we prepared natural decellularized scaffolds of microscopic dimensions that would allow appropriate diffusion of gases and nutrients to all seeded cells. Scaffolds from either the lung or the liver were analyzed for their ability to support growth and differentiation of progenitor alveolar cells and hepatocytes. We observed that progenitor alveolar cells that have been expanded on plastic culture and thus dedifferentiated grew within the lung-derived scaffolds into highly organized structures and regained differentiation markers classical for type I and type II alveolar cells. The cells generated proper alveolar structures, and only 15%-30% of them secreted surfactant proteins in a localized manner for extended periods. Vice versa, liver-derived scaffolds supported the differentiation state of primary hepatocytes. We further demonstrate that the natural scaffolds are organ specific, that is, only cells derived from the same organ become properly differentiated. A proteomic analysis shows significant different composition of lung and liver scaffolds, for example, decorin, thrombospondin 1, vimentin, and various laminin isoforms are especially enriched in the lung. Altogether, our data demonstrate that complex interactions between the seeded cells and a highly organized, organ-specific stroma are required for proper localized cell differentiation. Thus, our novel in vitro culture system can be used for ex vivo differentiation and organization of expanded primary cells.

  13. The Connectivity Between Site-Specific Life Cycle Impact Assessment and Site-Specific Weighting

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of many LCIAs is to come to a single score with all of the impacts from a wide variety of impact assessments weighted to form this single score. My past experiences with developing site-specific impact assessment methodologies and how this can change the valuation porti...

  14. The Connectivity Between Site-Specific Life Cycle Impact Assessment and Site-Specific Weighting

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of many LCIAs is to come to a single score with all of the impacts from a wide variety of impact assessments weighted to form this single score. My past experiences with developing site-specific impact assessment methodologies and how this can change the valuation porti...

  15. Identification and chemical characterization of specific organic constituents of petrochemical effluents.

    PubMed

    Botalova, Oxana; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Frauenrath, Tom; Dsikowitzky, Larissa

    2009-08-01

    Based on extensive GC/MS screening analyses, the molecular diversity of petrochemical effluents discharged to a river in North Rhine-Westphalia was characterised. Within a wide spectrum of organic wastewater constituents, specific compounds that might act as source indicators have been determined. This differentiation was based on (i) the individual molecular structures, (ii) the quantitative appearance of organic compounds in treated effluents and (iii) the information on their general occurrence in the technosphere and hydrosphere. Principally, site-specific indicators have been distinguished from candidates to act as general petrochemical indicators. Further on, monitoring the environmental behaviour of target organic contaminants in an aquatic system shortly after their release into the river allowed a first evaluation of the impact of the petrogenic emission in terms of the quantity and spatial distribution. The identification of petrogenic contaminants was not restricted to constituents of the effluents only, but comprised the compounds circulating in the wastewater systems within a petrochemical plant. A number of environmentally relevant and structurally specific substances that are normally eliminated by wastewater treatment facilities were identified. Insufficient wastewater treatment, careless waste handling or accidents at industrial complexes are potential sources for a single release of the pollutants. This study demonstrates the relevance of source specific organic indicators to be an important tool for comprehensive assessment of the potential impact of petrochemical activities to the contamination of an aquatic environment.

  16. Assessing and Improving Student Organizations: A Guide for Students. The Assessing and Improving Student Organization (AISO) Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruben, Brent D.; Nolfi, Tricia

    2010-01-01

    This "Assessing and Improving Student Organization" (AISO) program is intended as a guide for leaders of student-led college organizations. It is designed to promote the assessment of their organization by leaders and members, help them with planning and improvement, and assist them in responding to reviews by governing bodies and national…

  17. An organ-specific view on non-host resistance

    PubMed Central

    Strugala, Roxana; Delventhal, Rhoda; Schaffrath, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Non-host resistance (NHR) is the resistance of plants to a plethora of non-adapted pathogens and is considered as one of the most robust resistance mechanisms of plants. Studies have shown that the efficiency of resistance in general and NHR in particular could vary in different plant organs, thus pointing to tissue-specific determinants. This was exemplified by research on host and non-host interactions of the fungal plant pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae with rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. Thus, rice roots were shown to be impaired in resistance to M. oryzae isolates to which leaves of the same rice cultivar are highly resistant. Moreover, roots of Arabidopsis are also accessible to penetration by M. oryzae while leaves of this non-host plant cannot be infected. We addressed the question whether or not other plant tissues such as the reproductive system also differ in NHR compared to leaves. Inoculation experiments on wheat with different Magnaporthe species forming either a host or non-host type of interaction revealed that NHR was as effective on spikes as on leaves. This finding might pave the way for combatting M. oryzae disease on wheat spikes which has become a serious threat especially in South America. PMID:26257747

  18. Cell Type-Specific Modulation of Respiratory Chain Supercomplex Organization

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dayan; Li, Bin; Qiu, Ruyi; Fang, Hezhi; Lyu, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory chain complexes are organized into large supercomplexes among which supercomplex In + IIIn + IVn is the only one that can directly transfer electrons from NADH to oxygen. Recently, it was reported that the formation of supercomplex In + IIIn + IVn in mice largely depends on their genetic background. However, in this study, we showed that the composition of supercomplex In + IIIn + IVn is well conserved in various mouse and human cell lines. Strikingly, we found that a minimal supercomplex In + IIIn, termed “lowest supercomplex” (LSC) in this study because of its migration at the lowest position close to complex V dimers in blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was associated with complex IV to form a supercomplex In + IIIn + IVn in some, but not all of the human and mouse cells. In addition, we observed that the 3697G>A mutation in mitochondrial-encoded NADH dehydrogenase 1 (ND1) in one patient with Leigh’s disease specifically affected the assembly of supercomplex In + IIIn + IVn containing LSC, leading to decreased cellular respiration and ATP generation. In conclusion, we showed the existence of LSC In + IIIn + IVn and impairment of this supercomplex causes disease. PMID:27338358

  19. Systemically Administered, Target Organ-Specific Therapies for Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Järvinen, Tero A. H.; May, Ulrike; Prince, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Growth factors and other agents that could potentially enhance tissue regeneration have been identified, but their therapeutic value in clinical medicine has been limited for reasons such as difficulty to maintain bioactivity of locally applied therapeutics in the protease-rich environment of regenerating tissues. Although human diseases are treated with systemically administered drugs in general, all current efforts aimed at enhancing tissue repair with biological drugs have been based on their local application. The systemic administration of growth factors has been ruled out due to concerns about their safety. These concerns are warranted. In addition, only a small proportion of systemically administered drugs reach their intended target. Selective delivery of the drug to the target tissue and use of functional protein domains capable of penetrating cells and tissues could alleviate these problems in certain circumstances. We will present in this review a novel approach utilizing unique molecular fingerprints (“Zip/postal codes”) in the vasculature of regenerating tissues that allows target organ-specific delivery of systemically administered therapeutic molecules by affinity-based physical targeting (using peptides or antibodies as an “address tag”) to injured tissues undergoing repair. The desired outcome of targeted therapies is increased local accumulation and lower systemic concentration of the therapeutic payload. We believe that the physical targeting of systemically administered therapeutic molecules could be rapidly adapted in the field of regenerative medicine. PMID:26437400

  20. High Performance Organ-Specific Nuclear Medicine Imagers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, Stan

    2006-04-01

    One of the exciting applications of nuclear science is nuclear medicine. Well-known diagnostic imaging tools such as PET and SPECT (as well as MRI) were developed as spin-offs of basic scientific research in atomic and nuclear physics. Development of modern instrumentation for applications in particle physics experiments offers an opportunity to contribute to development of improved nuclear medicine (gamma and positron) imagers, complementing the present set of standard imaging tools (PET, SPECT, MRI, ultrasound, fMRI, MEG, etc). Several examples of new high performance imagers developed in national laboratories in collaboration with academia will be given to demonstrate this spin-off activity. These imagers are designed to specifically image organs such as breast, heart, head (brain), or prostate. The remaining and potentially most important challenging application field for dedicated nuclear medicine imagers is to assist with cancer radiation treatments. Better control of radiation dose delivery requires development of new compact in-situ imagers becoming integral parts of the radiation delivery systems using either external beams or based on radiation delivery by inserting or injecting radioactive sources (gamma, beta or alpha emitters) into tumors.

  1. Cellular organization of cortical barrel columns is whisker-specific.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Hanno S; Egger, Robert; Guest, Jason M; Foerster, Rita; Reissl, Stefan; Oberlaender, Marcel

    2013-11-19

    The cellular organization of the cortex is of fundamental importance for elucidating the structural principles that underlie its functions. It has been suggested that reconstructing the structure and synaptic wiring of the elementary functional building block of mammalian cortices, the cortical column, might suffice to reverse engineer and simulate the functions of entire cortices. In the vibrissal area of rodent somatosensory cortex, whisker-related "barrel" columns have been referred to as potential cytoarchitectonic equivalents of functional cortical columns. Here, we investigated the structural stereotypy of cortical barrel columns by measuring the 3D neuronal composition of the entire vibrissal area in rat somatosensory cortex and thalamus. We found that the number of neurons per cortical barrel column and thalamic "barreloid" varied substantially within individual animals, increasing by ∼2.5-fold from dorsal to ventral whiskers. As a result, the ratio between whisker-specific thalamic and cortical neurons was remarkably constant. Thus, we hypothesize that the cellular architecture of sensory cortices reflects the degree of similarity in sensory input and not columnar and/or cortical uniformity principles.

  2. Incidence rate of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis on conventional and organic Canadian dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Levison, L J; Miller-Cushon, E K; Tucker, A L; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Barkema, H W; DeVries, T J

    2016-02-01

    Mastitis is a common and costly production disease on dairy farms. In Canada, the incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM) has been determined for conventionally managed dairy farms; however, no studies to date have assessed rates in organically managed systems. The objectives of this observational study were (1) to determine the producer-reported IRCM and predominant pathogen types on conventional and organic dairy farms in Southern Ontario, Canada, and (2) to evaluate the association of both mean overall IRCM and pathogen-specific IRCM with management system, housing type, and pasture access. Data from 59 dairy farms in Southern Ontario, Canada, distributed across conventional (n=41) and organic management (n=18) systems, were collected from April 2011 to May 2012. In addition to management system, farms were categorized by housing method (loose or tie-stall) and pasture access for lactating cows. Participating producers identified and collected samples from 936 cases of clinical mastitis. The most frequently isolated mastitis pathogens were coagulase-negative staphylococci, Bacillus spp., Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. The IRCM was higher on conventional farms than organic (23.7 vs. 13.2 cases per 100 cow-years) and was not associated with housing type (loose or tie-stall), pasture access, or herd-average milk yield. Bulk tank somatic cell count tended to be lower on conventional farms than organic (222,000 vs. 272,000 cells/mL). Pathogen-specific IRCM attributed to Staph. aureus, Bacillus spp., and E. coli was greater on conventional than organic farms, but was not associated with housing or any other factors. In conclusion, organic management was associated with reduced overall and pathogen-specific IRCM.

  3. Ambulatory assessment in panic disorder and specific phobia.

    PubMed

    Alpers, Georg W

    2009-12-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent mental disorders. In panic disorder, panic attacks often occur at unpredictable times, making it difficult to study these episodes in the laboratory. In specific phobias, symptoms occur in very circumscribed situations and specific triggers are sometimes difficult to reproduce in the laboratory. Ambulatory assessment, or ecological momentary assessment, can further the understanding of the natural course and scope of symptoms under ecologically valid circumstances. Because bodily symptoms are integral to the diagnosis of anxiety disorders, the objective assessment of physiological responses in the patients' natural environment is particularly important. On the one hand, research has highlighted intriguing discrepancies between the experience of symptoms and physiology during panic attacks. On the other hand, it has validated symptom reporting during therapeutic exposure to phobic situations. Therefore, ambulatory assessment can yield useful information about the psychopathology of anxiety disorders, and it can be used to monitor change during clinical interventions.

  4. Organ-specific proteome analysis for identification of abiotic stress response mechanism in crop.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Setsuko; Hossain, Zahed

    2013-01-01

    Abiotic stresses, such as flooding, drought, salinity, and high/low temperatures, are the major constraints that global crop production faces at present. Plants respond to a stress by modulating abundance of candidate proteins, either by up-regulating expression or by the synthesizing novel proteins primarily associated with plant defense system. The cellular mechanisms of stress sensing and signal transduction into cellular organelles have been reported. Nevertheless, the responses of plant cells to abiotic stresses differ in each organ. As the correlation between the expression of mRNAs and the abundance of their corresponding proteins is difficult to assess in specific organs, proteomics techniques provide one of the best options for the functional analysis of translated regions of the genome. The present review summarizes the organ-specific proteome analyses for better understanding of the response mechanisms of crops to abiotic stresses, including flooding, drought, and salinity. The differential organ-specific responses against each of these stresses are discussed in detail to provide new insights into plant stress response mechanisms at protein level.

  5. Modified head shake sensory organization test: Sensitivity and specificity.

    PubMed

    Honaker, Julie A; Janky, Kristen L; Patterson, Jessie N; Shepard, Neil T

    2016-09-01

    The Sensory Organization Test (SOT) of Computerized Dynamic Posturography (EquiTest™ equipment) is a valuable tool for investigating how an individual uses balance system sensory input (vestibular, vision, proprioception/somatosensory) to maintain quiet stance; however, it is limited as a screening tool for identifying peripheral vestibular system dysfunction. Previous research has shown that adding horizontal head-shake to portions of the standard SOT battery improved the identification of peripheral vestibular system asymmetry; however, flaws in the methods were noted. The objective of this work was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the modified head-shake SOT (HS-SOT) protocol for identification of peripheral vestibular system lesion. Fifteen patients with chief complaint of instability, vertigo, and/or lightheadedness, with and without a caloric unilateral weakness (UW) and fifteen age-matched healthy controls were included in the final analysis. Ten of the 15 patients demonstrated a caloric UW≥25%. Participants completed standard conditions 2 and 5 of SOT with head still and during four horizontal head-shaking tasks (i.e., HS-SOT2-60°/s, HS-SOT2-120°/s, HS-SOT5-15°/s, and HS-SOT5-60°/s). Average equilibrium scores decreased as condition difficulty increased (SOT2, HS-SOT2-60°/s, HS-SOT2-120°/s, SOT 5, HS-SOT5-15°/s, and HS-SOT5-60°/s) for each group; as expected, a lower decline was noted for controls (slope=-6.59) compared to patients (slope=-11.69). The HS-SOT5-15°/s condition was superior for identifying peripheral vestibular asymmetry (AUC=0.90 sensitivity=70%, specificity=100%), with the strongest correlation to caloric UW% (rs=-0.743, p=0.000006). HS-SOT5-15°/s appears to be a promising screening measure for peripheral vestibular asymmetry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The assessment and treatment of specific phobias: a review.

    PubMed

    Grös, Daniel F; Antony, Martin M

    2006-08-01

    Specific phobia is one of the most common and easily treated mental disorders. In this review, empirically supported assessment and treatment procedures for specific phobia are discussed. Exposure-based treatments in particular are highlighted given their demonstrated effectiveness for this condition. The format and characteristics of exposure-based treatment and predictors of treatment response are outlined to provide recommendations for maximizing outcome. In addition, several other treatments for specific phobia are reviewed and critiqued, including cognitive therapy, virtual reality, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, applied tension, and pharmacologic treatments. The review concludes with a discussion of future directions for research.

  7. Discrepancy Dinosaurs and the Evolution of Specific Learning Disability Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moores-Abdool, Whitney; Unzueta, Caridad H.; Vazquez Donet, Dolores; Bijlsma, Eduard

    2008-01-01

    Identifying Specific Learning Disability (SLD) has been an arduous task. Until IDEA 2004, diagnosing SLD was limited to IQ discrepancy models lacking in both empirical evidence and contributing to minority over-representation. This paper examines the history of SLD assessment, the phenomena of minority over-representation, and the implementation…

  8. (CHINA) PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide range of perfluorinated organic compounds (PFCs) has been used in a variety of industrial processes and consumer products. The most commonly studied PFCs include perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), but there are many more compounds in this c...

  9. PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide range of perfluorinated organic compounds (PFCs) has been used in a variety of industrial processes and consumer products. The most commonly studied PFCs include perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), but there are many more compounds in this c...

  10. PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide range of perfluorinated organic compounds (PFCs) has been used in a variety of industrial processes and consumer products. The most commonly studied PFCs include perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), but there are many more compounds in this c...

  11. (CHINA) PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide range of perfluorinated organic compounds (PFCs) has been used in a variety of industrial processes and consumer products. The most commonly studied PFCs include perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), but there are many more compounds in this c...

  12. Radiation exposure and risk assessment for critical female body organs

    SciTech Connect

    Atwell, W.; Weyland, M.D.; Hardy, A.C. NASA, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX )

    1991-07-01

    Space radiation exposure limits for astronauts are based on recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. These limits now include the age at exposure and sex of the astronaut. A recently-developed computerized anatomical female (CAF) model is discussed in detail. Computer-generated, cross-sectional data are presented to illustrate the completeness of the CAF model. By applying ray-tracing techniques, shield distribution functions have been computed to calculate absorbed dose and dose equivalent values for a variety of critical body organs (e.g., breasts, lungs, thyroid gland, etc.) and mission scenarios. Specific risk assessments, i.e., cancer induction and mortality, are reviewed. 13 refs.

  13. Environmental risk assessment for medicinal products containing genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Anliker, B; Longhurst, S; Buchholz, C J

    2010-01-01

    Many gene therapy medicinal products and also some vaccines consist of, or contain, genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which require specific consideration in the environmental risk assessment (ERA) before marketing authorisation or clinical trial applications. The ERA is performed in order to identify the potential risks for public health and the environment, which may arise due to the clinical use of these medicinal products. If such environmental risks are identified and considered as not acceptable, the ERA should go on to propose appropriate risk management strategies capable to reduce these risks. This article will provide an overview of the legal basis and requirements for the ERA of GMO-containing medicinal products in the context of marketing authorisation in the EU and clinical trials in Germany. Furthermore, the scientific principles and methodology that generally need to be followed when preparing an ERA for GMOs are discussed.

  14. Organ-specific control of glycolysis in anoxic turtles.

    PubMed

    Kelly, D A; Storey, K B

    1988-11-01

    Control of glycolysis during anoxia was investigated in five organs (heart, brain, liver, and red and white skeletal muscles) of the freshwater turtle, Pseudemys scripta, after 1 or 5 h of submergence in N2-bubbled water. Lactate was produced as the metabolic end product, with distinct organ differences in the amount (net lactate accumulation was 2.4-fold higher in brain than white muscle) and rate (lactate production in liver dropped 16-fold after the 1st h) of lactate accumulation. ATP and total adenylate contents of all organs were reduced (by 15-32%) after 1 h of submergence, but energy charge was maintained; after 5 h, adenylate contents had fully recovered. Changes in the levels of hexose and triose phosphate intermediates of glycolysis indicated an activation of glycolysis within the 1st h of anoxia exposure in brain, heart, and skeletal muscles. By 5 h, however, these were reversed, and a glycolytic rate depression was indicated, consistent with the overall metabolic rate depression accompanying long-term anaerobiosis in the turtle. Crossover analysis indicated glycolytic control at the pyruvate kinase reaction in all organs during both glycolytic activation and metabolic depression; regulatory control at the phosphofructokinase locus was primarily important only during glycolytic activation in heart and red muscle. The same analysis indicated a very rapid glycolytic inhibition in liver occurring within the 1st h of anoxia exposure; this allows glycogenolysis to be directed toward glucose export yielding the fermentative fuel used by other organs during anoxia.

  15. Organ-specific antibodies in LADA patients for the prediction of insulin dependence.

    PubMed

    Delitala, Alessandro P; Pes, Giovanni M; Fanciulli, Giuseppe; Maioli, Margherita; Secchi, Giannina; Sanciu, Franca; Delitala, Giuseppe; Manetti, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to define the frequency of organ-specific and non-organ-specific autoantibodies in a cohort of Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA) patients and to test whether multiple antibodies positivity could be a predictor of early insulin dependence. We enrolled 210 LADA and 210 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) patients. In all subjects anti-islet antigen-2 (IA-2Ab), anti-thyroperoxidase (TPOAb), anti-zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8Ab), anti-nuclear (ANA), anti-parietal cell (APCA), anti-smooth muscle (ASMA), anti-mitochondrial (AMA), anti-liver kidney microsomes (LKM), and anti-reticulin (ARA) circulating antibodies were assessed. The frequency of TPOAb, ZnT8Ab, APCA, and IA-2Ab positivity was, respectively, detected in 40.0%, 32.4%, 24.7%, and 9.5% of LADA patients, whereas their frequency was significantly lower in T2D patients (11.4%, 1.9%, 9.5%, and 0.0%, respectively, p < 0.001). The frequency of ANA was the same in both groups whereas the frequency of ASMA, ARA, AMA, and LKM was very low (range 0.0-3.3%). The presence of TPOAb associated with ZnT8Ab, IA-2Ab, or APCA allows one to predict the progression of disease with a high specificity but low sensibility. LADA patients show an increased frequency of organ- and non-organ-specific antibodies. Consequently, a screening is worthwhile in these patients. The simultaneous presence of TPOAb with ZnT8, IA-2Ab, or APCA may help differentiate clinical phenotypes and predict faster insulin dependence in LADA patients.

  16. Brine organisms and the question of habitat-specific adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, B. Z.; Siegel, S. M.; Speitel, T.; Waber, J.; Stoecker, R.

    1984-01-01

    The question of adaptivity to extremely saline water environments is discussed, with attention given to the evolutionary performance of four common organisms including Cladonia skottsbergii, Penicillium notatum, Nostoc, and Dunaliella salina. Samples of each organism were collected and subjected to experimental conditions similar to extreme marine and limnetic environments in the Dead Sea and Don Juan Pond in the upper Wright valley of Antarctica. Measurements were made of isotope uptake and carbon dioxide production, and photoautotrophs were taken. It is found that all of the organisms responded quickly to the need to adapt to the extreme environments. It is concluded that a degree of uncertainty exists in the perception that the abundance of bulk water on the earth is in itself essential for life.

  17. Brine organisms and the question of habitat-specific adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, B. Z.; Siegel, S. M.; Speitel, T.; Waber, J.; Stoecker, R.

    1984-01-01

    The question of adaptivity to extremely saline water environments is discussed, with attention given to the evolutionary performance of four common organisms including Cladonia skottsbergii, Penicillium notatum, Nostoc, and Dunaliella salina. Samples of each organism were collected and subjected to experimental conditions similar to extreme marine and limnetic environments in the Dead Sea and Don Juan Pond in the upper Wright valley of Antarctica. Measurements were made of isotope uptake and carbon dioxide production, and photoautotrophs were taken. It is found that all of the organisms responded quickly to the need to adapt to the extreme environments. It is concluded that a degree of uncertainty exists in the perception that the abundance of bulk water on the earth is in itself essential for life.

  18. Pu-239 organ specific dosimetric model applied to non-human biota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspar, Matthew Jason

    There are few locations throughout the world, like the Maralinga nuclear test site located in south western Australia, where sufficient plutonium contaminate concentration levels exist that they can be utilized for studies of the long-term radionuclide accumulation in non-human biota. The information obtained will be useful for the potential human users of the site while also keeping with international efforts to better understand doses to non-human biota. In particular, this study focuses primarily on a rabbit sample set collected from the population located within the site. Our approach is intended to employ the same dose and dose rate methods selected by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and adapted by the scientific community for similar research questions. These models rely on a series of simplifying assumptions on biota and their geometry; in particular; organisms are treated as spherical and ellipsoidal representations displaying the animal mass and volume. These simplifications assume homogeneity of all animal tissues. In collaborative efforts between Colorado State University and the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), we are expanding current knowledge on radionuclide accumulation in specific organs causing organ-specific dose rates, such as Pu-239 accumulating in bone, liver, and lungs. Organ-specific dose models have been developed for humans; however, little has been developed for the dose assessment to biota, in particular rabbits. This study will determine if it is scientifically valid to use standard software, in particular ERICA Tool, as a means to determine organ-specific dosimetry due to Pu-239 accumulation in organs. ERICA Tool is normally applied to whole organisms as a means to determine radiological risk to whole ecosystems. We will focus on the aquatic model within ERICA Tool, as animal organs, like aquatic organisms, can be assumed to lie within an infinite uniform medium. This model would

  19. Assessing Cell and Organ Senescence Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes de Jesus, Bruno; Blasco, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    A major goal in cancer and aging research is to discriminate the biochemical modifications that happen locally that could account for the healthiness or malignancy of tissues. Senescence is one general antiproliferative cellular process that acts as a strong barrier for cancer progression, playing a crucial role in aging. Here, we focus on the current methods to assess cellular senescence, discriminating the advantages and disadvantages of several senescence biomarkers. PMID:22723221

  20. Automatic Severity Assessment of Dysarthria using State-Specific Vectors.

    PubMed

    Sriranjani, R; Umesh, S; Reddy, M Ramasubba

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach to assess the severity of the dysarthria using state-specific vector (SSV) of phone-cluster adaptive training (phone-CAT) acoustic modeling technique is proposed. The dominant component of the SSV represents the actual pronunciations of a speaker. Comparing the dominant component for unimpaired and each dysarthric speaker, a phone confusion matrix is formed. The diagonal elements of the matrix capture the number of correct pronunciations for each dysarthric speaker. As the degree of impairment increases, the number of phones correctly pronounced by the speaker decreases. Thus the trace of the confusion matrix can be used as objective cue to assess di?erent severity levels of dysarthria based on a threshold rule. Our proposed objective measure correlates with the standard Frenchay dysarthric assessment scores by 74 % on Nemours database. The measure also correlates with the intelligibility scores by 82 % on universal access dysarthric speech database.

  1. Occurrence of a specific dual symbiosis in the excretory organ of geographically distant Nautiloids populations.

    PubMed

    Pernice, Mathieu; Boucher-Rodoni, Renata

    2012-10-01

    Nautilus is one of the most intriguing of all sea creatures, sharing morphological similarities with the extinct forms of coiled cephalopods that evolved since the Cambrian (542-488 mya). Further, bacterial symbioses found in their excretory organ are of particular interest as they provide a great opportunity to investigate the influence of host-microbe interactions upon the origin and evolution of an innovative nitrogen excretory system. To establish the potential of Nautilus excretory organ as a new symbiotic system, it is, however, necessary to assess the specificity of this symbiosis and whether it is consistent within the different species of present-day Nautiloids. By addressing the phylogeny and distribution of bacterial symbionts in three Nautilus populations separated by more than 6000 km (N. pompilius from Philippines and Vanuatu, and N. macromphalus from New Caledonia), this study confirms the specificity of this dual symbiosis involving the presence of betaproteobacteria and spirochaete symbionts on a very wide geographical area. Overall, this work sheds further light on Nautiloids excretory organ as an innovative system of interaction between bacteria and cephalopods.

  2. Soil organic matter stability as indicated by compound-specific radiocarbon analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Voort, Tessa Sophia; Zell, Claudia; Hagedorn, Frank; McIntyre, Cameron; Eglinton, Timothy Ian

    2017-04-01

    Carbon storage in soils is increasingly recognized as a key ecosystem function, and molecular-level analyses could be a valuable potential indicator of this storage potential. In this framework, radiocarbon constitutes a powerful tool for unraveling soil carbon dynamics on both decadal as well as centennial and millennial timescales. In this study, we look at the radiocarbon signature of specific compounds (fatty acids and n-alkanes) in two forested ecosystems (temperate and pre-alpine) with the aim of attaining a better understanding of soil organic carbon stability on a molecular level. Radiocarbon dating of the fatty acids and n-alkanes has been coupled to abundance data of these compounds and additionally lignin phenols. We hypothesize that potentially, these long-chain apolar compounds could be a representative indicator of the mineral-bound soil organic carbon pool. These well-studied sites are part of the Long-Term Forest Ecosystem Research (LWF) program of the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape research (WSL). Therefore, a wide suite of ancillary climatic and textural data is available for these sites. Initial results show a wide range of ages in the specific compounds which constitute a much larger range than the ages indicated by the density fractions done on the same samples. Overall, this study explores the use of molecular-level indicators to study soil organic matter dynamics, which could help assess the overall potential vulnerability of soil carbon in various ecosystems.

  3. Perianth organization and intra-specific floral variability.

    PubMed

    Herrera, J; Arista, M; Ortiz, P L

    2008-11-01

    Floral symmetry and fusion of perianth parts are factors that contribute to fine-tune the match between flowers and their animal pollination vectors. In the present study, we investigated whether the possession of a sympetalous (fused) corolla and bilateral symmetry of flowers translate into decreased intra-specific variability as a result of natural stabilizing selection exerted by pollinators. Average size of the corolla and intra-specific variability were determined in two sets of southern Spanish entomophilous plant species. In the first set, taxa were paired by family to control for the effect of phylogeny (phylogenetically independent contrasts), whereas in the second set species were selected at random. Flower size data from a previous study (with different species) were also used to test the hypothesis that petal fusion contributes to decrease intra-specific variability. In the phylogenetically independent contrasts, floral symmetry was a significant correlate of intra-specific variation, with bilaterally symmetrical flowers showing more constancy than radially symmetrical flowers (i.e. unsophisticated from a functional perspective). As regards petal fusion, species with fused petals were on average more constant than choripetalous species, but the difference was not statistically significant. The reanalysis of data from a previous study yielded largely similar results, with a distinct effect of symmetry on variability, but no effect of petal fusion. The randomly-chosen species sample, on the other hand, failed to reveal any significant effect of either symmetry or petal fusion on intra-specific variation. The problem of low-statistical power in this kind of analysis, and the difficulty of testing an evolutionary hypothesis that involves phenotypic traits with a high degree of morphological correlation is discussed.

  4. Argumentativeness in the Organization: Employees Assess Its Acceptability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logue, Brenda J.

    A study explored employees' perceptions of argumentativeness in the organization, specifically examining (1) how employees perceive argumentativeness and the value of argumentativeness in the organization, (2) to what extent employees argue in the workplace, and (3) whether there is any relationship between these two variables, the perception of…

  5. Assessing Specific Sexual Behavior: Instrument Development and Validation Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Monica C.; Chaney, J. Don; Chen, W. William; Dodd, Virginia J.; Huang, I-Chan; Sanders, Sadie

    2015-01-01

    Through the use of multi-modal methods, the purpose of this study was to develop and assess measurement properties of an instrument evaluating specific sexual behaviors of college students and the role alcohol intoxication plays in one’s intention to participate in these behaviors. A modified version of N. Krause’s instrument development process was applied to create a behavior-specific instrument assessing oral, vaginal, and anal sex behaviors. The process included a review by expert scholars in relevant fields, cognitive interviews with the target population using screen-capture program Camtasia, piloting to assess measurement scales, and a formal investigation. The applied instrument development process employed screen capture software and web-based surveying in a cost-effective format suitable for mixed-method measurement development. The development and application of the instrument provides a clearer understanding of the relationship between alcohol use and sexual activity and aids in the development of effective public health interventions and policies. PMID:27066593

  6. [Specific organization of ribosomal DNA arrays in Squamata].

    PubMed

    Voronov, A S; Shibalev, D V; Kupriianova, N S

    2008-11-01

    A first report on structural organization of ribosomal DNA arrays in some members of the order Squamata is presented. The data obtained point to unusually small (for vertebrates) size of the rDNA repetitive unit (approximately, 10 to 15 kb) in the lizard species examined. Analysis of BAC library of Uta stansburiana (Iguania) showed that haploid genome of this lizard contained a single cluster, consisting of about ten rDNA repeats. Determination of the extent of rDNA unit repetition in some other representatives of the order Squamata, using the method of comparative real-time PCR, showed that the number of rDNA units varied from one or several dozens in Iguanina to several hundred repeats in Scincomorpha and Varonoidea. The results are discussed in terms of an ambiguous position of the family Iguania on the evolutionary trees constructed based on morphological and molecular data.

  7. Assessing Context-Specific Attributions During Couples' Conflict Interactions.

    PubMed

    Backer-Fulghum, Lindsey M; Anders, Cecily; Sanford, Keith

    2016-08-09

    Two studies were conducted to develop and validate a six-item scale for measuring context-specific attributions regarding the extent to which people either blame or exonerate partners during couples' conflicts. Context-specific attributions pertain to appraisals made during a single episode of relationship conflict, and the scale was expected to be distinct from existing attribution scales measuring people's schemas regarding the types of attributions they typically make. Study 1 included 2,452 people in marriage or cohabitating relationships; Study 2 included 172 people in dating relationships, and participants in both studies completed Internet questionnaires. Item response theory was used to create an attribution scale using the fewest number of items to discriminate reliably across the full range of attribution levels. The resulting scale produced an expected pattern of convergent and divergent correlations with other context-specific measures, including two types of underlying concerns and three types of emotion. The context-specific attribution scale explained variance in these criterion variables that could not be explained by other existing scales that assess attributions at the schematic level. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Methodological Consequences of Situation Specificity: Biases in Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Patry, Jean-Luc

    2011-01-01

    Social research is plagued by many biases. Most of them are due to situation specificity of social behavior and can be explained using a theory of situation specificity. The historical background of situation specificity in personality social psychology research is briefly sketched, then a theory of situation specificity is presented in detail, with as centerpiece the relationship between the behavior and its outcome which can be described as either “the more, the better” or “not too much and not too little.” This theory is applied to reliability and validity of assessments in social research. The distinction between “maximum performance” and “typical performance” is shown to correspond to the two behavior-outcome relations. For maximum performance, issues of reliability and validity are much easier to be solved, whereas typical performance is sensitive to biases, as predicted by the theory. Finally, it is suggested that biases in social research are not just systematic error, but represent relevant features to be explained just as other behavior, and that the respective theories should be integrated into a theory system. PMID:21713072

  9. Generation of Organ-conditioned Media and Applications for Studying Organ-specific Influences on Breast Cancer Metastatic Behavior.

    PubMed

    Piaseczny, Matthew M; Pio, Graciella M; Chu, Jenny E; Xia, Ying; Nguyen, Kim; Goodale, David; Allan, Alison

    2016-06-13

    Breast cancer preferentially metastasizes to the lymph node, bone, lung, brain and liver in breast cancer patients. Previous research efforts have focused on identifying factors inherent to breast cancer cells that are responsible for this observed metastatic pattern (termed organ tropism), however much less is known about factors present within specific organs that contribute to this process. This is in part because of a lack of in vitro model systems that accurately recapitulate the organ microenvironment. To address this, an ex vivo model system has been established that allows for the study of soluble factors present within different organ microenvironments. This model consists of generating conditioned media from organs (lymph node, bone, lung, and brain) isolated from normal athymic nude mice. The model system has been validated by demonstrating that different breast cancer cell lines display cell-line specific and organ-specific malignant behavior in response to organ-conditioned media that corresponds to their in vivo metastatic potential. This model system can be used to identify and evaluate specific organ-derived soluble factors that may play a role in the metastatic behavior of breast and other types of cancer cells, including influences on growth, migration, stem-like behavior, and gene expression, as well as the identification of potential new therapeutic targets for cancer. This is the first ex vivo model system that can be used to study organ-specific metastatic behavior in detail and evaluate the role of specific organ-derived soluble factors in driving the process of cancer metastasis.

  10. Organ-specific changes in norepinephrine turnover against various stress conditions in thermoneutral mice.

    PubMed

    Teramura, Yasufumi; Terao, Akira; Okada, Yuko; Tomida, Junichi; Okamatsu-Ogura, Yuko; Kimura, Kazuhiro

    2014-08-01

    The effects of three stressors of different categories, namely cold exposure, immobilization, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment, on sympathetic nerve activity were examined by assessing its biochemical index norepinephrine (NE) turnover in peripheral organs of C57BL/6 mice. NE turnover was assessed by measuring the decrease in the organ NE concentration 3 h after inhibition of catecholamine biosynthesis with alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine. NE turnover in brown adipose tissue (BAT) in the room temperature (23 degrees C) control group was as high as that in the cold exposure (4 degrees C) group. Similarly, the mRNA level of the thermogenic marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in the room temperature control group was as high as that in the cold exposure group. As sympathetic stimulation upregulates the UCP1 mRNA level, we thought that sympathetic nerve tonus in BAT was already accelerated at room temperature. To exclude factors affecting basal sympathetic nerve activity, mice housed at thermoneutral temperature (30 degrees C) were used as controls for the subsequent experiments. In this condition, cold exposure accelerated NE turnover in the BAT, as well as heart and pancreas. The corticosterone level showed a higher trend in the cold exposure group in comparison to the control group. Immobilization accelerated NE turnover in the spleen, pancreas, and white adipose tissue and elevated the corticosterone level. LPS (3 mg/kg, i.p.) did not affect NE turnover in all peripheral organs but elevated the corticosterone level. In summary, the sympathetic nervous and adrenocortical responses to three stressors differed greatly. In particular, sympathetic responses showed clear organ-specific acceleration patterns. This important feature may improve our understanding of the multiplicity of biological responses.

  11. SHOCK VOLUME: A PATIENT-SPECIFIC INDEX THAT PREDICTS TRANSFUSION REQUIREMENTS AND ORGAN DYSFUNCTION IN MULTIPLY INJURED PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    McKinley, Todd O; McCarroll, Tyler; Gaski, Greg E; Frantz, Travis L; Zarzaur, Ben L; Terry, Colin; Steenburg, Scott D

    2016-02-01

    Multiply injured patients (MIPs) in hemorrhagic shock develop oxygen debt which causes organ dysfunction and can lead to death. We developed a noninvasive patient-specific index, Shock Volume (SV), to quantify the magnitude of hypoperfusion. SV integrates the magnitude and duration that incremental shock index values are elevated above known thresholds of hypoperfusion using serial individual vital sign data. SV can be monitored in real time to assess ongoing hypoperfusion. The goal of this study was to determine how SV corresponded to transfusion requirements and organ dysfunction in a retrospective cohort of 74 MIPs. We measured SV in 6-h increments for 48 h after injury in multiply injured adults (18-65; Injury Severity Score ≥18). Patients who had accumulated 40 units of SV within 6 h of injury and 100 units of SV within 12 h of injury were at high risk for requiring massive transfusion or multiple critical administration transfusions. SV measurements were equally sensitive and specific as compared with base deficit values in predicting transfusions. SV measurements at 6 h after injury stratified patients at risk for multiple organ failure determined by Denver scores. In addition, SV values corresponded to the magnitude of organ failure determined by Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores. SV is a patient-specific index that can be quantified in real time in critically injured patients. It is a surrogate for cumulative hypoperfusion and it predicts high-volume transfusions and organ dysfunction.

  12. Assessing and Improving Student Organizations: Resources for Facilitators CD-ROM. The Assessing and Improving Student Organization (AISO) Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolfi, Tricia; Ruben, Brent D.

    2010-01-01

    This companion to the "Guide for Students" and "Student Workbook" includes the complete set of PowerPoint slides, a PDF of the Facilitator's Guide in PPT (PowerPoint) slide show format, and PDFs of all scoring sheets, handouts and project planning guides needed for the AISO (Assessing and Improving Student Organization) process. The Assessing and…

  13. Assessing and Improving Student Organizations: Resources for Facilitators CD-ROM. The Assessing and Improving Student Organization (AISO) Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolfi, Tricia; Ruben, Brent D.

    2010-01-01

    This companion to the "Guide for Students" and "Student Workbook" includes the complete set of PowerPoint slides, a PDF of the Facilitator's Guide in PPT (PowerPoint) slide show format, and PDFs of all scoring sheets, handouts and project planning guides needed for the AISO (Assessing and Improving Student Organization) process. The Assessing and…

  14. CHIMERIC FLORAL ORGANS1, encoding a monocot-specific MADS box protein, regulates floral organ identity in rice.

    PubMed

    Sang, Xianchun; Li, Yunfeng; Luo, Zengke; Ren, Deyong; Fang, Likui; Wang, Nan; Zhao, Fangming; Ling, Yinghua; Yang, Zhenglin; Liu, Yongsheng; He, Guanghua

    2012-10-01

    The control of floral organ identity by homeotic MADS box genes is well established in eudicots. However, grasses have highly specialized outer floral organs, and the identities of the genes that regulate the highly specialized outer floral organs of grasses remain unclear. In this study, we characterized a MIKC-type MADS box gene, CHIMERIC FLORAL ORGANS (CFO1), which plays a key role in the regulation of floral organ identity in rice (Oryza sativa). The cfo1 mutant displayed defective marginal regions of the palea, chimeric floral organs, and ectopic floral organs. Map-based cloning demonstrated that CFO1 encoded the OsMADS32 protein. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that CFO1/OsMADS32 belonged to a monocot-specific clade in the MIKC-type MADS box gene family. The expression domains of CFO1 were mainly restricted to the marginal region of the palea and inner floral organs. The floral organ identity gene DROOPING LEAF (DL) was expressed ectopically in all defective organs of cfo1 flowers. Double mutant analysis revealed that loss of DL function mitigated some of the defects of floral organs in cfo1 flowers. We propose that the CFO1 gene plays a pivotal role in maintaining floral organ identity through negative regulation of DL expression.

  15. Brine Organisms and the Question of Habitat Specific Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, B. Z.; Siegel, S. M.; Speitel, Thomas; Waber, Jack; Stoecker, Roy

    1984-12-01

    Among the well-known ultrasaline terrestrial habitats, the Dead Sea in the Jordan Rift Valley and Don Juan Pond in the Upper Wright Valley represent two of the most extreme. The former is a saturated sodium chloride-magnesium sulfate brine in a hot desert, the latter a saturated calcium chloride brine in an Antarctic desert. Both Dead Sea and Don Juan water bodies themselves are limited in microflora, but the saline Don Juan algal mat and muds contain abundant nutrients and a rich and varied microbiota, including Oscillatoria, Gleocapsa, Chlorella, diatoms, Penicillium and bacteria. In such environments, the existence of an array of specific adaptations is a common, and highly reasonable, presumption, at least with respect to habitat-obligate forms. Nevertheless, many years of ongoing study in our laboratory have demonstrated that lichens (e.g. Cladonia), algae (e.g. Nostoc) and fungi (e.g. Penicillium, Aspergillus) from the humid tropics can sustain metabolism down to -40°C and growth down to -10°C in simulated Dead Sea or Don Juan (or similar) media without benefit of selection or gradual acclimation. Non-selection is suggested in fungi by higher growth rates from vegetative inocula than spores. The importance of nutrient parameters was also evident in responses to potassium and reduced nitrogen compounds. In view of the saline performance of tropical Nostoc, and its presence in the Antarctic dry valley soils, its complete absence in our Don Juan mat samples was and remains a puzzle. We suggest that adaptive capability is already resident in many terrestrial life forms not currently in extreme habitats, a possible reflection of evolutionary selection for wide spectrum environmental adaptability.

  16. Comparison of postinjury multiple-organ failure scoring systems: Denver versus Sequential Organ Failure Assessment.

    PubMed

    Dewar, David C; White, Amanda; Attia, John; Tarrant, Seth M; King, Kate L; Balogh, Zsolt J

    2014-10-01

    The Denver and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores have been used widely to describe the epidemiology of postinjury multiple-organ failure; however, differences in these scores make it difficult to compare incidence, duration, and mortality of multiple-organ failure. The study aim was to compare the performance of the Denver and SOFA scores with respect to the outcomes of mortality, intensive care unit length of stay (ICU LOS), and ventilator days. A 60-month prospective epidemiologic study was undertaken at an Australian Level I trauma center. Data were collected on trauma patients that met inclusion criteria (ICU admission, Injury Severity Score [ISS] > 15, age > 18 years, head Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] score < 3, survival for >48 hours). Demographics, ISS, physiologic parameters, SOFA and Denver scores, and outcome data were prospectively collected. Sensitivity/specificity and receiver operating characteristic curve were calculated for both scores. Analysis was also completed for a Day 3 postinjury SOFA and Denver score. A total of 140 patients met the inclusion criteria (mean [SD] age, 47 [21] years; ISS, 30; male, 69%; mortality rate, 6%; mean [SD] ICU LOS, 9 [7] days; mean [SD] ventilation period, 6 [7] days). There was no difference in the score performance predicting mortality. Day 3 SOFA score of 4 or greater outperformed the Denver score of greater than 3 when predicting ICU LOS and ventilator days (area under the curve, 0.83 vs. 0.69, 0.86 vs. 0.73, respectively). The SOFA score was more sensitive and the Denver score was more specific when predicting mortality, ICU LOS, and ventilator days. Both scores had similar performance predicting mortality; however, the Day 3 SOFA score outperforms the Denver score when predicting ICU LOS and ventilator days. Either score could be superior based on whether one is seeking to optimize specificity or sensitivity. It is important to note that these findings are in a non-head-injured population and

  17. Management and organizational assessments: a review of selected organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Nadel, M.V.; Kerwin, C.M.

    1984-02-01

    This report is part of a larger project designed to assist the NRC in its responsibilities for assessing the management and organization of utilities applying for an operating license for a nuclear power plant. This report reviews the processes and criteria used by other organizations that conduct management and organization audits and evaluations. It was undertaken in order to provide data and a basis for future analysis by taking a comparative perspective. When considering changes in criteria and procedures as the NRC is doing, a standard benchmark is the performance of other organizations that are similarly situated. It was our goal to directly inform the NRC about the activities of other organizations so that a reconsideration of NRC activities could benefit from the perspective of organizations with a longer, broader, and different experience than the NRC has in the management and organization area. Data collected for this report has provided useful information in designing organization and administration guidelines and assessment procedures for consideration by the NRC.

  18. Extended specificity studies of mRNA assays used to infer human organ tissues and body fluids.

    PubMed

    van den Berge, Margreet; Sijen, Titia

    2017-09-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) profiling is a technique increasingly applied for the forensic identification of body fluids and skin. More recently, an mRNA-based organ typing assay was developed which allows for the inference of brain, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, heart, kidney, and skin tissue. When applying this organ typing system in forensic casework for the presence of animal, rather than human, tissue is an alternative scenario to be proposed, for instance that bullets carry cell material from a hunting event. Even though mRNA profiling systems are commonly in silico designed to be primate specific, physical testing against other animal species is generally limited. In this study, human specificity of the organ tissue inferring system was assessed against organ tissue RNAs of various animals. Results confirm human specificity of the system, especially when utilizing interpretation rules considering multiple markers per cell type. Besides, we cross-tested our organ and body fluid mRNA assays against the target types covered by the other assay. Marker expression in the nontarget organ tissues and body fluids was observed to a limited extent, which emphasizes the importance of involving the case-specific context of the forensic samples in deciding which mRNA profiling assay to use and when for interpreting results. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Insights into Mechanistic Models for Evaporation of Organic Liquids in the Environment Obtained by Position-Specific Carbon Isotope Analysis.

    PubMed

    Julien, Maxime; Nun, Pierrick; Robins, Richard J; Remaud, Gérald S; Parinet, Julien; Höhener, Patrick

    2015-11-03

    Position-specific isotope effects (PSIEs) have been measured by isotope ratio monitoring (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry during the evaporation of 10 liquids of different polarities under 4 evaporation modes (passive evaporation, air-vented evaporation, low pressure evaporation, distillation). The observed effects are used to assess the validity of the Craig-Gordon isotope model for organic liquids. For seven liquids the overall isotope effect (IE) includes a vapor-liquid contribution that is strongly position-specific in polar compounds but less so in apolar compounds and a diffusive IE that is not position-specific, except in the alcohols, ethanol and propan-1-ol. The diffusive IE is diminished under forced evaporation. The position-specific isotope pattern created by liquid-vapor IEs is manifest in five liquids, which have an air-side limitation for volatilization. For the alcohols, undefined processes in the liquid phase create additional PSIEs. Three other liquids with limitations on the liquid side have a lower, highly position-specific, bulk diffusive IE. It is concluded that evaporation of organic pollutants creates unique position-specific isotope patterns that may be used to assess the progress of remediation or natural attenuation of pollution and that the Craig-Gordon isotope model is valid for the volatilization of nonpolar organic liquids with air-side limitation of the volatilization rate.

  20. 75 FR 61694 - Notice of Request for Extension of the Organic Assessment Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of Request for Extension of the Organic Assessment Exemption AGENCY... matter of public record. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Organic Handler Market Promotion Assessment... markets solely 100 percent organic products from paying these assessments with respect to any...

  1. Metal-specific risk assessment--the European perspective.

    PubMed

    Verougstraete, Violaine; Battersby, Rodger; Gambling, Lorraine; McArdle, Harry J

    2010-01-01

    This review considers the development of the regulatory process for metals in the European Union (Regulation for Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals, REACH). The manner in which the REACH process was developed, its history, and the relative involvement of government and industry are examined. The problems involved in setting up the system and the steps in optimisation are considered. One of the major difficulties in the development of the REACH mechanism was incorporating the fact that many metals are essential elements, which is not a factor that most toxicological examinations consider. How the REACH process evolved to deal with these problems and how the mechanisms were put in place to overcome them is examined. Looking specifically at examples of industry working with academia, one needs to consider how a risk assessment can be developed and submitted in a timely and successful fashion.

  2. Using Web-Based Video as an Assessment Tool for Student Performance in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, John; Bodek, Matthew; Fredricks, Susan; Dudkin, Elizabeth; Kistler, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    This article shows the potential for using video responses to specific questions as part of the assessment process in an organic chemistry class. These exercises have been used with a postbaccalaureate cohort of 40 students, learning in an online environment, over a period of four years. A second cohort of 25 second-year students taking the…

  3. Using Web-Based Video as an Assessment Tool for Student Performance in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, John; Bodek, Matthew; Fredricks, Susan; Dudkin, Elizabeth; Kistler, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    This article shows the potential for using video responses to specific questions as part of the assessment process in an organic chemistry class. These exercises have been used with a postbaccalaureate cohort of 40 students, learning in an online environment, over a period of four years. A second cohort of 25 second-year students taking the…

  4. Cellular Mechanisms of Tissue Fibrosis. 1. Common and organ-specific mechanisms associated with tissue fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Fibrosis is a pathological scarring process that leads to destruction of organ architecture and impairment of organ function. Chronic loss of organ function in most organs, including bone marrow, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, lung, and skin, is associated with fibrosis, contributing to an estimated one third of natural deaths worldwide. Effective therapies to prevent or to even reverse existing fibrotic lesions are not yet available in any organ. There is hope that an understanding of common fibrosis pathways will lead to development of antifibrotic therapies that are effective in all of these tissues in the future. Here we review common and organ-specific pathways of tissue fibrosis. PMID:23255577

  5. Implications of Different Worldviews to Assess Soil Organic Carbon Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunwald, S.

    2012-04-01

    Profound shifts have occurred over the last three centuries in which human actions have become the main driver to global environmental change. In this new epoch, the Anthropocene, human-driven changes such as climate and land use change, are pushing the Earth system well outside of its normal operating range causing severe and abrupt environmental change. Changes in land use management and land cover are intricately linked to the carbon cycle, but our knowledge on its spatially and temporally explicit impact on carbon dynamics across different scales is still poorly understood. To elucidate on the magnitude of change in soil organic carbon (SOC) due to human-induced stressors different philosophical worldviews may be considered including (i) empiricism - direct measurements of properties and processes at micro, site-specific or field scales; (ii) metaphysics and ontology - conceptual models to assess soil change (e.g., STEP-AWBH); (iii) epistemology - indirect approaches (e.g., meta-analysis or spectral informed prediction models); (iv) reductionism - e.g., carbon flux measurements; (iv) determinism - mechanistic simulation models and biogeochemical investigations (e.g., Century or DNDC); (v) holism - national or global soil databases and aggregate maps; or (vi) integral - fusing individual, social, economic, cultural and empirical perspectives. The strengths and limitations of each of these philosophical approaches are demonstrated using case examples from Florida and U.S.A. The sensitivity to assess SOC change and uncertainty, backcasting and forecasting ability, scaling potential across space and time domains, and limitations and constraints of different worldviews are discussed.

  6. Analytical performance specifications for external quality assessment - definitions and descriptions.

    PubMed

    Jones, Graham R D; Albarede, Stephanie; Kesseler, Dagmar; MacKenzie, Finlay; Mammen, Joy; Pedersen, Morten; Stavelin, Anne; Thelen, Marc; Thomas, Annette; Twomey, Patrick J; Ventura, Emma; Panteghini, Mauro

    2017-06-27

    External Quality Assurance (EQA) is vital to ensure acceptable analytical quality in medical laboratories. A key component of an EQA scheme is an analytical performance specification (APS) for each measurand that a laboratory can use to assess the extent of deviation of the obtained results from the target value. A consensus conference held in Milan in 2014 has proposed three models to set APS and these can be applied to setting APS for EQA. A goal arising from this conference is the harmonisation of EQA APS between different schemes to deliver consistent quality messages to laboratories irrespective of location and the choice of EQA provider. At this time there are wide differences in the APS used in different EQA schemes for the same measurands. Contributing factors to this variation are that the APS in different schemes are established using different criteria, applied to different types of data (e.g. single data points, multiple data points), used for different goals (e.g. improvement of analytical quality; licensing), and with the aim of eliciting different responses from participants. This paper provides recommendations from the European Federation of Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) Task and Finish Group on Performance Specifications for External Quality Assurance Schemes (TFG-APSEQA) and on clear terminology for EQA APS. The recommended terminology covers six elements required to understand APS: 1) a statement on the EQA material matrix and its commutability; 2) the method used to assign the target value; 3) the data set to which APS are applied; 4) the applicable analytical property being assessed (i.e. total error, bias, imprecision, uncertainty); 5) the rationale for the selection of the APS; and 6) the type of the Milan model(s) used to set the APS. The terminology is required for EQA participants and other interested parties to understand the meaning of meeting or not meeting APS.

  7. Specificity of islet cell autoantibodies and coexistence with other organ specific autoantibodies in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Tsirogianni, Alexandra; Pipi, Elena; Soufleros, Konstantinos

    2009-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has been shown to be a disease characterized by immune-mediated destruction of the insulin-producing islet beta-cells (beta-cells) in the pancreas. Intensive studies, in both patients and animal models are trying to elucidate the specific antigenic targets that are responsible for islet cell autoimmunity. So far, the most important molecules that have been recognized are the native insulin, the 65-kDa form of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD(65)) and the insulinoma-antigen 2 (IA-2). Identification of those specific autoantibodies that are involved in the primary immunological events of the autoimmune disease process will allow the development of novel diagnostic procedures for early detection and initiation of potential therapy prior to irreversible loss of beta-cells. Within the framework of polyglandular disorders, T1DM may coexist with other organ specific autoimmune diseases such as autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD), autoimmune gastritis (AG), celiac disease (CD) and Addison's disease (AD), which are associated with the production of organ-specific autoantibodies. So, as a subset of patients with those autoantibodies will develop clinical disease, screening T1DM patients could prognosticate morbidity relative to unrecognised clinical entities. The close follow-up of patients with organ-specific autoantibodies could lead to seasonable identification of those requiring therapy.

  8. Prospective Environmental Risk Assessment for Sediment-Bound Organic Chemicals: A Proposal for Tiered Effect Assessment.

    PubMed

    Diepens, Noël J; Koelmans, Albert A; Baveco, Hans; van den Brink, Paul J; van den Heuvel-Greve, Martine J; Brock, Theo C M

    A broadly accepted framework for prospective environmental risk assessment (ERA) of sediment-bound organic chemicals is currently lacking. Such a framework requires clear protection goals, evidence-based concepts that link exposure to effects and a transparent tiered-effect assessment. In this paper, we provide a tiered prospective sediment ERA procedure for organic chemicals in sediment, with a focus on the applicable European regulations and the underlying data requirements. Using the ecosystem services concept, we derived specific protection goals for ecosystem service providing units: microorganisms, benthic algae, sediment-rooted macrophytes, benthic invertebrates and benthic vertebrates. Triggers for sediment toxicity testing are discussed.We recommend a tiered approach (Tier 0 through Tier 3). Tier-0 is a cost-effective screening based on chronic water-exposure toxicity data for pelagic species and equilibrium partitioning. Tier-1 is based on spiked sediment laboratory toxicity tests with standard benthic test species and standardised test methods. If comparable chronic toxicity data for both standard and additional benthic test species are available, the Species Sensitivity Distribution (SSD) approach is a more viable Tier-2 option than the geometric mean approach. This paper includes criteria for accepting results of sediment-spiked single species toxicity tests in prospective ERA, and for the application of the SSD approach. We propose micro/mesocosm experiments with spiked sediment, to study colonisation success by benthic organisms, as a Tier-3 option. Ecological effect models can be used to supplement the experimental tiers. A strategy for unifying information from various tiers by experimental work and exposure-and effect modelling is provided.

  9. Organ localization: Toward prospective patient-specific organ dosimetry in computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Segars, W. P. Rybicki, K.; Norris, Hannah; Samei, E.; Frush, D.

