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Sample records for assessing radiation dose

  1. Integrated retrospective radiation dose assessment.

    PubMed

    Goldman, M

    1997-01-01

    Radiation dose reconstruction is used to estimate exposure to radiation that has occurred externally, e.g., from an atomic bomb, or internally, e.g., from radionuclide ingestion. This commentary reviews techniques for biological dosimetry that have been developed to estimate radiation doses from internal exposures, but which can also be used to estimate external exposures. The author argues for increased development and use of these biological tools.

  2. Biodosimetry and assessment of radiation dose

    PubMed Central

    Crespo, Rafael Herranz; Domene, Mercedes Moreno; Rodríguez, María Jesús Prieto

    2011-01-01

    Aim When investigating radiation accidents, it is very important to determine the exposition dose to the individuals. In the case of exposures over 1 Gy, clinicians may expect deterministic effects arising the following weeks and months, in these cases dose estimation will help physicians in the planning of therapy. Nevertheless, for doses below 1 Gy, biodosimetry data are important due to the risk of developing late stochastic effects. Finally, some accidental overexposures are lack of physical measurements and the only way of quantifying dose is by biological dosimetry. Background The analysis of chromosomal aberrations by different techniques is the most developed method of quantifying dose to individuals exposed to ionising radiations.1,2 Furthermore, the analysis of dicentric chromosomes observed in metaphases from peripheral lymphocytes is the routine technique used in case of acute exposures to assess radiation doses. Materials and methods Solid stain of chromosomes is used to determine dicentric yields for dose estimation. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for translocations analysis is used when delayed sampling or suspected chronically irradiation dose assessment. Recommendations in technical considerations are based mainly in the IAEA Technical Report No. 405.2 Results Experience in biological dosimetry at Gregorio Marañón General Hospital is described, including own calibration curves used for dose estimation, background studies and real cases of overexposition. Conclusion Dose assessment by biological dosimeters requires a large previous standardization work and a continuous update. Individual dose assessment involves high qualification professionals and its long time consuming, therefore requires specific Centres. For large mass casualties cooperation among specialized Institutions is needed. PMID:24376970

  3. Measurement and assessment of radiation dose of astronauts in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Binquan; Sun, Yue-qiang; Yang, Chuibai; Zhang, Shenyi; Liang, Jinbao

    Astronauts in flight are exposed by the space radiation, which is mainly composed of proton, electron, heavy ion, and neutron. To assess the radiation risk, measurement and assessment of radiation dose of astronauts is indispensable. Especially, measurement for heavy ion radiation is most important as it contributes the major dose. Until now, most of the measurements and assessments of radiation dose of astronauts are based on the LET (Linear Energy Transfer) spectrum of space radiation. However, according to the ICRP Publication 123, energy and charge number of heavy ions should be measured in order to assess space radiation exposure to astronauts. In addition, from the publication, quality factors for each organs or tissues of astronauts are different and they should be calculated or measured independently. Here, a method to measure the energy and charge number of heavy ion and a voxel phantom based on the anatomy of Chinese adult male are presented for radiation dose assessment of astronauts.

  4. Wound Trauma Alters Ionizing Radiation Dose Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-11

    the Chernobyl reactor meltdown, 10% of 237 victims exposed to radiation received thermal burns [3]. In animals including mice [4,5], rats [6,7...Barabanova AV: Significance of beta-radiation skin burns in Chernobyl patients for the theory and practice of radiopathology. Vojnosanit Pregl 2006, 63

  5. Assessment of the effective dose equivalent for external photon radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, W.D.; Poston, J.W.; Xu, X.G. )

    1993-02-01

    Beginning in January 1994, US nuclear power plants must change the way that they determine the radiation exposure to their workforce. At that time, revisions to Title 10 Part 20 of the Code of Federal Regulations will be in force requiring licensees to evaluate worker radiation exposure using a risk-based methodology termed the effective dose equivalent.'' A research project was undertaken to improve upon the conservative method presently used for assessing effective dose equivalent. In this project effective dose equivalent was calculated using a mathematical model of the human body, and tracking photon interactions for a wide variety of radiation source geometries using Monte Carlo computer code simulations. Algorithms were then developed to relate measurements of the photon flux on the surface of the body (as measured by dosimeters) to effective dose equivalent. This report (Volume I of a two-part study) describes: the concept of effective dose equivalent, the evolution of the concept and its incorporation into regulations, the variations in human organ susceptibility to radiation, the mathematical modeling and calculational techniques used, the results of effective dose equivalent calculations for a broad range of photon energiesand radiation source geometries. The study determined that for beam radiation sources the highest effective dose equivalent occurs for beams striking the front of the torso. Beams striking the rear of the torsoproduce the next highest effective dose equivalent, with effective dose equivalent falling significantly as one departs from these two orientations. For point sources, the highest effective dose equivalent occurs when the sources are in contact with the body on the front of the torso. For females the highest effective dose equivalent occurs when the source is on the sternum, for males when it is on the gonads.

  6. Integrated Worker Radiation Dose Assessment for the K Basins

    SciTech Connect

    NELSON, J.V.

    1999-10-27

    This report documents an assessment of the radiation dose workers at the K Basins are expected to receive in the process of removing spent nuclear fuel from the storage basins. The K Basins (K East and K West) are located in the Hanford 100K Area.

  7. Radiation-induced biomarkers for the detection and assessment of absorbed radiation doses

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Sudha; Kumar, Raj; Sultana, Sarwat; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Radiation incident involving living organisms is an uncommon but a very serious situation. The first step in medical management including triage is high-throughput assessment of the radiation dose received. Radiation exposure levels can be assessed from viability of cells, cellular organelles such as chromosome and different intermediate metabolites. Oxidative damages by ionizing radiation result in carcinogenesis, lowering of the immune response and, ultimately, damage to the hematopoietic system, gastrointestinal system and central nervous system. Biodosimetry is based on the measurement of the radiation-induced changes, which can correlate them with the absorbed dose. Radiation biomarkers such as chromosome aberration are most widely used. Serum enzymes such as serum amylase and diamine oxidase are the most promising biodosimeters. The level of gene expression and protein are also good biomarkers of radiation. PMID:21829314

  8. Technical Basis for Expedited Processing of Radiation Dose Assessments for NTPR Hiroshima and Nagasaki Participants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    expedited processing of Radiation Dose Assessments (RDAs) for Hiroshima and Nagasaki (H&N) veterans in the Nuclear Test Personnel Review (NTPR) Program...Expedited processing of Nuclear Test Personnel Review program radiation dose assessments (RDAs) is an option for certain claims from the Department...Agency), 2015a. Expedited Processing of Radiation Dose Assessments for Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing Veterans, NTPR Standard Operating

  9. Cone beam computed tomography radiation dose and image quality assessments.

    PubMed

    Lofthag-Hansen, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Diagnostic radiology has undergone profound changes in the last 30 years. New technologies are available to the dental field, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) as one of the most important. CBCT is a catch-all term for a technology comprising a variety of machines differing in many respects: patient positioning, volume size (FOV), radiation quality, image capturing and reconstruction, image resolution and radiation dose. When new technology is introduced one must make sure that diagnostic accuracy is better or at least as good as the one it can be expected to replace. The CBCT brand tested was two versions of Accuitomo (Morita, Japan): 3D Accuitomo with an image intensifier as detector, FOV 3 cm x 4 cm and 3D Accuitomo FPD with a flat panel detector, FOVs 4 cm x 4 cm and 6 cm x 6 cm. The 3D Accuitomo was compared with intra-oral radiography for endodontic diagnosis in 35 patients with 46 teeth analyzed, of which 41 were endodontically treated. Three observers assessed the images by consensus. The result showed that CBCT imaging was superior with a higher number of teeth diagnosed with periapical lesions (42 vs 32 teeth). When evaluating 3D Accuitomo examinations in the posterior mandible in 30 patients, visibility of marginal bone crest and mandibular canal, important anatomic structures for implant planning, was high with good observer agreement among seven observers. Radiographic techniques have to be evaluated concerning radiation dose, which requires well-defined and easy-to-use methods. Two methods: CT dose index (CTDI), prevailing method for CT units, and dose-area product (DAP) were evaluated for calculating effective dose (E) for both units. An asymmetric dose distribution was revealed when a clinical situation was simulated. Hence, the CTDI method was not applicable for these units with small FOVs. Based on DAP values from 90 patient examinations effective dose was estimated for three diagnostic tasks: implant planning in posterior mandible and

  10. Source term calculations for assessing radiation dose to equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Denning, R.S.; Freeman-Kelly, R.; Cybulskis, P.; Curtis, L.A.

    1989-07-01

    This study examines results of analyses performed with the Source Term Code Package to develop updated source terms using NUREG-0956 methods. The updated source terms are to be used to assess the adequacy of current regulatory source terms used as the basis for equipment qualification. Time-dependent locational distributions of radionuclides within a containment following a severe accident have been developed. The Surry reactor has been selected in this study as representative of PWR containment designs. Similarly, the Peach Bottom reactor has been used to examine radionuclide distributions in boiling water reactors. The time-dependent inventory of each key radionuclide is provided in terms of its activity in curies. The data are to be used by Sandia National Laboratories to perform shielding analyses to estimate radiation dose to equipment in each containment design. See NUREG/CR-5175, Beta and Gamma Dose Calculations for PWR and BWR Containments.'' 6 refs., 11 tabs.

  11. KREAM: Korean Radiation Exposure Assessment Model for Aviation Route Dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J.; Dokgo, K.; Choi, E. J.; Kim, K. C.; Kim, H. P.; Cho, K. S. F.

    2014-12-01

    Since Korean Air has begun to use the polar route from Seoul/ICN airport to New York/JFK airport on August 2006, there are explosive needs for the estimation and prediction against cosmic radiation exposure for Korean aircrew and passengers in South Korea from public. To keep pace with those needs of public, Korean government made the law on safety standards and managements of cosmic radiation for the flight attendants and the pilots in 2013. And we have begun to develop our own Korean Radiation Exposure Assessment Model (KREAM) for aviation route dose since last year funded by Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA). GEANT4 model and NRLMSIS 00 model are used for calculation of the energetic particles' transport in the atmosphere and for obtaining the background atmospheric neutral densities depending on altitude. For prediction the radiation exposure in many routes depending on the various space weather effects, we constructed a database from pre-arranged simulations using all possible combinations of R, S, and G, which are the space weather effect scales provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). To get the solar energetic particles' spectrum at the 100 km altitude which we set as a top of the atmospheric layers in the KREAM, we use ACE and GOES satellites' proton flux observations. We compare the results between KREAM and the other cosmic radiation estimation programs such as CARI-6M which is provided by the Federal Aviation Agency (FAA). We also validate KREAM's results by comparison with the measurement from Liulin-6K LET spectrometer onboard Korean commercial flights and Korean Air Force reconnaissance flights.

  12. Radiation Dose-Response Relationships and Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2005-07-05

    The notion of a dose-response relationship was probably invented shortly after the discovery of poisons, the invention of alcoholic beverages, and the bringing of fire into a confined space in the forgotten depths of ancient prehistory. The amount of poison or medicine ingested can easily be observed to affect the behavior, health, or sickness outcome. Threshold effects, such as death, could be easily understood for intoxicants, medicine, and poisons. As Paracelsus (1493-1541), the 'father' of modern toxicology said, 'It is the dose that makes the poison.' Perhaps less obvious is the fact that implicit in such dose-response relationships is also the notion of dose rate. Usually, the dose is administered fairly acutely, in a single injection, pill, or swallow; a few puffs on a pipe; or a meal of eating or drinking. The same amount of intoxicants, medicine, or poisons administered over a week or month might have little or no observable effect. Thus, before the discovery of ionizing radiation in the late 19th century, toxicology ('the science of poisons') and pharmacology had deeply ingrained notions of dose-response relationships. This chapter demonstrates that the notion of a dose-response relationship for ionizing radiation is hopelessly simplistic from a scientific standpoint. While useful from a policy or regulatory standpoint, dose-response relationships cannot possibly convey enough information to describe the problem from a quantitative view of radiation biology, nor can they address societal values. Three sections of this chapter address the concepts, observations, and theories that contribute to the scientific input to the practice of managing risks from exposure to ionizing radiation. The presentation begins with irradiation regimes, followed by responses to high and low doses of ionizing radiation, and a discussion of how all of this can inform radiation risk management. The knowledge that is really needed for prediction of individual risk is presented

  13. Radiation dose assessment of exposure to depleted uranium.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei Bo; Gerstmann, Udo C; Höllriegl, Vera; Szymczak, Wilfried; Roth, Paul; Hoeschen, Christoph; Oeh, Uwe

    2009-07-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) is claimed to contribute to human health problems, known as the Gulf War Syndrome and the Balkan Syndrome. Quantitative radiation dose is required to estimate the health risk of DU materials. The influences of the solubility parameters in the human alimentary tract and the respiratory tract systems and the aerosol particles size on the radiation dose of DU materials were evaluated. The dose conversion factor of daily urinary excretion of DU is provided. The retention and excretion of DU in the human body after a contamination at a wound site were predicted. Dose coefficients of DU after ingestion and inhalation were calculated using the solubility parameters of the DU corrosion products in simulated gastric and simulated lung fluid, which were determined in the Helmholtz Zentrum München. (238)U is the main radiation dose contributor per 1 Bq of DU materials. The dose coefficients of DU materials were estimated to be 3.5 x 10(-8) and 2.1 x 10(-6) Sv Bq(-1) after ingestion and inhalation for members of the public. The ingestion dose coefficient of DU materials is about 75% of the natural uranium value. The inhalation dose coefficient of DU material is in between those for Type M and Type S according to the category for inhaled materials defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Radiation dose possibly received from DU materials can directly be estimated by using the dose conversion factor provided in this study, if daily urinary excretion of DU is measured.

  14. Radiation dose reduction in paediatric coronary computed tomography: assessment of effective dose and image quality.

    PubMed

    Habib Geryes, Bouchra; Calmon, Raphael; Khraiche, Diala; Boddaert, Nathalie; Bonnet, Damien; Raimondi, Francesca

    2016-07-01

    To assess the impact of different protocols on radiation dose and image quality for paediatric coronary computed tomography (cCT). From January-2012 to June-2014, 140 children who underwent cCT on a 64-slice scanner were included. Two consecutive changes in imaging protocols were performed: 1) the use of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR); 2) the optimization of acquisition parameters. Effective dose (ED) was calculated by conversion of the dose-length product. Image quality was assessed as excellent, good or with significant artefacts. Patients were divided in three age groups: 0-4, 5-7 and 8-18 years. The use of ASIR combined to the adjustment of scan settings allowed a reduction in the median ED of 58 %, 82 % and 85 % in 0-4, 5-7 and 8-18 years group, respectively (7.3 ± 1.4 vs 3.1 ± 0.7 mSv, 5.5 ± 1.6 vs 1 ± 1.9 mSv and 5.3 ± 5.0 vs 0.8 ± 2.0 mSv, all p < 0,05). Prospective protocol was used in 51 % of children. The reduction in radiation dose was not associated with reduction in diagnostic image quality as assessed by the frequency of coronary segments with excellent or good image quality (88 %). cCT can be obtained at very low radiation doses in children using ASIR, and prospective acquisition with optimized imaging parameters. • Using ASIR allows 25 % to 41 % reduction in the ED. • Prospective protocol is used up to 51 % of children after premedication. • Low dose is possible using ASIR and optimized prospective paediatric cCT.

  15. In Vitro Partial-Body Dose Assessment Using a Radiation Responsive Protein Biomarker

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    partial - body ionizing radiation exposure . The radiation responsive protein biomarker studied was Growth Arrest DNA-Damage... radiation responsive protein bioassay to assess partial - body exposures in a murine in vivo validation, 23 These projects would offer a... REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE In Vitro Partial - Body Dose Assessment Using a Radiation Responsive Protein Biomarker

  16. Pediatric cardiac-gated CT angiography: assessment of radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Caroline L; Yoshizumi, Terry T; Frush, Donald P; Chan, Frandics P; Toncheva, Greta; Nguyen, Giao; Lowry, Carolyn R; Hurwitz, Lynne M

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine a dose range for cardiac-gated CT angiography (CTA) in children. ECG-gated cardiac CTA simulating scanning of the heart was performed on an anthropomorphic phantom of a 5-year-old child on a 16-MDCT scanner using variable parameters (small field of view; 16 x 0.625 mm configuration; 0.5-second gantry cycle time; 0.275 pitch; 120 kVp at 110, 220, and 330 mA; and 80 kVp at 385 mA). Metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) technology measured 20 organ doses. Effective dose calculated using the dose-length product (DLP) was compared with effective dose determined from measured absorbed organ doses. Highest organ doses included breast (3.5-12.6 cGy), lung (3.3-12.1 cGy), and bone marrow (1.7-7.6 cGy). The 80 kVp/385 mA examination produced lower radiation doses to all organs than the 120 kVp/220 mA examination. MOSFET effective doses (+/- SD) were as follows: 110 mA: 7.4 mSv (+/- 0.6 mSv), 220 mA: 17.2 mSv (+/- 0.3 mSv), 330 mA: 25.7 mSv (+/- 0.3 mSv), 80 kVp/385 mA: 10.6 mSv (+/- 0.2 mSv). DLP effective doses for diagnostic runs were as follows: 110 mA: 8.7 mSv, 220 mA: 19 mSv, 330 mA: 28 mSv, 80 kVp/385 mA: 12 mSv. DLP effective doses exceeded MOSFET effective doses by 9.7-17.2%. Radiation doses for a 5-year-old during cardiac-gated CTA vary greatly depending on parameters. Organ doses can be high; the effective dose may reach 28.4 mSv. Further work, including determination of size-appropriate mA and image quality, is important before routine use of this technique in children.

  17. Dosimetry experiences and lessons learned for radiation dose assessment in Korean nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong Rak; Kim, Hee Geun; Kong, Tae Young; Son, Jung Kwon

    2013-07-01

    Since the first Korean nuclear power plant (NPP), Kori 1, commenced operation in 1978, a total of 21 NPPs had been put into operation in Korea by the end of 2011. Radiation doses of NPP workers have been periodically evaluated and controlled within the prescribed dose limit. Radiation dose assessment is carried out monthly by reading personal dosemeters for external radiation exposure, which have traceability in compliance with strict technical guidelines. In the case of the internal radiation exposure, workers who have access to the possible area of polluted air are also evaluated for their internal dose after maintenance task. In this article, the overall situation and experience for the assessment and distribution of radiation doses in Korean NPPs is described.

  18. Technology Assessment and Roadmap for the Emergency Radiation Dose Assessment Program

    SciTech Connect

    Turteltaub, K W; Hartman-Siantar, C; Easterly, C; Blakely, W

    2005-10-03

    A Joint Interagency Working Group (JIWG) under the auspices of the Department of Homeland Security Office of Research and Development conducted a technology assessment of emergency radiological dose assessment capabilities as part of the overall need for rapid emergency medical response in the event of a radiological terrorist event in the United States. The goal of the evaluation is to identify gaps and recommend general research and development needs to better prepare the Country for mitigating the effects of such an event. Given the capabilities and roles for responding to a radiological event extend across many agencies, a consensus of gaps and suggested development plans was a major goal of this evaluation and road-mapping effort. The working group consisted of experts representing the Departments of Homeland Security, Health and Human Services (Centers for Disease Control and the National Institutes of Health), Food and Drug Administration, Department of Defense and the Department of Energy's National Laboratories (see appendix A for participants). The specific goals of this Technology Assessment and Roadmap were to: (1) Describe the general context for deployment of emergency radiation dose assessment tools following terrorist use of a radiological or nuclear device; (2) Assess current and emerging dose assessment technologies; and (3) Put forward a consensus high-level technology roadmap for interagency research and development in this area. This report provides a summary of the consensus of needs, gaps and recommendations for a research program in the area of radiation dosimetry for early response, followed by a summary of the technologies available and on the near-term horizon. We then present a roadmap for a research program to bring present and emerging near-term technologies to bear on the gaps in radiation dose assessment and triage. Finally we present detailed supporting discussion on the nature of the threats we considered, the status of technology

  19. Displaying 3D radiation dose on endoscopic video for therapeutic assessment and surgical guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jimmy; Hope, Andrew J.; Cho, B. C. John; Sharpe, Michael B.; Dickie, Colleen I.; DaCosta, Ralph S.; Jaffray, David A.; Weersink, Robert A.

    2012-10-01

    We have developed a method to register and display 3D parametric data, in particular radiation dose, on two-dimensional endoscopic images. This registration of radiation dose to endoscopic or optical imaging may be valuable in assessment of normal tissue response to radiation, and visualization of radiated tissues in patients receiving post-radiation surgery. Electromagnetic sensors embedded in a flexible endoscope were used to track the position and orientation of the endoscope allowing registration of 2D endoscopic images to CT volumetric images and radiation doses planned with respect to these images. A surface was rendered from the CT image based on the air/tissue threshold, creating a virtual endoscopic view analogous to the real endoscopic view. Radiation dose at the surface or at known depth below the surface was assigned to each segment of the virtual surface. Dose could be displayed as either a colorwash on this surface or surface isodose lines. By assigning transparency levels to each surface segment based on dose or isoline location, the virtual dose display was overlaid onto the real endoscope image. Spatial accuracy of the dose display was tested using a cylindrical phantom with a treatment plan created for the phantom that matched dose levels with grid lines on the phantom surface. The accuracy of the dose display in these phantoms was 0.8-0.99 mm. To demonstrate clinical feasibility of this approach, the dose display was also tested on clinical data of a patient with laryngeal cancer treated with radiation therapy, with estimated display accuracy of ˜2-3 mm. The utility of the dose display for registration of radiation dose information to the surgical field was further demonstrated in a mock sarcoma case using a leg phantom. With direct overlay of radiation dose on endoscopic imaging, tissue toxicities and tumor response in endoluminal organs can be directly correlated with the actual tissue dose, offering a more nuanced assessment of normal tissue

  20. Displaying 3D radiation dose on endoscopic video for therapeutic assessment and surgical guidance.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jimmy; Hope, Andrew J; Cho, B C John; Sharpe, Michael B; Dickie, Colleen I; DaCosta, Ralph S; Jaffray, David A; Weersink, Robert A

    2012-10-21

    We have developed a method to register and display 3D parametric data, in particular radiation dose, on two-dimensional endoscopic images. This registration of radiation dose to endoscopic or optical imaging may be valuable in assessment of normal tissue response to radiation, and visualization of radiated tissues in patients receiving post-radiation surgery. Electromagnetic sensors embedded in a flexible endoscope were used to track the position and orientation of the endoscope allowing registration of 2D endoscopic images to CT volumetric images and radiation doses planned with respect to these images. A surface was rendered from the CT image based on the air/tissue threshold, creating a virtual endoscopic view analogous to the real endoscopic view. Radiation dose at the surface or at known depth below the surface was assigned to each segment of the virtual surface. Dose could be displayed as either a colorwash on this surface or surface isodose lines. By assigning transparency levels to each surface segment based on dose or isoline location, the virtual dose display was overlaid onto the real endoscope image. Spatial accuracy of the dose display was tested using a cylindrical phantom with a treatment plan created for the phantom that matched dose levels with grid lines on the phantom surface. The accuracy of the dose display in these phantoms was 0.8-0.99 mm. To demonstrate clinical feasibility of this approach, the dose display was also tested on clinical data of a patient with laryngeal cancer treated with radiation therapy, with estimated display accuracy of ∼2-3 mm. The utility of the dose display for registration of radiation dose information to the surgical field was further demonstrated in a mock sarcoma case using a leg phantom. With direct overlay of radiation dose on endoscopic imaging, tissue toxicities and tumor response in endoluminal organs can be directly correlated with the actual tissue dose, offering a more nuanced assessment of normal tissue

  1. Appropriate Use of Effective Dose in Radiation Protection and Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Darrell R; Fahey, Frederic H

    2017-08-01

    Effective dose was introduced by the ICRP for the single, over-arching purpose of setting limits for radiation protection. Effective dose is a derived quantity or mathematical construct and not a physical, measurable quantity. The formula for calculating effective dose to a reference model incorporates terms to account for all radiation types, organ and tissue radiosensitivities, population groups, and multiple biological endpoints. The properties and appropriate applications of effective dose are not well understood by many within and outside the health physics profession; no other quantity in radiation protection has been more confusing or misunderstood. According to ICRP Publication 103, effective dose is to be used for "prospective dose assessment for planning and optimization in radiological protection, and retrospective demonstration of compliance for regulatory purposes." In practice, effective dose has been applied incorrectly to predict cancer risk among exposed persons. The concept of effective dose applies generally to reference models only and not to individual subjects. While conceived to represent a measure of cancer risk or heritable detrimental effects, effective dose is not predictive of future cancer risk. The formula for calculating effective dose incorporates committee-selected weighting factors for radiation quality and organ sensitivity; however, the organ weighting factors are averaged across all ages and both genders and thus do not apply to any specific individual or radiosensitive subpopulations such as children and young women. Further, it is not appropriate to apply effective dose to individual medical patients because patient-specific parameters may vary substantially from the assumptions used in generalized models. Also, effective dose is not applicable to therapeutic uses of radiation, as its mathematical underpinnings pertain only to observed late (stochastic) effects of radiation exposure and do not account for short-term adverse

  2. Analysis of Data from a System of Assessment of the Gonadal Radiation Dose During Radiographic Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, H. E.; Olde, G. L.

    1965-01-01

    The radiation hazard, if any, from diagnostic x-ray examinations was assessed in a study divided into three phases: (1) the gathering of data to allow estimation of the total gonadal dose received by each patient; (2) the accumulation of the individual and accumulative gonadal-dose totals on a large group of patients; (3) the examination and follow-up of patients who had received a substantial gonadal dose to determine any relationship between small recurring doses of ionizing radiation and various indices of somatic and genetic damage. The mean gonadal dose received by females was much higher than that received by males—1012 mr. as compared to 310 mr. Of 7021 individuals in this study, only 428 (6.1%) received 2 r. or more during the three-year test period. No definite conclusions as to radiation hazard could be made. A system, however, has been developed which, if continued, could eventually produce this basic information. PMID:14281086

  3. Comprehensive assessment of radiation dose estimates for the CORE320 study.

    PubMed

    Rybicki, Frank J; Mather, Richard T; Kumamaru, Kanako K; Brinker, Jeffrey; Chen, Marcus Y; Cox, Christopher; Matheson, Matthew B; Dewey, Marc; DiCarli, Marcelo F; Miller, Julie M; Geleijns, Jacob; George, Richard T; Paul, Narinder; Texter, John; Vavere, Andrea; Yaw, Tan Swee; Lima, Joao A C; Clouse, Melvin E

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively study estimated radiation doses for subjects included in the main analysis of the Combined Non-invasive Coronary Angiography and Myocardial Perfusion Imaging Using 320 Detector Computed Tomography (CORE320) study ( ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00934037), a clinical trial comparing combined CT angiography (CTA) and perfusion CT with the reference standard catheter angiography plus myocardial perfusion SPECT. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Prospectively acquired data on 381 CORE320 subjects were analyzed in four groups of testing related to radiation exposure. Radiation dose estimates were compared between modalities for combined CTA and perfusion CT with respect to covariates known to influence radiation exposure and for the main clinical outcomes defined by the trial. The final analysis assessed variations in radiation dose with respect to several factors inherent to the trial. RESULTS. The mean radiation dose estimate for the combined CTA and perfusion CT protocol (8.63 mSv) was significantly (p < 0.0001 for both) less than the average dose delivered from SPECT (10.48 mSv) and the average dose from diagnostic catheter angiography (11.63 mSv). There was no significant difference in estimated CTA-perfusion CT radiation dose for subjects who had false-positive or false-negative results in the CORE320 main analyses in a comparison with subjects for whom the CTA-perfusion CT findings were in accordance with the reference standard SPECT plus catheter angiographic findings. CONCLUSION. Radiation dose estimates from CORE320 support clinical implementation of a combined CT protocol for assessing coronary anatomy and myocardial perfusion.

  4. Radiation dose assessment from ingestion pathway in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Abdul-Majid, S.; Abdul-Fattah, A.R.A.F.; Abulfaraj, W.H. )

    1992-01-01

    Levels of radioactivities in foodstuffs in the local market have been measured for the period from November 1987 until end of June 1988. Out of the 674 samples analyzed there were 83 milk powder, 85 infant milk powder, 54 infant cereals, 89 meat, 16 lentils, 14 wheat, and 26 macaroni samples. The average radioactivity concentration of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs, in these samples in Bq/kg were 19, 13, 18, 6, 10, 25 and 13 respectively. The rest adults and infant foodstuffs had negligible radioactivity levels. The calculated annual doses from ingestion pathway due to {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs for adults were 3.13 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} Sv and 2.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} Sv while for one year old infant they were 12 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} Sv and 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} Sv respectively. The estimated accumulated dose for 50 years from {sup 90}Sr due to one year food ingestion for adults and one year old infants were 3.76 {times} 3.76 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} Sv and 5.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} Sv respectively.

  5. Assessment of radiation protection awareness and knowledge about radiological examination doses among Italian radiographers.

    PubMed

    Paolicchi, F; Miniati, F; Bastiani, L; Faggioni, L; Ciaramella, A; Creonti, I; Sottocornola, C; Dionisi, C; Caramella, D

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate radiation protection basic knowledge and dose assessment for radiological procedures among Italian radiographers A validated questionnaire was distributed to 780 participants with balanced demographic characteristics and geographic distribution. Only 12.1 % of participants attended radiation protection courses on a regular basis. Despite 90 % of radiographers stating to have sufficient awareness of radiation protection issues, most of them underestimated the radiation dose of almost all radiological procedures. About 5 % and 4 % of the participants, respectively, claimed that pelvis magnetic resonance imaging and abdominal ultrasound exposed patients to radiation. On the contrary, 7.0 % of the radiographers stated that mammography does not use ionising radiation. About half of participants believed that radiation-induced cancer is not dependent on age or gender and were not able to differentiate between deterministic and stochastic effects. Young radiographers (with less than 3 years of experience) showed a higher level of knowledge compared with the more experienced radiographers. There is a substantial need for radiographers to improve their awareness of radiation protection issues and their knowledge of radiological procedures. Specific actions such as regular training courses for both undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as for working radiographers must be considered in order to assure patient safety during radiological examinations. • Radiographers should improve their knowledge on radiation protection issues. • Only 12.1 % of participants attended radiation protection courses on a regular basis. • Specific actions must be considered in order to increase knowledge and awareness.

  6. CANCER RISKS ATTRIBUTABLE TO LOW DOSES OF IONIZING RADIATION - ASSESSING WHAT WE REALLY KNOW?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cancer Risks Attributable to Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation - What Do We Really Know?

    Abstract
    High doses of ionizing radiation clearly produce deleterious consequences in humans including, but not exclusively, cancer induction. At very low radiation doses the situatio...

  7. CANCER RISKS ATTRIBUTABLE TO LOW DOSES OF IONIZING RADIATION - ASSESSING WHAT WE REALLY KNOW?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cancer Risks Attributable to Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation - What Do We Really Know?

    Abstract
    High doses of ionizing radiation clearly produce deleterious consequences in humans including, but not exclusively, cancer induction. At very low radiation doses the situatio...

  8. Numerical system utilising a Monte Carlo calculation method for accurate dose assessment in radiation accidents.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, F; Endo, A

    2007-01-01

    A system utilising radiation transport codes has been developed to derive accurate dose distributions in a human body for radiological accidents. A suitable model is quite essential for a numerical analysis. Therefore, two tools were developed to setup a 'problem-dependent' input file, defining a radiation source and an exposed person to simulate the radiation transport in an accident with the Monte Carlo calculation codes-MCNP and MCNPX. Necessary resources are defined by a dialogue method with a generally used personal computer for both the tools. The tools prepare human body and source models described in the input file format of the employed Monte Carlo codes. The tools were validated for dose assessment in comparison with a past criticality accident and a hypothesized exposure.

  9. Patient doses in {gamma}-intracoronary radiotherapy: The Radiation Burden Assessment Study

    SciTech Connect

    Thierens, Hubert . E-mail: hubert.thierens@Ughent.be; Reynaert, Nick; Bacher, Klaus; Eijkeren, Marc van; Taeymans, Yves

    2004-10-01

    Purpose: To determine accurately the radiation burden of both patients and staff from intracoronary radiotherapy (IRT) with {sup 192}Ir and to investigate the importance of IRT in the patient dose compared with interventional X-rays. Methods and materials: The Radiation Burden Assessment Study (RABAS) population consisted of 9 patients undergoing {gamma}-IRT after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and 14 patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty only as the control group. For each patient, the dose to the organs and tissues from the internal and external exposure was determined in detail by Monte Carlo N-particle simulations. Patient skin dose measurements with thermoluminescence dosimeters served as verification. Staff dosimetry was performed with electronic dosimeters, thermoluminescence dosimeters, and double film badge dosimetry. Results: With respect to the patient dose from IRT, the critical organs are the thymus (58 mGy), lungs (31 mGy), and esophagus (27 mGy). The mean effective dose from IRT was 8 mSv. The effective dose values from interventional X-rays showed a broad range (2-28 mSv), with mean values of 8 mSv for the IRT patients and 13 mSv for the control group. The mean dose received by the radiotherapist from IRT was 4 {mu}Sv/treatment. The doses to the other staff members were completely negligible. Conclusion: Our results have shown that the patient and personnel doses in {gamma}-IRT remain at an acceptable level. The patient dose from IRT was within the variations in dose from the accompanying interventional X-rays.

  10. Upper-Bound Radiation Dose Assessment for Military Personnel at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, between 1962 and 1979

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    radiation doses U.S. DoD-affiliated persons present in Japan following the nuclear reactor accident . Prior to working on the NTPR program, Dr. Chehata’s...Reconstruction (VBDR) to assess these risks . A DoD integrated program team was formed of military, civilian, and contract radiation health experts from the...possible health risk from exposure to radiation. The total equivalent dose to 3 the thyroid gland is from external and internal radiation sources and is

  11. Rapid radiation dose assessment for radiological public health emergencies: roles of NIAID and BARDA.

    PubMed

    Grace, Marcy B; Moyer, Brian R; Prasher, Joanna; Cliffer, Kenneth D; Ramakrishnan, Narayani; Kaminski, Joseph; Coleman, C Norman; Manning, Ronald G; Maidment, Bert W; Hatchett, Richard

    2010-02-01

    A large-scale radiological incident would result in an immediate critical need to assess the radiation doses received by thousands of individuals to allow for prompt triage and appropriate medical treatment. Measuring absorbed doses of ionizing radiation will require a system architecture or a system of platforms that contains diverse, integrated diagnostic and dosimetric tools that are accurate and precise. For large-scale incidents, rapidity and ease of screening are essential. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health is the focal point within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) for basic research and development of medical countermeasures for radiation injuries. The Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority within the HHS Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response coordinates and administers programs for the advanced development and acquisition of emergency medical countermeasures for the Strategic National Stockpile. Using a combination of funding mechanisms, including funds authorized by the Project BioShield Act of 2004 and those authorized by the Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act of 2006, HHS is enhancing the nation's preparedness by supporting the radiation dose assessment capabilities that will ensure effective and appropriate use of medical countermeasures in the aftermath of a radiological or nuclear incident.

  12. Assessment of radiation dose in nuclear cardiovascular imaging using realistic computational models

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Tianwu; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley E.; Zaidi, Habib

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Nuclear cardiology plays an important role in clinical assessment and has enormous impact on the management of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Pediatric patients at different age groups are exposed to a spectrum of radiation dose levels and associated cancer risks different from those of adults in diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. Therefore, comprehensive radiation dosimetry evaluations for commonly used myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and viability radiotracers in target population (children and adults) at different age groups are highly desired. Methods: Using Monte Carlo calculations and biological effects of ionizing radiation VII model, we calculate the S-values for a number of radionuclides (Tl-201, Tc-99m, I-123, C-11, N-13, O-15, F-18, and Rb-82) and estimate the absorbed dose and effective dose for 12 MPI radiotracers in computational models including the newborn, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-yr-old, and adult male and female computational phantoms. Results: For most organs, {sup 201}Tl produces the highest absorbed dose whereas {sup 82}Rb and {sup 15}O-water produce the lowest absorbed dose. For the newborn baby and adult patient, the effective dose of {sup 82}Rb is 48% and 77% lower than that of {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin (rest), respectively. Conclusions: {sup 82}Rb results in lower effective dose in adults compared to {sup 99m}Tc-labeled tracers. However, this advantage is less apparent in children. The produced dosimetric databases for various radiotracers used in cardiovascular imaging, using new generation of computational models, can be used for risk-benefit assessment of a spectrum of patient population in clinical nuclear cardiology practice.

  13. Assessment of radiation dose in nuclear cardiovascular imaging using realistic computational models

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Tianwu; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley E.; Zaidi, Habib

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Nuclear cardiology plays an important role in clinical assessment and has enormous impact on the management of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Pediatric patients at different age groups are exposed to a spectrum of radiation dose levels and associated cancer risks different from those of adults in diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. Therefore, comprehensive radiation dosimetry evaluations for commonly used myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and viability radiotracers in target population (children and adults) at different age groups are highly desired. Methods: Using Monte Carlo calculations and biological effects of ionizing radiation VII model, we calculate the S-values for a number of radionuclides (Tl-201, Tc-99m, I-123, C-11, N-13, O-15, F-18, and Rb-82) and estimate the absorbed dose and effective dose for 12 MPI radiotracers in computational models including the newborn, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-yr-old, and adult male and female computational phantoms. Results: For most organs, 201Tl produces the highest absorbed dose whereas 82Rb and 15O-water produce the lowest absorbed dose. For the newborn baby and adult patient, the effective dose of 82Rb is 48% and 77% lower than that of 99mTc-tetrofosmin (rest), respectively. Conclusions: 82Rb results in lower effective dose in adults compared to 99mTc-labeled tracers. However, this advantage is less apparent in children. The produced dosimetric databases for various radiotracers used in cardiovascular imaging, using new generation of computational models, can be used for risk-benefit assessment of a spectrum of patient population in clinical nuclear cardiology practice. PMID:26127049

  14. Radiation Hormesis: Historical Perspective and Implications for Low-Dose Cancer Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Vaiserman, Alexander M.

    2010-01-01

    Current guidelines for limiting exposure of humans to ionizing radiation are based on the linear-no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis for radiation carcinogenesis under which cancer risk increases linearly as the radiation dose increases. With the LNT model even a very small dose could cause cancer and the model is used in establishing guidelines for limiting radiation exposure of humans. A slope change at low doses and dose rates is implemented using an empirical dose and dose rate effectiveness factor (DDREF). This imposes usually unacknowledged nonlinearity but not a threshold in the dose-response curve for cancer induction. In contrast, with the hormetic model, low doses of radiation reduce the cancer incidence while it is elevated after high doses. Based on a review of epidemiological and other data for exposure to low radiation doses and dose rates, it was found that the LNT model fails badly. Cancer risk after ordinarily encountered radiation exposure (medical X-rays, natural background radiation, etc.) is much lower than projections based on the LNT model and is often less than the risk for spontaneous cancer (a hormetic response). Understanding the mechanistic basis for hormetic responses will provide new insights about both risks and benefits from low-dose radiation exposure. PMID:20585444

  15. Occupational radiation dose assessment for the DOE spent-fuel storage facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, J.; Eble, R.G. Jr.

    1997-12-01

    To expedite the licensing process of the centralized interim storage facility (CISF), the U.S. Department of Energy has completed a CISF topical safety analysis report (TSAR). The TSAR will be used in licensing the CISF when a site is designated. An occupational radiation dose assessment of the facility operations is performed as part of the CISF design. The first phase of the CISF has the capability to receive, transfer, and store spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in dual-purpose casks. Currently, there are five vendor technologies under consideration. The preliminary dose assessment is based on estimated occupational exposures using traditional power plant independent spent-fuel storage installation (ISFSI) and transport cask-handling processes. The second step in the process is to recommend as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) techniques to reduce potential exposures. A final dose assessment is completed implementing the ALARA techniques, and a review is performed to ensure that the design is in compliance with regulatory criteria. The dose assessment and ALARA evaluation are determined using the following input information: dose estimates from vendor safety analysis reports, ISFSI experience with similar systems, traditional methods of operations, expected CISF cask receipt rates, and feasible ALARA techniques.

  16. Radiation dose assessment in a 320-detector-row CT scanner used in cardiac imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Goma, Carles; Ruiz, Agustin; Jornet, Nuria; Latorre, Artur; Pallerol, Rosa M.; Carrasco, Pablo; Eudaldo, Teresa; Ribas, Montserrat

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: In the present era of cone-beam CT scanners, the use of the standardized CTDI{sub 100} as a surrogate of the idealized CTDI is strongly discouraged and, consequently, so should be the use of the dose-length product (DLP) as an estimate of the total energy imparted to the patient. However, the DLP is still widely used as a reference quantity to normalize the effective dose for a given scan protocol mainly because the CTDI{sub 100} is an easy-to-measure quantity. The aim of this article is therefore to describe a method for radiation dose assessment in large cone-beam single axial scans, which leads to a straightforward estimation of the total energy imparted to the patient. The authors developed a method accessible to all medical physicists and easy to implement in clinical practice in an attempt to update the bridge between CT dosimetry and the estimation of the effective dose. Methods: The authors used commercially available material and a simple mathematical model. The method described herein is based on the dosimetry paradigm introduced by the AAPM Task Group 111. It consists of measuring the dose profiles at the center and the periphery of a long body phantom with a commercial solid-state detector. A weighted dose profile is then calculated from these measurements. To calculate the CT dosimetric quantities analytically, a Gaussian function was fitted to the dose profile data. Furthermore, the Gaussian model has the power to condense the z-axis information of the dose profile in two parameters: The single-scan central dose, f(0), and the width of the profile, {sigma}. To check the energy dependence of the solid-state detector, the authors compared the dose profiles to measurements made with a small volume ion chamber. To validate the overall method, the authors compared the CTDI{sub 100} calculated analytically to the measurement made with a 100 mm pencil ion chamber. Results: For the central and weighted dose profiles, the authors found a good

  17. Assessment of dose and DNA damages in individuals exposed to low dose and low dose rate ionizing radiations during computed tomography imaging.

    PubMed

    Kanagaraj, Karthik; Abdul Syed Basheerudeen, Safa; Tamizh Selvan, G; Jose, M T; Ozhimuthu, Annalakshmi; Panneer Selvam, S; Pattan, Sudha; Perumal, Venkatachalam

    2015-08-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a frequently used imaging modality that contributes to a tenfold increase in radiation exposure to the public when compared to other medical imaging modalities. The use of radiation for therapeutic need is always rationalized on the basis of risk versus benefit thereby increasing concerns on the dose received by patients undergoing CT imaging. Therefore, it was of interest to us to investigate the effects of low dose and low dose-rate X-irradiation in patients who underwent CT imaging by recording the doses received by the eye, forehead and thyroid, and to study the levels of damages in the lymphocytes in vivo. Lithium manganese borate doped with terbium (LMB:Tb) thermo luminescence dosimeters (TLD) were used to record the doses in the patient's (n = 27) eye, forehead, and thyroid and compared with the dose length product (DLP) values. The in vivo DNA damages measured were compared before and after CT imaging using chromosomal aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) assays. The overall measured organ dose ranged between 2 ± 0.29 and 520 ± 41.63 mGy for the eye, 0.84 ± 0.29 and 210 ± 20.50 mGy for the forehead, and 1.79 ± 0.43 and 185 ± 0.70 mGy for the thyroid. The in vivo damages measured from the blood lymphocytes of the subjects showed an extremely significant (p < 0.0001) increase in CA frequency and significant (p < 0.001) increase in MN frequency after exposure, compared to before exposure. The results suggest that CT imaging delivers a considerable amount of radiation dose to the eye, forehead, and thyroid, and the observed increase in the CA and MN frequencies show low dose radiation effects calling for protective regulatory measures to increase patient's safety. This study is the first attempt to indicate the trend of doses received by the patient's eye, forehead and thyroid and measured directly in contrast to earlier values obtained by extrapolation from phantoms, and to assess the in vivo low dose effects in an Indian

  18. Radioactivity in food and the environment: calculations of UK radiation doses using integrated assessment methods.

    PubMed

    Camplin, W C; Brownless, G P; Round, G D; Winpenny, K; Hunt, G J

    2002-12-01

    A new method for estimating radiation doses to UK critical groups is proposed for discussion. Amongst others, the Food Standards Agency (FSA) and the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) undertake surveillance of UK food and the environment as a check on the effect of discharges of radioactive wastes. Discharges in gaseous and liquid form are made under authorisation by the Environment Agency and SEPA under powers in the Radioactive Substance Act. Results of surveillance by the FSA and SEPA are published in the Radioactivity in Food and the Environment (RIFE) report series. In these reports, doses to critical groups are normally estimated separately for gaseous and liquid discharge pathways. Simple summation of these doses would tend to overestimate doses actually received. Three different methods of combining the effects of both types of discharge in an integrated assessment are considered and ranked according to their ease of application, transparency, scientific rigour and presentational issues. A single integrated assessment method is then chosen for further study. Doses are calculated for surveillance data for the calendar year 2000 and compared with those from the existing RIFE method.

  19. Radiation Dose Assessments for Shore-Based Individuals in Operation Tomodachi, Revision 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-31

    potentially exposed to radioactive fallout resulting from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station units’ radiological releases that followed the...2012, which will support public inquiries. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Operation Tomodachi, Radiation Dose, Department of Defense, Japan, Fukushima ...external radiation dose monitoring station in Fukushima Prefecture (2.5 meters above ground level

  20. Radiation Dose Assessments for Shore-Based Individuals in Operation Tomodachi

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    radioactive fallout resulting from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station units’ radiological releases that followed the earthquake and tsunami on March...public inquiries. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Operation Tomodachi, Radiation Dose, Department of Defense, Japan, Fukushima , Earthquake, Tsunami 16...Yokosuka NB ......... 35 Figure 7. MEXT external radiation dose monitoring station in Fukushima Prefecture (2.5 meters above ground level

  1. Assessment of The Dose-Response Relationship of Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect in Two Cell Lines Exposed to High Doses of Ionizing Radiation (6 and 8 Gy)

    PubMed Central

    Bahreyni Toossi, Mohammad Taghi; Khademi, Sara; Azimian, Hosein; Mohebbi, Shokoufeh; Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman

    2017-01-01

    Objective The dose-response relationship of radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) is controversial at high dose levels. The aim of the present study is to assess RIBE at high dose levels by examination of different endpoints. Materials and Methods This experimental study used the medium transfer technique to induce RIBE. The cells were divided into two main groups: QU-DB cells which received medium from autologous irradiated cells and MRC5 cells which received medium from irradiated QU-DB cells. Colony, MTT, and micronucleus assays were performed to quantify bystander responses. The medium was diluted and transferred to bystander cells to investigate whether medium dilution could revive the RIBE response that disappeared at a high dose. Results The RIBE level in QU-DB bystander cells increased in the dose range of 0.5 to 4 Gy, but decreased at 6 and 8 Gy. The Micronucleated cells per 1000 binucleated cells (MNBN) frequency of QU-DB bystander cells which received the most diluted medium from 6 and 8 Gy QU-DB irradiated cells reached the maximum level compared to the MNBN frequency of the cells that received complete medium (P<0.0001). MNBN frequency of MRC5 cells which received the most diluted medium from 4 Gy QU-DB irradiated cells reached the maximum level compared to MNBN frequency of cells that received complete medium (P<0.0001). Conclusion Our results showed that RIBE levels decreased at doses above 4 Gy; however, RIBE increased when diluted conditioned medium was transferred to bystander cells. This finding confirmed that a negative feedback mechanism was responsible for the decrease in RIBE response at high doses. Decrease of RIBE at high doses might be used to predict that in radiosurgery, brachytherapy and grid therapy, in which high dose per fraction is applied, normal tissue damage owing to RIBE may decrease. PMID:28836405

  2. Assessment of The Dose-Response Relationship of Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect in Two Cell Lines Exposed to High Doses of Ionizing Radiation (6 and 8 Gy).

    PubMed

    Bahreyni Toossi, Mohammad Taghi; Khademi, Sara; Azimian, Hosein; Mohebbi, Shokoufeh; Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman

    2017-10-01

    The dose-response relationship of radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) is controversial at high dose levels. The aim of the present study is to assess RIBE at high dose levels by examination of different endpoints. This experimental study used the medium transfer technique to induce RIBE. The cells were divided into two main groups: QU-DB cells which received medium from autologous irradiated cells and MRC5 cells which received medium from irradiated QU-DB cells. Colony, MTT, and micronucleus assays were performed to quantify bystander responses. The medium was diluted and transferred to bystander cells to investigate whether medium dilution could revive the RIBE response that disappeared at a high dose. The RIBE level in QU-DB bystander cells increased in the dose range of 0.5 to 4 Gy, but decreased at 6 and 8 Gy. The Micronucleated cells per 1000 binucleated cells (MNBN) frequency of QU-DB bystander cells which received the most diluted medium from 6 and 8 Gy QU-DB irradiated cells reached the maximum level compared to the MNBN frequency of the cells that received complete medium (P<0.0001). MNBN frequency of MRC5 cells which received the most diluted medium from 4 Gy QU-DB irradiated cells reached the maximum level compared to MNBN frequency of cells that received complete medium (P<0.0001). Our results showed that RIBE levels decreased at doses above 4 Gy; however, RIBE increased when diluted conditioned medium was transferred to bystander cells. This finding confirmed that a negative feedback mechanism was responsible for the decrease in RIBE response at high doses. Decrease of RIBE at high doses might be used to predict that in radiosurgery, brachytherapy and grid therapy, in which high dose per fraction is applied, normal tissue damage owing to RIBE may decrease.

  3. Radiation dose in dental radiology.

    PubMed

    Cohnen, M; Kemper, J; Möbes, O; Pawelzik, J; Mödder, U

    2002-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare radiation exposure in panoramic radiography (PR), dental CT, and digital volume tomography (DVT). An anthropomorphic Alderson-Rando phantom and two anatomical head phantoms with thermoluminescent dosimeters fixed at appropriate locations were exposed as in a dental examination. In PR and DVT, standard parameters were used while variables in CT included mA, pitch, and rotation time. Image noise was assessed in dental CT and DVT. Radiation doses to the skin and internal organs within the primary beam and resulting from scatter radiation were measured and expressed as maximum doses in mGy. For PR, DVT, and CT, these maximum doses were 0.65, 4.2, and 23 mGy. In dose-reduced CT protocols, radiation doses ranged from 10.9 to 6.1 mGy. Effective doses calculated on this basis showed values below 0.1 mSv for PR, DVT, and dose-reduced CT. Image noise was similar in DVT and low-dose CT. As radiation exposure and image noise of DVT is similar to low-dose CT, this imaging technique cannot be recommended as a general alternative to replace PR in dental radiology.

  4. Cancer risks attributable to low doses of ionizing radiation: assessing what we really know.

    PubMed

    Brenner, David J; Doll, Richard; Goodhead, Dudley T; Hall, Eric J; Land, Charles E; Little, John B; Lubin, Jay H; Preston, Dale L; Preston, R Julian; Puskin, Jerome S; Ron, Elaine; Sachs, Rainer K; Samet, Jonathan M; Setlow, Richard B; Zaider, Marco

    2003-11-25

    High doses of ionizing radiation clearly produce deleterious consequences in humans, including, but not exclusively, cancer induction. At very low radiation doses the situation is much less clear, but the risks of low-dose radiation are of societal importance in relation to issues as varied as screening tests for cancer, the future of nuclear power, occupational radiation exposure, frequent-flyer risks, manned space exploration, and radiological terrorism. We review the difficulties involved in quantifying the risks of low-dose radiation and address two specific questions. First, what is the lowest dose of x- or gamma-radiation for which good evidence exists of increased cancer risks in humans? The epidemiological data suggest that it is approximately 10-50 mSv for an acute exposure and approximately 50-100 mSv for a protracted exposure. Second, what is the most appropriate way to extrapolate such cancer risk estimates to still lower doses? Given that it is supported by experimentally grounded, quantifiable, biophysical arguments, a linear extrapolation of cancer risks from intermediate to very low doses currently appears to be the most appropriate methodology. This linearity assumption is not necessarily the most conservative approach, and it is likely that it will result in an underestimate of some radiation-induced cancer risks and an overestimate of others.

  5. Radiation therapy for stage IIA and IIB testicular seminoma: peripheral dose calculations and risk assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Berris, Theocharris; Lyraraki, Efrossyni; Damilakis, John

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted to calculate the peripheral dose to critical structures and assess the radiation risks from modern radiotherapy for stage IIA/IIB testicular seminoma. A Monte Carlo code was used for treatment simulation on a computational phantom representing an average adult. The initial treatment phase involved anteroposterior and posteroanaterior modified dog-leg fields exposing para-aortic and ipsilateral iliac lymph nodes followed by a cone-down phase for nodal mass irradiation. Peripheral doses were calculated using different modified dog-leg field dimensions and an extended conventional dog-leg portal. The risk models of the BEIR-VII report and ICRP-103 were combined with dosimetric calculations to estimate the probability of developing stochastic effects. Radiotherapy for stage IIA seminoma with a target dose of 30 Gy resulted in a range of 23.0-603.7 mGy to non-targeted peripheral tissues and organs. The corresponding range for treatment of stage IIB disease to a cumulative dose of 36 Gy was 24.2-633.9 mGy. A dose variation of less than 13% was found by altering the field dimensions. Radiotherapy with the conventional instead of the modern modified dog-leg field increased the peripheral dose up to 8.2 times. The calculated heart doses of 589.0-632.9 mGy may increase the risk for developing cardiovascular diseases whereas the testicular dose of more than 231.9 mGy may lead to a temporary infertility. The probability of birth abnormalities in the offspring of cancer survivors was below 0.13% which is much lower than the spontaneous mutation rate. Abdominoplevic irradiation may increase the lifetime intrinsic risk for the induction of secondary malignancies by 0.6-3.9% depending upon the site of interest, patient’s age and tumor dose. Radiotherapy for stage IIA/IIB seminoma with restricted fields and low doses is associated with an increased morbidity. These data may allow the definition of a risk-adapted follow-up scheme for long

  6. Radiation therapy for stage IIA and IIB testicular seminoma: peripheral dose calculations and risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Berris, Theocharris; Lyraraki, Efrossyni; Damilakis, John

    2015-03-21

    This study was conducted to calculate the peripheral dose to critical structures and assess the radiation risks from modern radiotherapy for stage IIA/IIB testicular seminoma. A Monte Carlo code was used for treatment simulation on a computational phantom representing an average adult. The initial treatment phase involved anteroposterior and posteroanaterior modified dog-leg fields exposing para-aortic and ipsilateral iliac lymph nodes followed by a cone-down phase for nodal mass irradiation. Peripheral doses were calculated using different modified dog-leg field dimensions and an extended conventional dog-leg portal. The risk models of the BEIR-VII report and ICRP-103 were combined with dosimetric calculations to estimate the probability of developing stochastic effects. Radiotherapy for stage IIA seminoma with a target dose of 30 Gy resulted in a range of 23.0-603.7 mGy to non-targeted peripheral tissues and organs. The corresponding range for treatment of stage IIB disease to a cumulative dose of 36 Gy was 24.2-633.9 mGy. A dose variation of less than 13% was found by altering the field dimensions. Radiotherapy with the conventional instead of the modern modified dog-leg field increased the peripheral dose up to 8.2 times. The calculated heart doses of 589.0-632.9 mGy may increase the risk for developing cardiovascular diseases whereas the testicular dose of more than 231.9 mGy may lead to a temporary infertility. The probability of birth abnormalities in the offspring of cancer survivors was below 0.13% which is much lower than the spontaneous mutation rate. Abdominoplevic irradiation may increase the lifetime intrinsic risk for the induction of secondary malignancies by 0.6-3.9% depending upon the site of interest, patient's age and tumor dose. Radiotherapy for stage IIA/IIB seminoma with restricted fields and low doses is associated with an increased morbidity. These data may allow the definition of a risk-adapted follow-up scheme for long

  7. Radiation Dose Assessments of Solar Particle Events with Spectral Representation at High Energies for the Improvement of Radiation Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee; Atwell, William; Tylka, Allan J.; Dietrich, William F.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    For radiation dose assessments of major solar particle events (SPEs), spectral functional forms of SPEs have been made by fitting available satellite measurements up to approx.100 MeV. However, very high-energy protons (above 500 MeV) have been observed with neutron monitors (NMs) in ground level enhancements (GLEs), which generally present the most severe radiation hazards to astronauts. Due to technical difficulties in converting NM data into absolutely normalized fluence measurements, those functional forms were made with little or no use of NM data. A new analysis of NM data has found that a double power law in rigidity (the so-called Band function) generally provides a satisfactory representation of the combined satellite and NM data from approx.10 MeV to approx.10 GeV in major SPEs (Tylka & Dietrich 2009). We use the Band function fits to re-assess human exposures from large SPEs. Using different spectral representations of large SPEs, variations of exposure levels were compared. The results can be applied to the development of approaches of improved radiation protection for astronauts, as well as the optimization of mission planning and shielding for future space missions.

  8. New model for assessing dose, dose rate, and temperature sensitivity of radiation-induced absorption in glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Gilard, Olivier; Quadri, Gianandrea; Caussanel, Matthieu; Duval, Herve; Reynaud, Francois

    2010-11-15

    A new theoretical approach is proposed to explain the dose, dose rate and temperature sensitivity of the radiation-induced absorption (RIA) in glasses. In this paper, a {beta}{sup th}-order dispersive kinetic model is used to simulate the growth of the density of color centers in irradiated glasses. This model yields an explanation for the power-law dependence on dose and dose rate usually observed for the RIA in optical fibers. It also leads to an Arrhenius-like relationship between the RIA and the glass temperature during irradiation. With a very limited number of adjustable parameters, the model succeeds in explaining, with a good agreement, the RIA growth of two different optical fiber references over wide ranges of dose, dose rate and temperature.

  9. Dose-response effect of human equivalent radiation in the murine mandible: A radiomorphometric assessment

    PubMed Central

    Monson, Laura A.; Jing, X. Lin; Donneys, Alexis; Farberg, Aaron S.; Buchman, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite widespread use of adjuvant irradiation for head and neck cancer, the extent of damage to the underlying bone is not fully understood, but is associated with pathologic fractures, nonunion, and osteoradionecrosis. The authors’ laboratory previously demonstrated that radiation significantly impedes new bone formation in the murine mandible. We hypothesize that the detrimental effects of human equivalent radiation on the murine mandible results in a dose-dependent degradation in traditional micro-CT metrics. Methods Fifteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into three radiation dosage groups: low (5.91 Gy), middle (7 Gy), and high (8.89 Gy), delivered in five daily fractions. These dosages approximated 75, 100 and 150 percent, respectively, of the biologically equivalent dose that the human mandible receives during radiation treatment. Hemimandibles were harvested 56 days after radiation and scanned using microCT. Bone mineral density, tissue mineral density, and bone volume fraction were measured along with microdensitometry measurements. Results Animals demonstrated dose dependent side effects of mucositis, alopecia, weight loss and mandibular atrophy with increasing radiation. Traditional microCT parameters were not sensitive enough to demonstrate statistically significant differences between the radiated groups; however microdensitometry analysis showed clear differences between radiated groups and statistically significant changes between radiated and non-radiated groups. Conclusions The authors report dose-dependent and clinically significant side effects of fractionated human equivalent radiation to the murine mandible. The authors further report the limited capacity of traditional micro-CT metrics to adequately capture key changes in bone composition and present microdensitometric histogram analysis in order to demonstrate significant radiation induced changes in mineralization patterns. PMID:24036733

  10. Direct and indirect tasks on assessment of dose and time distributions and thresholds of acute radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Osovets, S V; Azizova, T V; Day, R D; Wald, N; Moseeva, M B

    2012-02-01

    Mathematical methods were developed to construct dose and time distributions and their associated risks and threshold values for lethal and non-lethal effects of acute radiation exposure to include mortality and incidence, prodromal vomiting, and agranulocytosis. A new distribution (T-model) was obtained to describe time parameters of acute radiation syndrome such as the latency period, time to onset of vomiting, and time to initiation of agranulocytosis. Based on the dose and time distributions, the parameter translation method was defined using an orthogonal regression, which allows one to solve for these distributions in the case of acute radiation exposure. The assessment of threshold doses was performed for some effects of acute radiation syndrome: for the latency period, ∼6-8 Gy absorbed dose and ∼0.7-0.9 h time to onset of vomiting; and for incidence (agranulocytosis), ∼2-3 Gy absorbed dose and ∼2-3 h time to onset of vomiting. The obtained new formula for assessment of radiation risk is applicable to the time parameters of acute radiation syndrome.

  11. Prenatal radiation exposure: dose calculation.

    PubMed

    Scharwächter, C; Röser, A; Schwartz, C A; Haage, P

    2015-05-01

    The unborn child requires special protection. In this context, the indication for an X-ray examination is to be checked critically. If thereupon radiation of the lower abdomen including the uterus cannot be avoided, the examination should be postponed until the end of pregnancy or alternative examination techniques should be considered. Under certain circumstances, either accidental or in unavoidable cases after a thorough risk assessment, radiation exposure of the unborn may take place. In some of these cases an expert radiation hygiene consultation may be required. This consultation should comprise the expected risks for the unborn while not perturbing the mother or the involved medical staff. For the risk assessment in case of an in-utero x-ray exposition deterministic damages with a defined threshold dose are distinguished from stochastic damages without a definable threshold dose. The occurrence of deterministic damages depends on the dose and the developmental stage of the unborn at the time of radiation. To calculate the risks of an in-utero radiation exposure a three-stage concept is commonly applied. Depending on the amount of radiation, the radiation dose is either estimated, roughly calculated using standard tables or, in critical cases, accurately calculated based on the individual event. The complexity of the calculation thereby increases from stage to stage. An estimation based on stage one is easily feasible whereas calculations based on stages two and especially three are more complex and often necessitate execution by specialists. This article demonstrates in detail the risks for the unborn child pertaining to its developmental phase and explains the three-stage concept as an evaluation scheme. It should be noted, that all risk estimations are subject to considerable uncertainties. • Radiation exposure of the unborn child can result in both deterministic as well as stochastic damage und hitherto should be avoided or reduced to a minimum

  12. Revised series of stylized anthropometric phantoms for internal and external radiation dose assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Eunyoung

    At present, the dosimetry systems of both the International Commission on Radiological Protection, and the Society of Nuclear Medicine's Medical Internal Radiation Dose Committee utilize a series of stylized or mathematical anthropometric models of patient anatomy developed in 1987 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In this study, substantial revisions to the ORNL phantom series are reported with tissue compositions, tissue densities, and organ masses adjusted to match their most recent values in the literature. In addition, both the ICRP and MIRD systems of internal dosimetry implicitly consider that electron and beta-particle energy emitted within the source organs of the patient are fully deposited within these organs. With the development of the revised ORNL phantom series, three additional applications were explored as part of this dissertation research. First, the phantoms were used in combination to assess external radiation exposures to family members caring or interacting with patients released from the hospital following radionuclide therapy with I-131. Values of family member effective dose are then compared to values obtained using NRC guidance and based on a simple point-source methodology which ignores the effects of photon attenuation and scatter within both the source individual (patient) and the target individual (family member). Second, the anatomical structures of the extrathoracic airways and thoracic airways (exclusive of the lungs themselves) have been included in the entire revised ORNL phantom series of pediatric individuals. Values of cross-region photon dose are explored for use in radioactive aerosol inhalation exposures to members of the general public, and comparisons are made to values given by the ICRP in which surrogate organ assignments were made in the absence of explicit models of these airways. Finally, the revised ORNL phantoms of the adult male and adult female are used to determine internal photon exposures to

  13. Radiation Dose Assessments for the Embryo, Fetus, and Nursing Infant during Operation Tomodachi

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station units’ radiological releases that followed the earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011. The...Tomodachi, Radiation Dose, Department of Defense, Japan, Fukushima , Earthquake, Tsunami, Embryo, Fetus, Nursing Infant 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...two months following the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS). As discussed in Cassata et al. (2012), this population was

  14. Assessment of knowledge and awareness among radiology personnel regarding current computed tomography technology and radiation dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, M. K. A.; Hashim, S.; Bradley, D. A.; Bahruddin, N. A.; Ang, W. C.; Salehhon, N.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the level of knowledge and awareness among 120 radiology personnel working in 7 public hospitals in Johor, Malaysia, concerning Computed Tomography (CT) technology and radiation doses based on a set of questionnaires. Subjects were divided into two groups (Medical profession (Med, n=32) and Allied health profession (AH, n=88). The questionnaires are addressed: (1) demographic data (2) relative radiation dose and (3) knowledge of current CT technology. One-third of respondents from both groups were able to estimate relative radiation dose for routine CT examinations. 68% of the allied health profession personnel knew of the Malaysia regulations entitled ‘Basic Safety Standard (BSS) 2010’, although notably 80% of them had previously attended a radiation protection course. No significant difference (p < 0.05) in mean scores of CT technology knowledge detected between the two groups, with the medical professions producing a mean score of (26.7 ± 2.7) and the allied health professions a mean score of (25.2 ± 4.3). This study points to considerable variation among the respondents concerning their understanding of knowledge and awareness of risks of radiation and CT optimization techniques.

  15. ISCORS ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVITY IN SEWAGE SLUDGE: MODELING TO ASSESS RADIATION DOSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) has recently completed a study of the occurrence within the United States of radioactive materials in sewage sludge and sewage incineration ash. One component of that effort was an examination of the possible tran...

  16. ISCORS ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVITY IN SEWAGE SLUDGE: MODELING TO ASSESS RADIATION DOSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) has recently completed a study of the occurrence within the United States of radioactive materials in sewage sludge and sewage incineration ash. One component of that effort was an examination of the possible tran...

  17. Accurate dose assessment system for an exposed person utilising radiation transport calculation codes in emergency response to a radiological accident.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, F; Shigemori, Y; Seki, A

    2009-01-01

    A system has been developed to assess radiation dose distribution inside the body of exposed persons in a radiological accident by utilising radiation transport calculation codes-MCNP and MCNPX. The system consists mainly of two parts, pre-processor and post-processor of the radiation transport calculation. Programs for the pre-processor are used to set up a 'problem-dependent' input file, which defines the accident condition and dosimetric quantities to be estimated. The program developed for the post-processor part can effectively indicate dose information based upon the output file of the code. All of the programs in the dosimetry system can be executed with a generally used personal computer and accurately give the dose profile to an exposed person in a radiological accident without complicated procedures. An experiment using a physical phantom was carried out to verify the availability of the dosimetry system with the developed programs in a gamma ray irradiation field.

  18. Radiation transport modeling and assessment to better predict radiation exposure, dose, and toxicological effects to human organs on long duration space flights.

    PubMed

    Denkins, P; Badhwar, G; Obot, V; Wilson, B; Jejelewo, O

    2001-01-01

    NASA is very interested in improving its ability to monitor and forecast the radiation levels that pose a health risk to space-walking astronauts as they construct the International Space Station and astronauts that will participate in long-term and deep-space missions. Human exploratory missions to the moon and Mars within the next quarter century, will expose crews to transient radiation from solar particle events which include high-energy galactic cosmic rays and high-energy protons. Because the radiation levels in space are high and solar activity is presently unpredictable, adequate shielding is needed to minimize the deleterious health effects of exposure to radiation. Today, numerous models have been developed and used to predict radiation exposure. Such a model is the Space Environment Information Systems (SPENVIS) modeling program, developed by the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronautics. SPENVIS, which has been assessed to be an excellent tool in characterizing the radiation environment for microelectronics and investigating orbital debris, is being evaluated for its usefulness with determining the dose and dose-equivalent for human exposure. Thus far. the calculations for dose-depth relations under varying shielding conditions have been in agreement with calculations done using HZETRN and PDOSE, which are well-known and widely used models for characterizing the environments for human exploratory missions. There is disagreement when assessing the impact of secondary radiation particles since SPENVIS does a crude estimation of the secondary radiation particles when calculating LET versus Flux. SPENVIS was used to model dose-depth relations for the blood-forming organs. Radiation sickness and cancer are life-threatening consequences resulting from radiation exposure. In space. exposure to radiation generally includes all of the critical organs. Biological and toxicological impacts have been included for discussion along with alternative risk mitigation

  19. Radiation transport modeling and assessment to better predict radiation exposure, dose, and toxicological effects to human organs on long duration space flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denkins, P.; Badhwar, G.; Obot, V.; Wilson, B.; Jejelewo, O.

    2001-01-01

    NASA is very interested in improving its ability to monitor and forecast the radiation levels that pose a health risk to space-walking astronauts as they construct the International Space Station and astronauts that will participate in long-term and deep-space missions. Human exploratory missions to the moon and Mars within the next quarter century, will expose crews to transient radiation from solar particle events which include high-energy galactic cosmic rays and high-energy protons. Because the radiation levels in space are high and solar activity is presently unpredictable, adequate shielding is needed to minimize the deleterious health effects of exposure to radiation. Today, numerous models have been developed and used to predict radiation exposure. Such a model is the Space Environment Information Systems (SPENVIS) modeling program, developed by the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronautics. SPENVIS, which has been assessed to be an excellent tool in characterizing the radiation environment for microelectronics and investigating orbital debris, is being evaluated for its usefulness with determining the dose and dose-equivalent for human exposure. Thus far. the calculations for dose-depth relations under varying shielding conditions have been in agreement with calculations done using HZETRN and PDOSE, which are well-known and widely used models for characterizing the environments for human exploratory missions. There is disagreement when assessing the impact of secondary radiation particles since SPENVIS does a crude estimation of the secondary radiation particles when calculating LET versus Flux. SPENVIS was used to model dose-depth relations for the blood-forming organs. Radiation sickness and cancer are life-threatening consequences resulting from radiation exposure. In space. exposure to radiation generally includes all of the critical organs. Biological and toxicological impacts have been included for discussion along with alternative risk mitigation

  20. Radiation transport modeling and assessment to better predict radiation exposure, dose, and toxicological effects to human organs on long duration space flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denkins, P.; Badhwar, G.; Obot, V.; Wilson, B.; Jejelewo, O.

    2001-01-01

    NASA is very interested in improving its ability to monitor and forecast the radiation levels that pose a health risk to space-walking astronauts as they construct the International Space Station and astronauts that will participate in long-term and deep-space missions. Human exploratory missions to the moon and Mars within the next quarter century, will expose crews to transient radiation from solar particle events which include high-energy galactic cosmic rays and high-energy protons. Because the radiation levels in space are high and solar activity is presently unpredictable, adequate shielding is needed to minimize the deleterious health effects of exposure to radiation. Today, numerous models have been developed and used to predict radiation exposure. Such a model is the Space Environment Information Systems (SPENVIS) modeling program, developed by the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronautics. SPENVIS, which has been assessed to be an excellent tool in characterizing the radiation environment for microelectronics and investigating orbital debris, is being evaluated for its usefulness with determining the dose and dose-equivalent for human exposure. Thus far. the calculations for dose-depth relations under varying shielding conditions have been in agreement with calculations done using HZETRN and PDOSE, which are well-known and widely used models for characterizing the environments for human exploratory missions. There is disagreement when assessing the impact of secondary radiation particles since SPENVIS does a crude estimation of the secondary radiation particles when calculating LET versus Flux. SPENVIS was used to model dose-depth relations for the blood-forming organs. Radiation sickness and cancer are life-threatening consequences resulting from radiation exposure. In space. exposure to radiation generally includes all of the critical organs. Biological and toxicological impacts have been included for discussion along with alternative risk mitigation

  1. Assessment of Radiation doses to Paediatric Patients in Computed Tomography Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Alzimami, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The use of pediatric CT that had recently emerged as a valuable imaging tool has increased rapidly with an annual growth estimated at about 10% per year. Worldwide, there is a remarkable increase in the number of CT examinations performed. The purposes of this study are to: (i) to measure the radiation dose and estimate the effective doses to pediatric patients during CT for chest, abdomen and brain. Material/Methods A total of 182 patients were investigated. CT scanners that participated in this study are helical CT scanners (64 slices, 16 slices and dual slices). Organ and surface dose to specific radiosensitive organs were estimated by using software from National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB). Results For all patients, the age was ranged between 1.12 month–10.0 years while the weight was ranged between 5.0 kg to 29.0 kg. The DLP was 320.58 mGy·cm, 79.93 mGy·cm, 66.63 mGy·cm for brain, abdomen and chest respectively. The effective dose was, 2.05, 1.8, 1.08 mSv for brain, abdomen and chest respectively. Conclusions The patient dose is independent of CT modality and depends on operator experience and CT protocol. The study has shown a great need for referring criteria, continuous training of staff in radiation protection concepts. Further studies are required in order to establish a reference level in Sudan. PMID:25289112

  2. Coronary CT angiography with low radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Zhang, Zhaoqi

    2010-02-01

    With the introduction of 64-slice CT and dual-source CT technology, coronary CT angiography(CCTA) has emerged as a useful diagnostic imaging modality for the noninvasive assessment of coronary heart disease. Recently, the risks associated with ionizing radiation on CT have raised serious concerns.The main concern of exposure to ionizing radiation is the potential risk of cancer. CCTA involves much higher radiation dose with the advances in the spatial and temporal resolution of cardiac CT. Currently,various dose-saving algorithms, such as ECG (electrocardiography)-based dose modulation, reduced tube voltage, and prospective ECG gating, high-pitch helical scanning are available to lower radiation exposure during cardiac CT. Therefore, careful selection of CT scanning protocols is needed to keep the radiation exposure 'as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)'. In this review we will discuss the radiation dose safety issues, the measurement of radiation dose and current use of dose-saving techniques in CCTA.

  3. Geosciences help to protect human health: estimation of the adsorbed radiation doses while flight journeys, as important step to radiation risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernov, Anatolii; Shabatura, Olexandr

    2016-04-01

    Estimation of the adsorbed radiation dose while flight journeys is a complex problem, which should be solved to get correct evaluation of equivalent effective doses and radiation risk assessment. Direct measurements of the adsorbed dose in the aircrafts during regional flights (3-10 hours) has shown that the radiation in the plane may increase 10-15 times (to 2-4 mSv/h) compared to the values on the surface of the Earth (0.2-0.5 mSv/h). Results of instrumental research confirmed by the other investigations. It is a fact that adsorbed doses per year while flight journeys are less than doses from medical tests. However, while flight journeys passengers get the same doses as nuclear power plant staff, people in zones of natural radiation anomalies and so should be evaluated. According to the authors' research, flight journeys are safe enough, when solar activity is normal and if we fly under altitude of 18 km (as usual, while intercontinental flights). Most of people travel by plane not so often, but if flight is lasting in dangerous periods of solar activity (powerful solar winds and magnetic field storms), passengers and flight crew can adsorb great amount of radiation doses. People, who spend more than 500 hours in flight journeys (pilots, business oriented persons', government representatives, etc.) get amount of radiation, which can negatively influence on health and provoke diseases, such as cancer. Authors consider that problem actual and researches are still going on. It is revealed, that radiation can be calculated, using special equations. Great part of radiation depends on very variable outer-space component and less variable solar. Accurate calculations of doses will be possible, when we will take into account all features of radiation distribution (time, season of year and exact time of the day, duration of flight), technical features of aircraft and logistics of flight (altitude, latitude). Results of first attempts of radiation doses modelling confirmed

  4. Technology Assessment and Roadmap for the Emergency Radiation Dose Assessment Program (ERDAP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    research, development, test , and evaluation services between the U.S. Department of Energy and the Regents of the University of California as operator of...assessment technologies. Conduct a demonstration program to assess the value of existing and proposed technologies • Conduct field tests and leverage...cost, size/weight, and ruggedness) in realistic test scenarios. • Luminescence, particularly Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) and Electron

  5. ASSESSMENT OF UNCERTAINTY IN THE RADIATION DOSES FOR THE TECHA RIVER DOSIMETRY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Shagina, N. B.

    2009-10-23

    In order to provide more accurate and precise estimates of individual dose (and thus more precise estimates of radiation risk) for the members of the ETRC, a new dosimetric calculation system, the Techa River Dosimetry System-2009 (TRDS-2009) has been prepared. The deterministic version of the improved dosimetry system TRDS-2009D was basically completed in April 2009. Recent developments in evaluation of dose-response models in light of uncertain dose have highlighted the importance of different types of uncertainties in the development of individual dose estimates. These include uncertain parameters that may be either shared or unshared within the dosimetric cohort, and also the nature of the type of uncertainty as aleatory or epistemic and either classical or Berkson. This report identifies the nature of the various input parameters and calculational methods incorporated in the Techa River Dosimetry System (based on the TRDS-2009D implementation), with the intention of preparing a stochastic version to estimate the uncertainties in the dose estimates. This report reviews the equations, databases, and input parameters, and then identifies the author’s interpretations of their general nature. It presents the approach selected so that the stochastic, Monte-Carlo, implementation of the dosimetry System - TRDS-2009MC - will provide useful information regarding the uncertainties of the doses.

  6. Influence of radiation dose and reconstruction algorithm in MDCT assessment of airway wall thickness: A phantom study

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Cardona, Daniel; Nagle, Scott K.; Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong; Robinson, Terry E.

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Wall thickness (WT) is an airway feature of great interest for the assessment of morphological changes in the lung parenchyma. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has recently been used to evaluate airway WT, but the potential risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis—particularly in younger patients—might limit a wider use of this imaging method in clinical practice. The recent commercial implementation of the statistical model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) algorithm, instead of the conventional filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm, has enabled considerable radiation dose reduction in many other clinical applications of MDCT. The purpose of this work was to study the impact of radiation dose and MBIR in the MDCT assessment of airway WT. Methods: An airway phantom was scanned using a clinical MDCT system (Discovery CT750 HD, GE Healthcare) at 4 kV levels and 5 mAs levels. Both FBP and a commercial implementation of MBIR (Veo{sup TM}, GE Healthcare) were used to reconstruct CT images of the airways. For each kV–mAs combination and each reconstruction algorithm, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the airways was measured, and the WT of each airway was measured and compared with the nominal value; the relative bias and the angular standard deviation in the measured WT were calculated. For each airway and reconstruction algorithm, the overall performance of WT quantification across all of the 20 kV–mAs combinations was quantified by the sum of squares (SSQs) of the difference between the measured and nominal WT values. Finally, the particular kV–mAs combination and reconstruction algorithm that minimized radiation dose while still achieving a reference WT quantification accuracy level was chosen as the optimal acquisition and reconstruction settings. Results: The wall thicknesses of seven airways of different sizes were analyzed in the study. Compared with FBP, MBIR improved the CNR of the airways, particularly at low radiation dose

  7. Preliminary radiation dose assessment for the Palmerton ore storage site, Palmerton, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C.

    1991-02-01

    Potential maximum radiation doses rates were calculated for the Palmerton ore storage site in Palmerton, Pennsylvania. The RESRAD computer code, which implements the methodology described in the US Department of Energy's manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation. Four potential scenarios were considered for the Palmerton ore storage site. Two scenarios were developed on the basis of industrial use of the site, and two were developed on the basis of residential use of the site. The scenarios also vary with regard to time spent at the site, sources of food consumed, and source terms. The RESRAD code was used to analyze potential radiation doses from three exposure pathways. The results indicate that the basic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr would not be exceeded in Scenarios A (industrial use, hot spot), B (industrial use, homogenous contamination), and C (residential use, homogenous contamination), but would be exceeded in Scenario D (residential use, hot spot). The potential maximum dose rates for Scenarios A, B, C, and D are 1.0 mrem/yr, 0.66 mrem/yr, and 360 mrem/yr, respectively. 3 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. Assessment of terrestrial gamma radiation doses for some Egyptian granite samples.

    PubMed

    El Arabi, A M; Ahmed, N K; Salahel Din, K

    2008-01-01

    External exposures of population to ionising radiation due to naturally occurring radionuclides in sixty-three granite samples from three different locations in south eastern desert of Egypt were considered in this article. Average outdoor gamma dose rates in air were 190, 290 and 330 nGy h(-1) for Elba, Qash Amir and Hamra Dome granites, respectively. The corresponding doses in indoor air are 270, 400 and 470 nGy h(-1), respectively. These average values give rise to annual effective dose (outdoor, indoor and in total) 0.24, 1.4 and 1.6 mSv for Elba granite. For Qash Amir and Hamra Dome granites the corresponding values were 0.35, 2 and 2.3 mSv and 0.41, 2.3 and 2.7 mSv, respectively.

  9. Assessment of radiation dose for surrounding organs and persons approaching implanted patients upon brachytherapy of prostate cancer with Iridium-192.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Kim, C S; Whang, J H

    2010-10-01

    To assess a proper dose for radiation therapy fitting the typical physical characteristics of male Korean bodies, a mathematical phantom was prepared based on standard Korean male measurements. Upon brachytherapy of prostate cancer by implanting 192Ir into the prostate gland (the source organ), the absorbed dose of the prostate gland and surrounding organs and the expected dose of people within the vicinity were assessed. 192Ir, which has been the radionuclide of choice for prostate cancer brachytherapy, was selected for the simulation. It was assumed that 1 Ci of initial radioactivity would be administered. As a result, 1.28E-02 Gy/Ci was exhibited in the prostate gland of the source organ, and the dose to which persons within the vicinity were exposed was exhibited to be 9.19E-06 Sv at a distance of 30 cm from the front.

  10. Field study of Ra accumulation in trout with assessment of radiation dose to man

    SciTech Connect

    Ropes, S.K.; Whicker, F.W.

    1985-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of /sup 226/Ra in edible fish from surface ponds near an open pit U mine. Because one reclamation plan for the U mine proposed formation of an artificial lake in the open pit, potential radiation dose to man from ingestion of fish needed to be investigated. Trout were collected from four existing ponds which varied in mean /sup 226/Ra concentration from 12-33 pCi/l and in Ca concentration from 30-330 mg Ca/l. Radium and Ca accumulation in trout flesh, skin, fins and bone were measured. Geometric mean concentrations of /sup 226/Ra in trout flesh from four ponds ranged from 6.3-30 pCi/kg wet weight. The distribution of Ra in the trout body was similar to that of Ca. The calculated dose equivalent commitment to human endosteal tissue range from 0.2-2 mrem per fish consumed, depending on the assumed dietary and environmental parameters. Neglecting the consumption of trout skin underestimated the ingestion dose from /sup 226/Ra by a factor of 5-10. Estimated annual dose equivalent rates to human endosteal tissue ranged from 1.0-83 mrem/yr for an individual who consumed one fish per week for a 50-yr period. The dose to man from ingestion of /sup 226/Ra in fish would not likely preclude the establishment of a recreational lake at this site.

  11. Experimental assessment of gold nanoparticle-mediated dose enhancement in radiation therapy beams using electron spin resonance dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, T.; Guidelli, E. J.; Gómez, J. A.; Baffa, O.; Nicolucci, P.

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we aim to experimentally assess increments of dose due to nanoparticle-radiation interactions via electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimetry performed with a biological-equivalent sensitive material. We employed 2-Methyl-Alanine (2MA) in powder form to compose the radiation sensitive medium embedding gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) 5 nm in diameter. Dosimeters manufactured with 0.1% w/w of AuNPs or no nanoparticles were irradiated with clinically utilized 250 kVp orthovoltage or 6 MV linac x-rays in dosimetric conditions. Amplitude peak-to-peak (App) at the central ESR spectral line was used for dosimetry. Dose-response curves were obtained for samples with or without nanoparticles and each energy beam. Dose increments due to nanoparticles were analyzed in terms of absolute dose enhancements (DEs), calculated as App ratios for each dose/beam condition, or relative dose enhancement factors (DEFs) calculated as the slopes of the dose-response curves. Dose enhancements were observed to present an amplified behavior for small doses (between 0.1-0.5 Gy), with this effect being more prominent with the kV beam. For doses between 0.5-5 Gy, dose-independent trends were observed for both beams, stable around (2.1   ±   0.7) and (1.3   ±   0.4) for kV and MV beams, respectively. We found DEFs of (1.62   ±   0.04) or (1.27   ±   0.03) for the same beams. Additionally, we measured no interference between AuNPs and the ESR apparatus, including the excitation microwaves, the magnetic fields and the paramagnetic radicals. 2MA was demonstrated to be a feasible paramagnetic radiation-sensitive material for dosimetry in the presence of AuNPs, and ESR dosimetry a powerful experimental method for further verifications of increments in nanoparticle-mediated doses of biological interest. Ultimately, gold nanoparticles can cause significant and detectable dose enhancements in biological-like samples irradiated at both

  12. Study of the radiation dose reduction capability of a CT reconstruction algorithm: LCD performance assessment using mathematical model observers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jiahua; Tseng, Hsin-Wu; Kupinski, Matthew; Cao, Guangzhi; Sainath, Paavana; Hsieh, Jiang

    2013-03-01

    Radiation dose on patient has become a major concern today for Computed Tomography (CT) imaging in clinical practice. Various hardware and algorithm solutions have been designed to reduce dose. Among them, iterative reconstruction (IR) has been widely expected to be an effective dose reduction approach for CT. However, there is no clear understanding on the exact amount of dose saving an IR approach can offer for various clinical applications. We know that quantitative image quality assessment should be task-based. This work applied mathematical model observers to study detectability performance of CT scan data reconstructed using an advanced IR approach as well as the conventional filtered back-projection (FBP) approach. The purpose of this work is to establish a practical and robust approach for CT IR detectability image quality evaluation and to assess the dose saving capability of the IR method under study. Low contrast (LC) objects imbedded in head size and body size phantoms were imaged multiple times with different dose levels. Independent signal present and absent pairs were generated for model observer study training and testing. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves for location known exact and location ROC (LROC) curves for location unknown as well as their corresponding the area under the curve (AUC) values were calculated. Results showed approximately 3 times dose reduction has been achieved using the IR method under study.

  13. Model for assessing radiation dose to epithelial cells of the human respiratory tract from radon progeny

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Hui, T.E.; James, A.C.

    1990-07-01

    A computational model was developed to evaluate radiation doses to sensitive cells from exposure to radon progeny throughout human bronchial epithelium. The model incorporated current information on nasal and oral filtration efficiencies for unattached radon progeny, characteristics of bronchial deposition by diffusive and inertial processes, mucous clearance and possible transfer of radon progeny to the airway epithelium, locations of target nuclei of secretory and basal cells in different regions of the bronchial tree epithelium, and other features. The model is useful for evaluating absorbed doses to various populations of target cell nuclei, the associated microdosimetric probability densities in specific energy, and the likelihood that target nuclei are hit one or more times by alpha-particle tracks. The model was applied to extrapolating lung cancer risks observed in underground miners to the general population exposed to low-level radon progeny in indoor home environments. The effect of increasing exposure rates by one and two orders of magnitude in both environments was modeled to determine the frequency of radiation events in target cell nuclei. The implications of dosimetric modeling for lung cancer risk analysis were also examined. 28 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Effective radiation doses associated with non-invasive versus invasive assessment of coronary anatomy and physiology.

    PubMed

    Toth, G G; Ntalianis, A; Ntarladimas, Y; de Booij, M; De Winter, O; Barbato, E; Pilet, B; Van Mieghem, C; Wijns, W; De Bruyne, B

    2015-06-01

    To compare the effective radiation dose (ERD) needed to obtain information on coronary anatomy and physiology by a non-invasive versus an invasive diagnostic strategy. Knowledge of anatomy and physiology is needed for management of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). There is, however, a growing concern about detrimental long-term effects of radiation associated with diagnostic procedures. In a total of 671 patients with suspected CAD, we compared the ERD needed to obtain anatomical and physiological information through a non-invasive strategy or an invasive strategy. The non-invasive strategy consisted of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The invasive strategy included coronary angiography (CA) and fractional flow reserve (FFR) measurement. In 464 patients, the data were acquired in Period 2009 and in 207 the data were acquired in Period 2011 (after each period, the CCTA- and the CA-equipment had been upgraded). For the Period 2009 total ERD of the non-invasive approach was significantly larger compared to the invasive approach (28.45 ± 5.37 mSv versus 15.79 ± 7.95 mSv, respectively; P < 0.0001). For Period 2011, despite the significant decrease in ERD for both groups (P<0.0001 for both), the ERD remained higher for the non-invasive approach compared to the invasive approach (16.67 ± 10.45 mSv vs. 10.36 ± 5.87 mSv, respectively; P < 0.0001). Simulation of various diagnostic scenarios showed cumulative radiation dose is the lowest when a first positive test is followed by an invasive strategy. To obtain anatomic and physiologic information in patients with suspected CAD, the combination of CA and FFR is associated with lower ERD than the combination of CCTA and SPECT. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Low-cost teleoperator-controlled vehicle for damage assessment and radiation dose measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Tyree, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    A low-cost, disposable, radio-controlled, remote-reading, ionizing radiation and surveillance teleoperator re-entry vehicle has been built. The vehicle carries equipment, measures radiation levels, and evaluates building conditions. The basic vehicle, radio control with amplifiers, telemetry, elevator, and video camera with monitor cost less than $2500. Velcro-mounted alpha, beta-gamma, and neutron sensing equipment is used in the present system. Many types of health physics radiation measuring equipment may be substituted on the vehicle. The system includes a black-and-white video camera to observe the environment surrounding the vehicle. The camera is mounted on a vertical elevator extendible to 11 feet above the floor. The present vehicle uses a video camera with an umbilical cord between the vehicle and the operators. Preferred operation would eliminate the umbilical. Video monitoring equipment is part of the operator control system. Power for the vehicle equipment is carried on board and supplied by sealed lead-acid batteries. Radios are powered by 9-V alkaline batteries. The radio control receiver, servo drivers, high-power amplifier and 49-MHz FM transceivers were irradiated at moderate rates with neutron and gamma doses to 3000 Rem and 300 Rem, respectively, to ensure system operation.

  16. An assessment of immediate DNA damage to occupationally exposed workers to low dose ionizing radiation by using the comet assay.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Angélica; Coleman, Matthew; Romero-Talamás, Carlos Alejandro; Frias, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Several cytogenetic studies have shown an increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations for workers exposed to low dose ionizing radiation, however the dose, type of radiation and management vary among the areas of work; it is possible that this variation may generate different quantity of DNA damage, detectable within the first hours after exposure of the personnel. In this study we assessed early DNA lesions caused by exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation in 41 workers from the departments of Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy and a group of 20 healthy unexposed individuals, all from the same Institution. Blood samples were obtained from exposed and unexposed subjects for analysis of DNA damage using the comet assay. The migration of the comet's tail was compared before and after the workday, as well as among the groups; the relationship between DNA migration and the exposure dose of the month was also obtained. A significant increase in damage to DNA was seen after workday for the occupationally exposed group (p < 0.01) as compared with the samples before workday as well as with those from the unexposed group. A positive correlation was found between the monthly dose of radiation and the migration length of DNA before and after the workday (p < 0.01). There were significant differences in the length of the comet tails among workers from different departments: workers from Radiology (28.6 microm) have less DNA damage than those from Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy (92.5 microm, 63.4 microm respectively) departments. All the workers occupationally exposed showed an increase in DNA fragmentation after the workday. The amount of radiation in all three services is different, in Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy the workers showed a greater monthly dose of exposure and greater DNA damage than the Radiology workers. The longer tails were observed in Nuclear Medicine where radionuclides are used; these radioactive substances are handled and

  17. Probabilistic assessment of the influence of lake properties in long-term radiation doses to humans.

    PubMed

    Pohjola, Jari; Turunen, Jari; Lipping, Tarmo; Ikonen, Ari T K

    2016-11-01

    The assessment processes concerning the safety of nuclear waste repositories include the modelling of radionuclide transport in biosphere and the evaluation of the doses to the most affected humans. In this paper, a scenario, in which a contaminated lake is the water source for drinking water, irrigation water and watering of livestock, is presented. The objective of the paper is to probabilistically study the influence of lake properties as parameters in the assessment scenario. The properties of the lake are a result of previously conducted probabilistic studies, where the land uplift of the terrain surrounding the repositories and the formation of water bodies were studied in a 10,000-year time span using Monte Carlo simulation. The lake is formed at 3000 years from present day and the changing properties of the lake have been used in the study. The studied radionuclides (36)Cl, (135)Cs, (129)I, (237)Np, (90)Sr, (99)Tc and (238)U enter the lake with a rate of 1 Bq/year. The transport process from the lake water to humans is described and the doses (dose conversion factors) to adult humans are evaluated based on a study on average food consumption. Sensitivity analysis is used for identifying the parameters having the most influence on the outcome of the dose. Based on the results from the sensitivity analysis, the volumetric outflow rate of the lake and the volume of the lake were taken into closer consideration. The results show the influence of probabilistically derived geomorphic lake input parameters on the dose.

  18. Radiotherapy for benign disease; assessing the risk of radiation-induced cancer following exposure to intermediate dose radiation

    PubMed Central

    Hatfield, Paul; Prestwich, Robin JD; Shaffer, Richard E; Taylor, Roger E

    2015-01-01

    Most radiotherapy (RT) involves the use of high doses (>50 Gy) to treat malignant disease. However, low to intermediate doses (approximately 3–50 Gy) can provide effective control of a number of benign conditions, ranging from inflammatory/proliferative disorders (e.g. Dupuytren's disease, heterotopic ossification, keloid scarring, pigmented villonodular synovitis) to benign tumours (e.g. glomus tumours or juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas). Current use in UK RT departments is very variable. This review identifies those benign diseases for which RT provides good control of symptoms with, for the most part, minimal side effects. However, exposure to radiation has the potential to cause a radiation-induced cancer (RIC) many years after treatment. The evidence for the magnitude of this risk comes from many disparate sources and is constrained by the small number of long-term studies in relevant clinical cohorts. This review considers the types of evidence available, i.e. theoretical models, phantom studies, epidemiological studies, long-term follow-up of cancer patients and those treated for benign disease, although many of the latter data pertain to treatments that are no longer used. Informative studies are summarized and considered in relation to the potential for development of a RIC in a range of key tissues (skin, brain etc.). Overall, the evidence suggests that the risks of cancer following RT for benign disease for currently advised protocols are small, especially in older patients. However, the balance of risk vs benefit needs to be considered in younger adults and especially if RT is being considered in adolescents or children. PMID:26462717

  19. Radiation dose assessment methodology and preliminary dose estimates to support US Department of Energy radiation control criteria for regulated treatment and disposal of hazardous wastes and materials

    SciTech Connect

    Aaberg, R.L.; Baker, D.A.; Rhoads, K.; Jarvis, M.F.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1995-07-01

    This report provides unit dose to concentration levels that may be used to develop control criteria for radionuclide activity in hazardous waste; if implemented, these criteria would be developed to provide an adequate level of public and worker health protection, for wastes regulated under U.S, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements (as derived from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act [RCRA] and/or the Toxic Substances Control Act [TSCA]). Thus, DOE and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission can fulfill their obligation to protect the public from radiation by ensuring that such wastes are appropriately managed, while simultaneously reducing the current level of dual regulation. In terms of health protection, dual regulation of very small quantities of radionuclides provides no benefit.

  20. Radiation: Doses, Effects, Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lean, Geoffrey, Ed.

    Few scientific issues arouse as much public controversy as the effects of radiation. This booklet is an attempt to summarize what is known about radiation and provide a basis for further discussion and debate. The first four chapters of the booklet are based on the most recent reports to the United Nations' General Assembly by the United Nations…

  1. (32)P measurment of urine samples and internal dose assessment for radiation workers in life science laboratories.

    PubMed

    Yoon, S; Pak, M-J; Park, S; Yoo, J; Ha, W-H; Jang, H-K; Kim, J K

    2014-12-01

    (32)P measurements of urine samples and internal dose assessments were conducted for workers in life science laboratories. A procedure for sample pre-treatment was established and validation was performed to exclude interference and to detect (32)P levels accurately. The detection conditions for Cherenkov radiation were evaluated and the accuracy of Cherenkov radiation measurements validated. The analytical and measurement procedures were applied to urine samples collected from 11 workers from life sciences laboratories. The results of the measurements generally indicated very low background radiation levels, but daily urine samples from two workers were above the minimum detectable activity. The (32)P concentrations for two of the workers were 29.3  ±  10.4 Bq•d(-1) and 24.1  ±  11.8 Bq•d(-1), respectively, at intake levels of 4.12 kBq and 2.61 kBq. The effective doses for these two workers were 4.6 μSv and 2.9 μSv. Overall, the results indicate very low levels of radioactivity, except for cases related to specific working conditions.

  2. Evaluation of the Comet Assay for Assessing the Dose-Response Relationship of DNA Damage Induced by Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Chang; Du, Li Qing; Cao, Jia; Liu, Jian Xiang; Su, Xu; Zhao, Hui; Fan, Fei-Yue; Wang, Bing; Katsube, Takanori; Fan, Sai Jun; Liu, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Dose- and time-response curves were combined to assess the potential of the comet assay in radiation biodosimetry. The neutral comet assay was used to detect DNA double-strand breaks in lymphocytes caused by γ-ray irradiation. A clear dose-response relationship with DNA double-strand breaks using the comet assay was found at different times after irradiation (p < 0.001). A time-response relationship was also found within 72 h after irradiation (p < 0.001). The curves for DNA double-strand breaks and DNA repair in vitro of human lymphocytes presented a nice model, and a smooth, three-dimensional plane model was obtained when the two curves were combined. PMID:24240807

  3. Radiation Transport Modeling and Assessment to Better Predict Radiation Exposure, Dose, and Toxicological Effects to Human Organs on Long Duration Space Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denkins, Pamela; Badhwar, Gautam; Obot, Victor

    2000-01-01

    NASA's long-range plans include possible human exploratory missions to the moon and Mars within the next quarter century. Such missions beyond low Earth orbit will expose crews to transient radiation from solar particle events which include high-energy galactic cosmic rays and high-energy protons. Because the radiation levels in space are high and the missions long, adequate shielding is needed to minimize the deleterious health effects of exposure to radiation. The focus of this study is radiation exposure to the blood-forming organs of the NASA astronauts. NASA/JSC developed the Phantom Torso Experiment for Organ Dose Measurements which housed active and passive dosimeters that would monitor and record absorbed radiation levels at vital organ locations. This experiment was conducted during the STS-9 I mission in May '98 and provided the necessary space radiation data for correlation to results obtained from the current analytical models used to predict exposure to the blood-forming organs. Numerous models (i.e., BRYNTRN and HZETRN) have been developed and used to predict radiation exposure. However, new models are continually being developed and evaluated. The Space Environment Information Systems (SPENVIS) modeling program, developed by the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, is to be used and evaluated as a part of the research activity. It is the intent of this research effort to compare the modeled data to the findings from the STS-9 I mission; assess the accuracy and efficiency of this model; and to determine its usefulness for predicting radiation exposure and developing better guidelines for shielding requirements for long duration manned missions.

  4. Radiation dose to the global flying population.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Luis E; Eastham, Sebastian D; Barrett, Steven R H

    2016-03-01

    Civil airliner passengers and crew are exposed to elevated levels of radiation relative to being at sea level. Previous studies have assessed the radiation dose received in particular cases or for cohort studies. Here we present the first estimate of the total radiation dose received by the worldwide civilian flying population. We simulated flights globally from 2000 to 2013 using schedule data, applying a radiation propagation code to estimate the dose associated with each flight. Passengers flying in Europe and North America exceed the International Commission on Radiological Protection annual dose limits at an annual average of 510 or 420 flight hours per year, respectively. However, this falls to 160 or 120 h on specific routes under maximum exposure conditions.

  5. Assessment of uncertainties in radiation-induced cancer risk predictions at clinically relevant doses

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, J.; Moteabbed, M.; Paganetti, H.

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Theoretical dose–response models offer the possibility to assess second cancer induction risks after external beam therapy. The parameters used in these models are determined with limited data from epidemiological studies. Risk estimations are thus associated with considerable uncertainties. This study aims at illustrating uncertainties when predicting the risk for organ-specific second cancers in the primary radiation field illustrated by choosing selected treatment plans for brain cancer patients. Methods: A widely used risk model was considered in this study. The uncertainties of the model parameters were estimated with reported data of second cancer incidences for various organs. Standard error propagation was then subsequently applied to assess the uncertainty in the risk model. Next, second cancer risks of five pediatric patients treated for cancer in the head and neck regions were calculated. For each case, treatment plans for proton and photon therapy were designed to estimate the uncertainties (a) in the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) for a given treatment modality and (b) when comparing risks of two different treatment modalities. Results: Uncertainties in excess of 100% of the risk were found for almost all organs considered. When applied to treatment plans, the calculated LAR values have uncertainties of the same magnitude. A comparison between cancer risks of different treatment modalities, however, does allow statistically significant conclusions. In the studied cases, the patient averaged LAR ratio of proton and photon treatments was 0.35, 0.56, and 0.59 for brain carcinoma, brain sarcoma, and bone sarcoma, respectively. Their corresponding uncertainties were estimated to be potentially below 5%, depending on uncertainties in dosimetry. Conclusions: The uncertainty in the dose–response curve in cancer risk models makes it currently impractical to predict the risk for an individual external beam treatment. On the other hand, the ratio

  6. Assessment of dose reconstruction errors in image-guided radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Hualiang; Weiss, Elisabeth; Siebers, Jeffrey V

    2010-01-01

    Dose reconstruction can be used to improve the accuracy of dose evaluation throughout a treatment course. Its working mechanism is based on deformable image registration (DIR). The purpose of this paper is to develop a method to estimate the dose reconstruction error associated with the inaccuracy of DIR algorithms. To reach this goal, we quantified dominant errors in DIR in terms of unbalanced energy (UE), which were compared with the standard displacement error (SDE). Their high similarity, characterized by Pearson correlation coefficient, was verified through nine ‘demons’ registration instances performed within simulated reference frames. Based on the similarity, the dose-warping discrepancy at each voxel was defined as a line integral of the dose gradient within the voxel's neighborhood whose boundary was determined by the voxel's UE value. From this definition, the dose reconstruction error was then calculated at each voxel on nine prostate computed tomography images, obtained from a patient treatment course. The average of the Pearson correlation coefficients between UE and SDE over the simulated registration instances was above 70%. The mean value of the dose reconstruction errors in a target volume was calculated for each of nine treatment fractions. The averaged percentage of these mean values with respect to the prescribed dose on the target volume was 1.68%. These results are consistent with contour-based mean dose error evaluations. This paper has established a relation between a registration error and its induced dose reconstruction discrepancy. It allows an automatic validation method to be developed to estimate the dose accumulation error at each voxel in clinical settings. PMID:18199911

  7. Radiation dose estimates for radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Stabin, M.G.; Stubbs, J.B.; Toohey, R.E.

    1996-04-01

    Tables of radiation dose estimates based on the Cristy-Eckerman adult male phantom are provided for a number of radiopharmaceuticals commonly used in nuclear medicine. Radiation dose estimates are listed for all major source organs, and several other organs of interest. The dose estimates were calculated using the MIRD Technique as implemented in the MIRDOSE3 computer code, developed by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Radiation Internal Dose Information Center. In this code, residence times for source organs are used with decay data from the MIRD Radionuclide Data and Decay Schemes to produce estimates of radiation dose to organs of standardized phantoms representing individuals of different ages. The adult male phantom of the Cristy-Eckerman phantom series is different from the MIRD 5, or Reference Man phantom in several aspects, the most important of which is the difference in the masses and absorbed fractions for the active (red) marrow. The absorbed fractions for flow energy photons striking the marrow are also different. Other minor differences exist, but are not likely to significantly affect dose estimates calculated with the two phantoms. Assumptions which support each of the dose estimates appears at the bottom of the table of estimates for a given radiopharmaceutical. In most cases, the model kinetics or organ residence times are explicitly given. The results presented here can easily be extended to include other radiopharmaceuticals or phantoms.

  8. FT-IR spectroscopy assessment of aesthetic dental materials irradiated with low-dose therapeutic ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, A. D.; Almeida, S. M.; Rastelli, A. N. S.; Bagnato, V. S.; Byscolo, F. N.

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of low-dose therapeutic ionizing radiation on different aesthetic dental materials. Forty five specimens ( n = 45) of three different aesthetic restorative materials were prepared and randomly divided into five groups: G1 (control group); G2, G3, G4, G5 experimental groups irradiated respectively with 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 Gy of gamma radiation by the 60Co teletherapy machine. Chemical analyses were performed using a FT-IR Nicolet 520 spectrophotometer with reflectance diffuse technique. Even a minimal exposition at ionizing radiation in therapeutic doses can provide chemical changes on light-cured composite resins. The three studied restorative materials showed changes after exposure at gamma radiation, however the increase of the radiation dose did not contribute to an increase in this effect.

  9. Assessment of radiation doses from residential smoke detectors that contain americium-241

    SciTech Connect

    O'Donnell, F.R.; Etnier, E.L.; Holton, G.A.; Travis, C.C.

    1981-10-01

    External dose equivalents and internal dose commitments were estimated for individuals and populations from annual distribution, use, and disposal of 10 million ionization chamber smoke detectors that contain 110 kBq (3 ..mu..Ci) americium-241 each. Under exposure scenarios developed for normal distribution, use, and disposal using the best available information, annual external dose equivalents to average individuals were estimated to range from 4 fSv (0.4 prem) to 20 nSv (2 ..mu..rem) for total body and from 7 fSv to 40 nSv for bone. Internal dose commitments to individuals under post disposal scenarios were estimated to range from 0.006 to 80 ..mu..Sv (0.0006 to 8 mrem) to total body and from 0.06 to 800 ..mu..Sv to bone. The total collective dose (the sum of external dose equivalents and 50-year internal dose commitments) for all individuals involved with distribution, use, or disposal of 10 million smoke detectors was estimated to be about 0.38 person-Sv (38 person-rem) to total body and 00 ft/sup 2/).

  10. Low-dose radiation exposure and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keiji; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2012-07-01

    Absorption of energy from ionizing radiation by the genetic material in the cell leads to damage to DNA, which in turn leads to cell death, chromosome aberrations and gene mutations. While early or deterministic effects result from organ and tissue damage caused by cell killing, latter two are considered to be involved in the initial events that lead to the development of cancer. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the dose-response relationships for cancer induction and quantitative evaluations of cancer risk following exposure to moderate to high doses of low-linear energy transfer radiation. A linear, no-threshold model has been applied to assessment of the risks resulting from exposure to moderate and high doses of ionizing radiation; however, a statistically significant increase has hardly been described for radiation doses below 100 mSv. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the physical and biological features of low-dose radiation and discusses the possibilities of induction of cancer by low-dose radiation.

  11. The feasibility assessment of radiation dose of movement 3D NIPAM gel by magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Chih-Ming; Leung, Joseph Hang; Ng, Yu-Bun; Cheng, Chih-Wu; Sun, Jung-Chang; Lin, Ping-Chin; Hsieh, Bor-Tsung

    2015-11-01

    NIPAM dosimeter is widely accepted and recommended for its 3D distribution and accuracy in dose absorption. Up to the moment, most research works on dose measurement are based on a fixed irradiation target without the consideration of the effect from physiological motion. We present a study to construct a respiratory motion simulating patient anatomical and dosimetry model for the study of dosimetic effect of organ motion. The dose on fixed and motion targets was measured by MRI after a dose adminstration of 1, 2, 5, 8, and 10 Gy from linear accelerator. Comparison of two situations is made. The average sensitivity of fixed NIPAM was 0.1356 s-1/Gy with linearity R2=0.998. The average sensitivity of movement NIPAM was 0.1366 s-1/Gy with linearity R2=0.998 both having only 0.001 of the sensitivity difference. The difference between the two based on dose rate dependency, position and depth was not significant. There was thus no apparent impact on NIPAM dosimeter from physiological motion. The high sensitivity, linearity and stability of NIPAM dosimeter proved to be an ideal apparatus in the dose measurement in these circumstances.

  12. Atmospheric radiation flight dose rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. K.

    2015-12-01

    Space weather's effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the energy transfer processes from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. Of the domains that are affected by space weather, the coupling between the solar and galactic high-energy particles, the magnetosphere, and atmospheric regions can significantly affect humans and our technology as a result of radiation exposure. Space Environment Technologies (SET) has been conducting space weather observations of the atmospheric radiation environment at aviation altitudes that will eventually be transitioned into air traffic management operations. The Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) system and Upper-atmospheric Space and Earth Weather eXperiment (USEWX) both are providing dose rate measurements. Both activities are under the ARMAS goal of providing the "weather" of the radiation environment to improve aircraft crew and passenger safety. Over 5-dozen ARMAS and USEWX flights have successfully demonstrated the operation of a micro dosimeter on commercial aviation altitude aircraft that captures the real-time radiation environment resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Energetic Particles. The real-time radiation exposure is computed as an effective dose rate (body-averaged over the radiative-sensitive organs and tissues in units of microsieverts per hour); total ionizing dose is captured on the aircraft, downlinked in real-time, processed on the ground into effective dose rates, compared with NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) most recent Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation System (NAIRAS) global radiation climatology model runs, and then made available to end users via the web and smart phone apps. Flight altitudes now exceed 60,000 ft. and extend above commercial aviation altitudes into the stratosphere. In this presentation we describe recent ARMAS and USEWX results.