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: With increased focus on radiation dose from medical imaging, prospective radiation dose estimates are becoming increasingly desired. Using available populations of adult and pediatric patient phantoms, radiation dose calculations can be catalogued and prospectively applied to individual patients that best match certain anatomical characteristics. In doing so, the knowledge of organ size and location is a required element. Here, the authors develop a predictive model of organ locations and volumes based on an analysis of adult and pediatric computed tomography (CT) data. Methods: Fifty eight adult and 69 pediatric CT datasets were segmented and utilized in the study. The maximum and minimum points of the organs were recorded with respect to the axial distance from the tip of the sacrum. The axial width, midpoint, and volume of each organ were calculated. Linear correlations between these three organ parameters and patient age, BMI, weight, and height were determined. Results: No statistically significant correlations were found in adult patients between the axial width, midpoint, and volume of the organs versus the patient age or BMI. Slight, positive linear trends were found for organ midpoint versus patient weight (max r{sup 2} = 0.382, mean r{sup 2} = 0.236). Similar trends were found for organ midpoint versus height (max r{sup 2} = 0.439, mean r{sup 2} = 0.200) and for organ volume versus height (max r{sup 2} = 0.410, mean r{sup 2} = 0.153). Gaussian fits performed on probability density functions of the adult organs resulted in r{sup 2}-values ranging from 0.96 to 0.996. The pediatric patients showed much stronger correlations overall. Strong correlations were observed between organ axial midpoint versus age, height, and weight (max r{sup 2} = 0.842, mean r{sup 2} = 0.790; max r{sup 2} = 0.949, mean r{sup 2} = 0.894; and max r{sup 2} = 0.870, mean r{sup 2} = 0.847, respectively). Moderate linear correlations were also observed for organ axial width

  10. Evaluating greenhouse gas impacts of organic waste management options using life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Kong, Dung; Shan, Jilei; Iacoboni, Mario; Maguin, Stephen R

    2012-08-01

    Efforts to divert organics away from landfills are viewed by many as an important measure to significantly reduce the climate change impacts of municipal solid waste management. However, the actual greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts of organics diversion from landfills have yet to be thoroughly evaluated and whether such a diversion provides significant environmental benefits in terms of GHG impacts must be answered. This study, using California-specific information, aimed to analyse the GHG impacts of organics diversion through a life-cycle assessment (LCA). This LCA considered all aspects of organics management including transportation, materials handling, GHG emissions, landfill gas capture/utilization, energy impacts, and carbon sequestration. The LCA study evaluated overall GHG impacts of landfilling, and alternative management options such as composting and anaerobic digestion for diverted organic waste. The LCA analysis resulted in net GHG reductions of 0.093, 0.048, 0.065 and 0.073 tonnes carbon equivalent per tonne organic waste for landfilling, windrow composting, aerated static pile composting, and anaerobic digestion, respectively. This study confirms that all three options for organics management result in net reductions of GHG emissions, but it also shows that organics landfilling, when well-managed, generates greater GHG reductions. The LCA provides scientific insight with regards to the environmental impacts of organics management options, which should be considered in decision and policy-making. The study also highlights the importance of how site and case-specific conditions influence project outcomes when considering organic waste management options.

  11. Assessing a Critical Aspect of Construct Continuity when Test Specifications Change or Test Forms Deviate from Specifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jinghua; Dorans, Neil J.

    2013-01-01

    We make a distinction between two types of test changes: inevitable deviations from specifications versus planned modifications of specifications. We describe how score equity assessment (SEA) can be used as a tool to assess a critical aspect of construct continuity, the equivalence of scores, whenever planned changes are introduced to testing…

  12. Assessing a Critical Aspect of Construct Continuity when Test Specifications Change or Test Forms Deviate from Specifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jinghua; Dorans, Neil J.

    2013-01-01

    We make a distinction between two types of test changes: inevitable deviations from specifications versus planned modifications of specifications. We describe how score equity assessment (SEA) can be used as a tool to assess a critical aspect of construct continuity, the equivalence of scores, whenever planned changes are introduced to testing…

  13. Landslide susceptibility and risk assessment: specificities for road networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicani, Roberta; Argentiero, Ilenia; Parisi, Alessandro; Spilotro, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    A regional-scale assessment of landslide susceptibility and risk along the main road corridors crossing the provincial territory of Matera (Basilicata Region, Southern Italy) was carried out. The entire provincial road network extends for about 1,320 km through a territory, of which represents the main connection infrastructure among thirty-one municipalities due to the lack of an efficient integrated transportation system through the whole regional territory. For this reason, the strategic importance of these roads consists in their uniqueness in connecting every urban center with the socio-economic surrounding context. These roads and their vehicular traffic are continuously exposed to instability processes (about the 40% of the total length is disrupted by landslides), characterized both by high intensity and low frequency and by low intensity and high frequency. This last typology, consisting in small shallow landslides, is particularly hazardous for the roads since it is widespread along the road network, its occurrence is connected to rainfalls and determines high vulnerability conditions for the road in terms of interruption of vehicular traffic. A GIS-based heuristic-bivariate statistical predictive model was performed to assess and map the landslide susceptibility in the study area, by using a polynomial function of eight predisposing factors, weighted according to their influence on the landslide phenomena, recognized and collected in an inventory. Susceptibility associated to small shallow phenomena was assessed by using a polynomial function of specific factors, such as slope angle and aspect, lithological outcrops, rainfalls, etc. In absence of detailed input data, the spatial distribution of landslide risk along the road corridors was assessed and mapped using a qualitative hazard-consequence matrix approach, by which risk is obtained by combining hazard categories with consequence classes pairwise in a two-dimensional table or matrix. Landslide

  14. Safety assessment and detection methods of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rong; Zheng, Zhe; Jiao, Guanglian

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), are gaining importance in agriculture as well as the production of food and feed. Along with the development of GMOs, health and food safety concerns have been raised. These concerns for these new GMOs make it necessary to set up strict system on food safety assessment of GMOs. The food safety assessment of GMOs, current development status of safety and precise transgenic technologies and GMOs detection have been discussed in this review. The recent patents about GMOs and their detection methods are also reviewed. This review can provide elementary introduction on how to assess and detect GMOs.

  15. Organ-specific mediation of lifespan extension: more than a gut feeling?

    PubMed Central

    Rera, Michael; Azizi, Masoud J.; Walker, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms are composed of an interactive network of various tissues that are functionally organized as discrete organs. If aging were slowed in a specific tissue or organ how would that impact longevity at the organismal level? In recent years, molecular genetic approaches in invertebrate model systems have dramatically improved our understanding of the aging process and have provided insight into the preceding question. In this review, we discuss tissue and organ-specific interventions that prolong lifespan in the nematode C. elegans and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. These interventions include reduced Insulin/IGF-1 signaling, knockdown of genes important for mitochondrial electron transport chain function and, finally, up-regulation of the Drosophila PGC-1 homolog. An emerging theme from these studies is that the intestine is an important target organ in mediating lifespan extension at the organismal level. PMID:22706186

  16. Assessing UAV platform types and optical sensor specifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altena, B.; Goedemé, T.

    2014-05-01

    Photogrammetric acquisition with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) has grown extensively over the last couple of years. Such mobile platforms and their processing software have matured, resulting in a market which offers off-the-shelf mapping solutions to surveying companies and geospatial enterprises. Different approaches in platform type and optical instruments exist, though its resulting products have similar specifications. To demonstrate differences in acquisitioning practice, a case study over an open mine was flown with two different off-the-shelf UAVs (a fixed-wing and a multi-rotor). The resulting imagery is analyzed to clarify the differences in collection quality. We look at image settings, and stress the fact of photographic experience if manual setting are applied. For mapping production it might be safest to set the camera on automatic. Furthermore, we try to estimate if blur is present due to image motion. A subtle trend seems to be present, for the fast flying platform though its extent is of similar order to the slow moving one. It shows both systems operate at their limits. Finally, the lens distortion is assessed with special attention to chromatic aberration. Here we see that through calibration such aberrations could be present, however detecting this phenomena directly on imagery is not straightforward. For such effects a normal lens is sufficient, though a better lens and collimator does give significant improvement.

  17. Assessment of soil organic matter fluxes at the EU level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Anne; Campling, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Soil has a complex relationship with climate change. Soil helps take carbon dioxide out of the air and as such it absorbs millions of tons each year, but with the Earth still warming micro-organisms grow faster, consume more soil organic matter and release carbon dioxide. The net result is a relative decline in soil organic carbon. With a growing population and higher bio-energy demands, more land is likely to be required for settlement, for commercial activity and for bio-energy production. Conversions from terrestrial ecosystems to urban and commercial activity will alter both the production and losses of organic matter, and have an indirect impact on potential SOM levels. Conversions between different terrestrial ecosystems have a direct impact on SOM levels. Net SOM losses are reported for several land conversions, e.g. from grassland to arable land, from wetlands to drained agricultural land, from crop rotations to monoculture, reforestation of agricultural land. In the context of looking for measures to support best practices to manage soil organic matter in Europe we propose a method to assess soil organic matter fluxes at the EU level. We adopt a parsimonious approach that is comparable to the nutrient balance approaches developed by the OECD and Eurostat. We describe the methodology and present the initial results of a European carbon balance indicator that uses existing European statistical and land use change databases. The carbon balance consists of the following components: organic matter production (I), organic matter losses (O), land use changes that effect both production and losses (E). These components are set against the (mostly legislative) boundary conditions that determine the maximum input potential (MIP) for soil organic matter. In order to budget SOM losses due to mineralisation, runs will be made with a multi-compartment SOM model that takes into account management practices, climate and different sources of organic matter.

  18. [Regularities of organ-specific expression of enzyme systems in cattle].

    PubMed

    Tatarenko, O F; Glazko, V I

    1992-01-01

    The organ specificity of creatine kinase, esterase, isocitrate dehydrogenase lactate dehydrogenase, nucleoside phosphorylase, adenylate kinase, hexokinase, malate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase of black-white cattle has been studied. Esterases, creatine kinase, adenylate kinase, hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase have a very wide spectrum of the organ variabilities. Liver and heart have the largest specificity of enzymes activity. Some peculiarities of isozyme spectrum are found in ovaries and spleen.

  19. Data Center Energy Efficiency Measurement Assessment Kit Guide and Specification

    SciTech Connect

    2012-10-26

    A portable and temporary wireless mesh assessment kit can be used to speed up and reduce the costs of a data center energy use assessment and overcome the issues with respect to shutdowns. The assessment kit is comprised of temperature, relative humidity, and pressure sensors. Also included are power meters that can be installed on computer room air conditioners (CRACs) without intrusive interruption of data center operations. The assessment kit produces data required for a detailed energy assessment of the data center.

  20. Organ-specific gene expression: the bHLH protein Sage provides tissue specificity to Drosophila FoxA.

    PubMed

    Fox, Rebecca M; Vaishnavi, Aria; Maruyama, Rika; Andrew, Deborah J

    2013-05-01

    FoxA transcription factors play major roles in organ-specific gene expression, regulating, for example, glucagon expression in the pancreas, GLUT2 expression in the liver, and tyrosine hydroxylase expression in dopaminergic neurons. Organ-specific gene regulation by FoxA proteins is achieved through cooperative regulation with a broad array of transcription factors with more limited expression domains. Fork head (Fkh), the sole Drosophila FoxA family member, is required for the development of multiple distinct organs, yet little is known regarding how Fkh regulates tissue-specific gene expression. Here, we characterize Sage, a bHLH transcription factor expressed exclusively in the Drosophila salivary gland (SG). We show that Sage is required for late SG survival and normal tube morphology. We find that many Sage targets, identified by microarray analysis, encode SG-specific secreted cargo, transmembrane proteins, and the enzymes that modify these proteins. We show that both Sage and Fkh are required for the expression of Sage target genes, and that co-expression of Sage and Fkh is sufficient to drive target gene expression in multiple cell types. Sage and Fkh drive expression of the bZip transcription factor Senseless (Sens), which boosts expression of Sage-Fkh targets, and Sage, Fkh and Sens colocalize on SG chromosomes. Importantly, expression of Sage-Fkh target genes appears to simply add to the tissue-specific gene expression programs already established in other cell types, and Sage and Fkh cannot alter the fate of most embryonic cell types even when expressed early and continuously.

  1. Organ-specific gene expression: the bHLH protein Sage provides tissue specificity to Drosophila FoxA

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Rebecca M.; Vaishnavi, Aria; Maruyama, Rika; Andrew, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    FoxA transcription factors play major roles in organ-specific gene expression, regulating, for example, glucagon expression in the pancreas, GLUT2 expression in the liver, and tyrosine hydroxylase expression in dopaminergic neurons. Organ-specific gene regulation by FoxA proteins is achieved through cooperative regulation with a broad array of transcription factors with more limited expression domains. Fork head (Fkh), the sole Drosophila FoxA family member, is required for the development of multiple distinct organs, yet little is known regarding how Fkh regulates tissue-specific gene expression. Here, we characterize Sage, a bHLH transcription factor expressed exclusively in the Drosophila salivary gland (SG). We show that Sage is required for late SG survival and normal tube morphology. We find that many Sage targets, identified by microarray analysis, encode SG-specific secreted cargo, transmembrane proteins, and the enzymes that modify these proteins. We show that both Sage and Fkh are required for the expression of Sage target genes, and that co-expression of Sage and Fkh is sufficient to drive target gene expression in multiple cell types. Sage and Fkh drive expression of the bZip transcription factor Senseless (Sens), which boosts expression of Sage-Fkh targets, and Sage, Fkh and Sens colocalize on SG chromosomes. Importantly, expression of Sage-Fkh target genes appears to simply add to the tissue-specific gene expression programs already established in other cell types, and Sage and Fkh cannot alter the fate of most embryonic cell types even when expressed early and continuously. PMID:23578928

  2. Evaluation of specific metabolic rates of major organs and tissues: comparison between nonobese and obese women.

    PubMed

    Wang, ZiMian; Ying, Zhiliang; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Zhang, Junyi; Heller, Martin; Later, Wiebke; Heymsfield, Steven B; Müller, Manfred J

    2012-01-01

    Elia (1992) identified the specific resting metabolic rates (K(i)) of major organs and tissues in young adults with normal weight: 200 for liver, 240 for brain, 440 for heart and kidneys, 13 for skeletal muscle, 4.5 for adipose tissue and 12 for residual mass (all units in kcal/kg per day). The aim of the present study was to assess the applicability of Elia's K(i) values for obese adults. A sample of young women (n = 80) was divided into two groups, nonobese (BMI <29.9 kg/m(2)) and obese (BMI 30.0-43.2 kg/m(2)). This study was based on the mechanistic model: REE = σ (K(i) × T(i)), where REE is whole-body resting energy expenditure measured by indirect calorimetry and T(i) is the mass of individual organs and tissues measured by magnetic resonance imaging. For each organ/tissue, the corresponding Elia's K(i) value was analyzed respectively for nonobese and obese groups by using stepwise univariate regression analysis. Elia's K(i) values were within the range of 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in the nonobese group. However, Elia's K(i) values were outside the right boundaries of 95% CIs in the obese group and a corresponding obesity-adjusted coefficient was calculated as 0.98, indicating that Elia's values overestimate K(i) by 2.0% in obese adults. Obesity-adjusted K(i) values were 196 for liver, 235 for brain, 431 for heart and kidneys, 12.7 for skeletal muscle, 4.4 for adipose tissue, and 11.8 for residual mass. In conclusion, although Elia's K(i) values were validated in nonobese women, obesity-adjustments are appropriate for application in obese women.

  3. The impact of specific preoperative organ dysfunction in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Thourani, Vinod H; Chowdhury, Ritam; Gunter, Rebecca L; Kilgo, Patrick D; Chen, Edward P; Puskas, John D; Halkos, Michael E; Lattouf, Omar M; Cooper, William A; Guyton, Robert A

    2013-03-01

    Optimizing treatment strategies to risk profile patients undergoing aortic valve replacement remains a priority. The role that specific and combinations of preoperative organ dysfunction (OD) plays in informing these decisions remains uncertain. This study sought to determine the relative effect that OD in particular systems has on short- and long-term outcomes. A total of 1,759 aortic valve replacement cases with and without coronary artery bypass grafting performed from January 2002 to June 2010 at Emory University are the basis for this retrospective analysis. Patients were classified by the presence or absence of preoperative OD: (1) cardiac: congestive heart failure (ejection fraction <0.35), (2) pulmonary: forced expiratory volume in 1 second less than 50% predicted, (3) neurologic (prior stroke), and (4) renal: chronic renal failure. The impact of individual and combined OD on outcomes was evaluated. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and Cox regression models were used to assess the relationship between OD and long-term survival. A total of 513 patients (29.2%) had at least one OD, including 95 patients (5.4%) with more than one OD. Organ dysfunction in each organ system was associated with poorer survival. Renal (hazard ratio, 3.90) and pulmonary (hazard ratio, 2.40) OD patients had poorer long-term survival, including 30-day mortality. Seven-year survival for OD patients is as follows: prior stroke, 48.6%; severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 30.8%; congestive heart failure, 55.9%; and chronic renal failure, 11.7%. The sequential addition of OD systems was a powerful predictor of poorer long-term survival. The presence of chronic renal failure most profoundly decreases survival, followed by severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and prior stroke. Furthermore, multiple OD systems significantly decrease short- and long-term survival. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Involvement of Sialic Acid on Endothelial Cells in Organ-Specific Lymphocyte Recirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Steven D.; Singer, Mark S.; Yednock, Ted A.; Stoolman, Lloyd M.

    1985-05-01

    Mouse lymphocytes incubated on cryostat-cut sections of lymphoid organs (lymph nodes and Peyer's patches) specifically adhere to the endothelium of high endothelial venules (HEV), the specialized blood vessels to which recirculating lymphocytes attach as they migrate from the blood into the parenchyma of the lymphoid organs. Treatment of sections with sialidase eliminated the binding of lymphocytes to peripheral lymph node HEV, had no effect on binding to Peyer's patch HEV, and had an intermediate effect on mesenteric lymph node HEV. These results suggest that sialic acid on endothelial cells may be an organ-specific recognition determinant for lymphocyte attachment.

  5. The anthropogenic contribution to the organic load of the Lippe River (Germany). Part II: Quantification of specific organic contaminants.

    PubMed

    Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Littke, Ralf

    2004-12-01

    The major goal of this study was to investigate the organic pollution of a river on a quantitative basis. To this end, 14 anthropogenic contaminants which were identified in Lippe River water samples as reported in part I (Dsikowitzky et al., submitted parallel to this manuscript) were surveyed. Dissolved organic loads of the specific compounds were calculated on the basis of their concentrations in water and river runoff on the day of sampling. The organic loads of each compound were compiled along the longitudinal section of the river in order to generate individual spatial pollution profiles. It was observed that distribution of organic loads along the river showed distinctive patterns, depending upon the input situation and physico-chemical properties of the compound. The compounds were classified into three types of which Type 1, due to their stability in the aqueous phase, are of special interest for potential application as anthropogenic markers.

  6. Body Size-Specific Organ and Effective Doses of Chest CT Screening Examinations of the National Lung Screening Trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choonsik; Flynn, Michael J; Judy, Phillip F; Cody, Dianna D; Bolch, Wesley E; Kruger, Randell L

    2017-05-01

    We calculated body size-specific organ and effective doses for 23,734 participants in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) using a CT dose calculator. We collected participant-specific technical parameters of 23,734 participants who underwent CT in the clinical trial. For each participant, we calculated two sets of organ doses using two methods. First, we computed body size-specific organ and effective doses using the National Cancer Institute CT (NCICT) dosimetry program, which is based on dose coefficients derived from a library of body size-dependent adult male and female computational phantoms. We then recalculated organ and effective doses using dose coefficients from reference size phantoms for all examinations to investigate potential errors caused by the lack of body size consideration in the dose calculations. The underweight participants (body mass index [BMI; weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters] < 18.5) received 1.3-fold greater lung dose (median, 4.93 mGy) than the obese participants (BMI > 30) (3.90 mGy). Thyroid doses were approximately 1.3- to 1.6-fold greater than the lung doses (6.3-6.5 mGy). The reference phantom-based dose calculation underestimates the body size-specific lung dose by up to 50% for the underweight participants and overestimates that value by up to 200% for the overweight participants. The median effective dose ranges from 2.01 mSv in obese participants to 2.80 mSv in underweight participants. Body size-specific organ and effective doses were computed for 23,734 NLST participants who underwent low-dose CT screening. The use of reference size phantoms can lead to significant errors in organ dose estimates when body size is not considered in the dose assessment.

  7. Luminescent analysis of lymphocytes of peripheral blood in definition of organism's sensitivity to specific antigene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusupova, Lira B.

    1994-01-01

    Possibility for definition of organism's sensitivity to specific allergen by means of luminescent analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes was shown. The positive correlation dependence between luminescence intensity increase at 640 nm of acridine orange colored lymphocytes after simulation by specific allergene in vitro and the serum antiallergene antibodies level was detected.

  8. The Relevance of Rodent-Specific Tumors in Cancer Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory animal species have organs that do not specifically occur in humans and somtimes tumors arise in these organs. The lack of direct site concordance frequently results in significant debate on the human relevance of tumors that arise from rodent specific organs. The re...

  9. The Relevance of Rodent-Specific Tumors in Cancer Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory animal species have organs that do not specifically occur in humans and somtimes tumors arise in these organs. The lack of direct site concordance frequently results in significant debate on the human relevance of tumors that arise from rodent specific organs. The re...

  10. Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on organ-specific manifestations of HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Torre, D; Speranza, F; Martegani, R

    2005-03-01

    In the last 10 years, interesting results have been reported concerning the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the changing pattern of organ-specific manifestations of HIV-1 infection. There has been a clear step-wise reduction in the incidence of several opportunistic infections (OIs), particularly Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, whereas a nonsignificant reduction in incidence has been observed for other organ-specific diseases, including invasive cervical cancer and Hodgkin disease. In addition, several organ-specific manifestations, including HIV-associated nephropathy, wasting syndrome and cardiomyopathy, are a direct consequence of damage by HIV-1, and so HAART may have a therapeutic effect in improving or preventing these manifestations. Finally, the introduction of HAART has seen the emergence of several complications, termed immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, which includes OIs such as cytomegalovirus vitritis, Mycobacterium avium complex lymphadenitis, paradoxical responses to treatment for tuberculosis, and exacerbation of cryptococcosis. Because not all HIV-1 organ-specific manifestations are decreasing in the HAART era, this review will analyse the influence of HAART on several organ-specific manifestations, and in particular OIs related to several organs, cerebral disorders and HIV-1-related neoplasia.

  11. Type-Specific Antigens in the Psittacosis-Lymphogranuloma Venereum Group of Organisms1

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, C. E. Ovid; Berman, David T.

    1965-01-01

    Fraser, C. E. Ovid (University of Wisconsin, Madison), and David T. Berman. Type-specific antigens in the psittacosis-lymphogranuloma venereum group of organisms. J. Bacteriol. 89:943–948. 1965.—Antigens of 14 strains of the psittacosis-lymphogranuloma venereum (PLV) group of organisms were prepared by treating purified particles with deoxycholate and trypsin. In complement-fixation tests of these antigens with the homologous and heterologous antisera, specific serotype differences were observed. Application of the method of specificity differences permitted placement of the 14 strains into 7 subgroups. The possible value of these techniques in immunology, epizootiology, and taxonomy of the PLV group is discussed. PMID:14276119

  12. Organ-specific isogenic metastatic breast cancer cell lines exhibit distinct Raman spectral signatures and metabolomes.

    PubMed

    Winnard, Paul T; Zhang, Chi; Vesuna, Farhad; Kang, Jeon Woong; Garry, Jonah; Dasari, Ramachandra Rao; Barman, Ishan; Raman, Venu

    2017-03-21

    Molecular characterization of organ-specific metastatic lesions, which distinguish them from the primary tumor, will provide a better understanding of tissue specific adaptations that regulate metastatic progression. Using an orthotopic xenograft model, we have isolated isogenic metastatic human breast cancer cell lines directly from organ explants that are phenotypically distinct from the primary tumor cell line. Label-free Raman spectroscopy was used and informative spectral bands were ascertained as differentiators of organ-specific metastases as opposed to the presence of a single universal marker. Decision algorithms derived from the Raman spectra unambiguously identified these isogenic cell lines as unique biological entities - a finding reinforced through metabolomic analyses that indicated tissue of origin metabolite distinctions between the cell lines. Notably, complementarity of the metabolomics and Raman datasets was found. Our findings provide evidence that metastatic spread generates tissue-specific adaptations at the molecular level within cancer cells, which can be differentiated with Raman spectroscopy.

  13. Organ-specific isogenic metastatic breast cancer cell lines exhibit distinct Raman spectral signatures and metabolomes

    PubMed Central

    Winnard, Paul T.; Zhang, Chi; Vesuna, Farhad; Kang, Jeon Woong; Garry, Jonah; Dasari, Ramachandra Rao; Barman, Ishan; Raman, Venu

    2017-01-01

    Molecular characterization of organ-specific metastatic lesions, which distinguish them from the primary tumor, will provide a better understanding of tissue specific adaptations that regulate metastatic progression. Using an orthotopic xenograft model, we have isolated isogenic metastatic human breast cancer cell lines directly from organ explants that are phenotypically distinct from the primary tumor cell line. Label-free Raman spectroscopy was used and informative spectral bands were ascertained as differentiators of organ-specific metastases as opposed to the presence of a single universal marker. Decision algorithms derived from the Raman spectra unambiguously identified these isogenic cell lines as unique biological entities – a finding reinforced through metabolomic analyses that indicated tissue of origin metabolite distinctions between the cell lines. Notably, complementarity of the metabolomics and Raman datasets was found. Our findings provide evidence that metastatic spread generates tissue-specific adaptations at the molecular level within cancer cells, which can be differentiated with Raman spectroscopy. PMID:28145887

  14. The specificity of proneural genes in determining Drosophila sense organ identity.

    PubMed

    Jarman, A P; Ahmed, I

    1998-08-01

    The proneural genes (atonal and the genes of the achaete-scute complex (AS-C)) are required for the selection of sense organ precursors. They also endow these precursors with sense organ subtype information. In most of the ectoderm, atonal is required for precursors of chordotonal sense organs, whereas AS-C are required for those of most external sense organs, such as bristles. To address the question of how proneural genes influence subtype identity, we have made use of the Gal4/UAS system of misexpression. Unlike previous misexpression experiments, we found that under specific conditions of misexpression, atonal shows high subtype specificity of ectopic sense organ formation. Moreover, atonal can even transform wild-type external sense organs to chordotonal organs, although scute cannot perform the reciprocal transformation. Our evidence demonstrates that atonal's subtype determining role is not to activate directly chordotonal fate, but to repress the activation of cut, a gene that is necessary for external sense organ fate, thereby freeing its precursors to follow the alternative chordotonal organ fate.

  15. Improving Site-Specific Radiological Performance Assessments - 13431

    SciTech Connect

    Tauxe, John; Black, Paul; Catlett, Kate; Lee, Robert; Perona, Ralph; Stockton, Tom; Sully, Mike

    2013-07-01

    An improved approach is presented for conducting complete and defensible radiological site-specific performance assessments (PAs) to support radioactive waste disposal decisions. The basic tenets of PA were initiated some thirty years ago, focusing on geologic disposals and evaluating compliance with regulations. Some of these regulations were inherently probabilistic (i.e., addressing uncertainty in a quantitative fashion), such as the containment requirements of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) 40 CFR 191, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, Chap. 191.13 [1]. Methods of analysis were developed to meet those requirements, but at their core early PAs used 'conservative' parameter values and modeling approaches. This limited the utility of such PAs to compliance evaluation, and did little to inform decisions about optimizing disposal, closure and long-term monitoring and maintenance, or, in general, maintaining doses 'as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA). This basic approach to PA development in the United States was employed essentially unchanged through the end of the 20. century, principally by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Performance assessments developed in support of private radioactive waste disposal operations, regulated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and its agreement states, were typically not as sophisticated. Discussion of new approaches to PA is timely, since at the time of this writing, the DOE is in the midst of revising its Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management [2], and the NRC is revising 10 CFR 61, Licensing Requirements for Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste [3]. Over the previous decade, theoretical developments and improved computational technology have provided the foundation for integrating decision analysis (DA) concepts and objective-focused thinking, plus a Bayesian approach to

  16. Assessment of bioavailable organic phosphorus in tropical forest soils by organic acid extraction and phosphatase hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Darch, Tegan; Blackwell, Martin S A; Chadwick, David; Haygarth, Philip M; Hawkins, Jane M B; Turner, Benjamin L

    2016-12-15

    Soil organic phosphorus contributes to the nutrition of tropical trees, but is not accounted for in standard soil phosphorus tests. Plants and microbes can release organic anions to solubilize organic phosphorus from soil surfaces, and synthesize phosphatases to release inorganic phosphate from the solubilized compounds. We developed a procedure to estimate bioavailable organic phosphorus in tropical forest soils by simulating the secretion processes of organic acids and phosphatases. Five lowland tropical forest soils with contrasting properties (pH 4.4-6.1, total P 86-429 mg P kg(- 1)) were extracted with 2 mM citric acid (i.e., 10 μmol g(- 1), approximating rhizosphere concentrations) adjusted to soil pH in a 4:1 solution to soil ratio for 1 h. Three phosphatase enzymes were then added to the soil extract to determine the forms of hydrolysable organic phosphorus. Total phosphorus extracted by the procedure ranged between 3.22 and 8.06 mg P kg(- 1) (mean 5.55 ± 0.42 mg P kg(- 1)), of which on average three quarters was unreactive phosphorus (i.e., organic phosphorus plus inorganic polyphosphate). Of the enzyme-hydrolysable unreactive phosphorus, 28% was simple phosphomonoesters hydrolyzed by phosphomonoesterase from bovine intestinal mucosa, a further 18% was phosphodiesters hydrolyzed by a combination of nuclease from Penicillium citrinum and phosphomonoesterase, and the remaining 51% was hydrolyzed by a broad-spectrum phytase from wheat. We conclude that soil organic phosphorus can be solubilized and hydrolyzed by a combination of organic acids and phosphatase enzymes in lowland tropical forest soils, indicating that this pathway could make a significant contribution to biological phosphorus acquisition in tropical forests. Furthermore, we have developed a method that can be used to assess the bioavailability of this soil organic phosphorus.

  17. Molecularly imprinted polymers for the pre-concentration of polar organic micropollutants for compound-specific isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkour, Rani; Hofstetter, Thomas B.

    2014-05-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) is a promising tool for assessing transformations of polar organic micropollutants such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals and consumer chemicals in aquatic systems. There are, however, two major challenges: (1) Polar organic micropollutants occur at very low levels and, as a consequence, large amounts of water are required to achieve analyte enrichment with factors of 50'000 and more, inevitably leading to large interferences from the aqueous matrix. (2) The polarity of these micropollutants impedes the use of typical non-polar sorbates for solid-phase enrichment. In view of these challenges, the use of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) is a promising approach to produce tailor-made materials for highly selective enrichment of polar organic micropollutants with reduced matrix interferences. In this work, we explore the use of MIP to selectively enrich benzotriazoles, an important class of polar aquatic micropollutants. Polymers were synthesized in the presence of 5,6-dimethyl-1H-benzotriazole as a template, which leaves cavities in the polymer matrix with a very high affinity to the template and closely related structures including our main target analyte, 1H-benzotrizole. After extraction of the template, specific recognition of substituted benzotriazoles is expected by the synthesized MIPs. As the MIP has no specific affinity to the matrix, there is also expected to be negligible enrichment of the matrix. Retention factors of the MIP are compared for different synthetic procedures and to non-imprinted polymers where no specific intermolecular interactions with benzotriazoles are expected. Optimum performance of the MIP is demonstrated in this study in terms of the selectivity of enrichment, recoveries of analytes and the goodness of carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios measured by gas chromatography isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS). This approach will enable us to enrich large amounts of aqueous samples while

  18. The COA360: a tool for assessing the cultural competency of healthcare organizations.

    PubMed

    LaVeist, Thomas A; Relosa, Rachel; Sawaya, Nadia

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Census Bureau projects that by 2050, non-Hispanic whites will be in the numerical minority. This rapid diversification requires healthcare organizations to pay closer attention to cross-cultural issues if they are to meet the healthcare needs of the nation and continue to maintain a high standard of care. Although scorecards and benchmarking are widely used to gauge healthcare organizations' performance in various areas, these tools have been underused in relation to cultural preparedness or initiatives. The likely reason for this is the lack of a validated tool specifically designed to examine cultural competency. Existing validated cultural competency instruments evaluate individuals, not organizations. In this article, we discuss a study to validate the Cultural Competency Organizational Assessment--360 or the COA360, an instrument designed to appraise a healthcare organization's cultural competence. The Office of Minority Health and the Joint Commission have each developed standards for measuring the cultural competency of organizations. The COA360 is designed to assess adherence to both of these sets of standards. For this validation study, we enlisted a panel of national experts. The panel rated each dimension of the COA360, and the combination of items for each of the scale's 14 dimensions was rated above 4.13 (on 5-point scale). Our conclusion points to the validity of the COA360. As such, it is a valuable tool not only for assessing a healthcare organization's cultural readiness but also for benchmarking its progress in addressing cultural and diversity issues.

  19. Nano-Chemomechanical Assessment of Organic Rich Shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedi, S.; Slim, M. I.; Ferralis, N.; Ulm, F.

    2013-12-01

    Organic rich shales, a rapidly increasing source of fossil fuels, have recently gained significant attention from the geomechanics and geochemistry communities. Despite their importance, the chemomechanical characterization of organic rich shales remains a pressing challenge due to their highly heterogeneous microstructure, complex chemistry, and multiscale mechanical performances. Such complexity requires advanced and innovative characterization tools for a complete understanding of the role played by different constituents in the chemomechnaical properties at multiple scales. In this study, experimental and theoretical microporomechanics have been employed for assessing the microtexture and material invariant properties of clay-dominated organic rich shales at nanometer length scales. A novel experimental methodology consisting of instrumented nanoindenation experiments and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) is developed for the proper chemomechanical characterization of the main constituents of the composite shale material. Combining experimental characterization with micromechanical modeling, the material invariant properties and mesotexture of material main constituents are investigated. The results provide evidence that mature clay-dominated organic rich shale systems exhibit a kerogen stiffening of the mechanical properties of the elementary particles. Such a stiffening effect cannot be explained by classical micromechanics models based on mean-field theories and volume averaging where a property softening would be predicted. Furthermore, it is seen that the presence and chemical composition of organic matter affects mechanical properties of organic rich shales significantly. The role of kerogen maturity, type, and chemical composition on mechanical performance of the material is investigated by incorporating results from Raman Spectroscopy into the analysis. The results of this investigation are used to define a model of the fundamental building

  20. Perils in the Meticulous Specification of Goals and Assessment Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, D. Royce

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of assessment policies can sometimes achieve almost the reverse of what was originally intended. Studies published in a special issue of "Assessment in Education" provide the basis for this bird's eye view of particular practices in post-compulsory education and training in the UK. Problems identified include the trend…

  1. Standardised Library Instruction Assessment: An Institution-Specific Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staley, Shannon M.; Branch, Nicole A.; Hewitt, Tom L.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: We explore the use of a psychometric model for locally-relevant, information literacy assessment, using an online tool for standardised assessment of student learning during discipline-based library instruction sessions. Method: A quantitative approach to data collection and analysis was used, employing standardised multiple-choice…

  2. Ambulatory Assessment in Panic Disorder and Specific Phobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpers, Georg W.

    2009-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent mental disorders. In panic disorder, panic attacks often occur at unpredictable times, making it difficult to study these episodes in the laboratory. In specific phobias, symptoms occur in very circumscribed situations and specific triggers are sometimes difficult to reproduce in the laboratory.…

  3. Ambulatory Assessment in Panic Disorder and Specific Phobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpers, Georg W.

    2009-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent mental disorders. In panic disorder, panic attacks often occur at unpredictable times, making it difficult to study these episodes in the laboratory. In specific phobias, symptoms occur in very circumscribed situations and specific triggers are sometimes difficult to reproduce in the laboratory.…

  4. Defining multiple organ failure after major trauma: A comparison of the Denver, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment and Marshall scoring systems

    PubMed Central

    Hutchings, Lynn; Watkinson, Peter; Young, J Duncan; Willett, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Background Postinjury multiple organ failure (MOF) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. A large number of scoring systems have been proposed to define MOF, with no gold-standard. The purpose of this study was to compare three commonly used scores – the Denver PostInjury Multiple Organ Failure Score, the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and the Marshall Multiple Organ Dysfunction Score – by descriptive analysis of the populations described by each score, and their predictive ability for mortality. Methods An observational cohort study was performed at a UK trauma center on major trauma patients requiring ICU admission from 2003-2011. A novel trauma database was created, merging national audit data with local electronic monitoring systems. Data were collected on demographics, laboratory results, pharmacy, interventions, and hourly physiological monitoring. The primary outcome measure was mortality within 100 days from injury. Sensitivity analyses and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to assess the predictive ability of MOF scores for mortality. Results In total, 491 patients were included in the trauma database. MOF incidence ranged from 22.8% (Denver) to 40.5% (Marshall) to 58.5% (SOFA). MOF definition did not affect timing of onset, but did alter duration and organ failure patterns. Overall mortality was 10.6%, with Denver MOF associated with the greatest increased risk of death (Hazard Ratio 3.87, 95% CI 2.24-6.66). No significant difference was observed in area under the ROC curve values between scores. Marked differences were seen in relative predictors, with Denver showing highest specificity (81%) and SOFA highest sensitivity (73%) for mortality. Conclusions The choice of MOF scoring system affects incidence, duration, organ dysfunction patterns and mortality prediction. We would recommend use of the Denver score since it is simplest to calculate, identifies a high-risk group of patients and has the

  5. Defining multiple organ failure after major trauma: A comparison of the Denver, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, and Marshall scoring systems.

    PubMed

    Hutchings, Lynn; Watkinson, Peter; Young, J Duncan; Willett, Keith

    2017-03-01

    Postinjury multiple organ failure (MOF) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. A large number of scoring systems have been proposed to define MOF, with no criterion standard. The purpose of this study was to compare three commonly used scores: the Denver Postinjury Multiple Organ Failure Score, the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA), and the Marshall Multiple Organ Dysfunction Score, by descriptive analysis of the populations described by each score, and their predictive ability for mortality. An observational cohort study was performed at a UK trauma center on major trauma patients requiring intensive care unit admission from 2003 to 2011. A novel trauma database was created, merging national audit data with local electronic monitoring systems. Data were collected on demographics, laboratory results, pharmacy, interventions, and hourly physiological monitoring. The primary outcome measure was mortality within 100 days from injury. Sensitivity analyses and receiver operating characteristic curves were used to assess the predictive ability of MOF scores for mortality. In total, 491 patients were included in the trauma database. MOF incidence ranged from 22.8% (Denver) to 40.5% (Marshall) to 58.5% (SOFA). MOF definition did not affect timing of onset, but did alter duration and organ failure patterns. Overall mortality was 10.6%, with Denver MOF associated with the greatest increased risk of death (hazard ratio 3.87, 95% confidence interval, 2.24-6.66). No significant difference was observed in area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values between scores. Marked differences were seen in relative predictors, with Denver showing highest specificity (81%) and SOFA highest sensitivity (73%) for mortality. The choice of MOF scoring system affects incidence, duration, organ dysfunction patterns, and mortality prediction. We would recommend use of the Denver score since it is simplest to calculate, identifies a high-risk group of

  6. Assessing the functional mechanical properties of bioengineered organs with emphasis on the lung.

    PubMed

    Suki, Béla

    2014-09-01

    Recently, an exciting new approach has emerged in regenerative medicine pushing the forefront of tissue engineering to create bioartificial organs. The basic idea is to create biological scaffolds made of extracellular matrix (ECM) that preserves the three-dimensional architecture of an entire organ. These scaffolds are then used as templates for functional tissue and organ reconstruction after re-seeding the structure with stem cells or appropriately differentiated cells. In order to make sure that these bioartificial organs will be able to function in the mechanical environment of the native tissue, it is imperative to fully characterize their mechanical properties and match them with those of the normal native organs. This mini-review briefly summarizes modern measurement techniques of mechanical function characterized mostly by the material or volumetric stiffness. Micro-scale and macro-scale techniques such as atomic force microscopy and the tissue strip stress-strain approach are discussed with emphasis on those that combine mechanical measurements with structural visualization. Proper micro-scale stiffness helps attachment and differentiation of cells in the bioartificial organ whereas macro-scale functionality is provided by the overall mechanical properties of the construct. Several approaches including failure mechanics are also described, which specifically probe the contributions of the main ECM components including collagen, elastin, and proteoglycans to organ level ECM function. Advantages, drawbacks, and possible pitfalls as well as interpretation of the data are given throughout. Finally, specific techniques to assess the functionality of the ECM of bioartificial lungs are separately discussed.

  7. Examiners and Content and Site: Oh My! a National Organization's Investigation of Score Variation in Large-Scale Performance Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebok, Stefanie S.; Roy, Marguerite; Klinger, Don A.; De Champlain, André F.

    2015-01-01

    Examiner effects and content specificity are two well known sources of construct irrelevant variance that present great challenges in performance-based assessments. National medical organizations that are responsible for large-scale performance based assessments experience an additional challenge as they are responsible for administering…

  8. Examiners and Content and Site: Oh My! a National Organization's Investigation of Score Variation in Large-Scale Performance Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebok, Stefanie S.; Roy, Marguerite; Klinger, Don A.; De Champlain, André F.

    2015-01-01

    Examiner effects and content specificity are two well known sources of construct irrelevant variance that present great challenges in performance-based assessments. National medical organizations that are responsible for large-scale performance based assessments experience an additional challenge as they are responsible for administering…

  9. Programmed death in a unicellular organism has species-specific fitness effects.

    PubMed

    Durand, Pierre M; Choudhury, Rajdeep; Rashidi, Armin; Michod, Richard E

    2014-02-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is an ancient phenomenon and its origin and maintenance in unicellular life is unclear. We report that programmed death provides differential fitness effects that are species specific in the model organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Remarkably, PCD in this organism not only benefits others of the same species, but also has an inhibitory effect on the growth of other species. These data reveal that the fitness effects of PCD can depend upon genetic relatedness.

  10. [Prostate carcinoma (PC)--an organ-related specific pathological neoplasm].

    PubMed

    Massmann, J; Funk, A; Altwein, J; Praetorius, M

    2003-06-01

    The organ- and tumour-related specific characteristics of prostate carcinoma (PC) are presented in an overview under various aspects. It is the key for understanding pathological changes, including PC, to consider the subdivision of the prostate into anatomically and functionally distinguishable zones, especially the transitional zone (TZ) and the peripheral zone (PZ). The pseudoneoplastic hyperplasia of the TZ, combined with inflammatory consequences and age-related changes, forms a differential diagnostic challenge to both clinico-radiological diagnosis and macroscopic and microscopic examination. High-degree prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia (PIN III) and atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) are presented as precursor lesions of PC with varying significance and assessment. Moreover, there are discussed the following characteristic features of PC: localisation types, focality, volume, progression, double-graduation according to Gleason, tumour stage, and prognosis. The most important prognosis factors of PC (category I) include the categories of the TNM system, such as stage, surgical marginal situation, degree and also the preoperative PSA level as a (poor) substitute for the tumour volume. Potential prognosis parameters (category II) show the tumour volume and the DNS ploidy, while there continues to exist a large number of non-established parameters (category III). The prognostic validity of the pathological examinations depends, on the one hand, on the tissue extent (needle biopsy, transurethral resection (TURP), so-called simple prostatectomy, radical prostatectomy (RPE)) and the prostate zones covered. On the other hand, the prognostic certainty also depends on the tumour-adequate macroscopic and microscopic assessment of an RPE that can only be a partial or complete handling in transversal large-area sections.

  11. Assessing the impact of integrating POGIL in Elementary Organic Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatila, Ahmad

    Organic chemistry is a difficult subject to teach especially to non-chemistry majors. CHE 251, Elementary Organic Chemistry, is an introductory course in organic chemistry given to non-chemistry majors. It is usually taught the traditional way using lectures as the main method of presentation. In the fall of 2006, POGIL (Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning) activities were introduced in this course. POGIL is a program that integrates guided inquiry and cooperative learning in chemistry education. The purpose of this research study was to determine the effect of using POGIL activities in elementary organic chemistry. CHE 251, Elementary Organic Chemistry, was taught using a mixture of traditional teaching, lecturing, and POGIL activities. This was assessed by looking at the effect of using POGIL activities on student achievement. Furthermore, the study investigated possible effects of POGIL activities on students' attitudes toward chemistry. Archival data on 28 students enrolled in the fall 2004 semester were used in this study. In addition, 27 students enrolled in the 2006 semester participated in the study by completing an attitudinal survey that was developed by the researcher. Finally, 9 students enrolled in the 2006 semester were interviewed to give additional insight to the study. The quantitative data concerning achievement revealed no significant difference between groups, students who used POGIL did not differ from students who did not. Further, the quantitative data concerning confidence levels of students in understanding and applying organic chemistry before and after going through the POGIL activities revealed no significant difference. This study showed that students in general (88.8% of surveyed students) liked POGIL activities and preferred them over lecturing. Students thought that POGIL activities helped them better understand and learn chemistry. Furthermore, students acknowledged the benefits of guided inquiry and cooperative learning, the

  12. Organ-specific SPECT activity calibration using 3D printed phantoms for molecular radiotherapy dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Andrew P; Tipping, Jill; Cullen, David M; Hamilton, David; Brown, Richard; Flynn, Alex; Oldfield, Christopher; Page, Emma; Price, Emlyn; Smith, Andrew; Snee, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Patient-specific absorbed dose calculations for molecular radiotherapy require accurate activity quantification. This is commonly derived from Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) imaging using a calibration factor relating detected counts to known activity in a phantom insert. A series of phantom inserts, based on the mathematical models underlying many clinical dosimetry calculations, have been produced using 3D printing techniques. SPECT/CT data for the phantom inserts has been used to calculate new organ-specific calibration factors for (99m) Tc and (177)Lu. The measured calibration factors are compared to predicted values from calculations using a Gaussian kernel. Measured SPECT calibration factors for 3D printed organs display a clear dependence on organ shape for (99m) Tc and (177)Lu. The observed variation in calibration factor is reproduced using Gaussian kernel-based calculation over two orders of magnitude change in insert volume for (99m) Tc and (177)Lu. These new organ-specific calibration factors show a 24, 11 and 8 % reduction in absorbed dose for the liver, spleen and kidneys, respectively. Non-spherical calibration factors from 3D printed phantom inserts can significantly improve the accuracy of whole organ activity quantification for molecular radiotherapy, providing a crucial step towards individualised activity quantification and patient-specific dosimetry. 3D printed inserts are found to provide a cost effective and efficient way for clinical centres to access more realistic phantom data.

  13. Interrater reliability for Kernberg's structural interview for assessing personality organization.

    PubMed

    Ingenhoven, Theo J M; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Brogtrop, Janneke; Lindenborn, Anne; van den Brink, Wim; Passchier, Jan

    2009-10-01

    Interrater reliability is considered a precondition for the validity of theoretical models and their corresponding diagnostic instruments. Studies have documented good interrater reliability for structured interviews measuring personality characteristics on a descriptive-phenomenological level but there is little research on reliability of assessment procedures on a structural level. The current study investigated the interrater reliability of the structural interview (SI) designed to assess neurotic, borderline, and psychotic personality organization according to Kernberg. Videotaped SIs of 69 psychiatric patients were randomly and independently rated by two out of three trained psychologists. Agreement between rater pairs was expressed as square weighted kappa (K(sw), 95% CI). Results indicate satisfactory interrater reliability with respect to Kernberg's tripartite classification (K(sw) = 0.42, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.77). Subdivision of the borderline category or introduction of intermediate subcategories to the tripartite system did not significantly affect reliability (K(sw) = 0.55, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.80; K(sw) = 0.59, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.84, respectively). The conclusion is that trained clinicians can reliably assess structural personality organization using the SI. Refining the nosological system adding subcategories did not reduce reliability.

  14. Development and testing of biosensors that quantitatively and specifically detect organic contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, P.; Keim, P.; Kuske, C.; Willardson, B.

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a two-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project sought to develop a more sensitive and less expensive method of detecting organic contaminants. Assaying complex environmental samples for organic contaminant content is costly and labor intensive. This often limits extensive testing. Sensitive microbial biosensors that detect specific organic contaminants in complex waste mixtures without prior separation from other waste components have been developed. Some soil microbes degrade organic compounds that contaminate the environment. These bacteria sense minute quantities of particular organic compounds then respond by activating genes encoding enzymes that degrade these molecules. Genetic manipulation of these gene regulatory processes has been employed to develop unique biosensors that detect specific organic compounds using standard biochemical assays. Such biosensors allow rapid, sensitive testing of environmental samples for selected organic contaminants. The cost of biosensor assays is at least 100-fold less than present methods, allowing more rapid and extensive testing and site characterization.

  15. Assessment of thin film batteries based on polymer electrolytes. Part 3: Specific energy versus specific power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munshi, M. Z. A.; Owens, Boone B.

    1989-06-01

    The feasibility of solid state polymer electrolyte batteries for applications such as the electric vehicle depends on the variation in the performance levels of the specific energy and specific power. Efforts were centered mainly on rechargeable lithium batteries with electrolyte complexes formed between polyethylene oxide and lithium salts having an ionic conductivity of .0001 Ohms/cm and V6O13 insertion cathodes. Prismatic unit cells of variable cathode thicknesses have been modeled and calculated results indicate that high specific energies (approx. 700 W/kg) are possible for this battery system utilizing metallic current collectors. Considerably higher values result for low density metallized plastic current collectors.

  16. Noninvasive assessment of mitochondrial organization in three-dimensional tissues reveals changes associated with cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Xylas, Joanna; Varone, Antonio; Quinn, Kyle P.; Pouli, Dimitra; McLaughlin-Drubin, Margaret E.; Thieu, Hong-Thao; Garcia-Moliner, Maria L.; House, Michael; Hunter, Martin; Munger, Karl; Georgakoudi, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial organization is often altered to accommodate cellular bioenergetic and biosynthetic demands. Changes in metabolism are a hallmark of a number of diseases, including cancer; however, the interdependence between mitochondrial metabolic function and organization is not well understood. Here, we present a noninvasive, automated and quantitative method to assess mitochondrial organization in three-dimensional (3D) tissues using exclusively endogenous two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and show that mitochondrial organization reflects alterations in metabolic activities. Specifically, we examine the organization of mitochondria within live, engineered epithelial tissue equivalents that mimic normal and precancerous human squamous epithelial tissues. We identify unique patterns of mitochondrial organization in the different tissue models we examine, and we attribute these to differences in the metabolic profiles of these tissues. We find that mitochondria are clustered in tissues with high levels of glycolysis and are more highly networked in tissues where oxidative phosphorylation is more dominant. The most highly networked organization is observed within cells with high levels of glutamine consumption. Furthermore, we demonstrate that mitochondrial organization provides complementary information to traditional morphological hallmarks of cancer development, including variations in nuclear size. Finally, we present evidence that this automated quantitative analysis of endogenous TPEF images can identify differences in the mitochondrial organization of freshly excised normal and pre-cancerous human cervical tissue specimens. Thus, this method could be a promising new modality to assess the role of mitochondrial organization in the metabolic activity of 3D tissues and could be further developed to serve as an early cancer clinical diagnostic biomarker. PMID:24862444

  17. Monitoring of Transplanted Liver Health by Quantification of Organ-Specific Genomic Marker in Circulating DNA from Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Macher, Hada C.; Suárez-Artacho, Gonzalo; Guerrero, Juan M.; Gómez-Bravo, Miguel A.; Álvarez-Gómez, Sara; Bernal-Bellido, Carmen; Dominguez-Pascual, Inmaculada; Rubio, Amalia

    2014-01-01

    Background Health assessment of the transplanted organ is very important due to the relationship of long-term survival of organ transplant recipients and health organ maintenance. Nowadays, the measurement of cell-free DNA from grafts in the circulation of transplant recipients has been considered a potential biomarker of organ rejection or transplant associated complications in an attempt to replace or reduce liver biopsy. However, methods developed to date are expensive and extremely time-consuming. Our approach was to measure the SRY gene, as a male organ biomarker, in a setting of sex-mismatched female recipients of male donor organs. Methods Cell-free DNA quantization of the SRY gene was performed by real-time quantitative PCR beforehand, at the moment of transplantation during reperfusion (day 0) and during the stay at the intensive care unit. Beta-globin cell-free DNA levels, a general cellular damage marker, were also quantified. Results Beta-globin mean values of patients, who accepted the graft without any complications during the first week after surgery, diminished from day 0 until patient stabilization. This decrease was not so evident in patients who suffered some kind of post-transplantation complications. All patients showed an increase in SRY levels at day 0, which decreased during hospitalization. Different complications that did not compromise donated organs showed increased beta-globin levels but no SRY gene levels. However, when a donated organ was damaged the patients exhibited high levels of both genes. Conclusion Determination of a SRY gene in a female recipient's serum is a clear and specific biomarker of donated organs and may give us important information about graft health in a short period of time by a non-expensive technique. This approach may permit clinicians to maintain a close follow up of the transplanted patient. PMID:25489845

  18. Position-specific isotope modeling of organic micropollutants transformation through different reaction pathways.

    PubMed

    Jin, Biao; Rolle, Massimo

    2016-03-01

    The degradation of organic micropollutants occurs via different reaction pathways. Compound specific isotope analysis is a valuable tool to identify such degradation pathways in different environmental systems. We propose a mechanism-based modeling approach that provides a quantitative framework to simultaneously evaluate concentration as well as bulk and position-specific multi-element isotope evolution during the transformation of organic micropollutants. The model explicitly simulates position-specific isotopologues for those atoms that experience isotope effects and, thereby, provides a mechanistic description of isotope fractionation occurring at different molecular positions. To demonstrate specific features of the modeling approach, we simulated the degradation of three selected organic micropollutants: dichlorobenzamide (BAM), isoproturon (IPU) and diclofenac (DCF). The model accurately reproduces the multi-element isotope data observed in previous experimental studies. Furthermore, it precisely captures the dual element isotope trends characteristic of different reaction pathways as well as their range of variation consistent with observed bulk isotope fractionation. It was also possible to directly validate the model capability to predict the evolution of position-specific isotope ratios with available experimental data. Therefore, the approach is useful both for a mechanism-based evaluation of experimental results and as a tool to explore transformation pathways in scenarios for which position-specific isotope data are not yet available.

  19. SMALL POPULATIONS REQUIRE SPECIFIC MODELING APPROACHES FOR ASSESSING RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    All populations face non-zero risks of extinction. However, the risks for small populations, and therefore the modeling approaches necessary to predict them, are different from those of large populations. These differences are currently hindering assessment of risk to small pop...

  20. SMALL POPULATIONS REQUIRE SPECIFIC MODELING APPROACHES FOR ASSESSING RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    All populations face non-zero risks of extinction. However, the risks for small populations, and therefore the modeling approaches necessary to predict them, are different from those of large populations. These differences are currently hindering assessment of risk to small pop...

  1. 42 CFR 483.315 - Specification of resident assessment instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... updated periodically, and consists of the following: (1) The minimum data set (MDS) and common definitions... accurately assess residents, established by CMS. (3) The quarterly review, based on a subset of the MDS specified by CMS. (4) The requirements for use of the RAI that appear at § 483.20. (e) Minimum data set...

  2. 42 CFR 483.315 - Specification of resident assessment instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... updated periodically, and consists of the following: (1) The minimum data set (MDS) and common definitions... accurately assess residents, established by CMS. (3) The quarterly review, based on a subset of the MDS specified by CMS. (4) The requirements for use of the RAI that appear at § 483.20. (e) Minimum data set...

  3. Strategically Assessing International Business Course-Specific Learning Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kashlak, Roger; Lorenzi, Peter; Cummings, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    During the past 30 years, there have been calls for universities and business schools to internationalize curriculum, students and faculty. As most U.S. business schools have added international components to their respective programs, the assessment of these programs was subsequently recommended from accreditation and competitive perspectives. To…

  4. Compositional effects of organic material in HC potential assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, W. P.; Tsai, L. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Studies of petroleum system is the main theme of hydrocarbon potential assessment, in which the characteristics of source rock is especially worth noticed. In recent years, besides the growth of conventional hydrocarbon resources being rapidly utilized, the exploration of unconventional deposits is getting more and more important. Since Taiwan has a strong energy demand and still highly relied on imported fossil fuel, the development of unconventional gas resources needs to be considered. This research discussed the relationship among characteristics and thermal maturity of different organic material versus their hydrocarbon potential. In order to compare the compositional effects from different organic material, torbanites from Huangxian basin, China and Miocene humic coal from Chuhuangkeng Anticline (one of the most productive oil and gas fields), Taiwan were examined and compared. Torbanites from China had relatively low maturation with vitrinite reflectance 0.38~0.51%, whereas the maturation of humic coal from Chuhuangkeng Anticline are a little bit higher with vitrinite reflectance 0.55~0.6%, plus some methane explored. Methods of study include petrographic analysis, vitrinite reflectance measurement (Ro%), Rock-Eval pyrolysis, and other geochemical parameters. The conclusions were derived after comparing experimental results and the regional geologic information of samples studied. In conclude, sample from China is type I kerogen, and its organic matter is mostly algae, whereas the humic coal sample from Taiwan belongs to type III kerogen. The analytic results indicate that the characteristics organic matters affect their maturity. Even though the thermal history and depositional environments are different in Taiwan and China, their organic micelles still exhibit a similar trend in the process of coalification. The role of maceral composition played in HC potential needs to be considered in future shale gas exploration.

  5. Specificity, contexts, and reference groups matter when assessing autistic traits

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Dern, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Many of the personality and behavioral traits (e.g., social imperviousness, directness in conversation, lack of imagination, affinity for solitude, difficulty displaying emotions) that are known to be sensitive to context (with whom?) and reference group (according to whom?) also appear in questionnaire-based assessments of autistic traits. Therefore, two experiments investigated the effects of specifying contexts and reference groups when assessing autistic traits in autistic and non-autistic participants. Experiment 1 (124 autistic and 124 non-autistic participants) demonstrated that context matters when assessing autistic traits (F(1,244) = 267.5, p < .001, η2p = .523). When the context of the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire was specified as the participants’ out-group (e.g., “I like being around non-autistic people” or “I like being around autistic people”), both autistic and non-autistic participants self-reported having more autistic traits; when the context was specified as the participants’ in-group, participants reported having fewer autistic traits. Experiment 2 (82 autistic and 82 non-autistic participants) demonstrated that reference group matters when assessing autistic traits (F(2,160) = 94.38, p < .001, η2p = .541). When the reference group on the Social Responsiveness Scale was specified as the participants’ out-group (e.g., “According to non-autistic people, I have unusual eye contact”), autistic participants reported having more autistic traits; when the reference group was their in-group, autistic participants reported having fewer autistic traits. Non-autistic participants appeared insensitive to reference group on the Social Responsiveness Scale. Exploratory analyses suggested that when neither the context nor the reference group is specified (for assessing autistic traits on the Autism-Spectrum Quotient), both autistic and non-autistic participants use the majority (“non-autistic people”) as the implied context and

  6. Tissue-specific expression and dynamic organization of SR splicing factors in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuda; Hearn, Stephen; Spector, David L

    2004-06-01

    The organization of the pre-mRNA splicing machinery has been extensively studied in mammalian and yeast cells and far less is known in living plant cells and different cell types of an intact organism. Here, we report on the expression, organization, and dynamics of pre-mRNA splicing factors (SR33, SR1/atSRp34, and atSRp30) under control of their endogenous promoters in Arabidopsis. Distinct tissue-specific expression patterns were observed, and differences in the distribution of these proteins within nuclei of different cell types were identified. These factors localized in a cell type-dependent speckled pattern as well as being diffusely distributed throughout the nucleoplasm. Electron microscopic analysis has revealed that these speckles correspond to interchromatin granule clusters. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that speckles move within a constrained nuclear space, and their organization is altered during the cell cycle. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis revealed a rapid exchange rate of splicing factors in nuclear speckles. The dynamic organization of plant speckles is closely related to the transcriptional activity of the cells. The organization and dynamic behavior of speckles in Arabidopsis cell nuclei provides significant insight into understanding the functional compartmentalization of the nucleus and its relationship to chromatin organization within various cell types of a single organism.

  7. [The role of T-lymphocytes in organ-specific autoimmune diseases].

    PubMed

    Fierz, W

    1987-03-14

    Chronic debilitating diseases such as multiple sclerosis, demyelinating inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus type I, Hashimoto thyroiditis, forms of uveitis and interstitial nephritis, share many characteristics. They are all organ-specific inflammatory diseases of unknown etiology but with strong evidence of tissue-destructive activity of the cellular immune system in the organs respectively affected, i.e. the central or peripheral nervous system, the joints, the islets of Langerhans, the thyroid gland, the retina, or the tubulo-interstitial renal tissue. Recognized animal models of all these diseases are experimentally induced autoimmune conditions that are transferable with autoreactive T-lymphocytes, in contrast to autoantibodies in humoral autoimmune diseases. In recent years, disease-transferring T-lymphocytes, have been successfully grown as lines and clones in vitro, thus finally proving the primary pathogenic role of autoreactive T-lymphocytes in these animal models. Such T-cell lines are valuable tools in further defining autoantigens, studying mechanisms of T-cell activation in vitro, following T-cell migration and organ-specific homing in vivo, and analyzing effector functions in the infiltrated organs. In addition, questions concerning the breakdown of immunological selftolerance and the basic principles of resistance to disease can be addressed, and possibilities of treatment can be approached. Although the basic etiology of the human organ-specific immune diseases is still unknown, these animal models have helped to throw light on some of the pathogenic mechanisms common to these various diseases.

  8. The lateral organ boundaries gene defines a novel, plant-specific gene family.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Bin; Reynaga-Peña, Cristina G; Springer, Patricia S

    2002-06-01

    The LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES (LOB) gene in Arabidopsis defines a new conserved protein domain. LOB is expressed in a band of cells at the adaxial base of all lateral organs formed from the shoot apical meristem and at the base of lateral roots. LOB encodes a predicted protein that does not have recognizable functional motifs, but that contains a conserved domain (the LOB domain) that is present in 42 other Arabidopsis proteins and in proteins from a variety of other plant species. Proteins showing similarity to the LOB domain were not found outside of plant databases, indicating that this unique protein may play a role in plant-specific processes. Genes encoding LOB domain proteins are expressed in a variety of temporal- and tissue-specific patterns, suggesting that they may function in diverse processes. Loss-of-function LOB mutants have no detectable phenotype under standard growth conditions, suggesting that LOB is functionally redundant or required during growth under specific environmental conditions. Ectopic expression of LOB leads to alterations in the size and shape of leaves and floral organs and causes male and female sterility. The expression of LOB at the base of lateral organs suggests a potential role for LOB in lateral organ development.

  9. Environmental occurrence and ecological risk assessment of organic UV filters in marine organisms from Hong Kong coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Sang, Ziye; Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin

    2016-10-01

    Organic UV filters, now considered to be emerging contaminants in aquatic ecosystems, are being intensively tracked in environmental waters worldwide. However, their environmental fate and impact of these contaminants on marine organisms remains largely unknown, especially in Asia. This work elucidates the occurrence and the ecological risks of seven UV filters detected in farmed fish, wild mussels and some other wild organisms collected from local mariculture farms in Hong Kong. For all of the organisms, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and octyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoic acid (OD-PABA) were the predominant contaminants with the highest concentrations up to 51.3 and 24.1ng/g (dw), respectively; lower levels were found for benzophenone-8 (BP-8), octocrylene (OC) and benzophenone-3 (BP-3) from assessment specific to the marine aquatic environment was carried out. The risk quotient (RQ) values of EHMC and BP-3 were calculated as 3.29 and 2.60, respectively, indicating these two UV filters may pose significant risks to the marine aquatic environment.

  10. General principles for risk assessment of living modified organisms: lessons from chemical risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Hill, Ryan A; Sendashonga, Cyrie

    2003-01-01

    Modern biotechnology has led to the development and use of Living Modified Organisms (LMOs) for agriculture and other purposes. Regulators at the national level are increasingly depending on risk assessment as a tool for assessing potential adverse effects of LMOs on the environment and human health. In addition, the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, an international agreement expected to enter into force in the near future, requires risk assessment as the basis for decision-making regarding import of some LMOs. While LMO risk assessment is relatively new, there are other risk assessment disciplines which have developed over longer time periods. The field of assessment of the environmental and human health risks of chemicals is particularly well developed, and is similar in application to LMO risk assessment. This paper aims to draw lessons for LMO risk assessment from the vast experience with chemical risk assessment. Seven general principles are outlined which should serve as a useful checklist to guide assessments of risks posed by LMOs.

  11. Momentary patterns of covariation between specific affects and interpersonal behavior: Linking relationship science and personality assessment.

    PubMed

    Ross, Jaclyn M; Girard, Jeffrey M; Wright, Aidan G C; Beeney, Joseph E; Scott, Lori N; Hallquist, Michael N; Lazarus, Sophie A; Stepp, Stephanie D; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2017-02-01

    Relationships are among the most salient factors affecting happiness and wellbeing for individuals and families. Relationship science has identified the study of dyadic behavioral patterns between couple members during conflict as an important window in to relational functioning with both short-term and long-term consequences. Several methods have been developed for the momentary assessment of behavior during interpersonal transactions. Among these, the most popular is the Specific Affect Coding System (SPAFF), which organizes social behavior into a set of discrete behavioral constructs. This study examines the interpersonal meaning of the SPAFF codes through the lens of interpersonal theory, which uses the fundamental dimensions of Dominance and Affiliation to organize interpersonal behavior. A sample of 67 couples completed a conflict task, which was video recorded and coded using SPAFF and a method for rating momentary interpersonal behavior, the Continuous Assessment of Interpersonal Dynamics (CAID). Actor partner interdependence models in a multilevel structural equation modeling framework were used to study the covariation of SPAFF codes and CAID ratings. Results showed that a number of SPAFF codes had clear interpersonal signatures, but many did not. Additionally, actor and partner effects for the same codes were strongly consistent with interpersonal theory's principle of complementarity. Thus, findings reveal points of convergence and divergence in the 2 systems and provide support for central tenets of interpersonal theory. Future directions based on these initial findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Insights on Organic Carbon Inputs in the Delaware Estuary from Compound-Specific δ13C and Δ14C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikes, E. L.; Mollenhauer, G.; Schefuss, E.; Freeman, K. H.; Hermes, A. L.

    2016-02-01

    Land-derived vascular plant particulate organic matter (POM) is delivered to estuaries via rivers, yet its fate is difficult to constrain between land and sea. POM is intricately linked to sediment dynamics, making it susceptible to deposition, resuspension, and trapping. We assessed the spatial and seasonal variation in algal and vascular plant-derived POM for a transect down the Delaware Estuary, using n-alkane and fatty acid biomarkers and their compound specific δ13C values as tracers of organic matter provenance. n-Alkane distributions, and their low δ13C values reveal a markedly higher proportion of terrestrial inputs in bottom waters relative to the overlying surface waters throughout the estuary, and suggest significant marsh POM contributions that were previously undocumented. Fatty acid δ13C distributions indicate similar sources. Bacterial fatty acids from sediments in the estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) with isotope values of -30 ‰ suggest preferential uptake of terrestrial organic matter by sedimentary bacteria. Lines of evidence from both compound classes highlight marsh contributions to the ETM and in the lower estuary. Compound-specific Δ14C data from ETM sediments indicate both burial and degradation of aged terrestrial POM. Modelling of estuarine circulation suggests input of marsh POM is driven by lateral pumping in the estuary. The input of wetland POM, long recognized as a critical resource for animal ecology, may be geochemically and volumetrically important in the processing and delivery of terrestrial organic carbon to the coastal ocean.

  13. An interactive database for the assessment of histone antibody specificity

    PubMed Central

    Rothbart, Scott B.; Dickson, Bradley M.; Raab, Jesse R.; Grzybowski, Adrian T.; Krajewski, Krzysztof; Guo, Angela H.; Shanle, Erin K.; Josefowicz, Steven Z.; Fuchs, Stephen M.; Allis, C. David; Magnuson, Terry R.; Ruthenburg, Alexander J.; Strahl, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Access to high quality antibodies is a necessity for the study of histones and their posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Here we debut The Histone Antibody Specificity Database (http://www.histoneantibodies.com), an online and expanding resource cataloguing the behavior of widely used commercially available histone antibodies by peptide microarray. This interactive web portal provides a critical resource to the biological research community who routinely use these antibodies as detection reagents for a wide range of applications. PMID:26212453

  14. Soil Organic Carbon assessment on two different forest management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Minguillón, Alex; Sauras Yera, Teresa; Vallejo Calzada, Ramón

    2017-04-01

    Soil Organic Carbon assessment on two different forest management. A.F. Minguillón1, T. Sauras1, V.R: Vallejo1. 1 Departamento de Biología Evolutiva, Ecología y Ciencias Ambientales, Universidad de Barcelona, Avenida Diagonal 643, 03080 Barcelona, Spain. Soils from arid and semiarid zones are characterized by a low organic matter content from scarce plant biomass and it has been proposed that these soils have a big capacity to carbon sequestration. According to IPCC ARS WG2 (2014) report and WG3 draft, increase carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems has been identified such a potential tool for mitigation and adaptation to climate change. In ecological restoration context improve carbon sequestration is considered a management option with multiple benefits (win-win-win). Our work aims to analyze how the recently developed restoration techniques contributed to increases in terrestial ecosystem carbon storage. Two restoration techniques carried out in the last years have been evaluated. The study was carried out in 6 localities in Valencian Community (E Spain) and organic horizons of two different restoration techniques were evaluated; slash brush and thinning Aleppo pine stands. For each technique, carbon stock and its physical and chemical stability has been analysed. Preliminary results point out restoration zones acts as carbon sink due to (1) the relevant necromass input produced by slash brush increases C stock on the topsoil ;(2) Thinning increase carbon accumulation in vegetation.

  15. Category-Specific Neural Oscillations Predict Recall Organization During Memory Search

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Neal W.; Kahana, Michael J.; Rosenberg, Emily A.; Baltuch, Gordon H.; Litt, Brian; Sharan, Ashwini D.; Sperling, Michael R.; Polyn, Sean M.

    2013-01-01

    Retrieved-context models of human memory propose that as material is studied, retrieval cues are constructed that allow one to target particular aspects of past experience. We examined the neural predictions of these models by using electrocorticographic/depth recordings and scalp electroencephalography (EEG) to characterize category-specific oscillatory activity, while participants studied and recalled items from distinct, neurally discriminable categories. During study, these category-specific patterns predict whether a studied item will be recalled. In the scalp EEG experiment, category-specific activity during study also predicts whether a given item will be recalled adjacent to other same-category items, consistent with the proposal that a category-specific retrieval cue is used to guide memory search. Retrieved-context models suggest that integrative neural circuitry is involved in the construction and maintenance of the retrieval cue. Consistent with this hypothesis, we observe category-specific patterns that rise in strength as multiple same-category items are studied sequentially, and find that individual differences in this category-specific neural integration during study predict the degree to which a participant will use category information to organize memory search. Finally, we track the deployment of this retrieval cue during memory search: Category-specific patterns are stronger when participants organize their responses according to the category of the studied material. PMID:22875859

  16. Comparative toxicology of laboratory organisms for assessing hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.E.; Peterson, S.A.; Greene, J.C.; Callahan, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Multi-media/multi-trophic level bioassays have been proposed to determine the extent and severity of environmental contamination at hazardous waste sites. Comparative toxicological profiles for algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), daphnia (Daphnia magna), earthworms (Eisenia foetida), microbes (Photobacterium fisherii, mixed sewage microorganisms) and plants; wheat Stephens, (Triticum aestivum), lettuce, butter crunch, (Lactuca sativa L.) radish, Cherry Belle, (Raphanus sativa L.), red clover, Kenland, (Trifolium pratense L.) and cucumber, Spartan Valor, (Cucumis sativa L.) are presented for selected heavy metals, herbicides and insecticides. Specific chemical EC/sub 50/ values are presented for each test organism. Differences in standard deviations were compared between each individual test organism, as well as for the chemical subgroup assayed. Algae and daphnia are the most sensitive test organisms to heavy metals and insecticides followed in order of decreasing sensitivity by Microtox (Photobacterium fisherii), DO depletion rate, seed germination and earthworms. Higher plants were most sensitive to 2,4-D, (2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) followed by algae, Microtox, daphnia and earthworms. Differences in toxicity of 2,4-D chemical formulations and commercial sources of insecticides were observed with algae and daphia tests.

  17. Specific guidelines for assessing and improving the methodological quality of economic evaluations of newborn screening

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Economic evaluation of newborn screening poses specific methodological challenges. Amongst others, these challenges refer to the use of quality adjusted life years (QALYs) in newborns, and which costs and outcomes need to be considered in a full evaluation of newborn screening programmes. Because of the increasing scale and scope of such programmes, a better understanding of the methods of high-quality economic evaluations may be crucial for both producers/authors and consumers/reviewers of newborn screening-related economic evaluations. The aim of this study was therefore to develop specific guidelines designed to assess and improve the methodological quality of economic evaluations in newborn screening. Methods To develop the guidelines, existing guidelines for assessing the quality of economic evaluations were identified through a literature search, and were reviewed and consolidated using a deductive iterative approach. In a subsequent test phase, these guidelines were applied to various economic evaluations which acted as case studies. Results The guidelines for assessing and improving the methodological quality of economic evaluations in newborn screening are organized into 11 categories: “bibliographic details”, “study question and design”, “modelling”, “health outcomes”, “costs”, “discounting”, “presentation of results”, “sensitivity analyses”, “discussion”, “conclusions”, and “commentary”. Conclusions The application of the guidelines highlights important issues regarding newborn screening-related economic evaluations, and underscores the need for such issues to be afforded greater consideration in future economic evaluations. The variety in methodological quality detected by this study reveals the need for specific guidelines on the appropriate methods for conducting sound economic evaluations in newborn screening. PMID:22947299

  18. Reporting intellectual capital in health care organizations: specifics, lessons learned, and future research perspectives.

    PubMed

    Veltri, Stefania; Bronzetti, Giovanni; Sicoli, Graziella

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the concept of intellectual capital (IC) in the health sector sphere by studying the case of a major nonprofit research organization in this sector, which has for some time been publishing IC reports. In the last few years, health care organizations have been the object of great attention in the implementation and transfer of managerial models and tools; however, there is still a lack of attention paid to the strategic management of IC as a fundamental resource for supporting and enhancing performance improvement dynamics. The main aim of this article is to examine the IC reporting model used by the Center of Molecular Medicine (CMM), a Swedish health organization which is an outstanding benchmark in reporting its IC. We also consider the specifics of IC reporting for health organizations, the lessons learned by analyzing CMM's IC reporting, and future perspectives for research.

  19. Of plasticity and specificity: dialectics of the micro- and macro-environment and the organ phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Ramray; Bissell, Mina J.

    2013-01-01

    The study of biological form and how it arises is the domain of the developmental biologists; but once the form is achieved, the organ poses a fascinating conundrum for all the life scientists: how are form and function maintained in adult organs throughout most of the life of the organism? That they do appears to contradict the inherently plastic nature of organogenesis during development. How do cells with the same genetic information arrive at, and maintain such different architectures and functions, and how do they keep remembering that they are different from each other? It is now clear that narratives based solely on genes and an irreversible regulatory dynamics cannot answer these questions satisfactorily, and the concept of microenvironmental signaling needs to be added to the equation. During development, cells rearrange and differentiate in response to diffusive morphogens, juxtacrine signals and the extracellular matrix (ECM). These components, which constitute the modular microenvironment, are sensitive to cues from other tissues and organs of the developing embryo as well as from the external macroenvironment. On the other hand, once the organ is formed, these modular constituents integrate and constrain the organ architecture, which ensures structural and functional homeostasis and therefore, organ specificity. We argue here that a corollary of the above is that once the organ architecture is compromised in adults by mutations or by changes in the microenvironment such as aging or inflammation, that organ becomes subjected to the developmental and embryonic circuits in search of a new identity. But since the microenvironment is no longer embryonic, the confusion leads to cancer: hence as we have argued, tumors become new evolutionary organs perhaps in search of an elusive homeostasis. PMID:24678448

  20. Of plasticity and specificity: dialectics of the micro- and macro-environment and the organ phenotype.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Ramray; Bissell, Mina J

    2014-01-01

    The study of biological form and how it arises is the domain of the developmental biologists; but once the form is achieved, the organ poses a fascinating conundrum for all the life scientists: how are form and function maintained in adult organs throughout most of the life of the organism? That they do appears to contradict the inherently plastic nature of organogenesis during development. How do cells with the same genetic information arrive at, and maintain such different architectures and functions, and how do they keep remembering that they are different from each other? It is now clear that narratives based solely on genes and an irreversible regulatory dynamics cannot answer these questions satisfactorily, and the concept of microenvironmental signaling needs to be added to the equation. During development, cells rearrange and differentiate in response to diffusive morphogens, juxtacrine signals and the extracellular matrix (ECM). These components, which constitute the modular microenvironment, are sensitive to cues from other tissues and organs of the developing embryo as well as from the external macroenvironment. On the other hand, once the organ is formed, these modular constituents integrate and constrain the organ architecture, which ensures structural and functional homeostasis and therefore, organ specificity. We argue here that a corollary of the above is that once the organ architecture is compromised in adults by mutations or by changes in the microenvironment such as aging or inflammation, that organ becomes subjected to the developmental and embryonic circuits in search of a new identity. But since the microenvironment is no longer embryonic, the confusion leads to cancer: hence as we have argued, tumors become new evolutionary organs perhaps in search of an elusive homeostasis.

  1. SPECIES SPECIFIC DIETARY ARSENIC EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT: THE NEED TO ESTIMATE BIOACCESSIBILITY AND ASSESSING THE IMPLIED PRESYSTEMIC METABOLISM IMPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemical form specific toxicity of arsenic dictates the need for species specific quantification in order to accurately assess the risk from an exposure. The literature has begun to produce preliminary species specific databases for certain dietary sources, but a quantitativ...

  2. SPECIES SPECIFIC DIETARY ARSENIC EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT: THE NEED TO ESTIMATE BIOACCESSIBILITY AND ASSESSING THE IMPLIED PRESYSTEMIC METABOLISM IMPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemical form specific toxicity of arsenic dictates the need for species specific quantification in order to accurately assess the risk from an exposure. The literature has begun to produce preliminary species specific databases for certain dietary sources, but a quantitativ...

  3. Stochastic sensors designed for assessment of biomarkers specific to obesity.

    PubMed

    Cioates Negut, Catalina; Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana; Ungureanu, Eleonora-Mihaela; Udeanu, Denisa Ioana

    2016-09-05

    Two stochastic sensors based on the following oleamides: 1-adamantyloleamide and N,N-dimethyl-N-(2-oleylamidoethyl)amine physically immobilized on graphite paste were designed. The sensors were able to determine simultaneously from the whole blood of Wistar rats three biomarkers specific to obesity: leptin, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1). The whole blood samples were obtained from Wistar rats treated with oleoylethanolamide (OEA), (Z)-N-[(1S)-2-hidroxy-1-(phenylmethyl) ethyl]-9octadecenamide (OLA), and with the aqueous solution of 1% Tween 80 used as solvent for oleamides formulations (control samples). The proposed sensors were very sensitive and reliable for the assay of obesity biomarkers in whole blood of rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Responses of absolute and specific soil enzyme activities to long term additions of organic and mineral fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyu; Dong, Wenyi; Dai, Xiaoqin; Schaeffer, Sean; Yang, Fengting; Radosevich, Mark; Xu, Lili; Liu, Xiyu; Sun, Xiaomin

    2015-12-01

    Long-term phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) applications may seriously affect soil microbial activity. A long-term field fertilizer application trial was established on reddish paddy soils in the subtropical region of southern China in 1998. We assessed the effects of swine manure and seven different rates or ratios of NPK fertilizer treatments on (1) the absolute and specific enzyme activities per unit of soil organic carbon (SOC) or microbial biomass carbon (MBC) involved in C, N, and P transformations and (2) their relationships with soil environmental factors and soil microbial community structures. The results showed that manure applications led to increases in the absolute and specific activities of soil β-1,4-glucosidase(βG), β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG), and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP). The absolute and specific acid phosphatase (AP) activities decreased as mineral P fertilizer application rates and ratios increased. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that there were negative correlations between absolute and specific AP activities, pH, and total P contents, while there were positive correlations between soil absolute and specific βG, NAG, and LAP enzyme activities, and SOC and total N contents. RDA showed that the contents of actinomycete and Gram-positive bacterium PLFA biomarkers are more closely related to the absolute and specific enzyme activities than the other PLFA biomarkers (P<0.01). Our results suggest that both the absolute and specific enzyme activities could be used as sensitive soil quality indicators that provide useful linkages with the microbial community structures and environmental factors. To maintain microbial activity and to minimize environmental impacts, P should be applied as a combination of inorganic and organic forms, and total P fertilizer application rates to subtropical paddy soils should not exceed 44 kg P ha(-1) year(-1).

  5. Compound-Specific Stable Isotope Analysis: Implications in Hexachlorocyclohexane in-vitro and Field Assessment.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Puneet; Richnow, Hans H; Lal, Rup

    2017-03-01

    Assessment of biotic and abiotic degradation reactions by studying the variation in stable isotopic compositions of organic contaminants in contaminated soil and aquifers is being increasingly considered during the last two decades with development of Compound specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) technique. CSIA has been recognized as a potential tool for evaluating both qualitative and quantitative degradation with measurement of shifts in isotope ratios of contaminants and their degradation products as its basis. Amongst a wide variety of environmental pollutants including monoaromatics, chlorinated ethenes and benzenes etc., it is only recently that its efficacy is being tested for assessing biodegradation of a noxious pollutant namely hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), by pure microbial cultures as well as directly at the field site. Anticipating the increase in demand of this technique for monitoring the microbial degradation along with natural attenuation, this review highlights the basic problems associated with HCH contamination emphasizing the applicability of emerging CSIA technique to absolve the major bottlenecks in assessment of HCH. To this end, the review also provides a brief overview of this technique with summarizing the recent revelations put forward by both in vitro and in situ studies by CSIA in monitoring HCH biodegradation.

  6. Tissue-specific NETs alter genome organization and regulation even in a heterologous system

    PubMed Central

    de las Heras, Jose I.; Batrakou, Dzmitry G.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Different cell types exhibit distinct patterns of 3D genome organization that correlate with changes in gene expression in tissue and differentiation systems. Several tissue-specific nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) have been found to influence the spatial positioning of genes and chromosomes that normally occurs during tissue differentiation. Here we study 3 such NETs: NET29, NET39, and NET47, which are expressed preferentially in fat, muscle and liver, respectively. We found that even when exogenously expressed in a heterologous system they can specify particular genome organization patterns and alter gene expression. Each NET affected largely different subsets of genes. Notably, the liver-specific NET47 upregulated many genes in HT1080 fibroblast cells that are normally upregulated in hepatogenesis, showing that tissue-specific NETs can favor expression patterns associated with the tissue where the NET is normally expressed. Similarly, global profiling of peripheral chromatin after exogenous expression of these NETs using lamin B1 DamID revealed that each NET affected the nuclear positioning of distinct sets of genomic regions with a significant tissue-specific component. Thus NET influences on genome organization can contribute to gene expression changes associated with differentiation even in the absence of other factors and overt cellular differentiation changes. PMID:28045568

  7. Organ assessment and repair centers: The future of transplantation is near

    PubMed Central

    Whitson, Bryan A; Black, Sylvester M

    2014-01-01

    Solid organ transplantation is limited by suitable donor organ availability and the geographic limitations that lead to prolonged ischemic times. Ex vivo organ perfusion is an evolving technology that enables assessment of organ function prior to transplantation. As a byproduct, overall out of body organ times are able to be extended. The future implications organ assessment and repair centers utilizing this technology are discussed. PMID:25032094

  8. Wage -specific assessment of mammography screening in Brazilian women.

    PubMed

    Rovere, R K; Lima, A

    2014-01-01

    Mammography is an inexpensive examination that has become a standard screening method thanks to its cost-effectiveness. Due to an enormous cost escalation of cancer treatment over the last years, the assessment of this method, especially in the settings of an emerging country, is a matter of serious concern. A search within the national health database was conducted registering the data with nation- wide coverage. Data collection and analysis was commenced in 2010 with referrence to the year 2008 as the most recently updated period. The obtained information on mammography screening among Brazilian women was evaluated by subdividing the data in four groups according to socioeconomic status of the subjects. The study population was estimated to comprise about 2 million individuals. More than 45% of Brazilian women older than 40 years of age have never undergone a mammography. The figures correlated with the income level, reaching an astonishing number of 62.2% in a group of patients with the lowest income level. Mammography has proved effective in early detection of breast cancer in women. This study suggests that the lack of compliance in breast cancer screening in Brazil, pronounced especially in low- income families, may contribute to the increasing mortality rates associated with the disease.

  9. Assessment of opacimeter calibration according to International Standard Organization 10155.

    PubMed

    Gomes, J F

    2001-01-01

    This paper compares the calibration method for opacimeters issued by the International Standard Organization (ISO) 10155 with the manual reference method for determination of dust content in stack gases. ISO 10155 requires at least nine operational measurements, corresponding to three operational measurements per each dust emission range within the stack. The procedure is assessed by comparison with previous calibration methods for opacimeters using only two operational measurements from a set of measurements made at stacks from pulp mills. The results show that even if the international standard for opacimeter calibration requires that the calibration curve is to be obtained using 3 x 3 points, a calibration curve derived using 3 points could be, at times, acceptable in statistical terms, provided that the amplitude of individual measurements is low.

  10. Characterizing and Assessing a Large-Scale Software Maintenance Organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briand, Lionel; Melo, Walcelio; Seaman, Carolyn; Basili, Victor

    1995-01-01

    One important component of a software process is the organizational context in which the process is enacted. This component is often missing or incomplete in current process modeling approaches. One technique for modeling this perspective is the Actor-Dependency (AD) Model. This paper reports on a case study which used this approach to analyze and assess a large software maintenance organization. Our goal was to identify the approach's strengths and weaknesses while providing practical recommendations for improvement and research directions. The AD model was found to be very useful in capturing the important properties of the organizational context of the maintenance process, and aided in the understanding of the flaws found in this process. However, a number of opportunities for extending and improving the AD model were identified. Among others, there is a need to incorporate quantitative information to complement the qualitative model.

  11. Characterizing and Assessing a Large-Scale Software Maintenance Organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briand, Lionel; Melo, Walcelio; Seaman, Carolyn; Basili, Victor

    1995-01-01

    One important component of a software process is the organizational context in which the process is enacted. This component is often missing or incomplete in current process modeling approaches. One technique for modeling this perspective is the Actor-Dependency (AD) Model. This paper reports on a case study which used this approach to analyze and assess a large software maintenance organization. Our goal was to identify the approach's strengths and weaknesses while providing practical recommendations for improvement and research directions. The AD model was found to be very useful in capturing the important properties of the organizational context of the maintenance process, and aided in the understanding of the flaws found in this process. However, a number of opportunities for extending and improving the AD model were identified. Among others, there is a need to incorporate quantitative information to complement the qualitative model.

  12. Assessment of occupational exposure to organic solvents in paint industry.

    PubMed

    Skender, L; Zabukosek, J; Karacić, V; Bilban, M

    2000-09-01

    The paper brings the preliminary results of ambient and biological monitoring of exposure to xylene, toluene, and styrene in paint industry. Air samples were collected at seven stationary locations at work places of 31 male workers. Samples of venous blood were taken from all workers for styrene, toluene, and xylene analysis, and of urine for metabolic derivatives, mandelic, phenylglyoxylic, and o- and m-methylhippuric acids analysis. Blood was collected on Wednesday before and after work, and urine on Monday, Wednesday and Thursday before work and on Wednesday after work. Workers were exposed to moderate concentrations of xylene and low concentrations of toluene and styrene. During periodic medical surveillance Questionnaire 16 was applied as a screening test for early central nervous disturbances. Seven workers had positive findings and required further psychological tests as recommended by WHO. Risk assessment of combined long-term exposure to organic solvents in occupational environment requires a prospective epidemiological study with matched control group.

  13. Environmental assessment of low-organic waste landfill scenarios by means of life-cycle assessment modelling (EASEWASTE).

    PubMed

    Manfredi, Simone; Christensen, Thomas H; Scharff, Heijo; Jacobs, Joeri

    2010-02-01

    The environmental performance of two low-organic waste landfill scenarios ('low-organic-energy' and 'low-organic-flare') was developed and compared with two household waste landfill scenarios ('household-energy' and 'household-flare') by means of LCA-modelling. The LCA-modelling was made for 1 tonne of wet waste landfilled and the environmental aspects were evaluated for a 100-year period after disposal. The data utilized in the LCA-calculations to model the first 10-20 years of landfilling of the two low-organic waste scenarios make extensive use of site-specific data from the Nauerna Landfill (The Netherlands), but average data from other comparable, existing landfills were used too. As data from full-scale landfills do not cover more than 30-40 years of landfilling, data from laboratory simulations and accelerated tests of limited scale were also utilized. The life-cycle impact assessments show that the low-organic waste scenarios achieved better environmental performance than the household waste scenarios with regard to both ordinary and toxicity-related environmental impact categories. This indicates that the reduction of organic matter accepted at landfills (as prescribed by the European Union Landfill Directive: Council Directive 1999/31/EC, EU, Brussels, 1999) can be a successful approach to decrease the environmental loads in several impact categories in comparison with landfilling of waste with significant organic content. However, when utilization of landfill gas is accounted for in the life-cycle impact assessment calculation, the small gas generation in low-organic waste landfills reduced the actual potential for energy generation and therefore the environmental savings obtained were reduced proportionally. Groundwater pollution from input of leachate was also evaluated and the WHO (Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality; WHO, Geneva, 2006) guideline for drinking water quality was assumed as reference. The results show that low-organic waste landfills

  14. Human Exposure Assessment: Development of methods to assess the bioaccessibility of organic contaminants sorbed to soils and house dusts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research task- Are physicochemical properties of soil and house dust predictive of the bioaccessibility of sorbed organic compoundsGoalIdentify dust and soil characteristics that influence the bioaccessibility of organic compounds and provide chemical specific data on the fractio...

  15. Human Exposure Assessment: Development of methods to assess the bioaccessibility of organic contaminants sorbed to soils and house dusts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research task- Are physicochemical properties of soil and house dust predictive of the bioaccessibility of sorbed organic compoundsGoalIdentify dust and soil characteristics that influence the bioaccessibility of organic compounds and provide chemical specific data on the fractio...

  16. Identification and chemical characterization of specific organic indicators in the effluents from chemical production sites.

    PubMed

    Botalova, Oxana; Schwarzbauer, Jan; al Sandouk, Nadia

    2011-06-01

    The structural diversity of the wastewater composition was described by the use of detailed non-target screening analyses of industrial effluents from chemical production sites. Determination of the indicative organic compounds acting as potential molecular indicators for industrial emissions from chemical production industries has been possible due to (i) detailed characterisation of industrial contaminants and identification of compounds with high source specificity, (ii) quantitative determination of the organic constituents in the industrial effluents and (iii) the review of their industrial applications. The determination of potential site-specific markers and industrial molecular indicators corresponding to certain production processes (production of starting materials for manufacturing paper and printing inks, powder coatings as well as epichlorohydrin production) was performed in this work. The results of this study allowed significant contributions to the chemical characterisation of industrial contaminants and isolation of indicators that can act as representatives of industrial effluents in the aquatic environment.

  17. Typical low cost biosorbents for adsorptive removal of specific organic pollutants from water.

    PubMed

    Tran, Van Son; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Zhang, Jian; Liang, Shuang; Ton-That, Cuong; Zhang, Xinbo

    2015-04-01

    Specific organic pollutants (SOPs) such as phenolic compounds, PAHs, organic pesticides, and organic herbicides cause health and environmental problems due to their excessive toxic properties and poor biodegradability. Low-cost biosorbents are considered as a promising alternative for conventional adsorbents to remove SOPs from water. These materials have several advantages such as high sorption capacities, good modifiability and recoverability, insensitivity to toxic substances, simple operation in the treatment processes. However, previous reports on various types of biosorbents for removing SOPs are still moderately fragmented. Hence, this paper provides a comprehensive review on using typical low-cost biosorbents obtained from lignocellulose and chitin/chitosan for SOPs adsorption. Especially, their characteristics, biosorption mechanism together with utilization for eliminating SOPs are presented and discussed. The paper also gives a critical view regarding future applications of low-cost biosorbents in SOPs-contaminated water treatment.

  18. Are Key Principles for improved health technology assessment supported and used by health technology assessment organizations?

    PubMed

    Neumann, Peter J; Drummond, Michael F; Jönsson, Bengt; Luce, Bryan R; Schwartz, J Sanford; Siebert, Uwe; Sullivan, Sean D

    2010-01-01

    Previously, our group-the International Working Group for HTA Advancement-proposed a set of fifteen Key Principles that could be applied to health technology assessment (HTA) programs in different jurisdictions and across a range of organizations and perspectives. In this commentary, we investigate the extent to which these principles are supported and used by fourteen selected HTA organizations worldwide. We find that some principles are broadly supported: examples include being explicit about HTA goals and scope; considering a wide range of evidence and outcomes; and being unbiased and transparent. Other principles receive less widespread support: examples are addressing issues of generalizability and transferability; being transparent on the link between HTA findings and decision-making processes; considering a full societal perspective; and monitoring the implementation of HTA findings. The analysis also suggests a lack of consensus in the field about some principles--for example, considering a societal perspective. Our study highlights differences in the uptake of key principles for HTA and indicates considerable room for improvement for HTA organizations to adopt principles identified to reflect good HTA practices. Most HTA organizations espouse certain general concepts of good practice--for example, assessments should be unbiased and transparent. However, principles that require more intensive follow-up--for example, monitoring the implementation of HTA findings--have received little support and execution.

  19. All-organic microelectromechanical systems integrating specific molecular recognition--a new generation of chemical sensors.

    PubMed

    Ayela, Cédric; Dubourg, Georges; Pellet, Claude; Haupt, Karsten

    2014-09-03

    Cantilever-type all-organic microelectromechanical systems based on molecularly imprinted polymers for specific analyte recognition are used as chemical sensors. They are produced by a simple spray-coating-shadow-masking process. Analyte binding to the cantilever generates a measurable change in its resonance frequency. This allows label-free detection by direct mass sensing of low-molecular-weight analytes at nanomolar concentrations.

  20. Performance specifications for technology development: Application for characterization of volatile organic compounds in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, S.E.; Doskey, P.V.; Erickson, M.D.; Lindahl, P.C.

    1994-07-01

    This report contains information about technology development for the monitoring and remediation of environmental pollution caused by the release of volatile organic compounds. Topics discussed include: performance specification processes, gas chromatography, mass spectrometer, fiber-optic chemical sensors, infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, piezoelectric sensors and electrochemical sensors. These methods are analyzed for their cost efficiency, accuracy, and the ability to meet the needs of the customer.

  1. A novel microfluidic model can mimic organ-specific metastasis of circulating tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Jing; Luo, Yong; Jin, Dong; An, Fan; Zhang, Wenyuan; Liu, Lilu; Li, Jiao; Fang, Shimeng; Li, Xiaojie; Yang, Xuesong; Lin, Bingcheng; Liu, Tingjiao

    2016-01-01

    A biomimetic microsystem might compensate costly and time-consuming animal metastatic models. Herein we developed a biomimetic microfluidic model to study cancer metastasis. Primary cells isolated from different organs were cultured on the microlfuidic model to represent individual organs. Breast and salivary gland cancer cells were driven to flow over primary cell culture chambers, mimicking dynamic adhesion of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) to endothelium in vivo. These flowing artificial CTCs showed different metastatic potentials to lung on the microfluidic model. The traditional nude mouse model of lung metastasis was performed to investigate the physiological similarity of the microfluidic model to animal models. It was found that the metastatic potential of different cancer cells assessed by the microfluidic model was in agreement with that assessed by the nude mouse model. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the metastatic inhibitor AMD3100 inhibited lung metastasis effectively in both the microfluidic model and the nude mouse model. Then the microfluidic model was used to mimick liver and bone metastasis of CTCs and confirm the potential for research of multiple-organ metastasis. Thus, the metastasis of CTCs to different organs was reconstituted on the microfluidic model. It may expand the capabilities of traditional cell culture models, providing a low-cost, time-saving, and rapid alternative to animal models. PMID:27191997

  2. Effect of mechanical damage on emission of volatile organic compounds from plant leaves and implications for evaluation of host plant specificity of prospective biological control agents of weeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Assessment of host plant specificity is a critical step in the evaluation of classical biological control agents of weeds, which is necessary for avoiding possible damage to nontarget plants. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted by plants likely play an important role in determining which plant...

  3. Controlled synthesis of organic nanophotonic materials with specific structures and compositions.

    PubMed

    Cui, Qiu Hong; Zhao, Yong Sheng; Yao, Jiannian

    2014-10-29

    Organic nanomaterials have drawn great interest for their potential applications in high-speed miniaturized photonic integration due to their high photoluminescence quantum efficiency, structural processability, ultrafast photoresponse, and excellent property engineering. Based on the rational design on morphological and componential levels, a series of organic nanomaterials have been controllably synthesized in recent years, and their excitonic/photonic behaviors has been fine-tuned to steer the light flow for specific optical applications. This review presents a comprehensive summary of recent breakthroughs in the controlled synthesis of organic nanomaterials with specific structures and compositions, whose tunable photonic properties would provide a novel platform for multifunctional applications. First, we give a general overview of the tailored construction of novel nanostructures with various photonic properties. Then, we summarize the design and controllable synthesis of composite materials for the modulation of their functionalities. Subsequently, special emphasis is put on the fabrication of complex nanostructures towards wide applications in isolated photonic devices. We conclude with our personal viewpoints on the development directions in the novel design and controllable construction of organic nanomaterials for future applications in highly integrated photonic devices and chips.

  4. JAK/STAT controls organ size and fate specification by regulating morphogen production and signalling

    PubMed Central

    Recasens-Alvarez, Carles; Ferreira, Ana; Milán, Marco

    2017-01-01

    A stable pool of morphogen-producing cells is critical for the development of any organ or tissue. Here we present evidence that JAK/STAT signalling in the Drosophila wing promotes the cycling and survival of Hedgehog-producing cells, thereby allowing the stable localization of the nearby BMP/Dpp-organizing centre in the developing wing appendage. We identify the inhibitor of apoptosis dIAP1 and Cyclin A as two critical genes regulated by JAK/STAT and contributing to the growth of the Hedgehog-expressing cell population. We also unravel an early role of JAK/STAT in guaranteeing Wingless-mediated appendage specification, and a later one in restricting the Dpp-organizing activity to the appendage itself. These results unveil a fundamental role of the conserved JAK/STAT pathway in limb specification and growth by regulating morphogen production and signalling, and a function of pro-survival cues and mitogenic signals in the regulation of the pool of morphogen-producing cells in a developing organ. PMID:28045022

  5. Drugs, non-drugs, and disease category specificity: organ effects by ligand pharmacology.

    PubMed

    García-Sosa, A T; Maran, U

    2013-01-01

    Important understanding can be gained from using molecular biology-based and chemistry-based techniques together. Bayesian classifiers have thus been developed in the present work using several statistically significant molecular properties of compiled datasets of drugs and non-drugs, including their disease category or organ. The results show they provide a useful classification and simplicity of several different ligand efficiencies and molecular properties. Early recall of drugs among non-drugs using the classifiers as a ranking tool is also provided. As the chemical space of compounds is addressed together with their anatomical characterization, chemical libraries can be improved to select for specific organ or disease. Eventually, by including even finer detail, the method may help in designing libraries with specific pharmacological or toxicological target chemical space. Alternatively, a lack of statistically significant differences in property density distributions may help in further describing compounds with possibility of activity on several organs or disease groups, and given their very similar or considerably overlapping chemical space, therefore wanted or unwanted side-effects. The overlaps between densities for several properties of organs or disease categories were calculated by integrating the area under the curves where they intersect. The naïve Bayesian classifiers are readily built, fast to score, and easily interpretable.

  6. Dual-species transcriptional profiling during systemic candidiasis reveals organ-specific host-pathogen interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hebecker, Betty; Vlaic, Sebastian; Conrad, Theresia; Bauer, Michael; Brunke, Sascha; Kapitan, Mario; Linde, Jörg; Hube, Bernhard; Jacobsen, Ilse D.

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans is a common cause of life-threatening fungal bloodstream infections. In the murine model of systemic candidiasis, the kidney is the primary target organ while the fungal load declines over time in liver and spleen. To better understand these organ-specific differences in host-pathogen interaction, we performed gene expression profiling of murine kidney, liver and spleen and determined the fungal transcriptome in liver and kidney. We observed a delayed transcriptional immune response accompanied by late induction of fungal stress response genes in the kidneys. In contrast, early upregulation of the proinflammatory response in the liver was associated with a fungal transcriptome resembling response to phagocytosis, suggesting that phagocytes contribute significantly to fungal control in the liver. Notably, C. albicans hypha-associated genes were upregulated in the absence of visible filamentation in the liver, indicating an uncoupling of gene expression and morphology and a morphology-independent effect by hypha-associated genes in this organ. Consistently, integration of host and pathogen transcriptional data in an inter-species gene regulatory network indicated connections of C. albicans cell wall remodelling and metabolism to the organ-specific immune responses. PMID:27808111

  7. Assessing the prospects for a return of organisms in evolutionary biology.

    PubMed

    Huneman, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    An argument has been raised from various perspectives against the Modern Synthesis (MS) in the past two decades: it has forgotten organisms. Niche construction theorists (Odling-Smee et al. 2003), developmental biologists like West-Eberhard (2003) and Evo-Devo elaborated various views which concur on a rehabilitation of the explanatory role of organisms, formerly neglected by an evolutionary science mostly centered on genes. This paper aims at assessing such criticisms by unraveling the specific arguments they use and evaluating how empirical findings may support them. In the first section, I review the usual critiques about the way MS treats organisms and show that the organisms-concerned critique is multifaceted, and I use the controversy about units of selection in order to show that purely conceptual and empirical arguments have been mixed up when organisms were concerned. In the second section, I consider successively the challenges raised to evolutionary MS by structuralist biologists and then the developmentalist challenge mostly raised by Evo-Devo. I distinguish what is purely conceptual among those criticisms and what mostly relies on recent empirical findings about genome activation, inheritance, and epigenetics. The last section discusses another program in MS, namely "evolutionary transitions" research, as enquiry into the emergence of organisms.

  8. Venous-derived angioblasts generate organ-specific vessels during zebrafish embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    Hen, Gideon; Nicenboim, Julian; Mayseless, Oded; Asaf, Lihee; Shin, Masahiro; Busolin, Giorgia; Hofi, Roy; Almog, Gabriella; Tiso, Natascia; Lawson, Nathan D.; Yaniv, Karina

    2015-01-01

    Formation and remodeling of vascular beds are complex processes orchestrated by multiple signaling pathways. Although it is well accepted that vessels of a particular organ display specific features that enable them to fulfill distinct functions, the embryonic origins of tissue-specific vessels and the molecular mechanisms regulating their formation are poorly understood. The subintestinal plexus of the zebrafish embryo comprises vessels that vascularize the gut, liver and pancreas and, as such, represents an ideal model in which to investigate the early steps of organ-specific vessel formation. Here, we show that both arterial and venous components of the subintestinal plexus originate from a pool of specialized angioblasts residing in the floor of the posterior cardinal vein (PCV). Using live imaging of zebrafish embryos, in combination with photoconvertable transgenic reporters, we demonstrate that these angioblasts undergo two phases of migration and differentiation. Initially, a subintestinal vein forms and expands ventrally through a Bone Morphogenetic Protein-dependent step of collective migration. Concomitantly, a Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-dependent shift in the directionality of migration, coupled to the upregulation of arterial markers, is observed, which culminates with the generation of the supraintestinal artery. Together, our results establish the zebrafish subintestinal plexus as an advantageous model for the study of organ-specific vessel development and provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms controlling its formation. More broadly, our findings suggest that PCV-specialized angioblasts contribute not only to the formation of the early trunk vasculature, but also to the establishment of late-forming, tissue-specific vascular beds. PMID:26525671

  9. Microbial utilization of sugars in soil assessed by position-specific labeling and compound-specific 13C-PLFA-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostel, Carolin; Dippold, Michaela; Glaser, Bruno; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-05-01

    For the transformation of low molecular weight organic substances (LMWOS) in soil, which is an important process in the turnover of organic matter, microbial utilization is one of the most important processes. Position-specific labeling combined with compound-specific 13C-PLFA-analysis allows a closer look on the mechanisms of LMWOS transformation in soil. We assessed short- (3 and 10 days) and long-term (half year) transformations of monosaccharides by adding position-specifically 13C labeled glucose and ribose to soil in a field experiment conducted on an agriculturally used luvisol located in north-western Bavaria. We quantified the microbial utilization of the different functional groups by 13C-analysis of microbial biomass with the chloroform-fumigation-extraction method (CFE). 13C-PLFA analysis enabled us to distinguish individual microbial groups and compare their C-utilization. Preferential degradation of glucoses C-3 and C-4 respectively C-1 position enabled differentiation between the two main hexose metabolic pathways - glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway. Microbial groups revealed different incorporation of specific C positions into their PLFA. The highest incorporation was reached by the prokaryotic gram- negative groups. The application of position-specifically labeled substances, coupled with compound-specific 13C-PLFA analysis opens a new way to investigate the microbial transformations of LMWOS in soil. Observing single C atoms and their utilization by specific microbial groups allow conclusions about the mechanisms and kinetics of microbial utilization and interaction between these groups and therefore will improve our understanding of soil carbon fluxes.

  10. Organ-specific remodeling of the Arabidopsis transcriptome in response to spaceflight

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Spaceflight presents a novel environment that is outside the evolutionary experience of terrestrial organisms. Full activation of the International Space Station as a science platform complete with sophisticated plant growth chambers, laboratory benches, and procedures for effective sample return, has enabled a new level of research capability and hypothesis testing in this unique environment. The opportunity to examine the strategies of environmental sensing in spaceflight, which includes the absence of unit gravity, provides a unique insight into the balance of influence among abiotic cues directing plant growth and development: including gravity, light, and touch. The data presented here correlate morphological and transcriptome data from replicated spaceflight experiments. Results The transcriptome of Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrated organ-specific changes in response to spaceflight, with 480 genes showing significant changes in expression in spaceflight plants compared with ground controls by at least 1.9-fold, and 58 by more than 7-fold. Leaves, hypocotyls, and roots each displayed unique patterns of response, yet many gene functions within the responses are related. Particularly represented across the dataset were genes associated with cell architecture and growth hormone signaling; processes that would not be anticipated to be altered in microgravity yet may correlate with morphological changes observed in spaceflight plants. As examples, differential expression of genes involved with touch, cell wall remodeling, root hairs, and cell expansion may correlate with spaceflight-associated root skewing, while differential expression of auxin-related and other gravity-signaling genes seemingly correlates with the microgravity of spaceflight. Although functionally related genes were differentially represented in leaves, hypocotyls, and roots, the expression of individual genes varied substantially across organ types, indicating that there is no single

  11. Sub-cellular internalization and organ specific oral elivery of PABA nanoparticles by side chain variation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Organic nanomaterials having specific biological properties play important roles in in vivo delivery and clearance from the live cells. To develop orally deliverable nanomaterials for different biological applications, we have synthesized several fluorescently labelled, self-assembled PABA nanoparticles using possible acid side chain combinations and tested against insect and human cell lines and in vivo animal model. Flurophores attached to nanostructures help in rapid in vivo screening and tracking through complex tissues. The sub-cellular internalization mechanism of the conjugates was determined. A set of physio-chemical parameters of engineered nanoskeletons were also defined that is critical for preferred uptake in multiple organs of live Drosophila. Results The variability of side chains alter size, shape and surface texture of each nanomaterial that lead to differential uptake in human and insect cells and to different internal organs in live Drosophila via energy dependent endocytosis. Our results showed that physical and chemical properties of C-11 and C-16 acid chain are best fitted for delivery to complex organs in Drosophila. However a distinct difference in uptake of same nanoparticle in human and insect cells postulated that different host cell physiology plays a critical role in the uptake mechanism. Conclusions The physical and chemical properties of the nanoparticle produced by variation in the acid side chains that modify size and shape of engineered nanostructure and their interplay with host cell physiology might be the major criteria for their differential uptake to different internal organs. PMID:21443763

  12. Relevance of regulatory T cell promotion of donor-specific tolerance in solid organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Sagoo, Pervinder; Lombardi, Giovanna; Lechler, Robert I.

    2012-01-01

    Current clinical strategies to control the alloimmune response after transplantation do not fully prevent induction of the immunological processes which lead to acute and chronic immune-mediated graft rejection, and as such the survival of a solid organ allograft is limited. Experimental research on naturally occurring CD4+CD25highFoxP3+ Regulatory T cells (Tregs) has indicated their potential to establish stable long-term graft acceptance, with the promise of providing a more effective therapy for transplant recipients. Current approaches for clinical use are based on the infusion of freshly isolated or ex vivo polyclonally expanded Tregs into graft recipients with an aim to redress the in vivo balance of T effector cells to Tregs. However mounting evidence suggests that regulation of donor-specific immunity may be central to achieving immunological tolerance. Therefore, the next stages in optimizing translation of Tregs to organ transplantation will be through the refinement and development of donor alloantigen-specific Treg therapy. The altering kinetics and intensity of alloantigen presentation pathways and alloimmune priming following transplantation may indeed influence the specificity of the Treg required and the timing or frequency at which it needs to be administered. Here we review and discuss the relevance of antigen-specific regulation of alloreactivity by Tregs in experimental and clinical studies of tolerance and explore the concept of delivering an optimal Treg for the induction and maintenance phases of achieving transplantation tolerance. PMID:22811678

  13. Functional versus effector-specific organization of the human posterior parietal cortex: revisited

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Frank T. M.; Medendorp, W. Pieter

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is characterized by an effector-specific organization. However, strikingly similar functional MRI (fMRI) activation patterns have been found in the PPC for hand and foot movements. Because the fMRI signal is related to average neuronal activity, similar activation levels may result either from effector-unspecific neurons or from intermingled subsets of effector-specific neurons within a voxel. We distinguished between these possibilities using fMRI repetition suppression (RS). Participants made delayed, goal-directed eye, hand, and foot movements to visual targets. In each trial, the instructed effector was identical or different to that of the previous trial. RS effects indicated an attenuation of the fMRI signal in repeat trials. The caudal PPC was active during the delay but did not show RS, suggesting that its planning activity was effector independent. Hand and foot-specific RS effects were evident in the anterior superior parietal lobule (SPL), extending to the premotor cortex, with limb overlap in the anterior SPL. Connectivity analysis suggested information flow between the caudal PPC to limb-specific anterior SPL regions and between the limb-unspecific anterior SPL toward limb-specific motor regions. These results underline that both function and effector specificity should be integrated into a concept of PPC action representation not only on a regional but also on a fine-grained, subvoxel level. PMID:27466132

  14. Cognitive Approach to Assessing Pragmatic Language Comprehension in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryder, Nuala; Leinonen, Eeva; Schulz, Joerg

    2008-01-01

    Background: Pragmatic language impairment in children with specific language impairment has proved difficult to assess, and the nature of their abilities to comprehend pragmatic meaning has not been fully investigated. Aims: To develop both a cognitive approach to pragmatic language assessment based on Relevance Theory and an assessment tool for…

  15. Organ-specific expression of brassinosteroid-biosynthetic genes and distribution of endogenous brassinosteroids in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Yukihisa; Goda, Hideki; Nakamura, Ayako; Takatsuto, Suguru; Fujioka, Shozo; Yoshida, Shigeo

    2003-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroidal plant hormones that are essential for growth and development. There is only limited information on where BRs are synthesized and used. We studied the organ specificity of BR biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, using two different approaches: We analyzed the expression of BR-related genes using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and analyzed endogenous BRs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Before starting this study, we cloned the second BR-6-oxidase (BR6ox2) gene from Arabidopsis and found that the encoded enzyme has the same substrate specificity as the enzyme encoded by the previously isolated 6-oxidase gene (BR6ox1) of Arabidopsis. Endogenous BRs and the expression of BR-related genes were detected in all organs tested. The highest level of endogenous BRs and the highest expression of the BR6ox1, BR6ox2, and DWF4 genes were observed in apical shoots, which contain actively developing tissues. These genes are important in BR biosynthesis because they encode the rate-limiting or farthest downstream enzyme in the BR biosynthesis pathway. The second highest level of endogenous BRs and expression of BR6ox1 and DWF4 were observed in siliques, which contains actively developing embryos and seeds. These findings indicate that BRs are synthesized in all organs tested, but are most actively synthesized in young, actively developing organs. In contrast, synthesis was limited in mature organs. Our observations are consistent with the idea that BRs function as the growth-promoting hormone in plants.

  16. Organ-Specific Expression of Brassinosteroid-Biosynthetic Genes and Distribution of Endogenous Brassinosteroids in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Yukihisa; Goda, Hideki; Nakamura, Ayako; Takatsuto, Suguru; Fujioka, Shozo; Yoshida, Shigeo

    2003-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroidal plant hormones that are essential for growth and development. There is only limited information on where BRs are synthesized and used. We studied the organ specificity of BR biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, using two different approaches: We analyzed the expression of BR-related genes using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and analyzed endogenous BRs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Before starting this study, we cloned the second BR-6-oxidase (BR6ox2) gene from Arabidopsis and found that the encoded enzyme has the same substrate specificity as the enzyme encoded by the previously isolated 6-oxidase gene (BR6ox1) of Arabidopsis. Endogenous BRs and the expression of BR-related genes were detected in all organs tested. The highest level of endogenous BRs and the highest expression of the BR6ox1, BR6ox2, and DWF4 genes were observed in apical shoots, which contain actively developing tissues. These genes are important in BR biosynthesis because they encode the rate-limiting or farthest downstream enzyme in the BR biosynthesis pathway. The second highest level of endogenous BRs and expression of BR6ox1 and DWF4 were observed in siliques, which contains actively developing embryos and seeds. These findings indicate that BRs are synthesized in all organs tested, but are most actively synthesized in young, actively developing organs. In contrast, synthesis was limited in mature organs. Our observations are consistent with the idea that BRs function as the growth-promoting hormone in plants. PMID:12529536

  17. Impact of organ transplantation in heart, lung and liver recipients: assessment of positive life changes.

    PubMed

    Anand-Kumar, Vinayak; Kung, Mary; Painter, Liz; Broadbent, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The majority of psychological studies with organ transplant recipients have examined negative psychological effects. This study aimed to further investigate the positive effects of organ transplantation and to construct a specific measurement instrument. The initial pool of 14 items for the Positive Effects of Transplant Scale (PETS) was derived from organ recipient interviews. A cross-sectional postal study included 87 heart, 46 lung and 193 liver transplant recipients. The PETS was subjected to principal components analysis (PCA) using varimax rotation, and associations with other measures investigated. PETS and an open-ended item about positive effects. Coding of the open-ended item revealed that the majority of recipients attributed positive life changes to the transplant experience. PCA of the PETS indicated three factors that accounted for 58.82% of the variance. The 12-item questionnaire assesses improvements in: (1) life philosophy, (2) gratitude and (3) health. The total PETS scores exhibited adequate internal consistency and validity. Most transplant patients report positive psychological effects, which suggests this may be an understudied area. The initial development of an assessment tool provides researchers and clinicians a way to assess the degree and nature of these life changes.