  13. Coronary artery calcium measurement with multi-detector row CT: in vitro assessment of effect of radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Hong, Cheng; Bae, Kyongtae T; Pilgram, Thomas K; Suh, Jongdae; Bradley, David

    2002-12-01

    The authors assessed in vitro the effect of radiation dose on coronary artery calcium quantification with multi-detector row computed tomography. A cardiac phantom with calcified cylinders was scanned at various milliampere second settings (20-160 mAs). A clear tendency was found for image noise to decrease as tube current increased (P <.001). No tendency was found for the Agatson score or calcium volume and mass errors to vary with tube current. Calcium measurements were not significantly affected by the choice of tube current. Calcium mass error was strongly correlated with calcium volume error (P <.001). The calcium mass measurement was more accurate and less variable than the calcium volume measurement.

  14. Is the Linear No-Threshold Dose-Response Paradigm Still Necessary for the Assessment of Health Effects of Low Dose Radiation?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Inevitable human exposure to ionizing radiation from man-made sources has been increased with the proceeding of human civilization and consequently public concerns focus on the possible risk to human health. Moreover, Fukushima nuclear power plant accidents after the 2011 East-Japan earthquake and tsunami has brought the great fear and anxiety for the exposure of radiation at low levels, even much lower levels similar to natural background. Health effects of low dose radiation less than 100 mSv have been debated whether they are beneficial or detrimental because sample sizes were not large enough to allow epidemiological detection of excess effects and there was lack of consistency among the available experimental data. We have reviewed an extensive literature on the low dose radiation effects in both radiation biology and epidemiology, and highlighted some of the controversies therein. This article could provide a reasonable view of utilizing radiation for human life and responding to the public questions about radiation risk. In addition, it suggests the necessity of integrated studies of radiobiology and epidemiology at the national level in order to collect more systematic and profound information about health effects of low dose radiation. PMID:26908982

  15. Is the Linear No-Threshold Dose-Response Paradigm Still Necessary for the Assessment of Health Effects of Low Dose Radiation?

    PubMed

    Seong, Ki Moon; Seo, Songwon; Lee, Dalnim; Kim, Min-Jeong; Lee, Seung-Sook; Park, Sunhoo; Jin, Young Woo

    2016-02-01

    Inevitable human exposure to ionizing radiation from man-made sources has been increased with the proceeding of human civilization and consequently public concerns focus on the possible risk to human health. Moreover, Fukushima nuclear power plant accidents after the 2011 East-Japan earthquake and tsunami has brought the great fear and anxiety for the exposure of radiation at low levels, even much lower levels similar to natural background. Health effects of low dose radiation less than 100 mSv have been debated whether they are beneficial or detrimental because sample sizes were not large enough to allow epidemiological detection of excess effects and there was lack of consistency among the available experimental data. We have reviewed an extensive literature on the low dose radiation effects in both radiation biology and epidemiology, and highlighted some of the controversies therein. This article could provide a reasonable view of utilizing radiation for human life and responding to the public questions about radiation risk. In addition, it suggests the necessity of integrated studies of radiobiology and epidemiology at the national level in order to collect more systematic and profound information about health effects of low dose radiation.

  16. EXOMARS IRAS (DOSE) radiation measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federico, C.; Di Lellis, A. M.; Fonte, S.; Pauselli, C.; Reitz, G.; Beaujean, R.

    The characterization and the study of the radiations on their interaction with organic matter is of great interest in view of the human exploration on Mars. The Ionizing RAdiation Sensor (IRAS) selected in the frame of the ExoMars/Pasteur ESA mission is a lightweight particle spectrometer combining various techniques of radiation detection in space. It characterizes the first time the radiation environment on the Mars surface, and provide dose and dose equivalent rates as precursor information absolutely necessary to develop ways to mitigate the radiation risks for future human exploration on Mars. The Martian radiation levels are much higher than those found on Earth and they are relatively low for space. Measurements on the surface will show if they are similar or not to those seen in orbit (modified by the presence of ``albedo'' neutrons produced in the regolith and by the thin Martian atmosphere). IRAS consists of a telescope based on segmented silicon detectors of about 40\\userk\\milli\\metre\\user;k diameter and 300\\user;k\\micro\\metre\\user;k thickness, a segmented organic scintillator, and of a thermoluminescence dosimeter. The telescope will continuously monitor temporal variation of the particle count rate, the dose rate, particle and LET (Linear Energy Transfer) spectra. Tissue equivalent BC430 scintillator material will be used to measure the neutron dose. Neutrons are selected by a criteria requiring no signal in the anti-coincidence. Last, the passive thermoluminescence dosimeter, based on LiF:Mg detectors, regardless the on board operation timing, will measure the total dose accumulated during the exposure period and due to beta and gamma radiation, with a responsivity very close to that of a human tissue.

  17. QUANTIFYING ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION DOSE RELATIVE TO WETLAND HABITAT VARIABLES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF RISK TO AMPHIBIANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B) has increased globally over the last several decades due to reduction of stratospheric ozone. UV-B may also increase when climate change alters cloud cover, rainfall, and distributions of vegetation. In aquatic systems, these factors can also intera...

  18. QUANTIFYING ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION DOSE RELATIVE TO WETLAND HABITAT VARIABLES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF RISK TO AMPHIBIANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B) has increased globally over the last several decades due to reduction of stratospheric ozone. UV-B may also increase when climate change alters cloud cover, rainfall, and distributions of vegetation. In aquatic systems, these factors can also intera...

  19. Assessment of the effective dose equivalent for external photon radiation. Volume 1, Calculational results for beam and point source geometries: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, W.D.; Poston, J.W.; Xu, X.G.

    1993-02-01

    Beginning in January 1994, US nuclear power plants must change the way that they determine the radiation exposure to their workforce. At that time, revisions to Title 10 Part 20 of the Code of Federal Regulations will be in force requiring licensees to evaluate worker radiation exposure using a risk-based methodology termed the ``effective dose equivalent.`` A research project was undertaken to improve upon the conservative method presently used for assessing effective dose equivalent. In this project effective dose equivalent was calculated using a mathematical model of the human body, and tracking photon interactions for a wide variety of radiation source geometries using Monte Carlo computer code simulations. Algorithms were then developed to relate measurements of the photon flux on the surface of the body (as measured by dosimeters) to effective dose equivalent. This report (Volume I of a two-part study) describes: the concept of effective dose equivalent, the evolution of the concept and its incorporation into regulations, the variations in human organ susceptibility to radiation, the mathematical modeling and calculational techniques used, the results of effective dose equivalent calculations for a broad range of photon energiesand radiation source geometries. The study determined that for beam radiation sources the highest effective dose equivalent occurs for beams striking the front of the torso. Beams striking the rear of the torsoproduce the next highest effective dose equivalent, with effective dose equivalent falling significantly as one departs from these two orientations. For point sources, the highest effective dose equivalent occurs when the sources are in contact with the body on the front of the torso. For females the highest effective dose equivalent occurs when the source is on the sternum, for males when it is on the gonads.

  20. Case control study to assess the possibility of decrease the risk of osteoradionecrosis in relation to the dose of radiation absorbed by the jaw

    PubMed Central

    Carini, Fabrizio; Bucalo, Concetta; Saggese, Vito; Monai, Dario; Porcaro, Gianluca

    2012-01-01

    Summary Aims the assessment of the limit dose for the organs at risk in external radiotherapy is a fundamental step to guarantee an optimal risk-benefit ratio. The aim of this study was to assess, through contouring the single dental cavities, the absorbed radiation dose on irradiated alveolar bones during the treatment of cervico-facial tumours, so as to test the correlation between the absorbed dose of radiation at alveolar level and the level of individual surgical risk for osteonecrosis. Materials and methods we selected 45 out of 89 patients on the basis of different exclusion criteria. Nine of these patients showed evidence of osteoradionecrosis. The patients were treated either with 3D conformational radiation therapy (3D-CRT) or with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), there after alveolar bones were contoured using computed axial tomography (CAT scans) carried out following oncological and dental treatment. The dose-volume histograms (DVH) were obtained on the basis of such data, which included those relating to the dental cavities in addition to those inherent to the tumours and the organs at risk. Results all patients, irrespective of type of treatment, received an average of 60 to 70 grays in 30/35 sittings. The patients treated with IMRT showed higher variation in absorbed radiation dose than those treated with 3D-CRT. The alveolar encirclement allowed the assessment of the absorbed radiation dose, and consequently it also allowed to assess the individual surgical risk for osteonecrosis in patients with head and neck tumours who underwent radiography treatment. Conclusions the study of DVH allows the assessment of limit dose and the detection of the areas at greater risk for osteoradionecrosis before dental surgery. PMID:23285316

  1. Triage, monitoring and dose assessment for people exposed to ionising radiation following a malevolent act.

    PubMed

    Etherington, G; Rothkamm, K; Shutt, A L; Youngman, M J

    2011-03-01

    The part played by individual monitoring within the context of the overall response to incidents involving the malevolent use of radiation or radioactive material is discussed. The main objectives of an individual monitoring programme are outlined, and types of malevolent use scenario briefly described. Some major challenges facing those with responsibilities for planning the monitoring response to such an incident are identified and discussed. These include the need for rapid selection and prioritisation of people for individual monitoring by means of an effective triage system; the need for rapid initiation of individual monitoring; problems associated with monitoring large numbers of people; the particular difficulties associated with incidents involving pure-beta and alpha-emitting radionuclides; the need for techniques that can provide retrospective estimates of external radiation exposures rapidly and the need for rapid interpretation of contamination monitoring data. The paper concludes with a brief review of assistance networks and relevant international projects planned or currently underway.

  2. Doses from Medical Radiation Sources

    MedlinePlus

    ... that the best approach is to make individual measurements of breast milk activity and individual-specific projections ... 70:437–439; 1997. (5,000 patient dose measurements from 375 hospitals) International Commission on Radiation Protection. ...

  3. Measurement of naturally occurring radionuclides in geothermal samples and assessment of radiological risks and radiation doses.

    PubMed

    Parmaksiz, A

    2013-12-01

    The analysis of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K radionuclides has been carried out in geothermal water and residue samples collected from six wells of geothermal power plant and disposal site, using gamma-spectrometry system equipped with a high-purity germanium detector. The activity concentrations of nine geothermal water samples were found to be lower than minimum detectable activity (MDA) values. The activity concentration of the residue samples ranged from 40 ± 4 to 2694 ± 85 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, 33 ± 4 to 2388 ± 85 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th, and MDA value to 967 ± 30 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. In the study, some radiological indexes were examined and found to be higher than the reference values for majority of the residue samples. The annual effective doses arising from some residue samples were calculated to be higher than the permitted dose rate for the public, i.e. 1 mSv y(-1).

  4. Assessment of indoor radiation dose received by the residents of natural high background radiation areas of coastal villages of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deva Jayanthi, D.; Maniyan, C. G.; Perumal, S.

    2011-07-01

    Radiation exposure and effective dose received through two routes of exposure, viz. external and internal, via inhalation, by residents of 10 villages belonging to Natural High Background Radiation Areas (NHBRA) of coastal regions of Kanyakumari District and Tamil Nadu in India were studied. While the indoor gamma radiation levels were monitored using Thermo Luminescent Dosimeters (TLDs), the indoor radon and thoron gas concentrations were measured using twin chamber dosimeters employing Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs, LR-115-II). The average total annual effective dose was estimated and found to be varying from 2.59 to 8.76 mSv.

  5. The Dose Response Relationship for Radiation Carcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Eric

    2008-03-01

    Recent surveys show that the collective population radiation dose from medical procedures in the U.S. has increased by 750% in the past two decades. It would be impossible to imagine the practice of medicine today without diagnostic and therapeutic radiology, but nevertheless the widespread and rapidly increasing use of a modality which is a known human carcinogen is a cause for concern. To assess the magnitude of the problem it is necessary to establish the shape of the dose response relationship for radiation carcinogenesis. Information on radiation carcinogenesis comes from the A-bomb survivors, from occupationally exposed individuals and from radiotherapy patients. The A-bomb survivor data indicates a linear relationship between dose and the risk of solid cancers up to a dose of about 2.5 Sv. The lowest dose at which there is a significant excess cancer risk is debatable, but it would appear to be between 40 and 100 mSv. Data from the occupation exposure of nuclear workers shows an excess cancer risk at an average dose of 19.4 mSv. At the other end of the dose scale, data on second cancers in radiotherapy patients indicates that cancer risk does not continue to rise as a linear function of dose, but tends towards a plateau of 40 to 60 Gy, delivered in a fractionated regime. These data can be used to estimate the impact of diagnostic radiology at the low dose end of the dose response relationship, and the impact of new radiotherapy modalities at the high end of the dose response relationship. In the case of diagnostic radiology about 90% of the collective population dose comes from procedures (principally CT scans) which involve doses at which there is credible evidence of an excess cancer incidence. While the risk to the individual is small and justified in a symptomatic patient, the same is not true of some screening procedures is asymptomatic individuals, and in any case the huge number of procedures must add up to a potential public health problem. In the

  6. Rapid assessment of high-dose radiation exposures through scoring of cell-fusion-induced premature chromosome condensation and ring chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Lamadrid Boada, A I; Romero Aguilera, I; Terzoudi, G I; González Mesa, J E; Pantelias, G; García, O

    2013-09-18

    Analysis of premature chromosome condensation (PCC) mediated by fusion of G0-lymphocytes with mitotic CHO cells in combination with rapid visualization and quantification of rings (PCC-Rf) is proposed as an alternative technique for dose assessment of radiation-exposed individuals. Isolated lymphocytes or whole blood from six individuals were γ-irradiated with 5, 10, 15 and 20Gy at a dose rate of 0.5Gy/min. Following either 8- or 24-h post-exposure incubation of irradiated samples at 37°C, chromosome spreads were prepared by standard PCC cytogenetic procedures. The protocol for PCC fusion proved to be effective at doses as high as 20Gy, enabling the analysis of ring chromosomes and excess PCC fragments. The ring frequencies remained constant during the 8-24-h repair time; the pooled dose relationship between ring frequency (Y) and dose (D) was linear: Y=(0.088±0.005)×D. During the repair time, excess fragments decreased from 0.91 to 0.59 chromatid pieces per Gy, revealing the importance of information about the exact time of exposure for dose assessment on the basis of fragments. Compared with other cytogenetic assays to estimate radiation dose, the PCC-Rf method has the following benefits: a 48-h culture time is not required, allowing a much faster assessment of dose in comparison with conventional scoring of dicentrics and rings in assays for chemically-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC-Rch), and it allows the analysis of heavily irradiated lymphocytes that are delayed or never reach mitosis, thus avoiding the problem of saturation at high doses. In conclusion, the use of the PCC fusion assay in conjunction with scoring of rings in G0-lymphocytes offers a suitable alternative for fast dose estimation following accidental exposure to high radiation doses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. EDITORIAL Complexity of advanced radiation therapy necessitates multidisciplinary inquiry into dose reconstruction and risk assessment Complexity of advanced radiation therapy necessitates multidisciplinary inquiry into dose reconstruction and risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newhauser, Wayne

    2010-07-01

    from the symposium are interrelated and focus on dose and risk assessments related to radiation exposures from advanced radiation therapies. These research topics have become increasingly complex and require the combined expertise of researchers with highly specialized and diverse investigational skills. Innovative multidisciplinary teams will be needed to achieve breakthroughs and, ultimately, to translate the research into clinical practice (Disis and Slattery 2010). The symposium's scientific goals included fostering and promoting such multidisciplinary teams, which will work to solve these complex problems and thereby improve cancer outcomes. To help clarify how the 13 articles each contribute to the goal of improving cancer outcomes, a brief digression is necessary. The proportion of patients surviving their cancers for five years or more is large and increasing (Jemal et al 2009). Unfortunately, in survivors who received radiation therapy, the prevalence of radiogenic late effects is likewise large and increasing (cf Altekruse et al 2010, Meadows et al 2009, Hudson et al 2009, Friedman et al 2010), with the potential to become a public health issue of considerable scale (Travis 2006). A multitude of late effects are associated with radiation exposure, including the development of second cancers, cardiac toxicity, cognitive deficits, and musculoskeletal growth abnormalities in children. In modern radiation therapy, much effort is devoted to developing personalized treatments that control the tumor while minimizing acute toxicities to surrounding healthy tissues; comparatively less attention has been paid to minimizing late effects (Durante and Loeffler 2010). In recent years, however, there has been an encouraging increase in research activities seeking to quantify radiation exposures (Stovall et al 2006) and the associated risks of late effects from modern external-beam therapies (Xu et al 2008). In this issue, Zhang et al (2010) report on Monte Carlo and

  8. Pediatric CT: Strategies to Lower Radiation Dose

    PubMed Central

    Zacharias, Claudia; Alessio, Adam M.; Otto, Randolph K.; Iyer, Ramesh S.; Philips, Grace S.; Swanson, Jonathan O.; Thapa, Mahesh M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The introduction of MDCT has increased the utilization of CT in pediatric radiology along with concerns for radiation sequelae. This article reviews general principles of lowering radiation dose, the basic physics that impact radiation dose, and specific CT integrated dose-reduction tools focused on the pediatric population. CONCLUSION The goal of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the recent literature regarding CT dose reduction methods, their limitations, and an outlook on future developments with a focus on the pediatric population. The discussion will initially focus on general considerations that lead to radiation dose reduction, followed by specific technical features that influence the radiation dose. PMID:23617474

  9. Assessment of the Technologies for Molecular Biodosimetry for Human Low-Dose Radiation Exposure Symposium: Agenda and Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Matthew A.; Ramakrishnan, Narayani

    2009-11-16

    In the event of a radiological accident, the rapid evaluation of the individual absorbed dose is paramount to discriminate those individuals who must receive medical attention. New research with genomic- and proteomic-wide tools is showing that within minutes to hours after exposure to ionizing radiation the cellular machinery is modified. For example: large-scale changes occur in the gene expression profiles involving a broad variety of cellular pathways after a wide range of both low dose (<10 cGy) and high dose (>10 cGy) ionizing radiation exposures. Symposium 12 was organized to address a wide range of biological effects using the latest technologies. To address current models following ionizing radiation exposure, methods in biodosimetry and dose effects the symposia featured a general overview titled “Model Systems and Current Approaches in Biodosimetry” by Matthew A. Coleman, from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and a talk entitled “Brief Overview of Biodosimetry Projects in the NIH Rad/Nuc Program” by Dr. Narayani Ramakrishnan, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. These two talk set the tone for issues in data and model integration as well as addressing the national need for robust technologies for biological dosimetry. The report continues with more description of the presentations, along with the agenda and abstracts of the papers presented.

  10. Solar radiation resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    The bulletin discusses the following: introduction; Why is solar radiation resource assessment important Understanding the basics; the solar radiation resource assessment project; and future activities.

  11. A new low-dose multi-phase trauma CT protocol and its impact on diagnostic assessment and radiation dose in multi-trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Alagic, Zlatan; Eriksson, Andreas; Drageryd, Erika; Motamed, Sara Rezaei; Wick, Marius C

    2017-04-05

    Computed tomography (CT) examinations, often using high-radiation dosages, are increasingly used in the acute management of polytrauma patients. This study compares a low-dose polytrauma multi-phase whole-body CT (WBCT) protocol on a latest generation of 16-cm detector 258-slice multi-detector CT (MDCT) scanner with advanced dose reduction techniques to a single-phase polytrauma WBCT protocol on a 64-slice MDCT scanner. Between March and September 2015, 109 polytrauma patients (group A) underwent acute WBCT with a low-dose multi-phase WBCT protocol on a 258-slice MDCT whereas 110 polytrauma patients (group B) underwent single-phase trauma CT on a 64-slice MDCT. The diagnostic accuracy to trauma-related injuries, radiation dose, quantitative and semiquantitative image quality parameters, subjective image quality scorings, and workflow time parameters were compared. In group A, statistically significantly more arterial injuries (p = 0.04) and arterial dissections (p = 0.002) were detected. In group A, the mean (±SD) dose length product value was 1681 ± 183 mGy*cm and markedly lower when compared to group B (p < 0.001). The SDs of the mean Houndsfield unit values of the brain, liver, and abdominal aorta were lower in group A (p < 0.001). Mean signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for the brain, liver, and abdominal aorta were significantly higher in group A (p < 0.001). Group A had significantly higher image quality scores for all analyzed anatomical locations (p < 0.02). However, the mean time from patient registration until completion of examination was significantly longer for group A (p < 0.001). The low-dose multi-phase CT protocol improves diagnostic accuracy and image quality at markedly reduced radiation. However, due to technical complexities and surplus electronic data provided by the newer low-dose technique, examination time increases, which reduces workflow in acute emergency situations.

  12. Photon iso-effective dose for cancer treatment with mixed field radiation based on dose-response assessment from human and an animal model: clinical application to boron neutron capture therapy for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Sara Josefina; Pozzi, Emiliano C C; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Provenzano, Lucas; Koivunoro, Hanna; Carando, Daniel Germán; Thorp, Silvia Inés; Casal, Mariana Rosalía; Bortolussi, Silva; Trivillin, Verónica A; Garabalino, Marcela A; Curotto, Paula; Heber, Elisa M; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A; Kankaanranta, Leena; Joensuu, Heikki; Schwint, Amanda E

    2017-08-31

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a treatment modality that combines different radiation qualities. Since the severity of biological damage following irradiation depends on the radiation type, a quantity different from absorbed dose is required to explain effects observed in the clinical BNCT in terms of outcome compared with conventional photon radiation therapy. A new approach for calculating photon iso-effective doses in BNCT was introduced previously. The present work extends this model to include information from dose-response assessments in animal models and humans. Parameters of the model were determined for tumour and precancerous tissue using dose-response curves obtained from BNCT and photon studies performed in the hamster cheek pouch in vivo models of oral cancer and/or pre-cancer, and from head and neck cancer radiotherapy data with photons. To this end, suitable expressions of the dose-limiting Normal Tissue Complication and Tumour Control Probabilities for the reference radiation and for the mixed field BNCT radiation were developed. Pearson's correlation coefficients and p-values showed that TCP and NTCP models agreed with experimental data (with r > 0.87 and p-values >0.57). The photon iso-effective dose model was applied retrospectively to evaluate the dosimetry in tumours and mucosa for head and neck cancer patients treated with BNCT in Finland. Photon iso-effective doses in tumour were lower than those obtained with the standard RBE-weighted model (between 10% to 45%). The results also suggested that the probabilities of tumour control derived from photon iso-effective doses are more adequate to explain the clinical responses than those obtained with the RBE-weighted values. The dosimetry in the mucosa revealed that the photon iso-effective doses were about 30% to 50% higher than the corresponding RBE-weighted values. While the RBE-weighted doses are unable to predict mucosa toxicity, predictions based on the proposed model

  13. Radiation dose measurements in coronary CT angiography

    PubMed Central

    Sabarudin, Akmal; Sun, Zhonghua

    2013-01-01

    Coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography is associated with high radiation dose and this has raised serious concerns in the literature. Awareness of various parameters for dose estimates and measurements of coronary CT angiography plays an important role in increasing our understanding of the radiation exposure to patients, thus, contributing to the implementation of dose-saving strategies. This article provides an overview of the radiation dose quantity and its measurement during coronary CT angiography procedures. PMID:24392190

  14. Assessment of effective radiation dose of an extremity CBCT, MSCT and conventional X ray for knee area using MOSFET dosemeters.

    PubMed

    Koivisto, Juha; Kiljunen, Timo; Wolff, Jan; Kortesniemi, Mika

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess and compare the organ and effective doses in the knee area resulting from different commercially available multislice computed tomography devices (MSCT), one cone beam computed tomography device (CBCT) and one conventional X-ray radiography device using MOSFET dosemeters and an anthropomorphic RANDO knee phantom. Measurements of the MSCT devices resulted in effective doses ranging between 27 and 48 µSv. The CBCT measurements resulted in an effective dose of 12.6 µSv. The effective doses attained using the conventional radiography device were 1.8 µSv for lateral and 1.2 µSv for anterior-posterior projections. The effective dose resulting from conventional radiography was considerably lower than those recorded for the CBCT and MSCT devices. The MSCT effective dose results were two to four times higher than those measured on the CBCT device. This study demonstrates that CBCT can be regarded as a potential low-dose 3D imaging technique for knee examinations.

  15. Radiation dose from cardiac computed tomography before and after implementation of radiation dose-reduction techniques.

    PubMed

    Raff, Gilbert L; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha M; Share, David A; Goraya, Tauqir Y; Kazerooni, Ella A; Moscucci, Mauro; Gentry, Ralph E; Abidov, Aiden

    2009-06-10

    Cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) can accurately diagnose coronary artery disease, but radiation dose from this procedure is of concern. To determine whether a collaborative radiation dose-reduction program would be associated with reduced radiation dose in patients undergoing CCTA in a statewide registry over a 1-year period and to define its effect on image quality. A prospective, controlled, nonrandomized study conducted during a control period (July-August 2007), an intervention period (September 2007-April 2008), and a follow-up period (May-June 2008) at 15 hospital imaging centers participating in the Advanced Cardiovascular Imaging Consortium in Michigan, which included small community hospitals and large academic medical centers. A total of 4995 sequential patients undergoing CCTA for suspected coronary artery disease were enrolled; 4862 patients (97.3%) had complete radiation data for analysis. A best-practice CCTA scan model was used, which included minimized scan range, heart rate reduction, electrocardiographic-gated tube current modulation, and reduced tube voltage in suitable patients. Primary outcomes included dose-length product and effective radiation dose from all phases of the CCTA scan. Secondary outcomes were image quality assessed by a 4-point scale (1 indicated excellent; 2, good; 3, adequate; and 4, nondiagnostic) and frequency of diagnostic-quality scans. Compared with the control period, patients' estimated median radiation dose in the follow-up period was reduced by 53.3% (dose-length product decreased from 1493 mGy x cm [interquartile range {IQR}, 855-1823 mGy x cm] to 697 mGy x cm [IQR, 407-1163 mGy x cm]; P < .001) and effective dose from 21 mSv (IQR, 12-26 mSv) to 10 mSv (IQR, 6-16 mSv) (P < .001). The greatest reduction in dose occurred at low-volume sites. There were no significant changes in median image quality assessment during the control period compared with the follow-up period (median image quality of 2 [images

  16. Agriculture-related radiation dose calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Furr, J.M.; Mayberry, J.J.; Waite, D.A.

    1987-10-01

    Estimates of radiation dose to the public must be made at each stage in the identification and qualification process leading to siting a high-level nuclear waste repository. Specifically considering the ingestion pathway, this paper examines questions of reliability and adequacy of dose calculations in relation to five stages of data availability (geologic province, region, area, location, and mass balance) and three methods of calculation (population, population/food production, and food production driven). Calculations were done using the model PABLM with data for the Permian and Palo Duro Basins and the Deaf Smith County area. Extra effort expended in gathering agricultural data at succeeding environmental characterization levels does not appear justified, since dose estimates do not differ greatly; that effort would be better spent determining usage of food types that contribute most to the total dose; and that consumption rate and the air dispersion factor are critical to assessment of radiation dose via the ingestion pathway. 17 refs., 9 figs., 32 tabs.

  17. Analysis of current assessments and perspectives of ESR tooth dosimetry for radiation dose reconstruction of the population residing near the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site.

    PubMed

    Romanyukha, Alex; Schauer, David A; Malikov, Yurii K

    2006-02-01

    Between 1949 and 1989 the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS), an area of 19,000 square km in northeastern Kazakhstan, was the location of over 400 nuclear test explosions with a total explosive energy of 6.6 Mt TNT (trinitrotoluene or trotyl) equivalent. It is estimated that the bulk of the radiation exposure to the population resulted from three tests, conducted in 1949, 1951, and 1953 although estimations of radiation doses received by the local population have varied significantly. Analysis of the published ESR dose reconstruction results for residents of the villages near the SNTS show that they do not correlate well with other methods of dose assessment (e.g. model dose calculation and thermo luminescence dosimetry (TLD) in bricks). The most significant difference in dose estimations was found for the population of Dolon, which was exposed as result of the first Soviet nuclear test in 1949. Published results of ESR measurements in tooth enamel are considerably lower than other dose estimations. Detailed analysis of these results is provided and a possible explanation for this discrepancy and ways to eliminate it are suggested.

  18. Low-dose radiation epidemiology studies: status and issues.

    PubMed

    Shore, Roy E

    2009-11-01

    Although the Japanese atomic bomb study and radiotherapy studies have clearly documented cancer risks from high-dose radiation exposures, radiation risk assessment groups have long recognized that protracted or low exposures to low-linear energy transfer radiations are key radiation protection concerns because these are far more common than high-exposure scenarios. Epidemiologic studies of human populations with low-dose or low dose-rate exposures are one approach to addressing those concerns. A number of large studies of radiation workers (Chernobyl clean-up workers, U.S. and Chinese radiological technologists, and the 15-country worker study) or of persons exposed to environmental radiation at moderate to low levels (residents near Techa River, Semipalatinsk, Chernobyl, or nuclear facilities) have been conducted. A variety of studies of medical radiation exposures (multiple-fluoroscopy, diagnostic (131)I, scatter radiation doses from radiotherapy, etc.) also are of interest. Key results from these studies are summarized and compared with risk estimates from the Japanese atomic bomb study. Ideally, one would like the low-dose and low dose-rate studies to guide radiation risk estimation regarding the shape of the dose-response curve, DDREF (dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor), and risk at low doses. However, the degree to which low-dose studies can do so is subject to various limitations, especially those pertaining to dosimetric uncertainties and limited statistical power. The identification of individuals who are particularly susceptible to radiation cancer induction also is of high interest in terms of occupational and medical radiation protection. Several examples of studies of radiation-related cancer susceptibility are discussed, but none thus far have clearly identified radiation-susceptible genotypes.

  19. Radiation dose assessments to support evaluations of radiological control levels for recycling or reuse of materials and equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, R.L.; Aaberg, R.L.; Baker, D.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1995-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is providing Environmental Protection Support and Assistance to the USDOE, Office of Environmental Guidance. Air, Water, and Radiation Division. As part of this effort, PNL is collecting data and conducting technical evaluations to support DOE analyses of the feasibility of developing radiological control levels for recycling or reuse of metals, concrete, or equipment containing residual radioactive contamination from DOE operations. The radiological control levels will be risk-based, as developed through a radiation exposure scenario and pathway analysis. The analysis will include evaluation of relevant radionuclides, potential mechanisms of exposure, and both health and non-health-related impacts. The main objective of this report is to develop a methodology for establishing radiological control levels for recycle or reuse. This report provides the results of the radiation exposure scenario and pathway analyses for 42 key radionuclides generated during DOE operations that may be contained in metals or equipment considered for either recycling or reuse. The scenarios and information developed by the IAEA. Application of Exemption Principles to the Recycle and Reuse of Materials from Nuclear Facilities, are used as the initial basis for this study. The analyses were performed for both selected worker populations at metal smelters and for the public downwind of a smelter facility. Doses to the public downwind were estimated using the US (EPA) CAP88-PC computer code with generic data on atmospheric dispersion and population density. Potential non-health-related effects of residual activity on electronics and on film were also analyzed.

  20. CT radiation dose awareness among paediatricians.

    PubMed

    Al-Rammah, Tamader Y

    2016-08-31

    The radiation dose delivered from computed tomography (CT) scanning and the risks associated with ionising radiation are major concerns in paediatric imaging. Compared to adults, children have increased organ sensitivity and a longer expected lifetime in which cancer may develop. Therefore, it is important to investigate the awareness of paediatricians (referring physicians) regarding radiation doses and the associated risks. A multiple-choice survey was distributed among paediatricians in 8 hospitals in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. Among the 162 respondents, only 24 (15 %) were aware of the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle. Approximately half (54 %) of the respondents believed that multi-slice CT delivered a low radiation dose, and 100 (62 %) of the respondents were not aware that radiation is considered carcinogenic by the Food and Drug Administration in the United States. Among the respondents, 110 (68 %) did not have any specific education regarding radiation during their training. There was an overall underestimation (83 %) of the CT radiation dose, and 70 % thought that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) delivered some level of ionising radiation. Among paediatricians in Saudi Arabian hospitals, there was a wide underestimation of the CT radiation dose and the associated risks for children. We should improve paediatricians' knowledge about radiation doses. Radiologists, paediatricians, radiation technologists and medical physicists should work together to optimise CT guidelines and protocols to reduce the radiation risks for children.

  1. RADIATION DOSE ASSESSMENT FOR THE BIOTA OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS IN THE SHORELINE ZONE OF THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. The article addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to drawdown naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature.

  2. Radiation dose assessment for the biota of terrestrial ecosystems in the shoreline zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant cooling pond.

    PubMed

    Oskolkov, Boris Ya; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Gaschak, Sergey P; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Hinton, Thomas G; Coughlin, Daniel; Jannik, G Timothy; Farfán, Eduardo B

    2011-10-01

    Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. This paper addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from 90Sr and 137Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to draw down naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature.

  3. Health Benefits of Exposure to Low-dose Radiation.

    PubMed

    Rithidech, Kanokporn Noy

    2016-03-01

    Although there is no doubt that exposure to high doses of radiation (delivered at a high dose-rate) induces harmful effects, the health risks and benefits of exposure to low levels (delivered at a low dose-rate) of toxic agents is still a challenging public health issue. There has been a considerable amount of published data against the linear no-threshold (LNT) model for assessing risk of cancers induced by radiation. The LNT model for risk assessment creates "radiophobia," which is a serious public health issue. It is now time to move forward to a paradigm shift in health risk assessment of low-dose exposure by taking the differences between responses to low and high doses into consideration. Moreover, future research directed toward the identification of mechanisms associated with responses to low-dose radiation is critically needed to fully understand their beneficial effects.

  4. Utirik Atoll Dose Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Bogen, K.T

    1999-10-06

    On March 1, 1954, radioactive fallout from the nuclear test at Bikini Atoll code-named BRAVO was deposited on Utirik Atoll which lies about 187 km (300 miles) east of Bikini Atoll. The residents of Utirik were evacuated three days after the fallout started and returned to their atoll in May 1954. In this report we provide a final dose assessment for current conditions at the atoll based on extensive data generated from samples collected in 1993 and 1994. The estimated population average maximum annual effective dose using a diet including imported foods is 0.037 mSv y{sup -1} (3.7 mrem y{sup -1}). The 95% confidence limits are within a factor of three of their population average value. The population average integrated effective dose over 30-, 50-, and 70-y is 0.84 mSv (84, mrem), 1.2 mSv (120 mrem), and 1.4 mSv (140 mrem), respectively. The 95% confidence limits on the population-average value post 1998, i.e., the 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral doses, are within a factor of two of the mean value and are independent of time, t, for t > 5 y. Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is the radionuclide that contributes most of this dose, mostly through the terrestrial food chain and secondarily from external gamma exposure. The dose from weapons-related radionuclides is very low and of no consequence to the health of the population. The annual background doses in the U. S. and Europe are 3.0 mSv (300 mrem), and 2.4 mSv (240 mrem), respectively. The annual background dose in the Marshall Islands is estimated to be 1.4 mSv (140 mrem). The total estimated combined Marshall Islands background dose plus the weapons-related dose is about 1.5 mSv y{sup -1} (150 mrem y{sup -1}) which can be directly compared to the annual background effective dose of 3.0 mSv y{sup -1} (300 mrem y{sup -1}) for the U. S. and 2.4 mSv y{sup -1} (240 mrem y{sup -1}) for Europe. Moreover, the doses listed in this report are based only on the radiological decay of {sup 137}Cs (30.1 y half-life) and other

  5. [About Dose-Effect Relationship in the Environment Radiation Protection].

    PubMed

    Udalova, A A

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important stages in the development of a methodology for the environment radiation protection is the assessment and justification of critical radiation exposure levels for ecosystem components. In this study application of the approach for critical dose level estimation is demonstrated on the example of the data about ionizing radiation effect on reproduction and survival of agricultural plants after acute and chronic exposures. Influence of the type of dose-effect relationship on the estimated values of the critical doses and dose rates is studied using three models (linear, logarithmic and logistic). The findings obtained do not provide any robust recommendations in favor of one of the three tested functions. The models of dose-effect relationship (threshold or non-threshold) and types of radiation-induced effects (stochastic and deterministic) are discussed from the viewpoint of developing a system for radiation protection of human and non-human biota.

  6. Total effective dose equivalent assessment after exposure to high-level natural radiation using the RESRAD code.

    PubMed

    Ziajahromi, Shima; Khanizadeh, Meysam; Nejadkoorki, Farhad

    2014-03-01

    The current work reports the activity concentrations of several natural radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K) in Khak-Sefid area of Ramsar, Iran. An evaluation of total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) from exposure to high-level natural radiations is also presented. Soil samples were analyzed using a high-purity germanium detector with 80 % relative efficiency. The TEDE was calculated on a land area of 40,000 m(2) with 1.5-m thickness of contaminated zone for the member of three critical groups of farmer, construction worker, and resident using Residual Radioactive Material Guidelines (RESRAD) modeling program. It was found that the mean activity concentrations (in Bq/kg) were 23,118 ± 468, 25.8 ± 2.3, and 402.6 ± 16.5 for (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K, respectively. The maximum calculated TEDE during 1,000 years was 107.1 mSv/year at year 90, 92.42 mSv/year at year 88, and 22.09 mSv/year at year 46 for farmer, resident, and construction worker scenarios, respectively. The maximum TEDE in farmer scenario can be reduced to the level below the dose limit of 1 mSv/year which is safe for public health using soil cover with thickness of 50 cm or more on the contaminated zone. According to RESRAD prediction, the TEDE received by individuals for all exposure scenarios considerably exceed the set dose limit, and it is mainly due to (226)Ra.

  7. ["Dose-risk" relationships at low doses of radiation].

    PubMed

    Stefanou, E P

    1988-01-01

    The ionizing radiation is inherently harmful to human beings, and people must be protected from unnecessary or excessive exposure to it. The harmful nature of high doses of x rays has been known for many years. However, for low doses such as those commonly employed in dental radiographic procedures the magnitude of the risk (or even if there is a risk) remains uncertain. The purpose of this paper is to do an analysis of the Dose-risk relationships at low doses of radiation according to the latest recommendations and philosophy of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP).

  8. Potential radiation doses from 1994 Hanford Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Soldat, J.K.; Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the potential radiation doses to the public from releases originating at the Hanford Site. Members of the public are potentially exposed to low-levels of radiation from these effluents through a variety of pathways. The potential radiation doses to the public were calculated for the hypothetical MEI and for the general public residing within 80 km (50 mi) of the Hanford Site.

  9. Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Modulates Immune Function

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Gregory A.

    2016-01-12

    In order to examine the effects of low dose ionizing radiation on the immune system we chose to examine an amplified adaptive cellular immunity response. This response is Type IV delayed-type hypersensitivity also called contact hypersensitivity. The agent fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) is a low molecular weight, lipophilic, reactive, fluorescent molecule that can be applied to the skin where it (hapten) reacts with proteins (carriers) to become a complete antigen. Exposure to FITC leads to sensitization which is easily measured as a hypersensitivity inflammatory reaction following a subsequent exposure to the ear. Ear swelling, eosinophil infiltration, immunoglobulin E production and cytokine secretion patterns characteristic of a “Th2 polarized” immune response are the components of the reaction. The reaction requires successful implementation of antigen processing and presentation by antigen presenting Langerhans cells, communication with naïve T lymphocytes in draining lymph nodes, expansion of activated T cell clones, migration of activated T cells to the circulation, and recruitment of memory T cells, macrophages and eosinophils to the site of the secondary challenge. Using this model our approach was to quantify system function rather than relying only on indirect biomarkers of cell. We measured the FITC-induced hypersensitivity reaction over a range of doses from 2 cGy to 2 Gy. Irradiations were performed during key events or prior to key events to deplete critical cell populations. In addition to quantifying the final inflammatory response, we assessed cell populations in peripheral blood and spleen, cytokine signatures, IgE levels and expression of genes associated with key processes in sensitization and elicitation/recall. We hypothesized that ionizing radiation would produce a biphasic effect on immune system function resulting in an enhancement at low doses and a depression at higher doses and suggested that this transition would occur in the

  10. Prospectively versus Retrospectively ECG-Gated 256-Slice CT Angiography to Assess Coronary Artery Bypass Grafts — Comparison of Image Quality and Radiation Dose

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yi-Wei; Yang, Ching-Ching; Mok, Greta S. P.; Law, Wei-Yip; Su, Cheng-Tau; Wu, Tung-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    Objective In this retrospective non-randomized cohort study, the image quality and radiation dose were compared between prospectively electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated axial (PGA) and retrospectively ECG-gated helical (RGH) techniques for the assessment of coronary artery bypass grafts using 256-slice CT. Methods We studied 124 grafts with 577 segments in 64 patients with a heart rate (HR) <85 bpm who underwent CT coronary angiography (CTCA); 34 patients with RGH-CTCA and 30 patients with PGA-CTCA. The image quality of the bypass grafts was assessed by a 5-point scale (1 = excellent to 5 = non-diagnostic) for each segment (proximal anastomosis, proximal, middle, distal course of graft body, and distal anastomosis). Other objective image quality indices such as noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were assessed. Radiation doses were also compared. Results Patient characteristics of the two groups were well matched except HR. The HR of the PGA group was lower than that of the RGH group (62.0±5.0 vs. 65.7±7.4). For both groups, over 90% of segments received excellent or good image quality scores and none was non-evaluative. The image quality generally degraded as graft segment approached to distal anastomosis regardless of techniques and graft types. Image quality scores of the PGA group were better than those of the RGH group (1.51±0.53 vs. 1.73±0.62; p<0.001). There was no significantly difference of objective image quality between two techniques, and the effective radiation dose was significantly lower in the PGA group (7.0±1.2 mSv) than that of the RGH group (20.0±4.6 mSv) (p<0.001), with a 65.0% dose reduction. Conclusions Following bypass surgery, 256-slice PGA-CTCA is superior to RGH-CTCA in limiting the radiation dose and obtaining better image quality for bypass grafts. PMID:23145126

  11. A Bayesian Semiparametric Model for Radiation Dose-Response Estimation.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Kyoji; Misumi, Munechika; Cologne, John B; Cullings, Harry M

    2016-06-01

    In evaluating the risk of exposure to health hazards, characterizing the dose-response relationship and estimating acceptable exposure levels are the primary goals. In analyses of health risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation, while there is a clear agreement that moderate to high radiation doses cause harmful effects in humans, little has been known about the possible biological effects at low doses, for example, below 0.1 Gy, which is the dose range relevant to most radiation exposures of concern today. A conventional approach to radiation dose-response estimation based on simple parametric forms, such as the linear nonthreshold model, can be misleading in evaluating the risk and, in particular, its uncertainty at low doses. As an alternative approach, we consider a Bayesian semiparametric model that has a connected piece-wise-linear dose-response function with prior distributions having an autoregressive structure among the random slope coefficients defined over closely spaced dose categories. With a simulation study and application to analysis of cancer incidence data among Japanese atomic bomb survivors, we show that this approach can produce smooth and flexible dose-response estimation while reasonably handling the risk uncertainty at low doses and elsewhere. With relatively few assumptions and modeling options to be made by the analyst, the method can be particularly useful in assessing risks associated with low-dose radiation exposures.

  12. Radiation dose of CT coronary angiography in clinical practice: objective evaluation of strategies for dose optimization.

    PubMed

    Yerramasu, Ajay; Venuraju, Shreenidhi; Atwal, Satvir; Goodman, Dennis; Lipkin, David; Lahiri, Avijit

    2012-07-01

    CT coronary angiography (CTCA) is an evolving modality for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Radiation burden associated with CTCA has been a major concern in the wider application of this technique. It is important to reduce the radiation dose without compromising the image quality. To estimate the radiation dose of CTCA in clinical practice and evaluate the effect of dose-saving algorithms on radiation dose and image quality. Effective radiation dose was measured from the dose-length product in 616 consecutive patients (mean age 58 ± 12 years; 70% males) who underwent clinically indicated CTCA at our institution over 1 year. Image quality was assessed subjectively using a 4-point scale and objectively by measuring the signal- and contrast-to-noise ratios in the coronary arteries. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to identify factors independently associated with radiation dose. Mean effective radiation dose of CTCA was 6.6 ± 3.3 mSv. Radiation dose was significantly reduced by dose saving algorithms such as 100 kV imaging (-47%; 95% CI, -44% to -50%), prospective gating (-35%; 95% CI, -29% to -40%) and ECG controlled tube current modulation (-23%; 95% CI, -9% to -34%). None of the dose saving algorithms were associated with a significant reduction in mean image quality or the frequency of diagnostic scans (P = non-significant for all comparisons). Careful application of radiation-dose saving algorithms in appropriately selected patients can reduce the radiation burden of CTCA significantly, without compromising the image quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Occupational radiation doses during interventional procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuraeni, N.; Hiswara, E.; Kartikasari, D.; Waris, A.; Haryanto, F.

    2016-03-01

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is a type of fluoroscopy technique used in interventional radiology to clearly visualize blood vessels in a bony or dense soft tissue environment. The use of DSA procedures has been increased quite significantly in the Radiology departments in various cities in Indonesia. Various reports showed that both patients and medical staff received a noticeable radiation dose during the course of this procedure. A study had been carried out to measure these doses among interventionalist, nurse and radiographer. The results show that the interventionalist and the nurse, who stood quite close to the X-ray beams compared with the radiographer, received radiation higher than the others. The results also showed that the radiation dose received by medical staff were var depending upon the duration and their position against the X-ray beams. Compared tothe dose limits, however, the radiation dose received by all these three medical staff were still lower than the limits.

  14. Adaption By Low Dose Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The procedures and dose limitations used for radiation protection in the nuclear industry are founded on the assumption that risk is directly proportional to dose, without a threshold. Based on this idea that any dose, no matter how small, will increase risk, radiation protection regulations generally attempt to reduce any exposure to “as low as reasonably achievable” (ALARA). We know however, that these regulatory assumptions are inconsistent with the known biological effects of low doses. Low doses induce protective effects, and these adaptive responses are part of a general response to low stress. Adaptive responses have been tightly conserved during evolution, from single celled organisms up to humans, indicating their importance. Here we examine cellular and animal studies that show the influence of radiation induced protective effects on diverse diseases, and examine the radiation dose range that is effective for different tissues in the same animal. The concept of a dose window, with upper and lower effective doses, as well as the effect of multiple stressors and the influence of genetics will also be examined. The effect of the biological variables on low dose responses will be considered from the point of view of the limitations they may impose on any revised radiation protection regulations. PMID:26672725

  15. ASSESSMENT OF RADIATION DOSE AND EXCESSIVE LIFE-TIME CANCER RISK FROM THE BUNAIR GRANITE, NORTHERN PAKISTAN.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, A A; Manzoor, S; Younis, H; Shah, K H; Ahmed, T

    2017-07-20

    Natural radioactivity was measured in Bunair Granite using high purity germanium gamma-ray spectrometer and compared to world's granites and building materials to access its suitability for the construction purpose. Average gamma-activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were found to be 52.41, 58.41 and 1130.12 Bq kg-1, respectively. The Indoor and outdoor radiation indices including excessive life-time cancer risk (ELCR) were calculated. The average indoor ELCR was estimated as 3.49 × 10-3. The average outdoor ELCR was assessed as 0.46 × 10-3. As a basic building material Bunair Granite should be on low propriety. For flooring, facing the buildings and as Table tops, in kitchens and other utilities it is safe. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Space Radiation Quality Factors and the Delta Ray Dose and Dose-Rate Reduction Effectiveness Factor.

    PubMed

    Cucinotta, Francis A; Cacao, Eliedonna; Alp, Murat

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the authors recommend that the dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor used for space radiation risk assessments should be based on a comparison of the biological effects of energetic electrons produced along a cosmic ray particles path in low fluence exposures to high dose-rate gamma-ray exposures of doses of about 1 Gy. Methods to implement this approach are described.

  17. REMEDIATION FACILITY WORKER DOSE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    V. Arakali; E. Faillace

    2004-02-27

    The purpose of this design calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel in the Remediation Facility performing operations to receive, prepare, open, repair, recover, disposition, and correct off-normal and non-standard conditions with casks, canisters, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies, and waste packages (WP). The specific scope of work contained in this calculation covers both collective doses and individual worker group doses on an annual basis, and includes the contributions due to external and internal radiation. The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the Remediation Facility and provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application.

  18. Radiation dose optimization in thoracic imaging.

    PubMed

    Tack, D

    2010-01-01

    Guidelines for reduction of CT radiation dose were introduced in 1997 and are now more than 12 years old. The process initiated by the European Regulatory authorities to reduce the excess of radiation from CT has however not produced the expected results. Reference diagnostic levels (DRL) from surveys are still twice as high as needed in most European countries and were not significantly reduced as compared to the initial European ones. Many factors may at least explain partially the lack of dose reduction. One of them is the complexity of the dose optimization process while maintaining image quality at a diagnostically acceptable level. Chest is an anatomical region where radiation dose could be substantially reduced because of high natural contrasts between structures, such as air in the lungs and fat in the mediastinum. In this article, the concept of CT radiation dose optimization and the factors that contribute to maintain global excess in radiation dose are reviewed and a brief summary of results from research in the field of chest CT radiation dose is given.

  19. Dose estimation software for radiation biodosimetry.

    PubMed

    Ainsbury, Elizabeth A; Lloyd, David C

    2010-02-01

    Cytogenetic analysis of chromosome damage in blood lymphocytes is widely used for radiation biodosimetry. Mathematical and statistical analysis is extremely important for accurate assessment of the data and results, and there are a number of classical statistical methods which are routinely employed. However, the large number of different mathematical techniques, the dependence of the models on certain statistical principles, and the complexity of some of the methods can lead to errors in data analysis and thus misinterpretation of results. Cytogenetic dose estimation software has been developed to address these problems by simplifying mathematical and statistical analysis of the cytogenetic data. "Dose Estimate" is a collection of mathematical and statistical methods based on the cytogenetic methods that are used for biodosimetry at the Health Protection Agency and elsewhere in the radiation cytogenetics community. Details of the biological and mathematical tools incorporated into the software are presented. Preliminary testing has been carried out, and the results demonstrate the accuracy and usefulness of the software in its current form. Proposals for improving the software through implementation of recently published Bayesian analysis techniques for cytogenetics are also outlined. An evaluation copy of the software is available on request from the authors.

  20. Patient Radiation Doses from Diagnostic Radiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, D.

    1996-01-01

    Explains how x-ray doses to patients are measured. Describes how different techniques expose patients to differing amounts of ionizing radiation. Compares these figures with other natural and man-made sources. (Author/MKR)

  1. STUDY OF NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY (226Ra, 232Th AND 40K) IN SOIL SAMPLES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF AVERAGE EFFECTIVE DOSE AND RADIATION HAZARDS.

    PubMed

    Bangotra, Pargin; Mehra, Rohit; Kaur, Kirandeep; Jakhu, Rajan

    2016-10-01

    The activity concentration of (226)Ra (radium), (232)Th (thorium) and (40)K (potassium) has been measured in the soil samples collected from Mansa and Muktsar districts of Punjab (India) using NaI (Tikl) gamma detector. The concentration of three radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) in the studied area has been varied from 18±4 to 46±5, 53±7 to 98±8 and 248±54 to 756±110 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Radium equivalent activities (Raeq) have been calculated in soil samples for the assessment of the radiation hazards arising due to the use of these soil samples. The absorbed dose rate of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in studied area has been varied from 8 to 21, 33 to 61 and 9 to 25 nGy h(-1), respectively. The corresponding indoor and outdoor annual effective dose in studied area was 0.38 and 0.09 mSv, respectively. The external and internal hazard has been also calculated for the assessment of radiation hazards in the studied area.

  2. Gamma Radiation Doses In Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Almgren, Sara; Isaksson, Mats; Barregaard, Lars

    2008-08-07

    Gamma dose rate measurements were performed in one urban and one rural area using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) worn by 46 participants and placed in their dwellings. The personal effective dose rates were 0.096{+-}0.019(1 SD) and 0.092{+-}0.016(1 SD){mu}Sv/h in the urban and rural area, respectively. The corresponding dose rates in the dwellings were 0.11{+-}0.042(1 SD) and 0.091{+-}0.026(1 SD){mu}Sv/h. However, the differences between the areas were not significant. The values were higher in buildings made of concrete than of wood and higher in apartments than in detached houses. Also, {sup 222}Rn measurements were performed in each dwelling, which showed no correlation with the gamma dose rates in the dwellings.

  3. Assessment of shielding analysis methods, codes, and data for spent fuel transport/storage applications. [Radiation dose rates from shielded spent fuels and high-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, C.V.; Broadhead, B.L.; Hermann, O.W.; Tang, J.S.; Cramer, S.N.; Gauthey, J.C.; Kirk, B.L.; Roussin, R.W.

    1988-07-01

    This report provides a preliminary assessment of the computational tools and existing methods used to obtain radiation dose rates from shielded spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). Particular emphasis is placed on analysis tools and techniques applicable to facilities/equipment designed for the transport or storage of spent nuclear fuel or HLW. Applications to cask transport, storage, and facility handling are considered. The report reviews the analytic techniques for generating appropriate radiation sources, evaluating the radiation transport through the shield, and calculating the dose at a desired point or surface exterior to the shield. Discrete ordinates, Monte Carlo, and point kernel methods for evaluating radiation transport are reviewed, along with existing codes and data that utilize these methods. A literature survey was employed to select a cadre of codes and data libraries to be reviewed. The selection process was based on specific criteria presented in the report. Separate summaries were written for several codes (or family of codes) that provided information on the method of solution, limitations and advantages, availability, data access, ease of use, and known accuracy. For each data library, the summary covers the source of the data, applicability of these data, and known verification efforts. Finally, the report discusses the overall status of spent fuel shielding analysis techniques and attempts to illustrate areas where inaccuracy and/or uncertainty exist. The report notes the advantages and limitations of several analysis procedures and illustrates the importance of using adequate cross-section data sets. Additional work is recommended to enable final selection/validation of analysis tools that will best meet the US Department of Energy's requirements for use in developing a viable HLW management system. 188 refs., 16 figs., 27 tabs.

  4. An analysis of the radiation field characteristics for extremity dose assessment during maintenance periods at nuclear power plants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Geun; Kong, Tae Young

    2012-12-01

    Workers who maintain the water chambers of steam generators during maintenance periods in nuclear power plants (NPPs) have a higher likelihood of high radiation exposure, even if they are exposed for a short period of time. In particular, it is expected that the hands of workers would receive the highest radiation exposure as a consequence of hand contact with radioactive materials. In this study, a characteristic analysis of inhomogeneous radiation fields for contact operations was conducted using thermoluminescent dosemeters for the whole body and extremities during maintenance periods at Korean NPPs. It was observed that inhomogeneous radiation fields for contact operations at NPPs were dominated by high-energy photons.

  5. TH-C-18A-06: Combined CT Image Quality and Radiation Dose Monitoring Program Based On Patient Data to Assess Consistency of Clinical Imaging Across Scanner Models

    SciTech Connect

    Christianson, O; Winslow, J; Samei, E

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: One of the principal challenges of clinical imaging is to achieve an ideal balance between image quality and radiation dose across multiple CT models. The number of scanners and protocols at large medical centers necessitates an automated quality assurance program to facilitate this objective. Therefore, the goal of this work was to implement an automated CT image quality and radiation dose monitoring program based on actual patient data and to use this program to assess consistency of protocols across CT scanner models. Methods: Patient CT scans are routed to a HIPPA compliant quality assurance server. CTDI, extracted using optical character recognition, and patient size, measured from the localizers, are used to calculate SSDE. A previously validated noise measurement algorithm determines the noise in uniform areas of the image across the scanned anatomy to generate a global noise level (GNL). Using this program, 2358 abdominopelvic scans acquired on three commercial CT scanners were analyzed. Median SSDE and GNL were compared across scanner models and trends in SSDE and GNL with patient size were used to determine the impact of differing automatic exposure control (AEC) algorithms. Results: There was a significant difference in both SSDE and GNL across scanner models (9–33% and 15–35% for SSDE and GNL, respectively). Adjusting all protocols to achieve the same image noise would reduce patient dose by 27–45% depending on scanner model. Additionally, differences in AEC methodologies across vendors resulted in disparate relationships of SSDE and GNL with patient size. Conclusion: The difference in noise across scanner models indicates that protocols are not optimally matched to achieve consistent image quality. Our results indicated substantial possibility for dose reduction while achieving more consistent image appearance. Finally, the difference in AEC methodologies suggests the need for size-specific CT protocols to minimize variability in image

  6. Radiation measurements and doses at SST altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foelsche, T.

    1972-01-01

    Radiation components and dose equivalents due to galactic and solar cosmic rays in the high atmosphere, especially at SST altitudes, are presented. The dose equivalent rate for the flight personnel flying 500 hours per year in cruise altitudes of 60,000-65,000 feet (18-19.5 km) in high magnetic latitudes is about 0.75-1.0 rem per year averaged over the solar cycle, or about 15-20 percent of the maximum permissible dose rate.

  7. Radiation Dose from Reentrant Electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G.D.; Cleghorn, T. E.; Watts, J.

    2003-01-01

    In estimating the crew exposures during an EVA, the contribution of reentrant electrons has always been neglected. Although the flux of these electrons is small compared to the flux of trapped electrons, their energy spectrum extends to several GeV compared to about 7 MeV for trapped electrons. This is also true of splash electrons. Using the measured reentrant electron energy spectra, it is shown that the dose contribution of these electrons to the blood forming organs (BFO) is more than 10 times greater than that from the trapped electrons. The calculations also show that the dose-depth response is a very slowly changing function of depth, and thus adding reasonable amounts of additional shielding would not significantly lower the dose to BFO.

  8. SU-E-I-89: Assessment of CT Radiation Dose and Image Quality for An Automated Tube Potential Selection Algorithm Using Pediatric Anthropomorphic and ACR Phantoms

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmood, U; Erdi, Y; Wang, W

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of General Electrics automated tube potential algorithm, kV assist (kVa) on radiation dose and image quality, with an emphasis on optimizing protocols based on noise texture. Methods: Radiation dose was assessed by inserting optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLs) throughout the body of a pediatric anthropomorphic phantom (CIRS). The baseline protocol was: 120 kVp, 80 mA, 0.7s rotation time. Image quality was assessed by calculating the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and noise power spectrum (NPS) from the ACR CT accreditation phantom. CNRs were calculated according to the steps described in ACR CT phantom testing document. NPS was determined by taking the 3D FFT of the uniformity section of the ACR phantom. NPS and CNR were evaluated with and without kVa and for all available adaptive iterative statistical reconstruction (ASiR) settings, ranging from 0 to 100%. Each NPS was also evaluated for its peak frequency difference (PFD) with respect to the baseline protocol. Results: For the baseline protocol, CNR was found to decrease from 0.460 ± 0.182 to 0.420 ± 0.057 when kVa was activated. When compared against the baseline protocol, the PFD at ASiR of 40% yielded a decrease in noise magnitude as realized by the increase in CNR = 0.620 ± 0.040. The liver dose decreased by 30% with kVa activation. Conclusion: Application of kVa reduces the liver dose up to 30%. However, reduction in image quality for abdominal scans occurs when using the automated tube voltage selection feature at the baseline protocol. As demonstrated by the CNR and NPS analysis, the texture and magnitude of the noise in reconstructed images at ASiR 40% was found to be the same as our baseline images. We have demonstrated that 30% dose reduction is possible when using 40% ASiR with kVa in pediatric patients.

  9. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. ARRRG and FOOD: computer programs for calculating radiation dose to man from radionuclides in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.; Roswell, R.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Strenge, D.L.

    1980-06-01

    The computer programs ARRRG and FOOD were written to facilitate the calculation of internal radiation doses to man from the radionuclides in the environment and external radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment. Using ARRRG, radiation doses to man may be calculated for radionuclides released to bodies of water from which people might obtain fish, other aquatic foods, or drinking water, and in which they might fish, swim or boat. With the FOOD program, radiation doses to man may be calculated from deposition on farm or garden soil and crops during either an atmospheric or water release of radionuclides. Deposition may be either directly from the air or from irrigation water. Fifteen crop or animal product pathways may be chosen. ARRAG and FOOD doses may be calculated for either a maximum-exposed individual or for a population group. Doses calculated are a one-year dose and a committed dose from one year of exposure. The exposure is usually considered as chronic; however, equations are included to calculate dose and dose commitment from acute (one-time) exposure. The equations for calculating internal dose and dose commitment are derived from those given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for body burdens and Maximum Permissible Concentration (MPC) of each radionuclide. The radiation doses from external exposure to contaminated farm fields or shorelines are calculated assuming an infinite flat plane source of radionuclides. A factor of two is included for surface roughness. A modifying factor to compensate for finite extent is included in the shoreline calculations.

  10. Dose rate assessment in tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieser, A.; Göksu, H. Y.; Regulla, D. F.; Vogenauer, A.

    A mammoth found in the southern part of Germany was dated by ESR spectroscopy. This dating method is based on the measurement of the accumulated dose in tooth enamel and assessment of the annual dose. The accumulated dose is obtained from the radiation induced ESR signal at g = 2.0018 of the enamel. The annual dose was first determined by measuring the 238U, 232Th and 40K content of the tooth and of the surrounding soil. As a crosscheck, the dose rate from the tooth was measured by inserting TL dosimeters in the dentine and storing them at 'zero' background in a salt mine. The cosmic dose rate and the gamma dose rate from the soil was evaluated from TL dosimeters buried at the excavation site. The results are discussed with respect to the applicability of ESR dating on teeth.

  11. Assessment of the risk of solar ultraviolet radiation to amphibians. I. Dose-dependent induction of hindlimb malformations in the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens).

    PubMed

    Ankley, Gerald T; Diamond, Stephen A; Tietge, Joseph E; Holcombe, Gary W; Jensen, Kathleen M; Defoe, David L; Peterson, Ryan

    2002-07-01

    A number of environmental stressors have been hypothesized as responsible for recent increases in limb malformations in several species of North American amphibians. The purpose of this study was to generate dose-response data suitable for assessing the potential role of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation in causing limb malformations in a species in which this phenomenon seemingly is particularly prevalent, the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens). Frogs were exposed from early embryonic stages through complete metamorphosis to varying natural sunlight regimes, including unaltered (100%) sunlight, sunlight subjected to neutral density filtration to achieve relative intensities of 85%, 75%, 65%, 50%, and 25% of unaltered sunlight, and sunlight filtered with glass or acrylamide to attenuate, respectively, the UVB (290-320 nm) and UVB plus UVA (290-380 nm) portions of the spectrum. The experiments were conducted in a controlled setting, with continual monitoring of UVB, UVA, and visible light to support a robust exposure assessment. Full sunlight caused approximately 50% mortality of the frogs during early larval development; no significant treatment-related mortality occurred under any of the other exposure regimes, including 100% sunlight with glass or acrylamide filtration. There was a dose-dependent (p < 0.0001) induction of hindlimb malformations in the frogs, with the percentage of affected animals ranging from about 97% under unaltered sunlight to 0% in the 25% neutral density treatment. Malformations were comprised mostly of missing or truncated digits, and generally were bilateral as well as symmetrical. Filtration of sunlight with either glass or acrylamide both significantly reduced the incidence of malformed limbs. The estimated sunlight dose resulting in a 50% limb malformation rate (ED50) was 63.5%. The limb ED50 values based on measured sunlight intensities corresponded to average daily doses of 4.5 and 100 Wh x m(-2) for UVB and UVA, respectively

  12. Radiation dose from cigarette tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Papastefanou, C.

    2008-08-07

    The radioactivity in tobacco leaves collected from 15 different regions of Greece before cigarette production was studied in order to estimate the effective dose from cigarette tobacco due to the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides, such as {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb of the uranium series and {sup 228}Ra of the thorium series and/or man-made produced radionuclides, such as {sup 137}Cs of Chernobyl origin. Gamma-ray spectrometry was applied using Ge planar and coaxial type detectors of high resolution and high efficiency. It was concluded that the annual effective dose due to inhalation for adults (smokers) for {sup 226}Ra varied from 42.5 to 178.6 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 79.7 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}), while for {sup 228}Ra from 19.3 to 116.0 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 67.1 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}) and for {sup 210}Pb from 47.0 to 134.9 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 104.7 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}), that is the same order of magnitude for each radionuclide. The sum of the effective dose of the three natural radionuclides varied from 151.9 to 401.3 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 251.5 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}). The annual effective dose from {sup 137}Cs of Chernobyl origin was three orders of magnitude lower as it varied from 70.4 to 410.4 nSv y{sup -1} (average 199.3 nSv y{sup -1})

  13. Radiation Dose from Cigarette Tobacco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papastefanou, C.

    2008-08-01

    The radioactivity in tobacco leaves collected from 15 different regions of Greece before cigarette production was studied in order to estimate the effective dose from cigarette tobacco due to the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides, such as 226Ra and 210Pb of the uranium series and 228Ra of the thorium series and/or man-made produced radionuclides, such as 137Cs of Chernobyl origin. Gamma-ray spectrometry was applied using Ge planar and coaxial type detectors of high resolution and high efficiency. It was concluded that the annual effective dose due to inhalation for adults (smokers) for 226Ra varied from 42.5 to 178.6 μSv y-1 (average 79.7 μSv y-1), while for 228Ra from 19.3 to 116.0 μSv y-1 (average 67.1 μSv y-1) and for 210Pb from 47.0 to 134.9 μSv y-1 (average 104.7 μSv y-1), that is the same order of magnitude for each radionuclide. The sum of the effective dose of the three natural radionuclides varied from 151.9 to 401.3 μSv y-1 (average 251.5 μSv y-1). The annual effective dose from 137Cs of Chernobyl origin was three orders of magnitude lower as it varied from 70.4 to 410.4 nSv y-1 (average 199.3 nSv y-1).

  14. Mapping of cosmic radiation dose in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Poje, M; Vuković, B; Radolić, V; Miklavčić, I; Faj, D; Varga Pajtler, M; Planinić, J

    2012-01-01

    The Earth is continually bombarded by high-energy particles coming from the outer space and the sun. These particles, termed cosmic radiation, interact with nuclei of atmospheric constituents and decrease in intensity with depth in the atmosphere. Measurements of photon and gamma radiation, performed with a Radiameter at 1 m above the ground, indicated dose rates of 50-100 nSv/h. The neutron dose rate was measured with the CR-39 track etch detector calibrated by the CERN-EU high-energy Reference Field (CERF) facility. Correlation between neutron dose rates and altitudes at 36 sites was examined in order to obtain a significant positive correlation coefficient; the resulting linear regression enabled estimation of a neutron dose at particular altitude. The measured neutron dose rate in Osijek (altitude of 89 m, latitude of 45.31° N) was 110 nSv/h. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Near Real-Time Assessment of Anatomic and Dosimetric Variations for Head and Neck Radiation Therapy via Graphics Processing Unit–based Dose Deformation Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, X. Sharon; Santhanam, Anand; Neylon, John; Min, Yugang; Armstrong, Tess; Sheng, Ke; Staton, Robert J.; Pukala, Jason; Pham, Andrew; Low, Daniel A.; Lee, Steve P.; Steinberg, Michael; Manon, Rafael; Chen, Allen M.; Kupelian, Patrick

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to systematically monitor anatomic variations and their dosimetric consequences during intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for head and neck (H&N) cancer by using a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based deformable image registration (DIR) framework. Methods and Materials: Eleven IMRT H&N patients undergoing IMRT with daily megavoltage computed tomography (CT) and weekly kilovoltage CT (kVCT) scans were included in this analysis. Pretreatment kVCTs were automatically registered with their corresponding planning CTs through a GPU-based DIR framework. The deformation of each contoured structure in the H&N region was computed to account for nonrigid change in the patient setup. The Jacobian determinant of the planning target volumes and the surrounding critical structures were used to quantify anatomical volume changes. The actual delivered dose was calculated accounting for the organ deformation. The dose distribution uncertainties due to registration errors were estimated using a landmark-based gamma evaluation. Results: Dramatic interfractional anatomic changes were observed. During the treatment course of 6 to 7 weeks, the parotid gland volumes changed up to 34.7%, and the center-of-mass displacement of the 2 parotid glands varied in the range of 0.9 to 8.8 mm. For the primary treatment volume, the cumulative minimum and mean and equivalent uniform doses assessed by the weekly kVCTs were lower than the planned doses by up to 14.9% (P=.14), 2% (P=.39), and 7.3% (P=.05), respectively. The cumulative mean doses were significantly higher than the planned dose for the left parotid (P=.03) and right parotid glands (P=.006). The computation including DIR and dose accumulation was ultrafast (∼45 seconds) with registration accuracy at the subvoxel level. Conclusions: A systematic analysis of anatomic variations in the H&N region and their dosimetric consequences is critical in improving treatment efficacy. Nearly real

  16. Near Real-Time Assessment of Anatomic and Dosimetric Variations for Head and Neck Radiation Therapy via Graphics Processing Unit-based Dose Deformation Framework.

    PubMed

    Qi, X Sharon; Santhanam, Anand; Neylon, John; Min, Yugang; Armstrong, Tess; Sheng, Ke; Staton, Robert J; Pukala, Jason; Pham, Andrew; Low, Daniel A; Lee, Steve P; Steinberg, Michael; Manon, Rafael; Chen, Allen M; Kupelian, Patrick

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically monitor anatomic variations and their dosimetric consequences during intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for head and neck (H&N) cancer by using a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based deformable image registration (DIR) framework. Eleven IMRT H&N patients undergoing IMRT with daily megavoltage computed tomography (CT) and weekly kilovoltage CT (kVCT) scans were included in this analysis. Pretreatment kVCTs were automatically registered with their corresponding planning CTs through a GPU-based DIR framework. The deformation of each contoured structure in the H&N region was computed to account for nonrigid change in the patient setup. The Jacobian determinant of the planning target volumes and the surrounding critical structures were used to quantify anatomical volume changes. The actual delivered dose was calculated accounting for the organ deformation. The dose distribution uncertainties due to registration errors were estimated using a landmark-based gamma evaluation. Dramatic interfractional anatomic changes were observed. During the treatment course of 6 to 7 weeks, the parotid gland volumes changed up to 34.7%, and the center-of-mass displacement of the 2 parotid glands varied in the range of 0.9 to 8.8 mm. For the primary treatment volume, the cumulative minimum and mean and equivalent uniform doses assessed by the weekly kVCTs were lower than the planned doses by up to 14.9% (P=.14), 2% (P=.39), and 7.3% (P=.05), respectively. The cumulative mean doses were significantly higher than the planned dose for the left parotid (P=.03) and right parotid glands (P=.006). The computation including DIR and dose accumulation was ultrafast (∼45 seconds) with registration accuracy at the subvoxel level. A systematic analysis of anatomic variations in the H&N region and their dosimetric consequences is critical in improving treatment efficacy. Nearly real-time assessment of anatomic and dosimetric variations is

  17. Wide-range radiation dose monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kopp, M.K.

    1984-09-20

    A radiation dose-rate monitor is provided which operates in a conventional linear mode for radiation in the 0 to 0.5 R/h range and utilizes a nonlinear mode of operation for sensing radiation from 0.5 R/h to over 500 R/h. The nonlinear mode is achieved by a feedback circuit which adjusts the high voltage bias of the proportional counter, and hence its gas gain, in accordance with the amount of radiation being monitored. This allows compression of readout onto a single scale over the range of 0 to greater than 500 R/h without scale switching operations.

  18. Wide-range radiation dose monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kopp, Manfred K.

    1986-01-01

    A radiation dose-rate monitor is provided which operates in a conventional linear mode for radiation in the 0 to 0.5 R/h range and utilizes a nonlinear mode of operation for sensing radiation from 0.5 R/h to over 500 R/h. The nonlinear mode is achieved by a feedback circuit which adjusts the high voltage bias of the proportional counter, and hence its gas gain, in accordance with the amount of radiation being monitored. This allows compression of readout onto a single scale over the range of 0 to greater than 500 R/h without scale switching operations.

  19. Effects of Proton Radiation Dose, Dose Rate and Dose Fractionation on Hematopoietic Cells in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ware, J. H.; Sanzari, J.; Avery, S.; Sayers, C.; Krigsfeld, G.; Nuth, M.; Wan, X. S.; Rusek, A.; Kennedy, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluated the acute effects of radiation dose, dose rate and fractionation as well as the energy of protons in hematopoietic cells of irradiated mice. The mice were irradiated with a single dose of 51.24 MeV protons at a dose of 2 Gy and a dose rate of 0.05–0.07 Gy/min or 1 GeV protons at doses of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 Gy delivered in a single dose at dose rates of 0.05 or 0.5 Gy/min or in five daily dose fractions at a dose rate of 0.05 Gy/min. Sham-irradiated animals were used as controls. The results demonstrate a dose-dependent loss of white blood cells (WBCs) and lymphocytes by up to 61% and 72%, respectively, in mice irradiated with protons at doses up to 2 Gy. The results also demonstrate that the dose rate, fractionation pattern and energy of the proton radiation did not have significant effects on WBC and lymphocyte counts in the irradiated animals. These results suggest that the acute effects of proton radiation on WBC and lymphocyte counts are determined mainly by the radiation dose, with very little contribution from the dose rate (over the range of dose rates evaluated), fractionation and energy of the protons. PMID:20726731

  20. Effects of proton radiation dose, dose rate and dose fractionation on hematopoietic cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Ware, J H; Sanzari, J; Avery, S; Sayers, C; Krigsfeld, G; Nuth, M; Wan, X S; Rusek, A; Kennedy, A R

    2010-09-01

    The present study evaluated the acute effects of radiation dose, dose rate and fractionation as well as the energy of protons in hematopoietic cells of irradiated mice. The mice were irradiated with a single dose of 51.24 MeV protons at a dose of 2 Gy and a dose rate of 0.05-0.07 Gy/min or 1 GeV protons at doses of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 Gy delivered in a single dose at dose rates of 0.05 or 0.5 Gy/min or in five daily dose fractions at a dose rate of 0.05 Gy/min. Sham-irradiated animals were used as controls. The results demonstrate a dose-dependent loss of white blood cells (WBCs) and lymphocytes by up to 61% and 72%, respectively, in mice irradiated with protons at doses up to 2 Gy. The results also demonstrate that the dose rate, fractionation pattern and energy of the proton radiation did not have significant effects on WBC and lymphocyte counts in the irradiated animals. These results suggest that the acute effects of proton radiation on WBC and lymphocyte counts are determined mainly by the radiation dose, with very little contribution from the dose rate (over the range of dose rates evaluated), fractionation and energy of the protons.

  1. Effects of proton radiation dose, dose rate and dose fractionation on hematopoietic cells in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, J.H.; Rusek, A.; Sanzari, J.; Avery, S.; Sayers, C.; Krigsfeld, G.; Nuth, M.; Wan, X.S.; Kennedy, A.R.

    2010-09-01

    The present study evaluated the acute effects of radiation dose, dose rate and fractionation as well as the energy of protons in hematopoietic cells of irradiated mice. The mice were irradiated with a single dose of 51.24 MeV protons at a dose of 2 Gy and a dose rate of 0.05-0.07 Gy/min or 1 GeV protons at doses of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 Gy delivered in a single dose at dose rates of 0.05 or 0.5 Gy/min or in five daily dose fractions at a dose rate of 0.05 Gy/min. Sham-irradiated animals were used as controls. The results demonstrate a dose-dependent loss of white blood cells (WBCs) and lymphocytes by up to 61% and 72%, respectively, in mice irradiated with protons at doses up to 2 Gy. The results also demonstrate that the dose rate, fractionation pattern and energy of the proton radiation did not have significant effects on WBC and lymphocyte counts in the irradiated animals. These results suggest that the acute effects of proton radiation on WBC and lymphocyte counts are determined mainly by the radiation dose, with very little contribution from the dose rate (over the range of dose rates evaluated), fractionation and energy of the protons.

  2. Radiation Dose Estimation by Automated Cytogenetic Biodosimetry.

    PubMed

    Rogan, Peter K; Li, Yanxin; Wilkins, Ruth C; Flegal, Farrah N; Knoll, Joan H M

    2016-12-01

    The dose from ionizing radiation exposure can be interpolated from a calibration curve fit to the frequency of dicentric chromosomes (DCs) at multiple doses. As DC counts are manually determined, there is an acute need for accurate, fully automated biodosimetry calibration curve generation and analysis of exposed samples. Software, the Automated Dicentric Chromosome Identifier (ADCI), is presented which detects and discriminates DCs from monocentric chromosomes, computes biodosimetry calibration curves and estimates radiation dose. Images of metaphase cells from samples, exposed at 1.4-3.4 Gy, that had been manually scored by two reference laboratories were reanalyzed with ADCI. This resulted in estimated exposures within 0.4-1.1 Gy of the physical dose. Therefore, ADCI can determine radiation dose with accuracies comparable to standard triage biodosimetry. Calibration curves were generated from metaphase images in ~10 h, and dose estimations required ~0.8 h per 500 image sample. Running multiple instances of ADCI may be an effective response to a mass casualty radiation event. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Head and Neck Radiation Dose and Radiation Safety for Interventional Physicians.

    PubMed

    Fetterly, Kenneth; Schueler, Beth; Grams, Michael; Sturchio, Glenn; Bell, Malcolm; Gulati, Rajiv

    2017-03-13

    The first aim of this study was to assess the magnitude of radiation dose to tissues of the head and neck of physicians performing x-ray-guided interventional procedures. The second aim was to assess protection of tissues of the head offered by select wearable radiation safety devices. Radiation dose to tissues of the head and neck is of significant interest to practicing interventional physicians. However, methods to estimate radiation dose are not generally available, and furthermore, some of the available research relating to protection of these tissues is misleading. Using a single representative geometry, scatter radiation dose to a humanoid phantom was measured using radiochromic film and normalized by the radiation dose to the left collar of the radioprotective thorax apron. Radiation protection offered by leaded glasses and by a radioabsorbent surgical cap was measured. In the test geometry, average radiation doses to the unprotected brain, carotid arteries, and ocular lenses were 8.4%, 17%, and 50% of the dose measured at the left collar, respectively. Two representative types of leaded glasses reduced dose to the ocular lens on the side of the physician from which the scatter originates by 27% to 62% but offered no protection to the contralateral eye. The radioabsorbent surgical cap reduced brain dose by only 3.3%. A method by which interventional physicians can estimate dose to head and neck tissues on the basis of their personal dosimeter readings is described. Radiation protection of the ocular lenses by leaded glasses may be incomplete, and protection of the brain by a radioabsorbent surgical cap was minimal. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. SU-E-I-81: Assessment of CT Radiation Dose and Image Quality for An Automated Tube Potential Selection Algorithm Using Adult Anthropomorphic and ACR Phantoms

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmood, U; Erdi, Y; Wang, W

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of General Electrics (GE) automated tube potential algorithm, kV assist (kVa) on radiation dose and image quality, with an emphasis on optimizing protocols based on noise texture. Methods: Radiation dose was assessed by inserting optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLs) throughout the body of an adult anthropomorphic phantom (CIRS). The baseline protocol was: 120 kVp, Auto mA (180 to 380 mA), noise index (NI) = 14, adaptive iterative statistical reconstruction (ASiR) of 20%, 0.8s rotation time. Image quality was evaluated by calculating the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and noise power spectrum (NPS) from the ACR CT accreditation phantom. CNRs were calculated according to the steps described in ACR CT phantom testing document. NPS was determined by taking the 3D FFT of the uniformity section of the ACR phantom. NPS and CNR were evaluated with and without kVa and for all available adaptive iterative statistical reconstruction (ASiR) settings, ranging from 0 to 100%. Each NPS was also evaluated for its peak frequency difference (PFD) with respect to the baseline protocol. Results: The CNR for the adult male was found to decrease from CNR = 0.912 ± 0.045 for the baseline protocol without kVa to a CNR = 0.756 ± 0.049 with kVa activated. When compared against the baseline protocol, the PFD at ASiR of 40% yielded a decrease in noise magnitude as realized by the increase in CNR = 0.903 ± 0.023. The difference in the central liver dose with and without kVa was found to be 0.07%. Conclusion: Dose reduction was insignificant in the adult phantom. As determined by NPS analysis, ASiR of 40% produced images with similar noise texture to the baseline protocol. However, the CNR at ASiR of 40% with kVa fails to meet the current ACR CNR passing requirement of 1.0.

  5. Epigenomic Adaptation to Low Dose Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, Michael N.

    2015-06-30

    The overall hypothesis of this grant application is that the adaptive responses elicited by low dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) result in part from heritable DNA methylation changes in the epigenome. In the final budget period at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, we will specifically address this hypothesis by determining if the epigenetically labile, differentially methylated regions (DMRs) that regulate parental-specific expression of imprinted genes are deregulated in agouti mice by low dose radiation exposure during gestation. This information is particularly important to ascertain given the 1) increased human exposure to medical sources of radiation; 2) increased number of people predicted to live and work in space; and 3) enhanced citizen concern about radiation exposure from nuclear power plant accidents and terrorist ‘dirty bombs.’

  6. GEWEX Radiative Flux Assessment

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-20

    ... climate components (atmosphere, ocean, land, cryosphere, biosphere). The GEWEX Radiative Flux Assessment (RFA) project will provide a ... Spatial Coverage: (-20.45, -2.43)(-62.87, -47.90) Full Product Page ...

  7. Imaging of Radiation Dose for Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Timothy Y.; Almond, Peter R.; Park, Hwan C.; Lindberg, Robert D.; Shields, Christopher B.

    2015-01-15

    The distributions of radiation dose for stereotactic radiosurgery, using a modified linear accelerator (Philips SL-25 and SRS-200), have been studied by using three different dosimeters: (1) ferrous-agarose-xylenol orange (FAX) gels, (2) TLD, and (3) thick-emulsion GafChromic dye film. These dosimeters were loaded into a small volume of defect in a phantom head. A regular linac stereotactic radiosurgery treatment was then given to the phantom head for each type of dosimeter. The measured radiation dose and its distributions were found to be in good agreement with those calculated by the treatment planning computer.

  8. Radiation-induced genomic instability: radiation quality and dose response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Leslie E.; Nagar, Shruti; Kim, Grace J.; Morgan, William F.

    2003-01-01

    Genomic instability is a term used to describe a phenomenon that results in the accumulation of multiple changes required to convert a stable genome of a normal cell to an unstable genome characteristic of a tumor. There has been considerable recent debate concerning the importance of genomic instability in human cancer and its temporal occurrence in the carcinogenic process. Radiation is capable of inducing genomic instability in mammalian cells and instability is thought to be the driving force responsible for radiation carcinogenesis. Genomic instability is characterized by a large collection of diverse endpoints that include large-scale chromosomal rearrangements and aberrations, amplification of genetic material, aneuploidy, micronucleus formation, microsatellite instability, and gene mutation. The capacity of radiation to induce genomic instability depends to a large extent on radiation quality or linear energy transfer (LET) and dose. There appears to be a low dose threshold effect with low LET, beyond which no additional genomic instability is induced. Low doses of both high and low LET radiation are capable of inducing this phenomenon. This report reviews data concerning dose rate effects of high and low LET radiation and their capacity to induce genomic instability assayed by chromosomal aberrations, delayed lethal mutations, micronuclei and apoptosis.

  9. Radiation-induced genomic instability: radiation quality and dose response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Leslie E.; Nagar, Shruti; Kim, Grace J.; Morgan, William F.

    2003-01-01

    Genomic instability is a term used to describe a phenomenon that results in the accumulation of multiple changes required to convert a stable genome of a normal cell to an unstable genome characteristic of a tumor. There has been considerable recent debate concerning the importance of genomic instability in human cancer and its temporal occurrence in the carcinogenic process. Radiation is capable of inducing genomic instability in mammalian cells and instability is thought to be the driving force responsible for radiation carcinogenesis. Genomic instability is characterized by a large collection of diverse endpoints that include large-scale chromosomal rearrangements and aberrations, amplification of genetic material, aneuploidy, micronucleus formation, microsatellite instability, and gene mutation. The capacity of radiation to induce genomic instability depends to a large extent on radiation quality or linear energy transfer (LET) and dose. There appears to be a low dose threshold effect with low LET, beyond which no additional genomic instability is induced. Low doses of both high and low LET radiation are capable of inducing this phenomenon. This report reviews data concerning dose rate effects of high and low LET radiation and their capacity to induce genomic instability assayed by chromosomal aberrations, delayed lethal mutations, micronuclei and apoptosis.

  10. Radiation dose in temporomandibular joint zonography

    SciTech Connect

    Coucke, M.E.; Bourgoignie, R.R.; Dermaut, L.R.; Bourgoignie, K.A.; Jacobs, R.J. )

    1991-06-01

    Temporomandibular joint morphology and function can be evaluated by panoramic zonography. Thermoluminescent dosimetry was applied to evaluate the radiation dose to predetermined sites on a phantom eye, thyroid, pituitary, and parotid, and the dose distribution on the skin of the head and neck when the TMJ program of the Zonarc panoramic x-ray unit was used. Findings are discussed with reference to similar radiographic techniques.

  11. Flight attendant radiation dose from solar particle events.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jeri L; Mertens, Christopher J; Grajewski, Barbara; Luo, Lian; Tseng, Chih-Yu; Cassinelli, Rick T

    2014-08-01

    Research has suggested that work as a flight attendant may be related to increased risk for reproductive health effects. Air cabin exposures that may influence reproductive health include radiation dose from galactic cosmic radiation and solar particle events. This paper describes the assessment of radiation dose accrued during solar particle events as part of a reproductive health study of flight attendants. Solar storm data were obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Space Weather Prediction Center list of solar proton events affecting the Earth environment to ascertain storms relevant to the two study periods (1992-1996 and 1999-2001). Radiation dose from exposure to solar energetic particles was estimated using the NAIRAS model in conjunction with galactic cosmic radiation dose calculated using the CARI-6P computer program. Seven solar particle events were determined to have potential for significant radiation exposure, two in the first study period and five in the second study period, and over-lapped with 24,807 flight segments. Absorbed (and effective) flight segment doses averaged 6.5 μGy (18 μSv) and 3.1 μGy (8.3 μSv) for the first and second study periods, respectively. Maximum doses were as high as 440 μGy (1.2 mSv) and 20 flight segments had doses greater than 190 μGy (0.5 mSv). During solar particle events, a pregnant flight attendant could potentially exceed the equivalent dose limit to the conceptus of 0.5 mSv in a month recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements.

  12. Radiation Leukemogenesis at Low Dose Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, Michael; Ullrich, Robert

    2013-09-25

    The major goals of this program were to study the efficacy of low dose rate radiation exposures for the induction of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and to characterize the leukemias that are caused by radiation exposures at low dose rate. An irradiator facility was designed and constructed that allows large numbers of mice to be irradiated at low dose rates for protracted periods (up to their life span). To the best of our knowledge this facility is unique in the US and it was subsequently used to study radioprotectors being developed for radiological defense (PLoS One. 7(3), e33044, 2012) and is currently being used to study the role of genetic background in susceptibility to radiation-induced lung cancer. One result of the irradiation was expected; low dose rate exposures are ineffective in inducing AML. However, another result was completely unexpected; the irradiated mice had a very high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), approximately 50%. It was unexpected because acute exposures are ineffective in increasing HCC incidence above background. This is a potential important finding for setting exposure limits because it supports the concept of an 'inverse dose rate effect' for some tumor types. That is, for the development of some tumor types low dose rate exposures carry greater risks than acute exposures.

  13. Assessing exposure to radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, K.

    1997-01-01

    Since the founding of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we have been world leaders in evaluating the risks associated with radiation. Ultrasensitive tools allow us not only to measure radionuclides present in the body but also to reconstruct the radiation dose from past nuclear events and to project the levels of radiation that will still be present in the body for 50 years after the initial intake. A variety of laboratory procedures, including some developed here, give us detailed information on the effects of radiation at the cellular level. Even today, we are re-evaluating the neutron dose resulting from the bombing at Hiroshima. Our dose reconstruction and projection capabilities have also been applied to studies of Nagasaki, Chernobyl, the Mayak industrial complex in the former Soviet Union, the Nevada Test Site, Bikini Atoll, and other sites. We are evaluating the information being collected on individuals currently working with radioactive material at Livermore and elsewhere as well as previously collected data on workers that extends back to the Manhattan Project.

  14. Measurement of the radiation dose and assessment of the risk in mammography screening for early detection of cancer of the breast, in Israel.

    PubMed

    Broisman, A; Schlesinger, T; Alfassi, Z B

    2011-01-01

    The mean glandular doses to samples of women attending for mammographic screening are measured routinely at screening centres in Israel. As at present, no detailed and systematic data have been collected regarding the average glandular dose in mammography screening procedures carried out in Israel for the last 20 y. Especially data are lacking related to the glandular dose (GD) involved in mammography with the new digital mammography systems. In this work, partial results of the measurements are presented to asses the radiation dose to the breast and to the glandular tissue within the Israeli national mammography programme updated to year 2009.

  15. An assessment of radiation doses at an educational institution 57.8 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant 1 month after the nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Masayoshi; Kanda, Hideyuki; Kakamu, Takeyasu; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Miyake, Masao; Hayakawa, Takehito; Mori, Yayoi; Okochi, Toshiyasu; Hazama, Akihiro; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2012-03-01

    On 11 March 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred. Due to this earthquake and subsequent tsunami, malfunctions occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Radioactive material even reached the investigated educational institution despite being 57.8 km away from the power station. With the goal of ensuring the safety of our students, we decided to carry out a risk assessment of the premises of this educational institution by measuring radiation doses at certain locations, making it possible to calculate estimated radiation accumulation. Systematic sampling was carried out at measurement points spaced at regular intervals for a total of 24 indoor and outdoor areas, with 137 measurements at heights of 1 cm and 100 cm above the ground surface. Radiation survey meters were used to measure environmental radiation doses. Radiation dose rates and count rates were higher outdoors than indoors, and higher 1 cm above the ground surface than at 100 cm. Radiation doses 1 cm above the ground surface were higher on grass and moss than on asphalt and soil. The estimated radiation exposure for a student spending an average of 11 h on site at this educational institution was 9.80 μSv. Environmental radiation doses at our educational institution 57.8 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant 1 month after the accident were lower than the national regulation dose for schools (3.8 μSv/h) at most points. Differences in radiation doses depending on outdoor surface properties are important to note for risk reduction.

  16. Estimates of relative risks for cancers in a population after prolonged low-dose-rate radiation exposure: a follow-up assessment from 1983 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Su-Lun; Hwang, Jing-Shiang; Yang, Yi-Ta; Hsieh, Wanhua A; Chang, Tien-Chun; Guo, How-Ran; Tsai, Mong-Hsun; Tang, Jih-Luh; Lin, I-Feng; Chang, Wushou Peter

    2008-08-01

    Radiation effects on cancer risks in a cohort of Taiwanese residents who received protracted low-dose-rate gamma-radiation exposures from (60)Co-contaminated reinforcing steel used to build their apartments were studied, and risks were compared to those in other radiation-exposed cohorts. Analyses were based on a more extended follow-up of the cohort population in which 117 cancer cases diagnosed between 1983 and 2005 among 6,242 people with an average excess cumulative exposure estimate of about 48 mGy. Cases were identified from Taiwan's National Cancer Registry. Radiation effects on cancer risk were estimated using proportional hazards models and were summarized in terms of the hazard ratio associated with a 100-mGy increase in dose (HR(100mGy)). A significant radiation risk was observed for leukemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukemia (HR(100mGy) 1.19, 90% CI 1.01-1.31). Breast cancer exhibited a marginally significant dose response (HR(100mGy) 1.12, 90% CI 0.99-1.21). The results further strengthen the association between protracted low-dose radiation and cancer risks, especially for breast cancers and leukemia, in this unique cohort population.

  17. Linking Doses with Clinical Scores of Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shaowen

    2016-10-01

    In radiation accidents, determining the radiation dose the victim received is a key step for medical decision making and patient prognosis. To reconstruct and evaluate the absorbed dose, researchers have developed many physical devices and biological techniques during the last decades. However, using the physical parameter "absorbed dose" alone is not sufficient to predict the clinical development of the various organs injured in an individual patient. In operational situations for radiation accidents, medical responders need more urgently to classify the severity of the radiation injury based on the signs and symptoms of the patient. In this work, the author uses a unified hematopoietic model to describe dose-dependent dynamics of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and platelets, and the corresponding clinical grading of hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome. This approach not only visualizes the time course of the patient's probable outcome in the form of graphs but also indirectly gives information of the remaining stem and progenitor cells, which are responsible for the autologous recovery of the hematopoietic system. Because critical information on the patient's clinical evolution can be provided within a short time after exposure and only peripheral cell counts are required for the simulation, these modeling tools will be useful to assess radiation exposure and injury in human-involved radiation accident/incident scenarios.

  18. Individual and collective doses from cosmic radiation in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Colgan, P A; Synnott, H; Fenton, D

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses the individual and collective doses in Ireland due to cosmic radiation. Information on the exposure to cosmic radiation at ground level is reviewed and published data on the frequency of routes flown by Irish residents is used to calculate the dose due to air travel. Occupational exposure of aircrew is also evaluated. Experimental data on cosmic radiation exposure at ground level is in good agreement with international estimates and the average individual dose is calculated as 300 microSv annually. Published data on international air travel by Irish residents shows a 50% increase in the number of flights taken between 2001 and 2005. This increase is primarily on short-haul flights to Europe, but there have been significant percentage increases in all long-haul flights, with the exception of flights to Africa. The additional per capita dose due to air travel is estimated to be 45 muSv, of which 51% is accumulated on European routes and 34% on routes to the United States. Exposure of aircrew to cosmic radiation is now controlled by legislation and all airlines holding an Air Operator's Certificate issued by the Irish Aviation Authority are required to report annually the doses received by their employees in the previous year. There has been a 75% increase in the number of aircrew receiving doses >1 mSv since 2002. In 2004 and 2005 the average individual doses received by Irish aircrew were 1.8 and 2.0, mSv, respectively. The corresponding per caput dose for the entire population is <3 muSv. While this is low compared with the per caput doses from other sources of cosmic radiation, aircrew exposure represents a higher collective dose than any other identified group of exposed workers in Ireland.

  19. High-Pitch, Low-Voltage and Low-Iodine-Concentration CT Angiography of Aorta: Assessment of Image Quality and Radiation Dose with Iterative Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yanguang; Sun, Zhonghua; Xu, Lei; Li, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Yan, Zixu; Fan, Zhanming

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the image quality of aorta obtained by dual-source computed tomography angiography (DSCTA), performed with high pitch, low tube voltage, and low iodine concentration contrast medium (CM) with images reconstructed using iterative reconstruction (IR). Methods One hundred patients randomly allocated to receive one of two types of CM underwent DSCTA with the electrocardiogram-triggered Flash protocol. In the low-iodine group, 50 patients received CM containing 270 mg I/mL and were scanned at low tube voltage (100 kVp). In the high-iodine CM group, 50 patients received CM containing 370 mg I/mL and were scanned at the tube voltage (120 kVp). The filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm was used for reconstruction in both groups. In addition, the IR algorithm was used in the low-iodine group. Image quality of the aorta was analyzed subjectively by a 3-point grading scale and objectively by measuring the CT attenuation in terms of the signal- and contrast-to-noise ratios (SNR and CNR, respectively). Radiation and CM doses were compared. Results The CT attenuation, subjective image quality assessment, SNR, and CNR of various aortic regions of interest did not differ significantly between two groups. In the low-iodine group, images reconstructed by FBP and IR demonstrated significant differences in image noise, SNR, and CNR (p<0.05). The low-iodine group resulted in 34.3% less radiation (4.4 ± 0.5 mSv) than the high-iodine group (6.7 ± 0.6 mSv), and 27.3% less iodine weight (20.36 ± 2.65 g) than the high-iodine group (28 ± 1.98 g). Observers exhibited excellent agreement on the aortic image quality scores (κ = 0.904). Conclusions CT images of aorta could be obtained within 2 s by using a DSCT Flash protocol with low tube voltage, IR, and low-iodine-concentration CM. Appropriate contrast enhancement was achieved while maintaining good image quality and decreasing the radiation and iodine doses. PMID:25643353

  20. Methods of calculating radiation absorbed dose.

    PubMed

    Wegst, A V

    1987-01-01

    The new tumoricidal radioactive agents being developed will require a careful estimate of radiation absorbed tumor and critical organ dose for each patient. Clinical methods will need to be developed using standard imaging or counting instruments to determine cumulated organ activities with tracer amounts before the therapeutic administration of the material. Standard MIRD dosimetry methods can then be applied.

  1. Low-dose radiation and leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Linos, A.; Gray, J.E.; Orvis, A.L.; Kyle, R.A.; O'Fallon, W.M.; Kurland, L.T.

    1980-05-15

    We investigated the effect of diagnostic and low-level therapeutic radiation (less than 300 rads to bone marrow) on the development of leukemia. During this study, 138 patients with leukemia (representing all known incidence cases of leukemia in residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, between 1955 and 1974) were each matched with two controls, and the lifelong experiences of both groups with regard to diagnostic and therapeutic radiation were ascertained. No statistically significant increase was found in the risk of developing leukemia after radiation doses of 0 to 300 rads (3 Gy) to the bone marrow when these amounts were administered in small doses over long periods of time, as in routine medical care.

  2. Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture: Yucca mountain radiation standards, dose/risk assessments, thinking outside the box, evaluations, and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Dade W

    2009-11-01

    The Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository is designed to contain spent nuclear fuel and vitrified fission products. Due to the fact that it will be the first such facility constructed anywhere in the world, it has proved to be one in which multiple organizations, most prominently the U.S. Congress, are exercising a role. In addition to selecting a site for the facility, Congress specified that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) promulgate the associated Standards, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission establish applicable Regulations to implement the Standards, and the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) design, construct, and operate the repository. Congress also specified that U.S. EPA request that the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) provide them guidance on the form and nature of the Standards. In so doing, Congress also stipulated that the Standards be expressed in terms of an "equivalent dose rate." As will be noted, this subsequently introduced serious complications. Due to the inputs of so many groups, and the fact that the NAS recommendations conflicted with the Congressional stipulation that the limits be expressed in terms of a dose rate, the outcome is a set of Standards that not only does not comply with the NAS recommendations, but also is neither integrated, nor consistent. The initial goals of this paper are to provide an independent risk/dose analysis for each of the eight radionuclides that are to be regulated, and to evaluate them in terms of the Standards. These efforts reveal that the Standards are neither workable nor capable of being implemented. The concluding portions of the paper provide guidance that, if successfully implemented, would enable U.S. DOE to complete the construction of the repository and operate it in accordance with the recommendations of NAS while, at the same time, provide a better, more accurate, understanding of its potential risks to the public. This facility is too important to

  3. Errors and Uncertainties in Dose Reconstruction for Radiation Effects Research

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2008-04-14

    Dose reconstruction for studies of the health effects of ionizing radiation have been carried out for many decades. Major studies have included Japanese bomb survivors, atomic veterans, downwinders of the Nevada Test Site and Hanford, underground uranium miners, and populations of nuclear workers. For such studies to be credible, significant effort must be put into applying the best science to reconstructing unbiased absorbed doses to tissues and organs as a function of time. In many cases, more and more sophisticated dose reconstruction methods have been developed as studies progressed. For the example of the Japanese bomb survivors, the dose surrogate “distance from the hypocenter” was replaced by slant range, and then by TD65 doses, DS86 doses, and more recently DS02 doses. Over the years, it has become increasingly clear that an equal level of effort must be expended on the quantitative assessment of uncertainty in such doses, and to reducing and managing uncertainty. In this context, this paper reviews difficulties in terminology, explores the nature of Berkson and classical uncertainties in dose reconstruction through examples, and proposes a path forward for Joint Coordinating Committee for Radiation Effects Research (JCCRER) Project 2.4 that requires a reasonably small level of effort for DOSES-2008.

  4. A Systematic Assessment of Radiation Dose Enhancement by 5-Aza-2'-Deoxycytidine and Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Schutter, Harlinde de; Kimpe, Marlies; Isebaert, Sofie; Nuyts, Sandra

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: Investigations of epigenetic drugs have shown that radiotherapy can be successfully combined with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC-Is) for the treatment of head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Whether the reversal of epigenetic silencing by demethylating agents with or without HDAC-Is can also act as radiosensitizing remains unclear. This study therefore aimed to investigate whether 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) alone or in combination with the HDAC-Is trichostatin A, LBH589, or MGCD0103 could radiosensitize HNSCC tumor cell lines. Methods and Materials: Histone acetylation status and expression of epigenetically silenced genes at the DNA, RNA, and protein levels were assessed as measures of drug effectiveness in six HNSCC cell lines. Based on their colony-forming capacity, colony assays were performed in four of six cell lines to evaluate the radiosensitizing potential of DAC with or without HDAC-Is. Additional assays of cell survival, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and DNA damage were performed. Results: Radiosensitization was observed in two HNSCC cell lines treated with noncytotoxic doses of DAC with or without HDAC-Is before irradiation. The radiosensitizing doses induced histone hyperacetylation and reversal of gene silencing to variable extents and increased radiation-induced cell-cycle arrest. Conclusions: A role for low-dose DAC with or without HDAC-Is as radiosensitizers in HNSCC seems promising and is supportive of future clinical use, especially for combinations of DAC with LBH589 or MGCD0103, although the mechanisms by which they work will require further study.

  5. Radioactivity of cigarettes and the importance of (210)Po and thorium isotopes for radiation dose assessment due to smoking.

    PubMed

    Kubalek, Davor; Serša, Gregor; Štrok, Marko; Benedik, Ljudmila; Jeran, Zvonka

    2016-05-01

    Tobacco and tobacco smoke are very complex mixtures. In addition to various chemical and organic compounds they also contain natural radioactive elements (radionuclides). In this work, the natural radionuclide activity concentrations ((234)U, (238)U, (228)Th, (230)Th, (232)Th, (226)Ra, (210)Pb and (210)Po) of nine different cigarette samples available on the Slovenian market are reported. In addition to (210)Po, the transfer of thorium isotopes from a cigarette to a smoker's body and lungs have been determined for the first time. Cigarette smoke and exhaled air from smokers' lungs were collected from volunteer smokers (C-4 brand) to determinate what quantity of (210)Po and thorium isotopes is transferred from the tobacco to the smoker's lungs. Cigarette ash and smoked filters were also collected and analysed. Among the determined isotopes, (210)Pb and (210)Po showed the highest activity concentrations. During the smoking of one cigarette approximately 22% of (210)Po (and presumably its predecessor (210)Pb), 0.6% of (228)Th, 24% of (230)Th, and 31% of (232)Th are transferred from the cigarette and retained in the smoker's body. The estimated annual effective dose for smokers is 61 μSv/year from (210)Po; 9 μSv/year from (210)Pb; 6 μSv/year from (228)Th; 47 μSv/year from (230)Th, and 37 μSv/year from (232)Th. These results show the importance of thorium isotopes in contributing to the annual effective dose for smoking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Can radiation therapy treatment planning system accurately predict surface doses in postmastectomy radiation therapy patients?

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Sharon; Back, Michael; Tan, Poh Wee; Lee, Khai Mun; Baggarley, Shaun; Lu, Jaide Jay

    2012-07-01

    Skin doses have been an important factor in the dose prescription for breast radiotherapy. Recent advances in radiotherapy treatment techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and new treatment schemes such as hypofractionated breast therapy have made the precise determination of the surface dose necessary. Detailed information of the dose at various depths of the skin is also critical in designing new treatment strategies. The purpose of this work was to assess the accuracy of surface dose calculation by a clinically used treatment planning system and those measured by thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) in a customized chest wall phantom. This study involved the construction of a chest wall phantom for skin dose assessment. Seven TLDs were distributed throughout each right chest wall phantom to give adequate representation of measured radiation doses. Point doses from the CMS Xio Registered-Sign treatment planning system (TPS) were calculated for each relevant TLD positions and results correlated. There were no significant difference between measured absorbed dose by TLD and calculated doses by the TPS (p > 0.05 (1-tailed). Dose accuracy of up to 2.21% was found. The deviations from the calculated absorbed doses were overall larger (3.4%) when wedges and bolus were used. 3D radiotherapy TPS is a useful and accurate tool to assess the accuracy of surface dose. Our studies have shown that radiation treatment accuracy expressed as a comparison between calculated doses (by TPS) and measured doses (by TLD dosimetry) can be accurately predicted for tangential treatment of the chest wall after mastectomy.

  7. Space Radiation Absorbed Dose Distribution in a Human Phantom Torso

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Yang, T.; Atwell, W.

    2000-01-01

    The flight of a human phantom torso with head that containing active dosimeters at 5 organ sites and 1400 TLDs distributed in 34 1" thick sections is described. Experimental dose rates and quality factors are compared with calculations for shielding distributions at the sites using the Computerized Anatomical Male (CAM) model. The measurements were complemented with those obtained from other instruments. These results have provided the most comprehensive data set to map the dose distribution inside a human and to assess the accuracy of radiation transport models and astronaut radiation risk.

  8. Preliminary pathway analysis for YMP preclosure biosphere dose assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, D.; Liu, N.; Tappen, J.J.; Tung, C.H.

    1998-05-13

    The preliminary preclosure biosphere dose assessment for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) involves the calculation of a radiation dose to a subsistence farmer living near the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. Eight radionuclides, H-3, Co-60, Kr-85, Sr-90, Ru-106, I-129, Cs-134, and Cs-137, are considered in this study. Radiation doses resulting from unit release rates of these radionuclides are analyzed. Total dose has been broken down into components that result from various exposure pathways. By using this approach, the most important pathways that deliver a radiation dose to a subsistence farmer can be clearly identified.

  9. 10 CFR 20.1004 - Units of radiation dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Units of radiation dose. 20.1004 Section 20.1004 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION General Provisions § 20.1004 Units of radiation dose. (a) Definitions. As used in this part, the units of radiation dose are:...

  10. 10 CFR 20.1004 - Units of radiation dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Units of radiation dose. 20.1004 Section 20.1004 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION General Provisions § 20.1004 Units of radiation dose. (a) Definitions. As used in this part, the units of radiation dose are:...

  11. 10 CFR 20.1004 - Units of radiation dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Units of radiation dose. 20.1004 Section 20.1004 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION General Provisions § 20.1004 Units of radiation dose. (a) Definitions. As used in this part, the units of radiation dose are: Gray...

  12. 10 CFR 20.1004 - Units of radiation dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Units of radiation dose. 20.1004 Section 20.1004 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION General Provisions § 20.1004 Units of radiation dose. (a) Definitions. As used in this part, the units of radiation dose are: Gray...

  13. 10 CFR 20.1004 - Units of radiation dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Units of radiation dose. 20.1004 Section 20.1004 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION General Provisions § 20.1004 Units of radiation dose. (a) Definitions. As used in this part, the units of radiation dose are: Gray...

  14. Occupational radiation dose estimation for Finnish aircraft cabin attendants.

    PubMed

    Kojo, Katja; Aspholm, Rafael; Auvinen, Anssi

    2004-04-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a method for assessing dose radiation on the basis of individual flight history and to estimate whether this method is applicable for cabin attendants without flight log data. Questionnaire data were collected to determine attendants' flight history covering up to three decades. Finnair timetables and an expert panel of pilots were used to determine one to four representative flights in five route categories. The cumulative career and annual doses were calculated on the basis of the flight histories and route-specific exposure data. Questionnaire data were obtained from 544 flight attendants. The mean number of active workyears was 10.5 (range 0-30) years, and the mean cosmic radiation dose was 3.2 (range 0-9.5) mSv per active workyear. The mean cumulative career dose for all the cabin attendants was 34.0 (range 0-156.8) mSv. If no flight log data are available, survey data are needed for individual dose estimation when possible radiation effects on cabin crew are evaluated in epidemiologic studies. This method provides a crude procedure for assessing cosmic radiation exposure among attendants when survey data are missing.

  15. Acute radiation syndrome: assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Elizabeth H; Nemhauser, Jeffrey B; Smith, James M; Kazzi, Ziad N; Farfán, Eduardo B; Chang, Arthur S; Naeem, Syed F

    2010-06-01

    Primary care physicians may be unprepared to diagnose and treat rare, yet potentially fatal, illnesses such as acute radiation syndrome (ARS). ARS, also known as radiation sickness, is caused by exposure to a high dose of penetrating, ionizing radiation over a short period of time. The time to onset of ARS is dependent on the dose received, but even at the lowest doses capable of causing illness, this will occur within a matter of hours to days. This article describes the clinical manifestations of ARS, provides guidelines for assessing its severity, and makes recommendations for managing ARS victims.

  16. Space radiation absorbed dose distribution in a human phantom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Atwell, W.; Badavi, F. F.; Yang, T. C.; Cleghorn, T. F.