  18. Corneal organ culture model for assessing epithelial responses to surfactants.

    PubMed

    Xu, K P; Li, X F; Yu, F S

    2000-12-01

    The main goal of the present study was to investigate the response of cultured bovine corneas to the application of irritant substances and its potential use for predicting ocular irritancy in humans. We hypothesized that chemicals causing eye irritation may induce disruption of epithelial tight junctions and trigger cell stress responses modulated via transcription factors such as AP-1 and NF-kappaB. A simple air-lifted corneal organ culture system was used as an ex vivo model for ocular irritancy test. The effects of two surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and benzalkonium chloride (BAK), on corneal epithelial permeability and DNA-binding activity of AP-1 and NF-kappaB were studied in cultured bovine corneas. Both SDS and BAK induced tight junction disruption and increased permeability of corneal epithelium assessed using surface biotinylation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. An increase in DNA-binding activity measured using electrophoretic mobility shift assay was observed when cultured corneas were treated with surfactants at concentrations causing minimal to mild ocular irritation, indicating epithelial cell stress response. Furthermore, exposure of cultured corneas to SDS or BAK at concentrations causing severe ocular irritancy resulted in a decrease in DNA-binding activity of these transcription factors in epithelial cells. These results indicate that the combination of corneal organ culture and measurements of corneal epithelial permeability and DNA-binding activity of stress-response transcription factors following chemical exposure has the potential to be used as a mechanistically based alternative to in vivo animal testing.

  19. The World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment (WHOQOL): position paper from the World Health Organization.

    PubMed

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes the World Health Organization's project to develop a quality of life instrument (the WHOQOL). It outlines the reasons that the project was undertaken, the thinking that underlies the project, the method that has been followed in its development and the current status of the project. The WHOQOL assesses individuals' perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns. It has been developed collaboratively in several culturally diverse centres over four years. Piloting of the WHOQOL on some 4500 respondents in 15 cultural settings has been completed. On the basis of this data the revised WHOQOL Field Trial Form has been finalized, and field testing is currently in progress. The WHOQOL produces a multi-dimensional profile of scores across six domains and 24 sub-domains of quality of life.

  20. 76 FR 81955 - Assessment Questionnaire-IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... SECURITY Assessment Questionnaire--IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT) AGENCY... Information Collection Request: 1670-NEW. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National... received must include the words ``Department of Homeland Security'' and the docket ] number for this...

  1. 77 FR 33227 - Assessment Questionnaire-IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... SECURITY Assessment Questionnaire--IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT) AGENCY... Information Collection Request, 1670-NEW. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National... words ``Department of Homeland Security'' and the docket number for this action. Comments received...

  2. A microfluidic model for organ-specific extravasation of circulating tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Riahi, R.; Yang, Y. L.; Kim, H.; Jiang, L.; Wong, P. K.; Zohar, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are the principal vehicle for the spread of non-hematologic cancer disease from a primary tumor, involving extravasation of CTCs across blood vessel walls, to form secondary tumors in remote organs. Herein, a polydimethylsiloxane-based microfluidic system is developed and characterized for in vitro systematic studies of organ-specific extravasation of CTCs. The system recapitulates the two major aspects of the in vivo extravasation microenvironment: local signaling chemokine gradients in a vessel with an endothelial monolayer. The parameters controlling the locally stable chemokine gradients, flow rate, and initial chemokine concentration are investigated experimentally and numerically. The microchannel surface treatment effect on the confluency and adhesion of the endothelial monolayer under applied shear flow has also been characterized experimentally. Further, the conditions for driving a suspension of CTCs through the microfluidic system are discussed while simultaneously maintaining both the local chemokine gradients and the confluent endothelial monolayer. Finally, the microfluidic system is utilized to demonstrate extravasation of MDA-MB-231 cancer cells in the presence of CXCL12 chemokine gradients. Consistent with the hypothesis of organ-specific extravasation, control experiments are presented to substantiate the observation that the MDA-MB-231 cell migration is attributed to chemotaxis rather than a random process. PMID:24803959

  3. Accurate assessment of Congo basin forest carbon stocks requires forest type specific assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moonen, Pieter C. J.; Van Ballaert, Siege; Verbist, Bruno; Boyemba, Faustin; Muys, Bart

    2014-05-01

    Due to a limited number of field-based studies estimations of carbon stocks in the Central Congo Basin remain highly uncertain. In particular, more information is needed about the variation in stocks between forest types and on the factors explaining these differences. This study presents results from biomass and soil carbon inventories in 46 0.25ha old-growth forest plots located in three study sites in Tshopo District, Democratic Republic of Congo. Four forest community types were identified using cluster and indicator species analysis based on the plots' large tree (>30cm DBH) species composition. Carbon stocks were calculated using newly established forest type specific tree height-diameter relationships to prevent errors related to the use of inappropriate regional relationships from literature. Using the Akaike criterion it became clear that for one site and a few forest types separate tree height-diameter relationships gave a robust and significant better fit, showing that there was a clear and significant interaction effect between sites and forest type. Mean above-ground carbon stocks were estimated at 165 ±44 Mg ha-1. Significant differences were found between forest types, but not between sites for a given forest type. Largest stocks were found in monodominant Gilbertiodendron dewevrei forests (187 ± 37 Mg C ha-1), which occurred in all sites. Smallest stocks (91 ± 14 Mg C ha-1) were found in the Margaritaria discoidea mixed forest type, which occurred only in one site, while two other mixed forest types showed intermediate stocks (148 ± 28 Mg C ha-1 and 160 ± 36 Mg C ha-1 respectively). The observed differences in aboveground stocks between forest types could be explained by forest structure related variables including number of large trees (DBH>70cm), average wood density and dominant height. When comparing the G. dewevrei monodominant type with mixed forest types within each study site, the former showed equal basal area and sometimes higher

  4. Transcriptomics reveals tissue/organ-specific differences in gene expression in the starfish Patiria pectinifera.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chan-Hee; Go, Hye-Jin; Oh, Hye Young; Jo, Yong Hun; Elphick, Maurice R; Park, Nam Gyu

    2017-09-09

    Starfish (Phylum Echinodermata) are of interest from an evolutionary perspective because as deuterostomian invertebrates they occupy an "intermediate" phylogenetic position with respect to chordates (e.g. vertebrates) and protostomian invertebrates (e.g. Drosophila). Furthermore, starfish are model organisms for research on fertilization, embryonic development, innate immunity and tissue regeneration. However, large-scale molecular data for starfish tissues/organs are limited. To provide a comprehensive genetic resource for the starfish Patiria pectinifera, we report de novo transcriptome assemblies and global gene expression analysis for six P. pectinifera tissues/organs - body wall (BW), coelomic epithelium (CE), tube feet (TF), stomach (SM), pyloric caeca (PC) and gonad (GN). A total of 408 million high-quality reads obtained from six cDNA libraries were assembled de novo using Trinity, resulting in a total of 549,598 contigs with a mean length of 835 nucleotides (nt), an N50 of 1473nt, and GC ratio of 42.5%. A total of 126,136 contigs (22.9%) were obtained as predicted open reading frames (ORFs) by TransDecoder, of which 102,187 were annotated with NCBI non-redundant (NR) hits, and 51,075 and 10,963 were annotated with Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) using the Blast2GO program, respectively. Gene expression analysis revealed that tissues/organs are grouped into three clusters: BW/CE/TF, SM/PC, and GN, which likely reflect functional relationships. 2408, 8560, 2687, 1727, 3321, and 2667 specifically expressed genes were identified for BW, GN, PC, CE, SM and TF, respectively, using the ROKU method. This study provides a valuable transcriptome resource and novel molecular insights into the functional biology of different tissues/organs in starfish as a model organism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Prostate Specific Antigen-Positive Deceased Organ Donor: A Pathologist Is Indispensable.

    PubMed

    Pabisiak, K; Ostrowski, M; Kram, A; Safranow, K; Słojewski, M; Ciechanowski, K

    2016-09-01

    Due to demographic projections, and lack of an algorithm in the case of a prostate specific antigen (PSA)-positive donor, the loss of organ recovery may occur more frequently in the near future without approved procedures. In Poland in recent years it has been recommended to determine tumor markers in potential donors. In the first year of the recommendation 10% of potential deceased donors were disqualified in our transplantation center on the basis of the elevated PSA levels (high PSA >10 ng/mL). Histopathologic evaluation of prostate was implemented in a donor qualification procedure to prevent reduction of the actual organ donor pool. In the period of January 2010-January 2014 each donor reported to a coordination center (n = 52; median age, 54 years) and underwent the routine histological evaluation of the whole prostate, regardless of the PSA level. Pathologist revealed in the study group of 52 male donors, 6 cases of carcinoma of the prostate (CaP; 12%). There was no correlation between PSA level and CaP (-)/CaP(+) (median 7.0 vs 3.9 ng/mL, respectively; P = .51) nor high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) (+)/HGPIN (-) (median 5.9 vs 4.3 ng/mL; P = .14). All of the recovered organs (12 kidneys and 3 livers) from donors with CaP were transplanted, resulting in a 15% increase in the organ donor pool. There is no association between PSA values and CaP occurrence in deceased organ donors. Histological verification allowed for an increase in the organ pool with maintenance of safety standards. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Volatile Organic Compounds, Specific Conductance, and Temperature in the Bottom Sediments of Mill Pond, Ashland, Massachusetts, April 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, Peter E.; Lyford, Forest P.; Clifford, Scott

    2002-01-01

    A plume of volatile organic compounds in ground water extends northward from the former Nyanza Property in Ashland, Massachusetts, and discharges into the Sudbury River and the upstream end of Mill Pond. A network of polyethylene-membrane passive-vapor-diffusion samplers was installed in February 2001 to help define the lateral extent of the plume under the pond, including an area vegetated by wetland herbs, sedges, and shrubs. Chlorobenzene and trichloroethene were detected with passive-vapor-diffusion samplers at five locations in the bottom sediments of the southern part of the approximate one acre of vegetated area in Mill Pond. Vapor concentrations of chlorobenzene ranged from 178 to 2,210 parts per billion by volume, and vapor concentrations of trichloroethene ranged from 20 to 96 parts per billion by volume. Chlorobenzene also was detected in one sediment-pore-water sample extracted with a push-point sampler in this area; the concentration was 25 micrograms per liter. Toluene was detected with passive-vapor-diffusion samplers at three sites in the open pond area north of the vegetated areas. Vapor concentrations of toluene ranged from 20 to 90 parts per billion by volume. Specific conductance and temperature of sediment-pore waters were measured at selected sampling sites in Mill Pond to examine their possible associations with the presence of volatile organic compounds. Temperature in the sediment-pore water also was measured to convert vapor concentrations of volatile organic compounds collected with diffusion samplers to equivalent water concentrations. These equivalent water concentrations were then to be compared with water concentrations collected with a push-point sampler. Because of the limited detections of volatile organic compounds at sites where water samples were collected and where specific conductance and temperature were measured, these potential associations and conversions could not be assessed.

  7. Indicator organisms for assessing sanitization during composting of plant wastes.

    PubMed

    Noble, R; Dobrovin-Pennington, A; Pietravalle, S; Weekes, R; Henry, C M

    2011-08-01

    The potential for using plant pathogens and seeds as indicator organisms for assessing sanitization of plant wastes during composting was tested in bench-scale flask and large-scale systems. Plasmodiophora brassicae was unsuitable due to high temperature tolerance in dry to moist composts, and detection of viable inoculum post-composting using bioassay plants not corresponding with that using TaqMan® PCR, possibly due to preservation of nucleic acids at elevated temperatures. Several other plant pathogens (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Microdochium nivale, Phytophthora cinnamomi and Phytophthora nicotianae) were unsuitable due their low temperature tolerance. Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae and f.sp. radicis-lycopersici chlamydospores and tomato seeds were suitable indicators due to their moderate temperature tolerance and ease of viability testing post-composting. Abutilon seeds were more tolerant than tomato seeds of compost temperatures ≥52°C but more prone to degradation at lower temperatures and therefore less suitable as indicators. Relationships between compost temperature during exposures of 2-10 days and subsequent viability of the above chlamydospores or seeds enabled the sanitizing effect of composting processes to be predicted within 2-6 days. Plant waste type (woody or vegetable) had a small but significant effect on the relationship for tomato seeds but not for F. oxysporum chlamydospores. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cellular stress and innate inflammation in organ-specific autoimmunity: lessons learned from vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Harris, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary For decades, research in autoimmunity has focused primarily on immune contributions to disease. Yet recent studies report elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and abnormal activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in cells targeted by autoimmunity, implicating cellular stress originating from the target tissue as a contributing factor. A better understanding of this contribution may help to answer important lingering questions in organ-specific autoimmunity, like what factors initiate disease, and what directs its tissue specificity. Vitiligo, an autoimmune disease of the skin, has been the focus of translational research for over 30 years, and both melanocyte stress and immune mechanisms have been thought to be mutually exclusive explanations for pathogenesis. Chemical-induced vitiligo is a unique clinical presentation that reflects the importance of environmental influences on autoimmunity, provides insight into a new paradigm linking cell stress to the immune response, and serves as a template for other autoimmune diseases. In this review I will discuss the evidence for cell stress contributions to a number of autoimmune diseases, the questions that remain, and how vitiligo, an underappreciated example of organ-specific autoimmunity, helps to answer them. PMID:26683142

  9. LYN- and AIRE-mediated tolerance checkpoint defects synergize to trigger organ-specific autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Proekt, Irina; Miller, Corey N; Jeanne, Marion; Fasano, Kayla J; Moon, James J; Lowell, Clifford A; Gould, Douglas B; Anderson, Mark S; DeFranco, Anthony L

    2016-10-03

    Studies of the genetic factors associated with human autoimmune disease suggest a multigenic origin of susceptibility; however, how these factors interact and through which tolerance pathways they operate generally remain to be defined. One key checkpoint occurs through the activity of the autoimmune regulator AIRE, which promotes central T cell tolerance. Recent reports have described a variety of dominant-negative AIRE mutations that likely contribute to human autoimmunity to a greater extent than previously thought. In families with these mutations, the penetrance of autoimmunity is incomplete, suggesting that other checkpoints play a role in preventing autoimmunity. Here, we tested whether a defect in LYN, an inhibitory protein tyrosine kinase that is implicated in systemic autoimmunity, could combine with an Aire mutation to provoke organ-specific autoimmunity. Indeed, mice with a dominant-negative allele of Aire and deficiency in LYN spontaneously developed organ-specific autoimmunity in the eye. We further determined that a small pool of retinal protein-specific T cells escaped thymic deletion as a result of the hypomorphic Aire function and that these cells also escaped peripheral tolerance in the presence of LYN-deficient dendritic cells, leading to highly destructive autoimmune attack. These findings demonstrate how 2 distinct tolerance pathways can synergize to unleash autoimmunity and have implications for the genetic susceptibility of autoimmune disease.

  10. Differential effect of plant lipids on membrane organization: specificities of phytosphingolipids and phytosterols.

    PubMed

    Grosjean, Kevin; Mongrand, Sébastien; Beney, Laurent; Simon-Plas, Françoise; Gerbeau-Pissot, Patricia

    2015-02-27

    The high diversity of the plant lipid mixture raises the question of their respective involvement in the definition of membrane organization. This is particularly the case for plant plasma membrane, which is enriched in specific lipids, such as free and conjugated forms of phytosterols and typical phytosphingolipids, such as glycosylinositolphosphoceramides. This question was here addressed extensively by characterizing the order level of membrane from vesicles prepared using various plant lipid mixtures and labeled with an environment-sensitive probe. Fluorescence spectroscopy experiments showed that among major phytosterols, campesterol exhibits a stronger ability than β-sitosterol and stigmasterol to order model membranes. Multispectral confocal microscopy, allowing spatial analysis of membrane organization, demonstrated accordingly the strong ability of campesterol to promote ordered domain formation and to organize their spatial distribution at the membrane surface. Conjugated sterol forms, alone and in synergy with free sterols, exhibit a striking ability to order membrane. Plant sphingolipids, particularly glycosylinositolphosphoceramides, enhanced the sterol-induced ordering effect, emphasizing the formation and increasing the size of sterol-dependent ordered domains. Altogether, our results support a differential involvement of free and conjugated phytosterols in the formation of ordered domains and suggest that the diversity of plant lipids, allowing various local combinations of lipid species, could be a major contributor to membrane organization in particular through the formation of sphingolipid-sterol interacting domains. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Organ-specific proteomics analysis for identification of response mechanism in soybean seedlings under flooding stress.

    PubMed

    Khatoon, Amana; Rehman, Shafiq; Hiraga, Susumu; Makino, Takahiro; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2012-10-22

    Flooding is one of the severe environmental factors which impair growth and yield in soybean plant. To investigate the organ specific response mechanism of soybean under flooding stress, changes in protein species were analyzed using a proteomics approach. Two-day-old soybeans were subjected to flooding for 5 days. Proteins were extracted from root, hypocotyl and leaf, and separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In root, hypocotyl and leaf, 51, 66 and 51 protein species were significantly changed, respectively, under flooding stress. In root, metabolism related proteins were increased; however these proteins were decreased in hypocotyl and leaf. In all 3 organs, cytoplasm localized proteins were decreased, and leaf chloroplastic proteins were also decreased. Isoflavone reductase was commonly decreased at protein level in all 3 organs; however, mRNA of isoflavone reductase gene was up-regulated in leaf under flooding stress. Biophoton emission was increased in all 3 organs under flooding stress. The up-regulation of isoflavone reductase gene at transcript level; while decreased abundance at protein level indicated that flooding stress affected the mRNA translation to proteins. These results suggest that concurrence in expression of isoflavone reductase gene at mRNA and protein level along with imbalance in other disease/defense and metabolism related proteins might lead to impaired growth of root, hypocotyl and leaf of soybean seedlings under flooding stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Specific variants of general transcription factors regulate germ cell development in diverse organisms

    PubMed Central

    Freiman, Richard N.

    2009-01-01

    Through the reductive divisions of meiosis, sexually reproducing organisms have gained the ability to produce specialized haploid cells called germ cells that fuse to establish the diploid genome of the resulting progeny. The totipotent nature of these germ cells is highlighted by their ability to provide a single fertilized egg cell with all the genetic information necessary to develop the complete repertoire of cell types of the future organism. Thus, the production of these germ cells must be tightly regulated to ensure the continued success of the germ line in future generations. One surprising germ cell development mechanism utilizes variation of the global transcriptional machinery, such as TFIID and TFIIA. Like histone variation, general transcription factor variation serves to produce gonadal-restricted or -enriched expression of selective transcriptional regulatory factors required for establishing and/or maintaining the germ line of diverse organisms. This strategy is observed among invertebrates and vertebrates, and perhaps plants, suggesting that a common theme in germ cell evolution is the diversification of selective promoter initiation factors to regulate critical gonadal-specific programs of gene expression required for sexual reproduction. This review discusses the identification and characterization of a subset of these specialized general transcription factors in diverse organisms that share a common goal of germ line regulation through transcriptional control at its most fundamental level. PMID:19437618

  13. Assessment of riverbank filtration using selected organic micropollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bichler, Andrea; Bruenjes, Robert; Lange, Frank Thomas; Brauch, Heinz-Juergen; Hofmann, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    Managed riverbank filtration (MRBF) is frequently used as a (pre)treatment step to improve surface water quality for drinking water use. In a managed RBF systems the understanding of flow patterns, mixing processes and groundwater residence times is a key factor to assess the effectiveness of the natural attenuation processes and to secure a good water quality. This study evaluates a suite of organic micropollutants (selected artificial sweeteners, pharmaceuticals and the MRI contrast agent gadolinium) as tracers for river water infiltration into a glaciofluvial aquifer. In particular, the transport behaviour of the selected micropollutants and their suitability to estimate groundwater residence times at a small scale (< 100 m) are assessed. The investigated MRBF system is located in a sub-alpine river valley in a rural catchment and the river permanently infiltrates into the aquifer. The aquifer consists of coarse carbonaceous gravel and is characterized by high permeabilities and groundwater flow velocities. The aquifer thickness reaches values of 16m with a saturated thickness of approximately 6m. The field site was instrumented with ten rhizons (Rhizosphere® microfiltration membrane pore water samplers) along a transect in groundwater flow direction to allow for a high spatial and temporal monitoring resolution. The rhizons were installed beneath the river bed and in the aquifer at different depths (7-13 m) and at different distances (20-60 m) to the river. The selected micropollutants were monitored over a period of ten days, water samples were collected as 12h composite samples. In addition to the selected micropollutants also conventional hydrochemical data and stable water isotopes were analyzed. Radon (²²²Rn) was used as a natural occurring tracer to determine groundwater ages. Based on ²²²Rn measurement the residence times were estimated to be below seven days in the transect. Hydrochemical data indicates that groundwater is recharged exclusively

  14. Assessing the Learning Organization. Symposium 10. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This packet contains three papers from a symposium on assessing the learning organization. The first paper, "Relationship between Learning Organization Strategies and Performance Driver Outcomes" (Elwood F. Holton III, Sandra M. Kaiser), reports on a study of a new learning organization assessment instrument that was administered to 440…

  15. Organ-Specific Quantitative Genetics and Candidate Genes of Phenylpropanoid Metabolism in Brassica oleracea

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Marta; Ali, Mahmoud; Ferreres, Federico; Moreno, Diego A.; Velasco, Pablo; Soengas, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are proving to be increasingly important for human health and in crop development, defense and adaptation. In spite of the economical importance of Brassica crops in agriculture, the mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds presents in these species remain unknown. The genetic and metabolic basis of phenolics accumulation was dissected through analysis of total phenolics concentration and its individual components in leaves, flower buds, and seeds of a double haploid (DH) mapping population of Brassica oleracea. The quantitative trait loci (QTL) that had an effect on phenolics concentration in each organ were integrated, resulting in 33 consensus QTLs controlling phenolics traits. Most of the studied compounds had organ-specific genomic regulation. Moreover, this information allowed us to propose candidate genes and to predict the function of genes underlying the QTL. A number of previously unknown potential regulatory regions involved in phenylpropanoid metabolism were identified and this study illustrates how plant ontogeny can affect a biochemical pathway. PMID:26858727

  16. Hydrothermal carbonization of off-specification compost: a byproduct of the organic municipal solid waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Basso, Daniele; Weiss-Hortala, Elsa; Patuzzi, Francesco; Castello, Daniele; Baratieri, Marco; Fiori, Luca

    2015-04-01

    The possibility to apply the hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process to off-specification compost (EWC 19.05.03) at present landfilled was investigated in this work. The aim was to produce a carbonaceous solid fuel for energy valorization, with the perspective of using HTC as a complementary technology to common organic waste treatments. Thus, samples of EWC 19.05.03 produced by a composting plant were processed through HTC in a batch reactor. Analytical activities allowed to characterize the HTC products and their yields. The hydrochar was characterized in terms of heating value, thermal stability and C, H, O, N, S and ash content. The liquid phase was characterized in terms of total organic carbon and mineral content. The composition of the gas phase was measured. Results show that the produced hydrochar has a great potentiality for use as solid fuel.

  17. [Species specificity of the isoenzyme profile of lactate dehydrogenase in organs of rodents of various ecogenesis].

    PubMed

    Kozhevnikova, L K; Tiutiunnik, N N; Unzhakov, A R; Meldo, Kh I

    2004-02-01

    Separation of isoenzymes of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, EC. 1.1.1.27) in extracts of heart, kidney, liver, spleen, lungs of nutrias, chinchillas by agar gel electrophoresis reveals a species specificity in ratio of electrophoretic fractions of the enzyme. The isoenzymes of LDH were seem to play an important role in adaptation of fur animals to environmental conditions. It has been shown that in semiaquatic mammals--nutrias, the relative content of the A-subunits in the isoenzymatic spectrum of LDH in organs was increased as compared with terrestrial animals--chinchillas, whereas relative content of B-subunits in these organs of chinchillas was very high. This is an example of subtle biochemical specialisation of function at molecular level to environmental conditions.

  18. H1 histone subfractions of mammalian testes. 2. Organ specificity in mice and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Seyedin, S M; Kistler, W S

    1979-04-03

    H1 histones were examined in testes and somatic organs from mice and rabbits. They were extracted from washed chromatin by aqueous 5% (w/v) trichloroacetic acid and analyzed by several electrophoretic systems as well as column chromatography employing Bio-Rex 70. In each species the testicular H1 population contains at least two components that are scarce or absent in the somatic organs examined. The unusual testicular species do not appear to be phosphorylated derivatives. The studies in this and the accompanying report [Seyedin, S.M., & Kistler, W.S. (1979) biochemistry 18 (preceding paper in this issue) confirm that marked changes from the isomatic type H1 population are associated with spermatogenesis in mice, rabbits, and rats. However, in terms of electrophoretic and chromatographic behavior, the pattern of change in species specific.

  19. Organ-Specific Quantitative Genetics and Candidate Genes of Phenylpropanoid Metabolism in Brassica oleracea.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Marta; Ali, Mahmoud; Ferreres, Federico; Moreno, Diego A; Velasco, Pablo; Soengas, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are proving to be increasingly important for human health and in crop development, defense and adaptation. In spite of the economical importance of Brassica crops in agriculture, the mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds presents in these species remain unknown. The genetic and metabolic basis of phenolics accumulation was dissected through analysis of total phenolics concentration and its individual components in leaves, flower buds, and seeds of a double haploid (DH) mapping population of Brassica oleracea. The quantitative trait loci (QTL) that had an effect on phenolics concentration in each organ were integrated, resulting in 33 consensus QTLs controlling phenolics traits. Most of the studied compounds had organ-specific genomic regulation. Moreover, this information allowed us to propose candidate genes and to predict the function of genes underlying the QTL. A number of previously unknown potential regulatory regions involved in phenylpropanoid metabolism were identified and this study illustrates how plant ontogeny can affect a biochemical pathway.

  20. International organizations, risk assessment and research-Why, what and how.

    PubMed

    Preston, R Julian

    2017-03-08

    The process of setting radiation protection standards requires the interaction of a number of international and national organizations that in turn require the input of scientific and regulatory experts. Bill Morgan served in an expert capacity for several of these organizations particularly for the application of radiation biology data to risk assessment. He brought great enthusiasm and dedication to these committee efforts. In fact, he really enjoyed this type of service. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), for example, provides comprehensive reviews of the input data for radiation risk assessments. In this context, they do not conduct risk assessments. In Europe, a research component of the risk assessment process is provided by the Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative (MELODI). Specific issue areas are identified for which additional research can aid in reducing uncertainty in risk assessments. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) uses these types of input data to develop nominal cancer risk estimates as input data for establishing dose limits for the public and workers. A similar regulatory role is provided in the US by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). The NCRP Reports address the underlying principles for setting regulatory dose limits for the US public and workers; these differ to a limited extent from those of ICRP. The implementation of dose limits is conducted by individual countries but with significant guidance by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) through its Basic Safety Standards. The role of other national and international organizations are discussed in this same framework.

  1. Age-Related Differences of Organism-Specific Peritonitis Rates: A Single-Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Kotera, Nagaaki; Tanaka, Mototsugu; Aoe, Mari; Chikamori, Masatomo; Honda, Tomoko; Ikenouchi, Ayako; Miura, Rika; Sugahara, Mai; Furuse, Satoshi; Saito, Katsunori; Mise, Naobumi

    2016-12-01

    Peritonitis remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, but its incidence and the distribution of causative organisms vary widely between institutions and age groups. This study was performed to investigate the recent status and risk factors of PD-related peritonitis and to clarify differences between age groups. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 119 PD patients treated at our department between January 2002 and January 2013. We calculated both overall and organism-specific peritonitis rates and also analyzed risk factors. Sixty-three episodes of peritonitis occurred during 261.5 patient-years for an incident rate of 0.24 episodes/patient-year. Multivariate analysis showed that older age (≥65 years) and hypoalbuminemia (<3.0 g/dL) were associated with an increased risk of peritonitis (P = 0.035 and P = 0.029, respectively). In elderly patients (≥65 years old), the rate of peritonitis due to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was 0.17 and 0.08 episodes/patient-year, respectively, and Gram-positive peritonitis was markedly more frequent than in younger patients (<65 years old). In particular, there was a high frequency of Staphylococcus aureus peritonitis in elderly patients (0.09 episodes/patient-year) and it had a poor outcome. At our department, the risk of peritonitis was increased in older patients and patients with hypoalbuminemia. The distribution of causative organisms was markedly different between age groups and analysis of organism-specific peritonitis rates helped to identify current problems with our PD program.

  2. An organ-specific role for ethylene in rose petal expansion during dehydration and rehydration

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Daofeng; Liu, Xiaojing; Meng, Yonglu; Sun, Cuihui; Tang, Hongshu; Jiang, Yudong; Khan, Muhammad Ali; Xue, Jingqi; Ma, Nan; Gao, Junping

    2013-01-01

    Dehydration is a major factor resulting in huge loss from cut flowers during transportation. In the present study, dehydration inhibited petal cell expansion and resulted in irregular flowers in cut roses, mimicking ethylene-treated flowers. Among the five floral organs, dehydration substantially elevated ethylene production in the sepals, whilst rehydration caused rapid and elevated ethylene levels in the gynoecia and sepals. Among the five ethylene biosynthetic enzyme genes (RhACS1–5), expression of RhACS1 and RhACS2 was induced by dehydration and rehydration in the two floral organs. Silencing both RhACS1 and RhACS2 significantly suppressed dehydration- and rehydration-induced ethylene in the sepals and gynoecia. This weakened the inhibitory effect of dehydration on petal cell expansion. β-glucuronidase activity driven by both the RhACS1 and RhACS2 promoters was dramatically induced in the sepals, pistil, and stamens, but not in the petals of transgenic Arabidopsis. This further supports the organ-specific induction of these two genes. Among the five rose ethylene receptor genes (RhETR1–5), expression of RhETR3 was predominantly induced by dehydration and rehydration in the petals. RhETR3 silencing clearly aggravated the inhibitory effect of dehydration on petal cell expansion. However, no significant difference in the effect between RhETR3-silenced flowers and RhETR-genes-silenced flowers was observed. Furthermore, RhETR-genes silencing extensively altered the expression of 21 cell expansion-related downstream genes in response to ethylene. These results suggest that induction of ethylene biosynthesis by dehydration proceeds in an organ-specific manner, indicating that ethylene can function as a mediator in dehydration-caused inhibition of cell expansion in rose petals. PMID:23599274

  3. An organ-specific role for ethylene in rose petal expansion during dehydration and rehydration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Daofeng; Liu, Xiaojing; Meng, Yonglu; Sun, Cuihui; Tang, Hongshu; Jiang, Yudong; Khan, Muhammad Ali; Xue, Jingqi; Ma, Nan; Gao, Junping

    2013-05-01

    Dehydration is a major factor resulting in huge loss from cut flowers during transportation. In the present study, dehydration inhibited petal cell expansion and resulted in irregular flowers in cut roses, mimicking ethylene-treated flowers. Among the five floral organs, dehydration substantially elevated ethylene production in the sepals, whilst rehydration caused rapid and elevated ethylene levels in the gynoecia and sepals. Among the five ethylene biosynthetic enzyme genes (RhACS1-5), expression of RhACS1 and RhACS2 was induced by dehydration and rehydration in the two floral organs. Silencing both RhACS1 and RhACS2 significantly suppressed dehydration- and rehydration-induced ethylene in the sepals and gynoecia. This weakened the inhibitory effect of dehydration on petal cell expansion. β-glucuronidase activity driven by both the RhACS1 and RhACS2 promoters was dramatically induced in the sepals, pistil, and stamens, but not in the petals of transgenic Arabidopsis. This further supports the organ-specific induction of these two genes. Among the five rose ethylene receptor genes (RhETR1-5), expression of RhETR3 was predominantly induced by dehydration and rehydration in the petals. RhETR3 silencing clearly aggravated the inhibitory effect of dehydration on petal cell expansion. However, no significant difference in the effect between RhETR3-silenced flowers and RhETR-genes-silenced flowers was observed. Furthermore, RhETR-genes silencing extensively altered the expression of 21 cell expansion-related downstream genes in response to ethylene. These results suggest that induction of ethylene biosynthesis by dehydration proceeds in an organ-specific manner, indicating that ethylene can function as a mediator in dehydration-caused inhibition of cell expansion in rose petals.

  4. Mobility assessment: Sensitivity and specificity of measurement sets in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Panzer, Victoria P.; Wakefield, Dorothy B.; Hall, Charles B.; Wolfson, Leslie I.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To identify quantitative measurement variables that characterize mobility in older adults, meet reliability and validity criteria, distinguish fall-risk and predict future falls. Design Observational study with 1-year weekly falls follow-up Setting Mobility laboratory Participants Community-dwelling volunteers (n=74; 65–94 years old) categorized at entry as 27 ‘Non-fallers’ or 47 ‘Fallers’ by Medicare criteria (1 injury fall or >1 non-injury falls in the previous year). Interventions None Outcome Measures Test-retest and within-subject reliability, criterion and concurrent validity; predictive ability indicated by observed sensitivity and specificity to entry fall-risk group (Falls-status), Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA), Computerized Dynamic Posturography Sensory Organization Test (SOT) and subsequent falls reported weekly. Results Measurement variables were selected that met reliability (ICC > 0.6) and/or discrimination (p<.01) criteria (Clinical variables- Turn- steps, time, Gait- velocity, Step-in-tub-time, and Downstairs- time; Force plate variables- Quiet standing Romberg ratio sway-area, Maximal lean- anterior-posterior excursion, Sit-to-stand medial-lateral excursion and sway-area). Sets were created (3 clinical, 2 force plate) utilizing combinations of variables appropriate for older adults with different functional activity levels and composite scores were calculated. Scores identified entry Falls-status and concurred with POMA and SOT. The Full clinical set (5 measurement variables) produced sensitivity/specificity (.80/.74) to Falls-status. Composite scores were sensitive and specific in predicting subsequent injury falls and multiple falls compared to Falls-status, POMA or SOT. Conclusions Sets of quantitative measurement variables obtained with this mobility battery provided sensitive prediction of future injury falls and screening for multiple subsequent falls using tasks that should be appropriate to

  5. Assessment of predictivity of volatile organic compounds carcinogenicity and mutagenicity by freeware in silico models.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Lília Ribeiro; de Souza, Alessandra Mendonça Teles; Cortes, Juliana Alves; Lione, Viviane de Oliveira Freitas; Castro, Helena Carla; Alves, Gutemberg Gomes

    2017-09-29

    The application of in silico methods is increasing on toxicological risk prediction for human and environmental health. This work aimed to evaluate the performance of three in silico freeware models (OSIRIS v.2.0, LAZAR, and Toxtree) on the prediction of carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of thirty-eight volatile organic compounds (VOC) related to chemical risk assessment for occupational exposure. Theoretical data were compared with assessments available in international databases. Confusion matrices and ROC curves were used to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of each model. All three models (OSIRIS, LAZAR and Toxtree) were able to identify VOC with a potential carcinogenicity or mutagenicity risk for humans, however presenting differences concerning the specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy. The best predictive performances were found for OSIRIS and LAZAR for carcinogenicity and OSIRIS for mutagenicity, as these softwares presented a combination of negative predictive power and lower risk of false positives (high specificity) for those endpoints. The heterogeneity of results found with different softwares reinforce the importance of using a combination of in silico models to occupational toxicological risk assessment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Iron oxide nanoparticles modulate heat shock proteins and organ specific markers expression in mice male accessory organs.

    PubMed

    Sundarraj, Kiruthika; Raghunath, Azhwar; Panneerselvam, Lakshmikanthan; Perumal, Ekambaram

    2017-02-15

    With increased industrial utilization of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3-NPs), concerns on adverse reproductive health effects following exposure have been immensely raised. In the present study, the effects of Fe2O3-NPs exposure in the seminal vesicle and prostate gland were studied in mice. Mice were exposed to two different doses (25 and 50 mg/kg) of Fe2O3-NPs along with the control and analyzed the expressions of heat shock proteins (HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90) and organ specific markers (Caltrin, PSP94, and SSLP1). Fe2O3-NPs decreased food consumption, water intake, and organo-somatic index in mice with elevated iron levels in serum, urine, fecal matter, seminal vesicle and prostate gland. FTIR spectra revealed alterations in the functional groups of biomolecules on Fe2O3-NPs treatment. These changes are accompanied by increased lactate dehydrogenase levels with decreased total protein and fructose levels. The investigation of oxidative stress biomarkers demonstrated a significant increase in reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content and glutathione peroxidase with a concomitant decrement in the glutathione and ascorbic acid in the male accessory organs which confirmed the induction of oxidative stress. An increase in NADPH-oxidase-4 with a decrease in glutathione-S-transferase was observed in the seminal vesicle and prostate gland of the treated groups. An alteration in HSP60, HSP70, HSP90, Caltrin, PSP94, and SSLP1 expression was also observed. Moreover, accumulation of Fe2O3-NPs brought pathological changes in the seminal vesicle and prostate gland of treated mice. These findings provide evidence that Fe2O3-NPs could be an environmental risk factor for reproductive disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dimethylarginine Dimethylaminohydrolase1 Is an Organ-Specific Mediator of End Organ Damage in a Murine Model of Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Sydow, Karsten; Schmitz, Christine; von Leitner, Eike-Christin; von Leitner, Robin; Klinke, Anna; Atzler, Dorothee; Krebs, Christian; Wieboldt, Hartwig; Ehmke, Heimo; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Meinertz, Thomas; Blankenberg, Stefan; Böger, Rainer H.; Magnus, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Background The endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular and overall mortality. Moreover, elevated ADMA plasma concentrations are associated with the extent of hypertension. However, data from small-sized clinical trials and experimental approaches using murine transgenic models have revealed conflicting results regarding the impact of ADMA and its metabolizing enzyme dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Methodology/Principal Findings Therefore, we investigated the role of ADMA and DDAH1 in hypertension-induced end organ damage using the uninephrectomized, deoxycorticosterone actetate salt, and angiotensin II-induced hypertension model in human DDAH1 (hDDAH1) overexpressing and wild-type (WT) mice. ADMA plasma concentrations differed significantly between hDDAH1 and WT mice at baseline, but did not significantly change during the induction of hypertension. hDDAH1 overexpression did not protect against hypertension-induced cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy. In addition, the hypertension-induced impairment of the endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of aortic segments ex vivo was not significantly attenuated by hDDAH1 overexpression. However, hDDAH1 mice displayed an attenuated hypertensive inflammatory response in renal tissue, resulting in less hypertensive renal injury. Conclusion/Significance Our data reveal that hDDAH1 organ-specifically modulates the inflammatory response in this murine model of hypertension. The lack of protection in cardiac and aortic tissues may be due to DDAH1 tissue selectivity and/or the extent of hypertension by the used combined model. However, our study underlines the potency of hDDAH1 overexpression in modulating inflammatory processes as a crucial step in the pathogenesis of hypertension, which needs further experimental and clinical investigation. PMID:23110194

  8. 25 CFR 900.45 - What specific minimum requirements shall an Indian tribe or tribal organization's financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... or tribal organization's financial management system contain to meet these standards? 900.45 Section... ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Standards for Financial Management Systems § 900.45 What specific minimum requirements shall an Indian tribe or tribal organization's...

  9. 25 CFR 900.45 - What specific minimum requirements shall an Indian tribe or tribal organization's financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... or tribal organization's financial management system contain to meet these standards? 900.45 Section... ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Standards for Financial Management Systems § 900.45 What specific minimum requirements shall an Indian tribe or tribal organization's...

  10. 25 CFR 900.45 - What specific minimum requirements shall an Indian tribe or tribal organization's financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... or tribal organization's financial management system contain to meet these standards? 900.45 Section... ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Standards for Financial Management Systems § 900.45 What specific minimum requirements shall an Indian tribe or tribal organization's...

  11. Objective, comparative assessment of the penetration depth of temporal-focusing microscopy for imaging various organs

    PubMed Central

    Rowlands, Christopher J.; Bruns, Oliver T.; Bawendi, Moungi G.; So, Peter T. C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Temporal focusing is a technique for performing axially resolved widefield multiphoton microscopy with a large field of view. Despite significant advantages over conventional point-scanning multiphoton microscopy in terms of imaging speed, the need to collect the whole image simultaneously means that it is expected to achieve a lower penetration depth in common biological samples compared to point-scanning. We assess the penetration depth using a rigorous objective criterion based on the modulation transfer function, comparing it to point-scanning multiphoton microscopy. Measurements are performed in a variety of mouse organs in order to provide practical guidance as to the achievable penetration depth for both imaging techniques. It is found that two-photon scanning microscopy has approximately twice the penetration depth of temporal-focusing microscopy, and that penetration depth is organ-specific; the heart has the lowest penetration depth, followed by the liver, lungs, and kidneys, then the spleen, and finally white adipose tissue. PMID:25844509

  12. Objective, comparative assessment of the penetration depth of temporal-focusing microscopy for imaging various organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowlands, Christopher J.; Bruns, Oliver T.; Bawendi, Moungi G.; So, Peter T. C.

    2015-06-01

    Temporal focusing is a technique for performing axially resolved widefield multiphoton microscopy with a large field of view. Despite significant advantages over conventional point-scanning multiphoton microscopy in terms of imaging speed, the need to collect the whole image simultaneously means that it is expected to achieve a lower penetration depth in common biological samples compared to point-scanning. We assess the penetration depth using a rigorous objective criterion based on the modulation transfer function, comparing it to point-scanning multiphoton microscopy. Measurements are performed in a variety of mouse organs in order to provide practical guidance as to the achievable penetration depth for both imaging techniques. It is found that two-photon scanning microscopy has approximately twice the penetration depth of temporal-focusing microscopy, and that penetration depth is organ-specific; the heart has the lowest penetration depth, followed by the liver, lungs, and kidneys, then the spleen, and finally white adipose tissue.

  13. Position-specific isotope modeling of organic micropollutants transformations through different reaction pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Biao; Rolle, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    Organic compounds are produced in vast quantities for industrial and agricultural use, as well as for human and animal healthcare [1]. These chemicals and their metabolites are frequently detected at trace levels in fresh water environments where they undergo degradation via different reaction pathways. Compound specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) is a valuable tool to identify such degradation pathways in different environmental systems. Recent advances in analytical techniques have promoted the fast development and implementation of multi-element CSIA. However, quantitative frameworks to evaluate multi-element stable isotope data and incorporating mechanistic information on the degradation processes [2,3] are still lacking. In this study we propose a mechanism-based modeling approach to simultaneously evaluate concentration as well as bulk and position-specific multi-element isotope evolution during the transformation of organic micropollutants. The model explicitly simulates position-specific isotopologues for those atoms that experience isotope effects and, thereby, provides a mechanistic description of isotope fractionation occurring at different molecular positions. We validate the proposed approach with the concentration and multi-element isotope data of three selected organic micropollutants: dichlorobenzamide (BAM), isoproturon (IPU) and diclofenac (DCF). The model precisely captures the dual element isotope trends characteristic of different reaction pathways and their range of variation consistent with observed multi-element (C, N) bulk isotope fractionation. The proposed approach can also be used as a tool to explore transformation pathways in scenarios for which position-specific isotope data are not yet available. [1] Schwarzenbach, R.P., Egli, T., Hofstetter, T.B., von Gunten, U., Wehrli, B., 2010. Global Water Pollution and Human Health. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. doi:10.1146/annurev-environ-100809-125342. [2] Jin, B., Haderlein, S.B., Rolle, M

  14. Organ-specific protection against lipopolysaccharide-induced vascular leak is dependent on the endothelial protein C receptor.

    PubMed

    von Drygalski, Annette; Furlan-Freguia, Christian; Ruf, Wolfram; Griffin, John H; Mosnier, Laurent O

    2013-04-01

    To study the role of the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) in the modulation of susceptibility to inflammation-induced vascular leak in vivo. Genetically modified mice with low, <10% EPCR expression (EPCR(low)) and control mice were challenged with lipopolysaccharides in a mouse model of endotoxemia. Infrared fluorescence and quantification of albumin-bound Evans Blue in tissues and intravascular plasma volumes were used to assess plasma extravasation. Pair-wise analysis of EPCR(low) and control mice matched for sex, age, and weight allowed determination of EPCR-dependent vascular leak. Kidney, lung, and brain were the organs with highest discriminative increased Evans Blue accumulation in EPCR(low) versus control mice in response to lipopolysaccharides. Histology of kidney and lung confirmed the EPCR-specific pathology. In addition to severe kidney injury in response to lipopolysaccharides, EPCR(low) and anti-EPCR-treated wild-type mice suffered from enhanced albuminuria and profound renal hemorrhage versus controls. Intravascular volume loss at the same extent of weight loss in EPCR(low) mice compared with control mice provided proof that plasma leak was the predominant cause of Evans Blue tissue accumulation. This study demonstrates an important protective role for EPCR in vivo against vascular leakage during inflammation and suggests that EPCR-dependent vascular protection is organ-specific.

  15. Organ-Specific Differences in Endothelial Permeability-Regulating Molecular Responses in Mouse and Human Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Aslan, Adnan; van Meurs, Matijs; Moser, Jill; Popa, Eliane R.; Jongman, Rianne M.; Zwiers, Peter J.; Molema, Grietje; Zijlstra, Jan G.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In patients with sepsis-induced multi-organ dysfunction syndrome, diverging patterns of oedema formation and loss of function in organs such as lung and kidney suggest that endothelial permeability-regulating molecular responses are differentially regulated. This potential differential regulation has been insufficiently studied at the level of components of adherens and tight junctions. We hypothesized that such a regulation by endothelial cells in sepsis takes place in an organ-specific manner. We addressed our hypothesis by studying by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction the expression of a predefined subset of EC permeability-related molecules (occludin, claudin-5, PV-1, CD-31, endomucin, Angiopoietin-1, Angiopoietin-2, Tie2, VEGFA, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, and VE-cadherin) in kidney and lung after systemic lipopolysacharide injection in mice, and in kidneys of patients who died of sepsis. We showed that baseline endothelial expression of permeability-related molecules differs in mouse kidney and lung. Moreover, we showed differential regulation of these molecules after lipopolysacharide injection in the two mouse organs. In lung we found a decrease in expression levels of molecules of the adherence and tight junctions complex and related signaling systems, compatible with increased permeability. In contrast, in kidney we found expression patterns of these molecules compatible with decreased permeability. Finally, we partially corroborated our findings in mouse kidney in human kidneys from septic patients. These findings may help to understand the clinical difference in the extent of oedema formation in kidney and lung in sepsis-associated organ failure. PMID:28151770

  16. A 3-D mathematical model to identify organ-specific risks in rats during thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Rakesh, Vineet; Stallings, Jonathan D; Helwig, Bryan G; Leon, Lisa R; Jackson, David A; Reifman, Jaques

    2013-12-01

    Early prediction of the adverse outcomes associated with heat stress is critical for effective management and mitigation of injury, which may sometimes lead to extreme undesirable clinical conditions, such as multiorgan dysfunction syndrome and death. Here, we developed a computational model to predict the spatiotemporal temperature distribution in a rat exposed to heat stress in an attempt to understand the correlation between heat load and differential organ dysfunction. The model includes a three-dimensional representation of the rat anatomy obtained from medical imaging and incorporates the key mechanisms of heat transfer during thermoregulation. We formulated a novel approach to estimate blood temperature by accounting for blood mixing from the different organs and to estimate the effects of the circadian rhythm in body temperature by considering day-night variations in metabolic heat generation and blood perfusion. We validated the model using in vivo core temperature measurements in control and heat-stressed rats and other published experimental data. The model predictions were within 1 SD of the measured data. The liver demonstrated the greatest susceptibility to heat stress, with the maximum temperature reaching 2°C higher than the measured core temperature and 95% of its volume exceeding the targeted experimental core temperature. Other organs also attained temperatures greater than the core temperature, illustrating the need to monitor multiple organs during heat stress. The model facilitates the identification of organ-specific risks during heat stress and has the potential to aid in the development of improved clinical strategies for thermal-injury prevention and management.

  17. Specificity assessment from fractionation experiments (SAFE): a novel method to evaluate microarray probe specificity based on hybridisation stringencies.

    PubMed

    Drobyshev, Alexei L; Machka, Christine; Horsch, Marion; Seltmann, Matthias; Liebscher, Volkmar; Hrabé de Angelis, Martin; Beckers, Johannes

    2003-01-15

    The cDNA-chip technology is a highly versatile tool for the comprehensive analysis of gene expression at the transcript level. Although it has been applied successfully in expression profiling projects, there is an ongoing dispute concerning the quality of such expression data. The latter critically depends on the specificity of hybridisation. SAFE (specificity assessment from fractionation experiments) is a novel method to discriminate between non- specific cross-hybridisation and specific signals. We applied in situ fractionation of hybridised target on DNA-chips by means of repeated washes with increasing stringencies. Different fractions of hybridised target are washed off at defined stringencies and the collected fluorescence intensity data at each step comprise the fractionation curve. Based on characteristic features of the fractionation curve, unreliable data can be filtered and eliminated from subsequent analyses. The approach described here provides a novel experimental tool to identify probes that produce specific hybridisation signals in DNA-chip expression profiling approaches. The iterative use of the SAFE procedure will result in increasingly reliable sets of probes for microarray experiments and significantly improve the overall efficiency and reliability of RNA expression profiling data from DNA-chip experiments.

  18. Specificity assessment from fractionation experiments (SAFE): a novel method to evaluate microarray probe specificity based on hybridisation stringencies

    PubMed Central

    Drobyshev, Alexei L.; Machka, Christine; Horsch, Marion; Seltmann, Matthias; Liebscher, Volkmar; Hrabé de Angelis, Martin; Beckers, Johannes

    2003-01-01

    The cDNA-chip technology is a highly versatile tool for the comprehensive analysis of gene expression at the transcript level. Although it has been applied successfully in expression profiling projects, there is an ongoing dispute concerning the quality of such expression data. The latter critically depends on the specificity of hybridisation. SAFE (specificity assessment from fractionation experiments) is a novel method to discriminate between non- specific cross-hybridisation and specific signals. We applied in situ fractionation of hybridised target on DNA-chips by means of repeated washes with increasing stringencies. Different fractions of hybridised target are washed off at defined stringencies and the collected fluorescence intensity data at each step comprise the fractionation curve. Based on characteristic features of the fractionation curve, unreliable data can be filtered and eliminated from subsequent analyses. The approach described here provides a novel experimental tool to identify probes that produce specific hybridisation signals in DNA-chip expression profiling approaches. The iterative use of the SAFE procedure will result in increasingly reliable sets of probes for microarray experiments and significantly improve the overall efficiency and reliability of RNA expression profiling data from DNA-chip experiments. PMID:12527790

  19. Human uroporphyrinogen-III synthase: genomic organization, alternative promoters, and erythroid-specific expression.

    PubMed

    Aizencang, G; Solis, C; Bishop, D F; Warner, C; Desnick, R J

    2000-12-01

    Uroporphyrinogen-III (URO) synthase is the heme biosynthetic enzyme defective in congenital erythropoietic porphyria. The approximately 34-kb human URO-synthase gene (UROS) was isolated, and its organization and tissue-specific expression were determined. The gene had two promoters that generated housekeeping and erythroid-specific transcripts with unique 5'-untranslated sequences (exons 1 and 2A) followed by nine common coding exons (2B to 10). Expression arrays revealed that the housekeeping transcript was present in all tissues, while the erythroid transcript was only in erythropoietic tissues. The housekeeping promoter lacked TATA and SP1 sites, consistent with the observed low level expression in most cells, whereas the erythroid promoter contained GATA1 and NF-E2 sites for erythroid specificity. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that the housekeeping promoter was active in both erythroid K562 and HeLa cells, while the erythroid promoter was active only in erythroid cells and its activity was increased during hemin-induced erythroid differentiation. Thus, human URO-synthase expression is regulated during erythropoiesis by an erythroid-specific alternative promoter.

  20. Integrating and mining the chromatin landscape of cell-type specificity using self-organizing maps

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Ali; Pepke, Shirley; Jansen, Camden; Marinov, Georgi K.; Ernst, Jason; Kellis, Manolis; Hardison, Ross C.; Myers, Richard M.; Wold, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether self-organizing maps (SOMs) could be used to effectively integrate, visualize, and mine diverse genomics data types, including complex chromatin signatures. A fine-grained SOM was trained on 72 ChIP-seq histone modifications and DNase-seq data sets from six biologically diverse cell lines studied by The ENCODE Project Consortium. We mined the resulting SOM to identify chromatin signatures related to sequence-specific transcription factor occupancy, sequence motif enrichment, and biological functions. To highlight clusters enriched for specific functions such as transcriptional promoters or enhancers, we overlaid onto the map additional data sets not used during training, such as ChIP-seq, RNA-seq, CAGE, and information on cis-acting regulatory modules from the literature. We used the SOM to parse known transcriptional enhancers according to the cell-type-specific chromatin signature, and we further corroborated this pattern on the map by EP300 (also known as p300) occupancy. New candidate cell-type-specific enhancers were identified for multiple ENCODE cell types in this way, along with new candidates for ubiquitous enhancer activity. An interactive web interface was developed to allow users to visualize and custom-mine the ENCODE SOM. We conclude that large SOMs trained on chromatin data from multiple cell types provide a powerful way to identify complex relationships in genomic data at user-selected levels of granularity. PMID:24170599

  1. Passive strain-induced matrix synthesis and organization in shape-specific, cartilaginous neotissues.

    PubMed

    MacBarb, Regina F; Paschos, Nikolaos K; Abeug, Reedge; Makris, Eleftherios A; Hu, Jerry C; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2014-12-01

    Tissue-engineered musculoskeletal soft tissues typically lack the appropriate mechanical robustness of their native counterparts, hindering their clinical applicability. With structure and function being intimately linked, efforts to capture the anatomical shape and matrix organization of native tissues are imperative to engineer functionally robust and anisotropic tissues capable of withstanding the biomechanically complex in vivo joint environment. The present study sought to tailor the use of passive axial compressive loading to drive matrix synthesis and reorganization within self-assembled, shape-specific fibrocartilaginous constructs, with the goal of developing functionally anisotropic neotissues. Specifically, shape-specific fibrocartilaginous neotissues were subjected to 0, 0.01, 0.05, or 0.1 N axial loads early during tissue culture. Results found the 0.1-N load to significantly increase both collagen and glycosaminoglycan synthesis by 27% and 67%, respectively, and to concurrently reorganize the matrix by promoting greater matrix alignment, compaction, and collagen crosslinking compared with all other loading levels. These structural enhancements translated into improved functional properties, with the 0.1-N load significantly increasing both the relaxation modulus and Young's modulus by 96% and 255%, respectively, over controls. Finite element analysis further revealed the 0.1-N uniaxial load to induce multiaxial tensile and compressive strain gradients within the shape-specific neotissues, with maxima of 10.1%, 18.3%, and -21.8% in the XX-, YY-, and ZZ-directions, respectively. This indicates that strains created in different directions in response to a single axis load drove the observed anisotropic functional properties. Together, results of this study suggest that strain thresholds exist within each axis to promote matrix synthesis, alignment, and compaction within the shape-specific neotissues. Tailoring of passive axial loading, thus, presents

  2. Passive Strain-Induced Matrix Synthesis and Organization in Shape-Specific, Cartilaginous Neotissues

    PubMed Central

    MacBarb, Regina F.; Paschos, Nikolaos K.; Abeug, Reedge; Makris, Eleftherios A.; Hu, Jerry C.