    2002-01-01

    The radiation risk to astronauts has always been based on measurements using passive thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). The skin dose is converted to dose equivalent using an average radiation quality factor based on model calculations. The radiological risk estimates, however, are based on organ and tissue doses. This paper describes results from the first space flight (STS-91, 51.65 degrees inclination and approximately 380 km altitude) of a fully instrumented Alderson Rando phantom torso (with head) to relate the skin dose to organ doses. Spatial distributions of absorbed dose in 34 1-inch-thick sections measured using TLDs are described. There is about a 30% change in dose as one moves from the front to the back of the phantom body. Small active dosimeters were developed specifically to provide time-resolved measurements of absorbed dose rates and quality factors at five organ locations (brain, thyroid, heart/lung, stomach and colon) inside the phantom. Using these dosimeters, it was possible to separate the trapped-proton and the galactic cosmic radiation components of the doses. A tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and a charged-particle directional spectrometer (CPDS) were flown next to the phantom torso to provide data on the incident internal radiation environment. Accurate models of the shielding distributions at the site of the TEPC, the CPDS and a scalable Computerized Anatomical Male (CAM) model of the phantom torso were developed. These measurements provided a comprehensive data set to map the dose distribution inside a human phantom, and to assess the accuracy and validity of radiation transport models throughout the human body. The results show that for the conditions in the International Space Station (ISS) orbit during periods near the solar minimum, the ratio of the blood-forming organ dose rate to the skin absorbed dose rate is about 80%, and the ratio of the dose equivalents is almost one. The results show that the GCR model dose

  17. Space radiation absorbed dose distribution in a human phantom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Atwell, W.; Badavi, F. F.; Yang, T. C.; Cleghorn, T. F.

    2002-01-01

    The radiation risk to astronauts has always been based on measurements using passive thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). The skin dose is converted to dose equivalent using an average radiation quality factor based on model calculations. The radiological risk estimates, however, are based on organ and tissue doses. This paper describes results from the first space flight (STS-91, 51.65 degrees inclination and approximately 380 km altitude) of a fully instrumented Alderson Rando phantom torso (with head) to relate the skin dose to organ doses. Spatial distributions of absorbed dose in 34 1-inch-thick sections measured using TLDs are described. There is about a 30% change in dose as one moves from the front to the back of the phantom body. Small active dosimeters were developed specifically to provide time-resolved measurements of absorbed dose rates and quality factors at five organ locations (brain, thyroid, heart/lung, stomach and colon) inside the phantom. Using these dosimeters, it was possible to separate the trapped-proton and the galactic cosmic radiation components of the doses. A tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and a charged-particle directional spectrometer (CPDS) were flown next to the phantom torso to provide data on the incident internal radiation environment. Accurate models of the shielding distributions at the site of the TEPC, the CPDS and a scalable Computerized Anatomical Male (CAM) model of the phantom torso were developed. These measurements provided a comprehensive data set to map the dose distribution inside a human phantom, and to assess the accuracy and validity of radiation transport models throughout the human body. The results show that for the conditions in the International Space Station (ISS) orbit during periods near the solar minimum, the ratio of the blood-forming organ dose rate to the skin absorbed dose rate is about 80%, and the ratio of the dose equivalents is almost one. The results show that the GCR model dose

  18. Space radiation absorbed dose distribution in a human phantom.

    PubMed

    Badhwar, G D; Atwell, W; Badavi, F F; Yang, T C; Cleghorn, T F

    2002-01-01

    The radiation risk to astronauts has always been based on measurements using passive thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). The skin dose is converted to dose equivalent using an average radiation quality factor based on model calculations. The radiological risk estimates, however, are based on organ and tissue doses. This paper describes results from the first space flight (STS-91, 51.65 degrees inclination and approximately 380 km altitude) of a fully instrumented Alderson Rando phantom torso (with head) to relate the skin dose to organ doses. Spatial distributions of absorbed dose in 34 1-inch-thick sections measured using TLDs are described. There is about a 30% change in dose as one moves from the front to the back of the phantom body. Small active dosimeters were developed specifically to provide time-resolved measurements of absorbed dose rates and quality factors at five organ locations (brain, thyroid, heart/lung, stomach and colon) inside the phantom. Using these dosimeters, it was possible to separate the trapped-proton and the galactic cosmic radiation components of the doses. A tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and a charged-particle directional spectrometer (CPDS) were flown next to the phantom torso to provide data on the incident internal radiation environment. Accurate models of the shielding distributions at the site of the TEPC, the CPDS and a scalable Computerized Anatomical Male (CAM) model of the phantom torso were developed. These measurements provided a comprehensive data set to map the dose distribution inside a human phantom, and to assess the accuracy and validity of radiation transport models throughout the human body. The results show that for the conditions in the International Space Station (ISS) orbit during periods near the solar minimum, the ratio of the blood-forming organ dose rate to the skin absorbed dose rate is about 80%, and the ratio of the dose equivalents is almost one. The results show that the GCR model dose

  19. Estimated radiation dose from timepieces containing tritium

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell-Boyer, L M

    1980-01-01

    Luminescent timepieces containing radioactive tritium, either in elemental form or incorporated into paint, are available to the general public. The purpose of this study was to estimate potential radiation dose commitments received by the public annually as a result of exposure to tritium which may escape from the timepieces during their distribution, use, repair, and disposal. Much uncertainty is associated with final dose estimates due to limitations of empirical data from which exposure parameters were derived. Maximum individual dose estimates were generally less than 3 ..mu..Sv/yr, but ranged up to 2 mSv under worst-case conditions postulated. Estimated annual collective (population) doses were less than 5 person/Sv per million timepieces distributed.

  20. AGING FACILITY WORKER DOSE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Thacker

    2005-03-24

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel working in the Aging Facility performing operations to transfer aging casks to the aging pads for thermal and logistical management, stage empty aging casks, and retrieve aging casks from the aging pads for further processing in other site facilities. Doses received by workers due to aging cask surveillance and maintenance operations are also included. The specific scope of work contained in this calculation covers both collective doses and individual worker group doses on an annual basis, and includes the contributions due to external and internal radiation from normal operation. There are no Category 1 event sequences associated with the Aging Facility (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167268], Section 7.2.1). The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the Aging Facility and to provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application. The calculations contained in this document were developed by Environmental and Nuclear Engineering of the Design and Engineering Organization and are intended solely for the use of the Design and Engineering Organization in its work regarding facility operation. Yucca Mountain Project personnel from the Environmental and Nuclear Engineering should be consulted before use of the calculations for purposes other than those stated herein or use by individuals other than authorized personnel in Environmental and Nuclear Engineering.

  1. Radiation dose reduction in parasinus CT by spectral shaping.

    PubMed

    May, Matthias S; Brand, Michael; Lell, Michael M; Sedlmair, Martin; Allmendinger, Thomas; Uder, Michael; Wuest, Wolfgang

    2017-02-01

    Spectral shaping aims to narrow the X-ray spectrum of clinical CT. The aim of this study was to determine the image quality and the extent of radiation dose reduction that can be achieved by tin prefiltration for parasinus CT. All scans were performed with a third generation dual-source CT scanner. A study protocol was designed using 100 kV tube voltage with tin prefiltration (200 mAs) that provides image noise levels comparable to a low-dose reference protocol using 100 kV without spectral shaping (25 mAs). One hundred consecutive patients were prospectively enrolled and randomly assigned to the study or control group. All patients signed written informed consent. The study protocol was approved by the local Institutional Review Board and applies to the HIPAA. Subjective and objective image quality (attenuation values, image noise, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR)) were assessed. Radiation exposure was assessed as volumetric CT dose index, and effective dose was estimated. Mann-Whitney U test was performed for radiation exposure and for image noise comparison. All scans were of diagnostic image quality. Image noise in air, in the retrobulbar fat, and in the eye globe was comparable between both groups (all p > 0.05). CNReye globe/air did not differ significantly between both groups (p = 0.7). Radiation exposure (1.7 vs. 2.1 mGy, p < 0.01) and effective dose (0.055 vs. 0.066 mSv, p < 0.01) were significantly reduced in the study group. Radiation dose can be further reduced by 17% for low-dose parasinus CT by tin prefiltration maintaining diagnostic image quality.

  2. Radiation Dose Optimization For Critical Organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodadadegan, Yasaman

    Ionizing radiation used in the patient diagnosis or therapy has negative effects on the patient body in short term and long term depending on the amount of exposure. More than 700,000 examinations are everyday performed on Interventional Radiology modalities, however; there is no patient-centric information available to the patient or the Quality Assurance for the amount of organ dose received. In this study, we are exploring the methodologies to systematically reduce the absorbed radiation dose in the Fluoroscopically Guided Interventional Radiology procedures. In the first part of this study, we developed a mathematical model which determines a set of geometry settings for the equipment and a level for the energy during a patient exam. The goal is to minimize the amount of absorbed dose in the critical organs while maintaining image quality required for the diagnosis. The model is a large-scale mixed integer program. We performed polyhedral analysis and derived several sets of strong inequalities to improve the computational speed and quality of the solution. Results present the amount of absorbed dose in the critical organ can be reduced up to 99% for a specific set of angles. In the second part, we apply an approximate gradient method to simultaneously optimize angle and table location while minimizing dose in the critical organs with respect to the image quality. In each iteration, we solve a sub-problem as a MIP to determine the radiation field size and corresponding X-ray tube energy. In the computational experiments, results show further reduction (up to 80%) of the absorbed dose in compare with previous method. Last, there are uncertainties in the medical procedures resulting imprecision of the absorbed dose. We propose a robust formulation to hedge from the worst case absorbed dose while ensuring feasibility. In this part, we investigate a robust approach for the organ motions within a radiology procedure. We minimize the absorbed dose for the critical

  3. Radiation dose reduction in chest CT: a review.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Takeshi; Lin, Pei-Jan Paul; Stiller, Wolfram; Takahashi, Masaya; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Hatabu, Hiroto

    2008-02-01

    This article aims to summarize the available data on reducing radiation dose exposure in routine chest CT protocols. First, the general aspects of radiation dose in CT and radiation risk are discussed, followed by the effect of changing parameters on image quality. Finally, the results of previous radiation dose reduction studies are reviewed, and important information contributing to radiation dose reduction will be shared. A variety of methods and techniques for radiation dose reduction should be used to ensure that radiation exposure is kept as low as is reasonably achievable.

  4. Strategies for reducing radiation dose in CT.

    PubMed

    McCollough, Cynthia H; Primak, Andrew N; Braun, Natalie; Kofler, James; Yu, Lifeng; Christner, Jodie

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the media has focused on the potential danger of radiation exposure from CT, even though the potential benefit of a medically indicated CT far outweighs the potential risks. This attention has reminded the radiology community that doses must be as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) while maintaining diagnostic image quality. To satisfy the ALARA principle, the dose reduction strategies described in this article must be well understood and properly used. The use of CT must also be justified for the specific diagnostic task.

  5. Optical fibres for high radiation dose environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henschel, H.; Kohn, O.; Schmidt, H. U.; Bawirzanski, E.; Landers, A.

    1994-06-01

    A variety of modern single mode (SM) and graded index (GI) fibres as well as a new pure silica multimode step index (MMSI) fibre with high OH content were irradiated at a Co-60 gamma ray source with a dose rate of approximately = 1.5Gy/s up to a total dose of 10(exp 6)Gy. The radiation-induced loss of all fibres was measured continuously during and after irradiation at discrete wavelengths (approximately = 850, approximately = 1070, approximately = 1300, approximately = 1550nm). With one SM fibre type also the 'breaking stress' before and after irradiation was determined. Radiation-induced losses of approximately less than 5dB/50m (at approximately = 1300nm) were found with some of the SM fibres, whereas the MMSI fibre showed a final induced loss of only 0.5dB/50m at 1070nm wavelength. The breaking stress of the SM fibre increased by about 10%.

  6. Effects of low doses of radiation.

    PubMed

    Fry, R J

    1996-06-01

    This is a brief review of what is known from experimental studies about the effects of low doses of radiation, and approaches that might improve risk estimates are discussed. The dose-response relationships for cancer induction by radiation vary markedly between tissues. The evidence suggests that 1) the induction of the initial events is dependent on the cell type because the size and/or the number of targets and how the cells handle the initial lesions differs between cell types; and 2) there are marked differences among tissues how initial lesions are expressed and proceed to overt cancer. The recent findings about adaptive responses are discussed in the context of what they contribute to our understanding about the response to irradiation. Lastly, the possibility of extending the approach of determining "The probability of causation," which Vic Bond played such an important role in establishing, is raised.

  7. Radiation dose to physicians’ eye lens during interventional radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahruddin, N. A.; Hashim, S.; Karim, M. K. A.; Sabarudin, A.; Ang, W. C.; Salehhon, N.; Bakar, K. A.

    2016-03-01

    The demand of interventional radiology has increased, leading to significant risk of radiation where eye lens dose assessment becomes a major concern. In this study, we investigate physicians' eye lens doses during interventional procedures. Measurement were made using TLD-100 (LiF: Mg, Ti) dosimeters and was recorded in equivalent dose at a depth of 0.07 mm, Hp(0.07). Annual Hp(0.07) and annual effective dose were estimated using workload estimation for a year and Von Boetticher algorithm. Our results showed the mean Hp(0.07) dose of 0.33 mSv and 0.20 mSv for left and right eye lens respectively. The highest estimated annual eye lens dose was 29.33 mSv per year, recorded on left eye lens during fistulogram procedure. Five physicians had exceeded 20 mSv dose limit as recommended by international commission of radiological protection (ICRP). It is suggested that frequent training and education on occupational radiation exposure are necessary to increase knowledge and awareness of the physicians’ thus reducing dose during the interventional procedure.

  8. Biological equivalent dose studies for dose escalation in the stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy clinical trials

    SciTech Connect

    Prezado, Y.; Fois, G.; Edouard, M.; Nemoz, C.; Renier, M.; Requardt, H.; Esteve, F.; Adam, JF.; Elleaume, H.; Bravin, A.

    2009-03-15

    Synchrotron radiation is an innovative tool for the treatment of brain tumors. In the stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy (SSRT) technique a radiation dose enhancement specific to the tumor is obtained. The tumor is loaded with a high atomic number (Z) element and it is irradiated in stereotactic conditions from several entrance angles. The aim of this work was to assess dosimetric properties of the SSRT for preparing clinical trials at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). To estimate the possible risks, the doses received by the tumor and healthy tissues in the future clinical conditions have been calculated by using Monte Carlo simulations (PENELOPE code). The dose enhancement factors have been determined for different iodine concentrations in the tumor, several tumor positions, tumor sizes, and different beam sizes. A scheme for the dose escalation in the various phases of the clinical trials has been proposed. The biological equivalent doses and the normalized total doses received by the skull have been calculated in order to assure that the tolerance values are not reached.

  9. Extended range radiation dose-rate monitor

    DOEpatents

    Valentine, Kenneth H.

    1988-01-01

    An extended range dose-rate monitor is provided which utilizes the pulse pileup phenomenon that occurs in conventional counting systems to alter the dynamic response of the system to extend the dose-rate counting range. The current pulses from a solid-state detector generated by radiation events are amplified and shaped prior to applying the pulses to the input of a comparator. The comparator generates one logic pulse for each input pulse which exceeds the comparator reference threshold. These pulses are integrated and applied to a meter calibrated to indicate the measured dose-rate in response to the integrator output. A portion of the output signal from the integrator is fed back to vary the comparator reference threshold in proportion to the output count rate to extend the sensitive dynamic detection range by delaying the asymptotic approach of the integrator output toward full scale as measured by the meter.

  10. Optimizing Radiation Doses for Computed Tomography Across Institutions: Dose Auditing and Best Practices.

    PubMed

    Demb, Joshua; Chu, Philip; Nelson, Thomas; Hall, David; Seibert, Anthony; Lamba, Ramit; Boone, John; Krishnam, Mayil; Cagnon, Christopher; Bostani, Maryam; Gould, Robert; Miglioretti, Diana; Smith-Bindman, Rebecca

    2017-06-01

    Radiation doses for computed tomography (CT) vary substantially across institutions. To assess the impact of institutional-level audit and collaborative efforts to share best practices on CT radiation doses across 5 University of California (UC) medical centers. In this before/after interventional study, we prospectively collected radiation dose metrics on all diagnostic CT examinations performed between October 1, 2013, and December 31, 2014, at 5 medical centers. Using data from January to March (baseline), we created audit reports detailing the distribution of radiation dose metrics for chest, abdomen, and head CT scans. In April, we shared reports with the medical centers and invited radiology professionals from the centers to a 1.5-day in-person meeting to review reports and share best practices. We calculated changes in mean effective dose 12 weeks before and after the audits and meeting, excluding a 12-week implementation period when medical centers could make changes. We compared proportions of examinations exceeding previously published benchmarks at baseline and following the audit and meeting, and calculated changes in proportion of examinations exceeding benchmarks. Of 158 274 diagnostic CT scans performed in the study period, 29 594 CT scans were performed in the 3 months before and 32 839 CT scans were performed 12 to 24 weeks after the audit and meeting. Reductions in mean effective dose were considerable for chest and abdomen. Mean effective dose for chest CT decreased from 13.2 to 10.7 mSv (18.9% reduction; 95% CI, 18.0%-19.8%). Reductions at individual medical centers ranged from 3.8% to 23.5%. The mean effective dose for abdominal CT decreased from 20.0 to 15.0 mSv (25.0% reduction; 95% CI, 24.3%-25.8%). Reductions at individual medical centers ranged from 10.8% to 34.7%. The number of CT scans that had an effective dose measurement that exceeded benchmarks was reduced considerably by 48% and 54% for chest and abdomen, respectively. After

  11. Imaging practices and radiation doses from imaging in radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Siiskonen, Teemu; Kaijaluoto, Sampsa; Florea, Tudor

    2017-03-25

    Modern radiotherapy treatments require frequent imaging for accurate patient positioning relative to the therapeutic radiation beam. Imaging practices in five Finnish radiotherapy clinics were assessed and discussed from the patient dose optimization point of view. The results show that imaging strategies are not jointly established and variations exist. The organ absorbed doses depend on imaging technique and imaging frequency. In particular, organ doses from the cone beam computed tomography can have very large variations (a factor of 10-50 in breast imaging and factor of 5 in prostate imaging). The cumulative imaging organ dose from the treatment can vary by a factor of ten or more for the same treatment, depending on the chosen technique and imaging frequency. Awareness and optimization of the imaging dose in image-guided radiotherapy should be strengthened.

  12. 42 CFR 81.6 - Use of radiation dose information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of radiation dose information. 81.6 Section 81... Probability of Causation § 81.6 Use of radiation dose information. Determining probability of causation will require the use of radiation dose information provided to DOL by the National Institute for...

  13. 42 CFR 81.6 - Use of radiation dose information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of radiation dose information. 81.6 Section 81... Probability of Causation § 81.6 Use of radiation dose information. Determining probability of causation will require the use of radiation dose information provided to DOL by the National Institute for Occupational...

  14. 42 CFR 81.6 - Use of radiation dose information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of radiation dose information. 81.6 Section 81... Probability of Causation § 81.6 Use of radiation dose information. Determining probability of causation will require the use of radiation dose information provided to DOL by the National Institute for Occupational...

  15. 42 CFR 81.6 - Use of radiation dose information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of radiation dose information. 81.6 Section 81... Probability of Causation § 81.6 Use of radiation dose information. Determining probability of causation will require the use of radiation dose information provided to DOL by the National Institute for Occupational...

  16. 42 CFR 81.6 - Use of radiation dose information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of radiation dose information. 81.6 Section 81... Probability of Causation § 81.6 Use of radiation dose information. Determining probability of causation will require the use of radiation dose information provided to DOL by the National Institute for Occupational...

  17. Optimizing CT radiation dose based on patient size and image quality: the size-specific dose estimate method.

    PubMed

    Larson, David B

    2014-10-01

    The principle of ALARA (dose as low as reasonably achievable) calls for dose optimization rather than dose reduction, per se. Optimization of CT radiation dose is accomplished by producing images of acceptable diagnostic image quality using the lowest dose method available. Because it is image quality that constrains the dose, CT dose optimization is primarily a problem of image quality rather than radiation dose. Therefore, the primary focus in CT radiation dose optimization should be on image quality. However, no reliable direct measure of image quality has been developed for routine clinical practice. Until such measures become available, size-specific dose estimates (SSDE) can be used as a reasonable image-quality estimate. The SSDE method of radiation dose optimization for CT abdomen and pelvis consists of plotting SSDE for a sample of examinations as a function of patient size, establishing an SSDE threshold curve based on radiologists' assessment of image quality, and modifying protocols to consistently produce doses that are slightly above the threshold SSDE curve. Challenges in operationalizing CT radiation dose optimization include data gathering and monitoring, managing the complexities of the numerous protocols, scanners and operators, and understanding the relationship of the automated tube current modulation (ATCM) parameters to image quality. Because CT manufacturers currently maintain their ATCM algorithms as secret for proprietary reasons, prospective modeling of SSDE for patient populations is not possible without reverse engineering the ATCM algorithm and, hence, optimization by this method requires a trial-and-error approach.

  18. Radiation environments and absorbed dose estimations on manned space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, S. B.; Atwell, W.; Beever, R.; Hardy, A.

    1986-01-01

    The dose and dose-equivalent estimates that astronauts might be expected to receive in space were assessed for the development of new radiation protection guidelines, considering several space mission scenarios. These scenarios included a 90-day LEO mission at 450 km altitude with orbital inclinations appropriate for NASA's Space Station (28.5, 57, and 90 deg), a 15-day sortie to GEO, and a 90-day lunar mission. All the missions contemplated would present space travelers with dose equivalents between 5 and 10 rem to the blood-forming organs, assuming no encounter with a large solar particle event; a large particle event could add considerable exposure for all scenarios except for the one at 28.5 orbital inclination. Adequate shielding must be included to guard against the radiation produced by such events.

  19. Dose assessment for the fetus considering scattered and secondary radiation from photon and proton therapy when treating a brain tumor of the mother.

    PubMed

    Geng, Changran; Moteabbed, Maryam; Seco, Joao; Gao, Yiming; Xu, X George; Ramos-Méndez, José; Faddegon, Bruce; Paganetti, Harald

    2016-01-21

    The goal of this work was to determine the scattered photon dose and secondary neutron dose and resulting risk for the sensitive fetus from photon and proton radiotherapy when treating a brain tumor during pregnancy. Anthropomorphic pregnancy phantoms with three stages (3-, 6-, 9-month) based on ICRP reference parameters were implemented in Monte Carlo platform TOPAS, to evaluate the scattered dose and secondary neutron dose and dose equivalent. To evaluate the dose equivalent, dose averaged quality factors were considered for neutrons. This study compared three treatment modalities: passive scattering and pencil beam scanning proton therapy (PPT and PBS) and 6-MV 3D conformal photon therapy. The results show that, for 3D conformal photon therapy, the scattered photon dose equivalent to the fetal body increases from 0.011 to 0.030 mSv per treatment Gy with increasing stage of gestation. For PBS, the neutron dose equivalent to the fetal body was significantly lower, i.e. increasing from 1.5 × 10(-3) to 2.5 × 10(-3) mSv per treatment Gy with increasing stage of gestation. For PPT, the neutron dose equivalent of the fetus decreases from 0.17 to 0.13 mSv per treatment Gy with the growing fetus. The ratios of dose equivalents to the fetus for a 52.2 Gy(RBE) course of radiation therapy to a typical CT scan of the mother's head ranged from 3.4-4.4 for PBS, 30-41 for 3D conformal photon therapy and 180-500 for PPT, respectively. The attained dose to a fetus from the three modalities is far lower than the thresholds of malformation, severe mental retardation and lethal death. The childhood cancer excessive absolute risk was estimated using a linear no-threshold dose-response relationship. The risk would be 1.0 (95% CI: 0.6, 1.6) and 0.1 (95% CI: -0.01, 0.52) in 10(5) for the 9-month fetus for PBS with a prescribed dose of 52.2 Gy(RBE). The increased risks for PPT and photon therapy are about two and one orders of magnitude larger than that for PBS, respectively. We can

  20. Dose assessment for the fetus considering scattered and secondary radiation from photon and proton therapy when treating a brain tumor of the mother

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Changran; Moteabbed, Maryam; Seco, Joao; Gao, Yiming; Xu, X. George; Ramos-Méndez, José; Faddegon, Bruce; Paganetti, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work was to determine the scattered photon dose and secondary neutron dose and resulting risk for the sensitive fetus from photon and proton radiotherapy when treating a brain tumor during pregnancy. Anthropomorphic pregnancy phantoms with three stages (3-, 6-, 9-month) based on ICRP reference parameters were implemented in Monte Carlo platform TOPAS, to evaluate the scattered dose and secondary neutron dose and dose equivalent. To evaluate the dose equivalent, dose averaged quality factors were considered for neutrons. This study compared three treatment modalities: passive scattering and pencil beam scanning proton therapy (PPT and PBS) and 6-MV 3D conformal photon therapy. The results show that, for 3D conformal photon therapy, the scattered photon dose equivalent to the fetal body increases from 0.011 to 0.030 mSv per treatment Gy with increasing stage of gestation. For PBS, the neutron dose equivalent to the fetal body was significantly lower, i.e. increasing from 1.5  ×  10-3 to 2.5  ×  10-3 mSv per treatment Gy with increasing stage of gestation. For PPT, the neutron dose equivalent of the fetus decreases from 0.17 to 0.13 mSv per treatment Gy with the growing fetus. The ratios of dose equivalents to the fetus for a 52.2 Gy(RBE) course of radiation therapy to a typical CT scan of the mother’s head ranged from 3.4-4.4 for PBS, 30-41 for 3D conformal photon therapy and 180-500 for PPT, respectively. The attained dose to a fetus from the three modalities is far lower than the thresholds of malformation, severe mental retardation and lethal death. The childhood cancer excessive absolute risk was estimated using a linear no-threshold dose-response relationship. The risk would be 1.0 (95% CI: 0.6, 1.6) and 0.1 (95% CI:  -0.01, 0.52) in 105 for the 9-month fetus for PBS with a prescribed dose of 52.2 Gy(RBE). The increased risks for PPT and photon therapy are about two and one orders of magnitude larger than that for PBS

  1. Ultraviolet radiation therapy and UVR dose models

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, David Robert

    2015-01-15

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has been an effective treatment for a number of chronic skin disorders, and its ability to alleviate these conditions has been well documented. Although nonionizing, exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is still damaging to deoxyribonucleic acid integrity, and has a number of unpleasant side effects ranging from erythema (sunburn) to carcinogenesis. As the conditions treated with this therapy tend to be chronic, exposures are repeated and can be high, increasing the lifetime probability of an adverse event or mutagenic effect. Despite the potential detrimental effects, quantitative ultraviolet dosimetry for phototherapy is an underdeveloped area and better dosimetry would allow clinicians to maximize biological effect whilst minimizing the repercussions of overexposure. This review gives a history and insight into the current state of UVR phototherapy, including an overview of biological effects of UVR, a discussion of UVR production, illness treated by this modality, cabin design and the clinical implementation of phototherapy, as well as clinical dose estimation techniques. Several dose models for ultraviolet phototherapy are also examined, and the need for an accurate computational dose estimation method in ultraviolet phototherapy is discussed.

  2. Ultraviolet radiation therapy and UVR dose models.

    PubMed

    Grimes, David Robert

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has been an effective treatment for a number of chronic skin disorders, and its ability to alleviate these conditions has been well documented. Although nonionizing, exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is still damaging to deoxyribonucleic acid integrity, and has a number of unpleasant side effects ranging from erythema (sunburn) to carcinogenesis. As the conditions treated with this therapy tend to be chronic, exposures are repeated and can be high, increasing the lifetime probability of an adverse event or mutagenic effect. Despite the potential detrimental effects, quantitative ultraviolet dosimetry for phototherapy is an underdeveloped area and better dosimetry would allow clinicians to maximize biological effect whilst minimizing the repercussions of overexposure. This review gives a history and insight into the current state of UVR phototherapy, including an overview of biological effects of UVR, a discussion of UVR production, illness treated by this modality, cabin design and the clinical implementation of phototherapy, as well as clinical dose estimation techniques. Several dose models for ultraviolet phototherapy are also examined, and the need for an accurate computational dose estimation method in ultraviolet phototherapy is discussed.

  3. Space radiation dose estimates on the surface of Mars.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, L C; Nealy, J E; Townsend, L W; Wilson, J W

    1990-01-01

    A future goal of the U.S. space program is a commitment to the manned exploration and habitation of Mars. An important consideration of such missions is the exposure of crew members to the damaging effects of ionizing radiation from high-energy galactic cosmic ray fluxes and solar proton flares. The crew will encounter the most harmful radiation environment in transit to Mars from which they must be adequately protected. However, once on the planet's surface, the Martian environment should provide a significant amount of protection from free-space radiative fluxes. In current Mars scenario descriptions, the crew flight time to Mars is estimated to be anywhere from 7 months to over a year each way, with stay times on the surface ranging from 20 days to 2 years. To maintain dose levels below established astronaut limits, dose estimates need to be determined for the entire mission length. With extended crew durations on the surface anticipated, the characterization of the Mars radiation environment is important in assessing all radiation protection requirements. This synopsis focuses on the probable doses incurred by surface inhabitants from the transport of galactic cosmic rays and solar protons through the Mars atmosphere.

  4. Differentially Expressed Genes Associated with Low-Dose Gamma Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegyesi, Hargita; Sándor, Nikolett; Schilling, Boglárka; Kis, Enikő; Lumniczky, Katalin; Sáfrány, Géza

    We have studied low dose radiation induced gene expression alterations in a primary human fibroblast cell line using Agilent's whole human genome microarray. Cells were irradiated with 60Co γ-rays (0; 0.1; 0.5 Gy) and 2 hours later total cellular RNA was isolated. We observed differential regulation of approximately 300-500 genes represented on the microarray. Of these, 126 were differentially expressed at both doses, among them significant elevation of GDF-15 and KITLG was confirmed by qRT-PCR. Based on the transcriptional studies we selected GDF-15 to assess its role in radiation response, since GDF-15 is one of the p53 gene targets and is believed to participate in mediating p53 activities. First we confirmed gamma-radiation induced dose-dependent changes in GDF-15 expression by qRT-PCR. Next we determined the effect of GDF-15 silencing on radiosensitivity. Four GDF-15 targeting shRNA expressing lentiviral vectors were transfected into immortalized human fibroblast cells. We obtained efficient GDF-15 silencing in one of the four constructs. RNA interference inhibited GDF-15 gene expression and enhanced the radiosensitivity of the cells. Our studies proved that GDF-15 plays an essential role in radiation response and may serve as a promising target in radiation therapy.

  5. Methionine Uptake and Required Radiation Dose to Control Glioblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Iuchi, Toshihiko; Hatano, Kazuo; Uchino, Yoshio; Itami, Makiko; Hasegawa, Yuzo; Kawasaki, Koichiro; Sakaida, Tsukasa; Hara, Ryusuke

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively assess the feasibility of radiation therapy planning for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) based on the use of methionine (MET) positron emission tomography (PET), and the correlation among MET uptake, radiation dose, and tumor control. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two patients with GBM who underwent MET-PET prior to radiation therapy were enrolled. MET uptake in 30 regions of interest (ROIs) from 22 GBMs, biologically effective doses (BEDs) for the ROIs and their ratios (MET uptake:BED) were compared in terms of whether the ROIs were controlled for >12 months. Results: MET uptake was significantly correlated with tumor control (odds ratio [OR], 10.0; P=.005); however, there was a higher level of correlation between MET uptake:BED ratio and tumor control (OR, 40.0; P<.0001). These data indicated that the required BEDs for controlling the ROIs could be predicted in terms of MET uptake; BED could be calculated as [34.0 × MET uptake] Gy from the optimal threshold of the MET uptake:BED ratio for tumor control. Conclusions: Target delineation based on MET-PET was demonstrated to be feasible for radiation therapy treatment planning. MET-PET could not only provide precise visualization of infiltrating tumor cells but also predict the required radiation doses to control target regions.

  6. Radiation Dose Reduction in Paranasal Sinus CT: With Feasibility of Iterative Reconstruction Technique.

    PubMed

    Bang, Minseo; Choi, Seong Hoon; Park, Jongha; Kang, Byeong Seong; Kwon, Woon Jung; Lee, Tae Hoon; Nam, Jung Gwon

    2016-12-01

    To (1) compare the radiation dose of low-dose computed tomography (CT) to that of standard-dose CT, (2) determine the minimum optimal radiation dose for use in patients who need endoscopic sinus surgery, and (3) assess the reliability of iterative model reconstruction. Prospective single-institution study. Tertiary care center. We recruited 48 adults with medically refractory sinusitis. Each patient underwent 4 scans with different CT parameters: 120 kV and 100 mAs (standard dose), 100 kV and 40 mAs (low dose), 100 kV and 20 mAs (very low dose), and 100 kV and 10 mAs (ultra-low dose). All CT scans were reconstructed via filtered back-projection, and ultra-low dose scans were additionally reconstructed through iterative model reconstruction. Radiation dose, image quality, and diagnostic performance were compared among the scans. Radiation doses decreased to 6% (ultra-low dose), 12% (very low dose), and 22% (low dose) of the standard-dose CT. The image quality of low-dose CT was similar to that of standard-dose CT. Ultra-low-dose CT with iterative model reconstruction was inferior to standard-dose CT for identifying anatomic structures, except for the optic nerve. All CT scans had 100% agreement for diagnosing rhinosinusitis. With low-dose CT, the radiation dose can be decreased to 22% of that of standard-dose CT without affecting the image quality. Low-dose CT can be considered the minimum optimal radiation for patients who need surgery. Iterative model reconstruction is not useful for assessing the anatomic details of the paranasal sinus on CT. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  7. NAIRAS aircraft radiation model development, dose climatology, and initial validation

    PubMed Central

    Mertens, Christopher J; Meier, Matthias M; Brown, Steven; Norman, Ryan B; Xu, Xiaojing

    2013-01-01

    [1] The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) is a real-time, global, physics-based model used to assess radiation exposure to commercial aircrews and passengers. The model is a free-running physics-based model in the sense that there are no adjustment factors applied to nudge the model into agreement with measurements. The model predicts dosimetric quantities in the atmosphere from both galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particles, including the response of the geomagnetic field to interplanetary dynamical processes and its subsequent influence on atmospheric dose. The focus of this paper is on atmospheric GCR exposure during geomagnetically quiet conditions, with three main objectives. First, provide detailed descriptions of the NAIRAS GCR transport and dosimetry methodologies. Second, present a climatology of effective dose and ambient dose equivalent rates at typical commercial airline altitudes representative of solar cycle maximum and solar cycle minimum conditions and spanning the full range of geomagnetic cutoff rigidities. Third, conduct an initial validation of the NAIRAS model by comparing predictions of ambient dose equivalent rates with tabulated reference measurement data and recent aircraft radiation measurements taken in 2008 during the minimum between solar cycle 23 and solar cycle 24. By applying the criterion of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) on acceptable levels of aircraft radiation dose uncertainty for ambient dose equivalent greater than or equal to an annual dose of 1 mSv, the NAIRAS model is within 25% of the measured data, which fall within the ICRU acceptable uncertainty limit of 30%. The NAIRAS model predictions of ambient dose equivalent rate are generally within 50% of the measured data for any single-point comparison. The largest differences occur at low latitudes and high cutoffs, where the radiation dose level is low. Nevertheless, analysis

  8. NAIRAS aircraft radiation model development, dose climatology, and initial validation.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Christopher J; Meier, Matthias M; Brown, Steven; Norman, Ryan B; Xu, Xiaojing

    2013-10-01

    [1] The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) is a real-time, global, physics-based model used to assess radiation exposure to commercial aircrews and passengers. The model is a free-running physics-based model in the sense that there are no adjustment factors applied to nudge the model into agreement with measurements. The model predicts dosimetric quantities in the atmosphere from both galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particles, including the response of the geomagnetic field to interplanetary dynamical processes and its subsequent influence on atmospheric dose. The focus of this paper is on atmospheric GCR exposure during geomagnetically quiet conditions, with three main objectives. First, provide detailed descriptions of the NAIRAS GCR transport and dosimetry methodologies. Second, present a climatology of effective dose and ambient dose equivalent rates at typical commercial airline altitudes representative of solar cycle maximum and solar cycle minimum conditions and spanning the full range of geomagnetic cutoff rigidities. Third, conduct an initial validation of the NAIRAS model by comparing predictions of ambient dose equivalent rates with tabulated reference measurement data and recent aircraft radiation measurements taken in 2008 during the minimum between solar cycle 23 and solar cycle 24. By applying the criterion of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) on acceptable levels of aircraft radiation dose uncertainty for ambient dose equivalent greater than or equal to an annual dose of 1 mSv, the NAIRAS model is within 25% of the measured data, which fall within the ICRU acceptable uncertainty limit of 30%. The NAIRAS model predictions of ambient dose equivalent rate are generally within 50% of the measured data for any single-point comparison. The largest differences occur at low latitudes and high cutoffs, where the radiation dose level is low. Nevertheless, analysis

  9. SU-E-P-57: Radiation Doses Assessment to Paediatric Patients for Some Digital Diagnostic Radiology Examination in Emergency Department in Qatar

    SciTech Connect

    Abdallah, I; Aly, A; Al Naemi, H

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate radiation doses to pediatric patients undergoing standard radiographic examinations using Direct Digital Radiography (DDR) in Paediatric emergency center of Hamad General Hospital (HGH) in state of Qatar and compared with regional and international Dose Reference Levels (DRLs). Methods: Entrance Skin Dose (ESD) was measured for 2739 patients for two common X-ray examinations namely: Chest AP/PA, Abdomen. Exposure factors such as kV, mAs and Focal to Skin Distance (FSD) were recorded for each patient. Tube Output was measured for a range of selected kV values. ESD for each individual patient was calculated using the tube output and the technical exposure factors for each examination. The ESD values were compared with the some international Dose Reference Levels (DRL) for all types of examinations. Results: The most performed procedure during the time of this study was chest PA/PA (85%). The mean ESD values obtained from AP chest, PA chest and AP abdomen ranged 91–120, 80–84 and 209 – 659 µGy per radiograph for different age’s groups respectively. Two protocols have been used for chest AP and PA using different radiological parameters, and the different of ESD values for chest PA and were 41% for 1 years old child, 57% for 5 years old for chest AP. Conclusion: The mean ESD were compared with those found in literature and were found to be comparable. The radiation dose can be reduced more for Chest AP and PA examination by optimization of each investigation and hence more studies are required for this task. The results presented will serve as a baseline data needed for deriving local reference doses for pediatric X-ray examinations in this local department and hence it can be applied in the whole Qatar.

  10. Assessments of Coronary Artery Visibility and Radiation Dose in Infants with Congenital Heart Disease on Cardiac 128-slice CT and on Cardiac 64-slice CT.

    PubMed

    Cui, Y; Huang, M; Zheng, J; Li, J; Liu, H; Liang, C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the coronary artery visibility and radiation dose in infants with CHD on cardiac 128-slice CT and on cardiac 64-slice CT. The images of 200 patients were analyzed in this study, 100 patients were selected randomly from a group of 789 infants (<1 years old) with CHD undergoing 128-slice CT prospective ECG-triggered axial scan, and 100 were selected randomly from 911 infants with CHD undergoing 64-slice CT retrospective ECG-gated spiral scan. The visibility of coronary artery segments was graded on a four-point scale. The coronary arteries were considered to be detected or visible when grade was 2 or higher. The visibility of the coronary artery segments and the radiation dose was compared between the two groups. Except for the rate of LM (96 vs. 99%), the detection rates of the total, LAD, LCX, RCA, and the proximal segment of the RCA in the 256-slice CT group were significantly higher than those in the 64-slice CT group (51.7, 53.33, 33.67, 53.33, and 99 vs. 34.8, 34.33, 18, 30.67, and 75%, respectively). The counts of visibility score (4/3/2/1) for the LM and the proximal segment of the RCA were 62/22/12/4 and 56/20/17/7, respectively, in the 128-slice CT group and 17/42/30/1 and 9/30/38/25, respectively, in the 64-slice CT group. There were significant differences, especially for score 4 and 3, between the two groups. The radiation dose in the 128-slice CT group was significantly decreased than those in the 64-slice CT group (CTDIvol 1.88 ± 0.51 vs. 5.61 ± 0.63 mGy; SSDE 4.48 ± 1.15 vs. 13.97 ± 1.52 mGy; effective radiation dose 1.36 ± 0.44 vs. 4.06 ± 0.7 mSv). With reduced radiation dose, the visibility of the coronary artery in infants with CHD via prospective ECG-triggered mode on a 128-slice CT is superior to that of the 64-slice CT using retrospective ECG-gated spiral mode.

  11. Radiation doses in paediatric interventional cardiology procedures.

    PubMed

    Tsapaki, Virginia; Kottou, Sofia; Korniotis, Sarantis; Nikolaki, Niki; Rammos, Spyridon; Apostolopoulou, Sotiria C

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to investigate paediatric doses in coronary angiography (CA) and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) in the largest cardiac hospital in Greece. Forty procedures were carried out by two board-certified senior interventional cardiologists. Data collected were: patient weight, height, age, fluoroscopy time (FT), total number of images (N) and kerma-area product (KAP). Median (range) age was 7.5 y (17 d to 17 y). Median FT, N and KAP were 4 min, 655, 2.1 Gy cm2 for CA and 12.1 min, 1296, 14.7 Gy cm2 for PTCA (corresponding adult diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are: 6.5 min, 700, 45 Gy cm2 for CA and 15.5 min, 1000 and 85 Gy cm2 for PTCA). The highest percentage of cine dose was in newborns (0-1 y) (CA: 92% and PTCA: 100%). As age increased, cine dose percentage decreased, whereas total radiation dose increased. Median paediatric FT and N recorded reached or even exceeded adult DRL and should be optimised. Paediatric DRL should be set.

  12. TH-E-BRF-03: A Multivariate Interaction Model for Assessment of Hippocampal Vascular Dose-Response and Early Prediction of Radiation-Induced Neurocognitive Dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Farjam, R; Pramanik, P; Srinivasan, A; Chapman, C; Tsien, C; Lawrence, T; Cao, Y

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Vascular injury could be a cause of hippocampal dysfunction leading to late neurocognitive decline in patients receiving brain radiotherapy (RT). Hence, our aim was to develop a multivariate interaction model for characterization of hippocampal vascular dose-response and early prediction of radiation-induced late neurocognitive impairments. Methods: 27 patients (17 males and 10 females, age 31–80 years) were enrolled in an IRB-approved prospective longitudinal study. All patients were diagnosed with a low-grade glioma or benign tumor and treated by 3-D conformal or intensity-modulated RT with a median dose of 54 Gy (50.4–59.4 Gy in 1.8− Gy fractions). Six DCE-MRI scans were performed from pre-RT to 18 months post-RT. DCE data were fitted to the modified Toft model to obtain the transfer constant of gadolinium influx from the intravascular space into the extravascular extracellular space, Ktrans, and the fraction of blood plasma volume, Vp. The hippocampus vascular property alterations after starting RT were characterized by changes in the hippocampal mean values of, μh(Ktrans)τ and μh(Vp)τ. The dose-response, Δμh(Ktrans/Vp)pre->τ, was modeled using a multivariate linear regression considering integrations of doses with age, sex, hippocampal laterality and presence of tumor/edema near a hippocampus. Finally, the early vascular dose-response in hippocampus was correlated with neurocognitive decline 6 and 18 months post-RT. Results: The μh(Ktrans) increased significantly from pre-RT to 1 month post-RT (p<0.0004). The multivariate model showed that the dose effect on Δμh(Ktrans)pre->1M post-RT was interacted with sex (p<0.0007) and age (p<0.00004), with the dose-response more pronounced in older females. Also, the vascular dose-response in the left hippocampus of females was significantly correlated with memory function decline at 6 (r = − 0.95, p<0.0006) and 18 (r = −0.88, p<0.02) months post-RT. Conclusion: The hippocampal vascular

  13. Radiation dose of cardiac CT--what is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Alkadhi, Hatem

    2009-06-01

    Current evidence and most pertinent literature on the radiation dose of cardiac computed tomography (CT) for the noninvasive assessment of coronary artery disease are reviewed. The various means for adjusting CT protocols to lower the radiation to a level that is as low as reasonably achievable are discussed. It is shown that for the target population of cardiac CT, the direct visualization of the heart and coronary arteries outweighs the hypothetical risk of the investigation, provided that indications are prudent and the protocols appropriate.

  14. Radiotherapy of abdomen with precise renal assessment with SPECT/CT imaging (RAPRASI): design and methodology of a prospective trial to improve the understanding of kidney radiation dose response

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The kidneys are a principal dose-limiting organ in radiotherapy for upper abdominal cancers. The current understanding of kidney radiation dose response is rudimentary. More precise dose-volume response models that allow direct correlation of delivered radiation dose with spatio-temporal changes in kidney function may improve radiotherapy treatment planning for upper-abdominal tumours. Our current understanding of kidney dose response and tolerance is limited and this is hindering efforts to introduce advanced radiotherapy techniques for upper-abdominal cancers, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The aim of this study is to utilise radiotherapy and combined anatomical/functional imaging data to allow direct correlation of radiation dose with spatio-temporal changes in kidney function. The data can then be used to develop a more precise dose-volume response model which has the potential to optimise and individualise upper abdominal radiotherapy plans. Methods/design The Radiotherapy of Abdomen with Precise Renal Assessment with SPECT/CT Imaging (RAPRASI) is an observational clinical research study with participating sites at Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital (SCGH) in Perth, Australia and the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre (PMCC) in Melbourne, Australia. Eligible patients are those with upper gastrointestinal cancer, without metastatic disease, undergoing conformal radiotherapy that will involve incidental radiation to one or both kidneys. For each patient, total kidney function is being assessed before commencement of radiotherapy treatment and then at 4, 12, 26, 52 and 78 weeks after the first radiotherapy fraction, using two procedures: a Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) measurement using the 51Cr-ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) clearance; and a regional kidney perfusion measurement assessing renal uptake of 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), imaged with a Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography / Computed Tomography (SPECT

  15. Monte Carlo dose enhancement studies in microbeam radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Rovira, I.; Prezado, Y.

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: A radical radiation therapy treatment for gliomas requires extremely high absorbed doses resulting in subsequent deleterious side effects in healthy tissue. Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is an innovative technique based on the fact that normal tissue can withstand high radiation doses in small volumes without any significant damage. The synchrotron-generated x-ray beam is collimated and delivered to an array of narrow micrometer-sized planar rectangular fields. Several preclinical experiments performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) confirmed that MRT yields a higher therapeutic index than nonsegmented beams of the same characteristics. This index can be greatly improved by loading the tumor with high atomic number (Z) contrast agents. The aim of this work is to find the high-Z element that provides optimum dose enhancement. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations (PENELOPE/penEasy) were performed to assess the peak and valley doses as well as their ratio (PVDR) in healthy tissue and in the tumor, loaded with different contrast agents. The optimization criteria used were maximization of the ratio between the PVDR values in healthy tissue respect to the PVDR in the tumor and minimization of bone and brain valley doses. Results: Dose enhancement factors, PVDR, and valley doses were calculated for different high-Z elements. A significant decrease of PVDR values in the tumor, accompanied by a gain in the valley doses, was found in the presence of high-Z elements. This enables the deposited dose in the healthy tissue to be reduced. The optimum high-Z element depends on the irradiation configuration. As a general trend, the best outcome is provided by the highest Z contrast agents considered, i.e., gold and thallium. However, lanthanides (especially Lu) and hafnium also offer a satisfactory performance. Conclusions: The remarkable therapeutic index in microbeam radiation therapy can be further

  16. Radiation environments and absorbed dose estimations on manned space missions.

    PubMed

    Curtis, S B; Atwell, W; Beever, R; Hardy, A

    1986-01-01

    In order to make an assessment of radiation risk during manned missions in space, it is necessary first to have as accurate an estimation as possible of the radiation environment within the spacecraft to which the astronauts will be exposed. Then, with this knowledge and the inclusion of body self-shielding, estimations can be made of absorbed doses for various body organs (skin, eye, blood-forming organs, etc.). A review is presented of our present knowledge of the radiation environments and absorbed doses expected for several space mission scenarios selected for our development of the new radiation protection guidelines. The scenarios selected are a 90-day mission at an altitude (450 km) and orbital inclinations (28.5 degrees, 57 degrees and 90 degrees) appropriate for NASA's Space Station, a 15-day sortie to geosynchronous orbit and a 90-day lunar mission. All scenarios chosen yielded dose equivalents between five and ten rem to the blood forming organs if no large solar particle event were encountered. Such particle events could add considerable exposure particularly to the skin and eye for all scenarios except the one at 28.5 degrees orbital inclination.

  17. Radiation dose-reduction strategies in thoracic CT.

    PubMed

    Moser, J B; Sheard, S L; Edyvean, S; Vlahos, I

    2017-05-01

    Modern computed tomography (CT) machines have the capability to perform thoracic CT for a range of clinical indications at increasingly low radiation doses. This article reviews several factors, both technical and patient-related, that can affect radiation dose and discusses current dose-reduction methods relevant to thoracic imaging through a review of current techniques in CT acquisition and image reconstruction. The fine balance between low radiation dose and high image quality is considered throughout, with an emphasis on obtaining diagnostic quality imaging at the lowest achievable radiation dose. The risks of excessive radiation dose reduction are also considered. Inappropriately low dose may result in suboptimal or non-diagnostic imaging that may reduce diagnostic confidence, impair diagnosis, or result in repeat examinations incurring incremental ionising radiation exposure. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiation Dose-Volume Effects of Optic Nerves and Chiasm

    SciTech Connect

    Mayo, Charles; Martel, Mary K.; Marks, Lawrence B.; Flickinger, John; Nam, Jiho; Kirkpatrick, John

    2010-03-01

    Publications relating radiation toxicity of the optic nerves and chiasm to quantitative dose and dose-volume measures were reviewed. Few studies have adequate data for dose-volume outcome modeling. The risk of toxicity increased markedly at doses >60 Gy at {approx}1.8 Gy/fraction and at >12 Gy for single-fraction radiosurgery. The evidence is strong that radiation tolerance is increased with a reduction in the dose per fraction. Models of threshold tolerance were examined.

  19. Effective dose of A-bomb radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki as assessed by chromosomal effectiveness of spectrum energy photons and neutrons.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, M S; Endo, S; Ejima, Y; Saito, I; Okamura, K; Oka, Y; Hoshi, M

    2006-07-01

    The effective dose of combined spectrum energy neutrons and high energy spectrum gamma-rays in A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has long been a matter of discussion. The reason is largely due to the paucity of biological data for high energy photons, particularly for those with an energy of tens of MeV. To circumvent this problem, a mathematical formalism was developed for the photon energy dependency of chromosomal effectiveness by reviewing a large number of data sets published in the literature on dicentric chromosome formation in human lymphocytes. The chromosomal effectiveness was expressed by a simple multiparametric function of photon energy, which made it possible to estimate the effective dose of spectrum energy photons and differential evaluation in the field of mixed neutron and gamma-ray exposure with an internal reference radiation. The effective dose of reactor-produced spectrum energy neutrons was insensitive to the fine structure of the energy distribution and was accessible by a generalized formula applicable to the A-bomb neutrons. Energy spectra of all sources of A-bomb gamma-rays at different tissue depths were simulated by a Monte Carlo calculation applied on an ICRU sphere. Using kerma-weighted chromosomal effectiveness of A-bomb spectrum energy photons, the effective dose of A-bomb neutrons was determined, where the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons was expressed by a dose-dependent variable RBE, RBE(gamma, D (n)), against A-bomb gamma-rays as an internal reference radiation. When the newly estimated variable RBE(gamma, D (n)) was applied to the chromosome data of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the city difference was completely eliminated. The revised effective dose was about 35% larger in Hiroshima, 19% larger in Nagasaki and 26% larger for the combined cohort compared with that based on a constant RBE of 10. Since the differences are significantly large, the proposed effective dose might have an

  20. Practical strategies to reduce pediatric CT radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Thomas R

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this article is to provide a brief review of CT scanning radiation sensitivity in children and explain CT scan parameters that affect radiation dose. We discuss key factors influencing radiation dose and study quality and how these factors can be used to optimize scan protocols with the goal of reducing pediatric CT radiation dose without compromising diagnostic quality. Finally, we provide some practical tips for reducing radiation doses to children. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fukushima simulation experiment: assessing the effects of chronic low-dose-rate internal 137Cs radiation exposure on litter size, sex ratio, and biokinetics in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Hiroo; Yamaguchi, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Takashi; Fukumoto, Manabu; Todo, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the transgenerational effects of chronic low-dose-rate internal radiation exposure after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Japan, 18 generations of mice were maintained in a radioisotope facility, with free access to drinking water containing 137CsCl (0 and 100 Bq/ml). The 137Cs distribution in the organs of the mice was measured after long-term ad libitum intake of the 137CsCl water. The litter size and the sex ratio of the group ingesting the 137Cs water were compared with those of the control group, for all 18 generations of mice. No significant difference was noted in the litter size or the sex ratio between the mice in the control group and those in the group ingesting the 137Cs water. The fixed internal exposure doses were ∼160 Bq/g and 80 Bq/g in the muscles and other organs, respectively. PMID:26825299

  2. Fukushima simulation experiment: assessing the effects of chronic low-dose-rate internal 137Cs radiation exposure on litter size, sex ratio, and biokinetics in mice.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Hiroo; Yamaguchi, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Takashi; Fukumoto, Manabu; Todo, Takeshi

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the transgenerational effects of chronic low-dose-rate internal radiation exposure after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Japan, 18 generations of mice were maintained in a radioisotope facility, with free access to drinking water containing (137)CsCl (0 and 100 Bq/ml). The (137)Cs distribution in the organs of the mice was measured after long-term ad libitum intake of the (137)CsCl water. The litter size and the sex ratio of the group ingesting the (137)Cs water were compared with those of the control group, for all 18 generations of mice. No significant difference was noted in the litter size or the sex ratio between the mice in the control group and those in the group ingesting the (137)Cs water. The fixed internal exposure doses were ∼160 Bq/g and 80 Bq/g in the muscles and other organs, respectively.

  3. ASSESSMENT OF THE RISK OF SOLAR ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION TO AMPHIBIANS. 1) DOSE-DEPENDENT INDUCTION OF HINDLIMB MALFORMATIONS IN THE NORTHERN LEOPARD FROG (RANA PIPIENS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of environmental stressors have been hypothesized as responsible for seeming increases in limb malformations in several species of North American amphibians. The purpose of this study was to generate dose-response data suitable for assessing the potential role of solar u...

  4. ASSESSMENT OF THE RISK OF SOLAR ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION TO AMPHIBIANS. 1) DOSE-DEPENDENT INDUCTION OF HINDLIMB MALFORMATIONS IN THE NORTHERN LEOPARD FROG (RANA PIPIENS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of environmental stressors have been hypothesized as responsible for seeming increases in limb malformations in several species of North American amphibians. The purpose of this study was to generate dose-response data suitable for assessing the potential role of solar u...

  5. Comprehensive assessment of patient image quality and radiation dose in latest generation cardiac x-ray equipment for percutaneous coronary interventions.

    PubMed

    Gislason-Lee, Amber J; Keeble, Claire; Egleston, Daniel; Bexon, Josephine; Kengyelics, Stephen M; Davies, Andrew G

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to determine whether a reduction in radiation dose was found for percutaneous coronary interventional (PCI) patients using a cardiac interventional x-ray system with state-of-the-art image enhancement and x-ray optimization, compared to the current generation x-ray system, and to determine the corresponding impact on clinical image quality. Patient procedure dose area product (DAP) and fluoroscopy duration of 131 PCI patient cases from each x-ray system were compared using a Wilcoxon test on median values. Significant reductions in patient dose ([Formula: see text]) were found for the new system with no significant change in fluoroscopy duration ([Formula: see text]); procedure DAP reduced by 64%, fluoroscopy DAP by 51%, and "cine" acquisition DAP by 76%. The image quality of 15 patient angiograms from each x-ray system (30 total) was scored by 75 clinical professionals on a continuous scale for the ability to determine the presence and severity of stenotic lesions; image quality scores were analyzed using a two-sample [Formula: see text]-test. Image quality was reduced by 9% ([Formula: see text]) for the new x-ray system. This demonstrates a substantial reduction in patient dose, from acquisition more than fluoroscopy imaging, with slightly reduced image quality, for the new x-ray system compared to the current generation system.

  6. Problems in evaluating radiation dose via terrestrial and aquatic pathways.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, B E; Soldat, J K; Schreckhise, R G; Watson, E C; McKenzie, D H

    1981-12-01

    This review is concerned with exposure risk and the environmental pathways models used for predictive assessment of radiation dose. Exposure factors, the adequacy of available data, and the model subcomponents are critically reviewed from the standpoint of absolute error propagation. Although the models are inherently capable of better absolute accuracy, a calculated dose is usually overestimated by from two to six orders of magnitude, in practice. The principal reason for so large an error lies in using "generic" concentration ratios in situations where site specific data are needed. Major opinion of the model makers suggests a number midway between these extremes, with only a small likelihood of ever underestimating the radiation dose. Detailed evaluations are made of source considerations influencing dose (i.e., physical and chemical status of released material); dispersal mechanisms (atmospheric, hydrologic and biotic vector transport); mobilization and uptake mechanisms (i.e., chemical and other factors affecting the biological availability of radioelements); and critical pathways. Examples are shown of confounding in food-chain pathways, due to uncritical application of concentration ratios. Current thoughts of replacing the critical pathways approach to calculating dose with comprehensive model calculations are also shown to be ill-advised, given present limitations in the comprehensive data base. The pathways models may also require improved parametrization, as they are not at present structured adequately to lend themselves to validation. The extremely wide errors associated with predicting exposure stand in striking contrast to the error range associated with the extrapolation of animal effects data to the human being.

  7. Biological detection of low radiation doses with integrated photothermal assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharov, Vladimir P.; Viegas, Mark; Soderberg, Lee S. F.

    2005-04-01

    The goal of this paper was to evaluate the diagnostic value of integrated photothermal (PT) assay with additional fluorescent and photoacoustic (PA) modules to assess both the "safety limit" of exposure to ionizing γ-radiation and optimal therapeutic doses for cancer treatment. With this assay, the influences of γ irradiation on cancer cells (pancreatic-AR42J and hepatocytes-hepG2) and healthy cells (mouse lymphocytes and erythrocytes) was examined as a function of exposure dose (0.6-5 Gy) and time after irradiation, in vitro and in vivo. Independent verification of data obtained with conventional assays revealed that integrated PT assay allowed us to detect the different stages of radiation impact, including changes in cell metabolism at low dose, or stages related to cell death (apoptosis and necrosis) at high doses with a threshold sensitivity of at least three orders of magnitude better than existing assays. Also, PT assay was capable of quantitatively differentiating the biological action of γ irradiation alone and in combination with drug and nicotine impact. Finally, we demonstrated on an animal model that IPT assay has the potential for use in routine rapid evaluation of biological consequences of low-dose exposure a few days after irradiation.

  8. Estimation of Radiation Dose for a Sitting Phantom Using PIMAL

    SciTech Connect

    Akkurt, Hatice; Eckerman, Keith F

    2007-01-01

    To assess the radiation dose in different configurations when needed (e.g., occupational exposure or public exposure in a radiologically significant event), the mathematical phantom has recently been revised to enable freely moving abilities for arms and legs. The revised phantom is called PIMAL: Phantom with Moving Arms and Legs. Additionally, a graphical user interface has been developed to assist the analyst with input preparation and output manipulation. To investigate the impact of the phantom configuration on the estimated organ doses, PIMAL has been used in a different posture than the standard vertical-upright position. In this paper, the estimated organ and effective dose values for a representative posture, the phantom in a sitting position, compared with those for the phantom in standing position, are presented.

  9. MO-G-18A-01: Radiation Dose Reducing Strategies in CT, Fluoroscopy and Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Mahesh, M; Gingold, E; Jones, A

    2014-06-15

    Advances in medical x-ray imaging have provided significant benefits to patient care. According to NCRP 160, there are more than 400 million x-ray procedures performed annually in the United States alone that contributes to nearly half of all the radiation exposure to the US population. Similar growth trends in medical x-ray imaging are observed worldwide. Apparent increase in number of medical x-ray imaging procedures, new protocols and the associated radiation dose and risk has drawn considerable attention. This has led to a number of technological innovations such as tube current modulation, iterative reconstruction algorithms, dose alerts, dose displays, flat panel digital detectors, high efficient digital detectors, storage phosphor radiography, variable filters, etc. that are enabling users to acquire medical x-ray images at a much lower radiation dose. Along with these, there are number of radiation dose optimization strategies that users can adapt to effectively lower radiation dose in medical x-ray procedures. The main objectives of this SAM course are to provide information and how to implement the various radiation dose optimization strategies in CT, Fluoroscopy and Radiography. Learning Objectives: To update impact of technological advances on dose optimization in medical imaging. To identify radiation optimization strategies in computed tomography. To describe strategies for configuring fluoroscopic equipment that yields optimal images at reasonable radiation dose. To assess ways to configure digital radiography systems and recommend ways to improve image quality at optimal dose.

  10. Variations of the radiation dose onboard Mir station.

    PubMed

    Panasyuk, M I; Teltsov, M V; Shumshurov, V I; Tsetlin, V V

    1998-01-01

    Dose variations, associated with the 11-year solar activity cycle, seasonal variations of particle fluxes in the Earth's radiation belts at the station orbit, and solar proton events are studied, using prolonged measurements of radiation doses inside orbital station Mir. Daily averages of radiation doses during the declining phase of the 22nd solar cycle and during transition to the 23rd solar activity cycle reached very large values for astronauts and significantly exceed the values calculated according to existing models.

  11. Risk of cancer subsequent to low-dose radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, S.

    1980-01-01

    The author puts low dose irradiation risks in perspective using average background radiation doses for standards. He assailed irresponsible media coverage during the height of public interest in the Three-Mile Island Reactor incident. (PCS)

  12. Health Risks From Low Doses and Low Dose-Rates of Ionizing Radiation. Session 5: Future of Radiation Protection Regulations.

    PubMed

    Cool, Donald A

    2016-03-01

    The system of radiological protection is a prospective approach to protection of individuals in all exposure situations. It must be applied equitably across all age groups and all populations. This is a very different circumstance from dose assessment for a particular individual where the unique characteristics of the individual and the exposure can be taken into account. Notwithstanding the ongoing discussions on the possible shape of the dose response at low doses and dose rates, the prospective system of protection has therefore historically used a linear assumption as a pragmatic, prudent and protective approach. These radiation protection criteria are not intended to be a demarcation between "safe" and "unsafe" and are the product of a risk-informed judgement that includes inputs from science, ethics, and experience. There are significant implications for different dose response relationships. A linear model allows for equal treatment of an exposure, irrespective of the previously accumulated exposure. In contrast, other models would predict different implications. Great care is therefore needed in separating the thinking around risk assessment from risk management, and prospective protection for all age groups and genders from retrospective assessment for a particular individual. In the United States, the prospective regulatory structure functions effectively because of assumptions that facilitate independent treatment of different types of exposures, and which provide pragmatic and prudent protection. While the a linear assumption may, in fact, not be consistent with the biological reality, the implications of a different regulatory model must be considered carefully.

  13. Recent Updates to Radiation Organ Dose Estimation Tool PIMAL

    SciTech Connect

    Akkurt, Hatice; Wiarda, Dorothea; Eckerman, Keith F

    2011-01-01

    A computational phantom with moving arms and legs and an accompanying graphical user interface, PIMAL, was previously developed to enable radiation dose estimation for different postures in a user-friendly manner. This initial version of the software was useful in adjusting the posture, generating the corresponding MCNP input file, and performing the radiation transport simulations for dose calculations using MCNP5 or MCNPX. However, it only included one mathematical phantom model (hermaphrodite) and allowed only isotropic point sources. Recently, the software was enhanced by adding two more mathematical phantom models, a male and female, and the source features were enhanced significantly by adding internal and external source options in a pull-down menu. Although the initial version of the software included only a mathematical hermaphrodite phantom, the features and models in the software are constantly being enhanced by adding more phantoms as well as other options to enable dose assessment for different configurations/cases in a user-friendly manner. In this latest version of the software, ICRP's recently released reference male and female voxel phantoms are included in a pull-down menu. The male and female models are described using 7 and 14 million voxels, respectively. Currently, the software is being modified further to include the International Commission on Radiation Protection's (ICRP) reference male and female voxel phantoms. Additionally, some case studies are being implemented and included in a library of input files. This paper describes recent updates to the software.

  14. SU-E-J-269: Assessing the Precision of Dose Delivery in CBCT-Guided Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Lung and Soft Tissue Metastatic Lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Parsai, S; Dalhart, A; Chen, C; Parsai, E; Pearson, D; Sperling, N; Reddy, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Ensuring reproducibility of target localization is critical to accurate stereotactic body radiation treatment (SBRT) for lung and soft tissue metastatic lesions. To characterize interfraction variability in set-up and evaluate PTV margins utilized for SBRT, daily CBCTs were used to calculate delivered target and OAR doses compared to those expected from planning. Methods: CBCT images obtained prior to each fraction of SBRT for a lung and thyroid metastatic lesion were evaluated. The target CTV/ITV and OARs on each of 8 CBCT data sets were contoured. Using MIM fusion software and Pinnacle{sup 3} RTP system, delivered dose distribution was reconstructed on each CBCT, utilizing translational shifts performed prior to treatment. Actual delivered vs. expected doses received by target CTV/ITV and adjacent critical structures were compared to characterize accuracy of pre-treatment translational shifts and PTV margins. Results: The planned CTV/ITV D95% and V100% were 4595cGy and 91.47% for the lung lesion, and 3010cGy and 96.34% for the thyroid lesion. Based on CBCT analysis, actual mean D95% and V100% for lung ITV were 4542±344.4cGy and 91.54±3.45%; actual mean D95% and V100% for thyroid metastasis CTV were 3005±25.98cGy and 95.20±2.522%. For the lung lesion, ipsilateral lung V20, heart V32 (cc) and spinal cord (.03 cc) max were 110.15cc, 3.33cc, and 1680cGy vs. 110.27±14.79cc, 6.74±3.76cc, and 1711±46.56cGy for planned vs. delivered doses, respectively. For the thyroid metastatic lesion, esophagus V18, trachea (.03 cc) max, and spinal cord (.03 cc) max were 0.35cc, 2555cGy, and 850cGy vs. 0.16±0.13cc, 2147±367cGy, and 838±45cGy for planned vs. delivered treatments, respectively. Conclusion: Minimal variability in SBRT target lesion dose delivered based on pre-treatment CBCT-based translational shifts suggests tighter PTV margins may be considered to further decrease dose to surrounding critical structures. Guidelines for optimal target alignment during

  15. Coronary CT angiography using the second-generation 320-detector row CT: assessment of image quality and radiation dose in various heart rates compared with the first-generation scanner.

    PubMed

    Tomizawa, Nobuo; Maeda, Eriko; Akahane, Masaaki; Torigoe, Rumiko; Kiryu, Shigeru; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2013-10-01

    To assess the image quality and radiation dose reduction in various heart rates in coronary CT angiography using the second-generation 320-detector row CT compared with the first-generation CT. Ninety-six patients were retrospectively included. The first 48 patients underwent coronary CT angiography with the first-generation 320-detector row CT, while the last 48 patients underwent with the second-generation CT. Subjective image quality was graded using a 4-point scale (4, excellent; 1, unable to evaluate). Image noise and contrast-to-noise ratio were also analyzed. Subgroup analysis was performed based on the heart rate. The mean effective dose was derived from the dose length product multiplied by a conversion coefficient for the chest (κ = 0.014 mSv × mGy(-1) × cm(-1)). The overall subjective image quality score showed no significant difference (3.66 vs 3.69, respectively, p = 0.25). The image quality score of the second-generation group tended to be higher than that of the first-generation group in the 66- to 75-bpm subgroup (3.36 vs 3.53, respectively, p = 0.07). No significant difference was observed in image noise and contrast-to-noise ratio. The overall radiation dose reduced by 24 % (3.3 vs 2.5 mSv, respectively, p = 0.03), and the reduction was substantial in patients with higher heart rate (66- to 75-bpm, 4.3 vs 2.2 mSv, respectively, p = 0.009; >75 bpm, 8.2 vs 3.7 mSv, respectively, p = 0.005). The second-generation 320-detector row CT could maintain the image quality while reducing the radiation dose in coronary CT angiography. The dose reduction was larger in patients with higher heart rate.

  16. Radiation dose in computed tomography of the chest.

    PubMed

    Tack, D; Gevenois, P A

    2004-01-01

    Since the beginning of the eighties, computed tomography (CT) has been more and more widely used as this technique provides precise anatomical details on the lungs, the mediastinum, and the chest wall. However, CT requires the use of ionizing radiations. The collective radiation from CT is therefore in constant increase. As evaluated on atomic bomb survivors, ionizing radiations increase the mortality by cancer. The risk is proportional to the dose and the dose related to CT is much higher than that related to a chest radiograph, both being in the field "of low-level radiations" a range of radiation dose from which no increase in cancer mortality could be demonstrated. This article outlines the risk estimation in the field of low-level radiations, the various methods to measure and estimate the radiation dose, the CT parameters influencing the radiation dose, dose comparisons between CT and most other imaging techniques of the chest, the newly developed so called "Low-Dose" CT techniques and highlights some of the unresolved questions related to radiation dose in clinical CT practice.

  17. Automated size-specific CT dose monitoring program: Assessing variability in CT dose

    SciTech Connect

    Christianson, Olav; Li Xiang; Frush, Donald; Samei, Ehsan

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: The potential health risks associated with low levels of ionizing radiation have created a movement in the radiology community to optimize computed tomography (CT) imaging protocols to use the lowest radiation dose possible without compromising the diagnostic usefulness of the images. Despite efforts to use appropriate and consistent radiation doses, studies suggest that a great deal of variability in radiation dose exists both within and between institutions for CT imaging. In this context, the authors have developed an automated size-specific radiation dose monitoring program for CT and used this program to assess variability in size-adjusted effective dose from CT imaging. Methods: The authors radiation dose monitoring program operates on an independent health insurance portability and accountability act compliant dosimetry server. Digital imaging and communication in medicine routing software is used to isolate dose report screen captures and scout images for all incoming CT studies. Effective dose conversion factors (k-factors) are determined based on the protocol and optical character recognition is used to extract the CT dose index and dose-length product. The patient's thickness is obtained by applying an adaptive thresholding algorithm to the scout images and is used to calculate the size-adjusted effective dose (ED{sub adj}). The radiation dose monitoring program was used to collect data on 6351 CT studies from three scanner models (GE Lightspeed Pro 16, GE Lightspeed VCT, and GE Definition CT750 HD) and two institutions over a one-month period and to analyze the variability in ED{sub adj} between scanner models and across institutions. Results: No significant difference was found between computer measurements of patient thickness and observer measurements (p= 0.17), and the average difference between the two methods was less than 4%. Applying the size correction resulted in ED{sub adj} that differed by up to 44% from effective dose estimates

  18. Quality initiatives: CT radiation dose reduction: how to implement change without sacrificing diagnostic quality.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Eric P; Rong, X John; Cody, Dianna D; Ernst, Randy D; Fitzgerald, Nancy E; Kundra, Vikas

    2011-01-01

    The risks and benefits of using computed tomography (CT) as opposed to another imaging modality to accomplish a particular clinical goal should be weighed carefully. To accurately assess radiation risks and keep radiation doses as low as reasonably achievable, radiologists must be knowledgeable about the doses delivered during various types of CT studies performed at their institutions. The authors of this article propose a process improvement approach that includes the estimation of effective radiation dose levels, formulation of dose reduction goals, modification of acquisition protocols, assessment of effects on image quality, and implementation of changes necessary to ensure quality. A first step toward developing informed radiation dose reduction goals is to become familiar with the radiation dose values and radiation-associated health risks reported in the literature. Next, to determine the baseline dose values for a CT study at a particular institution, dose data can be collected from the CT scanners, interpreted, tabulated, and graphed. CT protocols can be modified to reduce overall effective dose by using techniques such as automated exposure control and iterative reconstruction, as well as by decreasing the number of scanning phases, increasing the section thickness, and adjusting the peak voltage (kVp setting), tube current-time product (milliampere-seconds), and pitch. Last, PDSA (plan, do, study, act) cycles can be established to detect and minimize negative effects of dose reduction methods on image quality.

  19. Asian consortium on radiation dose of pediatric cardiac CT (ASCI-REDCARD).

    PubMed

    Hui, Peter K T; Goo, Hyun Woo; Du, Jing; Ip, Janice J K; Kanzaki, Suzu; Kim, Young Jin; Kritsaneepaiboon, Supika; Lilyasari, Oktavia; Siripornpitak, Suvipaporn

    2017-07-01

    With incremental utilization of pediatric cardiac CT in congenital heart disease, it is imperative to define its current radiation dose levels in clinical practice in order to help imagers optimize CT protocols, particularly in Asia and other developing countries where CT physicists are not readily available. To evaluate current radiation dose levels and influencing factors in cardiac CT in children with congenital heart disease in Asia by conducting a retrospective multi-center, multi-vendor study. We included 1,043 pediatric cardiac CT examinations performed in 8 centers between January 2014 and December 2014 to evaluate congenital heart disease. In five weight groups, we calculated radiation dose metrics including volume CT dose index, size-specific dose estimate, dose-length product and effective dose. Age at CT exam, gender, tube voltage, scan mode, CT indication and image reconstruction algorithm were analyzed to learn whether they influenced CT radiation dose. Volume CT dose index, size-specific dose estimate, dose-length product and effective dose of pediatric cardiac CT showed variations in the range of 4.3-23.8 mGy, 4.9-17.6 mGy, 55.8-501.3 mGy∙cm and 1.5-3.2 mSv, respectively, within five weight groups. Gender, tube voltage, scan mode and cardiac function assessment significantly influenced CT radiation dose. This multi-center, multi-vendor study demonstrated variations in radiation dose metrics of pediatric cardiac CT reflecting current practice in Asia. Gender, tube voltage, scan mode and cardiac function assessment should be considered as essential radiation dose-influencing factors in developing optimal pediatric cardiac CT protocols.

  20. Measurement of dose in radionuclide therapy by using Cerenkov radiation.

    PubMed

    Ai, Yao; Tang, Xiaobin; Shu, Diyun; Shao, Wencheng; Gong, Chunhui; Geng, Changran; Zhang, Xudong; Yu, Haiyan

    2017-08-14

    This work aims to determine the relationship between Cerenkov photon emission and radiation dose from internal radionuclide irradiation. Water and thyroid phantoms were used to simulate the distribution of Cerenkov photon emission and dose deposition through Monte Carlo method. The relationship between Cerenkov photon emission and dose deposition was quantitatively analyzed. A neck phantom was also used to verify Cerenkov photon detection for thyroid radionuclide therapy. Results show that Cerenkov photon emission and dose deposition exhibit the same distribution pattern in water phantom, and this relative distribution relationship also existed in the thyroid phantom. Moreover, Cerenkov photon emission exhibits a specific quantitative relation to dose deposition. For thyroid radionuclide therapy, only a part of Cerenkov photon produced by thyroid could penetrate the body for detection; therefore, the use of Cerenkov radiation for measurement of radionuclide therapy dose may be more suitable for superficial tumors. This study demonstrated that Cerenkov radiation has the potential to be used for measuring radiation dose for radionuclide therapy.

  1. Lack of high-dose radiation mediated prostate cancer promotion and low-dose radiation adaptive response in the TRAMP mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, M D; Ormsby, R J; Blyth, B J; Bezak, E; England, G; Newman, M R; Tilley, W D; Sykes, P J

    2013-10-01

    Cancer of the prostate is a highly prevalent disease with a heterogeneous aetiology and prognosis. Current understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying the responses of prostate tissue to ionizing radiation exposure, including cancer induction, is surprisingly limited for both high- and low-dose exposures. As population exposure to radiation increases, largely through medical imaging, a better understanding of the response of the prostate to radiation exposure is required. Low-dose radiation-induced adaptive responses for increased cancer latency and decreased cancer frequency have been demonstrated in mouse models, largely for hematological cancers. This study examines the effects of high- and low-dose whole-body radiation exposure on prostate cancer development using an autochthonous mouse model of prostate cancer: TRansgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP). TRAMP mice were exposed to single acute high (2 Gy), low (50 mGy) and repeated low (5 × 50 mGy) doses of X rays to evaluate both the potential prostate cancer promoting effects of high-dose radiation and low-dose adaptive response phenomena in this prostate cancer model. Prostate weights and histopathology were examined to evaluate gross changes in cancer development and, in mice exposed to a single 2 Gy dose, time to palpable tumor was examined. Proliferation (Ki-67), apoptosis, DNA damage (γ-H2AX) and transgene expression (large T-antigen) were examined within TRAMP prostate sections. Neither high- nor low-dose radiation-induced effects on prostate cancer progression were observed for any of the endpoints studied. Lack of observable effects of high- or low-dose radiation exposure suggests that modulation of tumorigenesis in the TRAMP model is largely resistant to such exposures. However, further study is required to better assess the effects of radiation exposure using alternative prostate cancer models that incorporate normal prostate and in those that are not driven by SV40 large T

  2. Digital radiography: image quality and radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Seibert, J Anthony

    2008-11-01

    Digital radiography devices, rapidly replacing analog screen-film detectors, are now common in diagnostic radiological imaging, where implementation has been accelerated by the commodity status of electronic imaging and display systems. The shift from narrow latitude, fixed-speed screen-film detectors to wide latitude, variable-speed digital detectors has created a flexible imaging system that can easily result in overexposures to the patient without the knowledge of the operator, thus potentially increasing the radiation burden of the patient population from radiographic examinations. In addition, image processing can be inappropriately applied causing inconsistent or artifactual appearance of anatomy, which can lead to misdiagnosis. On the other hand, many advantages can be obtained from the variable-speed digital detector, such as an ability to lower dose in many examinations, image post-processing for disease-specific conditions, display flexibility to change the appearance of the image and aid the physician in making a differential diagnosis, and easy access to digital images. An understanding of digital radiography is necessary to minimize the possibility of overexposures and inconsistent results, and to achieve the principle of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) for the safe and effective care of all patients. Thus many issues must be considered for optimal implementation of digital radiography, as reviewed in this article.

  3. A Biodosimeter for Multiparametric Determination of Radiation Dose, Radiation Quality, and Radiation Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, Robert; Cruz, Angela; Jansen, Heather; Bors, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Predicting risk of human cancer following exposure of an individual or a population to ionizing radiation is challenging. To an approximation, this is because uncertainties of uniform absorption of dose and the uniform processing of dose-related damage at the cellular level within a complex set of biological variables degrade the confidence of predicting the delayed expression of cancer as a relatively rare event. Cellular biodosimeters that simultaneously report: 1) the quantity of absorbed dose after exposure to ionizing radiation, 2) the quality of radiation delivering that dose, and 3) the risk of developing cancer by the cells absorbing that dose would therefore be useful. An approach to such a multiparametric biodosimeter will be reported. This is the demonstration of a dose responsive field effect of enhanced expression of keratin 18 (K18) in cultures of human mammary epithelial cells irradiated with cesium-1 37 gamma-rays. Dose response of enhanced K18 expression was experimentally extended over a range of 30 to 90 cGy for cells evaluated at mid-log phase. K18 has been reported to be a marker for tumor staging and for apoptosis, and thereby serves as an example of a potential marker for cancer risk, where the reality of such predictive value would require additional experimental development. Since observed radiogenic increase in expression of K18 is a field effect, ie., chronically present in all cells of the irradiated population, it may be hypothesized that K18 expression in specific cells absorbing particulate irradiation, such as the high-LET-producing atomic nuclei of space radiation, will report on both the single-cell distributions of those particles amongst cells within the exposed population, and that the relatively high dose per cell delivered by densely ionizing tracks of those intersecting particles will lead to cell-specific high-expression levels of K18, thereby providing analytical end points that may be used to resolve both the quantity and

  4. A Biodosimeter for Multiparametric Determination of Radiation Dose, Radiation Quality, and Radiation Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, Robert; Cruz, Angela; Jansen, Heather; Bors, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Predicting risk of human cancer following exposure of an individual or a population to ionizing radiation is challenging. To an approximation, this is because uncertainties of uniform absorption of dose and the uniform processing of dose-related damage at the cellular level within a complex set of biological variables degrade the confidence of predicting the delayed expression of cancer as a relatively rare event. Cellular biodosimeters that simultaneously report: 1) the quantity of absorbed dose after exposure to ionizing radiation, 2) the quality of radiation delivering that dose, and 3) the risk of developing cancer by the cells absorbing that dose would therefore be useful. An approach to such a multiparametric biodosimeter will be reported. This is the demonstration of a dose responsive field effect of enhanced expression of keratin 18 (K18) in cultures of human mammary epithelial cells irradiated with cesium-1 37 gamma-rays. Dose response of enhanced K18 expression was experimentally extended over a range of 30 to 90 cGy for cells evaluated at mid-log phase. K18 has been reported to be a marker for tumor staging and for apoptosis, and thereby serves as an example of a potential marker for cancer risk, where the reality of such predictive value would require additional experimental development. Since observed radiogenic increase in expression of K18 is a field effect, ie., chronically present in all cells of the irradiated population, it may be hypothesized that K18 expression in specific cells absorbing particulate irradiation, such as the high-LET-producing atomic nuclei of space radiation, will report on both the single-cell distributions of those particles amongst cells within the exposed population, and that the relatively high dose per cell delivered by densely ionizing tracks of those intersecting particles will lead to cell-specific high-expression levels of K18, thereby providing analytical end points that may be used to resolve both the quantity and

  5. CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS OF LOW DOSES OF IONIZING RADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carcinogenic Effects of Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation

    R Julian Preston, Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, NHEERL, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711

    The form of the dose-response curve for radiation-induced cancers, particu...

  6. CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS OF LOW DOSES OF IONIZING RADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carcinogenic Effects of Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation

    R Julian Preston, Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, NHEERL, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711

    The form of the dose-response curve for radiation-induced cancers, particu...

  7. Biological-Based Modeling of Low Dose Radiation Risks

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Bobby R., Ph.D.

    2006-11-08

    The objective of this project was to refine a biological-based model (called NEOTRANS2) for low-dose, radiation-induced stochastic effects taking into consideration newly available data, including data on bystander effects (deleterious and protective). The initial refinement led to our NEOTRANS3 model which has undergone further refinement (e.g., to allow for differential DNA repair/apoptosis over different dose regions). The model has been successfully used to explain nonlinear dose-response curves for low-linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation-induced mutations (in vivo) and neoplastic transformation (in vitro). Relative risk dose-response functions developed for neoplastic transformation have been adapted for application to cancer relative risk evaluation for irradiated humans. Our low-dose research along with that conducted by others collectively demonstrate the following regarding induced protection associated with exposure to low doses of low-LET radiation: (1) protects against cell killing by high-LET alpha particles; (2) protects against spontaneous chromosomal damage; (3) protects against spontaneous mutations and neoplastic transformations; (4) suppresses mutations induced by a large radiation dose even when the low dose is given after the large dose; (5) suppresses spontaneous and alpha-radiation-induced cancers; (6) suppresses metastasis of existing cancer; (7) extends tumor latent period; (8) protects against diseases other than cancer; and (9) extends life expectancy. These forms of radiation-induced protection are called adapted protection as they relate to induced adaptive response. Thus, low doses and dose rates of low-LET radiation generally protect rather than harm us. These findings invalidate the linear not threshold (LNT) hypothesis which is based on the premise that any amount of radiation is harmful irrespective of its type. The hypothesis also implicates a linear dose-response curve for cancer induction that has a positive slope and no

  8. Measuring radiation dose to patients undergoing fluoroscopically-guided interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubis, L. E.; Badawy, M. K.

    2016-03-01

    The increasing prevalence and complexity of fluoroscopically guided interventions (FGI) raises concern regarding radiation dose to patients subjected to the procedure. Despite current evidence showing the risk to patients from the deterministic effects of radiation (e.g. skin burns), radiation induced injuries remain commonplace. This review aims to increase the awareness surrounding radiation dose measurement for patients undergoing FGI. A review of the literature was conducted alongside previous researches from the authors’ department. Studies pertaining to patient dose measurement, its formalism along with current advances and present challenges were reviewed. Current patient monitoring techniques (using available radiation dosimeters), as well as the inadequacy of accepting displayed dose as patient radiation dose is discussed. Furthermore, advances in real-time patient radiation dose estimation during FGI are considered. Patient dosimetry in FGI, particularly in real time, remains an ongoing challenge. The increasing occurrence and sophistication of these procedures calls for further advances in the field of patient radiation dose monitoring. Improved measuring techniques will aid clinicians in better predicting and managing radiation induced injury following FGI, thus improving patient care.

  9. Radiation dose distributions due to sudden ejection of cobalt device.

    PubMed

    Abdelhady, Amr

    2016-09-01

    The evaluation of the radiation dose during accident in a nuclear reactor is of great concern from the viewpoint of safety. One of important accident must be analyzed and may be occurred in open pool type reactor is the rejection of cobalt device. The study is evaluating the dose rate levels resulting from upset withdrawal of co device especially the radiation dose received by the operator in the control room. Study of indirect radiation exposure to the environment due to skyshine effect is also taken into consideration in order to evaluate the radiation dose levels around the reactor during the ejection trip. Microshield, SHLDUTIL, and MCSky codes were used in this study to calculate the radiation dose profiles during cobalt device ejection trip inside and outside the reactor building. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Radiation dose estimate in small animal SPECT and PET.

    PubMed

    Funk, Tobias; Sun, Mingshan; Hasegawa, Bruce H

    2004-09-01

    Calculations of radiation dose are important in assessing the medical and biological implications of ionizing radiation in medical imaging techniques such as SPECT and PET. In contrast, radiation dose estimates of SPECT and PET imaging of small animals are not very well established. For that reason we have estimated the whole-body radiation dose to mice and rats for isotopes such as 18F, 99mTc, 201Tl, (111)In, 123I, and 125I that are used commonly for small animal imaging. We have approximated mouse and rat bodies with uniform soft tissue equivalent ellipsoids. The mouse and rat sized ellipsoids had a mass of 30 g and 300 g, respectively, and a ratio of the principal axes of 1:1:4 and 0.7:1:4. The absorbed fractions for various photon energies have been calculated using the Monte Carlo software package MCNP. Using these values, we then calculated MIRD S-values for two geometries that model the distribution of activity in the animal body: (a) a central point source and (b) a homogeneously distributed source, and compared these values against S-value calculations for small ellipsoids tabulated in MIRD Pamphlet 8 to validate our results. Finally we calculated the radiation dose taking into account the biological half-life of the radiopharmaceuticals and the amount of activity administered. Our calculations produced S-values between 1.06 x 10(-13) Gy/Bq s and 2.77 x 10(-13) Gy/Bq s for SPECT agents, and 15.0 x 10(-13) Gy/Bq s for the PET agent 18F, assuming mouse sized ellipsoids with uniform source distribution. The S-values for a central point source in an ellipsoid are about 10% higher than the values obtained for the uniform source distribution. Furthermore, the S-values for mouse sized ellipsoids are approximately 10 times higher than for the rat sized ellipsoids reflecting the difference in mass. We reviewed published data to obtain administered radioactivity and residence times for small animal imaging. From these values and our computed S-values we estimated

  11. Radiation dose reduction in multidetector CT in fracture evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jung Woo; Park, Hee Jin; Lee, So Yeon; Rho, Myung Ho; Hong, Hyun Pyo; Choi, Yoon Jung; Kim, Mi Sung

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate whether multidetector CT with low-dose radiation (low-dose CT) of joints can be useful when evaluating fractures. Our study included CT scans of 398 patients, 103 shoulder cases, 109 wrist cases, 98 pelvis cases and 88 ankle cases. There were 191 females and 207 males. The low-dose CTs were performed using identical voltage and parameters with the exception of decreased (half of standard dose) tube current. Low-dose and standard-dose images were compared with regards to objective image quality, subjective evaluation of image quality and diagnostic performance for the fractures. There was no significant difference of image noise between standard-dose CT and low-dose CT in every joint (p > 0.05). Each mean value of subjective score did not show significant difference according to the dosage of the CT scan. There were no statistically significant differences in the sensitivity (96-100%), specificity (95.2-100%) or accuracy (97.9-100%) between standard-dose CT and low-dose CT (p values, 0.1336-1.000). The evaluation of extremities for fractures using low-dose CT can reduce radiation exposure by about 50% compared with standard-dose CT without affecting image quality or diagnostic performance. Advances in knowledge: Low-dose CT of the extremities (shoulder, pelvis, ankle and wrist) can reduce radiation dose by about 50% compared with standard-dose CT and does not significantly affect image quality or diagnostic performance in fracture detection.

  12. Utility of virtual unenhanced images and split-bolus injection using spectral multidetector CT for the assessment of renal cell carcinoma conspicuity and radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Lin; Zeng, Hong; Sun, Changjiang; Huang, Ning; Zhang, Mengchao

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiation dose and renal cell carcinoma conspicuity with virtual unenhanced images and split-bolus injection from spectral multidetector CT (MDCT). This prospective study was approved by the Ethics Committee, and informed consent was obtained. Ninety suspected patients of renal cell carcinoma diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography and CEUS were randomly divided into two groups by a radiographer. Patients of the first group underwent spectral MDCT with virtual unenhanced imaging and split-bolus injection, while patients in the second group underwent conventional unenhanced as well as tri-phasic enhanced CT. Group A (split-bolus spectral MDCT group): The contrast material was administered at a dose of 1.5 mL/kg body weight at a flow rate of 4 mL/s, with a ratio of 7 to 5 before the CT scan with an interval of 60 seconds. Virtual unenhanced images were generated using a standard three-material decomposition algorithm, and the best mono-energy (keV) was calculated to show the tumour, renal artery and renal vein. Group B (conventional tri-phasic enhanced CT group): the contrast agent was injected with a dose of 1.5 mL/kg body weight at a flow rate of 4 mL/s. The corticomedullary phase scanning was performed once the arterial CT value reached 100 HU; the nephrographic phase was scanned 60 seconds later. And the excretory phase was scanned 5 min after onset of contrast injection. The LKR (lesion kidney ratio), CNR, and CT value of the corticomedullary and nephrographic phase were measured. The opacification of the renal collection system (including calices, infundibula and renal pelvis) was scored. The radiation dose was recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test, Fisher's exact test, the Mann-Whitney U-test, and k statistics. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in age, sex and body mass index (BMI), but there was significant difference in treatment methods

  13. Radiation dose estimates for copper-64 citrate in man

    SciTech Connect

    Crook, J.E.; Carlton, J.E.; Stabin, M.; Watson, E.

    1985-01-01

    Tumor imaging agents suitable for use with positron emission tomographs are constantly sought. We have performed studies with animal-tumor-bearing models that have demonstrated the rapid uptake of copper-64. The radiation dose estimates for man indicate that the intravenous administration of 7.0 mCi would result in radiation doses to the kidney of 9.8 to 10.5 rads with other organs receiving substantially less radiation. 5 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. Assessment of background gamma radiation levels using airborne gamma ray spectrometer data over uranium deposits, Cuddapah Basin, India - A comparative study of dose rates estimated by AGRS and PGRS.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, D; Ramesh Babu, V; Patra, I; Tripathi, Shailesh; Ramayya, M S; Chaturvedi, A K

    2017-02-01

    The Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (AMD) has conducted high-resolution airborne gamma ray spectrometer (AGRS), magnetometer and time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) surveys for uranium exploration, along the northern margins of Cuddapah Basin. The survey area includes well known uranium deposits such as Lambapur-Peddagattu, Chitrial and Koppunuru. The AGRS data collected for uranium exploration is utilised for estimating the average absorbed rates in air due to radio-elemental (potassium in %, uranium and thorium in ppm) distribution over these known deposit areas. Further, portable gamma ray spectrometer (PGRS) was used to acquire data over two nearby locations one from Lambapur deposit, and the other from known anomalous zone and subsequently average gamma dose rates were estimated. Representative in-situ rock samples were also collected from these two areas and subjected to radio-elemental concentration analysis by gamma ray spectrometer (GRS) in the laboratory and then dose rates were estimated. Analyses of these three sets of results complement one another, thereby providing a comprehensive picture of the radiation environment over these deposits. The average absorbed area wise dose rate level is estimated to be 130 ± 47 nGy h(-1) in Lambapur-Peddagattu, 186 ± 77 nGy h(-1) in Chitrial and 63 ± 22 nGy h(-1) in Koppunuru. The obtained average dose levels are found to be higher than the world average value of 54 nGy h(-1). The gamma absorbed dose rates in nGy h(-1) were converted to annual effective dose rates in mSv y(-1) as proposed by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). The annual average effective dose rates for the entire surveyed area is 0.12 mSv y(-1), which is much lower than the recommended limit of 1 mSv y(-1) by International Commission on Radiation protection (ICRP). It may be ascertained here that the present study establishes a reference data set (baseline) in these

  15. Impact of dose and volume on radiation-induced mucositis.

    PubMed

    Mantini, Giovanna; Manfrida, Stefania; Cellini, Francesco; Giammarino, Daniela; Petrone, Adelina; Vitucci, Pasquale; Cellini, Numa

    2005-01-01

    There is a relationship between a given radiation dose and the resulting biological effect in the management of head and neck cancer. Radiation mucositis represents a frequent complication in cancer chemoradiation. Its prevention and treatment are major goals in radiation therapy schedules. Critical tissues can be spared using high conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) based on consensus guidelines for target volume. Current approaches to radiation mucositis with respect to the dose and volume impact are illustrated. The monitoring system of late toxicity used by the authors is presented.

  16. Radiation dose rates from UF{sub 6} cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Friend, P.J.

    1991-12-31

    This paper describes the results of many studies, both theoretical and experimental, which have been carried out by Urenco over the last 15 years into radiation dose rates from uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinders. The contents of the cylinder, its history, and the geometry all affect the radiation dose rate. These factors are all examined in detail. Actual and predicted dose rates are compared with levels permitted by IAEA transport regulations.

  17. Radiation Dose Estimation Using Realistic Postures with PIMAL

    SciTech Connect

    Akkurt, Hatice; Wiarda, Dorothea; Eckerman, Keith F

    2010-01-01

    For correct radiation dose assessment, it is important to take the posture into account. A computational phantom with moving arms and legs was previously developed to address this need. Further, an accompanying graphical user interface (GUI), called PIMAL, was developed to enable dose estimation using realistic postures in a user-friendly manner such that the analyst's time could be substantially reduced. The importance of the posture for correct dose estimation has been demonstrated with a few case studies in earlier analyses. The previous version of PIMAL was somewhat limited in its features (i.e., it contained only a hermaphrodite phantom model and allowed only isotropic source definition). Currently GUI is being further enhanced by incorporating additional phantom models, improving the features, and increasing the user friendliness in general. This paper describes recent updates to the PIMAL software. In this summary recent updates to the PIMAL software, which aims to perform radiation transport simulations for phantom models in realistic postures in a user-friendly manner, are described. In future work additional phantom models, including hybrid phantom models, will be incorporated. In addition to further enhancements, a library of input files for the case studies that have been analyzed to date will be included in the PIMAL.

  18. Mechanistic Basis for Nonlinear Dose-Response Relationships for Low-Dose Radiation-Induced Stochastic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Bobby R.; Walker, Dale M.; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes; Schöllnberger, Helmut; Walker, Vernon

    2003-01-01

    The linear nonthreshold (LNT) model plays a central role in low-dose radiation risk assessment for humans. With the LNT model, any radiation exposure is assumed to increase one’s risk of cancer. Based on the LNT model, others have predicted tens of thousands of deaths related to environmental exposure to radioactive material from nuclear accidents (e.g., Chernobyl) and fallout from nuclear weapons testing. Here, we introduce a mechanism-based model for low-dose, radiation-induced, stochastic effects (genomic instability, apoptosis, mutations, neoplastic transformation) that leads to a LNT relationship between the risk for neoplastic transformation and dose only in special cases. It is shown that nonlinear dose-response relationships for risk of stochastic effects (problematic nonlethal mutations, neoplastic transformation) should be expected based on known biological mechanisms. Further, for low-dose, low-dose rate, low-LET radiation, large thresholds may exist for cancer induction. We summarize previously published data demonstrating large thresholds for cancer induction. We also provide evidence for low-dose-radiation-induced, protection (assumed via apoptosis) from neoplastic transformation. We speculate based on work of others (Chung 2002) that such protection may also be induced to operate on existing cancer cells and may be amplified by apoptosis-inducing agents such as dietary isothiocyanates. PMID:19330114

  19. Problems in evaluating radiation dose via terrestrial and aquatic pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, B E; Soldat, J K; Schreckhise, R G; Watson, E C; McKenzie, D H

    1981-01-01

    This review is concerned with exposure risk and the environmental pathways models used for predictive assessment of radiation dose. Exposure factors, the adequacy of available data, and the model subcomponents are critically reviewed from the standpoint of absolute error propagation. Although the models are inherently capable of better absolute accuracy, a calculated dose is usually overestimated by from two to six orders of magnitude, in practice. The principal reason for so large an error lies in using "generic" concentration ratios in situations where site specific data are needed. Major opinion of the model makers suggests a number midway between these extremes, with only a small likelihood of ever underestimating the radiation dose. Detailed evaluations are made of source considerations influencing dose (i.e., physical and chemical status of released material); dispersal mechanisms (atmospheric, hydrologic and biotic vector transport); mobilization and uptake mechanisms (i.e., chemical and other factors affecting the biological availability of radioelements); and critical pathways. Examples are shown of confounding in food-chain pathways, due to uncritical application of concentration ratios. Current thoughts of replacing the critical pathways approach to calculating dose with comprehensive model calculations are also shown to be ill-advised, given present limitations in the comprehensive data base. The pathways models may also require improved parametrization, as they are not at present structured adequately to lend themselves to validation. The extremely wide errors associated with predicting exposure stand in striking contrast to the error range associated with the extrapolation of animal effects data to the human being. PMID:7037381

  20. Radiation Dose to Newborns in Neonatal Intensive Care Units

    PubMed Central

    Bahreyni Toossi, Mohammad Taghi; Malekzadeh, Malakeh

    2012-01-01

    Background With the increase of X-ray use for medical diagnostic purposes, knowing the given doses is necessary in patients for comparison with reference levels. The concept of reference doses or diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) has been developed as a practical aid in the optimization of patient protection in diagnostic radiology. Objectives To assess the radiation doses to neonates from diagnostic radiography (chest and abdomen). This study has been carried out in the neonatal intensive care unit of a province in Iran. Patients and Methods Entrance surface dose (ESD) was measured directly with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). The population included 195 neonates admitted for a diagnostic radiography, in eight NICUs of different hospital types. Results The mean ESD for chest and abdomen examinations were 76.3 µGy and 61.5 µGy, respectively. DRLs for neonate in NICUs of the province were 88 µGy for chest and 98 µGy for abdomen examinations that were slightly higher than other studies. Risk of death due to radiation cancer incidence of abdomens examination was equal to 1.88 × 10 -6 for male and 4.43 × 10 -6 for female. For chest X-ray, it was equal to 2.54 × 10 -6 for male and 1.17 × 10 -5 for female patients. Conclusion DRLs for neonates in our province were slightly higher than values reported by other studies such as European national diagnostic reference levels and the NRPB reference dose. The main reason was related to using a high mAs and a low kVp applied in most departments and also a low focus film distance (FFD). Probably lack of collimation also affected some exams in the NICUs. PMID:23329980

  1. A new assessment in North Atlantic waters of the relationship between DMS concentration and the upper mixed layer solar radiation dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belviso, S.; Caniaux, G.

    2009-03-01

    The results of the POMME experiment, conducted in the northeast Atlantic Ocean in 2001, were used to explore whether dimethylsulfide (DMS) concentrations are linked to epipelagic ecosystem exposure to solar radiation as proposed by Vallina and Simó (2007). According to the seasonal variations in the DMS-to-dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) ratio, we found that the summer surface water concentration of DMS was, on average, threefold higher than expected from the abundance of DMSP. This is in agreement with previous observations and confirms that seasonal changes in the trophic regime, from mesotrophy in winter and spring to oligotrophy in summer, are accompanied by a relative enhancement of DMS over DMSP. However, contrary to the observations carried out at Hydrostation S in the northwest Atlantic Ocean, no strong relationship between DMS and the solar radiation dose (SRD) exists in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. From a series of sensitivity tests, where different combinations of the three parameters that drive the SRD were investigated (i.e., the solar irradiance, the law of its attenuation in the sea, and the mixed layer depth), we found that the SRD accounted for only 19% to 24% of the variance associated with monthly surface DMS concentrations. Additionally, the slope of the relationship between DMS and SRD was particularly sensitive to the choice of the irradiance attenuation law. Overall, we find that the DMS versus SRD relationship is much less significant in the northeast Atlantic Ocean than in the Sargasso Sea. In addition, we suggest a large impact of algal community structure on summer DMS concentrations in the mesotrophic coastal waters of the Mediterranean Sea. Therefore, we question the consistency between DMS versus SRD relationships at local, basin, and global scales and propose that empirical relationships relating DMS to SRD be applied with caution.

  2. Total dose performance of radiation hardened voltage regulators and references

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClure, S.; Gorelick, J.; Pease, R.; Rax, B.; Ladbury, R.

    2001-01-01

    Total dose test of commercially available radiation hardened bipolar voltage regulators and references show reduced sensitivity to dose rate and varying sensitivity to bias under pressure. Behavior of critical parameters in different dose rate and bias conditions is compared and the impact to hardness assurance methodology is discussed.

  3. Radiation burden from secondary doses to patients undergoing radiation therapy with photons and light ions and radiation doses from imaging modalities.

    PubMed

    Gudowska, I; Ardenfors, O; Toma-Dasu, I; Dasu, A

    2014-10-01

    Ionising radiation is increasingly used for the treatment of cancer, being the source of a considerable fraction of the medical irradiation to patients. With the increasing success rate of cancer treatments and longer life expectancy of the treated patients, the issue of secondary cancer incidence is of growing concern, especially for paediatric patients who may live long after the treatment and be more susceptible to carcinogenesis. Also, additional imaging procedures like computed tomography, kilovoltage and megavoltage imaging and positron emission tomography, alone or in conjunction with radiation therapy, may add to the radiation burden associated with the risk of occurrence of secondary cancers. This work has been based on literature studies and is focussed on the assessment of secondary doses to healthy tissues that are delivered by the use of modern radiation therapy and diagnostic imaging modalities in the clinical environment.

  4. Acute radiation enteritis caused by dose-dependent radiation exposure in dogs: experimental research.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenda; Chen, Jiang; Xu, Liu; Li, Hongyu; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2014-12-01

    Accidental or intended radiation exposure in mass casualty settings presents a serious and on-going threat. The development of mitigating and treating agents requires appropriate animal models. Unfortunately, the majority of research on radiation enteritis in animals has lacked specific assessments and targeted therapy. Our study showed beagle dogs, treated by intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for abdominal irradiation, were administered single X-ray doses of 8-30 Gy. The degree of intestinal tract injury for all of the animals after radiation exposure was evaluated with regard to clinical syndrome, endoscopic findings, histological features, and intestinal function. The range of single doses (8 Gy, 10-14 Gy, and 16-30 Gy) represented the degree of injury (mild, moderate, and severe, respectively). Acute radiation enteritis included clinical syndrome with fever, vomiting, diarrhea, hemafecia, and weight loss; typical endoscopic findings included edema, bleeding, mucosal abrasions, and ulcers; and intestinal biopsy results revealed mucosal necrosis, erosion, and loss, inflammatory cell infiltration, hemorrhage, and congestion. Changes in serum diamine oxides (DAOs) and d-xylose represented intestinal barrier function and absorption function, respectively, and correlated with the extent of damage (P < 0.05 and P < 0.05, respectively). We successfully developed a dog model of acute radiation enteritis, thus obtaining a relatively objective evaluation of intestinal tract injury based on clinical performance and laboratory examination. The method of assessment of the degree of intestinal tract injury after abdominal irradiation could be beneficial in the development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies for acute radiation enteritis.

  5. Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive /sup 131/I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of /sup 131/I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 10/sup 6/ person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 10/sup 7/ person-rem (2 x 10/sup 5/ Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs.

  6. Digital radiography in paediatrics: radiation dose considerations and magnitude of possible dose reduction.

    PubMed

    Hufton, A P; Doyle, S M; Carty, H M

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiation doses received by paediatric patients examined using a digital radiography unit, and to compare these doses with those received from conventional screen-film systems. In this way, guidelines could be drawn up concerning the magnitude of possible dose reductions achievable using digital radiography. The study was undertaken on approximately 900 patients undergoing abdomen, chest, pelvis and skull examinations. Patients were categorized into the following age groups: 0-1 month, 1-12 months, 1-5 years, 5-10 years and 10-15 years. Approximately half were X-rayed using a Fuji computed radiography system and half using a conventional screen-film system. Entrance surface dose was calculated from the recorded exposure parameters and measured X-ray tube outputs. Dose-area product was recorded directly. Image quality was assessed clinically using criteria recommended by a working group of the Commission of the European Communities. Apart from chest examinations, it was found possible to reduce doses by about 40% on average, by using a computed radiography system instead of a 600 speed screen-film combination. There was no significant difference in the dose for chest examinations. Satisfactory image quality can therefore be achieved by using computed radiography as a 1000 speed system for abdomen, pelvis and skull examinations, and as a 600 speed system for chests. Since very few departments appear to use screen-film systems of speeds greater than 400, then, for most departments, the use of computed radiography would result in dose reductions of at least 60%, or 33% for chests.

  7. Low-dose radiation: a cause of breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Land, C.E.

    1980-08-15

    It is likely that the breast is the organ most sensitive to radiation carcinogenesis in postpubertal women. Studies of different exposed populations have yielded remarkably consistent results, in spite of wide differences in underlying breast cancer rates and conditions of exposure. Excess risk is approximately proportional to dose, and is relatively independent of ionization density and fractionization of dose. This implies that the risk associated with low-dose exposures to ionizing radiation can be estimated with some confidence from higher-dose data. Excess risk is heavily dependent on age at exposure but relatively independent of population differences in normal risk. The temporal patterns after exposure of both radiation-induced and naturally occurring breast cancer are similar, suggesting a strong influence of factors other than radiation on radiation-induced breast cancer. Uncertainties remain about risks from exposures before puberty and after menopause.

  8. Radiation doses to insertion devices at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Moog, E.R.; Den Hartog, P.K.; Semones, E.J.; Job, P.K.

    1997-09-01

    Dose measurements made on and around the insertion devices (IDs) at the Advanced Photon Source are reported. Attempts are made to compare these dose rates to dose rates that have been reported to cause radiation-induced demagnetization, but comparisons are complicated by such factors as the particular magnet material and the techniques used in its manufacture, the spectrum and type of radiation, and the demagnetizing field seen by the magnet. The spectrum of radiation at the IDs. It has almost no effect on the dose to the downstream ends of the IDs, however, since much of the radiation travels through the ID vacuum chamber and cannot be readily shielded. Opening the gaps of the IDs during injection and at other times also helps decrease the radiation exposure.

  9. Automated extraction of radiation dose information for CT examinations.

    PubMed

    Cook, Tessa S; Zimmerman, Stefan; Maidment, Andrew D A; Kim, Woojin; Boonn, William W

    2010-11-01

    Exposure to radiation as a result of medical imaging is currently in the spotlight, receiving attention from Congress as well as the lay press. Although scanner manufacturers are moving toward including effective dose information in the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine headers of imaging studies, there is a vast repository of retrospective CT data at every imaging center that stores dose information in an image-based dose sheet. As such, it is difficult for imaging centers to participate in the ACR's Dose Index Registry. The authors have designed an automated extraction system to query their PACS archive and parse CT examinations to extract the dose information stored in each dose sheet. First, an open-source optical character recognition program processes each dose sheet and converts the information to American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) text. Each text file is parsed, and radiation dose information is extracted and stored in a database which can be queried using an existing pathology and radiology enterprise search tool. Using this automated extraction pipeline, it is possible to perform dose analysis on the >800,000 CT examinations in the PACS archive and generate dose reports for all of these patients. It is also possible to more effectively educate technologists, radiologists, and referring physicians about exposure to radiation from CT by generating report cards for interpreted and performed studies. The automated extraction pipeline enables compliance with the ACR's reporting guidelines and greater awareness of radiation dose to patients, thus resulting in improved patient care and management.

  10. The Dose Window for Radiation-Induced Protective Adaptive Responses

    PubMed Central

    Mitchel, Ronald E. J.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive responses to low doses of low LET radiation occur in all organisms thus far examined, from single cell lower eukaryotes to mammals. These responses reduce the deleterious consequences of DNA damaging events, including radiation-induced or spontaneous cancer and non-cancer diseases in mice. The adaptive response in mammalian cells and mammals operates within a certain window that can be defined by upper and lower dose thresholds, typically between about 1 and 100 mGy for a single low dose rate exposure. However, these thresholds for protection are not a fixed function of total dose, but also vary with dose rate, additional radiation or non-radiation stressors, tissue type and p53 functional status. Exposures above the upper threshold are generally detrimental, while exposures below the lower threshold may or may not increase either cancer or non-cancer disease risk. PMID:20585438

  11. CANISTER HANDLING FACILITY WORKER DOSE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    D.T. Dexheimer

    2004-02-27

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel working in the Canister Handling Facility (CHF) performing operations to receive transportation casks, transfer wastes, prepare waste packages, perform associated equipment maintenance. The specific scope of work contained in this calculation covers individual worker group doses on an annual basis, and includes the contributions due to external and internal radiation. The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the CHF and provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application.