    2014-01-01

    Tissue-engineered musculoskeletal soft tissues typically lack the appropriate mechanical robustness of their native counterparts, hindering their clinical applicability. With structure and function being intimately linked, efforts to capture the anatomical shape and matrix organization of native tissues are imperative to engineer functionally robust and anisotropic tissues capable of withstanding the biomechanically complex in vivo joint environment. The present study sought to tailor the use of passive axial compressive loading to drive matrix synthesis and reorganization within self-assembled, shape-specific fibrocartilaginous constructs, with the goal of developing functionally anisotropic neotissues. Specifically, shape-specific fibrocartilaginous neotissues were subjected to 0, 0.01, 0.05, or 0.1 N axial loads early during tissue culture. Results found the 0.1-N load to significantly increase both collagen and glycosaminoglycan synthesis by 27% and 67%, respectively, and to concurrently reorganize the matrix by promoting greater matrix alignment, compaction, and collagen crosslinking compared with all other loading levels. These structural enhancements translated into improved functional properties, with the 0.1-N load significantly increasing both the relaxation modulus and Young's modulus by 96% and 255%, respectively, over controls. Finite element analysis further revealed the 0.1-N uniaxial load to induce multiaxial tensile and compressive strain gradients within the shape-specific neotissues, with maxima of 10.1%, 18.3%, and −21.8% in the XX-, YY-, and ZZ-directions, respectively. This indicates that strains created in different directions in response to a single axis load drove the observed anisotropic functional properties. Together, results of this study suggest that strain thresholds exist within each axis to promote matrix synthesis, alignment, and compaction within the shape-specific neotissues. Tailoring of passive axial loading, thus, presents

  3. The association between hypertension-specific care management processes and blood pressure outcomes in US-based physician organizations.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ken; Smalarz, Amy; Wu, Ning; Boulanger, Luke; Wogen, Jenifer

    2011-01-01

    Care management processes (CMP) may be implemented in health systems to improve chronic disease quality of care. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between the presence of hypertension-specific CMP and blood pressure (BP) control among hypertensive patients within selected physician organizations in the USA-modified version of the Physician Practice Connection Readiness Survey (PPC-RS), developed by The National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA), was administered to chief medical officers at 28 US-based physician organizations in 2010. Hypertension-specific survey items were added to the PPC-RS and focused on medication fill compliance, chronic disease management, and patient self-management. Demographic and clinical cross-sectional data from a random sample of 300 hypertensive patients age 18 years or older were collected at each site. Physician site and patient characteristics were reported. Regression models were used to assess the relationship between hypertension-specific physician practices and patient BP control. Eligible patients had at least a 1-year history of care with the physician organization and had an encounter within the past year of data collection. Of the 28 participating sites, most had electronic medical records that handle total functionality (71.4%) and had more than 50 staff members (78.6%). Across all sites, approximately 61% of patients had controlled BP. Regression analyses found that practices that used physician education as an effort to improve medication fill compliance demonstrated improvement in BP control (changes in systolic BP: beta coefficient = -1.366, P = .034; changes in diastolic BP: beta coefficient = -0.859, P = .056). The use of a systematic process to screen or assess patients for hypertension as a risk factor was also found to be associated with improvements in BP control (changes in diastolic BP: beta coefficient = -0.860, P = .006). In addition, physician practices that maintained a list

  4. Verticillium longisporum infection induces organ-specific glucosinolate degradation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Witzel, Katja; Hanschen, Franziska S.; Klopsch, Rebecca; Ruppel, Silke; Schreiner, Monika; Grosch, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The species Verticillium represents a group of highly destructive fungal pathogens, responsible for vascular wilt in a number of crops. The host response to infection by Verticillium longisporum at the level of secondary plant metabolites has not been well explored. Natural variation in the glucosinolate (GLS) composition of four Arabidopsis thaliana accessions was characterized: the accessions Bur-0 and Hi-0 accumulated alkenyl GLS, while 3-hydroxypropyl GLS predominated in Kn-0 and Ler-0. With respect to GLS degradation products, Hi-0 and Kn-0 generated mainly isothiocyanates, whereas Bur-0 released epithionitriles and Ler-0 nitriles. An analysis of the effect on the composition of both GLS and its breakdown products in the leaf and root following the plants’ exposure to V. longisporum revealed a number of organ- and accession-specific alterations. In the less disease susceptible accessions Bur-0 and Ler-0, colonization depressed the accumulation of GLS in the rosette leaves but accentuated it in the roots. In contrast, in the root, the level of GLS breakdown products in three of the four accessions fell, suggestive of their conjugation or binding to a fungal target molecule(s). The plant-pathogen interaction influenced both the organ- and accession-specific formation of GLS degradation products. PMID:26217360

  5. Layer-Specific Organization of Local Excitatory and Inhibitory Synaptic Connectivity in the Rat Presubiculum

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yangfan; Barreda Tomás, Federico J.; Klisch, Constantin; Vida, Imre

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The presubiculum is part of the parahippocampal spatial navigation system and contains head direction and grid cells upstream of the medial entorhinal cortex. This position within the parahippocampal cortex renders the presubiculum uniquely suited for analyzing the circuit requirements underlying the emergence of spatially tuned neuronal activity. To identify the local circuit properties, we analyzed the topology of synaptic connections between pyramidal cells and interneurons in all layers of the presubiculum by testing 4250 potential synaptic connections using multiple whole-cell recordings of up to 8 cells simultaneously. Network topology showed layer-specific organization of microcircuits consistent with the prevailing distinction of superficial and deep layers. While connections among pyramidal cells were almost absent in superficial layers, deep layers exhibited an excitatory connectivity of 3.9%. In contrast, synaptic connectivity for inhibition was higher in superficial layers though markedly lower than in other cortical areas. Finally, synaptic amplitudes of both excitatory and inhibitory connections showed log-normal distributions suggesting a nonrandom functional connectivity. In summary, our study provides new insights into the microcircuit organization of the presubiculum by revealing area- and layer-specific connectivity rules and sets new constraints for future models of the parahippocampal navigation system. PMID:28334142

  6. Organization of specific genomic regions of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Pichia sorbitophila: comparison with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Sychrova, H; Braun, V; Potier, S; Souciet, J L

    2000-11-01

    The genomes of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Pichia sorbitophila were partially explored. The genome of Z. rouxii CBS 732 consists of seven chromosomes with an approximate size of 1.0-2.75 Mb, 12.8 Mb in total. Five of the chromosomes were labelled with specific probes. Three Z. rouxii genomic DNA fragments were sequenced; all 10 ORFs found were without introns and they have homologues in S. cerevisiae. Gene order comparison revealed that the organization is partially conserved in both species. The genome of P. sorbitophila CBS 7064 consists of seven chromosomes with an approximate size of 1.0-2.9 Mb, 13.9 Mb in total. Three of the chromosomes were labelled with specific probes. The sequencing of a 5.2 kb genomic DNA fragment revealed three ORFs, but no conservation of their organization was found, although all of them have their respective homologues in S. cerevisiae. According to our results, the presence of two overlapping ORFs in S. cerevisiae (YJL107c-YJL108c) could be interpreted as the result of a frameshift mutation.

  7. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase deficiency causes organ-specific autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Hase, Koji; Takahashi, Daisuke; Ebisawa, Masashi; Kawano, Sayaka; Itoh, Kikuji; Ohno, Hiroshi

    2008-08-21

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) expressed by germinal center B cells is a central regulator of somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR). Humans with AID mutations develop not only the autosomal recessive form of hyper-IgM syndrome (HIGM2) associated with B cell hyperplasia, but also autoimmune disorders by unknown mechanisms. We report here that AID-/- mice spontaneously develop tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) in non-lymphoid tissues including the stomach at around 6 months of age. At a later stage, AID-/- mice develop a severe gastritis characterized by loss of gastric glands and epithelial hyperplasia. The disease development was not attenuated even under germ-free (GF) conditions. Gastric autoantigen -specific serum IgM was elevated in AID-/- mice, and the serum levels correlated with the gastritis pathological score. Adoptive transfer experiments suggest that autoimmune CD4+ T cells mediate gastritis development as terminal effector cells. These results suggest that abnormal B-cell expansion due to AID deficiency can drive B-cell autoimmunity, and in turn promote TLO formation, which ultimately leads to the propagation of organ-specific autoimmune effector CD4+ T cells. Thus, AID plays an important role in the containment of autoimmune diseases by negative regulation of autoreactive B cells.

  8. Compound-specific Sorption of Dissolved Organic Carbon on Soil Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadamma, S.; Heal, K.; Mayes, M. A.; Phillips, J.; Jardine, P.

    2010-12-01

    Organic carbon (OC) in soil is the largest terrestrial C sink and securely storing this pool appears to be a promising strategy to combat climate change. Sorption of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is considered to be a major process of OC preservation in deeper soils. However the soil and solution parameters and environmental factors controlling the DOC sorption rates and mechanisms are still poorly studied. We tested the influence of different physical and chemical properties of subsurface soils on the DOC sorption capacity of a wide range of temperate soils. Soil samples from B horizons were selected from various sites within the eastern United States (225 samples from 73 soil series). The maximum sorption of DOC was determined by applying different concentrations of solutions of characterized humic acid (0-100 mg/L) to the soils in batch experiments at a solid-to-solution ratio of 1:60 for 48 h and fitting to the Langmuir equation. Multiple regression analysis revealed that clay and Fe-oxide content accounted for 55 % of variation in maximum DOC sorption capacity in Ultisols and, clay content and pH were the major drivers for DOC sorption capacity of Alfisols. The maximum DOC sorption capacity of Mollisols was mainly controlled by clay and total OC content. Results also provide indirect indication that Mollisols preferentially sorb certain OC functional groups from the bulk humic acid solution. Consequently, we hypothesize that chemical nature of OC compounds impart a major control on C cycling and preservation in soils. This hypothesis was tested by studying the specific sorption and desorption of a variety of organic compounds (e.g., carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, phenols, and lignin) on Mollisols, Ultisols and Alfisols through batch technique. Preliminary results showed that different soil orders exhibit compound-specific sorption of DOC. The underpinning mechanisms of such sorption specificity at solution and solid phases of soils have currently

  9. Organ, cellular, and subcellular localization of brain-specific anion transporter BSAT1.

    PubMed

    Baklaushev, V P; Kardashova, K Sh; Gurina, O I; Yusubaliyeva, G M; Zorkina, Ya A; Chekhonin, V P

    2013-08-01

    Organ, cellular, and subcellular localization of brain-specific anion transporter BSAT1 was studied in rats using antibodies to the extracellular fragment (451-557 a.a). The antibodies were shown to recognize the antigen predominantly localized in the nervous tissue, tumors of glial origin, and primordial ovarian follicles. The absence of BSAT1 immunofluorescence signal in kidney and liver sections and accumulation of (125)I labeled antibodies to BSAT1 in these organs indicate that these antibodies do not cross-react with the most common isoforms of OATP expressed in these organs. Analysis of the cellular localization suggests that in the brain, BSAT1 is localized predominantly in astrocytes, but not in endothelial cells, as was previously reported. Laser scanning confocal microscopy with a set of relevant trackers revealed membrane localization of BSAT1. Taking into account the data on the of localization, we can conclude that antibodies to BSAT1 451-557 can be used for basic research of the transport of thyroxin and prostaglandins across the blood brain barrier and for testing the systems for targeted transport of diagnostic preparations and drugs across the blood brain barrier, e.g. to astroglial tumors.

  10. Integrated Transcriptome and Proteome Analyses Reveal Organ-Specific Proteome Deterioration in Old Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ori, Alessandro; Toyama, Brandon H.; Harris, Michael S.; Bock, Thomas; Iskar, Murat; Bork, Peer; Ingolia, Nicholas T.; Hetzer, Martin W.; Beck, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Summary Aging is associated with the decline of protein, cell, and organ function. Here, we use an integrated approach to characterize gene expression, bulk translation, and cell biology in the brains and livers of young and old rats. We identify 468 differences in protein abundance between young and old animals. The majority are a consequence of altered translation output, that is, the combined effect of changes in transcript abundance and translation efficiency. In addition, we identify 130 proteins whose overall abundance remains unchanged but whose sub-cellular localization, phosphorylation state, or splice-form varies. While some protein-level differences appear to be a generic property of the rats’ chronological age, the majority are specific to one organ. These may be a consequence of the organ’s physiology or the chronological age of the cells within the tissue. Taken together, our study provides an initial view of the proteome at the molecular, sub-cellular, and organ level in young and old rats. PMID:27135913

  11. Methods for isolation and viability assessment of biological organisms

    DOEpatents

    Letant, Sonia Edith; Baker, Sarah Elyse; Bond, Tiziana; Chang, Allan Shih-Ping

    2015-02-03

    Isolation of biological or chemical organisms can be accomplished using a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) system. The SERS system can be a single or a stacked plurality of photonic crystal membranes with noble-metal lined through pores for flowing analyte potentially containing the biological or chemical organisms. The through pores can be adapted to trap individual biological or chemical organisms and emit SERS spectra, which can then be detected by a detector and further analyzed for viability of the biological or chemical organism.

  12. What risk assessments of genetically modified organisms can learn from institutional analyses of public health risks.

    PubMed

    Rajan, S Ravi; Letourneau, Deborah K

    2012-01-01

    The risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are evaluated traditionally by combining hazard identification and exposure estimates to provide decision support for regulatory agencies. We question the utility of the classical risk paradigm and discuss its evolution in GMO risk assessment. First, we consider the problem of uncertainty, by comparing risk assessment for environmental toxins in the public health domain with genetically modified organisms in the environment; we use the specific comparison of an insecticide to a transgenic, insecticidal food crop. Next, we examine normal accident theory (NAT) as a heuristic to consider runaway effects of GMOs, such as negative community level consequences of gene flow from transgenic, insecticidal crops. These examples illustrate how risk assessments are made more complex and contentious by both their inherent uncertainty and the inevitability of failure beyond expectation in complex systems. We emphasize the value of conducting decision-support research, embracing uncertainty, increasing transparency, and building interdisciplinary institutions that can address the complex interactions between ecosystems and society. In particular, we argue against black boxing risk analysis, and for a program to educate policy makers about uncertainty and complexity, so that eventually, decision making is not the burden that falls upon scientists but is assumed by the public at large.

  13. What Risk Assessments of Genetically Modified Organisms Can Learn from Institutional Analyses of Public Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, S. Ravi; Letourneau, Deborah K.

    2012-01-01

    The risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are evaluated traditionally by combining hazard identification and exposure estimates to provide decision support for regulatory agencies. We question the utility of the classical risk paradigm and discuss its evolution in GMO risk assessment. First, we consider the problem of uncertainty, by comparing risk assessment for environmental toxins in the public health domain with genetically modified organisms in the environment; we use the specific comparison of an insecticide to a transgenic, insecticidal food crop. Next, we examine normal accident theory (NAT) as a heuristic to consider runaway effects of GMOs, such as negative community level consequences of gene flow from transgenic, insecticidal crops. These examples illustrate how risk assessments are made more complex and contentious by both their inherent uncertainty and the inevitability of failure beyond expectation in complex systems. We emphasize the value of conducting decision-support research, embracing uncertainty, increasing transparency, and building interdisciplinary institutions that can address the complex interactions between ecosystems and society. In particular, we argue against black boxing risk analysis, and for a program to educate policy makers about uncertainty and complexity, so that eventually, decision making is not the burden that falls upon scientists but is assumed by the public at large. PMID:23193357

  14. Development of Monte Carlo simulations to provide scanner-specific organ dose coefficients for contemporary CT.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Jan T M; Shrimpton, Paul C

    2016-07-21

    The ImPACT (imaging performance assessment of CT scanners) CT patient dosimetry calculator is still used world-wide to estimate organ and effective doses (E) for computed tomography (CT) examinations, although the tool is based on Monte Carlo calculations reflecting practice in the early 1990's. Subsequent developments in CT scanners, definitions of E, anthropomorphic phantoms, computers and radiation transport codes, have all fuelled an urgent need for updated organ dose conversion factors for contemporary CT. A new system for such simulations has been developed and satisfactorily tested. Benchmark comparisons of normalised organ doses presently derived for three old scanners (General Electric 9800, Philips Tomoscan LX and Siemens Somatom DRH) are within 5% of published values. Moreover, calculated normalised values of CT Dose Index for these scanners are in reasonable agreement (within measurement and computational uncertainties of  ±6% and  ±1%, respectively) with reported standard measurements. Organ dose coefficients calculated for a contemporary CT scanner (Siemens Somatom Sensation 16) demonstrate potential deviations by up to around 30% from the surrogate values presently assumed (through a scanner matching process) when using the ImPACT CT Dosimetry tool for newer scanners. Also, illustrative estimates of E for some typical examinations and a range of anthropomorphic phantoms demonstrate the significant differences (by some 10's of percent) that can arise when changing from the previously adopted stylised mathematical phantom to the voxel phantoms presently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and when following the 2007 ICRP recommendations (updated from 1990) concerning tissue weighting factors. Further simulations with the validated dosimetry system will provide updated series of dose coefficients for a wide range of contemporary scanners.

  15. Development of Monte Carlo simulations to provide scanner-specific organ dose coefficients for contemporary CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Jan T. M.; Shrimpton, Paul C.

    2016-07-01

    The ImPACT (imaging performance assessment of CT scanners) CT patient dosimetry calculator is still used world-wide to estimate organ and effective doses (E) for computed tomography (CT) examinations, although the tool is based on Monte Carlo calculations reflecting practice in the early 1990’s. Subsequent developments in CT scanners, definitions of E, anthropomorphic phantoms, computers and radiation transport codes, have all fuelled an urgent need for updated organ dose conversion factors for contemporary CT. A new system for such simulations has been developed and satisfactorily tested. Benchmark comparisons of normalised organ doses presently derived for three old scanners (General Electric 9800, Philips Tomoscan LX and Siemens Somatom DRH) are within 5% of published values. Moreover, calculated normalised values of CT Dose Index for these scanners are in reasonable agreement (within measurement and computational uncertainties of  ±6% and  ±1%, respectively) with reported standard measurements. Organ dose coefficients calculated for a contemporary CT scanner (Siemens Somatom Sensation 16) demonstrate potential deviations by up to around 30% from the surrogate values presently assumed (through a scanner matching process) when using the ImPACT CT Dosimetry tool for newer scanners. Also, illustrative estimates of E for some typical examinations and a range of anthropomorphic phantoms demonstrate the significant differences (by some 10’s of percent) that can arise when changing from the previously adopted stylised mathematical phantom to the voxel phantoms presently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and when following the 2007 ICRP recommendations (updated from 1990) concerning tissue weighting factors. Further simulations with the validated dosimetry system will provide updated series of dose coefficients for a wide range of contemporary scanners.

  16. Plant specific volatile organic compound emission factors from young and mature leaves of Mediterranean vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracho-Nunez, Araceli; Welter, Saskia; Staudt, Michael; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    Terrestrial vegetation is the most important source of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOC) with significant influence on the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere. VOCs influence the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and contribute to the formation and growth of secondary organic aerosols affecting cloud development and precipitation. The aim of our study was to investigate potential quantitative and qualitative differences in VOC emission patterns of young and mature leaves for nine typical Mediterranean plant species. The Mediterranean area was chosen due to its special diversity in VOC emitting plant species. Foliar isoprenoid emissions as well as emissions of oxygenated VOC like methanol and acetone were measured under standard light and temperature conditions during spring and summer 2008 at the CEFE-CNRS institute in Montpellier, France. A proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) was used for online measurement of VOCs. While PTR-MS is an excellent technique for fast chemical measurements it lacks specificity and compounds with the same mass cannot be distinguished. For this reason, cartridge samples were collected and afterwards analyzed with GC-FID. In parallel offline VOC analyses were performed with gas chromatography (GC) coupled to a mass spectrometer and flame ionization detector, enabling assignment of the observed PTR-MS mass to charge ratios (m/z) to specific identification based on the GC-FID retention times. Thus, combining the PTR-MS and GC-FID analyses enabled accurate and online identification of the VOCs emitted. The results emphasise that VOC emission is a developmentally regulated process and quantitative and qualitative variability is plant species specific. Leaf ontogeny clearly influenced not only the standard emission rate but also the VOC composition, with methanol being the major compound that contributes to the total VOC emissions in young leaves and maintaining or decreasing its contribution with maturity.

  17. Molecular basis of organ-specific selection of viral variants during chronic infection.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, R; Hahn, C S; Somasundaram, T; Villarete, L; Matloubian, M; Strauss, J H

    1991-01-01

    Viral variants of different phenotypes are present in the central nervous system (CNS) and lymphoid tissues of carrier mice infected at birth with the Armstrong strain of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. The CNS isolates are similar to the parental virus and cause acute infections in adult mice, whereas the lymphoid isolates cause chronic infections associated with suppressed T-cell responses. In this study, we provide a molecular basis for this organ-specific selection and identify a single amino acid change in the viral glycoprotein that correlates with the tissue specific selection and the persistent and immunosuppressive phenotype of the variants. This phenylalanine (F)-to-leucine (L) change at position 260 of the viral glycoprotein was seen in the vast majority (43 of 47) of the lymphoid isolates, and variants with L at this residue were selected in spleens of persistently infected mice. In striking contrast, isolates with the parental sequence (F at residue 260) predominated (48 of 59 isolates) in the CNS of the same carrier mice. Complete nucleotide sequence analysis of the major structural genes of several independently derived (from different mice) spleen isolates showed that these variants were greater than 99.8% identical to the parental virus. In fact, the only common change among these spleen isolates was the F----L mutation at residue 260 of the glycoprotein. These results show that an RNA virus can exhibit minimal genetic drift during chronic infection in its natural host, and yet a single or few mutations can result in the organ-specific selection of variants that are markedly different from the parental virus. Images PMID:2072451

  18. Organism-Adapted Specificity of the Allosteric Regulation of Pyruvate Kinase in Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Veith, Nadine; Feldman-Salit, Anna; Cojocaru, Vlad; Henrich, Stefan; Kummer, Ursula; Wade, Rebecca C.

    2013-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase (PYK) is a critical allosterically regulated enzyme that links glycolysis, the primary energy metabolism, to cellular metabolism. Lactic acid bacteria rely almost exclusively on glycolysis for their energy production under anaerobic conditions, which reinforces the key role of PYK in their metabolism. These organisms are closely related, but have adapted to a huge variety of native environments. They include food-fermenting organisms, important symbionts in the human gut, and antibiotic-resistant pathogens. In contrast to the rather conserved inhibition of PYK by inorganic phosphate, the activation of PYK shows high variability in the type of activating compound between different lactic acid bacteria. System-wide comparative studies of the metabolism of lactic acid bacteria are required to understand the reasons for the diversity of these closely related microorganisms. These require knowledge of the identities of the enzyme modifiers. Here, we predict potential allosteric activators of PYKs from three lactic acid bacteria which are adapted to different native environments. We used protein structure-based molecular modeling and enzyme kinetic modeling to predict and validate potential activators of PYK. Specifically, we compared the electrostatic potential and the binding of phosphate moieties at the allosteric binding sites, and predicted potential allosteric activators by docking. We then made a kinetic model of Lactococcus lactis PYK to relate the activator predictions to the intracellular sugar-phosphate conditions in lactic acid bacteria. This strategy enabled us to predict fructose 1,6-bisphosphate as the sole activator of the Enterococcus faecalis PYK, and to predict that the PYKs from Streptococcus pyogenes and Lactobacillus plantarum show weaker specificity for their allosteric activators, while still having fructose 1,6-bisphosphate play the main activator role in vivo. These differences in the specificity of allosteric activation may

  19. A highly sensitive and specific method for the screening detection of genetically modified organisms based on digital PCR without pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Wei; Zhu, Pengyu; Wang, Chenguang; Huang, Kunlun; Du, Zhixin; Tian, Wenying; Wang, Qin; Wang, Huiyu; Xu, Wentao; Zhu, Shuifang

    2015-01-01

    Digital PCR has developed rapidly since it was first reported in the 1990s. It was recently reported that an improved method facilitated the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). However, to use this improved method, the samples must be pretreated, which could introduce inaccuracy into the results. In our study, we explored a pretreatment-free digital PCR detection method for the screening for GMOs. We chose the CaMV35s promoter and the NOS terminator as the templates in our assay. To determine the specificity of our method, 9 events of GMOs were collected, including MON810, MON863, TC1507, MIR604, MIR162, GA21, T25, NK603 and Bt176. Moreover, the sensitivity, intra-laboratory and inter-laboratory reproducibility of our detection method were assessed. The results showed that the limit of detection of our method was 0.1%, which was lower than the labeling threshold level of the EU. The specificity and stability among the 9 events were consistent, respectively. The intra-laboratory and inter-laboratory reproducibility were both good. Finally, the perfect fitness for the detection of eight double-blind samples indicated the good practicability of our method. In conclusion, the method in our study would allow more sensitive, specific and stable screening detection of the GMO content of international trading products. PMID:26239916

  20. A highly sensitive and specific method for the screening detection of genetically modified organisms based on digital PCR without pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wei; Zhu, Pengyu; Wang, Chenguang; Huang, Kunlun; Du, Zhixin; Tian, Wenying; Wang, Qin; Wang, Huiyu; Xu, Wentao; Zhu, Shuifang

    2015-08-04

    Digital PCR has developed rapidly since it was first reported in the 1990 s. It was recently reported that an improved method facilitated the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). However, to use this improved method, the samples must be pretreated, which could introduce inaccuracy into the results. In our study, we explored a pretreatment-free digital PCR detection method for the screening for GMOs. We chose the CaMV35s promoter and the NOS terminator as the templates in our assay. To determine the specificity of our method, 9 events of GMOs were collected, including MON810, MON863, TC1507, MIR604, MIR162, GA21, T25, NK603 and Bt176. Moreover, the sensitivity, intra-laboratory and inter-laboratory reproducibility of our detection method were assessed. The results showed that the limit of detection of our method was 0.1%, which was lower than the labeling threshold level of the EU. The specificity and stability among the 9 events were consistent, respectively. The intra-laboratory and inter-laboratory reproducibility were both good. Finally, the perfect fitness for the detection of eight double-blind samples indicated the good practicability of our method. In conclusion, the method in our study would allow more sensitive, specific and stable screening detection of the GMO content of international trading products.

  1. Organ-specific transcriptome response of the small brown planthopper toward rice stripe virus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wan; Lu, Lixia; Yang, Pengcheng; Cui, Na; Kang, Le; Cui, Feng

    2016-03-01

    Rice stripe virus (RSV) causes rice stripe disease and is transmitted by the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus, SBPH) in a persistent, circulative, and propagative manner. The alimentary canal and salivary gland of SBPH play important roles in viral replication and transmission. However, little is known about the underlying molecular functions of these two organs in the interaction between RSV and SBPH. In this study, organ-specific transcriptomes of the alimentary canal and salivary gland were analyzed in viruliferous and naïve SBPH. The number of differentially expressed unigenes in the alimentary canal was considerably greater than that in the salivary gland after RSV infection, and only 23 unigenes were co-regulated in the two organs. In the alimentary canal, genes involved in lysosome, digestion and detoxification were activated upon RSV infection, whereas the genes related to DNA replication and repair were suppressed. RSV activated RNA transport and repressed the MAPK, mTOR, Wnt, and TGF-beta signaling pathways in the salivary gland. The overall immune reaction toward RSV was much stronger in the salivary gland than in the alimentary canal. RSV activated the pattern recognition molecules and Toll pathway in the salivary gland but inhibited these two reactions in the alimentary canal. The responses from reactive oxygen and the immune-responsive effectors were stronger in the salivary gland than in the alimentary canal after RSV infection. These findings provide clues on the roles of the two organs in confronting RSV infection and aid in the understanding of the interaction between RSV and SBPHs.

  2. Organ-Specific Differences in Endothelial Permeability-Regulating Molecular Responses in Mouse and Human Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Adnan; van Meurs, Matijs; Moser, Jill; Popa, Eliane R; Jongman, Rianne M; Zwiers, Peter J; Molema, Grietje; Zijlstra, Jan G

    2017-02-01

    In patients with sepsis-induced MODS, diverging patterns of oedema formation and loss of function in organs such as lung and kidney suggest that endothelial permeability-regulating molecular responses are differentially regulated. This potential differential regulation has been insufficiently studied at the level of components of adherens and tight junctions. We hypothesized that such a regulation by endothelial cells in sepsis takes place in an organ-specific manner. We addressed our hypothesis by studying by quantitative RT-PCR the expression of a predefined subset of EC permeability-related molecules (occludin, claudin-5, PV-1, CD-31, endomucin, Angiopoietin-1, Angiopoietin-2, Tie2, VEGFA, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, and VE-cadherin) in kidney and lung after systemic LPS injection in mice, and in kidneys of patients who died of sepsis. We showed that baseline endothelial expression of permeability-related molecules differs in mouse kidney and lung. Moreover, we showed differential regulation of these molecules after LPS injection in the two mouse organs. In lung we found a decrease in expression levels of molecules of the adherence and tight junctions complex and related signalling systems, compatible with increased permeability. In contrast, in kidney we found expression patterns of these molecules compatible with decreased permeability. Finally, we partially corroborated our findings in mouse kidney in human kidneys from septic patients. These findings may help to understand the clinical difference in the extent of oedema formation in kidney and lung in sepsis-associated organ failure.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0.

  3. Retrospective Assessment of Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse: A Comparison of Scaled and Behaviorally Specific Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLillo, David; Fortier, Michelle A.; Hayes, Sarah A.; Trask, Emily; Perry, Andrea R.; Messman-Moore, Terri; Fauchier, Angele; Nash, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    This study compared retrospective reports of childhood sexual and physical abuse as assessed by two measures: the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), which uses a Likert-type scaling approach, and the Computer Assisted Maltreatment Inventory (CAMI), which employs a behaviorally specific means of assessment. Participants included 1,195…

  4. Retrospective Assessment of Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse: A Comparison of Scaled and Behaviorally Specific Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLillo, David; Fortier, Michelle A.; Hayes, Sarah A.; Trask, Emily; Perry, Andrea R.; Messman-Moore, Terri; Fauchier, Angele; Nash, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    This study compared retrospective reports of childhood sexual and physical abuse as assessed by two measures: the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), which uses a Likert-type scaling approach, and the Computer Assisted Maltreatment Inventory (CAMI), which employs a behaviorally specific means of assessment. Participants included 1,195…

  5. PIRLS 2006 Assessment Framework and Specifications: Progress in International Reading Literacy Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ina V.S.; Kennedy, Ann M.; Martin, Michael O.; Sainsbury, Marian

    2004-01-01

    The Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2006 Assessment Framework and Specifications is intended as a blueprint for IEA's 2006 assessment of reading literacy. Concrete information about how well students can read provides policymakers and researchers in every country with insight on how to improve literacy and reading…

  6. Applying Dynamic Assessment Principles to Online Peer Revisions in Written English for Specific Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thouësny, Sylvie; Bradley, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the extent of the applicability of dynamic assessment with respect to peer written student online revisions. More specifically, it observes how groups of Swedish computer engineering students learning English for Specific Purposes engage in cooperative interactions and negotiations with their peers as they work…

  7. Deriving a Set of Privacy Specific Heuristics for the Assessment of PHRs (Personal Health Records).

    PubMed

    Furano, Riccardo F; Kushniruk, Andre; Barnett, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    With the emergence of personal health record (PHR) platforms becoming more widely available, this research focused on the development of privacy heuristics to assess PHRs regarding privacy. Existing sets of heuristics are typically not application specific and do not address patient-centric privacy as a main concern prior to undergoing PHR procurement. A set of privacy specific heuristics were developed based on a scoping review of the literature. An internet-based commercially available, vendor specific PHR application was evaluated using the derived set of privacy specific heuristics. The proposed set of privacy specific derived heuristics is explored in detail in relation to ISO 29100. The assessment of the internet-based commercially available, vendor specific PHR application indicated numerous violations. These violations were noted within the study. It is argued that the new derived privacy heuristics should be used in addition to Nielsen's well-established set of heuristics. Privacy specific heuristics could be used to assess PHR portal system-level privacy mechanisms in the procurement process of a PHR application and may prove to be a beneficial form of assessment to prevent the selection of a PHR platform with a poor privacy specific interface design.

  8. Assessment of mercury speciation in feathers using species-specific isotope dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Renedo, Marina; Bustamante, Paco; Tessier, Emmanuel; Pedrero, Zoyne; Cherel, Yves; Amouroux, David

    2017-11-01

    Seabirds are considered as effective sentinels of environmental marine contamination and their feathers are extensively used as non-lethal samples for contaminant biomonitoring. This tissue represents the main route for mercury (Hg) elimination in seabirds and contains predominantly methylmercury (MeHg). In this work, we developed a robust analytical technique for precise and accurate simultaneous quantification of MeHg, inorganic Hg (iHg) and consequently total Hg (THg), in feathers by gas-chromatography (GC)-ICPMS analyses using species-specific isotope dilution technique. An optimisation of the extraction method was carried out by testing different extraction systems, reagents and spiking procedures using an internal reference feather sample. The procedure was validated for MeHg and THg concentrations with a human hair certified reference material. Microwave nitric acid extraction with spike addition before the extraction provided the best recovery and was chosen as the most appropriate species simultaneous extraction method (SSE). An additional assessment was performed by comparison of our developed extraction method and a MeHg specific extraction technique (MSE) classically used for Hg speciation studies on feathers. The developed method was applied to feather samples from a large number of seabirds from the Southern Ocean (penguins, albatrosses, petrels and skuas) to investigate the variability of Hg speciation across a large range of Hg exposure conditions and concentrations. In all cases, MeHg accounted for > 90% of THg, thus verifying the predominance of organic Hg over iHg in feathers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of fluorescent-dissolved organic matter and identification of specific fluorophores in textile effluents.

    PubMed

    Li, Wentao; Xu, Zixiao; Wu, Qian; Li, Yan; Shuang, Chendong; Li, Aimin

    2015-03-01

    This study focused on the characterization of fluorescent-dissolved organic matter and identification of specific fluorophores in textile effluents. Samples from different textile wastewater treatment plants were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography and size exclusion chromatography as well as fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectra. Despite the highly heterogeneous textile effluents, the fluorescent components and their physicochemical properties were found relatively invariable, which is beneficial for the combination of biological and physicochemical treatment processes. The humic-like substance with triple-excitation peaks (excitation (Ex) 250, 310, 365/emission (Em) 460 nm) presented as the specific fluorescence indicator in textile effluents. It was also the major contributor to UV absorbance at 254 nm and resulted in the brown color of biologically treated textile effluents. By spectral comparison, the specific fluorophore in textile effluents could be attributed to the intermediate structure of azo dyes 1-amino-2-naphthol, which was transferred into the special humic-like substances during biological treatment.

  10. Immunochemical studies of an organ-specific thermostable antigen of bovine brain

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, S.; Milgrom, F.; Swanborg, R. H.

    1969-01-01

    The physical and chemical nature of the bovine brain BE antigen was studied, along with antigenic studies to verify the organ-specificity characteristics. These preparations were found to be quite heterogeneous physico-chemically, containing nucleic acids, carbohydrates, protein and possible lipid constituents. The extinction coefficients were found to be 12.0 (at 280 mμ) and 2.2 (at 540 mμ, biuret). Ultracentrifugal analysis revealed three major components, with extrapolated sedimentation coefficients of 8.60S, 2.20S and 1.80S. Electrophoretic analysis showed six (or more) components. Because of the heterogeneity chemical classification of the actual brain-specific antigen was determined by degradative studies, using chymotrypsin and periodate. Based on thermostability, a carbohydrate content of 4.6 per cent, and destruction by dilute chymotrypsin, the brain-specific antigenic component has been tentatively classified as a mucoprotein. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 5 PMID:4306091

  11. An event-specific DNA microarray to identify genetically modified organisms in processed foods.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Su-Youn; Lee, Hyungjae; Kim, Young-Rok; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2010-05-26

    We developed an event-specific DNA microarray system to identify 19 genetically modified organisms (GMOs), including two GM soybeans (GTS-40-3-2 and A2704-12), thirteen GM maizes (Bt176, Bt11, MON810, MON863, NK603, GA21, T25, TC1507, Bt10, DAS59122-7, TC6275, MIR604, and LY038), three GM canolas (GT73, MS8xRF3, and T45), and one GM cotton (LLcotton25). The microarray included 27 oligonucleotide probes optimized to identify endogenous reference targets, event-specific targets, screening targets (35S promoter and nos terminator), and an internal target (18S rRNA gene). Thirty-seven maize-containing food products purchased from South Korean and US markets were tested for the presence of GM maize using this microarray system. Thirteen GM maize events were simultaneously detected using multiplex PCR coupled with microarray on a single chip, at a limit of detection of approximately 0.5%. Using the system described here, we detected GM maize in 11 of the 37 food samples tested. These results suggest that an event-specific DNA microarray system can reliably detect GMOs in processed foods.

  12. Organ-specific radiation-induced cancer risk estimates due to radiotherapy for benign pigmented villonodular synovitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Tzedakis, Antonis; Lyraraki, Efrossyni; Damilakis, John

    2016-09-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a benign disease affecting synovial membranes of young and middle-aged adults. The aggressive treatment of this disorder often involves external-beam irradiation. This study was motivated by the lack of data relating to the radiation exposure of healthy tissues and radiotherapy-induced cancer risk. Monte Carlo methodology was employed to simulate a patient’s irradiation for PVNS in the knee and hip joints with a 6 MV photon beam. The average radiation dose received by twenty-two out-of-field critical organs of the human body was calculated. These calculations were combined with the appropriate organ-, age- and gender-specific risk coefficients of the BEIR-VII model to estimate the lifetime probability of cancer development. The risk for carcinogenesis to colon, which was partly included in the treatment fields used for hip irradiation, was determined with a non-linear mechanistic model and differential dose-volume histograms obtained by CT-based 3D radiotherapy planning. Risk assessments were compared with the nominal lifetime intrinsic risk (LIR) values. Knee irradiation to 36 Gy resulted in out-of-field organ doses of 0.2-24.6 mGy. The corresponding range from hip radiotherapy was 1.2-455.1 mGy whereas the organ equivalent dose for the colon was up to 654.9 mGy. The organ-specific cancer risks from knee irradiation for PVNS were found to be inconsequential since they were at least 161.5 times lower than the LIRs irrespective of the patient’s age and gender. The bladder and colon cancer risk from radiotherapy in the hip joint was up to 3.2 and 6.6 times smaller than the LIR, respectively. These cancer risks may slightly elevate the nominal incidence rates and they should not be ignored during the patient’s treatment planning and follow-up. The probabilities for developing any other solid tumor were more than 20 times lower than the LIRs and, therefore, they may be considered as small.

  13. The formation of halogen-specific TOX from chlorination and chloramination of natural organic matter isolates.

    PubMed

    Kristiana, Ina; Gallard, Hervé; Joll, Cynthia; Croué, Jean-Philippe

    2009-09-01

    The formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) is a public health concern. An important way to evaluate the presence of DBPs is in terms of the total organic halogen (TOX), which can be further specified into total organic chlorine (TOCl), bromine (TOBr), and iodine (TOI). The formation and distribution of halogen-specific TOX during chlorination and chloramination of natural organic matter (NOM) isolates in the presence of bromide and iodide ions were studied. As expected, chloramination produced significantly less TOX than chlorination. TOCl was the dominant species formed in both chlorination and chloramination. TOI was always produced in chloramination, but not in chlorination when high chlorine dose was used, due to the limited presence of HOI in chlorination as a result of the oxidation of iodide to iodate in the presence of excess chlorine. The formation of TOI during chloramination increased as the initial iodide ion concentration increased, with a maximum of approximately 60% of the initial iodide ion becoming incorporated into NOM. Iodine incorporation in NOM was consistently higher than bromine incorporation, demonstrating that the competitive reactions between bromine and iodine species in chloramination favoured the formation of HOI and thus TOI, rather than TOBr. Correlations between the aromatic character of the NOM isolates (SUVA(254) and % aromatic C) and the concentrations of overall TOX and halogen-specific TOX in chloramination were observed. This indicates that the aromatic moieties in NOM, as indicated by SUVA(254) and % aromatic C, play an important role in the formation of overall TOX and halogen-specific TOX in chloramination. THMs comprised only a fraction of TOX, up to 7% in chloramination and up to 47% in chlorination. Although chloramine produces less TOX than chlorine, it formed proportionally more non-THM DBPs than chlorine. These non-THM DBPs are mostly unknown, corresponding to unknown health risks. Considering the higher

  14. Organic wastes as soil amendments - Effects assessment towards soil invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Mathieu; Chelinho, Sónia; Alvarenga, Paula; Mourinha, Clarisse; Palma, Patrícia; Sousa, José Paulo; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago

    2017-05-15

    Using organic wastes, as soil amendments, is an important alternative to landfilling with benefits to soil structure, water retention, soil nutrient and organic matter concentrations. However, this practice should be monitored for its environmental risk due to the frequent presence, of noxious substances to soil organisms. To evaluate the potential of eight organic wastes with different origins, as soil amendments, reproduction tests with four soil invertebrate species (Folsomia candida, Enchytraeus crypticus, Hypoaspis aculeifer, Eisenia fetida) were performed using gradients of soil-waste mixtures. Results obtained demonstrated that contaminant concentrations required by current legislation might not be a protective measure for the soil ecosystem, as they do not properly translate the potential toxicity of wastes to soil invertebrates. Some wastes with contaminant loadings below thresholds showed higher toxicity than wastes with contaminants concentrations above legal limits. Also, test organism reproduction was differently sensitive to the selected wastes, which highlights the need to account for different organism sensitivities and routes of exposure when evaluating the toxicity of such complex mixtures. Finally this study shows that when combining chemical and ecotoxicological data, it is possible to postulate on potential sources of toxicity, contributing to better waste management practices and safer soil organic amendment products.

  15. World health organization disability assessment schedule 2.0 as an objective assessment tool for predicting return to work after a stroke.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Chi, Wen-Chou; Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Yen, Chia-Feng; Liao, Hua-Fang; Escorpizo, Reuben; Liou, Tsan-Hon

    2017-06-28

    To analyze whether World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 can be used as an objective assessment tool for predicting the return-to-work status of working-age patients with stroke. We obtained the data on 2963 patients disabled by stroke (age <60 years) from the Taiwan Data Bank of Persons with Disability for the July 2012-January 2014 period. Of these patients, 119 could return to work, whereas 2844 could not. Demographic data and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 standardized scores of patients with stroke who could return to work and those who could not (return to work and nonreturn-to-work groups, respectively) were analyzed and compared using the chi-squared and independent Student's t-tests. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to investigate the prediction accuracy for the return-to-work status, and the optimal cutoff point was determined using the Youden index. Binary logistic regression was employed to determine the predictors of the return-to-work status of patients with stroke. The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 scores in all domains were lower in the return-to-work group than in the nonreturn-to-work group. The receiver operating characteristic curve showed moderate accuracy for all domain-specific scores [area under the curve, 0.6-0.8] and good accuracy for the summary scores of World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (area under the curve, >0.8). Binary logistic regression revealed that younger age, less severe stroke and standardized World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 summary scores below the cutoff points were predictors of the return to work status of working-age patients disabled by stroke. World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 can be used as an objective assessment tool for predicting the return-to-work status of working-age patients disabled by stroke. This tool can aid in

  16. Organ dysfunction as estimated by the sequential organ failure assessment score is related to outcome in critically ill burn patients.

    PubMed

    Lorente, José A; Vallejo, Alfonso; Galeiras, Rita; Tómicic, Vinko; Zamora, Javier; Cerdá, Enrique; de la Cal, Miguel A; Esteban, Andrés

    2009-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to assess organ dysfunction in burn patients by using the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, to determine the relationship between early (day 1) and late (day 4) organ dysfunction, as well as the change in organ dysfunction from admission to day 4, and mortality. The design was a prospective observational cohort study. Patients were admitted to our intensive care burn unit with severe thermal burns (> or =20% total body surface area [BSA] burned) or inhalation injury with a delay from injury to admission less than 12 h and a length of stay less than 3 days (n = 439; age, 46.0 +/- 20.3 yrs; total BSA burned, 31.6% +/- 20.2% [mean +/- SD]; inhalation injury, 44.4%; crude mortality, 18.5%). Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores were measured on admission (SOFA 0) and on subsequent days (SOFA 1, SOFA 2, SOFA 3, and SOFA 4). The difference between SOFA 0 and SOFA 4 (DeltaSOFA 0-4) was calculated. Multivariate logistic regression analyses, including other variables associated with mortality in the models, were performed to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of organ dysfunction measurements for mortality. After adjusting for age, BSA burned, diagnosis of inhalation injury, and sex, SOFA 1 (OR, 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.55-2.32), SOFA 4 (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.19-1.47), and DeltaSOFA 0-4 (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.28-1.55) were independently associated with mortality. The SOFA score is useful to assess organ dysfunction in burn patients. Burn-induced organ dysfunction (early and late), as well as the change in organ dysfunction, is independently associated with mortality.

  17. Protocols for conducting Environmental Management Assessments of DOE organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    To assess the effectiveness of DOE`s environmental programs, the Office of Environmental Audit conducts Environmental Management Assessments of DOE programs and facilities. These assessments take a broad programmatic view of environmental systems which may cover multiple sites. The focus of the assessment is on the infrastructure, systems, programs, and tools to manage environmental issues, not on the compliance issues themselves. Protocols have been developed to assist in the conduct of Environmental Management Assessments. The protocols are, based on and serve as implementing guidelines for the Environmental Management Section of ``Performance Objectives and Criteria for Conducting DOE Environmental Audits`` (DOE/EH-022). They are intended to provide guidance to the Assessment Team in conducting these reviews.

  18. Organ specific autoantibodies in preclinical and early clinical type 1 diabetes in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Erten, G; Gurol, A O; Deniz, G; Satman, I; Yilmaz, M T

    2007-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) patients (G1; n=73) and first degree relatives with islet cell antibody (ICA) values of >or=10 JDF u twice or >or=20 JDF u one and loss of FPIR (G2; n=18) were screened for two other autoantibodies, anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA) and insulin autoantibodies (IAA), and for other organ-specific autoantibodies, anti-gastric parietal cell (anti-PCA) and anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) as well. The two control groups consisted of healthy subjects (G3; n:55 and G4; n:13). In G1, positivity of ICA, GADA, IAA, anti-TPO and anti-PCA were 63%, 75.1%, 27.4%, 17.8% and 8.2%, respectively. In G2, positivity for GADA, IAA, anti-TPO and anti-PCA were 55.6%, 11.1%, 16.7% and 11.1%, respectively. None of the anti-TPO or anti-PCA positive cases had clinical or laboratory thyroid disease or pernicious anemia. Other organ specific antibodies, in case they accompany GADAand/or IAA in high risk individuals, result in higher risk for T1D. Moreover, this condition may indicate future potential for developing thyrogastric autoimmune diseases. In conclusion; autoantibodies are markers for autoimmune destruction in T1D, and for identification of subjects at risk for disease. Even at the time of diagnosis of T1D, screening for thyrogastric autoimmunity might be recommended for early detection of the relevant diseases.

  19. Effect of body size on organ-specific mitochondrial respiration rate of the largemouth bronze gudgeon.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yiping; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Yurong; Huang, Qingda

    2013-06-01

    The effects of body size on the mitochondrial respiration rate were assessed in the heart, brain, gill, liver, and red muscle of largemouth bronze gudgeon, Coreius guichenoti, from the Yangtze River. Body mass had a significant influence on the state 3 oxygen consumption rate of the mitochondria from the heart, gill, and red muscle. The relationships between body mass (M, g) and state 3 oxygen consumption rate (V(state 3), nmol O min(-1) mg(-1)) of the mitochondria were represented by the following: V(state 3) = 3.56M(0.71) for heart, V(state 3) = 4.64M(0.50) for red muscle, and V(state 3) = 473.73M(-0.82) for gill. There was a significant difference in V(state 3), V(state 4), and respiratory control ratio among organs and all were highest in the heart. Our results suggest that the relationship between mitochondrial respiratory rate and body size varies among organs. The high mitochondrial respiratory rate in the heart of the largemouth gudgeon suggests that it has the highest oxidative capacity.

  20. Gender Specific Re-organization of Resting-State Networks in Older Age

    PubMed Central

    Goldstone, Aimée; Mayhew, Stephen D.; Przezdzik, Izabela; Wilson, Rebecca S.; Hale, Joanne R.; Bagshaw, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Advancing age is commonly associated with changes in both brain structure and function. Recently, the suggestion that alterations in brain connectivity may drive disruption in cognitive abilities with age has been investigated. However, the interaction between the effects of age and gender on the re-organization of resting-state networks is not fully understood. This study sought to investigate the effect of both age and gender on intra- and inter-network functional connectivity (FC) and the extent to which resting-state network (RSN) node definition may alter with older age. We obtained resting-state functional magnetic resonance images from younger (n = 20) and older (n = 20) adults and assessed the FC of three main cortical networks: default mode (DMN), dorsal attention (DAN), and saliency (SN). Older adults exhibited reduced DMN intra-network FC and increased inter-network FC between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and nodes of the DAN, in comparison to younger participants. Furthermore, this increase in ACC-DAN inter-network FC with age was driven largely by male participants. However, further analyses suggested that the spatial location of ACC, bilateral anterior insula and orbitofrontal cortex RSN nodes changed with older age and that age-related gender differences in FC may reflect spatial re-organization rather than increases or decreases in FC strength alone. These differences in both the FC and spatial distribution of RSNs between younger and older adults provide evidence of re-organization of fundamental brain networks with age, which is modulated by gender. These results highlight the need to further investigate changes in both intra- and inter-network FC with age, whilst also exploring the modifying effect of gender. They also emphasize the difficulties in directly comparing the FC of RSN nodes between groups and suggest that caution should be taken when using the same RSN node definitions for different age or patient groups to investigate FC

  1. Questionnaires in the assessment of sexual function in women with urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse.

    PubMed

    Mestre, M; Lleberia, J; Pubill, J; Espuña-Pons, M

    2015-04-01

    Integrating sexual health in clinical practice is important. In women with pelvic floor disorders, the evaluation of the anatomical defects, lower urinary tract function and the anorectal function often receives more attention than the sexual function. Review of Medline using defined search terms to identify articles related to sexual health assessment in urogynecology and manual analyses was performed. Only articles published in English or Spanish were included. Only 50% of women attending urogynecological clinics are sexually active. Of those, 60% present with some sort of sexual sexual dysfunction (FSD). Questionnaires and sexuality scales would facilitate discussion of sexual matters between the Health Care professionals and the women, and may increase the likelihood of FSD being diagnosed. The Pelvic Organ Prolapse Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire (PISQ) and the PISQ-IR (IUGA-Revised) are the only female sexual function specific questionnaires currently validated and developed specifically to assess sexual function in women with urinary incontinence and/or pelvic organ prolapse. Furthermore, the PISQ-IR also allows evaluation of the outcomes of women who are not sexually active when requiring urogynecologic care. PISQ-IR is also designed for international validation. In order to use the PISQ-IR in Spain, a proper interpretation and validation of the questionnaire is needed. The evaluation of sexual function through specific questionnaires facilitates the identification of the sexual dysfunctions associated to the pelvic floor disorders. The inclusion of sexuality questionnaires as an outcome measure allows to analyze the impact in the sexual life of women treated for an urogynecological problem. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of anaerobic biodegradability of five different solid organic wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristanto, Gabriel Andari; Asaloei, Huinny

    2017-03-01

    The concept of waste to energy emerges as an alternative solution to increasing waste generation and energy crisis. In the waste to energy concept, waste will be used to produce renewable energy through thermochemical, biochemical, and physiochemical processes. In an anaerobic digester, organic matter brake-down due to anaerobic bacteria produces methane gas as energy source. The organic waste break-down is affected by various characteristics of waste components, such as organic matter content (C, N, O, H, P), solid contents (TS and VS), nutrients ratio (C/N), and pH. This research aims to analyze biodegradability and potential methane production (CH4) from organic waste largely available in Indonesia. Five solid wastes comprised of fecal sludge, cow rumen, goat farm waste, traditional market waste, and tofu dregs were analyzed which showed tofu dregs as waste with the highest rate of biodegradability compared to others since the tofu dregs do not contain any inhibitor which is lignin, have 2.7%VS, 14 C/N ratios and 97.3% organic matter. The highest cumulative methane production known as Biochemical Methane Potential was achieved by tofu dregs with volume of 77 ml during 30-day experiment which then followed by cow rumen, goat farm waste, and traditional market waste. Subsequently, methane productions were calculated through percentage of COD reduction, which showed the efficiency of 99.1% that indicates complete conversion of the high organic matter into methane.

  3. Integrated interactions database: tissue-specific view of the human and model organism interactomes.

    PubMed

    Kotlyar, Max; Pastrello, Chiara; Sheahan, Nicholas; Jurisica, Igor

    2016-01-04

    IID (Integrated Interactions Database) is the first database providing tissue-specific protein-protein interactions (PPIs) for model organisms and human. IID covers six species (S. cerevisiae (yeast), C. elegans (worm), D. melonogaster (fly), R. norvegicus (rat), M. musculus (mouse) and H. sapiens (human)) and up to 30 tissues per species. Users query IID by providing a set of proteins or PPIs from any of these organisms, and specifying species and tissues where IID should search for interactions. If query proteins are not from the selected species, IID enables searches across species and tissues automatically by using their orthologs; for example, retrieving interactions in a given tissue, conserved in human and mouse. Interaction data in IID comprises three types of PPI networks: experimentally detected PPIs from major databases, orthologous PPIs and high-confidence computationally predicted PPIs. Interactions are assigned to tissues where their proteins pairs or encoding genes are expressed. IID is a major replacement of the I2D interaction database, with larger PPI networks (a total of 1,566,043 PPIs among 68,831 proteins), tissue annotations for interactions, and new query, analysis and data visualization capabilities. IID is available at http://ophid.utoronto.ca/iid.

  4. Effects of specific organs on seed oil accumulation in Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Hua, Wei; Yang, Hongli; Guo, Tingting; Sun, Xingchao; Wang, Xinfa; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2014-10-01

    Seed oil content is an important agricultural characteristic in rapeseed breeding. Genetic analysis shows that the mother plant and the embryo play critical roles in regulating seed oil accumulation. However, the overwhelming majority of previous studies have focused on oil synthesis in the developing seed of rapeseed. In this study, to elucidate the roles of reproductive organs on oil accumulation, silique, ovule, and embryo from three rapeseed lines with high oil content (zy036, 6F313, and 61616) were cultured in vitro. The results suggest that zy036 silique wall, 6F313 seed coat, and 61616 embryo have positive impacts on the seed oil accumulation. In zy036, our previous studies show that high photosynthetic activity of the silique wall contributes to seed oil accumulation (Hua et al., 2012). Herein, by transcriptome sequencing and sucrose detection, we found that sugar transport in 6F313 seed coat might regulate the efficiency of oil synthesis by controlling sugar concentration in ovules. In 61616 embryos, high oil accumulation efficiency was partly induced by the elevated expression of fatty-acid biosynthesis-related genes. Our investigations show three organ-specific mechanisms regulating oil synthesis in rapeseed. This study provides new insights into the factors affecting seed oil accumulation in rapeseed and other oil crops. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Localization of organ-specific antigens in the nervous system of the rat.

    PubMed

    Weinrauder, H; Lach, B

    1977-08-16

    Localization of organ-specific brain antigens in the central nervous system of the rat has been studied by means of indirect immunofluorescence. Rabbit antiserum against homogenate of rat brain, previously absorbed with normal serum and homogenates of rat organs (kidney, liver, spleen), reacted with the water-soluble antigens of rat brain prepared by extraction with phosphate buffer (pH 7.3) and ultracentrifugation at 50 000 X g to give one band in the immunodiffusion test and 2--3 precipitation arcs in immunoelectrophoresis. There was also a positive reaction with peripheral nerve. The antigen was detectable in all regions of the CNS. Cells with distinct cytoplasmic immunofluorescence were most frequently observed in cerebellar white matter, pons, cerebellar pedunculi, longitudinal tracts of the brain stem. Positive immunofluorecence reaction has appeared in the outer plexiform layer and granular layer of the retina, satelite cells of the spinal root ganglia and Schwann cells. A similar reaction was observed in human, mouse and guinea pig brain slices. Both the morphological and immunochemical reactions are indicative of glial localization of this antigen.

  6. Induced resistance in maize is based on organ-specific defence responses.

    PubMed

    Balmer, Dirk; de Papajewski, Daniela Villacres; Planchamp, Chantal; Glauser, Gaëtan; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte

    2013-04-01

    To obtain further insight into the intricate inter-play between maize (Zea mays) and the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum graminicola, the local and systemic molecular and chemical defence responses of maize leaves and roots were simultaneously investigated and compared. Similar gene expression and hormonal patterns were detected in both above- and below-ground organs; however, roots responded more rapidly and accumulated higher levels of defence-related hormones than leaves. Leaf and root infection with C. graminicola triggered systemic resistance in the foliage against the same fungus. This systemic defence response was associated with systemic transcriptional adaptations, and elevated levels of salicylic acid and abscisic acid. Metabolomic profiling revealed significant differences in the composition of secondary metabolites in leaves and roots, indicating that these organs employ distinct chemical defence systems. In addition, higher basal levels of antimicrobial flavonoids suggest an enhanced basal defensive state of roots. Our findings reveal tissue-specific local and systemic antifungal defence mechanisms in maize. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Organ specific expression of thyroid hormone receptor mRNA and protein in different human tissues.

    PubMed

    Shahrara, S; Drvota, V; Sylvén, C

    1999-10-01

    The major physiologic effect of thyroid hormone is thought to be initiated by the binding of T3 to the DNA binding thyroid hormone receptor (TR). The aim of this study has been to characterize the organ specific expression of thyroid hormone receptor mRNA, as well as its protein distribution and molecular weight in man. Determination of TRalpha1, alpha2, beta1 and beta2 mRNA molecular size was performed using Northern blot analysis in the human heart, brain, placenta, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney and pancreas. TRalpha1, alpha2 and beta1 protein expression was characterized by Western blot analysis of human tissues. TRalpha1 mRNA of 4.9 kb was detected in all 8 tissues analyzed, with varying abundance in the various tissues. TRalpha2 mRNA was detected in 2 different sizes, with higher intensity at 5.7 and lower intensity at 3.2 kb. There were, however, multiple TRbeta1 mRNA of 8, 2 and 1 kb detected. TRbeta1 transcripts of 2 kb and 1 kb showed an organ specific pattern of expression. Multiple TRbeta2 mRNA of 6.6, 5.2, 2.5 and 2.4 kb were detected, as well as a unique 1 kb transcript, in the heart. TRbeta2 transcripts also displayed tissue specific expression. Western blot analysis displayed a single band of 48 kD for TRalpha1. The abundance of the TRalpha1 immunoreactive band was highest in the heart, brain, kidney and skeletal muscle, and lowest in the liver, placenta and lung, while no signals were detected in the spleen. The TRalpha2 specific antibody detected a band of 58 kD in all the tissues analyzed. The relative intensity of the immunoreactive TRalpha2 band detected was highest in the placenta and lung, with a medium concentration range in skeletal muscle, the heart and kidney. The TRalpha2 protein concentration was lowest in the spleen, liver and brain. Human TRbeta1 protein was detected as 55 and 52 kD bands, as well as a unique band of 45 kD in heart. The 52 kD band was detected in all tissues except the kidney and spleen. The 55 kD band was not

  8. High organic containing tanks: Assessing the hazard potential

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, R.C.P.; Babad, H.

    1991-09-01

    Eight Hanford Site tanks contain organic chemicals at concentrations believed to be greater than 10 mole percent sodium acetate equivalent mixed with the oxidizing salts sodium nitrate/sodium nitrite. Also, three of the hydrogen and ferrocyanide tanks appear on the organic tank list. Concentrations of organics that may be present in some tanks could cause an exothermic reaction given a sufficient driving force, such as high temperatures. However, the difference between ignition temperatures and actual tank temperatures measured is so large that the probability of such a reaction is considered very low. The consequences of the postulated reaction are about the same as the scenarios for an explosion in a burping'' hydrogen tank. Although work on this issue is just beginning, consideration of hazards associated with heating nitrate-nitrite mixtures containing organic materials is an integral part of both the hydrogen and ferrocyanide tank efforts. High concentrations of organic compounds have been inferred (from tank transfer, flow sheet records, and limited analytical data) in eight single-shell tanks. Many organic chemicals, if present in concentrations above 10 dry weight percent (sodium acetate equivalent), have the potential to react with nitrate-nitrites constituents at temperatures above 200{degree}C (392{degree}F) in an exothermic manner. The concentrations of organic materials in the listed single-shell tanks, and their chemical identity, is not accurately known at present. A tank sampling program has been planned to provide more information on the contents of these tanks and to serve as a basis for laboratory testing and safety evaluations. 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  9. Organ-specific proteomics of soybean seedlings under flooding and drought stresses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Khodadadi, Ehsaneh; Fakheri, Baratali; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2017-06-06

    Organ-specific analyses enrich the understanding of plant growth and development under abiotic stresses. To elucidate the cellular responses in soybean seedlings exposed to flooding and drought stresses, organ-specific analysis was performed using a gel-free/label-free proteomic technique. Physiological analysis indicated that enzyme activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase were markedly increased in leaf and root of plants treated with 6days of flooding and drought stresses, respectively. Proteins related to photosynthesis, RNA, DNA, signaling, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle were predominately affected in leaf, hypocotyl, and root in response to flooding and drought. Notably, the tricarboxylic acid cycle was suppressed in leaf and root under both stresses. Moreover, 17 proteins, including beta-glucosidase 31 and beta-amylase 5, were identified in soybean seedlings under both stresses. The protein abundances of beta-glucosidase 31 and beta-amylase 5 were increased in leaf and root under both stresses. Additionally, the gene expression of beta-amylase 5 was upregulated in leaf exposed to the flooding and drought, and the expression level was highly correlated with the protein abundance. These results suggest that beta-amylase 5 may be involved in carbohydrate mobilization to provide energy to the leaf of soybean seedlings exposed to flooding and drought. This study examined the effects of flooding and drought on soybean seedlings in different organs using a gel-free/label-free proteomic approach. Physiological responses indicated that enzyme activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase were increased in leaf and root of soybean seedlings exposed to flooding and drought for 6days. Functional analysis of acquired protein profiles exhibited that proteins related to photosynthesis, RNA, DNA, signaling, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle were predominated affected in leaf, hypocotyl, and root

  10. Exposure Assessment Tools by Chemical Classes - Other Organics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA ExpoBox is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  11. Assessment in the Learning Organization: Shifting the Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Arthur L., Ed.; Kallick, Bena, Ed.

    This collection provides a new perspective for understanding what assessment can do to promote continuous improvement in education. The concepts of systems thinking, continued learning, mental models, shared vision, and team building are highlighted in the selections, which include: (1) "A Systems Approach to Assessing School Culture"…

  12. A framework for organizing and selecting quantitative approaches for benefit-harm assessment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several quantitative approaches for benefit-harm assessment of health care interventions exist but it is unclear how the approaches differ. Our aim was to review existing quantitative approaches for benefit-harm assessment and to develop an organizing framework that clarifies differences and aids selection of quantitative approaches for a particular benefit-harm assessment. Methods We performed a review of the literature to identify quantitative approaches for benefit-harm assessment. Our team, consisting of clinicians, epidemiologists, and statisticians, discussed the approaches and identified their key characteristics. We developed a framework that helps investigators select quantitative approaches for benefit-harm assessment that are appropriate for a particular decisionmaking context. Results Our framework for selecting quantitative approaches requires a concise definition of the treatment comparison and population of interest, identification of key benefit and harm outcomes, and determination of the need for a measure that puts all outcomes on a single scale (which we call a benefit and harm comparison metric). We identified 16 quantitative approaches for benefit-harm assessment. These approaches can be categorized into those that consider single or multiple key benefit and harm outcomes, and those that use a benefit-harm comparison metric or not. Most approaches use aggregate data and can be used in the context of single studies or systematic reviews. Although the majority of approaches provides a benefit and harm comparison metric, only four approaches provide measures of uncertainty around the benefit and harm comparison metric (such as a 95 percent confidence interval). None of the approaches considers the actual joint distribution of benefit and harm outcomes, but one approach considers competing risks when calculating profile-specific event rates. Nine approaches explicitly allow incorporating patient preferences. Conclusion The choice of

  13. A framework for organizing and selecting quantitative approaches for benefit-harm assessment.

    PubMed

    Puhan, Milo A; Singh, Sonal; Weiss, Carlos O; Varadhan, Ravi; Boyd, Cynthia M

    2012-11-19

    Several quantitative approaches for benefit-harm assessment of health care interventions exist but it is unclear how the approaches differ. Our aim was to review existing quantitative approaches for benefit-harm assessment and to develop an organizing framework that clarifies differences and aids selection of quantitative approaches for a particular benefit-harm assessment. We performed a review of the literature to identify quantitative approaches for benefit-harm assessment. Our team, consisting of clinicians, epidemiologists, and statisticians, discussed the approaches and identified their key characteristics. We developed a framework that helps investigators select quantitative approaches for benefit-harm assessment that are appropriate for a particular decisionmaking context. Our framework for selecting quantitative approaches requires a concise definition of the treatment comparison and population of interest, identification of key benefit and harm outcomes, and determination of the need for a measure that puts all outcomes on a single scale (which we call a benefit and harm comparison metric). We identified 16 quantitative approaches for benefit-harm assessment. These approaches can be categorized into those that consider single or multiple key benefit and harm outcomes, and those that use a benefit-harm comparison metric or not. Most approaches use aggregate data and can be used in the context of single studies or systematic reviews. Although the majority of approaches provides a benefit and harm comparison metric, only four approaches provide measures of uncertainty around the benefit and harm comparison metric (such as a 95 percent confidence interval). None of the approaches considers the actual joint distribution of benefit and harm outcomes, but one approach considers competing risks when calculating profile-specific event rates. Nine approaches explicitly allow incorporating patient preferences. The choice of quantitative approaches depends on the

  14. World Health Organization fracture risk assessment tool in the assessment of fractures after falls in hospital

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Falls are very common accidents in a hospital. Various risk factors and risk assessment tools are used to predict falls. However, outcomes of falls such as bone fractures have not been considered in these risk assessment tools, and the performance of risk assessment tools in a Japanese hospital setting is not clear. Methods This was a retrospective single-institution study of 20,320 inpatients aged from 40 to 90 years who were admitted to a tertiary-care university hospital during the period from April 2006 to March 2009. Possible risk factors for falls and fractures including STRATIFY score and FRAX™ score and information on falls and their outcome were obtained from the hospital information system. The datasets were divided randomly into a development dataset and a test dataset. The chi-square test, logistic regression analysis and survival analysis were used to identify risk factors for falls and fractures after falls. Results Fallers accounted for 3.1% of the patients in the development dataset and 3.5% of the patients in the test dataset, and 2.6% and 2.9% of the fallers in those datasets suffered peripheral fractures. Sensitivity and specificity of the STRATIFY score to predict falls were not optimal. Most of the known risk factors for falls had no power to predict fractures after falls. Multiple logistic analysis and multivariate Cox's regression analysis with time-dependent covariates revealed that FRAX™ score was significantly associated with fractures after falls. Conclusions Risk assessment tools for falls are not appropriate for predicting fractures after falls. FRAX™ might be a useful tool for that purpose. The performance of STRATIFY to predict falls in a Japanese hospital setting was similar to that in previous studies. PMID:20423520

  15. Sensitivity and specificity of the World Health Organization pertussis clinical case definition.

    PubMed

    Ghanaie, Roxana Mansour; Karimi, Abdollah; Sadeghi, Hossein; Esteghamti, Abdolreza; Falah, Fateme; Armin, Shahnaz; Fahimzad, Alireza; Shamshiri, Ahmadreza; Kahbazi, Manige; Shiva, Faride

    2010-12-01

    Bordetella pertussis continues to circulate even in countries with good childhood vaccination coverage. This study was undertaken to define the relationship between documented disease and the clinical criteria proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected from previously healthy 6-14-year-old school children in Tehran, presenting with persistent cough of at least 2- week duration. Specimens were examined for Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Out of 6601 students, 328 (5.0%) had been coughing for at least 2 weeks. Of these children with cough, 182 (55.5%) experienced whooping, 194 (59.1%) suffered a paroxysmal cough, and 73 (22.3%) had post-tussive vomiting. Twenty-one (6.4%) samples tested positive for B. pertussis and six (1.8%) for B. parapertussis by PCR. Culture of four (1.2%) specimens was positive for B. pertussis. In comparison to PCR, the sensitivity and the specificity of the WHO clinical criteria (year 2000) were 95.2% and 15.0%, respectively. Pertussis remains one of the etiologies of prolonged cough, even in communities with high immunization in children. The specificity of the WHO criteria is low in diagnosing pertussis compared with PCR. Copyright © 2010 International Society for Infectious Diseases. All rights reserved.

  16. Proteomic Analysis of Lysine Acetylation Sites in Rat Tissues Reveals Organ Specificity and Subcellular Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Lundby, Alicia; Lage, Kasper; Weinert, Brian T.; Bekker-Jensen, Dorte B.; Secher, Anna; Skovgaard, Tine; Kelstrup, Christian D.; Dmytriyev, Anatoliy; Choudhary, Chunaram; Lundby, Carsten; Olsen, Jesper V.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Lysine acetylation is a major posttranslational modification involved in a broad array of physiological functions. Here, we provide an organ-wide map of lysine acetylation sites from 16 rat tissues analyzed by high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. We quantify 15,474 modification sites on 4,541 proteins and provide the data set as a web-based database. We demonstrate that lysine acetylation displays site-specific sequence motifs that diverge between cellular compartments, with a significant fraction of nuclear sites conforming to the consensus motifs G-AcK and AcK-P. Our data set reveals that the subcellular acetylation distribution is tissue-type dependent and that acetylation targets tissue-specific pathways involved in fundamental physiological processes. We compare lysine acetylation patterns for rat as well as human skeletal muscle biopsies and demonstrate its general involvement in muscle contraction. Furthermore, we illustrate that acetylation of fructose-bisphosphate aldolase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase serves as a cellular mechanism to switch off enzymatic activity. PMID:22902405

  17. Specific Stimulated Uptake of Acetylcholine by Torpedo Electric Organ Synaptic Vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Stanley M.; Koenigsberger, Robert

    1980-10-01

    The specificity of acetylcholine uptake by synaptic vesicles isolated from the electric organ of Torpedo californica was studied. In the absence of cofactors, [3H]acetylcholine was taken up identically to [14C]choline in the same solution (passive uptake), and the equilibrium concentration achieved inside the vesicles was equal to the concentration outside. In the presence of MgATP, [3H]acetylcholine and [14C]choline in the same solution were taken up identically, except only about half as much of each was taken up (suppressed uptake). [3H]Acetylcholine uptake was stimulated by MgATP and HCO3 about 4-fold relative to suppressed uptake, for a net concentrative uptake of about 2:1 (stimulated uptake). Uptake of [14C]choline in the same solution remained at the suppressed level. [3H]Acetylcholine taken up under stimulated conditions migrated with vesicles containing [14C]mannitol on analytical glycerol density gradients during centrifugation. Vesicles were treated with nine protein modification reagents under mild conditions. Two reagents had no effect on, dithiothreitol potentiated, and six reagents strongly inhibited subsequent stimulated uptake of [3H]acetylcholine. The results indicate that uptake of acetylcholine is conditionally specific for the transported substrate, is carried out by the synaptic vesicles rather than a contaminant of the preparation, and requires a functional protein system containing a critical sulfhydryl group.

  18. Volatile organic compound specific detection by electrochemical signals using a cell-based sensor.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sang Gwi; Kim, Jo Chun; Park, Chong-Ho; Ahn, Woong-Shick; Kim, Yong-Wan; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2008-01-01

    A cell-based in vitro exposure system was developed to determine whether oxidative stress plays a role in the cytotoxic effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as benzene, toluene, xylene, and chlorobenzene, using human epithelial HeLa cells. Thin films based on cysteine-terminated synthetic oligopeptides were fabricated for immobilization of the HeLa cells on a gold (Au) substrate. In addition, an immobilized cell-based sensor was applied to the electrochemical detection of the VOCs. Layer formation and immobilization of the cells were investigated with surface plasmon resonance (SPR), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The adhered living cells were exposed to VOCs; this caused a change in the SPR angle and the VOC-specific electrochemical signal. In addition, VOC toxicity was found to correlate with the degree of nitric oxide (NO) generation and EIS. The primary reason for the marked increase in impedance was the change of aqueous electrolyte composition as a result of cell responses. The p53 and NF-kappaB downregulation were closely related to the magnitude of growth inhibition associated with increasing concentrations of each VOC. Therefore, the proposed cell immobilization method, using a self-assembly technique and VOC-specific electrochemical signals, can be applied to construct a cell microarray for onsite VOC monitoring.

  19. Organ-specific analysis of mahonia using gel-free/label-free proteomic technique.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Hu, Jin; Wang, Xin; Tian, Jingkui; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-06-05

    Mahonia is an important medicinal plant used for the treatment of human diseases. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the different pharmacological functions of Mahonia, organ-specific proteomics was performed. Protein profiles of leaves, stems, and roots from 2-year-old Mahonia plants were determined using gel-free/label-free proteomic technique, and totals of 304, 314, and 182 proteins were identified, respectively, and included 36 common proteins. In leaves, the most abundant proteins related to photosynthesis. Furthermore, polyethylene glycol fractionation was used to identify low-abundance proteins in leaves. With this approach, oxidative pentose phosphate-related proteins were identified in leaves. In stems, the main functional categories of proteins were protein synthesis and redox ascorbate/glutathione metabolism. In roots, proteins were mainly related to protein synthesis, stress, and amino acid metabolism. Of the proteins identified, the abundance of calreticulin was markedly higher in roots than that detected in stems and leaves. Many roots-specific proteins, including S-adenosylmethionine synthetase and (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase, involved in the biosynthesis of alkaloids, were identified. Consistent with this finding, levels of the alkaloids, which were columbamine, jatrorrhizine, palmatine, tetrandrine, and berberine, were markedly higher in roots compared to those detected in stems and leaves. Taken together, these results suggest that alkaloid biosynthesis is an important function in Mahonia roots.

  20. Organ-on-a-chip for assessing environmental toxicants.

    PubMed

    Cho, Soohee; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2017-01-11

    Man-made xenobiotics, whose potential toxicological effects are not fully understood, are oversaturating the already-contaminated environment. Due to the rate of toxicant accumulation, unmanaged disposal, and unknown adverse effects to the environment and the human population, there is a crucial need to screen for environmental toxicants. Animal models and in vitro models are ineffective models in predicting in vivo responses due to inter-species difference and/or lack of physiologically-relevant 3D tissue environment. Such conventional screening assays possess limitations that prevent dynamic understanding of toxicants and their metabolites produced in the human body. Organ-on-a-chip systems can recapitulate in vivo like environment and subsequently in vivo like responses generating a realistic mock-up of human organs of interest, which can potentially provide human physiology-relevant models for studying environmental toxicology. Feasibility, tunability, and low-maintenance features of organ-on-chips can also make possible to construct an interconnected network of multiple-organs-on-chip toward a realistic human-on-a-chip system. Such interconnected organ-on-a-chip network can be efficiently utilized for toxicological studies by enabling the study of metabolism, collective response, and fate of toxicants through its journey in the human body. Further advancements can address the challenges of this technology, which potentiates high predictive power for environmental toxicology studies.

  1. Toxicity of five antibiotics and their mixtures towards photosynthetic aquatic organisms: implications for environmental risk assessment.

    PubMed

    González-Pleiter, Miguel; Gonzalo, Soledad; Rodea-Palomares, Ismael; Leganés, Francisco; Rosal, Roberto; Boltes, Karina; Marco, Eduardo; Fernández-Piñas, Francisca

    2013-04-15

    The individual and combined toxicities of amoxicillin, erythromycin, levofloxacin, norfloxacin and tetracycline have been examined in two organisms representative of the aquatic environment, the cyanobacterium Anabaena CPB4337 as a target organism and the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata as a non-target organism. The cyanobacterium was more sensitive than the green alga to the toxic effect of antibiotics. Erythromycin was highly toxic for both organisms; tetracycline was more toxic to the green algae whereas the quinolones levofloxacin and norfloxacin were more toxic to the cyanobacterium than to the green alga. Amoxicillin also displayed toxicity to the cyanobacterium but showed no toxicity to the green alga. The toxicological interactions of antibiotics in the whole range of effect levels either in binary or multicomponent mixtures were analyzed using the Combination Index (CI) method. In most cases, synergism clearly predominated both for the green alga and the cyanobacterium. The CI method was compared with the classical models of additivity Concentration Addition (CA) and Independent Action (IA) finding that CI could accurately predict deviations from additivity. Risk assessment was performed by calculating the ratio between Measured Environmental Concentration (MEC) and the Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC). A MEC/PNEC ratio higher than 1 was found for the binary erythromycin and tetracycline mixture in wastewater effluents, a combination which showed a strong synergism at low effect levels in both organisms. From the tested antibiotic mixtures, it can be concluded that certain specific combinations may pose a potential ecological risk for aquatic ecosystems with the present environmentally measured concentrations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Antibodies obtained by xenotransplantation of organ-cultured median eminence specifically recognize hypothalamic tanycytes.

    PubMed

    Blázquez, Juan Luis; Guerra, Montserrat; Pastor, Francisco; Peruzzo, Bruno; Amat, Pedro; Rodríguez, Esteban Martín

    2002-05-01

    Tanycytes are specialized ependymal cells lining the infundibular recess of the third ventricle of the cerebrum. Early and recent investigations involve tanycytes in the mechanism of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release to the portal blood. The present investigation was performed to obtain a specific immunological marker of tanycytes and to identify the compound(s) responsible for this labeling. After 30 days of organ culture, explants of bovine median eminence formed spherical structures mostly constituted by tanycytes. These tanycyte spheres were xenotransplanted to rats, and the antibodies raised by the host animals against the transplanted living tanycytes were used for immunochemical studies of the bovine and rat median eminence. This antiserum immunoreacted with two compounds of 60 kDa and 85 kDa present in extracts of bovine and rat median eminence. The individual immunoblotting analysis of rat medial basal hypothalami showed a decrease in the amount of the 85-kDa compound in castrated rats as compared to control rats processed at oestrus and dioestrus. The antiserum, labeled as anti-P85, when used for immunostaining of sections throughout the rat central nervous system, immunoreacted specifically with the hypothalamic tanycytes. Within tanycytes, P-85 immunoreactivity was exclusively present in the basal processes. It is suggested that the 85-kDa and 60-kDa compounds correspond to two novel proteins selectively expressed by tanycytes. The possibility that they are secretory proteins involved in GnRH release is discussed. Anti-P85 appears to be the first specific marker of hypothalamic tanycytes.

  3. Drug and herb induced liver injury: Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale for causality assessment.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Schwarzenboeck, Alexander; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2014-01-27

    Causality assessment of suspected drug induced liver injury (DILI) and herb induced liver injury (HILI) is hampered by the lack of a standardized approach to be used by attending physicians and at various subsequent evaluating levels. The aim of this review was to analyze the suitability of the liver specific Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) scale as a standard tool for causality assessment in DILI and HILI cases. PubMed database was searched for the following terms: drug induced liver injury; herb induced liver injury; DILI causality assessment; and HILI causality assessment. The strength of the CIOMS lies in its potential as a standardized scale for DILI and HILI causality assessment. Other advantages include its liver specificity and its validation for hepatotoxicity with excellent sensitivity, specificity and predictive validity, based on cases with a positive reexposure test. This scale allows prospective collection of all relevant data required for a valid causality assessment. It does not require expert knowledge in hepatotoxicity and its results may subsequently be refined. Weaknesses of the CIOMS scale include the limited exclusion of alternative causes and qualitatively graded risk factors. In conclusion, CIOMS appears to be suitable as a standard scale for attending physicians, regulatory agencies, expert panels and other scientists to provide a standardized, reproducible causality assessment in suspected DILI and HILI cases, applicable primarily at all assessing levels involved.

  4. Drug and herb induced liver injury: Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale for causality assessment

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Schwarzenboeck, Alexander; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Causality assessment of suspected drug induced liver injury (DILI) and herb induced liver injury (HILI) is hampered by the lack of a standardized approach to be used by attending physicians and at various subsequent evaluating levels. The aim of this review was to analyze the suitability of the liver specific Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) scale as a standard tool for causality assessment in DILI and HILI cases. PubMed database was searched for the following terms: drug induced liver injury; herb induced liver injury; DILI causality assessment; and HILI causality assessment. The strength of the CIOMS lies in its potential as a standardized scale for DILI and HILI causality assessment. Other advantages include its liver specificity and its validation for hepatotoxicity with excellent sensitivity, specificity and predictive validity, based on cases with a positive reexposure test. This scale allows prospective collection of all relevant data required for a valid causality assessment. It does not require expert knowledge in hepatotoxicity and its results may subsequently be refined. Weaknesses of the CIOMS scale include the limited exclusion of alternative causes and qualitatively graded risk factors. In conclusion, CIOMS appears to be suitable as a standard scale for attending physicians, regulatory agencies, expert panels and other scientists to provide a standardized, reproducible causality assessment in suspected DILI and HILI cases, applicable primarily at all assessing levels involved. PMID:24653791

  5. Assessing the bioaccumulation potential of ionizable organic compounds: Current knowledge and research priorities.

    PubMed

    Armitage, James M; Erickson, Russell J; Luckenbach, Till; Ng, Carla A; Prosser, Ryan S; Arnot, Jon A; Schirmer, Kristin; Nichols, John W

    2016-11-07

    The objective of the present study was to review the current knowledge regarding the bioaccumulation potential of ionizable organic compounds (IOCs), with a focus on the availability of empirical data for fish. Aspects of the bioaccumulation potential of IOCs in fish that can be characterized relatively well include the pH dependence of gill uptake and elimination, uptake in the gut, and sorption to phospholipids (membrane-water partitioning). Key challenges include the lack of empirical data for biotransformation and binding in plasma. Fish possess a diverse array of proteins that may transport IOCs across cell membranes. Except in a few cases, however, the significance of this transport for uptake and accumulation of environmental contaminants is unknown. Two case studies are presented. The first describes modeled effects of pH and biotransformation on the bioconcentration of organic acids and bases, while the second employs an updated model to investigate factors responsible for accumulation of perfluorinated alkyl acids. The perfluorinated alkyl acid case study is notable insofar as it illustrates the likely importance of membrane transporters in the kidney and highlights the potential value of read-across approaches. Recognizing the current need to perform bioaccumulation hazard assessments and ecological and exposure risk assessment for IOCs, the authors provide a tiered strategy that progresses (as needed) from conservative assumptions (models and associated data) to more sophisticated models requiring chemical-specific information. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;9999:1-16. © 2016 SETAC.

  6. Stroke-specific executive function assessment: a literature review of performance-based tools.

    PubMed

    Poulin, Valérie; Korner-Bitensky, Nicol; Dawson, Deirdre R

    2013-02-01

    Executive function should be an integral component of post-stroke assessment. However, a Canada-wide survey of occupational therapists on stroke rehabilitation practices found a rare use of executive function assessments. Performance-based executive function assessments that closely reflect real-world activities are useful in identifying individuals who will face difficulties when returning to home and community activities. To increase clinicians' awareness of these tools, a literature review was conducted to identify performance-based measures of executive function and their stroke-specific psychometric properties. The review identified 17 performance-based tools and 41 studies that reported their psychometric properties specific to stroke. Each tool was critically appraised according to the executive function components assessed, the level of functioning assessed (i.e. impairment, activity or participation), the environment within which the assessment is conducted and the tool's psychometric properties and clinical utility. Standard criteria were used to evaluate the tools' psychometric properties. The findings were compiled in a Stroke-Specific Executive Function Toolkit. The assessments that demonstrated the strongest evidence of reliability and validity were the Executive Function Performance Test, the Multiple Errands Test and the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills. Only the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills has been adequately evaluated for its ability to detect change. In terms of clinical utility, the Kettle Test has the shortest administration time (i.e. less than 20 minutes) and requires limited equipment. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: The Stroke-Specific Executive Function Toolkit provides clinicians with useful information that should facilitate identification of appropriate executive function tools for use across the continuum of stroke care. © 2013 The Authors Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2013 Occupational Therapy

  7. Assessment of plant-driven removal of emerging organic pollutants by duckweed.

    PubMed

    Reinhold, Dawn; Vishwanathan, Saritha; Park, Jung Jae; Oh, David; Michael Saunders, F

    2010-08-01

    Constructed treatment wetlands have the potential to reclaim wastewaters through removal of trace concentrations of emerging organic pollutants, including pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and pesticides. Flask-scale assessments incorporating active and inactivated duckweed were used to screen for plant-associated removal of emerging organic pollutants in aquatic plant systems. Removals of four of eight pollutants, specifically atrazine, meta-N,N-diethyl toluamide (DEET), picloram, and clofibric acid, were negligible in all experimental systems, while duckweed actively increased aqueous depletion of fluoxetine, ibuprofen, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and triclosan. Active plant processes affecting depletion of experimental pollutants included enhancement of microbial degradation of ibuprofen, uptake of fluoxetine, and uptake of degradation products of triclosan and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Passive plant processes, particularly sorption, also contributed to aqueous depletion of fluoxetine and triclosan. Overall, studies demonstrated that aquatic plants contribute directly and indirectly to the aqueous depletion of emerging organic pollutants in wetland systems through both active and passive processes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Brain organization and the origin of insects: an assessment

    PubMed Central

    Strausfeld, Nicholas James

    2009-01-01

    Within the Arthropoda, morphologies of neurons, the organization of neurons within neuropils and the occurrence of neuropils can be highly conserved and provide robust characters for phylogenetic analyses. The present paper reviews some features of insect and crustacean brains that speak against an entomostracan origin of the insects, contrary to received opinion. Neural organization in brain centres, comprising olfactory pathways, optic lobes and a central neuropil that is thought to play a cardinal role in multi-joint movement, support affinities between insects and malacostracan crustaceans. PMID:19324805

  9. An Information Security Control Assessment Methodology for Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otero, Angel R.

    2014-01-01

    In an era where use and dependence of information systems is significantly high, the threat of incidents related to information security that could jeopardize the information held by organizations is more and more serious. Alarming facts within the literature point to inadequacies in information security practices, particularly the evaluation of…

  10. Fungicides for organic cantaloupe production in Oklahoma: An initial assessment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fungicides that are potentially useful in organic production were evaluated for foliar disease control in cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulates ’Israeli’) during 2009 at Lane, Oklahoma. Milstop (85% potassium bicarbonate), Neem oil, Bonide liquid copper (10% copper octanoate), Serenade (QST ...

  11. An Information Security Control Assessment Methodology for Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otero, Angel R.

    2014-01-01

    In an era where use and dependence of information systems is significantly high, the threat of incidents related to information security that could jeopardize the information held by organizations is more and more serious. Alarming facts within the literature point to inadequacies in information security practices, particularly the evaluation of…

  12. Enriching psychological assessment using a person-specific analysis of interpersonal processes in daily life.

    PubMed

    Roche, Michael J; Pincus, Aaron L; Rebar, Amanda L; Conroy, David E; Ram, Nilam

    2014-10-01

    We present a series of methods and approaches for clinicians interested in tracking their individual patients over time and in the natural settings of their daily lives. The application of person-specific analyses to intensive repeated measurement data can assess some aspects of persons that are distinct from the valuable results obtained from single-occasion assessments. Guided by interpersonal theory, we assess a psychotherapy patient's interpersonal processes as they unfold in his daily life. We highlight specific contexts that change these processes, use an informant report to examine discrepancies in his reported interpersonal processes, and examine how his interpersonal processes differ as a function of varying levels of self-esteem and anger. We advocate for this approach to complement existing psychological assessments and provide a scoring program to facilitate initial implementation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Assessment of CT dose to the fetus and pregnant female patient using patient-specific computational models.

    PubMed

    Xie, Tianwu; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Platon, Alexandra; Becker, Christoph D; Zaidi, Habib

    2017-09-08

    This work provides detailed estimates of the foetal dose from diagnostic CT imaging of pregnant patients to enable the assessment of the diagnostic benefits considering the associated radiation risks. To produce realistic biological and physical representations of pregnant patients and the embedded foetus, we developed a methodology for construction of patient-specific voxel-based computational phantoms based on existing standardised hybrid computational pregnant female phantoms. We estimated the maternal absorbed dose and foetal organ dose for 30 pregnant patients referred to the emergency unit of Geneva University Hospital for abdominal CT scans. The effective dose to the mother varied from 1.1 mSv to 2.0 mSv with an average of 1.6 mSv, while commercial dose-tracking software reported an average effective dose of 1.9 mSv (range 1.7-2.3 mSv). The foetal dose normalised to CTDIvol varies between 0.85 and 1.63 with an average of 1.17. The methodology for construction of personalised computational models can be exploited to estimate the patient-specific radiation dose from CT imaging procedures. Likewise, the dosimetric data can be used for assessment of the radiation risks to pregnant patients and the foetus from various CT scanning protocols, thus guiding the decision-making process. • In CT examinations, the absorbed dose is non-uniformly distributed within foetal organs. • This work reports, for the first time, estimates of foetal organ-level dose. • The foetal brain and skeleton doses present significant correlation with gestational age. • The conceptus dose normalised to CTDI vol varies between 0.85 and 1.63. • The developed methodology is adequate for patient-specific CT radiation dosimetry.

  14. Soils of postpyrogenic larch stands in Central Siberia: Morphology, physicochemical properties, and specificity of soil organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Startsev, V. V.; Dymov, A. A.; Prokushkin, A. S.

    2017-08-01

    Morphological features, physicochemical properties, and specific characteristics of the organic matter of cryozems (Cryosols) under postpyrogenic larch forests affected by fires 2, 6, 22, 55, and 116 years ago are considered. The morphological changes in the soils affected by fires are manifested by the burning of the upper organic horizons with preservation of pyrogenic features in the soils for more than a century after the fire. In the first years (2 and 6 years) after the fire, the acidity of the organic horizons and their base saturation become lower. The postpyrogenic soils are characterized by the smaller contribution of the organic horizons to the total pools of soil organic carbon. In the studied cryozems, the organic carbon content is correlated with the contents of oxalate-extractable iron and aluminum. A decrease in the content of water-soluble organic compounds in the soils is observed after the fires; gradually, their content increases upon restoration of the ground cover.

  15. Novel Organization and Divergent Dockerin Specificities in the Cellulosome System of Ruminococcus flavefaciens†

    PubMed Central

    Rincon, Marco T.; Ding, Shi-You; McCrae, Sheila I.; Martin, Jennifer C.; Aurilia, Vincenzo; Lamed, Raphael; Shoham, Yuval; Bayer, Edward A.; Flint, Harry J.

    2003-01-01

    The DNA sequence coding for putative cellulosomal scaffolding protein ScaA from the rumen cellulolytic anaerobe Ruminococcus flavefaciens 17 was completed. The mature protein exhibits a calculated molecular mass of 90,198 Da and comprises three cohesin domains, a C-terminal dockerin, and a unique N-terminal X domain of unknown function. A novel feature of ScaA is the absence of an identifiable cellulose-binding module. Nevertheless, native ScaA was detected among proteins that attach to cellulose and appeared as a glycosylated band migrating at around 130 kDa. The ScaA dockerin was previously shown to interact with the cohesin-containing putative surface-anchoring protein ScaB. Here, six of the seven cohesins from ScaB were overexpressed as histidine-tagged products in E. coli; despite their considerable sequence differences, each ScaB cohesin specifically recognized the native 130-kDa ScaA protein. The binding specificities of dockerins found in R. flavefaciens plant cell wall-degrading enzymes were examined next. The dockerin sequences of the enzymes EndA, EndB, XynB, and XynD are all closely related but differ from those of XynE and CesA. A recombinant ScaA cohesin bound selectively to dockerin-containing fragments of EndB, but not to those of XynE or CesA. Furthermore, dockerin-containing EndB and XynB, but not XynE or CesA, constructs bound specifically to native ScaA. XynE- and CesA-derived probes did however bind a number of alternative R. flavefaciens bands, including an ∼110-kDa supernatant protein expressed selectively in cultures grown on xylan. Our findings indicate that in addition to the ScaA dockerin-ScaB cohesin interaction, at least two distinct dockerin-binding specificities are involved in the novel organization of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes in this species and suggest that different scaffoldins and perhaps multiple enzyme complexes may exist in R. flavefaciens. PMID:12533446

  16. Future of liver transplantation: non-human primates for patient-specific organs from induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sanal, Madhusudana Girija

    2011-08-28

    Strategies to fill the huge gap in supply versus demand of human organs include bioartificial organs, growing humanized organs in animals, cell therapy, and implantable bioengineered constructs. Reproducing the complex relations between different cell types, generation of adequate vasculature, and immunological complications are road blocks in generation of bioengineered organs, while immunological complications limit the use of humanized organs produced in animals. Recent developments in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) biology offer a possibility of generating human, patient-specific organs in non-human primates (NHP) using patient-derived iPSC and NHP-derived iPSC lacking the critical developmental genes for the organ of interest complementing a NHP tetraploid embryo. The organ derived in this way will have the same human leukocyte antigen (HLA) profile as the patient. This approach can be curative in genetic disorders as this offers the possibility of gene manipulation and correction of the patient's genome at the iPSC stage before tetraploid complementation. The process of generation of patient-specific organs such as the liver in this way has the great advantage of making use of the natural signaling cascades in the natural milieu probably resulting in organs of great quality for transplantation. However, the inexorable scientific developments in this direction involve several social issues and hence we need to educate and prepare society in advance to accept the revolutionary consequences, good, bad and ugly.

  17. Future of liver transplantation: Non-human primates for patient-specific organs from induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Sanal, Madhusudana Girija

    2011-01-01

    Strategies to fill the huge gap in supply versus demand of human organs include bioartificial organs, growing humanized organs in animals, cell therapy, and implantable bioengineered constructs. Reproducing the complex relations between different cell types, generation of adequate vasculature, and immunological complications are road blocks in generation of bioengineered organs, while immunological complications limit the use of humanized organs produced in animals. Recent developments in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) biology offer a possibility of generating human, patient-specific organs in non-human primates (NHP) using patient-derived iPSC and NHP-derived iPSC lacking the critical developmental genes for the organ of interest complementing a NHP tetraploid embryo. The organ derived in this way will have the same human leukocyte antigen (HLA) profile as the patient. This approach can be curative in genetic disorders as this offers the possibility of gene manipulation and correction of the patient’s genome at the iPSC stage before tetraploid complementation. The process of generation of patient-specific organs such as the liver in this way has the great advantage of making use of the natural signaling cascades in the natural milieu probably resulting in organs of great quality for transplantation. However, the inexorable scientific developments in this direction involve several social issues and hence we need to educate and prepare society in advance to accept the revolutionary consequences, good, bad and ugly. PMID:21990949

  18. Site-specific immobilization of enzymes on magnetic nanoparticles and their use in organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ching-Ching; Kuo, Yu-Ying; Liang, Chien-Fu; Chien, Wei-Ting; Wu, Huan-Ting; Chang, Tsung-Che; Jan, Fan-Dan; Lin, Chun-Cheng

    2012-04-18

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are attractive materials that serve as a support for enzyme immobilization and facilitate separations by applying an external magnetic field; this could facilitate the recycling of enzymes and broaden their applications in organic synthesis. Herein, we report the methods for the immobilization of water-soluble and membrane-bound enzymes, and the activity difference between free and immobilized enzymes is discussed. Sialyltransferase (PmST1, from Pasteurella multocida ) and cytidine monophosphate (CMP)-sialic acid synthetase (CSS, from Neisseria meningitides ) were chosen as water-soluble enzymes and expressed using an intein expression system. The enzymes were site-specifically and covalently immobilized on PEGylated-N-terminal cysteine MNPs through native chemical ligation (NCL). Increasing the length of the PEG linker between the enzyme and the MNP surface increased the activity of the immobilized enzymes relative to the free parent enzymes. In addition, the use of a fluorescent acceptor tag for PmST1 affected enzyme kinetics. In contrast, sialyltransferase from Neisseria gonorrheae (NgST, a membrane-bound enzyme) was modified with a biotin-labeled cysteine at the C-terminus using NCL, and the enzyme was then assembled on streptavidin-functionalized MNPs. Using a streptavidin-biotin interaction, it was possible to immobilize NgST on a solid support under mild ligation conditions, which prevented the enzyme from high-temperature decomposition and provided an approximately 2-fold increase in activity compared to other immobilization methods on MNPs. Finally, the ganglioside GM3-derivative (sialyl-lactose derivative) was synthesized in a one-pot system by combining the use of immobilized PmST1 and CSS. The enzymes retained 50% activity after being reused ten times. Furthermore, the results obtained using the one-pot two-immobilized-enzyme system demonstrated that it can be applied to large-scale reactions with acceptable yields and

  19. Species-Specific Diversity of a Fixed Motor Pattern: The Electric Organ Discharge of Gymnotus

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Cattaneo, Alejo; Pereira, Ana Carolina; Aguilera, Pedro A.; Crampton, William G. R.; Caputi, Angel A.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding fixed motor pattern diversity across related species provides a window for exploring the evolution of their underlying neural mechanisms. The electric organ discharges of weakly electric fishes offer several advantages as paradigmatic models for investigating how a neural decision is transformed into a spatiotemporal pattern of action. Here, we compared the far fields, the near fields and the electromotive force patterns generated by three species of the pulse generating New World gymnotiform genus Gymnotus. We found a common pattern in electromotive force, with the far field and near field diversity determined by variations in amplitude, duration, and the degree of synchronization of the different components of the electric organ discharges. While the rostral regions of the three species generate similar profiles of electromotive force and local fields, most of the species-specific differences are generated in the main body and tail regions of the fish. This causes that the waveform of the field is highly site dependant in all the studied species. These findings support a hypothesis of the relative separation of the electrolocation and communication carriers. The presence of early head negative waves in the rostral region, a species-dependent early positive wave at the caudal region, and the different relationship between the late negative peak and the main positive peak suggest three points of lability in the evolution of the electrogenic system: a) the variously timed neuronal inputs to different groups of electrocytes; b) the appearance of both rostrally and caudally innervated electrocytes, and c) changes in the responsiveness of the electrocyte membrane. PMID:18461122

  20. Ethylene is involved in strawberry fruit ripening in an organ-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Merchante, Catharina; Vallarino, José G; Osorio, Sonia; Aragüez, Irene; Villarreal, Natalia; Ariza, María T; Martínez, Gustavo A; Medina-Escobar, Nieves; Civello, Marcos P; Fernie, Alisdair R; Botella, Miguel A; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2013-11-01

    The fruit of the strawberry Fragaria×ananassa has traditionally been classified as non-climacteric because its ripening process is not governed by ethylene. However, previous studies have reported the timely endogenous production of minor amounts of ethylene by the fruit as well as the differential expression of genes of the ethylene synthesis, reception, and signalling pathways during fruit development. Mining of the Fragaria vesca genome allowed for the identification of the two main ethylene biosynthetic genes, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase. Their expression pattern during fruit ripening was found to be stage and organ (achene or receptacle) specific. Strawberry plants with altered sensitivity to ethylene could be employed to unravel the role of ethylene in the ripening process of the strawberry fruit. To this end, independent lines of transgenic strawberry plants were generated that overexpress the Arabidopsis etr1-1 mutant ethylene receptor, which is a dominant negative allele, causing diminished sensitivity to ethylene. Genes involved in ethylene perception as well as in its related downstream processes, such as flavonoid biosynthesis, pectin metabolism, and volatile biosynthesis, were differently expressed in two transgenic tissues, the achene and the receptacle. The different transcriptional responsiveness of the achene and the receptacle to ethylene was also revealed by the metabolic profiling of the primary metabolites in these two organs. The free amino acid content was higher in the transgenic lines compared with the control in the mature achene, while glucose and fructose, and citric and malic acids were at lower levels. In the receptacle, the most conspicuous change in the transgenic lines was the depletion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates at the white stage of development, most probably as a consequence of diminished respiration. The results are discussed in the context of the importance of

  1. Ethylene is involved in strawberry fruit ripening in an organ-specific manner

    PubMed Central

    Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2013-01-01

    The fruit of the strawberry Fragaria×ananassa has traditionally been classified as non-climacteric because its ripening process is not governed by ethylene. However, previous studies have reported the timely endogenous production of minor amounts of ethylene by the fruit as well as the differential expression of genes of the ethylene synthesis, reception, and signalling pathways during fruit development. Mining of the Fragaria vesca genome allowed for the identification of the two main ethylene biosynthetic genes, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase. Their expression pattern during fruit ripening was found to be stage and organ (achene or receptacle) specific. Strawberry plants with altered sensitivity to ethylene could be employed to unravel the role of ethylene in the ripening process of the strawberry fruit. To this end, independent lines of transgenic strawberry plants were generated that overexpress the Arabidopsis etr1-1 mutant ethylene receptor, which is a dominant negative allele, causing diminished sensitivity to ethylene. Genes involved in ethylene perception as well as in its related downstream processes, such as flavonoid biosynthesis, pectin metabolism, and volatile biosynthesis, were differently expressed in two transgenic tissues, the achene and the receptacle. The different transcriptional responsiveness of the achene and the receptacle to ethylene was also revealed by the metabolic profiling of the primary metabolites in these two organs. The free amino acid content was higher in the transgenic lines compared with the control in the mature achene, while glucose and fructose, and citric and malic acids were at lower levels. In the receptacle, the most conspicuous change in the transgenic lines was the depletion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates at the white stage of development, most probably as a consequence of diminished respiration. The results are discussed in the context of the importance of

  2. Allergy assessment of foods or ingredients derived from biotechnology, gene-modified organisms, or novel foods.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Lars K

    2004-11-01

    The introduction of novel proteins into foods carries a risk of eliciting allergic reactions in individuals sensitive to the introduced protein and a risk of sensitizing susceptible individuals. No single predictive test exists to perform a hazard assessment in relation to allergenic properties of newly expressed proteins in gene-modified organisms (GMOs). Instead, performance of a weighted risk analysis based on the decision tree approach has been suggested. The individual steps of this analysis comprise sequence homology to known allergens, specific or targeted serum screens for immunoglobulin E (IgE) cross-reactions to known allergens, digestability studies of the proteins in simulated gastric and/or intestinal fluids, and animal studies. These steps are discussed and five examples of risk evaluation of GMOs or novel foods are presented. These include ice-structuring protein derived from fish, microbial transglutaminase, GMO-soybeans, amylase and the Nangai nut.

  3. Ecological risk assessment for aquatic organisms from over-water uses of glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Keith R; Thompson, Dean G

    2003-01-01

    Although the herbicide glyphosate is most widely used in agriculture, some is used for the control of emergent aquatic weeds in ditches, wetlands, and margins of water bodies, largely as the formulation Rodeo. This article presents an ecological risk assessment (ERA) of glyphosate and some of the recommended surfactants as used in or near aquatic systems. Glyphosate does not bioaccumulate, biomagnify, or persist in a biologically available form in the environment. Its mechanism of action is specific to plants and it is relatively nontoxic to animals. As a commercial product, glyphosate may be formulated with surfactants that increased efficacy but, in some cases, are more toxic to aquatic organisms than the parent material. For this risk assessment, three model exposure scenarios--static or low-flow systems such as ponds, flowing waters such as streams, and systems subjected to tidal flows such as estuaries--were chosen and application rates from 1 to 8 kg glyphosate/ha were modeled. Additional measured exposure data from several field studies were also used. As acute exposures are most likely to occur, acute toxicity data were used as effect measures for the purposes of risk assessment. Toxicity data were obtained from the literature and characterized using probabilistic techniques. Risk assessments based on estimated and measured concentrations of glyphosate that would result from its use for the control of undesirable plants in wetlands and over-water situations showed that the risk to aquatic organisms is negligible or small at application rates less than 4 kg/ha and only slightly greater at application rates of 8 kg/ha. Less is known about the environmental fate and toxicology of the surfactants commonly used in combination with the Rodeo formulation of glyphosate. The surfactants used for this purpose were judged not to be persistent nor bioaccumulative in the environment. Distributional analysis of measured deposition concentrations of LI 700, suggest that

  4. Material nanosizing effect on living organisms: non-specific, biointeractive, physical size effects

    PubMed Central

    Watari, Fumio; Takashi, Noriyuki; Yokoyama, Atsuro; Uo, Motohiro; Akasaka, Tsukasa; Sato, Yoshinori; Abe, Shigeaki; Totsuka, Yasunori; Tohji, Kazuyuki

    2009-01-01

    Nanosizing effects of materials on biological organisms was investigated by biochemical cell functional tests, cell proliferation and animal implantation testing. The increase in specific surface area causes the enhancement of ionic dissolution and serious toxicity for soluble, stimulative materials. This effect originates solely from materials and enhances the same functions as those in a macroscopic size as a catalyst. There are other effects that become prominent, especially for non-soluble, biocompatible materials such as Ti. Particle size dependence showed the critical size for the transition of behaviour is at approximately 100 μm, 10 μm and 200 nm. This effect has its origin in the biological interaction process between both particles and cells/tissue. Expression of superoxide anions, cytokines tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β from neutrophils was increased with the decrease in particle size and especially pronounced below 10 μm, inducing phagocytosis to cells and inflammation of tissue, although inductively coupled plasma chemical analysis showed no dissolution from Ti particles. Below 200 nm, stimulus decreases, then particles invade into the internal body through the respiratory or digestive systems and diffuse inside the body. Although macroscopic hydroxyapatite, which exhibits excellent osteoconductivity, is not replaced with natural bone, nanoapatite composites induce both phagocytosis of composites by osteoclasts and new bone formation by osteoblasts when implanted in bone defects. The progress of this bioreaction results in the conversion of functions to bone substitution. Although macroscopic graphite is non-cell adhesive, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are cell adhesive. The adsorption of proteins and nano-meshwork structure contribute to the excellent cell adhesion and growth on CNTs. Non-actuation of the immune system except for a few innate immunity processes gives the non-specific nature to the particle bioreaction and

  5. Fractal analysis: a novel method to assess roughness organization of implant surface topography.

    PubMed

    Perrotti, Vittoria; Aprile, Guiseppe; Degidi, Marco; Piattelli, Adriano; Iezzi, Giovanna

    2011-01-01

    Surface roughness is important for implant osseointegration. It has mostly been assessed by amplitude and height descriptors. Fractal analysis is derived from fractal geometry and is used to describe the organization of objects found in nature, quantifying their shape complexity with a value. Fractal dimension (Df?) is an index of the space-filling properties of an object and can be used as a parameter that describes the organization of surface roughness. The greater the Df value, the more chaotic the surface topography. The aim of this study was to assess the Df of implants with three different surface topographies to evaluate whether a novel method to measure roughness of implant surface topography could be developed. Forty-five disk-shaped samples (10 x 2 mm) with three different surface topographies were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy: group A, machined surface; group B, sandblasted and acid-etched surface; and group C, sandblasted, acid-etched, and neutralized surface. Images at 20,000x and 50,000x magnification were processed for quantitative analysis of Df using the box-counting method. Df values were correlated to the image magnification. At 20,000x magnification, Df for groups A, B, and C was 1.81, 1.67, and 1.59, respectively. At 50,000x magnification, Df was lower for all examined groups; more specifically, Df was 1.77, 1.59, and 1.42 for groups A, B, and C, respectively. Statistically significant differences were found between groups A and C at both magnifications. Df is used widely and successfully as a measurement to characterize anatomical structures and physiologic and pathologic processes. Df not only provides an index of roughness size values, but also a measure of roughness spatial organization; therefore, it could be a promising method to differentiate between rough surfaces capable of supporting osseointegration.

  6. Assessing Self Organization and Emergence in C2 Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    Self Organization, FAQ, ©1997 Chris Lucas, version 1 (draft) 24 May 1997 3. Holland, John, H., “Emergence”, Perseus Books, 1998 19 4. Morin , Edgar ...interdependence and reliability, thus providing the system with the possibility of lasting for a certain length of time, despite chance disruptions ( Morin ...1977. La Methode I: la Nature de la Nature. Paris: Seuil. See also, Kelly, Sean. 1988. "Hegel and Morin : The Science of Wisdom and the Wisdom of

  7. Autoreactive T cells in endocrine/organ-specific autoimmunity: why has progress been so slow?

    PubMed

    Roep, Bart O

    2002-12-01

    It has been generally accepted that T cells play a critical role in endocrine autoimmune diseases. Immunotherapy aimed at T cells usually intervenes in the disease process. Yet, it has proven very difficult to identify the pathogenic T cells. This is partly caused by lack of measures to detect autoreactive T cells in a specific, sensitive and reproducible fashion as is achievable for determination of autoantibodies. There are, however, more explanations for the perhaps disappointing progress in this area: unlike autoantibodies, the relevant (disease-associated) autoreactive T cells act in the tissue lesion, and only circulate in very low precursor frequencies. Moreover, T cell autoreactivity is counteracted by various mechanisms of immune regulation. Candidate target autoantigens of T cells have been identified by autoantibodies, while there is little evidence that these autoantibodies are pathogenic. It is therefore conceivable that additional T cell targets exist. Finally, results from experimental animal models of endocrine autoimmunity have raised false expectations. Nonetheless, significant progress in our understanding of the contribution of (autoreactive) T cells to organ-specific destruction and autoimmune disease has been achieved. Although cross-sectional detection of autoreactive T cells bears little relevance to diagnosis, longitudinal studies have proven useful in determining the fate of islet implantation in type 1 diabetes patients, defined the immunological efficacy of immuno-intervention studies, and have led to definition of relevant target autoantigens and peptides that will help to monitor disease-associated autoimmunity. In conclusion, progress in the area of autoreactive T cells in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes may have seemed slow in the eyes of the beholder, but in fact, studies on T cells have contributed significantly to the unravelling of the pathogenic processes leading to the definition of appropriate targets for immuno-intervention.

  8. Organ donation among undocumented hispanic immigrants: an assessment of knowledge and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Baru, Joshua S; Lucas, Brian R; Martinez, Carmen; Brauner, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Undocumented immigrants can donate their organs, but lack access to organ transplantation.This challenges foundational principles of organ donation: fairness and informed consent. Little is known about undocumented immigrants' knowledge of barriers to their access to organ transplantation or how this might affect their decision to donate their organs. The study was performed in an urban, university-affiliated, safety-net hospital.We interviewed hospitalized patients who self-identified as undocumented immigrants and were unaware of having any contraindication to organ donation (for example, cancer). We first recorded their demographic characteristics and knowledge and attitudes regarding organ donation. We then assessed the effects of informing participants about limits to their access to organ transplants on their willingness to donate. This group of 59 uninsured Hispanic immigrants had adequate knowledge about organ donation. Participants were suspicious about inequality within the medical system, but most were willing to donate their organs (74 percent). Most participants (74 percent) were aware that they would have to pay to receive an organ, but they dramatically underestimated the out-of-pocket expenses.Yet willingness to donate their organs was unaffected by participants being explicitly informed of the low likelihood that they would be able to afford to receive an organ transplant. Despite being well informed about the organ donation system, undocumented Hispanic immigrants underestimate the costs and overestimate their likelihood of receiving an organ. Even when they are given this information, they remain willing to donate their own organs.

  9. Association between depression, patient scar assessment and burn-specific health in hospitalized burn patients.

    PubMed

    Roh, Young Sook; Chung, Hyun Soo; Kwon, Boeun; Kim, Giyon

    2012-06-01

    Depression is one of the most common psychological problems arising after a burn, but its relationship with patient scar assessment and burn-specific health are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify the incidence of in-hospital symptoms of depression, compare level of patient scar assessment, and burn-specific health by depression cutoff point, and identify the relationship between depression and these variables. In a cross-sectional descriptive study, 113 burn patients from two inpatient burn centers were divided into two groups based on the cutoff point of the Korean Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (Korean CES-D): ≥25 or <25. Patient Scar Assessment Scale and Korean Burn-Specific Health Scale-Brief (BSHS-B-K) were used to identify associations with depression. Incidence of severe, definite depression as assessed by a score of 25 or above on the Korean CES-D was approximately 50% on an average at 60.9 days after injury. Burn patients with the Korean CES-D≥25 had significantly higher total mean patient scar assessment scores (43.34±11.49 vs. 36.84±9.56, t=3.265, p=.001), and lower burn-specific health subscale scores compared to patients with Korean CES-D<25. Depression was positively correlated with all subscales of the Patient Scar Assessment, ranging from r=.196 to .335 except scar color. Depression was significantly correlated with all subscales of the BSHS-B-K, range from r=-.320 to -.725. Results indicate that incidence of symptoms of depression is relatively high, and depressed burn patients report worse burn scar or sensation and lower levels of burn-specific health. Early, timely recognition and management of depression in these patients are warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of in vivo/in vitro unscheduled DNA synthesis for identification of organ-specific carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Furihata, C.; Matsushima, T.

    1987-01-01

    There are still only a few in vivo short-term assay methods for predicting potential organ-specific carcinogens and mutagens in mammals, although such methods are required for evaluating the in vivo effects of in vitro mutagens. In the in vivo/in vitro UDS assay methods described here, chemicals are given to experimental animals and induction of UDS in target organs is determined by in vitro organ culture or primary cell culture in the presence of (/sup 3/H)dThd. Incorporation of (/sup 3/H)dThd into DNA is measured with a liquid scintillation counter or by autoradiography. These methods have now been applied to the glandular stomach, forestomach, colon, liver, kidney, pancreas, tracheal epithelium, nasal epithelium, and spermatocytes. With minor modifications, they may also be applied to other organs. The present review shows that induction of UDS in various organs correlated well with the induction of cancer in these organs. The present authors have used the present methods to identify some potential organ-specific mutagens and carcinogens in mammals. The present authors found that three dicarbonyl compounds, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and diacetyl, induced apparent UDS and TDS in the glandular stomach, and other groups found that 2-NT, MA6BT, and CNEt6BT induced UDS in the liver. These in vivo/in vitro UDS assays are better than in vitro UDS assay for identification of potential organ-specific mutagens and carcinogens in mammals and are especially useful for identifying potential mutagens and carcinogens that are specific for certain organs, such as the stomach, liver, and kidney. They are also useful for examining the potential mutagenicities and carcinogenicities of carcinogen analogs. However, these methods are not suitable for general in vivo screening because they are not yet available for all organs. 113 references.

  11. Primary visual cortex shows laminar‐specific and balanced circuit organization of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Olivas, Nicholas D.; Ikrar, Taruna; Peng, Tao; Holmes, Todd C.; Nie, Qing; Shi, Yulin

    2016-01-01

    Key points Using functional mapping assays, we conducted a quantitative assessment of both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic laminar connections to excitatory neurons in layers 2/3–6 of the mouse visual cortex (V1).Laminar‐specific synaptic wiring diagrams of excitatory neurons were constructed on the basis of circuit mapping.The present study reveals that that excitatory and inhibitory synaptic connectivity is spatially balanced across excitatory neuronal networks in V1. Abstract In the mammalian neocortex, excitatory neurons provide excitation in both columnar and laminar dimensions, which is modulated further by inhibitory neurons. However, our understanding of intracortical excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs in relation to principal excitatory neurons remains incomplete, and it is unclear how local excitatory and inhibitory synaptic connections to excitatory neurons are spatially organized on a layer‐by‐layer basis. In the present study, we combined whole cell recordings with laser scanning photostimulation via glutamate uncaging to map excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs to single excitatory neurons throughout cortical layers 2/3–6 in the mouse primary visual cortex (V1). We find that synaptic input sources of excitatory neurons span the radial columns of laminar microcircuits, and excitatory neurons in different V1 laminae exhibit distinct patterns of layer‐specific organization of excitatory inputs. Remarkably, the spatial extent of inhibitory inputs of excitatory neurons for a given layer closely mirrors that of their excitatory input sources, indicating that excitatory and inhibitory synaptic connectivity is spatially balanced across excitatory neuronal networks. Strong interlaminar inhibitory inputs are found, particularly for excitatory neurons in layers 2/3 and 5. This differs from earlier studies reporting that inhibitory cortical connections to excitatory neurons are generally localized within the same cortical layer. On the

  12. Computer Applications for Alternative Assessment: An Instructional and Organization Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Ed; Brown, John A.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the possibilities and problems that computer-generated portfolios will soon present to instructors across America. Highlights include the history of portfolio assessment, logistical problems of handling portfolios in the traditional three-ring binder format, use of the zip drive for storage, and software/hardware compatibility problems.…

  13. Computer Applications for Alternative Assessment: An Instructional and Organization Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Ed; Brown, John A.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the possibilities and problems that computer-generated portfolios will soon present to instructors across America. Highlights include the history of portfolio assessment, logistical problems of handling portfolios in the traditional three-ring binder format, use of the zip drive for storage, and software/hardware compatibility problems.…

  14. Plant-specific volatile organic compound emission rates from young and mature leaves of Mediterranean vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracho-Nunez, Araceli; Welter, Saskia; Staudt, Michael; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

    2011-08-01

    The seasonality of vegetation, i.e., developmental stages and phenological processes, affects the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Despite the potential significance, the contributions of seasonality to VOC emission quality and quantity are not well understood and are therefore often ignored in emission simulations. We investigated the VOC emission patterns of young and mature leaves of several Mediterranean plant species in relation to their physiological and developmental changes during the growing period and estimated Es. Foliar emissions of isoprenoids and oxygenated VOCs like methanol and acetone were measured online by means of a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and offline with gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer and flame ionization detector. The results suggest that VOC emission is a developmentally regulated process and that quantitative and qualitative variability is plant species specific. Leaf ontogeny clearly influenced both the VOC Es and the relative importance of different VOCs. Methanol was the major compound contributing to the sum of target VOC emissions in young leaves (11.8 ± 10.4 μg g-1 h-1), while its contribution was minor in mature leaves (4.1 ± 4.1 μg g-1 h-1). Several plant species showed a decrease or complete subsidence of monoterpene, sesquiterpene, and acetone emissions upon maturity, perhaps indicating a potential response to the higher defense demands of young emerging leaves.

  15. In-phase oscillation of global regulons is orchestrated by a pole-specific organizer

    PubMed Central

    Janakiraman, Balaganesh; Mignolet, Johann; Narayanan, Sharath; Viollier, Patrick H.