  12. Patient radiation doses for electron beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Castellano, Isabel A.; Dance, David R.; Skinner, Claire L.; Evans, Phil M.

    2005-08-15

    A Monte Carlo based computer model has been developed for electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) to calculate organ and effective doses in a humanoid hermaphrodite phantom. The program has been validated by comparison with experimental measurements of the CT dose index in standard head and body CT dose phantoms; agreement to better than 8% has been found. The robustness of the model has been established by varying the input parameters. The amount of energy deposited at the 12:00 position of the standard body CT dose phantom is most susceptible to rotation angle, whereas that in the central region is strongly influenced by the beam quality. The program has been used to investigate the changes in organ absorbed doses arising from partial and full rotation about supine and prone subjects. Superficial organs experience the largest changes in absorbed dose with a change in subject orientation and for partial rotation. Effective doses for typical clinical scan protocols have been calculated and compared with values obtained using existing dosimetry techniques based on full rotation. Calculations which make use of Monte Carlo conversion factors for the scanner that best matches the EBCT dosimetric characteristics consistently overestimate the effective dose in supine subjects by typically 20%, and underestimate the effective dose in prone subjects by typically 13%. These factors can therefore be used to correct values obtained in this way. Empirical dosimetric techniques based on the dose-length product yield errors as great as 77%. This is due to the sensitivity of the dose length product to individual scan lengths. The magnitude of these errors is reduced if empirical dosimetric techniques based on the average absorbed dose in the irradiated volume (CTDI{sub vol}) are used. Therefore conversion factors specific to EBCT have been calculated to convert the CTDI{sub vol} to an effective dose.

  13. Low radiation dose in computed tomography: the role of iodine.

    PubMed

    Aschoff, Andrik J; Catalano, Carlo; Kirchin, Miles A; Krix, Martin; Albrecht, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Recent approaches to reducing radiation exposure during CT examinations typically utilize automated dose modulation strategies on the basis of lower tube voltage combined with iterative reconstruction and other dose-saving techniques. Less clearly appreciated is the potentially substantial role that iodinated contrast media (CM) can play in low-radiation-dose CT examinations. Herein we discuss the role of iodinated CM in low-radiation-dose examinations and describe approaches for the optimization of CM administration protocols to further reduce radiation dose and/or CM dose while maintaining image quality for accurate diagnosis. Similar to the higher iodine attenuation obtained at low-tube-voltage settings, high-iodine-signal protocols may permit radiation dose reduction by permitting a lowering of mAs while maintaining the signal-to-noise ratio. This is particularly feasible in first pass examinations where high iodine signal can be achieved by injecting iodine more rapidly. The combination of low kV and IR can also be used to reduce the iodine dose. Here, in optimum contrast injection protocols, the volume of CM administered rather than the iodine concentration should be reduced, since with high-iodine-concentration CM further reductions of iodine dose are achievable for modern first pass examinations. Moreover, higher concentrations of CM more readily allow reductions of both flow rate and volume, thereby improving the tolerability of contrast administration.

  14. Low radiation dose in computed tomography: the role of iodine

    PubMed Central

    Aschoff, Andrik J; Catalano, Carlo; Krix, Martin; Albrecht, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Recent approaches to reducing radiation exposure during CT examinations typically utilize automated dose modulation strategies on the basis of lower tube voltage combined with iterative reconstruction and other dose-saving techniques. Less clearly appreciated is the potentially substantial role that iodinated contrast media (CM) can play in low-radiation-dose CT examinations. Herein we discuss the role of iodinated CM in low-radiation-dose examinations and describe approaches for the optimization of CM administration protocols to further reduce radiation dose and/or CM dose while maintaining image quality for accurate diagnosis. Similar to the higher iodine attenuation obtained at low-tube-voltage settings, high-iodine-signal protocols may permit radiation dose reduction by permitting a lowering of mAs while maintaining the signal-to-noise ratio. This is particularly feasible in first pass examinations where high iodine signal can be achieved by injecting iodine more rapidly. The combination of low kV and IR can also be used to reduce the iodine dose. Here, in optimum contrast injection protocols, the volume of CM administered rather than the iodine concentration should be reduced, since with high-iodine-concentration CM further reductions of iodine dose are achievable for modern first pass examinations. Moreover, higher concentrations of CM more readily allow reductions of both flow rate and volume, thereby improving the tolerability of contrast administration. PMID:28471242

  15. The susceptibility of TaOx-based memristors to high dose rate ionizing radiation and total ionizing dose

    DOE PAGES

    McLain, Michael Lee; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; ...

    2014-11-11

    This paper investigates the effects of high dose rate ionizing radiation and total ionizing dose (TID) on tantalum oxide (TaOx) memristors. Transient data were obtained during the pulsed exposures for dose rates ranging from approximately 5.0 ×107 rad(Si)/s to 4.7 ×108 rad(Si)/s and for pulse widths ranging from 50 ns to 50 μs. The cumulative dose in these tests did not appear to impact the observed dose rate response. Static dose rate upset tests were also performed at a dose rate of ~3.0 ×108 rad(Si)/s. This is the first dose rate study on any type of memristive memory technology. Inmore » addition to assessing the tolerance of TaOx memristors to high dose rate ionizing radiation, we also evaluated their susceptibility to TID. The data indicate that it is possible for the devices to switch from a high resistance off-state to a low resistance on-state in both dose rate and TID environments. The observed radiation-induced switching is dependent on the irradiation conditions and bias configuration. Furthermore, the dose rate or ionizing dose level at which a device switches resistance states varies from device to device; the enhanced susceptibility observed in some devices is still under investigation. As a result, numerical simulations are used to qualitatively capture the observed transient radiation response and provide insight into the physics of the induced current/voltages.« less

  16. SCCT guidelines on radiation dose and dose-optimization strategies in cardiovascular CT.

    PubMed

    Halliburton, Sandra S; Abbara, Suhny; Chen, Marcus Y; Gentry, Ralph; Mahesh, Mahadevappa; Raff, Gilbert L; Shaw, Leslee J; Hausleiter, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few years, computed tomography (CT) has developed into a standard clinical test for a variety of cardiovascular conditions. The emergence of cardiovascular CT during a period of dramatic increase in radiation exposure to the population from medical procedures and heightened concern about the subsequent potential cancer risk has led to intense scrutiny of the radiation burden of this new technique. This has hastened the development and implementation of dose reduction tools and prompted closer monitoring of patient dose. In an effort to aid the cardiovascular CT community in incorporating patient-centered radiation dose optimization and monitoring strategies into standard practice, the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography has produced a guideline document to review available data and provide recommendations regarding interpretation of radiation dose indices and predictors of risk, appropriate use of scanner acquisition modes and settings, development of algorithms for dose optimization, and establishment of procedures for dose monitoring.

  17. SCCT guidelines on radiation dose and dose-optimization strategies in cardiovascular CT

    PubMed Central

    Halliburton, Sandra S.; Abbara, Suhny; Chen, Marcus Y.; Gentry, Ralph; Mahesh, Mahadevappa; Raff, Gilbert L.; Shaw, Leslee J.; Hausleiter, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Over the last few years, computed tomography (CT) has developed into a standard clinical test for a variety of cardiovascular conditions. The emergence of cardiovascular CT during a period of dramatic increase in radiation exposure to the population from medical procedures and heightened concern about the subsequent potential cancer risk has led to intense scrutiny of the radiation burden of this new technique. This has hastened the development and implementation of dose reduction tools and prompted closer monitoring of patient dose. In an effort to aid the cardiovascular CT community in incorporating patient-centered radiation dose optimization and monitoring strategies into standard practice, the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography has produced a guideline document to review available data and provide recommendations regarding interpretation of radiation dose indices and predictors of risk, appropriate use of scanner acquisition modes and settings, development of algorithms for dose optimization, and establishment of procedures for dose monitoring. PMID:21723512

  18. Commentary 2 to Cox and Little: radiation-induced oncogenic transformation: the interplay between dose, dose protraction, and radiation quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, D. J.; Hall, E. J.

    1992-01-01

    There is now a substantial body of evidence for end points such as oncogenic transformation in vitro, and carcinogenesis and life shortening in vivo, suggesting that dose protraction leads to an increase in effectiveness relative to a single, acute exposure--at least for radiations of medium linear energy transfer (LET) such as neutrons. Table I contains a summary of the pertinent data from studies in which the effect is seen. [table: see text] This phenomenon has come to be known as the "inverse dose rate effect," because it is in marked contrast to the situation at low LET, where protraction in delivery of a dose of radiation, either by fractionation or low dose rate, results in a decreased biological effect; additionally, at medium and high LET, for radiobiological end points such as clonogenic survival, the biological effectiveness is independent of protraction. The quantity and quality of the published reports on the "inverse dose rate effect" leaves little doubt that the effect is real, but the available evidence indicates that the magnitude of the effect is due to a complex interplay between dose, dose rate, and radiation quality. Here, we first summarize the available data on the inverse dose rate effect and suggest that it follows a consistent pattern in regard to dose, dose rate, and radiation quality; second, we describe a model that predicts these features; and, finally, we describe the significance of the effect for radiation protection.

  19. Commentary 2 to Cox and Little: radiation-induced oncogenic transformation: the interplay between dose, dose protraction, and radiation quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, D. J.; Hall, E. J.

    1992-01-01

    There is now a substantial body of evidence for end points such as oncogenic transformation in vitro, and carcinogenesis and life shortening in vivo, suggesting that dose protraction leads to an increase in effectiveness relative to a single, acute exposure--at least for radiations of medium linear energy transfer (LET) such as neutrons. Table I contains a summary of the pertinent data from studies in which the effect is seen. [table: see text] This phenomenon has come to be known as the "inverse dose rate effect," because it is in marked contrast to the situation at low LET, where protraction in delivery of a dose of radiation, either by fractionation or low dose rate, results in a decreased biological effect; additionally, at medium and high LET, for radiobiological end points such as clonogenic survival, the biological effectiveness is independent of protraction. The quantity and quality of the published reports on the "inverse dose rate effect" leaves little doubt that the effect is real, but the available evidence indicates that the magnitude of the effect is due to a complex interplay between dose, dose rate, and radiation quality. Here, we first summarize the available data on the inverse dose rate effect and suggest that it follows a consistent pattern in regard to dose, dose rate, and radiation quality; second, we describe a model that predicts these features; and, finally, we describe the significance of the effect for radiation protection.

  20. Ultraviolet Radiation Dose National Standard of México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, R.; Rosas, E.

    2006-09-01

    We present the Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation Dose National Standard for México. The establishment of this measurement reference at Centro Nacional de Metrología (CENAM) eliminates the need of contacting foreign suppliers in the search for traceability towards the SI units when calibrating instruments at 365 nm. Further more, the UV Radiation Dose National Standard constitutes a highly accurate and reliable source for the UV radiation dose measurements performed in medical and cosmetic treatments as in the the food and pharmaceutics disinfection processes, among other.

  1. Identification and dose assessment of irradiated cumin by EPR spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Fattah, A A

    2002-03-01

    The use of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to accurately distinguish irradiated from unirradiated cumin and assess the absorbed dose to radiation-processed cumin is examined. The results were successful for identifying both irradiated and unirradiated cumin. Additive reirradiation of the cumin produces a reproducible dose response function, which can be used to assess the initial dose by back-extrapolation. Third-degree polynomial and exponential functions were used to fit the EPR signal/dose curves. It was found that the 3rd degree polynomial function provides satisfactory results without correction for decay of free radicals. The exponential fit to the data cannot be used without correction of decay of free radicals. The stability of the radiation-induced EPR signal of irradiated cumin was studied over a storage period of 6 months. The additive reirradiation of some samples was carried out at different storage times (10, 20 and 30 days) after initial irradiation.

  2. The development of remote wireless radiation dose monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jin-woo; Jeong, Kyu-hwan; Kim, Jong-il; Im, Chae-wan

    2015-07-01

    Internet of things (IoT) technology has recently shown a large flow of IT trends in human life. In particular, our lives are now becoming integrated with a lot of items around the 'smart-phone' with IoT, including Bluetooth, Near Field Communication (NFC), Beacons, WiFi, and Global Positioning System (GPS). Our project focuses on the interconnection of radiation dosimetry and IoT technology. The radiation workers at a nuclear facility should hold personal dosimeters such as a Thermo-Luminescence Dosimeter (TLD), an Optically Stimulated Luminescence Dosimeter (OSL), pocket ionization chamber dosimeters, an Electronic Personal Dosimeter (EPD), or an alarm dosimeter on their body. Some of them have functions that generate audible or visible alarms to radiation workers in a real working area. However, such devices used in radiation fields these days have no functions for communicating with other areas or the responsible personnel in real time. In particular, when conducting a particular task in a high dose area, or a number of repair works within a radiation field, radiation dose monitoring is important for the health of the workers and the work efficiency. Our project aims at the development of a remote wireless radiation dose monitoring system (RWRD) that can be used to monitor the radiation dose in a nuclear facility for radiation workers and a radiation protection program In this project, a radiation dosimeter is the detection device for personal radiation dose, a smart phone is the mobile wireless communication tool, and, Beacon is the wireless starter for the detection, communication, and position of the worker using BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy). In this report, we report the design of the RWRD and a demonstration case in a real radiation field. (authors)

  3. Microelectronic Chips For Radiation-Dose Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G.; Lin, Yu-Sang; Ray, Kevin P.; Sokoloski, Martin M.

    1993-01-01

    Custom-made single-chip complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit designed to reveal effects of ionizing radiation on itself and similar integrated circuits. Potential terrestrial use: safety-oriented monitoring of ionizing radiation at nuclear powerplants, nuclear-waste sites, and the like.

  4. VOXMAT: Hybrid Computational Phantom for Dose Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Akkurt, Hatice; Eckerman, Keith F

    2007-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) computational phantoms have been the standard for assessing the radiation dose due to internal and external exposure over the past three decades. In these phantoms, the body surface and each organ are approximated by mathematical equations; hence, some of the organs are not necessarily realistic in their shape. Over the past two decades, these phantoms have been revised and updated: some of the missing internal organs have been added and the locations of the existing organs have been revised (e.g., thyroid). In the original phantom, only three elemental compositions were used to describe all body tissues. Recently, the compositions of the organs have been updated based on ICRP-89 standards. During the past decade, phantoms based on CT scans were developed for use in dose assessment. Although their shapes are realistic, some computational challenges are noted; including increased computational times and increased memory requirements. For good spatial resolution, more than several million voxels are used to represent the human body. Moreover, when CT scans are obtained, the subject is in a supine position with arms at the side. In some occupational exposure cases, it is necessary to evaluate the dose with the arms and legs in different positions. It will be very difficult and inefficient to reposition the voxels defining the arms and legs to simulate these exposure geometries. In this paper, a new approach for computational phantom development is presented. This approach utilizes the combination of a mathematical phantom and a voxelized phantom for the representation of the anatomy.

  5. CT Radiation Dose Optimization and Estimation: an Update for Radiologists

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In keeping with the increasing utilization of CT examinations, the greater concern about radiation hazards from examinations has been addressed. In this regard, CT radiation dose optimization has been given a great deal of attention by radiologists, referring physicians, technologists, and physicists. Dose-saving strategies are continuously evolving in terms of imaging techniques as well as dose management. Consequently, regular updates of this issue are necessary especially for radiologists who play a pivotal role in this activity. This review article will provide an update on how we can optimize CT dose in order to maximize the benefit-to-risk ratio of this clinically useful diagnostic imaging method. PMID:22247630

  6. CT radiation dose optimization and estimation: an update for radiologists.

    PubMed

    Goo, Hyun Woo

    2012-01-01

    In keeping with the increasing utilization of CT examinations, the greater concern about radiation hazards from examinations has been addressed. In this regard, CT radiation dose optimization has been given a great deal of attention by radiologists, referring physicians, technologists, and physicists. Dose-saving strategies are continuously evolving in terms of imaging techniques as well as dose management. Consequently, regular updates of this issue are necessary especially for radiologists who play a pivotal role in this activity. This review article will provide an update on how we can optimize CT dose in order to maximize the benefit-to-risk ratio of this clinically useful diagnostic imaging method.

  7. Radiation dose reduction in computed tomography: techniques and future perspective

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lifeng; Liu, Xin; Leng, Shuai; Kofler, James M; Ramirez-Giraldo, Juan C; Qu, Mingliang; Christner, Jodie; Fletcher, Joel G; McCollough, Cynthia H

    2011-01-01

    Despite universal consensus that computed tomography (CT) overwhelmingly benefits patients when used for appropriate indications, concerns have been raised regarding the potential risk of cancer induction from CT due to the exponentially increased use of CT in medicine. Keeping radiation dose as low as reasonably achievable, consistent with the diagnostic task, remains the most important strategy for decreasing this potential risk. This article summarizes the general technical strategies that are commonly used for radiation dose management in CT. Dose-management strategies for pediatric CT, cardiac CT, dual-energy CT, CT perfusion and interventional CT are specifically discussed, and future perspectives on CT dose reduction are presented. PMID:22308169

  8. Radiation dose reduction in computed tomography: techniques and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lifeng; Liu, Xin; Leng, Shuai; Kofler, James M; Ramirez-Giraldo, Juan C; Qu, Mingliang; Christner, Jodie; Fletcher, Joel G; McCollough, Cynthia H

    2009-10-01

    Despite universal consensus that computed tomography (CT) overwhelmingly benefits patients when used for appropriate indications, concerns have been raised regarding the potential risk of cancer induction from CT due to the exponentially increased use of CT in medicine. Keeping radiation dose as low as reasonably achievable, consistent with the diagnostic task, remains the most important strategy for decreasing this potential risk. This article summarizes the general technical strategies that are commonly used for radiation dose management in CT. Dose-management strategies for pediatric CT, cardiac CT, dual-energy CT, CT perfusion and interventional CT are specifically discussed, and future perspectives on CT dose reduction are presented.

  9. Gastrointestinal Dose-Histogram Effects in the Context of Dose-Volume–Constrained Prostate Radiation Therapy: Analysis of Data From the RADAR Prostate Radiation Therapy Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, Martin A.; Foo, Kerwyn; Haworth, Annette; Gulliford, Sarah L.; Kennedy, Angel; Joseph, David J.; Denham, James W.

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To use a high-quality multicenter trial dataset to determine dose-volume effects for gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity following radiation therapy for prostate carcinoma. Influential dose-volume histogram regions were to be determined as functions of dose, anatomical location, toxicity, and clinical endpoint. Methods and Materials: Planning datasets for 754 participants in the TROG 03.04 RADAR trial were available, with Late Effects of Normal Tissues (LENT) Subjective, Objective, Management, and Analytic (SOMA) toxicity assessment to a median of 72 months. A rank sum method was used to define dose-volume cut-points as near-continuous functions of dose to 3 GI anatomical regions, together with a comprehensive assessment of significance. Univariate and multivariate ordinal regression was used to assess the importance of cut-points at each dose. Results: Dose ranges providing significant cut-points tended to be consistent with those showing significant univariate regression odds-ratios (representing the probability of a unitary increase in toxicity grade per percent relative volume). Ranges of significant cut-points for rectal bleeding validated previously published results. Separation of the lower GI anatomy into complete anorectum, rectum, and anal canal showed the impact of mid-low doses to the anal canal on urgency and tenesmus, completeness of evacuation and stool frequency, and mid-high doses to the anorectum on bleeding and stool frequency. Derived multivariate models emphasized the importance of the high-dose region of the anorectum and rectum for rectal bleeding and mid- to low-dose regions for diarrhea and urgency and tenesmus, and low-to-mid doses to the anal canal for stool frequency, diarrhea, evacuation, and bleeding. Conclusions: Results confirm anatomical dependence of specific GI toxicities. They provide an atlas summarizing dose-histogram effects and derived constraints as functions of anatomical region, dose, toxicity, and endpoint for

  10. Radiation dose measurement for various parameters in MDCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang-Lae; Kim, Hee-Joung; Jeon, Seong Su; Cho, Hyo-Min; Nam, So Ra; Jung, Ji-Young

    2008-03-01

    The MDCT parameters affecting radiation dose include tube voltage, tube current, change of beam collimation, and size of the human body. The purpose of this study was to measure and evaluate radiation dose for MDCT parameters. A comparative analysis of the radiation dose according to before and after the calibration of the ionization chamber was performed. The ionization chamber was used for measuring radiation dose in the MDCT, as well as of CTDI W according to temperature and pressure correction factors in the CT room. As a result, the patient dose of CTDI W values linearly increased as tube voltage and current were increased, and nonlinearly decreased as beam collimation was increased. And the CTDI W value which was reflected calibration factors, as well as correction factors of temperature and pressure, was found to be greater by the range of 0.479 ~ 3.162 mGy in effective radiation dose than the uncorrected value. Also, Under the abdomen routine CT conditions used in hospitals, patient exposure dose showed a difference of a maximum of 0.7 mSv between before and after the application of such factors. These results imply that the calibration of the ion chamber, and the application of temperature and pressure of the CT room are crucial in measuring and calculating patient exposure dose.

  11. Painting Dose: The ART of Radiation.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Hannah J; Zietman, Anthony L; Efstathiou, Jason A

    2016-11-15

    The discovery of X rays in 1895 captivated society like no other scientific advance. Radiation instantly became the subject not only of numerous scientific papers but also of circus bazaars, poetry, fiction, costume design, comics, and marketing for household items. Its spread was "viral." What is not well known, however, is its incorporation into visual art, despite the long tradition of medicine and surgery as a subject in art. Using several contemporary search methods, we identified 5 examples of paintings or sculpture that thematically feature radiation therapy. All were by artists with exhibited careers in art: Georges Chicotot, Marcel Duchamp, David Alfaro Siqueiros, Robert Pope, and Cookie Kerxton. Each artist portrays radiation differently, ranging from traditional healer, to mysterious danger, to futuristic propaganda, to the emotional challenges of undergoing cancer therapy. This range captures the complex role of radiation as both a therapy and a hazard. Whereas some of these artists are now world famous, none of these artworks are as well known as their surgical counterparts. The penetration of radiation into popular culture was rapid and pervasive; yet, its role as a thematic subject in art never fully caught on, perhaps because of a lack of understanding of the technology, radiation's intangibility, or even a suppressive effect of society's ambivalent relationship with it. These 5 artists have established a rich foundation upon which pop culture and art can further develop with time to reflect the extraordinary progress of modern radiation therapy.

  12. Principles of CT: radiation dose and image quality.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Lee W

    2007-12-01

    This article discusses CT radiation dose, the measurement of CT dose, and CT image quality. The most commonly used dose descriptor is CT dose index, which represents the dose to a location (e.g., depth) in a scanned volume from a complete series of slices. A weighted average of the CT dose index measured at the center and periphery of dose phantoms provides a convenient single-number estimate of patient dose for a procedure, and this value (or a related indicator that includes the scanned length) is often displayed on the operator's console. CT image quality, as in most imaging, is described in terms of contrast, spatial resolution, image noise, and artifacts. A strength of CT is its ability to visualize structures of low contrast in a subject, a task that is limited primarily by noise and is therefore closely associated with radiation dose: The higher the dose contributing to the image, the less apparent is image noise and the easier it is to perceive low-contrast structures. Spatial resolution is ultimately limited by sampling, but both image noise and resolution are strongly affected by the reconstruction filter. As a result, diagnostically acceptable image quality at acceptable doses of radiation requires appropriately designed clinical protocols, including appropriate kilovolt peaks, amperages, slice thicknesses, and reconstruction filters.

  13. Radiation dose reduction in time-resolved CT angiography using highly constrained back projection reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Supanich, Mark; Tao, Yinghua; Nett, Brian; Pulfer, Kari; Hsieh, Jiang; Turski, Patrick; Mistretta, Charles; Rowley, Howard; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2010-01-01

    Recently dynamic, time-resolved three-dimensional computed tomography angiography (CTA) has been introduced to the neurological imaging community. However, the radiation dose delivered to patients in time-resolved CTA protocol is a high and potential risk associated with the ionizing radiation dose. Thus, minimizing the radiation dose is highly desirable for time-resolved CTA. In order to reduce the radiation dose delivered during dynamic, contrast-enhanced CT applications, we introduce here the CT formulation of HighlY constrained back PRojection (HYPR) imaging. We explore the radiation dose reduction approaches of both acquiring a reduced number of projections for each image and lowering the tube current used during acquisition. We then apply HYPR image reconstruction to produce image sets at a reduced patient dose and with low image noise. Numerical phantom experiments and retrospective analysis of in vivo canine studies are used to assess the accuracy and quality of HYPR reduced dose image sets and validate our approach. Experimental results demonstrated that a factor of 6–8 times radiation dose reduction is possible when the HYPR algorithm is applied to time-resolved CTA exams. PMID:19567941

  14. Radiation dose reduction during neurointerventional procedures by modification of default settings on biplane angiography equipment.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Elyne N; Gemmete, Joseph J; Chaudhary, Neeraj; Thompson, Byron Gregory; Chen, Kevin; Christodoulou, Emmanuel G; Pandey, Aditya S

    2016-08-01

    Neurointerventional procedures represent a significant source of ionizing radiation. We sought to assess the effect during neurointerventional procedures of varying default rates of radiation dose in fluoroscopy (F) and image acquisition (IA) modes, and frame rates during cine acquisition (CINE) on total X-ray dose, acquisition exposures, fluoroscopy time, and complications. We retrospectively reviewed procedures performed with two radiation dose and CINE settings: a factory setting dose cohort (30 patients, F 45 nGy/pulse, IA 3.6 μGy/pulse, factory CINE frame rate) and a reduced dose cohort (30 patients, F 32 nGy/pulse, IA 1.2 μGy/pulse, with a decreased CINE frame rate). Total radiation dose, dose area product, number of acquisition exposures, fluoroscopy time, and complications were compared between the groups. Means comparisons (t tests) were employed to evaluate differences in the outcome variables between the two groups. p Value <0.05 was considered significant. The reduced dose cohort had a significant reduction in mean radiation dose (factory, 3650 mGy; reduced, 1650 mGy; p=0.005) and dose area product (factory, 34 700 μGy×m(2); reduced, 15 000 μGy×m(2); p=0.02). There were no significant differences between cohorts in acquisition exposure (p=0.73), fluoroscopy time (p=0.45), or complications. Significant reductions in radiation dose delivered by neurointerventional procedures can be achieved through simple modifications of default radiation dose in F and IA and frame rate during CINE without an increase in procedural complexity (fluoroscopy time) or rate of complications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Space life sciences: radiation risk assessment and radiation measurements in low Earth orbit.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    The volume contains papers presented at COSPAR symposia in October 2002 about radiation risk assessment and radiation measurements in low Earth orbit. The risk assessment symposium brought together multidisciplinary expertise including physicists, biologists, and theoretical modelers. Topics included current knowledge about known and predicted radiation environments, radiation shielding, physics cross section models, improved ion beam transport codes, biological demonstrations of specific shielding materials and applications to a manned mission to Mars, advancements in biological measurement of radiation-induced protein expression profiles, and integration of physical and biological parameters to assess key elements of radiation risk. Papers from the radiation measurements in low Earth orbit symposium included data about dose, linear energy transfer spectra, and charge spectra from recent measurements on the International Space Station (ISS), comparison between calculations and measurements of dose distribution inside a human phantom and the neutron component inside the ISS; and reviews of trapped antiprotons and positrons inside the Earth's magnetosphere.

  16. MIRD Dose Estimate Report No. 20: Radiation Absorbed-Dose Estimates for 111In- and 90Y-Ibritumomab Tiuxetan

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Darrell R.; Shen, Sui; Meredith, Ruby F.

    2009-04-16

    Absorbed dose calculations provide a scientific basis for evaluating the biological effects associated with administered radiopharmaceuticals. In cancer therapy, radiation dosimetry also supports treatment planning, dose-response analyses, predictions of therapy effectiveness, and completeness of patient medical records. In this study, we evaluated the organ radiation absorbed doses resulting from intravenously administered 111In- and 90Y-Ibritumomab Tiuxetan (Zevalin). Methods: Ten patients (six male, four female) with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, cared for at three different medical centers, were administered tracer 111In-Ibritumomab Tiuxetan and were assessed using planar scintillation camera imaging at five time points, blood clearance measurements, and CT-organ volumetrics, to determine patient-specific organ biokinetics and dosimetry. Explicit attenuation correction based on transmission scan or transmission measurements provided the fraction of 111In administered activity in seven major organs, the whole body, and remainder tissues over time through complete decay. Activity-time curves were constructed, and radiation doses were calculated using MIRD methods and implementing software (OLINDA-EXM). Results: Mean radiation absorbed doses in 10 cancer patients for 111In- and for 90-Y-Ibritumomab Tiuxetan are reported for 24 organs and the whole body. Biological uptake and retention data are given for seven major source organs, remainder tissues, and the whole body. Median absorbed dose values calculated by this method were compared to previously published dosimetry for Zevalin and the product package insert. Conclusions: Careful dosimetry techniques provide useful information on absorbed dose from administered radiopharmaceuticals in patients. The importance of patient-specific dosimetry emerges in high-dose radioimmunotherapy when the objective of treatment planning is to achieve disease cures safely by limiting radiation doses to any critical normal organ to a

  17. KERMA-based radiation dose management system for real-time patient dose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyo-Tae; Heo, Ye-Ji; Oh, Kyung-Min; Nam, Sang-Hee; Kang, Sang-Sik; Park, Ji-Koon; Song, Yong-Keun; Park, Sung-Kwang

    2016-07-01

    Because systems that reduce radiation exposure during diagnostic procedures must be developed, significant time and financial resources have been invested in constructing radiation dose management systems. In the present study, the characteristics of an existing ionization-based system were compared to those of a system based on the kinetic energy released per unit mass (KERMA). Furthermore, the feasibility of using the KERMA-based system for patient radiation dose management was verified. The ionization-based system corrected the effects resulting from radiation parameter perturbations in general radiography whereas the KERMA-based system did not. Because of this difference, the KERMA-based radiation dose management system might overestimate the patient's radiation dose due to changes in the radiation conditions. Therefore, if a correction factor describing the correlation between the systems is applied to resolve this issue, then a radiation dose management system can be developed that will enable real-time measurement of the patient's radiation exposure and acquisition of diagnostic images.

  18. Strategies for reduction of radiation dose in cardiac multislice CT.

    PubMed

    Paul, Jean-François; Abada, Hicham T

    2007-08-01

    Because cardiac computed tomography (CT) (mainly coronary CT angiography) is a very promising technique, used more and more for coronary artery evaluation, the benefits and risks of this new low-invasive technique must be balanced. Radiation dose is a major concern for coronary CT angiography, especially in case of repeated examinations or in particular subgroups of patients (for example young female patients). Radiation dose to patient tends to increase from 16- to 64-slice CT. Radiation exposure in ECG-gated acquisitions may reach up to 40 mSv; considerable differences are attributable to the performance of CT machines, to technical dose-sparing tools, but also to radiological habits. Setting radiation dose at the lowest level possible should be a constant goal for the radiologist. Current technological tools are detailed in regard to their efficiency. Optimisation is necessary, by a judicious use of technological tools and also by individual adaptation of kV or mAs. This paper reviews the different current strategies for radiation dose reduction, keeping image quality constant. Data from the literature are discussed, and future technological developments are considered in regards to radiation dose reduction. The particular case of paediatric patients with congenital heart disease is also addressed.

  19. Measurement of radiation dose in dental radiology.

    PubMed

    Helmrot, Ebba; Alm Carlsson, Gudrun

    2005-01-01

    Patient dose audit is an important tool for quality control and it is important to have a well-defined and easy to use method for dose measurements. In dental radiology, the most commonly used dose parameters for the setting of diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) for intraoral examinations and dose width product (DWP) for panoramic examinations. DWP is the air kerma at the front side of the secondary collimator integrated over the collimator width and an exposure cycle. ESAK or DWP is usually measured in the absence of the patient but with the same settings of tube voltage (kV), tube current (mA) and exposure time as with the patient present. Neither of these methods is easy to use, and, in addition, DWP is not a risk related quantity. A better method of monitoring patient dose would be to use a dose area product (DAP) meter for all types of dental examinations. In this study, measurements with a DAP meter are reported for intraoral and panoramic examinations. The DWP is also measured with a pencil ionisation chamber and the product of DWP and the height H (DWP x H) of the secondary collimator (measured using film) was compared to DAP. The results show that it is feasible to measure DAP using a DAP meter for both intraoral and panoramic examinations. The DAP is therefore recommended for the setting of DRLs.

  20. Galactic cosmic radiation doses to astronauts outside the magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Letaw, J.R.

    1987-12-06

    The dose and dose equivalent from galactic cosmic radiation outside the magnetosphere were computed. The principal radiation components considered include primary cosmic rays, spallation fragments of the heavy ions, and secondary products (protons, neutrons, alphas, and recoil nuclei) from interactions in tissue. Three mission environments were considered: free space, the lunar surface, and the martian surface. The annual dose equivalents to the blood-forming organs in these environments are approximately 500 mSv, 250 mSv, and 120 mSv, respectively (1 mSv = 0.1 rem). The dose on the lunar surface is one-half of free space because there is only a single hemisphere of exposure. The dose on the martian surface is half again the dose on the moon because of the shielding provided by a thin, carbon dioxide atmosphere. Dose versus aluminum shielding thickness functions have been computed for the free space exposure. Galactic cosmic radiation is energetic and highly penetrating. 30 cm of aluminum shielding reduces the dose equivalent 25% to 40% (depending on the phase of the solar cycle). Aiming for conformity with the draft NCRP annual dose limit for space station crew members, which is 500 mSv/yr, we recommend 7.5 cm of aluminum shielding in all habitable areas of spacecraft designed for long-duration missions outside Earth's magnetosphere. This shielding thickness reduces the galactic cosmic ray dose and diminishes the risk to astronauts from energetic particle events.

  1. Radiation dose reduction for coronary artery calcium scoring at 320-detector CT with adaptive iterative dose reduction 3D.

    PubMed

    Tatsugami, Fuminari; Higaki, Toru; Fukumoto, Wataru; Kaichi, Yoko; Fujioka, Chikako; Kiguchi, Masao; Yamamoto, Hideya; Kihara, Yasuki; Awai, Kazuo

    2015-06-01

    To assess the possibility of reducing the radiation dose for coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring by using adaptive iterative dose reduction 3D (AIDR 3D) on a 320-detector CT scanner. Fifty-four patients underwent routine- and low-dose CT for CAC scoring. Low-dose CT was performed at one-third of the tube current used for routine-dose CT. Routine-dose CT was reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and low-dose CT was reconstructed with AIDR 3D. We compared the calculated Agatston-, volume-, and mass scores of these images. The overall percentage difference in the Agatston-, volume-, and mass scores between routine- and low-dose CT studies was 15.9, 11.6, and 12.6%, respectively. There were no significant differences in the routine- and low-dose CT studies irrespective of the scoring algorithms applied. The CAC measurements of both imaging modalities were highly correlated with respect to the Agatston- (r = 0.996), volume- (r = 0.996), and mass score (r = 0.997; p < 0.001, all); the Bland-Altman limits of agreement scores were -37.4 to 51.4, -31.2 to 36.4 and -30.3 to 40.9%, respectively, suggesting that AIDR 3D was a good alternative for FBP. The mean effective radiation dose for routine- and low-dose CT was 2.2 and 0.7 mSv, respectively. The use of AIDR 3D made it possible to reduce the radiation dose by 67% for CAC scoring without impairing the quantification of coronary calcification.

  2. Awakening the immune system with radiation: Optimal dose and fractionation.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Saumil J; Minn, Andy J; Vonderheide, Robert H; Wherry, E John; Hahn, Stephen M; Maity, Amit

    2015-11-28

    The importance of ionizing radiation has historically been limited to achieving local control of tumor cells. However, emerging evidence over the last decade suggests an increasingly important role for radiation in amplifying the antitumor immune response elicited by immunomodulatory agents. Combination of radiation with immunotherapy has been shown to elicit powerful systemic responses in several pre-clinical tumor models. Additionally, recent clinical observations support the use of radiation therapy for augmenting antitumor immunity in the metastatic setting. However, radiation dose and fractionation schedules for optimal synergy between radiotherapy and immunotherapy are not well defined. Here we review pre-clinical and clinical data relating to radiation dose and fractionation in the setting of immunotherapy and discuss optimal strategies for combining the two therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Malignant melanoma of the tongue following low-dose radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kalemeris, G.C.; Rosenfeld, L.; Gray, G.F. Jr.; Glick, A.D.

    1985-03-01

    A 47-year-old man had a spindly malignant melanoma of the tongue many years after low-dose radiation therapy for lichen planus. To our knowledge, only 12 melanomas of the tongue have been reported previously, and in none of these was radiation documented.

  4. Systematic radiation dose optimization of abdominal dual-energy CT on a second-generation dual-source CT scanner: assessment of the accuracy of iodine uptake measurement and image quality in an in vitro and in vivo investigations.

    PubMed

    Schindera, Sebastian T; Zaehringer, Caroline; D'Errico, Luigia; Schwartz, Fides; Kekelidze, Maka; Szucs-Farkas, Zsolt; Benz, Matthias R

    2017-05-03

    To assess the accuracy of iodine quantification in a phantom study at different radiation dose levels with dual-energy dual-source CT and to evaluate image quality and radiation doses in patients undergoing a single-energy and two dual-energy abdominal CT protocols. In a phantom study, the accuracy of iodine quantification (4.5-23.5 mgI/mL) was evaluated using the manufacturer-recommended and three dose-optimized dual-energy protocols. In a patient study, 75 abdomino-pelvic CT examinations were acquired as follows: 25 CT scans with the manufacturer-recommended dual-energy protocol (protocol A); 25 CT scans with a dose-optimized dual-energy protocol (protocol B); and 25 CT scans with a single-energy CT protocol (protocol C). CTDIvol and objective noise were measured. Five readers scored each scan according to six subjective image quality parameters (noise, contrast, artifacts, visibility of small structures, sharpness, overall diagnostic confidence). In the phantom study, differences between the real and measured iodine concentrations ranged from -8.8% to 17.0% for the manufacturer-recommended protocol and from -1.6% to 20.5% for three dose-optimized protocols. In the patient study, the CTDIvol of protocol A, B, and C were 12.5 ± 1.9, 7.5 ± 1.2, and 6.5 ± 1.7 mGycm, respectively (p < 0.001), and the average image noise values were 6.6 ± 1.2, 7.8 ± 1.4, and 9.6 ± 2.2 HU, respectively (p < 0.001). No significant differences in the six subjective image quality parameters were observed between the dose-optimized dual-energy and the single-energy protocol. A dose reduction of 41% is feasible for the manufacturer-recommended, abdominal dual-energy CT protocol, as it maintained the accuracy of iodine measurements and subjective image quality compared to a single-energy protocol.

  5. Dose-dependent radiation-induced hypotension in the canine

    SciTech Connect

    Cockerham, L.G.; Hampton, J.D.; Doyle, T.F.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation-induced early transient incapacitation (ETI) is often accompanied by severe systemic hypotension. However, postradiation hypotension does not occur with equal frequency in all species and is not reported with consistency in the canine. In an attempt to clarify the differences in reported canine post-radiation blood pressures, canine systemic blood pressures were determined both before and after exposure to gamma radiation of either 80 or 100 Gy. Data obtained from six sham-radiated beagles and 12 radiated beagles indicated that 100-Gy, whole-body, gamma radiation produced a decrease in systemic mean blood pressure while 80-Gy, whole-body, gamma radiation did not. Analysis of this data could be consistent with a quantal response to a gamma radiation dose between 80 Gy and 100 Gy.

  6. Effects Of Dose Rates On Radiation Damage In CMOS Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goben, Charles A.; Coss, James R.; Price, William E.

    1990-01-01

    Report describes measurements of effects of ionizing-radiation dose rate on consequent damage to complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) electronic devices. Depending on irradiation time and degree of annealing, survivability of devices in outer space, or after explosion of nuclear weapons, enhanced. Annealing involving recovery beyond pre-irradiation conditions (rebound) detrimental. Damage more severe at lower dose rates.

  7. Radiation Dose-Volume Effects in the Esophagus

    SciTech Connect

    Werner-Wasik, Maria; Yorke, Ellen; Deasy, Joseph; Nam, Jiho; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2010-03-01

    Publications relating esophageal radiation toxicity to clinical variables and to quantitative dose and dose-volume measures derived from three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer are reviewed. A variety of clinical and dosimetric parameters have been associated with acute and late toxicity. Suggestions for future studies are presented.

  8. Fetal radiation dose in computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Kelaranta, Anna; Kaasalainen, Touko; Seuri, Raija; Toroi, Paula; Kortesniemi, Mika

    2015-07-01

    The connection between recorded volumetric CT dose index (CTDI vol) and determined mean fetal dose (Df) was examined from metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor dose measurements on an anthropomorphic female phantom in four stages of pregnancy in a 64-slice CT scanner. Automated tube current modulation kept the mean Df fairly constant through all pregnancy stages in trauma (4.4-4.9 mGy) and abdomino-pelvic (2.1-2.4 mGy) protocols. In pulmonary angiography protocol, the mean Df increased exponentially as the distance from the end of the scan range decreased (0.01-0.09 mGy). For trauma protocol, the relative mean Df as a function of gestational age were in the range 0.80-0.97 compared with the mean CTDI vol. For abdomino-pelvic protocol, the relative mean Df was 0.57-0.79 and for pulmonary angiography protocol, 0.01-0.05 compared with the mean CTDI vol, respectively. In conclusion, if the fetus is in the primary beam, the CTDI vol can be used as an upper estimate of the fetal dose. If the fetus is not in the primary beam, the fetal dose can be estimated by considering also the distance of the fetus from the scan range.

  9. Dose-dependent hepatic transcriptional responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) exposed to sublethal doses of gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Song, You; Salbu, Brit; Teien, Hans-Christian; Heier, Lene Sørlie; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav; Tollefsen, Knut Erik

    2014-11-01

    repair, mitochondrial dysfunction and immune functions. Twelve genes representative of key pathways found in this study were verified by qPCR. Potential common MoAs of low-dose gamma radiation may include induction of oxidative stress, DNA damage and disturbance of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Although common MoAs were proposed, a number of DEGs and pathways were still found to be dose-specific, potentially indicating multiple mechanisms of action (MOAs) of low-dose gamma radiation in fish. In addition, plasma glucose displayed an apparent increase with increasing radiation doses, although the results were not significantly different from the control. These findings suggested that sublethal doses of gamma radiation may cause dose-dependent transcriptional changes in the liver of Atlantic salmon after short-term exposure. The current study predicted multiple MoA for gamma radiation and may aid future impact assessment of environmental radioactivity in fish.

  10. Radiation dose to the lens and cataract formation

    SciTech Connect

    Henk, J.M.; Whitelocke, R.A.F.; Warrington, A.P.; Bessell, E.M. )

    1993-04-02

    The purpose of this work was to determine the radiation tolerance of the lens of the eye and the incidence of radiation-induced lens changes in patients treated by fractionated supervoltage radiation therapy for orbital tumors. Forty patients treated for orbital lymphoma and pseudotumor with tumor doses of 20--40 Gy were studied. The lens was partly shielded using lead cylinders in most cases. The dose to the germinative zone of the lens was estimated by measurements in a tissue equivalent phantom using both film densitometry and thermoluminescent dosimetry. Opthalmological examination was performed at 6 monthly intervals after treatment. The lead shield was found to reduce the dose to the germinative zone of the lens to between 36--50% of the tumor dose for Cobalt beam therapy, and to between 11--18% for 5 MeV x-rays. Consequently, the lens doses were in the range 4.5--30 Gy in 10--20 fractions. Lens opacities first appeared from between 3 and 9 years after irradiation. Impairment of visual acuity ensued in 74% of the patients who developed lens opacities. The incidence of lens changes was strongly dose-related. None was seen after doses of 5 Gy or lower, whereas doses of 16.5 Gy or higher were all followed by lens opacities which impaired visual acuity. The largest number of patients received a maximum lens dose of 15 Gy; in this group the actuarial incidence of lens opacities at 8 years was 57% with visual impairment in 38%. The adult lens can tolerate a total dose of 5 Gy during a fractionated course of supervoltage radiation therapy without showing any changes. Doses of 16.5 Gy or higher will almost invariably lead to visual impairment. The dose which causes a 50% probability of visual impairment is approximately 15 Gy. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Some cosmic radiation dose measurements aboard flights connecting Zagreb Airport.

    PubMed

    Vuković, B; Radolić, V; Lisjak, I; Vekić, B; Poje, M; Planinić, J

    2008-02-01

    When primary particles from space, mainly protons, enter the atmosphere, they produce interactions with air nuclei, and cosmic-ray showers are induced. The radiation field at aircraft altitude is complex, with different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. The non-neutron component of cosmic radiation dose aboard A320 and ATR40 aircraft was measured with TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) detectors and the Mini 6100 semiconductor dosimeter; the neutron dose was measured with the neutron dosimeter consisted of LR-115 track detector and boron foil BN-1 or 10B converter. The estimated occupational effective dose for the aircraft crew (A320) working 500 h per year was 1.64 mSv. Another experiment was performed at the flights Zagreb-Paris-Buenos Aires and reversely, when one measured non-neutron cosmic radiation dose; for 26.7 h of flight, the MINI 6100 dosimeter gave an average dose rate of 2.3 microSv/h and the TLD dosimeter registered the dose equivalent of 75 microSv or the average dose rate of 2.7 microSv/h; the neutron dosimeter gave the dose rate of 2.4 microSv/h. In the same month, February 2005, a traveling to Japan (24-h-flight: Zagreb-Frankfurt-Tokyo and reversely) and the TLD-100 measurement showed the average dose rate of 2.4microSv/h; the neutron dosimeter gave the dose rate of 2.5 microSv/h. Comparing dose rates of the non-neutron component (low LET) and the neutron one (high LET) of the radiation field at the aircraft flight level, we could conclude that the neutron component carried about 50% of the total dose, that was near other known data.

  12. Cancer Risk Assessment for Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, Robert C.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    is predominantly used for assessing cancer risk caused by space radiation, and that is the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Fact #2: The atomic-bomb-survivor database, itself a remarkable achievement, contains uncertainties. These include the actual exposure to each individual, the radiation quality of that exposure, and the fact that the exposure was to acute doses of predominantly low-LET radiation, not to chronic exposures of high-LET radiation expected on long-duration interplanetary manned missions.

  13. Cancer Risk Assessment for Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, Robert C.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    is predominantly used for assessing cancer risk caused by space radiation, and that is the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Fact #2: The atomic-bomb-survivor database, itself a remarkable achievement, contains uncertainties. These include the actual exposure to each individual, the radiation quality of that exposure, and the fact that the exposure was to acute doses of predominantly low-LET radiation, not to chronic exposures of high-LET radiation expected on long-duration interplanetary manned missions.

  14. Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956)- An Assessment of Quantities released, Off-Site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Apostoaei, A.I.; Burns, R.E.; Hoffman, F.O.; Ijaz, T.; Lewis, C.J.; Nair, S.K.; Widner, T.E.

    1999-07-01

    In the early 1990s, concern about the Oak Ridge Reservation's past releases of contaminants to the environment prompted Tennessee's public health officials to pursue an in-depth study of potential off-site health effects at Oak Ridge. This study, the Oak Ridge dose reconstruction, was supported by an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Tennessee, and was overseen by a 12-member panel appointed by Tennessee's Commissioner of Health. One of the major contaminants studied in the dose reconstruction was radioactive iodine, which was released to the air by X-10 (now called Oak Ridge National Laboratory) as it processed spent nuclear reactor fuel from 1944 through 1956. The process recovered radioactive lanthanum for use in weapons development. Iodine concentrates in the thyroid gland so health concerns include various diseases of the thyroid, such as thyroid cancer. The large report, ''Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956) - An Assessment of Quantities Released, Off-site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer,'' is in two volumes. Volume 1 is the main body of the report, and Volume 1A, which has the same title, consists of 22 supporting appendices. Together, these reports serve the following purposes: (1) describe the methodologies used to estimate the amount of iodine-131 (I-131) released; (2) evaluate I-131's pathway from air to vegetation to food to humans; (3) estimate doses received by human thyroids; (4) estimate excess risk of acquiring a thyroid cancer during ones lifetime; and (5) provide equations, examples of historical documents used, and tables of calculated values. Results indicate that females born in 1952 who consumed milk from a goat pastured a few miles east of X-10 received the highest doses from I-131 and would have had the highest risks of contracting thyroid cancer. Doses from cow's milk are considerably less . Detailed

  15. Scatter factors assessment in microbeam radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Prezado, Y.; Martinez-Rovira, I.; Sanchez, M.

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: The success of the preclinical studies in Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) paved the way to the clinical trials under preparation at the Biomedical Beamline of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Within this framework, an accurate determination of the deposited dose is crucial. With that aim, the scatter factors, which translate the absolute dose measured in reference conditions (2 x 2 cm{sup 2} field size at 2 cm-depth in water) to peak doses, were assessed. Methods: Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were performed with two different widely used codes, PENELOPE and GEANT4, for the sake of safety. The scatter factors were obtained as the ratio of the doses that are deposited by a microbeam and by a field of reference size, at the reference depth. The calculated values were compared with the experimental data obtained by radiochromic (ISP HD-810) films and a PTW 34070 large area chamber. Results: The scatter factors for different microbeam field sizes assessed by the two MC codes were in agreement and reproduced the experimental data within uncertainty bars. Those correction factors were shown to be non-negligible for the future MRT clinical settings: an average 30% lower dose was deposited by a 50 {mu}m microbeam with respect to the reference conditions. Conclusions: For the first time, the scatter factors in MRT were systematically studied. They constitute an essential key to deposit accurate doses in the forthcoming clinical trials in MRT. The good agreement between the different calculations and the experimental data confirms the reliability of this challenging micrometric dose estimation.

  16. Radiation Dose from Lunar Neutron Albedo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. H., Jr.; Bhattacharya, M.; Lin, Zi-Wei; Pendleton, G.

    2006-01-01

    The lunar neutron albedo from thermal energies to 8 MeV was measured on the Lunar Prospector Mission in 1998-1999. Using GEANT4 we have calculated the neutron albedo due to cosmic ray bombardment of the moon and found a good-agreement with the measured fast neutron spectra. We then calculated the total effective dose from neutron albedo of all energies, and made comparisons with the effective dose contributions from both galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events to be expected on the lunar surface.

  17. Evaluation of radiation dose to anthropomorphic paediatric models from positron-emitting labelled tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Tianwu; Zaidi, Habib

    2014-03-01

    PET uses specific molecules labelled with positron-emitting radionuclides to provide valuable biochemical and physiological information. However, the administration of radiotracers to patients exposes them to low-dose ionizing radiation, which is a concern in the paediatric population since children are at a higher cancer risk from radiation exposure than adults. Therefore, radiation dosimety calculations for commonly used positron-emitting radiotracers in the paediatric population are highly desired. We evaluate the absorbed dose and effective dose for 19 positron-emitting labelled radiotracers in anthropomorphic paediatric models including the newborn, 1-, 5-, 10- and 15-year-old male and female. This is achieved using pre-calculated S-values of positron-emitting radionuclides of UF-NCI paediatric phantoms and published biokinetic data for various radiotracers. The influence of the type of anthropomorphic model, tissue weight factors and direct human- versus mouse-derived biokinetic data on the effective dose for paediatric phantoms was also evaluated. In the case of 18F-FDG, dosimetry calculations of reference paediatric patients from various dose regimens were also calculated. Among the considered radiotracers, 18F-FBPA and 15O-water resulted in the highest and lowest effective dose in the paediatric phantoms, respectively. The ICRP 103 updated tissue-weighting factors decrease the effective dose in most cases. Substantial differences of radiation dose were observed between direct human- versus mouse-derived biokinetic data. Moreover, the effect of using voxel- versus MIRD-type models on the calculation of the effective dose was also studied. The generated database of absorbed organ dose and effective dose for various positron-emitting labelled radiotracers using new generation computational models and the new ICRP tissue-weighting factors can be used for the assessment of radiation risks to paediatric patients in clinical practice. This work also contributes

  18. Radiation doses in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Haegg, N.C.

    1989-01-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl led to releases of large amounts of radioactive matter that was spread over the world and particularly over Europe. The radioactive material released gave rise to radiation doses originating from inhalation, external radiation from both the passing cloud and radioactive material deposited on the ground, and internal irradiation from consumption of food stuffs. This paper summarizes the consequences in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident. The emphasis is mainly on radiation doses received by the public and the long-term effects in Sweden.

  19. Reconstruction of external dose from beta radiation sources of nuclear weapon origin.

    PubMed

    Barss, Neil M; Weitz, Ronald L

    2006-10-01

    In response to requests from the Department of Veterans Affairs, a methodology was developed to assess the external dose accrued by personnel in the vicinity of beta radiation sources of nuclear weapon origin. This methodology has been applied in support of the Nuclear Test Personnel Review (NTPR) Program implemented by the Department of Defense. As required by the Code of Federal Regulations (Title 32, Part 218 and Title 38, Part 3.311), the NTPR Program must evaluate radiological hazards from nuclear testing activities that include alpha particle, beta particle, neutron, and photon emissions from radionuclides. Prior to the development of this methodology, only photon and neutron radiations were explicitly quantified for external dose assessments in this program. Alpha radiation of external origin presents no risk for biological effects due to external dose potential to skin tissue because of the particle's very limited range. However, beta particles are sufficiently penetrating to have such potential. Methods are provided to quantify ionizing radiation doses to the skin and lens of the eye from beta radiation sources of nuclear weapon origin located external to the body. This formulation allows the estimation of beta dose from a film badge (gamma) dose or from an equivalent reconstructed gamma dose.

  20. Assessment of patient dose in medical processes by in-vivo dose measuring devices: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuncel, Nina

    2016-11-01

    In-vivo dosimetry (IVD) in medicine especially in radiation therapy is a well-established and recommended procedure for the estimation of the dose delivered to a patient during the radiation treatment. It became even more important with the emerging use of new and more complex radiotherapy techniques such as intensity-modulated or image-guided radiation therapy. While IVD has been used in brachytherapy for decades and the initial motivation for performing was mainly to assess doses to organs at risk by direct measurements, it is now possible to calculate 3D for detection of deviations or errors. In-vivo dosimeters can be divided into real-time and passive detectors that need some finite time following irradiation for their analysis. They require a calibration against a calibrated ionization chamber in a known radiation field. Most of these detectors have a response that is energy and/or dose rate dependent and consequently require adjustments of the response to account for changes in the actual radiation conditions compared to the calibration situation. Correction factors are therefore necessary to take. Today, the most common dosimeters for patients' dose verification through in-vivo measurements are semiconductor diodes, thermo-luminescent dosimeters, optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters, metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors and plastic scintillator detectors with small outer diameters.