    2016-01-01

    Cell fate determination in the asymmetric bacterium Caulobacter crescentus (Caulobacter) is triggered by the localization of the developmental regulator SpmX to the old (stalked) cell pole during the G1→S transition. Although SpmX is required to localize and activate the cell fate-determining kinase DivJ at the stalked pole in Caulobacter, in cousins such as Asticcacaulis, SpmX directs organelle (stalk) positioning and possibly other functions. We define the conserved σ54-dependent transcriptional activator TacA as a global regulator in Caulobacter whose activation by phosphorylation is indirectly down-regulated by SpmX. Using a combination of forward genetics and cytological screening, we uncover a previously uncharacterized and polarized component (SpmY) of the TacA phosphorylation control system, and we show that SpmY function and localization are conserved. Thus, SpmX organizes a site-specific, ancestral, and multifunctional regulatory hub integrating the in-phase oscillation of two global transcriptional regulators, CtrA (the master cell cycle transcriptional regulator A) and TacA, that perform important cell cycle functions. PMID:27791133

  16. In-phase oscillation of global regulons is orchestrated by a pole-specific organizer.

    PubMed

    Janakiraman, Balaganesh; Mignolet, Johann; Narayanan, Sharath; Viollier, Patrick H; Radhakrishnan, Sunish Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Cell fate determination in the asymmetric bacterium Caulobacter crescentus (Caulobacter) is triggered by the localization of the developmental regulator SpmX to the old (stalked) cell pole during the G1→S transition. Although SpmX is required to localize and activate the cell fate-determining kinase DivJ at the stalked pole in Caulobacter, in cousins such as Asticcacaulis, SpmX directs organelle (stalk) positioning and possibly other functions. We define the conserved σ(54)-dependent transcriptional activator TacA as a global regulator in Caulobacter whose activation by phosphorylation is indirectly down-regulated by SpmX. Using a combination of forward genetics and cytological screening, we uncover a previously uncharacterized and polarized component (SpmY) of the TacA phosphorylation control system, and we show that SpmY function and localization are conserved. Thus, SpmX organizes a site-specific, ancestral, and multifunctional regulatory hub integrating the in-phase oscillation of two global transcriptional regulators, CtrA (the master cell cycle transcriptional regulator A) and TacA, that perform important cell cycle functions.

  17. Site-specific probing of charge transfer dynamics in organic photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Arion, Tiberiu; Roth, Friedrich; Hussain, Zahid; Eberhardt, Wolfgang

    2015-03-23

    We report the site-specific probing of charge-transfer dynamics in a prototype system for organic photovoltaics (OPVs) by picosecond time-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A layered system consisting of approximately two monolayers of C{sub 60} deposited on top of a thin film of Copper-Phthalocyanine (CuPC) is excited by an optical pump pulse and the induced electronic dynamics are probed with 590 eV X-ray pulses. Charge transfer from the electron donor (CuPC) to the acceptor (C{sub 60}) and subsequent charge carrier dynamics are monitored by recording the time-dependent C 1s core level photoemission spectrum of the system. The arrival of electrons in the C{sub 60} layer is readily observed as a completely reversible, transient shift of the C{sub 60} associated C 1s core level, while the C 1s level of the CuPC remains unchanged. The capability to probe charge transfer and recombination dynamics in OPV assemblies directly in the time domain and from the perspective of well-defined domains is expected to open additional pathways to better understand and optimize the performance of this emerging technology.

  18. Mechanisms regulating nutrition-dependent developmental plasticity through organ-specific effects in insects

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Takashi; Mendes, Cláudia C.; Mirth, Christen K.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition, via the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IIS)/Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway, can provide a strong molding force for determining animal size and shape. For instance, nutrition induces a disproportionate increase in the size of male horns in dung and rhinoceros beetles, or mandibles in staghorn or horned flour beetles, relative to body size. In these species, well-fed male larvae produce adults with greatly enlarged horns or mandibles, whereas males that are starved or poorly fed as larvae bear much more modest appendages. Changes in IIS/TOR signaling plays a key role in appendage development by regulating growth in the horn and mandible primordia. In contrast, changes in the IIS/TOR pathway produce minimal effects on the size of other adult structures, such as the male genitalia in fruit flies and dung beetles. The horn, mandible and genitalia illustrate that although all tissues are exposed to the same hormonal environment within the larval body, the extent to which insulin can induce growth is organ specific. In addition, the IIS/TOR pathway affects body size and shape by controlling production of metamorphic hormones important for regulating developmental timing, like the steroid molting hormone ecdysone and sesquiterpenoid hormone juvenile hormone. In this review, we discuss recent results from Drosophila and other insects that highlight mechanisms allowing tissues to differ in their sensitivity to IIS/TOR and the potential consequences of these differences on body size and shape. PMID:24133450

  19. Category-specific organization in the human brain does not require visual experience

    PubMed Central

    Mahon, Bradford Z.; Anzellotti, Stefano; Schwarzbach, Jens; Zampini, Massimiliano; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2009-01-01

    Summary The ventral stream refers to a neural pathway that projects from early visual areas through to anterior temporal cortex, and comprises regions in ventral and lateral occipital-temporal cortex. The ventral stream is critical for recognizing visually presented objects. Functional imaging studies of the human brain have shown that different regions within the ventral stream show differential activation to nonliving (tools, houses) and living stimuli (animals, faces). The causes of these category preferences are widely debated. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we find that the same regions of the ventral stream that show category preferences for nonliving stimuli and animals in sighted adults, show the same category preferences in adults who are blind since birth. Both blind and sighted participants had larger blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) responses in the medial fusiform gyrus for nonliving stimuli compared to animal stimuli, and differential BOLD responses in lateral occipital cortex for animal stimuli compared to nonliving stimuli. These findings demonstrate that the medial-to-lateral bias by conceptual domain in the ventral stream does not require visual experience in order to develop, and suggest the operation of innately determined domain-specific constraints on the organization of object knowledge. PMID:19679078

  20. Investigating event-specific drought attribution using self-organizing maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Luke J.; Gibson, Peter B.; Dean, Sam M.; Mitchell, Daniel; Rosier, Suzanne M.; Frame, David J.

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies evaluating anthropogenic influences on the meteorological drivers of drought have found mixed results owing to (1) the complex physical mechanisms which lead to the onset of drought, (2) differences in the characteristics and time scales of drought for different regions of the world, and (3) different approaches to the question of attribution. For a midlatitude, temperate climate like New Zealand, strongly modulated by oceanic influences, summer droughts last on the order of 3 months, and are less strongly linked to persistent temperature anomalies than continental climates. Here we demonstrate the utility of a novel approach for characterizing the meteorological conditions conducive to extreme drought over the North Island of New Zealand, using the January-March 2013 event as a case study. Specifically, we consider the use of self-organizing map techniques in a multimember coupled climate model ensemble to capture changes in daily circulation, between two 41 year periods (1861-1901 and 1993-2033). Comparisons are made with seasonal pressure and precipitation indices. Our results demonstrate robust (>99% confidence) increases in the likelihood of observing circulation patterns like those of the 2013 drought in the recent-climate simulations when compared with the early-climate simulations. Best guess estimates of the fraction of attributable risk range from 0.2 to 0.4, depending on the metric used and threshold considered. Contributions to uncertainty in these attribution statements are discussed.

  1. Soil-specific response functions of organic matter mineralization to the availability of labile carbon.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Eric; Sim, Allan

    2013-05-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization processes are central to the functioning of soils in relation to feedbacks with atmospheric CO2 concentration, to sustainable nutrient supply, to structural stability and in supporting biodiversity. Recognition that labile C-inputs to soil (e.g. plant-derived) can significantly affect mineralization of SOM ('priming effects') complicates prediction of environmental and land-use change effects on SOM dynamics and soil C-balance. The aim of this study is to construct response functions for SOM priming to labile C (glucose) addition rates, for four contrasting soils. Six rates of glucose (3 atm% (13) C) addition (in the range 0-1 mg glucose g(-1) soil day(-1) ) were applied for 8 days. Soil CO2 efflux was partitioned into SOM- and glucose-derived components by isotopic mass balance, allowing quantification of SOM priming over time for each soil type. Priming effects resulting from pool substitution effects in the microbial biomass ('apparent priming') were accounted for by determining treatment effects on microbial biomass size and isotopic composition. In general, SOM priming increased with glucose addition rate, approaching maximum rates specific for each soil (up to 200%). Where glucose additions saturated microbial utilization capacity (>0.5 mg glucose g(-1) soil), priming was a soil-specific function of glucose mineralization rate. At low to intermediate glucose addition rates, the magnitude (and direction) of priming effects was more variable. These results are consistent with the view that SOM priming is supported by the availability of labile C, that priming is not a ubiquitous function of all components of microbial communities and that soils differ in the extent to which labile C stimulates priming. That priming effects can be represented as response functions to labile C addition rates may be a means of their explicit representation in soil C-models. However, these response functions are soil-specific and may be

  2. Patient-specific organ dose estimation during transcatheter arterial embolization using Monte Carlo method and adaptive organ segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Hui-Yu; Lin, Yung-Chieh; Tyan, Yeu-Sheng

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate organ doses for individual patients undergoing interventional transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using measurement-based Monte Carlo simulation and adaptive organ segmentation. Five patients were enrolled in this study after institutional ethical approval and informed consent. Gafchromic XR-RV3 films were used to measure entrance surface dose to reconstruct the nonuniform fluence distribution field as the input data in the Monte Carlo simulation. XR-RV3 films were used to measure entrance surface doses due to their lower energy dependence compared with that of XR-RV2 films. To calculate organ doses, each patient's three-dimensional dose distribution was incorporated into CT DICOM images with image segmentation using thresholding and k-means clustering. Organ doses for all patients were estimated. Our dose evaluation system not only evaluated entrance surface doses based on measurements, but also evaluated the 3D dose distribution within patients using simulations. When film measurements were unavailable, the peak skin dose (between 0.68 and 0.82 of a fraction of the cumulative dose) can be calculated from the cumulative dose obtained from TAE dose reports. Successful implementation of this dose evaluation system will aid radiologists and technologists in determining the actual dose distributions within patients undergoing TAE.

  3. Organ Dose Assessment and Evaluation of Cancer Risk on Mars Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    Organ specific fluence spectra and doses for large solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) at various levels of solar activity are simulated on the surface of Mars using the HZETRN/QMSFRG computer code and the 2010 version of the Badhwar and O Neill GCR model. The NASA JSC propensity model of SPE fluence and occurrence is used to consider upper bounds on SPE fluence for increasing mission lengths. To account for the radiation transmission through the Mars atmosphere, a vertical distribution of Mars atmospheric thickness is calculated from the temperature and pressure data of Mars Global Surveyor. To describe the spherically distributed atmospheric distance on the Mars surface at each elevation, the directional cosine distribution is implemented. The resultant directional shielding by Mars atmosphere at each elevation is then coupled with vehicle and body shielding for organ dose estimates. Finally, cancer risks for astronauts exploring Mars can be assessed by applying the NASA Space Radiation Cancer Risk 2010 model with the resultant organ dose estimates. Variations of organ doses and cancer risk quantities on the surface of Mars, which are due to a 16-km elevation range between the Tharsis Montes and the Hellas impact basin, are visualized on the global topography of Mars measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter. It is found that cancer incidence risks are about 2-fold higher than mortality risks with a disproportionate increase in skin and thyroid cancers for male and female astronauts and in breast cancer for female astronauts. The number of safe days, defined by the upper 95% percent confidence level to be below cancer limits, on Mars is analyzed for several Mars mission design scenarios.

  4. Human skin organ culture for assessment of chemically induced skin damage

    PubMed Central

    Varani, James

    2015-01-01

    The move away from animal models for skin safety testing is inevitable. It is a question of when, not if. As skin safety studies move away from traditional animal-based approaches, a number of replacement technologies are becoming available. Human skin in organ culture is one such technology. Organ-cultured skin has several features that distinguish it from other technologies. First and foremost, organ-cultured skin is real skin. Almost by definition, therefore, it approximates the intact skin better than other alternative models. Organ culture is an easy-to-use and relatively inexpensive approach to preclinical safety assessment. Although organ culture is not likely to replace high-throughput enzyme assays or monolayer culture/skin equivalent cultures for initial compound assessment, organ culture should find use when the list of compounds to be evaluated is small and when simpler models have narrowed the dose range. Organ-cultured skin also provides a platform for mechanistic studies. PMID:26989431

  5. Using Academy Standards of Excellence in Nutrition and Dietetics for organization self-assessment and quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Price, Joyce A; Kent, Sue; Cox, Sharon A; McCauley, Sharon M; Parekh, Janki; Klein, Catherine J

    2014-08-01

    Standards of Excellence in Nutrition and Dietetics for an Organization is a self-assessment tool to measure and evaluate an organization's program, services, and initiatives that identify and distinguish the Registered Dietitian Nutritionist (RDN) brand as the professional expert in food and nutrition. The Standards of Excellence will serve as a road map to recognize RDNs as leaders and collaborators. Standards of Excellence criteria apply to all practice segments of nutrition and dietetics: health care, education and research, business and industry, and community nutrition and public health. Given the membership's call to action to be recognized for their professional expertise, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Management Committee developed four Standards of Excellence in Nutrition and Dietetics for Organizations: Quality of Leadership, Quality of Organization, Quality of Practice, and Quality of Outcomes. Within each standard, specific indicators provide strategies for an organization to demonstrate excellence. The Academy will develop a self-evaluation scoring tool to assist the organization in applying and implementing one or more of the strategies in the Standards of Excellence indicators. The organization can use the self-assessment tool to establish itself as a Center of Excellence in Nutrition and Dietetics. The role examples illustrate initiatives RDNs and organizations can take to identify themselves as a Center of Excellence in Nutrition and Dietetics. Achieving the Excellence level is an important collaborative initiative between nutrition and dietetics organizations and the Academy to provide increased autonomy, supportive management, respect within peers and community, opportunities for professional development, support for further education, and compensation for the RDN. For purposes of the Standards, "organization" means workplace or practice setting.

  6. Sensitivity and Specificity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Modified for Individuals Who Are Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittich, Walter; Phillips, Natalie; Nasreddine, Ziad S.; Chertkow, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Evaluating the cognitive status of individuals who are visually impaired is limited by the design of the test that is used. This article presents data on the sensitivity and specificity of the version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment for people who are visually impaired. The original validation data were reanalyzed, excluding the five visual…

  7. The Development of a Visual-Perceptual Chemistry Specific (VPCS) Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Sloan, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    The development of the Visual-Perceptual Chemistry Specific (VPCS) assessment tool is based on items that align to eight visual-perceptual skills considered as needed by chemistry students. This tool includes a comprehensive range of visual operations and presents items within a chemistry context without requiring content knowledge to solve…

  8. Identification of Specific Language Impairment in Bilingual Children: I. Assessment in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillam, Ronald B.; Peña, Elizabeth D.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Bohman, Thomas M.; Mendez-Perez, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to derive cut scores for English testing for use in identifying specific language impairment (SLI) in bilingual children who were learning English as a second language. Method: In a 1-gate design, 167 children received comprehensive language assessments in English and Spanish during their first-grade year. The…

  9. Assessing Student Perceptions of Positive and Negative Social Interactions in Specific School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zumbrunn, Sharon; Doll, Beth; Dooley, Kadie; LeClair, Courtney; Wimmer, Courtney

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the use of student-marked school maps, a practitioner-friendly method for assessing student perceptions of positive and negative peer interactions in specific school settings. Two hundred eighty-two third- through fifth-grade students from a Midwestern U.S. elementary school participated. Descriptive analyses were used to…

  10. Assessing specific gravity of young Eucalyptus plantation trees using a resistance drilling technique

    Treesearch

    José Tarcísio da Silva Oliveira; Xiping Wang; Graziela Baptista Vidaurre

    2017-01-01

    The resistance drilling technique has been in focus for assessing the specific gravity (SG) of young Eucalyptus trees from plantations for pulpwood production. Namely, the data of 50 34-month-old and 50 62-monthold trees from Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla clonal plantations was evaluated, while...

  11. Sensitivity and Specificity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Modified for Individuals Who Are Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittich, Walter; Phillips, Natalie; Nasreddine, Ziad S.; Chertkow, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Evaluating the cognitive status of individuals who are visually impaired is limited by the design of the test that is used. This article presents data on the sensitivity and specificity of the version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment for people who are visually impaired. The original validation data were reanalyzed, excluding the five visual…

  12. Identification of Specific Language Impairment in Bilingual Children: I. Assessment in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillam, Ronald B.; Peña, Elizabeth D.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Bohman, Thomas M.; Mendez-Perez, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to derive cut scores for English testing for use in identifying specific language impairment (SLI) in bilingual children who were learning English as a second language. Method: In a 1-gate design, 167 children received comprehensive language assessments in English and Spanish during their first-grade year. The…

  13. Screening and Assessment of Specific Learning Disabilities in Higher Education Institutes in the Republic of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkin, Emma; Doyle, Alison; Mc Guckin, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Students with specific learning difficulties (SpLD) in higher education institutions (HEIs) in the Republic of Ireland are required to have a formal psycho-educational assessment from an educational psychologist to register with Disability Services in HEIs, to be eligible for support through the Fund for Students with Disabilities (FSD). Such…

  14. Assessing Student Perceptions of Positive and Negative Social Interactions in Specific School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zumbrunn, Sharon; Doll, Beth; Dooley, Kadie; LeClair, Courtney; Wimmer, Courtney

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the use of student-marked school maps, a practitioner-friendly method for assessing student perceptions of positive and negative peer interactions in specific school settings. Two hundred eighty-two third- through fifth-grade students from a Midwestern U.S. elementary school participated. Descriptive analyses were used to…

  15. The Development of a Visual-Perceptual Chemistry Specific (VPCS) Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Sloan, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    The development of the Visual-Perceptual Chemistry Specific (VPCS) assessment tool is based on items that align to eight visual-perceptual skills considered as needed by chemistry students. This tool includes a comprehensive range of visual operations and presents items within a chemistry context without requiring content knowledge to solve…

  16. Environment, safety and health, management and organization compliance assessment, West Valley Demonstration Program, West Valley, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    An Environment, Safety and Health Tiger Team'' Assessment was conducted at the West Valley Demonstration Project. The Tiger Team was chartered to conduct an onsite, independent assessment of WVDP's environment, safety and health (ES H) programs to assure compliance with applicable Federal and State laws, regulations, and standards, and Department of Energy Orders. The objective is to provide to the Secretary of Energy the following information: current ES H compliance status of each facility; specific noncompliance items; root causes'' for noncompliance items; evaluation of the adequacy of ES H organization and resources (DOE and contractor) and needed modifications; and where warranted, recommendations for addressing identified problem areas.

  17. Confounding Factors Affecting the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease Organ-Specific Score and Global Severity

    PubMed Central

    Aki, Sahika Zeynep; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Carpenter, Paul A.; Storer, Barry E.; Sandmaier, Brenda M.; Lee, Stephanie J.; Martin, Paul J.; Flowers, Mary E.D.

    2016-01-01

    The 2005 NIH chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) organ severity is based on the assessment of current status regardless of whether abnormalities are due to GVHD. The score assignment does not require knowledge of past manifestations, attribution, or whether cGVHD is still active. The aim of this study is to describe confounding factors affecting organ scores in patients with cGVHD. The study included 189 consecutive cGVHD patients evaluated at our center in 2013. Providers completed the NIH 0–3 organ-specific scoring evaluation with two questions added for each organ to identify abnormalities that were 1) not attributed to cGVHD, or 2) attributed to cGVHD plus other causes. Abnormalities attributed to causes other than GVHD were recorded. Eighty (14%) abnormalities were not attributed to cGVHD in at least one organ, and 41 (7%) abnormalities were attributed to cGVHD plus other causes in at least one organ. A total of 436 (78%) abnormalities were attributed only to cGVHD. Abnormalities not attributed to cGVHD were observed most frequently in the lung, gastrointestinal tract and skin. Most common abnormalities included pre-transplant condition, sequelae from GVHD, deconditioning, infections and medications. Our results support the the 2014 NIH consensus recommendation to consider attribution when scoring organ abnormalities. PMID:27214071

  18. Organ-specific gene expression in maize: The P-wr allele. Final report, August 15, 1993--August 14, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.A.

    1997-06-01

    The ultimate aim of our work is to understand how a regulatory gene produces a specific pattern of gene expression during plant development. Our model is the P-wr gene of maize, which produces a distinctive pattern of pigmentation of maize floral organs. We are investigating this system using a combination of classical genetic and molecular approaches. Mechanisms of organ-specific gene expression are a subject of intense research interest, as it is the operation of these mechanisms during eukaryotic development which determine the characteristics of each organism Allele-specific expression has been characterized in only a few other plant genes. In maize, organ-specific pigmentation regulated by the R, B, and Pl genes is achieved by differential transcription of functionally conserved protein coding sequences. Our studies point to a strikingly different mechanism of organ-specific gene expression, involving post-transcriptional regulation of the regulatory P gene. The novel pigmentation pattern of the P-wr allele is associated with differences in the encoded protein. Furthermore, the P-wr gene itself is present as a unique tandemly amplified structure, which may affect its transcriptional regulation.

  19. Validity of a Modified Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score Using the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale.

    PubMed

    Vasilevskis, Eduard E; Pandharipande, Pratik P; Graves, Amy J; Shintani, Ayumi; Tsuruta, Ryosuke; Ely, E Wesley; Girard, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment and other severity of illness scales rely on the Glasgow Coma Scale to measure acute neurologic dysfunction, but the Glasgow Coma Scale is unavailable or inconsistently applied in some institutions. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of a modified Sequential Organ Failure Assessment that uses the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale instead of Glasgow Coma Scale. Prospective cohort study. Medical and surgical ICUs within a large, tertiary care hospital. Critically ill medical/surgical ICU patients. We calculated daily Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores by using electronic medical record-derived data. By using bedside nurse-recorded Glasgow Coma Scale and Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale measures, we calculated neurologic Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores using the original Glasgow Coma Scale-based approach and a novel Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale-based approach, converting the 10-point Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale to a 4-point neurologic Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score. We assessed construct validity of Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale-based Sequential Organ Failure Assessment by analyzing correlations with established severity of illness constructs (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and Glasgow Coma Scale-based Sequential Organ Failure Assessment) and predictive validity by using logistic regression to determine whether Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale-based Sequential Organ Failure Assessment predicts ICU, hospital, and 1-year mortality. We assessed discriminative performance with c-statistics. Among 513 patients (5,199 patient-days), Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale-based Sequential Organ Failure Assessment was strongly correlated with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II acute physiology score at enrollment (r = 0.583; 95% CI, 0.518-0.642) and daily Glasgow Coma Scale-based Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores (r = 0.963; 95% CI

  20. Identification of specific organic contaminants in different units of a chemical production site.

    PubMed

    Dsikowitzky, L; Botalova, O; al Sandouk-Lincke, N A; Schwarzbauer, J

    2014-07-01

    Due to the very limited number of studies dealing with the chemical composition of industrial wastewaters, many industrial organic contaminants still escape our view and consequently also our control. We present here the chemical characterization of wastewaters from different units of a chemical complex, thereby contributing to the characterization of industrial pollution sources. The chemicals produced in the investigated complex are widely and intensively used and the synthesis processes are common and applied worldwide. The chemical composition of untreated and treated wastewaters from the chemical complex was investigated by applying a non-target screening which allowed for the identification of 39 organic contaminants. According to their application most of them belonged to four groups: (i) unspecific educts or intermediates of industrial syntheses, (ii) chemicals for the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals, (iii) educts for the synthesis of polymers and resins, and (iv) compounds known as typical constituents of municipal sewage. A number of halogenated compounds with unknown toxicity and with very high molecular diversity belonged to the second group. Although these compounds were completely removed or degraded during wastewater treatment, they could be useful as "alarm indicators" for industrial accidents in pharmaceutical manufacturing units or for malfunctions of wastewater treatment plants. Three potential branch-specific indicators for polymer manufacturing were found in the outflow of the complex. Among all compounds, bisphenol A, which was present in the leachate water of the on-site waste deposit, occurred in the highest concentrations of up to 20 000 μg L(-1). The comparison of contaminant loads in the inflow and outflow of the on-site wastewater treatment facility showed that most contaminants were completely or at least significantly removed or degraded during the treatment, except two alkylthiols, which were enriched during the treatment process

  1. Assessment of indexing trends with specific and general terms for herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Bartol, Tomaz

    2012-12-01

    Concepts for medicinal plants are represented by a variety of associated general terms with specific indexing patterns in databases, which may not consistently reflect growth of records. The objectives of this study are to assess the development in databases by identifying general terms that describe herbal medicine with optimal retrieval recall and to identify possible special trends in co-occurrence of specific and general concepts. Different search strategies are tested in cab abstracts, medline and web of science. Specific terms (Origanum and Salvia) are employed. Relevant general terms (e.g. 'Plants, Medicinal', Phytotherapy, Herbal drugs) are identified, along with indexing trends and co-occurrences. Growth trends, in specific (narrower) terms, are similar among databases. General terms, however, exhibit dissimilar trends, sometimes almost opposing one another. Co-occurrence of specific and general terms is changing over time. General terms may not denote definite development of trends as the use of terms differs amongst databases, making it difficult to correctly assess possible numbers of relevant records. Perceived increase can, sometimes, be attributed to an increased occurrence of a more general term alongside the specific one. Thesaurus-controlled databases may yield more hits, because of 'up-posted' (broader) terms. Use of broader terms is helpful as it enhances retrieval of relevant documents. © 2012 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2012 Health Libraries Group.

  2. Organ specific antioxidant responses in golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) following a short-term exposure to phenanthrene.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, M; Pacheco, M; Santos, M A

    2008-06-15

    Phenanthrene (Phe) is among the most abundant and ubiquitous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aquatic environment as a result of human activities. Even so, the knowledge about its impact on fish health is still limited. In this study, the teleost Liza aurata was exposed to 0.1, 0.3, 0.9 and 2.7 microM Phe concentrations during 16 h. Enzymatic antioxidants such as selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT), as well as a non-enzymatic antioxidant (glutathione - GSH) were quantified in three target organs - gill, kidney and liver. The lipid peroxidation (LPO) was also assessed as a marker of oxidative damage. GPx activity was decreased in gill (0.1 and 0.9 microM), whereas in the liver it was increased (0.3-2.7 microM). GST activity was decreased in kidney (0.3-2.7 microM) and CAT activity was increased in gill after 0.9 microM exposure. GSH content was significantly increased in gill by the lowest concentration and in liver by all Phe concentrations. Despite the antioxidant defense responses, LPO increased in gill (0.3-2.7 microM), kidney (0.1 microM) and liver (0.1 and 2.7 microM). These results revealed organ specific antioxidant defenses depending on the Phe concentration. Liver demonstrated a higher adaptive competence expressed as antioxidant defenses activation, namely GSH and GPX. The lower vulnerability of the kidney to oxidative damage (compared to gill and liver) seems to be related to its higher antioxidant basal levels. Globally, current data highlight the Phe potential to induce oxidative stress and, consequently, to affect the well-being of fish.

  3. Soil organic carbon assessments in cropping systems using isotopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín De Dios Herrero, Juan; Cruz Colazo, Juan; Guzman, María Laura; Saenz, Claudio; Sager, Ricardo; Sakadevan, Karuppan

    2016-04-01

    Introduction of improved farming practices are important to address the challenges of agricultural production, food security, climate change and resource use efficiency. The integration of livestock with crops provides many benefits including: (1) resource conservation, (2) ecosystem services, (3) soil quality improvements, and (4) risk reduction through diversification of enterprises. Integrated crop livestock systems (ICLS) with the combination of no-tillage and pastures are useful practices to enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) compared with continuous cropping systems (CCS). In this study, the SOC and its fractions in two cropping systems namely (1) ICLS, and (2) CCS were evaluated in Southern Santa Fe Province in Argentina, and the use of delta carbon-13 technique and soil physical fractionation were evaluated to identify sources of SOC in these systems. Two farms inside the same soil cartographic unit and landscape position in the region were compared. The ICLS farm produces lucerne (Medicago sativa Merrill) and oat (Avena sativa L.) grazed by cattle alternatively with grain summer crops sequence of soybean (Glicine max L.) and corn (Zea mays L.), and the farm under continuous cropping system (CCS) produces soybean and corn in a continuous sequence. The soil in the area is predominantly a Typic Hapludoll. Soil samples from 0-5 and 0-20 cm depths (n=4) after the harvest of grain crops were collected in each system and analyzed for total organic carbon (SOC, 0-2000 μm), particulate organic carbon (POC, 50-100 μm) and mineral organic carbon (MOC, <50 μm). Delta carbon-13 was determined by isotopic ratio mass spectrometry. In addition, a site with natural vegetation (reference site, REF) was also sampled for delta carbon-13 determination. ANOVA and Tukey statistical analysis were carried out for all data. The SOC was higher in ICLS than in CCS at both depths (20.8 vs 17.7 g kg-1 for 0-5 cm and 16.1 vs 12.7 g kg-1 at 0-20 cm, respectively, P<0.05). MOC was

  4. Assessing the financial characteristics of multi-institutional organizations.

    PubMed Central

    Coyne, J S

    1985-01-01

    The prospective pricing of health services is precipitating greater attention to financial characteristics and greater development of multi-institutional organizations (MIOs). This study compares the financial characteristics of 1,590 MIO hospitals with 2,819 freestanding hospitals by ownership type: church-operated, other not-for-profit, and investor-owned. Using 1981 data from the American Hospital Association, the hospitals' capital structure and profitability are measured using three financial ratios: total assets-to-equity, return on equity, and operating margin. The results indicate both greater leverage and greater profitability among MIO hospitals, particularly in the investor-owned sector. The implications of these findings are discussed relative to financial performance by hospital ownership type in the future. PMID:4038697

  5. Assessment of organic pollutants in coastal sediments, UAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel Gawad, Esam A.; Al Azab, Mohamed; Lotfy, M. M.

    2008-05-01

    Twenty-five stations were selected along the UAE coastal region to delineate the distribution and to determine the source of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), total organic carbon (TOC), total Kjeldhal nitrogen (TKN), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The concentrations of TPH ranged between 46 and 223 mg/kg and the level of TOC was in the range from 0.044 to 17.8 wt%, while TPAHs occupied the range of 5-102.2 μg/kg. On the other hand, TPCBs showed values between 60 and 205 μg/kg and TKN ranged from 104 to 1,073 mg/kg. The present study shows that the distribution of organic compounds in UAE sediments were within safe limits comparing with previous studies. The present study revealed that TOC can be used as an indicator of oil pollution in heavily oiled sediments. The highest values of TOC, TPH, TPAHs and TPCBs related to the stations covered in fine sand due to adsorption properties and the large surface areas of the grains. The evaporation of low-boiling point compounds from surface layers leads to the enrichment of sediments with a thick residual. Al Sharjah-1 exhibited the highest values of TPH and TOC at Ras Al-Khaima-5, Umm Al-Quwen-1 and Dubai-1, while the highest values of TPAHs were at KhorFakkan-9, the highest value of TPCBs was at Ajman-2, and the highest values of TKN were at KhorFakkan-1, KhorFakkan-6 and Dubai-1.

  6. Urinary concentrations of toxic substances: an assessment of alternative approaches to adjusting for specific gravity.

    PubMed

    Sorahan, Tom; Pang, Dong; Esmen, Nurtan; Sadhra, Steven

    2008-11-01

    Alternative approaches of adjusting urinary concentration of cadmium for differences in specific gravity of biological samples were assessed. The main analysis used 2922 cadmium-in-urine samples collected in the period 1968-1989 from workers at a UK nickel-cadmium battery facility. Geometric means of cadmium-in-urine, adjusted and unadjusted for specific gravity, were obtained for 21 different values of specific gravity ranging from 1.010 to 1.030. There was a highly significant positive trend (P < 0.001) of unadjusted cadmium-in-urine with specific gravity. Conventional adjustment for specific gravity led to a highly significant negative trend (P < 0.001) of adjusted cadmium-in-urine with specific gravity, SG. An approach proposed by Vij and Howell, involving the introduction of a z coefficient, led to satisfactory adjustment. Conventional adjustment of specific gravity leads to overcompensation of the confounding effects of specific gravity. An alternative method is available and should probably be adopted when interpreting urine biological samples for all chemical substances.

  7. Region-specific projections from the subfornical organ to the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kawano, H; Masuko, S

    2010-09-01

    Neurons in the subfornical organ (SFO) project to the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) and there, in response to osmolar and blood pressure changes, regulate vasopressin neurons in the magnocellular part (mPVN) or neurons in the parvocellular part (pPVN) projecting to the cardiovascular center. The SFO is functionally classified in two parts, the dorsolateral peripheral (pSFO) and ventromedial core parts (cSFO). We investigated the possibility that neurons in each part of the SFO project region-specifically to each part of the PVN, using anterograde and retrograde tracing methods. Following injection of an anterograde tracer, biotinylated dextran amine (BDX) in the SFO, the respective numbers of BDX-uptake neurons in the pSFO and cSFO were counted and the ratio of the former to the latter was obtained. In addition, the respective areas occupied by BDX-labeled axons per unit area of the mPVN and pPVN were measured and the ratio of the former to the latter was obtained. Similarly, following injection of the retrograde tracer in the PVN, the respective areas occupied by tracer per unit area of the mPVN and pPVN were measured and the ratio of the former to the latter was obtained. The respective numbers of retrogradely labeled neurons in the pSFO and cSFO were also counted and the ratio of the former to the latter was obtained. It became clear by statistical analyses that there are strong positive correlations between the ratio of BDX-uptake neuron number in the SFO and the ratio of BDX-axon area in the PVN in anterograde experiment (correlation coefficient: 0.787) and between the ratio of retrograde neuron number in the SFO and the ratio of tracer area in the PVN in retrograde experiment (correlation coefficient: 0.929). The result suggests that the SFO projects region-specifically to the PVN, the pSFO to the mPVN and the cSFO to the pPVN. Copyright (c) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Target Organ Specific Activity of Drosophila MRP (ABCC1) Moderates Developmental Toxicity of Methylmercury

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Lisa; Korbas, Malgorzata; Davidson, Philip; Broberg, Karin; Rand, Matthew Dearborn

    2014-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a ubiquitous and persistent neurotoxin that poses a risk to human health. Although the mechanisms of MeHg toxicity are not fully understood, factors that contribute to susceptibility are even less well known. Studies of human gene polymorphisms have identified a potential role for the multidrug resistance-like protein (MRP/ABCC) family, ATP-dependent transporters, in MeHg susceptibility. MRP transporters have been shown to be important for MeHg excretion in adult mouse models, but their role in moderating MeHg toxicity during development has not been explored. We therefore investigated effects of manipulating expression levels of MRP using a Drosophila development assay. Drosophila MRP (dMRP) is homologous to human MRP1–4 (ABCC1–4), sharing 50% identity and 67% similarity with MRP1. A greater susceptibility to MeHg is seen in dMRP mutant flies, demonstrated by reduced rates of eclosion on MeHg-containing food. Furthermore, targeted knockdown of dMRP expression using GAL4>UAS RNAi methods demonstrates a tissue-specific function for dMRP in gut, Malpighian tubules, and the nervous system in moderating developmental susceptibility to MeHg. Using X-ray synchrotron fluorescence imaging, these same tissues were also identified as the highest Hg-accumulating tissues in fly larvae. Moreover, higher levels of Hg are seen in dMRP mutant larvae compared with a control strain fed an equivalent dose of MeHg. In sum, these data demonstrate that dMRP expression, both globally and within Hg-targeted organs, has a profound effect on susceptibility to MeHg in developing flies. Our findings point to a potentially novel and specific role for dMRP in neurons in the protection against MeHg. Finally, this experimental system provides a tractable model to evaluate human polymorphic variants of MRP and other gene variants relevant to genetic studies of mercury-exposed populations. PMID:24863968

  9. Target organ specific activity of drosophila MRP (ABCC1) moderates developmental toxicity of methylmercury.

    PubMed

    Prince, Lisa; Korbas, Malgorzata; Davidson, Philip; Broberg, Karin; Rand, Matthew Dearborn

    2014-08-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a ubiquitous and persistent neurotoxin that poses a risk to human health. Although the mechanisms of MeHg toxicity are not fully understood, factors that contribute to susceptibility are even less well known. Studies of human gene polymorphisms have identified a potential role for the multidrug resistance-like protein (MRP/ABCC) family, ATP-dependent transporters, in MeHg susceptibility. MRP transporters have been shown to be important for MeHg excretion in adult mouse models, but their role in moderating MeHg toxicity during development has not been explored. We therefore investigated effects of manipulating expression levels of MRP using a Drosophila development assay. Drosophila MRP (dMRP) is homologous to human MRP1-4 (ABCC1-4), sharing 50% identity and 67% similarity with MRP1. A greater susceptibility to MeHg is seen in dMRP mutant flies, demonstrated by reduced rates of eclosion on MeHg-containing food. Furthermore, targeted knockdown of dMRP expression using GAL4>UAS RNAi methods demonstrates a tissue-specific function for dMRP in gut, Malpighian tubules, and the nervous system in moderating developmental susceptibility to MeHg. Using X-ray synchrotron fluorescence imaging, these same tissues were also identified as the highest Hg-accumulating tissues in fly larvae. Moreover, higher levels of Hg are seen in dMRP mutant larvae compared with a control strain fed an equivalent dose of MeHg. In sum, these data demonstrate that dMRP expression, both globally and within Hg-targeted organs, has a profound effect on susceptibility to MeHg in developing flies. Our findings point to a potentially novel and specific role for dMRP in neurons in the protection against MeHg. Finally, this experimental system provides a tractable model to evaluate human polymorphic variants of MRP and other gene variants relevant to genetic studies of mercury-exposed populations.

  10. Development of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism- Based Phylum-Specific PCR Amplification Technique: Application to the Community Analysis Using Ciliates as a Reference Organism

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae-Ho; Kim, Sanghee; Ryu, Seongho; Kim, Min-Seok; Baek, Ye-Seul; Kim, Se-Joo; Choi, Joong- Ki; Park, Joong-Ki; Min, Gi-Sik

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent advance in mass sequencing technologies such as pyrosequencing, assessment of culture-independent microbial eukaryote community structures using universal primers remains very difficult due to the tremendous richness and complexity of organisms in these communities. Use of a specific PCR marker targeting a particular group would provide enhanced sensitivity and more in-depth evaluation of microbial eukaryote communities compared to what can be achieved with universal primers. We discovered that many phylum- or group-specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) exist in small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes from diverse eukaryote groups. By applying this discovery to a known simple allele-discriminating (SAP) PCR method, we developed a technique that enables the identification of organisms belonging to a specific higher taxonomic group (or phylum) among diverse types of eukaryotes. We performed an assay using two complementary methods, pyrosequencing and clone library screening. In doing this, specificities for the group (ciliates) targeted in this study in bulked environmental samples were 94.6% for the clone library and 99.2% for pyrosequencing, respectively. In particular, our novel technique showed high selectivity for rare species, a feature that may be more important than the ability to identify quantitatively predominant species in community structure analyses. Additionally, our data revealed that a target-specific library (or ciliate-specific one for the present study) can better explain the ecological features of a sampling locality than a universal library. PMID:22965748

  11. Assessment of the Interstellar Processes Leading to Deuterium Enrichment in Meteoritic Organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott A.; Bernstein, Max P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The presence of isotopic anomalies is the most unequivocal demonstration that meteoritic material contains circumstellar or interstellar components. In the case of organic compounds in meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), the most useful isotopic tracer has been deuterium (D). We discuss four processes that are expected to lead to D enrichment in interstellar materials and describe how their unique characteristics can be used to assess their relative importance for the organics in meteorites. These enrichment processes are low temperature gas phase ion-molecule reactions, low temperature gas-grain reactions, gas phase unimolecular photodissociation, and ultraviolet photolysis in D-enriched ice mantles. Each of these processes is expected to be associated with distinct regiochemical signatures (D placement on the product molecules, correlation with specific chemical functionalities, etc.), especially in the molecular population of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We describe these differences and discuss how they may be used to delineate the various interstellar processes that may have contributed to meteoritic D enrichments. We also briefly discuss how these processes may affect the isotopic distributions in C, 0, and N in the same compounds.

  12. Methionyl-tRNA synthetase from Caenorhabditis elegans: A specific multidomain organization for convergent functional evolution

    PubMed Central

    Havrylenko, Svitlana; Legouis, Renaud; Negrutskii, Boris; Mirande, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MetRS) is a multidomain protein that specifically binds tRNAMet and catalyzes the synthesis of methionyl-tRNAMet. The minimal, core enzyme found in Aquifex aeolicus is made of a catalytic domain, which catalyzes the aminoacylation reaction, and an anticodon-binding domain, which promotes tRNA–protein association. In eukaryotes, additional domains are appended in cis or in trans to the core enzyme and increase the stability of the tRNA–protein complexes. Eventually, as observed for MetRS from Homo sapiens, the C-terminal appended domain causes a slow release of aminoacyl-tRNA and establishes a limiting step in the global aminoacylation reaction. Here, we report that MetRS from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans displays a new type of structural organization. Its very C-terminal appended domain is related to the oligonucleotide binding-fold-based tRNA-binding domain (tRBD) recovered at the C-terminus of MetRS from plant, but, in the nematode enzyme, this domain is separated from the core enzyme by an insertion domain. Gel retardation and tRNA aminoacylation experiments show that MetRS from nematode is functionally related to human MetRS despite the fact that their appended tRBDs have distinct structural folds, and are not orthologs. Thus, functional convergence of human and nematode MetRS is the result of parallel and convergent evolution that might have been triggered by the selective pressure to invent processivity of tRNA handling in translation in higher eukaryotes. PMID:20954242

  13. Fabrication of 14 different RNA nanoparticles for specific tumor targeting without accumulation in normal organs

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Yi; Haque, Farzin; Shu, Dan; Li, Wei; Zhu, Zhenqi; Kotb, Malak; Lyubchenko, Yuri; Guo, Peixuan

    2013-01-01

    Due to structural flexibility, RNase sensitivity, and serum instability, RNA nanoparticles with concrete shapes for in vivo application remain challenging to construct. Here we report the construction of 14 RNA nanoparticles with solid shapes for targeting cancers specifically. These RNA nanoparticles were resistant to RNase degradation, stable in serum for >36 h, and stable in vivo after systemic injection. By applying RNA nanotechnology and exemplifying with these 14 RNA nanoparticles, we have established the technology and developed “toolkits” utilizing a variety of principles to construct RNA architectures with diverse shapes and angles. The structure elements of phi29 motor pRNA were utilized for fabrication of dimers, twins, trimers, triplets, tetramers, quadruplets, pentamers, hexamers, heptamers, and other higher-order oligomers, as well as branched diverse architectures via hand-in-hand, foot-to-foot, and arm-on-arm interactions. These novel RNA nanostructures harbor resourceful functionalities for numerous applications in nanotechnology and medicine. It was found that all incorporated functional modules, such as siRNA, ribozymes, aptamers, and other functionalities, folded correctly and functioned independently within the nanoparticles. The incorporation of all functionalities was achieved prior, but not subsequent, to the assembly of the RNA nanoparticles, thus ensuring the production of homogeneous therapeutic nanoparticles. More importantly, upon systemic injection, these RNA nanoparticles targeted cancer exclusively in vivo without accumulation in normal organs and tissues. These findings open a new territory for cancer targeting and treatment. The versatility and diversity in structure and function derived from one biological RNA molecule implies immense potential concealed within the RNA nanotechnology field. PMID:23604636

  14. World Health Organization Guidelines for Containment of Poliovirus Following Type-Specific Polio Eradication - Worldwide, 2015.

    PubMed

    Previsani, Nicoletta; Tangermann, Rudolph H; Tallis, Graham; Jafari, Hamid S

    2015-08-28

    In 1988, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) resolved to eradicate polio worldwide. Among the three wild poliovirus (WPV) types (type 1, type 2, and type 3), WPV type 2 (WPV2) has been eliminated in the wild since 1999, and WPV type 3 (WPV3) has not been reported since 2012. In 2015, only Afghanistan and Pakistan have reported WPV transmission. On May 25, 2015, all WHO Member States endorsed World Health Assembly resolution 68.3 on full implementation of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 (the Endgame Plan), and with it, the third Global Action Plan to minimize poliovirus facility-associated risk (GAPIII). All WHO Member States have committed to implementing appropriate containment of WPV2 in essential laboratory and vaccine production facilities* by the end of 2015 and of type 2 oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV2) within 3 months of global withdrawal of OPV2, which is planned for April 2016. This report summarizes critical steps for essential laboratory and vaccine production facilities that intend to retain materials confirmed to contain or potentially containing type-specific WPV, vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV), or OPV/Sabin viruses, and steps for nonessential facilities† that process specimens that contain or might contain polioviruses. National authorities will need to certify that the essential facilities they host meet the containment requirements described in GAPIII. After certification of WPV eradication, the use of all OPV will cease; final containment of all polioviruses after polio eradication and OPV cessation will minimize the risk for reintroduction of poliovirus into a polio-free world.

  15. SepG coordinates sporulation-specific cell division and nucleoid organization in Streptomyces coelicolor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Le; Willemse, Joost; Claessen, Dennis; van Wezel, Gilles P

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial cell division is a highly complex process that requires tight coordination between septum formation and chromosome replication and segregation. In bacteria that divide by binary fission a single septum is formed at mid-cell, a process that is coordinated by the conserved cell division scaffold protein FtsZ. In contrast, during sporulation-specific cell division in streptomycetes, up to a hundred rings of FtsZ (Z rings) are produced almost simultaneously, dividing the multinucleoid aerial hyphae into long chains of unigenomic spores. This involves the active recruitment of FtsZ by the SsgB protein, and at the same time requires sophisticated systems to regulate chromosome dynamics. Here, we show that SepG is required for the onset of sporulation and acts by ensuring that SsgB is localized to future septum sites. Förster resonance energy transfer imaging suggests direct interaction between SepG and SsgB. The beta-lactamase reporter system showed that SepG is a transmembrane protein with its central domain oriented towards the cytoplasm. Without SepG, SsgB fails to localize properly, consistent with a crucial role for SepG in the membrane localization of the SsgB-FtsZ complex. While SsgB remains associated with FtsZ, SepG re-localizes to the (pre)spore periphery. Expanded doughnut-shaped nucleoids are formed in sepG null mutants, suggesting that SepG is required for nucleoid compaction. Taken together, our work shows that SepG, encoded by one of the last genes in the conserved dcw cluster of cell division and cell-wall-related genes in Gram-positive bacteria whose function was still largely unresolved,coordinates septum synthesis and chromosome organization in Streptomyces.

  16. Fabrication of 14 different RNA nanoparticles for specific tumor targeting without accumulation in normal organs.

    PubMed

    Shu, Yi; Haque, Farzin; Shu, Dan; Li, Wei; Zhu, Zhenqi; Kotb, Malak; Lyubchenko, Yuri; Guo, Peixuan

    2013-06-01

    Due to structural flexibility, RNase sensitivity, and serum instability, RNA nanoparticles with concrete shapes for in vivo application remain challenging to construct. Here we report the construction of 14 RNA nanoparticles with solid shapes for targeting cancers specifically. These RNA nanoparticles were resistant to RNase degradation, stable in serum for >36 h, and stable in vivo after systemic injection. By applying RNA nanotechnology and exemplifying with these 14 RNA nanoparticles, we have established the technology and developed "toolkits" utilizing a variety of principles to construct RNA architectures with diverse shapes and angles. The structure elements of phi29 motor pRNA were utilized for fabrication of dimers, twins, trimers, triplets, tetramers, quadruplets, pentamers, hexamers, heptamers, and other higher-order oligomers, as well as branched diverse architectures via hand-in-hand, foot-to-foot, and arm-on-arm interactions. These novel RNA nanostructures harbor resourceful functionalities for numerous applications in nanotechnology and medicine. It was found that all incorporated functional modules, such as siRNA, ribozymes, aptamers, and other functionalities, folded correctly and functioned independently within the nanoparticles. The incorporation of all functionalities was achieved prior, but not subsequent, to the assembly of the RNA nanoparticles, thus ensuring the production of homogeneous therapeutic nanoparticles. More importantly, upon systemic injection, these RNA nanoparticles targeted cancer exclusively in vivo without accumulation in normal organs and tissues. These findings open a new territory for cancer targeting and treatment. The versatility and diversity in structure and function derived from one biological RNA molecule implies immense potential concealed within the RNA nanotechnology field.

  17. Attentional modulation and domain-specificity underlying the neural organization of auditory categorical perception.

    PubMed

    Bidelman, Gavin M; Walker, Breya S

    2017-03-01

    Categorical perception (CP) is highly evident in audition when listeners' perception of speech sounds abruptly shifts identity despite equidistant changes in stimulus acoustics. While CP is an inherent property of speech perception, how (if) it is expressed in other auditory modalities (e.g., music) is less clear. Moreover, prior neuroimaging studies have been equivocal on whether attentional engagement is necessary for the brain to categorically organize sound. To address these questions, we recorded neuroelectric brain responses [event-related potentials (ERPs)] from listeners as they rapidly categorized sounds along a speech and music continuum (active task) or during passive listening. Behaviorally, listeners' achieved sharper psychometric functions and faster identification for speech than musical stimuli, which was perceived in a continuous mode. Behavioral results coincided with stronger ERP differentiation between prototypical and ambiguous tokens (i.e., categorical processing) for speech but not for music. Neural correlates of CP were only observed when listeners actively attended to the auditory signal. These findings were corroborated by brain-behavior associations; changes in neural activity predicted more successful CP (psychometric slopes) for active but not passively evoked ERPs. Our results demonstrate auditory categorization is influenced by attention (active > passive) and is stronger for more familiar/overlearned stimulus domains (speech > music). In contrast to previous studies examining highly trained listeners (i.e., musicians), we infer that (i) CP skills are largely domain-specific and do not generalize to stimuli for which a listener has no immediate experience and (ii) categorical neural processing requires active engagement with the auditory stimulus.

  18. SepG coordinates sporulation-specific cell division and nucleoid organization in Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Le; Willemse, Joost; Claessen, Dennis; van Wezel, Gilles P.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial cell division is a highly complex process that requires tight coordination between septum formation and chromosome replication and segregation. In bacteria that divide by binary fission a single septum is formed at mid-cell, a process that is coordinated by the conserved cell division scaffold protein FtsZ. In contrast, during sporulation-specific cell division in streptomycetes, up to a hundred rings of FtsZ (Z rings) are produced almost simultaneously, dividing the multinucleoid aerial hyphae into long chains of unigenomic spores. This involves the active recruitment of FtsZ by the SsgB protein, and at the same time requires sophisticated systems to regulate chromosome dynamics. Here, we show that SepG is required for the onset of sporulation and acts by ensuring that SsgB is localized to future septum sites. Förster resonance energy transfer imaging suggests direct interaction between SepG and SsgB. The beta-lactamase reporter system showed that SepG is a transmembrane protein with its central domain oriented towards the cytoplasm. Without SepG, SsgB fails to localize properly, consistent with a crucial role for SepG in the membrane localization of the SsgB–FtsZ complex. While SsgB remains associated with FtsZ, SepG re-localizes to the (pre)spore periphery. Expanded doughnut-shaped nucleoids are formed in sepG null mutants, suggesting that SepG is required for nucleoid compaction. Taken together, our work shows that SepG, encoded by one of the last genes in the conserved dcw cluster of cell division and cell-wall-related genes in Gram-positive bacteria whose function was still largely unresolved, coordinates septum synthesis and chromosome organization in Streptomyces. PMID:27053678

  19. Environmental impacts of organic and conventional agricultural products--are the differences captured by life cycle assessment?

    PubMed

    Meier, Matthias S; Stoessel, Franziska; Jungbluth, Niels; Juraske, Ronnie; Schader, Christian; Stolze, Matthias

    2015-02-01

    Comprehensive assessment tools are needed that reliably describe environmental impacts of different agricultural systems in order to develop sustainable high yielding agricultural production systems with minimal impacts on the environment. Today, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is increasingly used to assess and compare the environmental sustainability of agricultural products from conventional and organic agriculture. However, LCA studies comparing agricultural products from conventional and organic farming systems report a wide variation in the resource efficiency of products from these systems. The studies show that impacts per area farmed land are usually less in organic systems, but related to the quantity produced impacts are often higher. We reviewed 34 comparative LCA studies of organic and conventional agricultural products to analyze whether this result is solely due to the usually lower yields in organic systems or also due to inaccurate modeling within LCA. Comparative LCAs on agricultural products from organic and conventional farming systems often do not adequately differentiate the specific characteristics of the respective farming system in the goal and scope definition and in the inventory analysis. Further, often only a limited number of impact categories are assessed within the impact assessment not allowing for a comprehensive environmental assessment. The most critical points we identified relate to the nitrogen (N) fluxes influencing acidification, eutrophication, and global warming potential, and biodiversity. Usually, N-emissions in LCA inventories of agricultural products are based on model calculations. Modeled N-emissions often do not correspond with the actual amount of N left in the system that may result in potential emissions. Reasons for this may be that N-models are not well adapted to the mode of action of organic fertilizers and that N-emission models often are built on assumptions from conventional agriculture leading to even greater

  20. A 3q gene signature associated with triple negative breast cancer organ specific metastasis and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jun; Chen, Heidi; Ji, Xiangming; Eisenberg, Rosana; Chakravarthy, A. Bapsi; Mayer, Ingrid A.; Massion, Pierre P.

    2017-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) are aggressive tumors, with high rates of metastatic spread and targeted therapies are critically needed. We aimed to assess the prognostic and predictive value of a 3q 19-gene signature identified previously from lung cancer in a collection of 4,801 breast tumor gene expression data. The 3q gene signature had a strong association with features of aggressiveness such as high grade, hormone receptor negativity, presence of a basal-like or TNBC phenotype and reduced distant metastasis free survival. The 3q gene signature was strongly associated with lung metastasis only in TNBC (P < 0.0001, Hazard ratio (HR) 1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.31–1.60), significantly associated with brain but not bone metastasis regardless of TNBC status. The association of one 3q driver gene FXR1 with distant metastasis in TNBC (P = 0.01) was further validated by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the 3q gene signature was associated with better response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in TNBC (P < 0.0001) but not in non-TNBC patients. Our study suggests that the 3q gene signature is a novel prognostic marker for lung and/or brain metastasis and a predictive marker for the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in TNBC, implying a potential role for 3q genes in the mechanism of organ-specific metastasis. PMID:28387221

  1. Efficacy of algal metrics for assessing nutrient and organic enrichment in flowing waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, S.D.; Mueller, D.K.; Spahr, N.E.; Munn, M.D.; Dubrovsky, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    4. Although algal species tolerance to nutrient and organic enrichment is well documented, additional taxonomic and autecological research on sensitive, endemic algal species would further enhance water-quality assessments.

  2. Development of the voxel computational phantoms of pediatric patients and their application to organ dose assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Choonik

    crucial in understanding the radiation risks of the patients undergoing computed tomography. Finally, nuclear medicine simulations were performed by calculating specific absorbed fractions for multiple target-source organ pairs via Monte Carlo simulations. Specific absorbed fractions were calculated for both photon and electron so that they can be used to calculated radionuclide S-values. All of the results were tabulated for future uses and example dose assessment was performed for selected nuclides administered in nuclear medicine.

  3. Efficient Noninferiority Testing Procedures for Simultaneously Assessing Sensitivity and Specificity of Two Diagnostic Tests.

    PubMed

    Shan, Guogen; Amei, Amei; Young, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Sensitivity and specificity are often used to assess the performance of a diagnostic test with binary outcomes. Wald-type test statistics have been proposed for testing sensitivity and specificity individually. In the presence of a gold standard, simultaneous comparison between two diagnostic tests for noninferiority of sensitivity and specificity based on an asymptotic approach has been studied by Chen et al. (2003). However, the asymptotic approach may suffer from unsatisfactory type I error control as observed from many studies, especially in small to medium sample settings. In this paper, we compare three unconditional approaches for simultaneously testing sensitivity and specificity. They are approaches based on estimation, maximization, and a combination of estimation and maximization. Although the estimation approach does not guarantee type I error, it has satisfactory performance with regard to type I error control. The other two unconditional approaches are exact. The approach based on estimation and maximization is generally more powerful than the approach based on maximization.

  4. GIS-based procedure for site-specific risk assessment of pesticides for aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Sala, Serenella; Vighi, Marco

    2008-01-01

    The EU Water Framework Directive states that the management of surface water must be based on a site-specific assessment of water quality, that is dependent on land use. As a result, to develop a robust chemical management policy for aquatic ecosystems, the ecotoxicological risk must be strictly related to the local conditions and characteristics of the system. This paper presents a methodology developed to assess the ecotoxicological risk of pesticides to site-specific aquatic ecosystems. Spatial and relational databases, provisional models and risk indices were integrated into Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to produce maps of exposure, effect and risk at watershed scale. Each active ingredient is characterised by a data set that includes input data as well as results represented by a risk assessment cartography. The aim of this procedure is to perform a site-specific risk assessment by integrating geographical distribution of predicted environmental concentrations (PECs), ecotoxicological effects and the potential/actual quality of the exposed ecosystem. Examples of pesticide risk maps for surface waters in Lombardia Region (Northern Italy) are shown.

  5. Comparison of 3 Methods to Assess Urine Specific Gravity in Collegiate Wrestlers.

    PubMed

    Stuempfle, Kristin J.; Drury, Daniel G.

    2003-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the reliability and validity of refractometry, hydrometry, and reagent strips in assessing urine specific gravity in collegiate wrestlers. DESIGN AND SETTING: We assessed the reliability of refractometry, hydrometry, and reagent strips between 2 trials and among 4 testers. The validity of hydrometry and reagent strips was assessed by comparison with refractometry, the criterion measure for urine specific gravity. SUBJECTS: Twenty-one National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III collegiate wrestlers provided fresh urine samples. MEASUREMENTS: Four testers measured the specific gravity of each urine sample 6 times: twice by refractometry, twice by hydrometry, and twice by reagent strips. RESULTS: Refractometer measurements were consistent between trials (R =.998) and among testers; hydrometer measurements were consistent between trials (R =.987) but not among testers; and reagent-strip measurements were not consistent between trials or among testers. Hydrometer (1.018 +/- 0.006) and reagent-strip (1.017 +/- 0.007) measurements were significantly higher than refractometer (1.015 +/- 0.006) measurements. Intraclass correlation coefficients were moderate between refractometry and hydrometry (R =.869) and low between refractometry and reagent strips (R =.573). The hydrometer produced 28% false positives and 2% false negatives, and reagent strips produced 15% false positives and 9% false negatives. CONCLUSIONS: Only the refractometer should be used to determine urine specific gravity in collegiate wrestlers during the weight-certification process.

  6. Comparison of 3 Methods to Assess Urine Specific Gravity in Collegiate Wrestlers

    PubMed Central

    Drury, Daniel G.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the reliability and validity of refractometry, hydrometry, and reagent strips in assessing urine specific gravity in collegiate wrestlers. Design and Setting: We assessed the reliability of refractometry, hydrometry, and reagent strips between 2 trials and among 4 testers. The validity of hydrometry and reagent strips was assessed by comparison with refractometry, the criterion measure for urine specific gravity. Subjects: Twenty-one National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III collegiate wrestlers provided fresh urine samples. Measurements: Four testers measured the specific gravity of each urine sample 6 times: twice by refractometry, twice by hydrometry, and twice by reagent strips. Results: Refractometer measurements were consistent between trials (R = .998) and among testers; hydrometer measurements were consistent between trials (R = .987) but not among testers; and reagent-strip measurements were not consistent between trials or among testers. Hydrometer (1.018 ± 0.006) and reagent-strip (1.017 ± 0.007) measurements were significantly higher than refractometer (1.015 ± 0.006) measurements. Intraclass correlation coefficients were moderate between refractometry and hydrometry (R = .869) and low between refractometry and reagent strips (R = .573). The hydrometer produced 28% false positives and 2% false negatives, and reagent strips produced 15% false positives and 9% false negatives. Conclusions: Only the refractometer should be used to determine urine specific gravity in collegiate wrestlers during the weight-certification process. PMID:14737213

  7. Developmental and organ-specific changes in promoter DNA-protein interactions in the tomato rbcS gene family.

    PubMed

    Manzara, T; Carrasco, P; Gruissem, W

    1991-12-01

    The five genes encoding ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rbcS) from tomato are differentially expressed. Transcription of the genes is organ specific and developmentally regulated in fruit and light regulated in cotyledons and leaves. DNase I footprinting assays were used to map multiple sites of DNA-protein interaction in the promoter regions of all five genes and to determine whether the differential transcriptional activity of each gene correlated with developmental or organ-specific changes in DNA-protein interactions. We show organ-specific differences in DNase I protection patterns, suggesting that differential transcription of rbcS genes is controlled at least in part at the level of DNA-protein interactions. In contrast, no changes were detected in the DNase I footprint pattern generated with nuclear extracts from dark-grown cotyledons versus cotyledons exposed to light, implying that light-dependent regulation of rbcS transcription is controlled by protein-protein interactions or modification of DNA binding proteins. During development of tomato fruit, most DNA-protein interactions in the rbcS promoter regions disappear, coincident with the transcriptional inactivation of the rbcS genes. In nuclear extracts from nonphotosynthetic roots and red fruit, the only detectable DNase I protection corresponds to a G-box binding activity. Detection of other DNA binding proteins in extracts from these organs and expression of nonphotosynthetic genes exclude the possibility that roots and red fruit are transcriptionally inactive. The absence of complex promoter protection patterns in these organs suggests either that cooperative interactions between different DNA binding proteins are necessary to form functional transcription complexes or that there is developmental and organ-specific regulation of several rbcS-specific transcription factors in these organs. The DNase I-protected DNA sequences defined in this study are discussed in the context of conserved DNA

  8. World Health Organization disability assessment schedule 2.0: An international systematic review.

    PubMed

    Federici, Stefano; Bracalenti, Marco; Meloni, Fabio; Luciano, Juan V

    2017-11-01

    This systematic review examines research and practical applications of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0) as a basis for establishing specific criteria for evaluating relevant international scientific literature. The aims were to establish the extent of international dissemination and use of WHODAS 2.0 and analyze psychometric research on its various translations and adaptations. In particular, we wanted to highlight which psychometric features have been investigated, focusing on the factor structure, reliability, and validity of this instrument. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) methodology, we conducted a search for publications focused on "whodas" using the ProQuest, PubMed, and Google Scholar electronic databases. We identified 810 studies from 94 countries published between 1999 and 2015. WHODAS 2.0 has been translated into 47 languages and dialects and used in 27 areas of research (40% in psychiatry). The growing number of studies indicates increasing interest in the WHODAS 2.0 for assessing individual functioning and disability in different settings and individual health conditions. The WHODAS 2.0 shows strong correlations with several other measures of activity limitations; probably due to the fact that it shares the same disability latent variable with them. Implications for Rehabilitation WHODAS 2.0 seems to be a valid, reliable self-report instrument for the assessment of disability. The increasing interest in use of the WHODAS 2.0 extends to rehabilitation and life sciences rather than being limited to psychiatry. WHODAS 2.0 is suitable for assessing health status and disability in a variety of settings and populations. A critical issue for rehabilitation is that a single "minimal clinically important .difference" score for the WHODAS 2.0 has not yet been established.

  9. Therapeutic milestone: stroke declines from the second to the third leading organ- and disease-specific cause of death in the United States.

    PubMed

    Towfighi, Amytis; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Saver, Jeffrey L

    2010-03-01

    Stroke mortality rates declined for much of the second half of the 20th century, but recent trends and their relation to other organ- and disease-specific causes of death have not been characterized. Using the National Center for Health Statistics mortality data, leading organ- and disease-specific causes of death were assessed for the most recent 10-year period (1996 to 2005) in the United States with a specific focus on stroke deaths. Age-adjusted stroke death rates declined by 25.4%; as a result, lung cancer (which only declined by 9.2%) surpassed stroke as the second leading cause of death in 2003. Despite a 31.9% decline in age-adjusted ischemic heart disease death rates, it remains the leading cause of death. Stroke is now the fifth leading cause of death in men and the fourth leading cause of death in whites but remains the second leading cause of death in women and blacks. With stroke death rates decreasing substantially in the United States from 1996 to 2005, stroke moved from the second to the third leading organ- and disease-specific cause of death. Women and blacks may warrant attention for targeted stroke prevention and treatment because they continue to have disproportionately high stroke death rates.

  10. Uterine cavity assessment in infertile women: Sensitivity and specificity of three-dimensional Hysterosonography versus Hysteroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Firoozeh; Rashidy, Zohreh; Haghighi, Hadieh; Akhoond, Mohamadreza; Niknejadi, Maryam; Hemat, Mandana; Shamsipour, Mansour

    2013-12-01

    Assessment of uterine abnormalities is a core part in infertility evaluation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of three-dimensional hysterosonography (3-DHS) in the diagnosis of uterine abnormalities in infertile women. The infertile women who visited Royan Institute and referred to 3-DHS consecutively, prior to in vitro fertilization, from 2010-2011 included in this cross-sectional study. For patients who underwent hysteroscopy in addition to 3-DHS (214/977), the verification bias adjusted sensitivity and specificity of 3-DHS which were calculated by global sensitivity analysis method. Hysteroscopy was used as the gold standard for diagnosis of uterine abnormalities. Histological diagnosis of resected endometrial tissues by hysteroscopy was assessed and the adjusted sensitivity and specificity of 3-DHS and hysteroscopy in detection of polyp or hyperplasia were determined. Histopathologic results were considered as the gold standard for diagnosis of polyp or hyperplasia. The overall sensitivity and specificity for 3-DHS in diagnosis of uterine anomalies considering hysteroscopy as the gold standard were 68.4% and 96.3% respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of hysteroscopy in diagnose of polyp or hyperplasia was calculated at 91.3% and 81.4% respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of 3-DHS in diagnosis polyps or hyperplasia was calculated at 91.4% and 80.2 % respectively. The results of present study proved that, compared to hysteroscopy; 3-DHS has a reliable specificity for diagnosis of uterine abnormalities. Sensitivity and specificity of 3-DHS and hysteroscopy in detecting polyp or hyperplasia regarding histopathology as the gold standard was the same.

  11. Assessing long-range transport potential of persistent organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, A.; Mackay, D.; Matthies, M.; Wania, F.; Webster, E.

    2000-02-15

    An analysis is presented of the factors controlling the potential for the long-range transport (LRT) of persistent organic pollutants subject to degrading reactions and reversible transport to other environmental media. The approach adopted generalizes those developed previously by van Pul et al. and Bennett et al. to estimate a characteristic travel distance (CTD) or a half-distance (analogous to a half-life) for a substance present in a mobile medium such as air and subject to reversible transport to other media such as soil and water. For substances discharged to immobile media, such as pesticides to soil, an effective travel distance (ETD) is defined as the distance that, for example, 1% of the discharged chemical may be transported. It is shown that existing multimedia box models can be used to estimate CTD and that a simple relationship exists between CTD and overall environmental persistence, which can be displayed graphically. CTDs in air and water are calculated illustratively for 18 chemicals, and recommendations are made regarding ranking or grouping chemicals according to their potential for LRT.

  12. Assessing Bilingual Knowledge Organization in Secondary Science Classrooms =

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jason S.

    Improving outcomes for English language learners (ELLs) in secondary science remains an area of high need. The purpose of this study is to investigate bilingual knowledge organization in secondary science classrooms. This study involved thirty-nine bilingual students in three biology classes at a public high school in The Bronx, New York City. Methods included an in-class survey on language use, a science content and English proficiency exam, and bilingual free-recalls. Fourteen students participated in bilingual free-recalls which involved a semi-structured process of oral recall of information learned in science class. Free-recall was conducted in both English and Spanish and analyzed using flow-map methods. Novel methods were developed to quantify and visualize the elaboration and mobilization of ideas shared across languages. It was found that bilingual narratives displayed similar levels of organizational complexity across languages, though English recalls tended to be longer. English proficiency was correlated with narrative complexity in English. There was a high degree of elaboration on concepts shared across languages. Finally, higher Spanish proficiency correlated well with greater overlapping elaboration across languages. These findings are discussed in light of current cognitive theory before presenting the study's limitations and future directions of research.

  13. Reduced varicella-zoster-virus (VZV)-specific lymphocytes and IgG antibody avidity in solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Prelog, Martina; Schönlaub, Jörn; Jeller, Verena; Almanzar, Giovanni; Höfner, Kerstin; Gruber, Saskia; Eiwegger, Thomas; Würzner, Reinhard

    2013-05-07

    Varicella-zoster-virus (VZV) infection may cause significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. So far, only IgG-anti-VZV antibody concentrations were used to estimate immunity against VZV, but the antibody binding strength (avidity) together with VZV-specific cellular responses have not been evaluated in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Thus, we assessed the humoral and cellular immune responses to two doses of the VZV vaccine (vacc) and wild-type VZV infection (wt) in 23 kidney (KTx) and 19 liver transplant (LTx) recipients including children and adults compared to 48 healthy controls (HC) for measurement of IgG-anti-VZV relative avidity index (RAI) and frequency of VZV-specific peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vaccinated individuals using an adapted ELISA and IFN-gamma ELISPOT, respectively. KTx(wt) (median RAI 72.3%) or LTx(wt) (79.2%) and KTx(vacc) (91.0%) or LTx(vacc) (72.5%) showed lower avidities compared to HC(wt) (84.5%) and HC(vacc) (94.0%), respectively, despite equally distributed IgG-anti-VZV concentrations. RAI>60% (high avidity) was detected in all HC, but only in 69.0% of SOT patients. KTx(vacc) (median 64 spot forming units SFU/500,000 PBMCs) and LTx(vacc) (67 SFU) had significantly lower VZV-specific cellular responses compared to HC(vacc) (268 SFU). The diminished cellular reactivity to VZV has to be considered in SOT patients receiving immunosuppressive treatments when evaluating immunity against VZV. IgG antibody avidity and VZV-specific cellular responses may serve as additional markers to evaluate immunity against VZV in SOT recipients. The role of wild-type exposures and endogenous VZV re-activation on long-term immunity in SOT patients has to be awaited to establish recommendations for vaccine spacing in these patients, considering immunogenicity and safety aspects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Insights into secondary organic aerosol formation mechanisms from measured gas/particle partitioning of specific organic tracer compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunliang; Kreisberg, Nathan M; Worton, David R; Isaacman, Gabriel; Weber, Robin J; Liu, Shang; Day, Douglas A; Russell, Lynn M; Markovic, Milos Z; VandenBoer, Trevor C; Murphy, Jennifer G; Hering, Susanne V; Goldstein, Allen H

    2013-04-16

    In situ measurements of organic compounds in both gas and particle phases were made with a thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatography (TAG) instrument. The gas/particle partitioning of phthalic acid, pinonaldehyde, and 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone is discussed in detail to explore secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation mechanisms. Measured fractions in the particle phase (f(part)) of 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone were similar to those expected from the absorptive gas/particle partitioning theory, suggesting that its partitioning is dominated by absorption processes. However, f(part) of phthalic acid and pinonaldehyde were substantially higher than predicted. The formation of low-volatility products from reactions of phthalic acid with ammonia is proposed as one possible mechanism to explain the high f(part) of phthalic acid. The observations of particle-phase pinonaldehyde when inorganic acids were fully neutralized indicate that inorganic acids are not required for the occurrence of reactive uptake of pinonaldehyde on particles. The observed relationship between f(part) of pinonaldehyde and relative humidity suggests that the aerosol water plays a significant role in the formation of particle-phase pinonaldehyde. Our results clearly show it is necessary to include multiple gas/particle partitioning pathways in models to predict SOA and multiple SOA tracers in source apportionment models to reconstruct SOA.

  15. Developing a Successful State-Level Environmental Education Organization: A Nationwide Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smaldone, David; Dey, Shannon E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a nationwide assessment of state-level environmental education (EE) organizations to determine the components that are essential to the establishment and success of these organizations. E-mail surveys were used to collect data from North American Association for Environmental Education state affiliates, and…

  16. Developing a Successful State-Level Environmental Education Organization: A Nationwide Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smaldone, David; Dey, Shannon E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a nationwide assessment of state-level environmental education (EE) organizations to determine the components that are essential to the establishment and success of these organizations. E-mail surveys were used to collect data from North American Association for Environmental Education state affiliates, and…

  17. Student Perceptions of Online Homework Use for Formative Assessment of Learning in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards-Babb, Michelle; Curtis, Reagan; Georgieva, Zornitsa; Penn, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Use of online homework as a formative assessment tool for organic chemistry coursework was examined. Student perceptions of online homework in terms of (i) its ranking relative to other course aspects, (ii) their learning of organic chemistry, and (iii) whether it improved their study habits and how students used it as a learning tool were…

  18. Student Perceptions of Online Homework Use for Formative Assessment of Learning in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards-Babb, Michelle; Curtis, Reagan; Georgieva, Zornitsa; Penn, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Use of online homework as a formative assessment tool for organic chemistry coursework was examined. Student perceptions of online homework in terms of (i) its ranking relative to other course aspects, (ii) their learning of organic chemistry, and (iii) whether it improved their study habits and how students used it as a learning tool were…

  19. A Catalogue of Products That Can Aid Schools in Doing Organization Development and Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Cynthia K.

    The products in this catalogue are programs and publications designed to help schools with staff development programs that are aimed at improving organizational functioning and communication (organization development), or at conducting needs assessment. The organization development products and publications reviewed are designed to help schools…

  20. Diabetes-associated changes in the fetal insulin/insulin-like growth factor system are organ specific in rats.

    PubMed

    White, Verónica; Jawerbaum, Alicia; Mazzucco, María B; Gauster, Martin; Desoye, Gernot; Hiden, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes in pregnancy affects fetal growth and development. The insulin/insulin-like growth factors (IGF) system comprising insulin, IGF, their receptors, and binding proteins, has been implicated in fetal growth regulation. This study tested the hypothesis that maternal diabetes alters the fetal insulin/IGF system in a tissue-specific manner. Wistar rats were rendered diabetic by neonatal administration of streptozotocin and mated with control rats. At day 21 of gestation, the weights of fetuses, placentas, and fetal organs (heart, lung, liver, stomach, intestine, and pancreas) were determined. Maternal and fetal plasma concentrations of insulin, IGF1, and IGF2 were measured by ELISA, and expression of IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R, IGF2R, IR, IGFBP1, BP2, and BP3 in placenta and fetal organs by qPCR. The well-known increase in fetal growth in this model of mild diabetes is accompanied by elevated insulin and IGF1 levels and alterations of the insulin/IGF system in the fetus and the placenta. These alterations were organ and gene specific. The insulin/IGF system was generally upregulated, especially in the fetal heart, while it was downregulated in fetal lung. In our model of mild diabetes, the effect of maternal diabetes on fetal weight and fetal insulin/IGF system expression is organ specific with highly sensitive organs such as lung and heart, and organs that were less affected, such as stomach.

  1. Stoffenmanager exposure model: company-specific exposure assessments using a Bayesian methodology.

    PubMed

    van de Ven, Peter; Fransman, Wouter; Schinkel, Jody; Rubingh, Carina; Warren, Nicholas; Tielemans, Erik

    2010-04-01

    The web-based tool "Stoffenmanager" was initially developed to assist small- and medium-sized enterprises in the Netherlands to make qualitative risk assessments and to provide advice on control at the workplace. The tool uses a mechanistic model to arrive at a "Stoffenmanager score" for exposure. In a recent study it was shown that variability in exposure measurements given a certain Stoffenmanager score is still substantial. This article discusses an extension to the tool that uses a Bayesian methodology for quantitative workplace/scenario-specific exposure assessment. This methodology allows for real exposure data observed in the company of interest to be combined with the prior estimate (based on the Stoffenmanager model). The output of the tool is a company-specific assessment of exposure levels for a scenario for which data is available. The Bayesian approach provides a transparent way of synthesizing different types of information and is especially preferred in situations where available data is sparse, as is often the case in small- and medium sized-enterprises. Real-world examples as well as simulation studies were used to assess how different parameters such as sample size, difference between prior and data, uncertainty in prior, and variance in the data affect the eventual posterior distribution of a Bayesian exposure assessment.

  2. Avoidance tests in site-specific risk assessment--influence of soil properties on the avoidance response of Collembola and earthworms.

    PubMed

    Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Römbke, Jörg; Sousa, José Paulo

    2008-05-01

    The ability of organisms to avoid contaminated soils can act as an indicator of toxic potential in a particular soil. Based on the escape response of earthworms and Collembola, avoidance tests with these soil organisms have great potential as early screening tools in site-specific assessment. These tests are becoming more common in soil ecotoxicology, because they are ecologically relevant and have a shorter duration time compared with standardized soil toxicity tests. The avoidance response of soil invertebrates, however, can be influenced by the soil properties (e.g., organic matter content and texture) that affect behavior of the test species in the exposure matrix. Such an influence could mask a possible effect of the contaminant. Therefore, the effects of soil properties on performance of test species in the exposure media should be considered during risk assessment of contaminated soils. Avoidance tests with earthworms (Eisenia andrei) and springtails (Folsomia candida) were performed to identify the influence of both organic matter content and texture on the avoidance response of representative soil organisms. Distinct artificial soils were prepared by modifying quantities of the standard artificial soil components described by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development to achieve different organic matter and texture classes. Several combinations of each factor were tested. Results showed that both properties influenced the avoidance response of organisms, which avoided soils with low organic matter content and fine texture. Springtails were less sensitive to changes in these soil constituents compared with earthworms, indicating springtails can be used for site-specific assessments of contaminated soils with a wider range of respective soil properties.

  3. Health technology assessment (HTA) organizations: dimensions of the institutional and political framework.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh; Soárez, Patrícia Coelho de

    2016-11-03

    Health technology assessment (HTA) is consolidated as a scientific and technological practice. The aim of this study is to identify HTA organizations from different settings and analyze their relevant dimensions in terms of effectiveness/impact, in order to address the challenges they face in Brazil. Narrative literature review based on data and websites of HTA organizations. There are well-established activity development processes in all organizations. These activities have specific features in their profile, in the process of technology assessment, decision and implementation of technologies that influence their potential impact on health systems. Agencies share in common the challenges of ranking the technologies to be assessed, and the implementation of their recommendations. Technical and political strengthening of the institutionalization of HTA in Brazil may foster scientific, technological and innovation policies, effectively impacting health policies. Resumo: A avaliação de tecnologias em saúde (ATS) está consolidada enquanto prática científica e tecnológica. O objetivo do estudo é identificar organizações de ATS de diferentes contextos e analisá-las de acordo com dimensões relevantes na avaliação de sua efetividade/impacto, buscando contribuir com os desafios enfrentados no contexto nacional. Revisão narrativa da literatura, realizada em bases de dados e web sites de organizações de ATS. Existem processos de desenvolvimento das atividades bem estabelecidos em todas as organizações. Elas apresentam particularidades no seu perfil, nos processos de avaliação, decisão e implementação das tecnologias que influenciam o seu impacto potencial sobre os sistemas de saúde. As agências compartilham os desafios de priorização das tecnologias a serem avaliadas e implementação das suas recomendações. O fortalecimento técnico e político do processo de institucionalização da ATS no contexto nacional poderá contribuir com as pol

  4. Multi-element compound specific stable isotope analysis of volatile organic compounds at trace levels in groundwater samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero-Martín, Sara; Nijenhuis, Ivonne; Schmidt, Marie; Wolfram, Diana; Richnow, Hans. H.; Gehre, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Groundwater pollution remains one of the major environmental and health concerns. A thorough understanding of sources, sinks and transformation processes of groundwater contaminants is needed to improve risk management evaluation, and to design efficient remediation and water treatment strategies. Isotopic tools provide unique information for an in-depth understanding of the fate of organic chemicals in the environment. During the last decades compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of complex mixtures, using gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS), has gained popularity for the characterization and risk assessment of hazardous waste sites and for isotope forensics of organic contaminants. Multi-element isotope fingerprinting of organic substances provides a more robust framework for interpretation than the isotope analysis of only one element. One major challenge for application of CSIA is the analysis of trace levels of organic compounds in environmental matrices. It is necessary to inject 1 nmol carbon or 8 nmol hydrogen on column, to obtain an accurate and precise measurement of the isotope ratios, which is between two and three orders of magnitude larger than the amount of compound needed for conventional analysis of compound concentrations. Therefore, efficient extraction and pre-concentration techniques have to be integrated with GC-IRMS. Further research is urgently needed in this field, to evaluate the potential of novel and environmental-friendly sample pre-treatment techniques for CSIA to lower the detection limits and extending environmental applications. In this study, the novel coupling of a headspace autosampler (HS) with a programmed temperature vaporizer (PTV), allowing large volume injection of headspace samples, is proposed to improve the sensitivity of CSIA. This automatic, fast and solvent free strategy provides a significant increase on the sensitivity of GC-based methods maintaining the simple headspace instrumentation

  5. Hebrew Language Assessment Measure for Preschool Children: A Comparison between Typically Developing Children and Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzenberger, Irit; Meilijson, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The Katzenberger Hebrew Language Assessment for Preschool Children (henceforth: the KHLA) is the first comprehensive, standardized language assessment tool developed in Hebrew specifically for older preschoolers (4;0-5;11 years). The KHLA is a norm-referenced, Hebrew specific assessment, based on well-established psycholinguistic principles, as…

  6. Social Health Maintenance Organizations: assessing their initial experience.

    PubMed Central

    Newcomer, R; Harrington, C; Friedlob, A

    1990-01-01

    The Social/Health Maintenance Organization (S/HMO) is a four-site national demonstration. This program combines Medicare Part A and B coverage, with various extended and chronic care benefits, into an integrated health plan. The provision of these services extends both the traditional roles of HMOs and that of long-term care community-service case management systems. During the initial 30 months of operation the four S/HMOs shared financial risk with the Health Care Financing Administration. This article reports on this developmental period. During this phase the S/HMOs had lower-than-expected enrollment levels due in part to market competition, underfunding of marketing efforts, the limited geographic area served, and an inability to differentiate the S/HMO product from that of other Medicare HMOs. The S/HMOs were allowed to conduct health screening of applicants prior to enrolling them. The number of nursing home-certifiable enrollees was controlled through this mechanism, but waiting lists were never very long. Persons joining S/HMOs and other Medicare HMOs during this period were generally aware of the alternatives available. S/HMO enrollees favored the more extensive benefits; HMO enrollees considerations of cost. The S/HMOs compare both newly formed HMOs and established HMOs. On the basis of administrator cost, it is more efficient to add chronic care benefits to an HMO than to add an HMO component to a community care provider. All plans had expenses greater than their revenues during the start-up period, but they were generally able to keep service expenditures within planned levels. PMID:2116384

  7. Determination of floral organ identity by Arabidopsis MADS domain homeotic proteins AP1, AP3, PI, and AG is independent of their DNA-binding specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Riechmann, J L; Meyerowitz, E M

    1997-01-01

    The MADS domain homeotic proteins APETALA1 (AP1), APETALA3 (AP3), PISTILLATA (PI), and AGAMOUS (AG) combinatorially specify the identity of Arabidopsis floral organs. AP1/AP1, AG/AG, and AP3/PI dimers bind to similar CArG box sequences; thus, differences in DNA-binding specificity among these proteins do not seem to be the origin of their distinct organ identity properties. To assess the overall contribution that specific DNA binding could make to their biological specificity, we have generated chimeric genes in which the amino-terminal half of the MADS domain of AP1, AP3, PI, and AG was substituted by the corresponding sequences of human SRF and MEF2A proteins. In vitro DNA-binding assays reveal that the chimeric proteins acquired the respective, and distinct, DNA-binding specificity of SRF or MEF2A. However, ectopic expression of the chimeric genes reproduces the dominant gain-of-function phenotypes exhibited by plants ectopically expressing the corresponding Arabidopsis wild-type genes. In addition, both the SRF and MEF2 chimeric genes can complement the pertinent ap1-1, ap3-3, pi-1, or ag-3 mutations to a degree similar to that of AP1, AP3, PI, and AG when expressed under the control of the same promoter. These results indicate that determination of floral organ identity by the MADS domain homeotic proteins AP1, AP3, PI, and AG is independent of their DNA-binding specificity. In addition, the DNA-binding experiments show that either one of the two MADS domains of a dimer can be sufficient to confer a particular DNA-binding specificity to the complex and that sequences outside the amino-terminal basic region of the MADS domain can, in some cases, contribute to the DNA-binding specificity of the proteins. Images PMID:9243505

  8. Filter-based PNA in situ hybridization for rapid detection, identification and enumeration of specific micro-organisms.

    PubMed

    Perry-O'Keefe, H; Stender, H; Broomer, A; Oliveira, K; Coull, J; Hyldig-Nielsen, J J

    2001-02-01

    A method for rapid and simultaneous detection, identification and enumeration of specific micro-organisms using Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA) probes is presented. The method is based on a membrane filtration technique. The membrane filter was incubated for a short period of time. The microcolonies were analysed by in situ hybridization, using peroxidase-labelled PNA probes targeting a species-specific rRNA sequence, and visualized by a chemiluminescent reaction. Microcolonies were observed as small spots of light on film, thereby providing simultaneous detection, identification and enumeration. The method showed 95-100% correlation to standard plate counts along with definitive identification due to the specificity of the probe. Using the same protocol, results were generated approximately three times faster than culture methods for Gram-positive and -negative bacterial species and yeast species. The method is an improvement on the current membrane filtration technique, providing rapid determination of the level of specific pathogens, spoilage or indicator micro-organisms.

  9. Size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) provides a simple method to calculate organ dose for pediatric CT examinations

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Bria M.; Brady, Samuel L. Kaufman, Robert A.; Mirro, Amy E.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation of size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) with absorbed organ dose, and to develop a simple methodology for estimating patient organ dose in a pediatric population (5–55 kg). Methods: Four physical anthropomorphic phantoms representing a range of pediatric body habitus were scanned with metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters placed at 23 organ locations to determine absolute organ dose. Phantom absolute organ dose was divided by phantom SSDE to determine correlation between organ dose and SSDE. Organ dose correlation factors (CF{sub SSDE}{sup organ}) were then multiplied by patient-specific SSDE to estimate patient organ dose. The CF{sub SSDE}{sup organ} were used to retrospectively estimate individual organ doses from 352 chest and 241 abdominopelvic pediatric CT examinations, where mean patient weight was 22 kg ± 15 (range 5–55 kg), and mean patient age was 6 yrs ± 5 (range 4 months to 23 yrs). Patient organ dose estimates were compared to published pediatric Monte Carlo study results. Results: Phantom effective diameters were matched with patient population effective diameters to within 4 cm; thus, showing appropriate scalability of the phantoms across the entire pediatric population in this study. IndividualCF{sub SSDE}{sup organ} were determined for a total of 23 organs in the chest and abdominopelvic region across nine weight subcategories. For organs fully covered by the scan volume, correlation in the chest (average 1.1; range 0.7–1.4) and abdominopelvic region (average 0.9; range 0.7–1.3) was near unity. For organ/tissue that extended beyond the scan volume (i.e., skin, bone marrow, and bone surface), correlation was determined to be poor (average 0.3; range: 0.1–0.4) for both the chest and abdominopelvic regions, respectively. A means to estimate patient organ dose was demonstrated. Calculated patient organ dose, using patient SSDE and CF{sub SSDE}{sup organ}, was compared to

  10. Site-specific probabilistic ecological risk assessment of a volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon-contaminated tidal estuary.

    PubMed

    Hunt, James; Birch, Gavin; Warne, Michael St J

    2010-05-01

    Groundwater contaminated with volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (VCHs) was identified as discharging to Penrhyn Estuary, an intertidal embayment of Botany Bay, New South Wales, Australia. A screening-level hazard assessment of surface water in Penrhyn Estuary identified an unacceptable hazard to marine organisms posed by VCHs. Given the limitations of hazard assessments, the present study conducted a higher-tier, quantitative probabilistic risk assessment using the joint probability curve (JPC) method that accounted for variability in exposure and toxicity profiles to quantify risk (delta). Risk was assessed for 24 scenarios, including four areas of the estuary based on three exposure scenarios (low tide, high tide, and both low and high tides) and two toxicity scenarios (chronic no-observed-effect concentrations [NOEC] and 50% effect concentrations [EC50]). Risk (delta) was greater at low tide than at high tide and varied throughout the tidal cycle. Spatial distributions of risk in the estuary were similar using both NOEC and EC50 data. The exposure scenario including data combined from both tides was considered the most accurate representation of the ecological risk in the estuary. When assessing risk using data across both tides, the greatest risk was identified in the Springvale tributary (delta=25%)-closest to the source area-followed by the inner estuary (delta=4%) and the Floodvale tributary (delta=2%), with the lowest risk in the outer estuary (delta=0.1%), farthest from the source area. Going from the screening level ecological risk assessment (ERA) to the probabilistic ERA changed the risk from unacceptable to acceptable in 50% of exposure scenarios in two of the four areas within the estuary. The probabilistic ERA provided a more realistic assessment of risk than the screening-level hazard assessment.

  11. Specific and reproducible gas sensors utilizing gas-phase chemical reaction on organic transistors.

    PubMed

    Zang, Yaping; Zhang, Fengjiao; Huang, Dazhen; Di, Chong-an; Meng, Qing; Gao, Xike; Zhu, Daoben

    2014-05-01

    Utilizing a textbook reaction on the surface of an organic active channel, achieves sensitive detection of HCl, NH3 and NO2, with good selectivity, excellent reproducibility, and satisfactory stability. These results reveal gas-phase reaction assisted detection as a unique and promising approach to construct practical applicable gas sensors with typical organic transistors.

  12. Assessing mobility of household organic hazardous chemicals in landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, R.; Zeiss, C.

    1995-11-01

    The principal components of these hazardous materials are motor oils, detergents, paints and pesticides. Occurrence of their ingredients in landfill leachate follows source release function that determines their discharge rate to groundwater. Five compounds were identified very mobile in the landfill based on mobility index calculations. They were phenolate for the motor oil group, ethylene oxide and thylene glycol from detergent group, and formaldehyde and methylethyl ketone (MEK) from the paint group. These five chemicals were used as tracing compounds for quantitative assessment of their emission to the groundwater. An analytical solution to a one dimensional convective-diffusion transport equation was used to model their transport in the landfill. The model into which the channeled flow was incorporated considered adsorption-desorption and degradation. Leachate from earlier stage of leaching had significantly higher concentrations of the tracing compounds in comparison to that produced later. Contaminant concentrations in leachate decreased with time and the decreases occurred in order of formaldehyde {ge} phenol > MEK {ge} ethylene glycol > ethylene oxide. Concentrations of phenol, formaldehyde, and ethylene glycol were less than 0.02 g/L, which is about 0.1% of initial concentration, after 11 weeks. It took 22 weeks for MEK to be reduced to the same concentration at a velocity of 6 pore volumes per year.

  13. Assessing clinical communication skills in physicians: are the skills context specific or generalizable

    PubMed Central

    Baig, Lubna A; Violato, Claudio; Crutcher, Rodney A

    2009-01-01

    Background Communication skills are essential for physicians to practice Medicine. Evidence for the validity and domain specificity of communication skills in physicians is equivocal and requires further research. This research was conducted to adduce evidence for content and context specificity of communication skills and to assess the usefulness of a generic instrument for assessing communication skills in International Medical Graduates (IMGs). Methods A psychometric design was used for identifying the reliability and validity of the communication skills instruments used for high-stakes exams for IMG's. Data were collected from 39 IMGs (19 men – 48.7%; 20 women – 51.3%; Mean age = 41 years) assessed at 14 station OSCE and subsequently in supervised clinical practice with several instruments (patient surveys; ITERs; Mini-CEX). Results All the instruments had adequate reliability (Cronbach's alpha: .54 – .96). There were significant correlations (r range: 0.37 – 0.70, p < .05) of communication skills assessed by examiner with standardized patients, and of mini-CEX with patient surveys, and ITERs. The intra-item reliability across all cases for the 13 items was low (Cronbach's alpha: .20 – .56). The correlations of communication skills within method (e.g., OSCE or clinical practice) were significant but were non-significant between methods (e.g., OSCE and clinical practice). Conclusion The results provide evidence of context specificity of communication skills, as well as convergent and criterion-related validity of communication skills. Both in OSCEs and clinical practice, communication checklists need to be case specific, designed for content validity. PMID:19445685

  14. Comprehensive Population-Specific Marker Panel for Early Prostate Cancer Diagnostics and Risk Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    cultural and lifestyle population specific biomarkers and factors will provided a valuable PCa screening and risk assessment tool. The PI genotyped 528...significantly associated with prostate cancer risk associated with one of the SNPs in African American men was found in obese men only; if was not...seen in either non- obese African American men or European American men regardless of their body mass. The PI has proposed a concept of the increased

  15. Energy-dependent and Fraction Specific Response of Pyrogenic Dissolved Organic Carbon during Photodegradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonce, B. C.; Harvey, O. R.; Liu, Y.; Kuo, L. J.

    2016-12-01

    The extent that pyrogenic dissolved organic carbon (Py-DOC) photodegrades in aqueous environments is a function of pyrolysis conditions, feedstock chemistry, aqueous conditions and solar exposure. We exposed py-DOC extracted from wood and grass chars (pyrolyzed at 300 °C and 400 °C) to different levels of solar radiation to investigate the effects of energy input on, 1) the extent of photodegradation and 2) the chemical characteristics of photodegradation byproducts. Fluorescence spectral mapping revealed solar energy induced changes in three primary regions/fractions around excitation/emission wavelengths at 360/475nm (Region 1), 405/645nm (Region 2) and 400/675nm (Region 3) respectively. Responsiveness of py-DOC fractions to solar energy input followed the order Region 1> Region 2 > Region 3 with overall loss in fluorescence intensity (I/I0) being typically higher in wood- than grass-derived py-DOC. For example, a solar energy input of 40 kJ over an 8 h period resulted in up to 41%, 26% and 16% py-DOC fluorescence intensity loss in Region 1, 2 and 3 respectively - with intensity loss for wood-derived py-DOC averaging 10% more than grass-derived py-DOC extracted from chars produced at the same temperature. Ultra high resolution mass spectromoetry analysis also revealed significantly different chemical characteristics (e.g. molecular weights, O/C and H/C) of photodegradation by-products with energy input and py-DOC feedstock. Compared to the 0 kJ (dark) control, a 40 kJ energy input triggered a higher proportion of more oxidized, lower molecular weight photodegradation byproducts in the wood-derived py-DOC but had no effect on oxidation status or molecular weight distribution of grass-derived py-DOC. The presentation will focus on specific energy-driven changes, their associated reaction mechanisms, critical energy inputs and implications for biogeochemical cycling of photodegraded py-DOC in aquatic systems.

  16. Criterion-Referenced Assessment for Language Organization: An Example of Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klecan-Aker, Joan S.; Colson, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Reliable criterion-referenced assessments are critical as one of the first steps in evidence-based practice. These assessments must also be valid. One of the most important skills to measure in school-age children with language disabilities is the ability to organize language in the form of narratives. The purpose of this paper is to describe a…

  17. Organizational cultural competence in community health and social service organizations: how to conduct a self-assessment.

    PubMed

    Olavarria, Marcela; Beaulac, Julie; Bélanger, Alexandre; Young, Marta; Aubry, Tim

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to address the significant socio-cultural changes in the population demographics of the United States (US) and Canada, organizations are increasingly seeking ways of improving their level of cultural competence. Evaluating organizational cultural competence is essential to address the needs of ethnic and cultural minorities. Yet, research related to organizational cultural competence is relatively new. The purpose of this paper is to review the extant literature with a specific focus on: (1) identifying the key standards that define culturally competent community health and social service organizations; and (2) outlining the core elements for evaluating cultural competence in a health and social service organization. Furthermore, issues related to choosing self-assessment tools and conducting an evaluation will be explored.

  18. Integrating place-specific livelihood and equity outcomes into global assessments of bioenergy deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creutzig, Felix; Corbera, Esteve; Bolwig, Simon; Hunsberger, Carol

    2013-09-01

    Integrated assessment models suggest that the large-scale deployment of bioenergy could contribute to ambitious climate change mitigation efforts. However, such a shift would intensify the global competition for land, with possible consequences for 1.5 billion smallholder livelihoods that these models do not consider. Maintaining and enhancing robust livelihoods upon bioenergy deployment is an equally important sustainability goal that warrants greater attention. The social implications of biofuel production are complex, varied and place-specific, difficult to model, operationalize and quantify. However, a rapidly developing body of social science literature is advancing the understanding of these interactions. In this letter we link human geography research on the interaction between biofuel crops and livelihoods in developing countries to integrated assessments on biofuels. We review case-study research focused on first-generation biofuel crops to demonstrate that food, income, land and other assets such as health are key livelihood dimensions that can be impacted by such crops and we highlight how place-specific and global dynamics influence both aggregate and distributional outcomes across these livelihood dimensions. We argue that place-specific production models and land tenure regimes mediate livelihood outcomes, which are also in turn affected by global and regional markets and their resulting equilibrium dynamics. The place-specific perspective suggests that distributional consequences are a crucial complement to aggregate outcomes; this has not been given enough weight in comprehensive assessments to date. By narrowing the gap between place-specific case studies and global models, our discussion offers a route towards integrating livelihood and equity considerations into scenarios of future bioenergy deployment, thus contributing to a key challenge in sustainability sciences.

  19. Problem formulation and option assessment (PFOA) linking governance and environmental risk assessment for technologies: a methodology for problem analysis of nanotechnologies and genetically engineered organisms.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kristen C; Andow, David A; Banker, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Societal evaluation of new technologies, specifically nanotechnology and genetically engineered organisms (GEOs), challenges current practices of governance and science. Employing environmental risk assessment (ERA) for governance and oversight assumes we have a reasonable ability to understand consequences and predict adverse effects. However, traditional ERA has come under considerable criticism for its many shortcomings and current governance institutions have demonstrated limitations in transparency, public input, and capacity. Problem Formulation and Options Assessment (PFOA) is a methodology founded on three key concepts in risk assessment (science-based consideration, deliberation, and multi-criteria analysis) and three in governance (participation, transparency, and accountability). Developed through a series of international workshops, the PFOA process emphasizes engagement with stakeholders in iterative stages, from identification of the problem(s) through comparison of multiple technology solutions that could be used in the future with their relative benefits, harms, and risk. It provides "upstream public engagement" in a deliberation informed by science that identifies values for improved decision making.

  20. Knowledge and attitudes about deceased donor organ donation in Filipinos: a qualitative assessment.

    PubMed

    Albright, C L; Glanz, K; Wong, L; Dela Cruz, M R; Abe, L; Sagayadoro, T L

    2005-12-01

    Fewer ethnic minorities, especially Asian-Americans, become organ donors. There are cultural, religious, and personal barriers to becoming a designated organ donor. Factors that promote or inhibit organ donation in Asians, especially Filipinos, are not well understood. We conducted a series of focus groups to identify barriers and facilitators to organ donation (deceased donor) among Filipinos. Six focus groups were conducted with church members, adolescents, nurses, physicians, organ recipients, and organ donor families. The mean age of adult participants (n = 57) was 52.3 +/- 15 years, 83% were Catholic, and 72% were female. A qualitative theme analysis methodology identified dominant themes related to organ donation in the participants. The major themes were: awareness of organ donation (38%), family beliefs (25%), religion/spirituality (10%), attitude/emotions (10%), personal experience with organ donation (8%), health profession (6%), and cultural issues (3%). Seventy-five percent of the comments about awareness reflected a positive awareness of cultural issues regarding organ donation, and the rest reflected a lack of awareness or misconceptions. Almost every theme was mentioned in all six focus groups. Understanding a specific ethnic group's knowledge, attitudes, and cultural beliefs regarding organ donation is important in the development of educational campaigns to encourage organ donation in ethnic minority populations.

  1. Experts workshop on the ecotoxicological risk assessment of ionizable organic chemicals: Towards a science-based framework for chemical assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing need to develop analytical methods and tools that can be applied to assess the environmental risks associated with charged, polar, and ionisable organic chemicals, such as those used as active pharmaceutical ingredients, biocides, and surface active chemicals. ...

  2. Experts workshop on the ecotoxicological risk assessment of ionizable organic chemicals: Towards a science-based framework for chemical assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing need to develop analytical methods and tools that can be applied to assess the environmental risks associated with charged, polar, and ionisable organic chemicals, such as those used as active pharmaceutical ingredients, biocides, and surface active chemicals. ...

  3. The Fasted/Fed Mouse Metabolic Acetylome: N6-Acetylation Differences Suggest Acetylation Coordinates Organ-Specific Fuel Switching

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li; Vaitheesvaran, Bhavapriya; Hartil, Kirsten; Robinson, Alan J.; Hoopmann, Michael R.; Eng, Jimmy K.; Kurland, Irwin J.; Bruce, James E.

    2011-01-01

    The elucidation of extra-nuclear lysine acetylation has been of growing interest, as the co-substrate for acetylation, acetyl CoA, is at a key metabolic intersection. Our hypothesis was that mitochondrial and cytoplasmic protein acetylation may be part of a fasted/re-fed feedback control system for the regulation of the metabolic network in fuel switching, where acetyl CoA would be provided by fatty acid oxidation, or glycolysis, respectively. To test this we characterized the mitochondrial and cytoplasmic acetylome in various organs that have a high metabolic rate relative to their mass, and/or switch fuels, under fasted and re-fed conditions (brain, kidney, liver, skeletal muscle, heart muscle, white and brown adipose tissues). Using immunoprecipitation, coupled with LC-MSMS label free quantification, we show there is a dramatic variation in global quantitative profiles of acetylated proteins from different organs. In total, 733 acetylated peptides from 337 proteins were identified and quantified, out of which 31 acetylated peptides from the metabolic proteins that may play organ-specific roles were analyzed in detail. Results suggest that fasted/re-fed acetylation changes coordinated by organ-specific (de-)acetylases in insulin-sensitive versus insensitive organs may underlie fuel use and switching. Characterization of the tissue-specific acetylome should increase understanding of metabolic conditions wherein normal fuel switching is disrupted, such as in Type II diabetes. PMID:21728379

  4. Quantifying immediate radiative forcing by black carbon and organic matter with the Specific Forcing Pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, T. C.; Zarzycki, C.; Flanner, M. G.; Koch, D. M.

    2011-02-01

    Climatic effects of short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs) differ from those of long-lived greenhouse gases, because they occur rapidly after emission and because they depend upon the region of emission. The distinctive temporal and spatial nature of these impacts is not captured by measures that rely on global averages or long time integrations. Here, we propose a simple measure, the Specific Forcing Pulse (SFP), to quantify climate warming or cooling by these pollutants, where we define "immediate" as occurring primarily within the first year after emission. SFP is the amount of energy added to or removed from a receptor region in the Earth-atmosphere system by a chemical species, per mass of emission in a source region. We limit the application of SFP to species that remain in the atmosphere for less than one year. Metrics used in policy discussions, such as total forcing or global warming potential, are easily derived from SFP. However, SFP conveys purely physical information without incurring the policy implications of choosing a time horizon for the global warming potential. Using one model (Community Atmosphere Model, or CAM), we calculate values of SFP for black carbon (BC) and organic matter (OM) emitted from 23 source-region combinations. Global SFP for both atmosphere and cryosphere impacts is divided among receptor latitudes. SFP is usually greater for open-burning emissions than for energy-related (fossil-fuel and biofuel) emissions because of the timing of emission. Global SFP for BC varies by about 45% for energy-related emissions from different regions. This variation would be larger except for compensating effects. When emitted aerosol has larger cryosphere forcing, it often has lower atmosphere forcing because of less deep convection and a shorter atmospheric lifetime. A single model result is insufficient to capture uncertainty. We develop a best estimate and uncertainties for SFP by combining forcing results from 12 additional models. We outline a

  5. Guidelines for the assessment and acceptance of potential brain-dead organ donors

    PubMed Central

    Westphal, Glauco Adrieno; Garcia, Valter Duro; de Souza, Rafael Lisboa; Franke, Cristiano Augusto; Vieira, Kalinca Daberkow; Birckholz, Viviane Renata Zaclikevis; Machado, Miriam Cristine; de Almeida, Eliana Régia Barbosa; Machado, Fernando Osni; Sardinha, Luiz Antônio da Costa; Wanzuita, Raquel; Silvado, Carlos Eduardo Soares; Costa, Gerson; Braatz, Vera; Caldeira Filho, Milton; Furtado, Rodrigo; Tannous, Luana Alves; de Albuquerque, André Gustavo Neves; Abdala, Edson; Gonçalves, Anderson Ricardo Roman; Pacheco-Moreira, Lúcio Filgueiras; Dias, Fernando Suparregui; Fernandes, Rogério; Giovanni, Frederico Di; de Carvalho, Frederico Bruzzi; Fiorelli, Alfredo; Teixeira, Cassiano; Feijó, Cristiano; Camargo, Spencer Marcantonio; de Oliveira, Neymar Elias; David, André Ibrahim; Prinz, Rafael Augusto Dantas; Herranz, Laura Brasil; de Andrade, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Organ transplantation is the only alternative for many patients with terminal diseases. The increasing disproportion between the high demand for organ transplants and the low rate of transplants actually performed is worrisome. Some of the causes of this disproportion are errors in the identification of potential organ donors and in the determination of contraindications by the attending staff. Therefore, the aim of the present document is to provide guidelines for intensive care multi-professional staffs for the recognition, assessment and acceptance of potential organ donors. PMID:27737418

  6. Prevalence of Sexual Trauma History Using Behaviorally Specific Methods of Assessment in First Year College Students.

    PubMed

    Craner, Julia R; Martinson, Amber A; Sigmon, Sandra T; McGillicuddy, Morgan L

    2015-01-01

    There are several challenges associated with evaluating the prevalence of sexual trauma, including child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault. The aim of this study was to assess sexual trauma prevalence rates among first year college students (N = 954) using behaviorally specific questions and a more representative recruitment sample that did not rely on self-selection. Participants completed a list of sexual trauma questions, including general questions containing labels such as "rape" or "abuse" as well as behaviorally specific questions that describe specific behaviors that qualify as sexual trauma without labels. Results indicated that 6.7% of the sample reported at least one incident of child sexual abuse, with similar rates for men and women. Women were more likely to report a history of adult sexual assault, which was reported by 12.4% of the total sample. Participants were also more likely to endorse a history of sexual trauma when answering behaviorally specific rather than general "label" questions. Women survivors in particular were more likely than men to identify their experiences as abuse/assault (66.7% versus 21.1% for child sexual abuse), which may help explain prevalence differences between men and women in prior research. Men may be less likely than women to label their experiences as abuse and may be underidentified in sexual trauma research without the use of behaviorally specific questions. Overall, the results of this study suggest that the prevalence of sexual trauma is better assessed using behaviorally specific questions and that this is an important topic of study among both men and women.

  7. A facilely synthesized amino-functionalized metal-organic framework for highly specific and efficient enrichment of glycopeptides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Wei; Li, Ze; Zhao, Qiang; Zhou, Ying-Lin; Liu, Hu-Wei; Zhang, Xin-Xiang

    2014-10-09

    A facilely synthesized amino-functionalized metal-organic framework (MOF) MIL-101(Cr)-NH2 was first applied for highly specific glycopeptide enrichment based on the hydrophilic interactions. With the special characteristics of the MOF, the material performed well in selectivity and sensitivity for both standard glycoprotein samples and complex biological samples.

  8. The Use of a Computer Graphic Organizer for Persuasive Composition Writing by Hispanic Students with Specific Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unzueta, Caridad H.

    2009-01-01

    Many culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students with specific learning disabilities (SLD) struggle with the writing process. Particularly, they have difficulties developing and expanding ideas, organizing and elaborating sentences, and revising and editing their compositions (Graham, Harris, & Larsen, 2001; Myles, 2002). Computer graphic…

  9. The Effects of Computer Graphic Organizers on the Persuasive Writing of Hispanic Middle School Students with Specific Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unzueta, Caridad H.; Barbetta, Patricia M.

    2012-01-01

    A multiple baseline design investigated the effects of computer graphic organizers on the persuasive composition writing skills of four Hispanic students with specific learning disabilities. Participants reviewed the elements of persuasive writing and then developed compositions using a word processing program. Baseline planning was done with a…

  10. The Use of a Computer Graphic Organizer for Persuasive Composition Writing by Hispanic Students with Specific Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unzueta, Caridad H.

    2009-01-01

    Many culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students with specific learning disabilities (SLD) struggle with the writing process. Particularly, they have difficulties developing and expanding ideas, organizing and elaborating sentences, and revising and editing their compositions (Graham, Harris, & Larsen, 2001; Myles, 2002). Computer graphic…

  11. The Effects of Computer Graphic Organizers on the Persuasive Writing of Hispanic Middle School Students with Specific Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unzueta, Caridad H.; Barbetta, Patricia M.

    2012-01-01

    A multiple baseline design investigated the effects of computer graphic organizers on the persuasive composition writing skills of four Hispanic students with specific learning disabilities. Participants reviewed the elements of persuasive writing and then developed compositions using a word processing program. Baseline planning was done with a…

  12. Organ-specific metabolic responses to drought in Pinus pinaster Ait.

    PubMed

    de Miguel, Marina; Guevara, M Ángeles; Sánchez-Gómez, David; de María, Nuria; Díaz, Luis Manuel; Mancha, Jose A; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Cadahía, Estrella; Desai, Nalini; Aranda, Ismael; Cervera, María-Teresa

    2016-05-01

    Drought is an important driver of plant survival, growth, and distribution. Water deficit affects different pathways of metabolism, depending on plant organ. While previous studies have mainly focused on the metabolic drought response of a single organ, analysis of metabolic differences between organs is essential to achieve an integrated understanding of the whole plant response. In this work, untargeted metabolic profiling was used to examine the response of roots, stems, adult and juvenile needles from Pinus pinaster Ait. full-sib individuals, subjected to a moderate and long lasting drought period. Cyclitols content showed a significant alteration, in response to drought in all organs examined, but other metabolites increased or decreased differentially depending on the analyzed organ. While a high number of flavonoids were only detected in aerial organs, an induction of the glutathione pathway was mainly detected in roots. This result may reflect different antioxidant mechanisms activated in aerial organs and roots. Metabolic changes were more remarkable in roots than in the other organs, highlighting its prominent role in the response to water stress. Significant changes in flavonoids and ascorbate metabolism were also observed between adult and juvenile needles, consistent with previously proven differential functional responses between the two developmental stages. Genetic polymorphisms in candidate genes coding for a Myb1 transcription factor and a malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37) were associated with different concentration of phenylalanine, phenylpropanoids and malate, respectively. The results obtained will support further research on metabolites and genes potentially involved in functional mechanisms related to drought tolerance in trees. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Sequestration and histopathology in Plasmodium chabaudi malaria are influenced by the immune response in an organ-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Brugat, Thibaut; Cunningham, Deirdre; Sodenkamp, Jan; Coomes, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Spence, Philip J; Jarra, William; Thompson, Joanne; Scudamore, Cheryl; Langhorne, Jean

    2014-05-01

    Infection with the malaria parasite, Plasmodium, is associated with a strong inflammatory response and parasite cytoadhesion (sequestration) in several organs. Here, we have carried out a systematic study of sequestration and histopathology during infection of C57Bl/6 mice with Plasmodium chabaudi AS and determined the influence of the immune response. This parasite sequesters predominantly in liver and lung, but not in the brain, kidney or gut. Histopathological changes occur in multiple organs during the acute infection, but are not restricted to the organs where sequestration takes place. Adaptive immunity, and signalling through the IFNγ receptor increased sequestration and histopathology in the liver, but not in the lung, suggesting that there are differences in the adhesion molecules and/or parasite ligands utilized and mechanisms of pathogenesis in these two organs. Exacerbation of pro-inflammatory responses during infection by deletion of the il10 gene resultsin the aggravation of damage to lung and kidney irrespective of the degree of sequestration. The immune response therefore affected both sequestration and histopathology in an organ-specific manner. P.  chabaudi AS provides a good model to investigate the influence of the host response on the sequestration and specific organ pathology, which is applicable to human malaria.

  14. Sequestration and histopathology in Plasmodium chabaudi malaria are influenced by the immune response in an organ-specific manner

    PubMed Central

    Brugat, Thibaut; Cunningham, Deirdre; Sodenkamp, Jan; Coomes, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Spence, Philip J; Jarra, William; Thompson, Joanne; Scudamore, Cheryl; Langhorne, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Infection with the malaria parasite, Plasmodium, is associated with a strong inflammatory response and parasite cytoadhesion (sequestration) in several organs. Here, we have carried out a systematic study of sequestration and histopathology during infection of C57Bl/6 mice with Plasmodium chabaudi AS and determined the influence of the immune response. This parasite sequesters predominantly in liver and lung, but not in the brain, kidney or gut. Histopathological changes occur in multiple organs during the acute infection, but are not restricted to the organs where sequestration takes place. Adaptive immunity, and signalling through the IFNγ receptor increased sequestration and histopathology in the liver, but not in the lung, suggesting that there are differences in the adhesion molecules and/or parasite ligands utilized and mechanisms of pathogenesis in these two organs. Exacerbation of pro-inflammatory responses during infection by deletion of the il10 gene resultsin the aggravation of damage to lung and kidney irrespective of the degree of sequestration. The immune response therefore affected both sequestration and histopathology in an organ-specific manner. P. chabaudi AS provides a good model to investigate the influence of the host response on the sequestration and specific organ pathology, which is applicable to human malaria. PMID:24003897

  15. Recent advances in the detection of specific natural organic compounds as carriers for radionuclides in soil and water environments, with examples of radioiodine and plutonium.

    PubMed

    Santschi, P H; Xu, C; Zhang, S; Schwehr, K A; Lin, P; Yeager, C M; Kaplan, D I

    2017-03-09

    Among the key environmental factors influencing the fate and transport of radionuclides in the environment is natural organic matter (NOM). While this has been known for decades, there still remains great uncertainty in predicting NOM-radionuclide interactions because of lack of understanding of radionuclide interactions with the specific organic moieties within NOM. Furthermore, radionuclide-NOM studies conducted using modelled organic compounds or elevated radionuclide concentrations provide compromised information related to true environmental conditions. Thus, sensitive techniques are required not only for the detection of radionuclides, and their different species, at ambient and/or far-field concentrations, but also for potential trace organic compounds that are chemically binding these radionuclides. GC-MS and AMS techniques developed in our lab are reviewed here that aim to assess how two radionuclides, iodine and plutonium, form strong bonds with NOM by entirely different mechanisms; iodine tends to bind to aromatic functionalities, whereas plutonium binds to N-containing hydroxamate siderophores at ambient concentrations. While low-level measurements are a prerequisite for assessing iodine and plutonium migration at nuclear waste sites and as environmental tracers, it is necessary to determine their in-situ speciation, which ultimately controls their mobility and transport in natural environments. More importantly, advanced molecular-level instrumentation (e.g., nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI-FTICRMS) were applied to resolve either directly or indirectly the molecular environments in which the radionuclides are associated with the NOM.

  16. Use of in vivo/in vitro unscheduled DNA synthesis for identification of organ-specific carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Furihata, C; Matsushima, T

    1987-01-01

    There are still only a few in vivo short-term assay methods for predicting potential organ-specific carcinogens and mutagens in mam