  1. Effect of real-time radiation dose feedback on pediatric interventional radiology staff radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Racadio, John; Nachabe, Rami; Carelsen, Bart; Racadio, Judy; Hilvert, Nicole; Johnson, Neil; Kukreja, Kamlesh; Patel, Manish

    2014-01-01

    To measure and compare individual staff radiation dose levels during interventional radiologic (IR) procedures with and without real-time feedback to evaluate whether it has any impact on staff radiation dose. A prospective trial was performed in which individuals filling five different staff roles wore radiation dosimeters during all IR procedures during two phases: a 12-week "closed" phase (measurements recorded but display was off, so no feedback was provided) and a 17-week "open" phase (display was on and provided real-time feedback). Radiation dose rates were recorded and compared by Mann-Whitney U test. There was no significant difference in median procedure time, fluoroscopy time, or patient dose (dose-area product normalized to fluoroscopy time) between the two phases. Overall, the median staff dose was lower in the open phase (0.56 µSv/min of fluoroscopy time) than in the closed phase (3.01 µSv/min; P < .05). The IR attending physician dose decreased significantly for procedures for which the physicians were close to the patient, but not for ones for which they were far away. A radiation dose monitoring system that provides real-time feedback to the interventional staff can significantly reduce radiation exposure to the primary operator, most likely by increasing staff compliance with use of radiation protection equipment and dose reduction techniques. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Radiation Dose-Volume Effects in the Heart

    SciTech Connect

    Gagliardi, Giovanna; Constine, Louis S.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Correa, Candace; Pierce, Lori J.; Allen, Aaron M.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2010-03-01

    The literature is reviewed to identify the main clinical and dose-volume predictors for acute and late radiation-induced heart disease. A clear quantitative dose and/or volume dependence for most cardiac toxicity has not yet been shown, primarily because of the scarcity of the data. Several clinical factors, such as age, comorbidities and doxorubicin use, appear to increase the risk of injury. The existing dose-volume data is presented, as well as suggestions for future investigations to better define radiation-induced cardiac injury.

  3. Total-dose radiation hardness assurance for space electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Winokur, P.S.; Fleetwood, D.M. )

    1991-01-05

    An improved standard total-dose test method is described to qualify electronics for a low-dose-rate radiation environment typical of space systems. The method consists of {sup 60}Co irradiation at a dose rate of 1--3 Gy(Si)/s (100--300 rad(Si)/s) and a subsequent 373 K (100 {degree}C) bake. New initatives in radiation hardness assurance are also briefly discussed, including the Qualified Manufactures List (QML) test methodology and the possible use of 1/f noise measurements as a nondestructive screen for oxide-trap charge related failure.

  4. A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR MANAGING RADIATION DOSE TO PATIENTS IN DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY USING REFERENCE DOSE LEVELS.

    PubMed

    Almén, Anja; Båth, Magnus

    2016-06-01

    The overall aim of the present work was to develop a conceptual framework for managing radiation dose in diagnostic radiology with the intention to support optimisation. An optimisation process was first derived. The framework for managing radiation dose, based on the derived optimisation process, was then outlined. The outset of the optimisation process is four stages: providing equipment, establishing methodology, performing examinations and ensuring quality. The optimisation process comprises a series of activities and actions at these stages. The current system of diagnostic reference levels is an activity in the last stage, ensuring quality. The system becomes a reactive activity only to a certain extent engaging the core activity in the radiology department, performing examinations. Three reference dose levels-possible, expected and established-were assigned to the three stages in the optimisation process, excluding ensuring quality. A reasonably achievable dose range is also derived, indicating an acceptable deviation from the established dose level. A reasonable radiation dose for a single patient is within this range. The suggested framework for managing radiation dose should be regarded as one part of the optimisation process. The optimisation process constitutes a variety of complementary activities, where managing radiation dose is only one part. This emphasises the need to take a holistic approach integrating the optimisation process in different clinical activities.

  5. Increased occupational radiation doses: nuclear fuel cycle.

    PubMed

    Bouville, André; Kryuchkov, Victor

    2014-02-01

    The increased occupational doses resulting from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident that occurred in Ukraine in April 1986, the reactor accident of Fukushima that took place in Japan in March 2011, and the early operations of the Mayak Production Association in Russia in the 1940s and 1950s are presented and discussed. For comparison purposes, the occupational doses due to the other two major reactor accidents (Windscale in the United Kingdom in 1957 and Three Mile Island in the United States in 1979) and to the main plutonium-producing facility in the United States (Hanford Works) are also covered but in less detail. Both for the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident and the routine operations at Mayak, the considerable efforts made to reconstruct individual doses from external irradiation to a large number of workers revealed that the recorded doses had been overestimated by a factor of about two.Introduction of Increased Occupational Exposures: Nuclear Industry Workers. (Video 1:32, http://links.lww.com/HP/A21).

  6. Occupational radiation doses among diagnostic radiation workers in South Korea, 1996-2006.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Jin; Cha, Eun Shil; Ha, Mina; Jin, Young-Woo; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Kong, Kyoung Ae; Lee, Seung Won; Lee, Hyun Koo; Lee, Kwang-Yong; Kim, Hyeog Ju

    2009-08-01

    This study details the distribution and trends of doses of occupational radiation among diagnostic radiation workers by using the national dose registry between 1996 and 2006 by the Korea Food and Drug Administration. Dose measurements were collected quarterly by the use of thermoluminescent dosimeter personal monitors. A total of 61 732 workers were monitored, including 18 376 radiologic technologists (30 %), 13 762 physicians (22 %), 9858 dentists (16 %) and 6114 dental hygienists (9.9 %). The average annual effective doses of all monitored workers decreased from 1.75 to 0.80 mSv over the study period. Among all diagnostic radiation workers, radiologic technologists received both the highest effective and collective doses. Male radiologic technologists aged 30-49 y composed the majority of workers receiving more than 5 mSv in a quarter. More intensive monitoring of occupational radiation exposure and investigation into its health effects on diagnostic radiation workers are required in South Korea.

  7. Advanced Multifunctional MMOD Shield: Radiation Shielding Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rojdev, Kristina; Christiansen, Eric

    2011-01-01

    As NASA is looking to explore further into deep space, multifunctional materials are a necessity for decreasing complexity and mass. One area where multifunctional materials could be extremely beneficial is in the micrometeoroid orbital debris (MMOD) shield. A typical MMOD shield on the International Space Station (ISS) is a stuffed whipple shield consisting of multiple layers. One of those layers is the thermal blanket, or multi-layer insulation (MLI). By increasing the MMOD effectiveness of MLI blankets, while still preserving their thermal capabilities, could allow for a less massive MMOD shield. Thus, a study was conducted to evaluate concept MLI blankets for MMOD shields. In conjunction, these MLI blankets and the subsequent MMOD shields were also evaluated for their radiation shielding effectiveness towards protecting crew. These concepts were evaluated against the ISS MLI blankets and the ISS MMOD shield, which acted as the baseline. These radiation shielding assessments were performed using the high charge and energy transport software (HZETRN). This software is based on a one-dimensional formula of the Boltzmann transport equation with a straight-ahead approximation. Each configuration was evaluated against the following environments to provide a diverse view of radiation shielding effectiveness in most space environments within the heliosphere: August 1972 solar particle event, October 1989 solar particle event, 1982 galactic cosmic ray environment (during solar maximum), 1987 galactic cosmic ray environment (during solar minimum), and a low earth orbit environment in 1970 that corresponded to an altitude of 400 km and inclination of 51.6 . Both the absorbed dose and the dose equivalent were analyzed, but the focus of the discussion was on the dose equivalent since the data is most concerned with radiation shielding of the crew. The following paper outlines the evaluations performed and discusses the results and conclusions of this evaluation for

  8. Low dose radiation-induced endothelial cell retraction.

    PubMed

    Kantak, S S; Diglio, C A; Onoda, J M

    1993-09-01

    We characterized in vitro the effects of gamma-radiation (12.5-100 cGy) on pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell (PMEC) morphology and F-actin organization. Cellular retraction was documented by phase-contrast microscopy and the organization of actin microfilaments was determined by immunofluorescence. Characterization included radiation dose effects, their temporal duration and reversibility of the effects. A dose-dependent relationship between the level of exposure (12.5-100 cGy) and the rate and extent of endothelial retraction was observed. Moreover, analysis of radiation-induced depolymerization of F-actin microfilament stress fibres correlated positively with the changes in PMEC morphology. The depolymerization of the stress fibre bundles was dependent on radiation dose and time. Cells recovered from exposure to reform contact inhibited monolayers > or = 24 h post-irradiation. Concomitantly, the depolymerized microfilaments reorganized to their preirradiated state as microfilament stress fibres arrayed parallel to the boundaries of adjacent contact-inhibited cells. The data presented here are representative of a series of studies designed to characterize low-dose radiation effects on pulmonary microvascular endothelium. Our data suggest that post-irradiation lung injuries (e.g. oedema) may be induced with only a single fraction of therapeutic radiation, and thus microscopic oedema may initiate prior to the lethal effects of radiation on the microvascular endothelium, and much earlier than would be suggested by the time course for clinically-detectable oedema.

  9. Time-dependent radiation dose simulations during interplanetary space flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobynde, Mikhail; Shprits, Yuri; Drozdov, Alexander; Hoffman, Jeffrey; Li, Ju

    2016-07-01

    Space radiation is one of the main concerns in planning long-term interplanetary human space missions. There are two main types of hazardous radiation - Solar Energetic Particles (SEP) and Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR). Their intensities and evolution depend on the solar activity. GCR activity is most enhanced during solar minimum, while the most intense SEPs usually occur during the solar maximum. SEPs are better shielded with thick shields, while GCR dose is less behind think shields. Time and thickness dependences of the intensity of these two components encourage looking for a time window of flight, when radiation intensity and dose of SEP and GCR would be minimized. In this study we combine state-of-the-art space environment models with GEANT4 simulations to determine the optimal shielding, geometry of the spacecraft, and launch time with respect to the phase of the solar cycle. The radiation environment was described by the time-dependent GCR model, and the SEP spectra that were measured during the period from 1990 to 2010. We included gamma rays, electrons, neutrons and 27 fully ionized elements from hydrogen to nickel. We calculated the astronaut's radiation doses during interplanetary flights using the Monte-Carlo code that accounts for the primary and the secondary radiation. We also performed sensitivity simulations for the assumed spacecraft size and thickness to find an optimal shielding. In conclusion, we present the dependences of the radiation dose as a function of launch date from 1990 to 2010, for flight durations of up to 3 years.

  10. Investigation of radiation doses in open space using TLD detectors.

    PubMed

    Reitz, G; Facius, R; Bilski, P; Olko, P

    2002-01-01

    The low energy component of the cosmic radiation field is strongly modified by the shielding of the spacecraft and it is time and location dependent. Thermoluminescent lithium fluoride detectors have been applied to determine the radiation doses inside the ESA-Facility BIOPAN. The BIOPAN facility was mounted outside and launched on a Foton spacecraft and opened to space to allow exposure of several experiments to open space. Standard TLD-600. TLD-700 chips, two layers MTS-Ns sintered pellets with different effective thickness of the sensitive layer and MTS-N of different thickness have been exposed with different shielding thicknesses in front of them. The measured TL signal in the 0.1 mm thick detector just shielded by an aluminised Kapton foil of 25 microm thickness in front yielded a dose of 29.8 Gy (calibrated with 137Cs gamma rays) for an exposure time of 12.7 days: after 2.5 g.cm(-2) shielding the doses dropped to 3 mGy. The monitoring of radiation doses and its depth dose distribution outside the spacecraft are of great interest for radiation protection of astronauts working in open space. The knowledge of depth-dose distribution is a prerequisite to determine the organ doses an astronaut will receive during an extravehicular activity (EVA). The BIOPAN experiments are to be continued in the future.

  11. Low-Dose Radiation Cataract and Genetic Determinants of Radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Kleiman, Norman Jay

    2013-11-30

    The lens of the eye is one of the most radiosensitive tissues in the body. Ocular ionizing radiation exposure results in characteristic, dose related, progressive lens changes leading to cataract formation. While initial, early stages of lens opacification may not cause visual disability, the severity of such changes progressively increases with dose until vision is impaired and cataract extraction surgery may be required. Because of the transparency of the eye, radiation induced lens changes can easily be followed non-invasively over time. Thus, the lens provides a unique model system in which to study the effects of low dose ionizing radiation exposure in a complex, highly organized tissue. Despite this observation, considerable uncertainties remain surrounding the relationship between dose and risk of developing radiation cataract. For example, a growing number of human epidemiological findings suggest significant risk among various groups of occupationally and accidentally exposed individuals and confidence intervals that include zero dose. Nevertheless, questions remain concerning the relationship between lens opacities, visual disability, clinical cataract, threshold dose and/or the role of genetics in determining radiosensitivity. Experimentally, the response of the rodent eye to radiation is quite similar to that in humans and thus animal studies are well suited to examine the relationship between radiation exposure, genetic determinants of radiosensitivity and cataractogenesis. The current work has expanded our knowledge of the low-dose effects of X-irradiation or high-LET heavy ion exposure on timing and progression of radiation cataract and has provided new information on the genetic, molecular, biochemical and cell biological features which contribute to this pathology. Furthermore, findings have indicated that single and/or multiple haploinsufficiency for various genes involved in DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint control, such as Atm, Brca1 or Rad9

  12. Radiation dose benchmarks during cardiac catheterization for congenital heart disease in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ghelani, Sunil J; Glatz, Andrew C; David, Sthuthi; Leahy, Ryan; Hirsch, Russel; Armsby, Laurie B; Trucco, Sara M; Holzer, Ralf J; Bergersen, Lisa

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to define age-stratified, procedure-specific benchmark radiation dose levels during interventional catheterization for congenital heart disease. There is a paucity of published literature with regard to radiation dose levels during catheterization for congenital heart disease. Obtaining benchmark radiation data is essential for assessing the impact of quality improvement initiatives for radiation safety. Data were obtained retrospectively from 7 laboratories participating in the Congenital Cardiac Catheterization Project on Outcomes collaborative. Total air kerma, dose area product, and total fluoroscopy time were obtained for the following procedures: 1) patent ductus arteriosus closure; 2) atrial septal defect closure; 3) pulmonary valvuloplasty; 4) aortic valvuloplasty; 5) treatment of coarctation of aorta; and 6) transcatheter pulmonary valve placement. Between January 2009 and July 2013, 2,713 cases were identified. Radiation dose benchmarks are presented including median, 75th percentile, and 95th percentile. Radiation doses varied widely between age groups and procedure types. Radiation exposure was lowest in patent ductus arteriosus closure and highest in transcatheter pulmonary valve placement. Total fluoroscopy time was a poor marker of radiation exposure and did not correlate well with total air kerma and dose area product. This study presents age-stratified radiation dose values for 6 common congenital heart interventional catheterization procedures. Fluoroscopy time alone is not an adequate measure for monitoring radiation exposure. These values will be used as baseline for measuring the effectiveness of future quality improvement activities by the Congenital Cardiac Catheterization Project on Outcomes collaborative. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ultra-Low-Dose CT of the Thorax Using Iterative Reconstruction: Evaluation of Image Quality and Radiation Dose Reduction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yookyung; Kim, Yoon Kyung; Lee, Bo Eun; Lee, Seok Jeong; Ryu, Yon Ju; Lee, Jin Hwa; Chang, Jung Hyun

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the image quality and radiation dose reduction of ultra-low-dose CT using sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE). This prospective study enrolled 25 patients who underwent three consecutive unenhanced CT scans including low-dose CT (120 kVp and 30 mAs) and two ultra-low-dose CT protocols (protocol A, 100 kVp and 20 mAs; protocol B, 80 kVp and 30 mAs) with image reconstruction using SAFIRE. The image quality and radiation dose reduction were assessed. The mean (± SD) effective radiation dose was 1.06 ± 0.11, 0.44 ± 0.05, and 0.31 ± 0.03 mSv for low-dose CT, ultra-low-dose CT protocol A, and ultra-low-dose CT protocol B, respectively. Overall image quality was determined as diagnostic in 100% of low-dose CT scans, 96% of ultra-low-dose CT protocol A scans, and 88% of ultra-low-dose CT protocol B scans. All patients with nondiagnostic quality images had a body mass index (weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) greater than 25. There was no statistically significant difference in detection frequencies of 14 lesion types among the three CT protocols, but pulmonary emphysema was detected in fewer patients (3/25) in ultra-low-dose CT protocol B scans compared with ultra-low-dose CT protocol A scans (5/25) or low-dose CT scans (6/25). We measured the longest dimensions of 33 small solid nodules (3.8-12.4 mm in long diameter) and found no statistically significant difference in the values afforded by the three CT protocols (p = 0.135). Iterative reconstruction allows ultra-low-dose CT and affords acceptable image quality, allowing size measurements of solid pulmonary nodules to be made.

  14. Gamma-irradiated onions as a biological indicator of radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Vaijapurkar, S G; Agarwal, D; Chaudhuri, S K; Senwar, K R; Bhatnagar, P K

    2001-10-01

    Post-irradiation identification and dose estimation are required to assess the radiation-induced effects on living things in any nuclear emergency. In this study, radiation-induced morphological/cytological changes i.e., number of root formation and its length, shooting length, reduction in mitotic index, micronuclei formation and chromosomal aberrations in the root tip cells of gamma-irradiated onions at lower doses (50-2000 cGy) are reported. The capabilities of this biological species to store the radiation-induced information are also studied.

  15. Radiation dose affected by mammographic composition and breast size: first application of a radiation dose management system for full-field digital mammography in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Baek, Ji Eun; Kang, Bong Joo; Kim, Sung Hun; Lee, Hyun Sil

    2017-02-02

    Relative to Western women, Korean women show several differences in breast-related characteristics, including higher rates of dense breasts and small breasts. We investigated how mammographic composition and breast size affect the glandular dose during full-field digital mammography (FFDM) in Korean women using a radiation dose management system. From June 1 to June 30, 2015, 2120 FFDM images from 560 patients were acquired and mammographic breast composition and breast size were assessed. We analyzed the correlations of patient age, peak kilovoltage (kVp), current (mAs), compressed breast thickness, compression force, mammographic breast composition, and mammographic breast size with the mean glandular dose (MGD) of the breast using a radiation dose management system. The causes of increased radiation were investigated, among patients with radiation doses above the diagnostic reference level (4th quartile, ≥75%). The MGD per view of 2120 images was 1.81 ± 0.70 mGy. In multivariate linear regression analysis, age was negatively associated with MGD (p < 0.05). The mAs, kVp, compressed breast thickness, and mammographic breast size were positively associated with MGD (p < 0.05). The "dense" group had a significantly higher MGD than the "non-dense" group (p < 0.05). Patients with radiation dose values above the diagnostic reference value had large breasts of dense composition. Among Korean women, patients with large and dense breasts should be more carefully managed to ensure that a constant radiation dose is maintained.

  16. Peripheral Doses from Noncoplanar IMRT for Pediatric Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kan, Monica W.K.; Leung, Lucullus H.T.; Kwong, Dora L.W.; Wong, Wicger; Lam, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    The use of noncoplanar intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) might result in better sparing of some critical organs because of a higher degree of freedom in beam angle optimization. However, this can lead to a potential increase in peripheral dose compared with coplanar IMRT. The peripheral dose from noncoplanar IMRT has not been previously quantified. This study examines the peripheral dose from noncoplanar IMRT compared with coplanar IMRT for pediatric radiation therapy. Five cases with different pediatric malignancies in head and neck were planned with both coplanar and noncoplanar IMRT techniques. The plans were performed such that the tumor coverage, conformality, and dose uniformity were comparable for both techniques. To measure the peripheral doses of the 2 techniques, thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) were placed in 10 different organs of a 5-year-old pediatric anthropomorphic phantom. With the use of noncoplanar beams, the peripheral doses to the spinal cord, bone marrow, lung, and breast were found to be 1.8-2.5 times of those using the coplanar technique. This is mainly because of the additional internal scatter dose from the noncoplanar beams. Although the use of noncoplanar technique can result in better sparing of certain organs such as the optic nerves, lens, or inner ears depending on how the beam angles were optimized on each patient, oncologists should be alert of the possibility of significantly increasing the peripheral doses to certain radiation-sensitive organs such as bone marrow and breast. This might increase the secondary cancer risk to patients at young age.

  17. Radiation dose to the walls of hollow organs

    SciTech Connect

    Stabin, M.G.; Stubbs, J.B.

    1994-05-01

    The radiation doses to the walls of hollow organs, from activity in their contents, have traditionally been estimated as the sum of the photon dose to the wall and the maximum electron/beta dose. The photon dose is usually estimated by Monte Carlo methods, and the nonpenetrating dose estimated as the surface dose, equal to one half of the average dose to the volume. Some clinical experience, such as lack of radiotoxicity in patients estimated to have received more than 10 Gy to the walls of organs in the GI tract, led us to investigate the appropriateness of this approach. While the photon dose is thought to be fairly uniform throughout the walls of hollow organs, the electron and beta doses drop off rapidly from a maximum at the surface of the organ`s contents to zero at distances dependent on emission energy. The degree to which the activity is separated from the target cells in the wall, the uniformity of activity distribution within the contents, and the location of the cells at risk for tissue injury and carcinogenesis are some of the issues which determine the appropriate dose(s) to report. For example, in the stomach, the wall thickness varies from 0.6-1.3 cm. The epithelial surface mucus cells are 20-40 micrometers in height, and are located beneath a mucus layer which varies typically between about 0.18 and 0.6 mm in thickness This layer is thus thick enough to attenuate almost all of the electron energy emitted from Tc-99m and I-123 and 26-50% of the beta energy of Y-90. The maximum dose to the surface mucus cells, or a volume averaged dose to these and other cells, may be a better predictor of radiation effects than the maximum dose at the surface of the contents.

  18. Radiation dose detection by imaging response in biological targets.

    PubMed

    Jakob, B; Durante, M

    2012-04-01

    Imaging was one of the earliest techniques to quantify radiation dose. While films and active fluorescent detectors are still commonly used in physical dosimetry, biological imaging is emerging as a new method to visualize and quantify radiation dose in biological targets. Methods for biological imaging are normally based on molecular fluorescent probes, labeling chromatin-conjugated molecules or specific repair proteins. Examples are chromatin-binding coumarin compounds, which become fluorescent under irradiation, or the H2AX histone, which is rapidly phosphorylated at sites of DNA double-strand breaks and can be visualized by immunostaining. Many other DNA repair proteins can be expressed with fluorescent targets, such as green fluorescent protein, thus becoming visible for dose estimation in vivo. The possibility to visualize radiation damage in living biological targets is particularly important for repair kinetic studies, for estimating individual radiation response, and for remote control of living samples exposed to radiation, for instance in robotic space missions. In vivo dose monitoring in particle therapy exploits the production of positron emitters by nuclear interaction of the incident beam in the patient's body. Positron emission tomography (PET) can then be used to visualize and quantify the particle dose in the patient, and it can in principle also be used for radiotherapy with high-energy X rays. Alternatively, prompt γ rays or scattered secondary particles are under study for in vivo dosimetry of ion beams in therapy.

  19. [Use of ionizing radiation sources in metallurgy: risk assessment].

    PubMed

    Giugni, U

    2012-01-01

    Use of ionizing radiation sources in the metallurgical industry: risk assessment. Radioactive sources and fixed or mobile X-ray equipment are used for both process and quality control. The use of ionizing radiation sources requires careful risk assessment. The text lists the characteristics of the sources and the legal requirements, and contains a description of the documentation required and the methods used for risk assessment. It describes how to estimate the doses to operators and the relevant classification criteria used for the purpose of radiation protection. Training programs must be organized in close collaboration between the radiation protection expert and the occupational physician.

  20. Radiation dose reduction in the invasive cardiovascular laboratory: implementing a culture and philosophy of radiation safety.

    PubMed

    Fetterly, Kenneth A; Mathew, Verghese; Lennon, Ryan; Bell, Malcolm R; Holmes, David R; Rihal, Charanjit S

    2012-08-01

    This paper investigates the effects of sustained practice and x-ray system technical changes on the radiation dose administered to adult patients during invasive cardiovascular procedures. It is desirable to reduce radiation dose associated with medical imaging to minimize the risk of adverse radiation effects to both patients and staff. Several clinical practice and technical changes to elevate radiation awareness and reduce patient radiation dose were implemented under the guidance of a cardiovascular invasive labs radiation safety committee. Practice changes included: intraprocedure radiation dose announcements; reporting of procedures for which the air-kerma exceeded 6,000 mGy, including procedure air-kerma in the clinical report; and establishing compulsory radiation safety training for fellows. Technical changes included establishing standard x-ray imaging protocols, increased use of x-ray beam spectral filters, reducing the detector target dose for fluoroscopy and acquisition imaging, and reducing the fluoroscopy frame rate to 7.5 s(-1). Patient- and procedure-specific cumulative skin dose was calculated from air-kerma values and evaluated retrospectively over a period of 3 years. Data were categorized to include all procedures, percutaneous coronary interventions, coronary angiography, noncardiac vascular angiography and interventions, and interventions to treat structural heart disease. Statistical analysis was based on a comparison of the cumulative skin dose for procedures performed during the first and last quarters of the 3-year study period. A total of 18,115 procedures were performed by 27 staff cardiologists and 65 fellows-in-training. Considering all procedures, the mean cumulative skin dose decreased from 969 to 568 mGy (40% reduction) over 3 years. This work demonstrates that a philosophy of radiation safety, implemented through a collection of sustained practice and x-ray system changes, can result in a significant decrease in the radiation dose

  1. Measurement of radiation dose in cerebral CT perfusion study.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Masaaki; Sugawara, Yoshifumi; Fukutomi, Yukimi; Oomoto, Kenji; Murase, Kenya; Miki, Hitoshi; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2005-03-01

    To evaluate radiation dose in cerebral perfusion studies with a multi-detector row CT (MDCT) scanner on various voltage and current settings by using a human head phantom. Following the CT perfusion study protocol, continuous cine scans (1 sec/rotation x60 sec) consisting of four 5-mm-thick contiguous slices were performed three times at variable tube voltages of 80 kV, 100 kV, 120 kV, and 140 kV with the same tube current setting of 200 mA and on variable current settings of 50 mA, 100 mA, 150 mA, and 200 mA with the same tube voltage of 80 kV. Radiation doses were measured using a total of 41 theroluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) placed in the human head phantom. Thirty-six TLDs were inside and three were on the surface of the slice of the X-ray beam center, and two were placed on the surface 3 cm caudal assuming the lens position. Average radiation doses of surface, inside, and lens increased in proportion to the increases of tube voltage and tube current. The lowest inside dose was 87.6+/-15.3 mGy, and the lowest surface dose was 162.5+/-6.7 mGy at settings of 80 kV and 50 mA. The highest inside dose was 1,591.5+/-179.7 mGy, and the highest surface dose was 2,264.6+/-123.7 mGy at 140 kV-200 mA. At 80 kV-50 mA, the average radiation dose of lens was the lowest at 5.5+/-0.0 mGy. At 140 kV-200 mA the radiation dose of lens was the highest at 127.2+/-0.6 mGy. In cerebral CT perfusion study, radiation dose can vary considerably. Awareness of the patient's radiation dose is recommended.

  2. Photon: the minimum dose of electromagnetic radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suntola, Tuomo

    2005-08-01

    A radio engineer can hardly think about smaller amount of electromagnetic radiation than given by a single oscillation cycle of a unit charge in a dipole. When solved from Maxwell's equations for a dipole of one wavelength, the energy of the emitted radiation cycle obtains the form Eλ = 2/3 hf, where the Planck constant h can be expressed in terms of the unit charge, e, the vacuum permeability, μ0, the velocity of light, c, and a numerical factor as h = 1.1049*2π3e2μ0c=6.62607*10-34 [kgm2/s]. A point emitter like an atom can be regarded as a dipole in the fourth dimension. The length of such dipole is measured in the direction of the line element cdt, which in one oscillation cycle means the length of one wavelength. For a dipole in the fourth dimension, three space directions are in the normal plane which eliminates the factor 2/3 from the energy expression thus leading to Planck's equation Eλ = hf for the radiation emitted by a single electron transition in an atom. The expression of the Planck constant obtained from Maxwell's equations leads to a purely numerical expression of the fine structure constant α=1/(1.1049*4π3) = 1/137 and shows that the Planck constant is directly proportional to the velocity of light. When applied to Balmer's formula, the linkage of the Planck constant to the velocity of light shows, that the frequency of an atomic oscillator is directly proportional to the velocity of light. This implies that the velocity of light is observed as constant in local measurements. Such an interpretation makes it possible to convert relativistic spacetime with variable time coordinates into space with variable clock frequencies in universal time, and thus include relativistic phenomena in the framework of quantum mechanics.

  3. Radiation Dose Testing on Juno High Voltage Cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Nelson W.; Kirkham, Harold; Kim, Wousik; McAlpine, Bill

    2008-01-01

    The Juno mission to Jupiter will have a highly elliptical orbit taking the spacecraft through the radiation belts surrounding the planet. During these passes through the radiation belts, the spacecraft will be subject to high doses of radiation from energetic electrons and protons with energies ranging from 10 keV to 1 GeV. While shielding within the spacecraft main body will reduce the total absorbed dose to much of the spacecraft electronics, instruments and cables on the outside of the spacecraft will receive much higher levels of absorbed dose. In order to estimate the amount of degradation to two such cables, testing has been performed on two coaxial cables intended to provide high voltages to three of the instruments on Juno. Both cables were placed in a vacuum of 5x10-6 torr and cooled to -50 C prior to exposure to the radiation sources. Measurements of the coaxial capacitance per unit length and partial discharge noise floor indicate that increasing levels of radiation make measurable but acceptably small changes to the F EP Teflon utilized in the construction of these cables. In addition to the radiation dose testing, observations were made on the internal electrostatic charging characteristics of these cables and multiple discharges were recorded.

  4. Radiation Dose Testing on Juno High Voltage Cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Nelson W.; Kirkham, Harold; Kim, Wousik; McAlpine, Bill

    2008-01-01

    The Juno mission to Jupiter will have a highly elliptical orbit taking the spacecraft through the radiation belts surrounding the planet. During these passes through the radiation belts, the spacecraft will be subject to high doses of radiation from energetic electrons and protons with energies ranging from 10 keV to 1 GeV. While shielding within the spacecraft main body will reduce the total absorbed dose to much of the spacecraft electronics, instruments and cables on the outside of the spacecraft will receive much higher levels of absorbed dose. In order to estimate the amount of degradation to two such cables, testing has been performed on two coaxial cables intended to provide high voltages to three of the instruments on Juno. Both cables were placed in a vacuum of 5x10(exp -6) torr and cooled to -50(deg)C prior to exposure to the radiation sources. Measurements of the coaxial capacitance per unit length and partial discharge noise floor indicate that increasing levels of radiation make measurable but acceptably small changes to the F EP Teflon utilized in the construction of these cables. In addition to the radiation dose testing, observations were made on the internal electrostatic charging characteristics of these cables and multiple discharges were recorded.

  5. Estimation of effective dose and radiation risk in pediatric barium studies procedures.

    PubMed

    Sulieman, A; Elhag, B; Alkhorayef, M; Babikir, E; Theodorou, K; Kappas, C; Bradley, D

    2017-07-21

    The objectives of this study are to assess pediatric radiation exposure in certain barium studies and to quantify the organ and effective doses and radiation risk resultant from patients' irradiation. A total of 69 pediatric barium studies for upper and lower gastrointestinal tract. Patients' radiation dose was quantified in terms of Entrance surface air kerma (ESAKs) using exposure parameters and DosCal software. Organ and effective doses (E) were extrapolated using national Radiological Protection Board software (NRPB-R279). The mean ± (SD) and the range of patient doses per procedure were 3.7 ± 0.4 (1.0-13.0)mGy, 7.4 ± 1.7(5.5-8.0)mGy and 1.4 ± 0.9 (0.5-3.6)mGy for barium meal, swallow and enema, respectively. The mean effective doses were 0.3 ± 0.03 (0.08-1.1)mSv, 0.2 ± 1.6 (0.44-0.7)mSv and 0.3 ± 0.9 (0.1-0.8)mSv at the same order. The radiation dose were higher compared to previous studies. Therefore, pediatrics are exposed to avoidable radiation exposure. Certain optimization measures are recommended along with establishing national diagnostic reference level (DRL) to reduce the radiation risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dose Assessments to the Hands of Radiopharmaceutical Workers

    SciTech Connect

    Ilas, Dan; Eckerman, Keith F; Sherbini, Sami; Karagiannis, Harriet

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the characterization of radiation doses to the hands of nuclear medicine technicians resulting from the handling of radiopharmaceuticals. Radiation monitoring using ring dosimeters indicates that finger dosimeters may overestimate or underestimate the radiation doses to the skin that are used to show compliance with applicable regulations depending on the nature of the particular procedure and the radioisotope being handled. To better understand the parameters governing the absorbed dose distributions, a detailed model of the hands was created and used in Monte Carlo simulations of selected nuclear medicine procedures. Simulations on realistic configurations typical for workers handling radiopharmaceuticals were performed for a range of energies of the source photons. The lack of charged-particle equilibrium necessitated full photon-electron coupled transport calculations. The results show that the dose to different regions of the fingers can differ substantially from the dosimeters' readings when the dosimeters are located at the base of the finger. We tried to identify consistent patterns that relate the actual dose to the dosimeter readings. These patterns depend on the specific work conditions and can be used to better assess the absorbed dose to different regions of the exposed skin.

  7. Analysis of Radiation Impact on White Mice through Radiation Dose Mapping in Medical Physics Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutikno, Madnasri; Susilo; Arya Wijayanti, Riza

    2016-08-01

    A study about X-ray radiation impact on the white mice through radiation dose mapping in Medical Physic Laboratory is already done. The purpose of this research is to determine the minimum distance of radiologist to X-ray instrument through treatment on the white mice. The radiation exposure doses are measured on the some points in the distance from radiation source between 30 cm up to 80 with interval of 30 cm. The impact of radiation exposure on the white mice and the effects of radiation measurement in different directions are investigated. It is founded that minimum distance of radiation worker to radiation source is 180 cm and X-ray has decreased leukocyte number and haemoglobin and has increased thrombocyte number in the blood of white mice.

  8. Mesorad dose assessment model. Volume 1. Technical basis

    SciTech Connect

    Scherpelz, R.I.; Bander, T.J.; Athey, G.F.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1986-03-01

    MESORAD is a dose assessment model for emergency response applications. Using release data for as many as 50 radionuclides, the model calculates: (1) external doses resulting from exposure to radiation emitted by radionuclides contained in elevated or deposited material; (2) internal dose commitment resulting from inhalation; and (3) total whole-body doses. External doses from airborne material are calculated using semi-infinite and finite cloud approximations. At each stage in model execution, the appropriate approximation is selected after considering the cloud dimensions. Atmospheric processes are represented in MESORAD by a combination of Lagrangian puff and Gaussian plume dispersion models, a source depletion (deposition velocity) dry deposition model, and a wet deposition model using washout coefficients based on precipitation rates.

  9. Upper-Bound Radiation Dose Assessment for Military Personnel at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, between 1962 and 1979, Revision 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-29

    roentgen (R)] 2.579 760 × 10–4 coulomb per kilogram ( C kg–1) absorbed dose ( rad ) 1 × 10–2 joule per kilogram (J kg–1§) equivalent and effective dose...Team For: Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs and Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Safety DTRA-TR-12-003 (R1) TE C H N...Paul K. Blake, PhD a. REPORT U b. ABSTRACT U c . THIS PAGE U 19b. TELEPONE NUMBER (Include area code

  10. Equivalent dose and effective dose from stray radiation during passively scattered proton radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontenot, Jonas; Taddei, Phillip; Zheng, Yuanshui; Mirkovic, Dragan; Jordan, Thomas; Newhauser, Wayne

    2008-03-01

    Proton therapy reduces the integral therapeutic dose required for local control in prostate patients compared to intensity-modulated radiotherapy. One proposed benefit of this reduction is an associated decrease in the incidence of radiogenic secondary cancers. However, patients are also exposed to stray radiation during the course of treatment. The purpose of this study was to quantify the stray radiation dose received by patients during proton therapy for prostate cancer. Using a Monte Carlo model of a proton therapy nozzle and a computerized anthropomorphic phantom, we determined that the effective dose from stray radiation per therapeutic dose (E/D) for a typical prostate patient was approximately 5.5 mSv Gy-1. Sensitivity analysis revealed that E/D varied by ±30% over the interval of treatment parameter values used for proton therapy of the prostate. Equivalent doses per therapeutic dose (HT/D) in specific organs at risk were found to decrease with distance from the isocenter, with a maximum of 12 mSv Gy-1 in the organ closest to the treatment volume (bladder) and 1.9 mSv Gy-1 in the furthest (esophagus). Neutrons created in the nozzle predominated effective dose, though neutrons created in the patient contributed substantially to the equivalent dose in organs near the proton field. Photons contributed less than 15% to equivalent doses.

  11. Metaphase chromosome aberrations as markers of radiation exposure and dose

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, A.L.; Khan, M.A.; Jostes, R.F.; Cross, F.T.

    1992-10-01

    Chromosome aberration frequency provides the most reliable biological marker of dose for detecting acute accidental radiation exposure. Significant radiation-induced changes in the frequency of chromosome aberrations can be detected at very low doses. Our paper provides information on using molecular chromosome probes paints'' to score chromosome damage and illustrates how technical advances make it possible to understand mechanisms involved during formation of chromosome aberrations. In animal studies chromosome aberrations provide a method to relate cellular damage to cellular dose. Using an In vivo/In vitro approach aberrations provided a biological marker of dose from radon progeny exposure which was used to convert WLM to dose in rat tracheal epithelial cells. Injection of Chinese hamsters with [sup 144]Ce which produced a low dose rate exposure of bone marrow to either low-LET radiation increased the sensitivity of the cells to subsequent external exposure to [sup 60]Co. These studies demonstrated the usefulness of chromosome damage as a biological marker of dose and cellular responsiveness.

  12. Metaphase chromosome aberrations as markers of radiation exposure and dose

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, A.L.; Khan, M.A.; Jostes, R.F.; Cross, F.T.

    1992-10-01

    Chromosome aberration frequency provides the most reliable biological marker of dose for detecting acute accidental radiation exposure. Significant radiation-induced changes in the frequency of chromosome aberrations can be detected at very low doses. Our paper provides information on using molecular chromosome probes ``paints`` to score chromosome damage and illustrates how technical advances make it possible to understand mechanisms involved during formation of chromosome aberrations. In animal studies chromosome aberrations provide a method to relate cellular damage to cellular dose. Using an In vivo/In vitro approach aberrations provided a biological marker of dose from radon progeny exposure which was used to convert WLM to dose in rat tracheal epithelial cells. Injection of Chinese hamsters with {sup 144}Ce which produced a low dose rate exposure of bone marrow to either low-LET radiation increased the sensitivity of the cells to subsequent external exposure to {sup 60}Co. These studies demonstrated the usefulness of chromosome damage as a biological marker of dose and cellular responsiveness.

  13. Methods for estimating radiation doses received by commercial aircrew.

    PubMed

    Lantos, Pierre; Fuller, Nicolas; Bottollier-Depois, Jean-François

    2003-07-01

    Radiation doses received onboard aircraft are monitored in Europe to protect aircrew in accordance with a European Union directive. The French Aviation Authorities have developed a system called SIEVERT, using calculation codes to monitor effective radiation doses. For the galactic cosmic ray component, a 3-D world map of effective dose rates is computed using available operational codes. Detailed flight plans are used to ensure sufficient precision. For the solar particle event component, a semi-empirical model called SiGLE has been developed to calculate a time-dependent map of effective dose rates in the course of the event. SiGLE is based on particle transport code results and measurements during solar particle events onboard Concorde airplanes. We present a comparison of the calculated effective radiation dose and measured dose equivalent for various flights onboard Air France aircraft. The agreement is within 15%, which is about the precision of the state-of-the-art dosimetric measurements. Meteorological effects on the dose calculation appear to be negligible. Preliminary results based on solar particle events observed since 1942 with ionization chambers and neutron monitors are given. The present analysis shows that for the galactic cosmic ray component, monthly world maps based on neutron monitor observations are sufficient to ensure a precision of about 20% on the dose estimate for each flight. For the past 40 yr, according to the model SiGLE, none of the solar events has given an effective radiation dose larger than 1 mSv for flights on the most exposed routes.

  14. The effect of dose heterogeneity on radiation risk in medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Samei, Ehsan; Li, Xiang; Chen, Baiyu; Reiman, Robert

    2013-06-01

    The current estimations of risk associated with medical imaging procedures rely on assessing the organ dose via direct measurements or simulation. The dose to each organ is assumed to be homogeneous. To take into account the differences in radiation sensitivities, the mean organ doses are weighted by a corresponding tissue-weighting coefficients provided by ICRP to calculate the effective dose, which has been used as a surrogate of radiation risk. However, those coefficients were derived under the assumption of a homogeneous dose distribution within each organ. That assumption is significantly violated in most medical-imaging procedures. In helical chest CT, for example, superficial organs (e.g. breasts) demonstrate a heterogeneous dose distribution, whereas organs on the peripheries of the irradiation field (e.g. liver) might possess a discontinuous dose profile. Projection radiography and mammography involve an even higher level of organ dose heterogeneity spanning up to two orders of magnitude. As such, mean dose or point measured dose values do not reflect the maximum energy deposited per unit volume of the organ. In this paper, the magnitude of the dose heterogeneity in both CT and projection X-ray imaging was reported, using Monte Carlo methods. The lung dose demonstrated factors of 1.7 and 2.2 difference between the mean and maximum dose for chest CT and radiography, respectively. The corresponding values for the liver were 1.9 and 3.5. For mammography and breast tomosynthesis, the difference between mean glandular dose and maximum glandular dose was 3.1. Risk models based on the mean dose were found to provide a reasonable reflection of cancer risk. However, for leukaemia, they were found to significantly under-represent the risk when the organ dose distribution is heterogeneous. A systematic study is needed to develop a risk model for heterogeneous dose distributions.

  15. External dose assessment in the Ukraine following the Chernobyl accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, Remi Jordan Lesartre

    While the physiological effects of radiation exposure have been well characterized in general, it remains unclear what the relationship is between large-scale radiological events and psychosocial behavior outcomes in individuals or populations. To investigate this, the National Science Foundation funded a research project in 2008 at the University of Colorado in collaboration with Colorado State University to expand the knowledge of complex interactions between radiation exposure, perception of risk, and psychosocial behavior outcomes by modeling outcomes for a representative sample of the population of the Ukraine which had been exposed to radiocontaminant materials released by the reactor accident at Chernobyl on 26 April 1986. In service of this project, a methodology (based substantially on previously published models specific to the Chernobyl disaster and the Ukrainian population) was developed for daily cumulative effective external dose and dose rate assessment for individuals in the Ukraine for as a result of the Chernobyl disaster. A software platform was designed and produced to estimate effective external dose and dose rate for individuals based on their age, occupation, and location of residence on each day between 26 April 1986 and 31 December 2009. A methodology was developed to transform published 137Cs soil deposition contour maps from the Comprehensive Atlas of Caesium Deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl Accident into a geospatial database to access these data as a radiological source term. Cumulative effective external dose and dose rate were computed for each individual in a 703-member cohort of Ukrainians randomly selected to be representative of the population of the country as a whole. Error was estimated for the resulting individual dose and dose rate values with Monte Carlo simulations. Distributions of input parameters for the dose assessment methodology were compared to computed dose and dose rate estimates to determine which

  16. [Mechanism of cytogenetic adaptive response induced by low dose radiation].

    PubMed

    Cai, L; Liu, S

    1990-11-01

    Cytogenetic observation on human lymphocytes indicated that pre-exposure of 10, 50 and 75 mGy X-rays could induced the adaptive response. Experimental results with different temperature treatment showed that the adaptive response induced by low dose radiation could be enhanced by 41 degrees C and 43 degrees C, but inhibited by 4 degrees C in addition the treatment by 41 degrees C for one hour could also cause the adaptive response as did low dose radiation. Results showed that adaptive response induced by low dose radiation (10 or 50 mGy X-rays) could be eliminated by the protein synthesis inhibitor, implying that the adaptive response is related with the metabolism of cells, especially with the production of certain protective proteins.

  17. Radiation dose to personnel during percutaneous renal calculus removal

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, W.H.; Jones, D.; Brannen, G.E.

    1985-12-01

    Radiation dose to the radiologist and other personnel was measured during 102 procedures for percutaneous removal of renal calculi from the upper collecting system. A mobile C-arm image intensifier was used to guide entrance to the kidney and stone removal. Average fluoroscopy time was 25 min. Exposure to personnel was monitored by quartz-fiber dosimeters at the collar level above the lead apron. Average radiation dose to the radiologist was 10 mrem (0.10 mSv) per case; to the surgical nurse, 4 mrem (0.04 mSv) per case; to the radiologic technologist, 4 mrem (0.04 mSv) per case; and to the anesthesiologist, 3 mrem (0.03 mSv) per case. Radiation dose to the uroradiologic team during percutaneous nephrostolithotomy is similar to that from other interventional fluoroscopic procedures and is within acceptable limits for both physicians and assisting personnel.

  18. A molecular fraction method for measuring personnel radiation doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadel, M. A.; Khalil, W. A.; Krodja, R. P.; Sheta, N.; Abd El-Baset, M. S.

    1987-02-01

    This work represents a development in fast and albedo neutron and gamma ray dosimetry, using cellulose nitrate, as a tissue equivalent material, in which radiation damage was registered. The changes in molecular fractions of the polymer were measured after irradiation with neutron fluences from a 252Cf source in the range 10 5-10 10 n/cm 2 and gamma doses in the range 10 -4-10 -1 Gy through the use of gel filtration chromatography. Effects of irradiation on phantom, phantom to dosimeter distance, phantom thickness and storage at extreme environmental conditions were studied on the detector response and readout. The results showed that main chain scission followed by formation of new molecular configurations is the predominant effect of radiation on the polymer. The method enables measurements of neutron fluences and gamma doses in mixed radiation fields. Empirical formulae for calculating the absorbed dose from the measured changes in molecular fraction intensities are given.

  19. Radiation dose and radiation protection principle awareness: a survey among Nigerian paediatricians.

    PubMed

    Famurewa, O C; Obiajunwa, P O; Elusiyan, J B; Ibitoye, B O

    2014-03-01

    This study is aimed at determining the knowledge of Paediatricians in Nigeria about the basic principle of radiation protection ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) and their knowledge of the radiation doses that children receive during some common radiological procedures. Two hundred and fifty questionnaires were circulated among paediatricians at the 2012 annual Paediatricians' Association of Nigeria Conference. The questionnaires contain 10 questions designed to asses the pediatricians' general knowledge on : ionising radiation and the risks, doses children receive during some common radiological procedures and awareness of the radiation protection principle, ALARA ( As Low As Reasonably Achievable). Of the 162 Paediatricians that participated, 69% named at least one non medical source of ionising radiation, 54.9% would not recommend CXR to screen an apparently healthy child for tuberculosis and 87% believe that children are at greater risk of adverse effects of ionising radiation. For dose estimation, 51.9% and 51.2% of the paediatricians underestimated doses received during Cranial and abdominal computerised tomography respectively while 13.6% and 37% respectively erroneously believed that abdominal ultrasound and brain magnetic resonance imaging utilise ionising radiation. 13.6% gave the correct meaning of the Acronym ALARA. The Paediatricians' knowledge about the basic principle of radiation protection ALARA and the doses that children receive during some common radiological procedures is poor. There is need to ensure adequate training on radiation hazards and protection at all levels of medical education.

  20. Is There a Dose-Response Relationship for Heart Disease With Low-Dose Radiation Therapy?

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Corbett, James R.; Moran, Jean M.; Griffith, Kent A.; Marsh, Robin B.; Feng, Mary; Jagsi, Reshma; Kessler, Marc L.; Ficaro, Edward C.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To quantify cardiac radiation therapy (RT) exposure using sensitive measures of cardiac dysfunction; and to correlate dysfunction with heart doses, in the setting of adjuvant RT for left-sided breast cancer. Methods and Materials: On a randomized trial, 32 women with node-positive left-sided breast cancer underwent pre-RT stress single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT-CT) myocardial perfusion scans. Patients received RT to the breast/chest wall and regional lymph nodes to doses of 50 to 52.2 Gy. Repeat SPECT-CT scans were performed 1 year after RT. Perfusion defects (PD), summed stress defects scores (SSS), and ejection fractions (EF) were evaluated. Doses to the heart and coronary arteries were quantified. Results: The mean difference in pre- and post-RT PD was −0.38% ± 3.20% (P=.68), with no clinically significant defects. To assess for subclinical effects, PD were also examined using a 1.5-SD below the normal mean threshold, with a mean difference of 2.53% ± 12.57% (P=.38). The mean differences in SSS and EF before and after RT were 0.78% ± 2.50% (P=.08) and 1.75% ± 7.29% (P=.39), respectively. The average heart Dmean and D95 were 2.82 Gy (range, 1.11-6.06 Gy) and 0.90 Gy (range, 0.13-2.17 Gy), respectively. The average Dmean and D95 to the left anterior descending artery were 7.22 Gy (range, 2.58-18.05 Gy) and 3.22 Gy (range, 1.23-6.86 Gy), respectively. No correlations were found between cardiac doses and changes in PD, SSS, and EF. Conclusions: Using sensitive measures of cardiac function, no clinically significant defects were found after RT, with the average heart Dmean <5 Gy. Although a dose response may exist for measures of cardiac dysfunction at higher doses, no correlation was found in the present study for low doses delivered to cardiac structures and perfusion, SSS, or EF.

  1. What can be learned from epidemiologic studies of persons exposed to low doses of radiation?

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1993-04-01

    The main objective of radiation risk assessment is to determine the risk of various adverse health effects associated with exposure to low doses and low dose rates. Extrapolation of risks from studies of persons exposed at high doses (generally exceeding 1 Sv) and dose rates has been the primary approach used to achieve this objective. The study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has played an especially important role in risk assessment efforts. A direct assessment of the dose-response function based on studies of persons exposed at low doses and dose rates is obviously desirable. This paper focuses on the potential of both current and future nuclear workers studies for investigating the dose-response functions at low doses, and also discusses analyses making use of the low dose portion of the atomic bomb survivor data. Difficulties in using these data are the statistical imprecision of estimated dose-response parameters, and potential bias resulting from confounding factors and from uncertainties in dose estimates.

  2. Study of UV radiation dose received by the Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Gurrea, Gonzalo; Cañada, Javier

    2007-01-01

    Excess exposure to UV radiation can affect our health by causing sunburn, skin cancer, etc. It is therefore useful to determine the UV dosage received by people as a way of protecting them from the possible negative effects that this kind of radiation can cause. In this work, the personal outdoor percentage, which shows the time spent in outdoor activities, as well as personal UV doses, has been calculated by means of global UV radiation on a horizontal plane. A database of average daily UVB radiation on the horizontal plane given by the National Institute of Meteorology has been used. In this work we evaluate the standard erythema dose of the Spanish population throughout the year.

  3. Radiation Dose and Safety in Cardiac Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Thomas C; Kantor, Birgit; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis As a result of the changes in utilization of imaging procedures that rely on ionizing radiation, the collective dose has increased by over 700% and the annual per-capita dose, by almost 600% over recent years. It is certainly possible that this growing use may have significant effects on public health. Although there are uncertainties related to the accuracy of calculated radiation exposure and the estimated biologic risk, there are measures that can be taken to reduce any potential risks while maintaining diagnostic accuracy. This article will review the existing data regarding biological hazards of radiation exposure associated to medical diagnostic testing, the methodology used to estimate radiation exposure and the measures that can be taken to effectively reduce it. PMID:19766923

  4. Radiation Dose to the Skin and to the Gonads from Diagnostic X-Ray Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, H. E.; Olde, G. L.

    1963-01-01

    The design of a study to assess the hazard to patients from radiation received during diagnostic radiological procedures is described. The long-term accumulation of data relating to the skin and gonadal doses received by patients in a large x-ray department has been initiated. This will serve as a model for any situation involving small recurrent radiation doses to a significant proportion of the population. A description is given of the basic dose measurements made and the method used in calculating and recording the skin and gonadal doses for each patient. Although no definite conclusions concerning the presence or absence of a radiation hazard have yet been made, the proposed future course of this study is discussed. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:14079142

  5. Radiation dose in 320-slice multidetector cardiac CT: a single center experience of evolving dose minimization.

    PubMed

    Tung, Matthew K; Cameron, James D; Casan, Joshua M; Crossett, Marcus; Troupis, John M; Meredith, Ian T; Seneviratne, Sujith K

    2013-01-01

    Minimization of radiation exposure remains an important subject that occurs in parallel with advances in scanner technology. We report our experience of evolving radiation dose and its determinants after the introduction of 320-multidetector row cardiac CT within a single tertiary cardiology referral service. Four cohorts of consecutive patients (total 525 scans), who underwent cardiac CT at defined time points as early as 2008, are described. These include a cohort just after scanner installation, after 2 upgrades of the operating system, and after introduction of an adaptive iterative image reconstruction algorithm. The proportions of nondiagnostic coronary artery segments and studies with nondiagnostic segments were compared between cohorts. Significant reductions were observed in median radiation doses in all cohorts compared with the initial cohort (P < .001). Median dose-length product fell from 944 mGy · cm (interquartile range [IQR], 567.3-1426.5 mGy · cm) to 156 mGy · cm (IQR, 99.2-265.0 mGy · cm). Although the proportion of prospectively triggered scans has increased, reductions in radiation dose have occurred independently of distribution of scan formats. In multiple regression that combined all groups, determinants of dose-length product were tube output, the number of cardiac cycles scanned, tube voltage, scan length, scan format, body mass index, phase width, and heart rate (adjusted R(2) = 0.85, P < .001). The proportion of nondiagnostic coronary artery segments was slightly increased in group 4 (2.9%; P < .01). While maintaining diagnostic quality in 320-multidetector row cardiac CT, the radiation dose has decreased substantially because of a combination of dose-reduction protocols and technical improvements. Continued minimization of radiation dose will increase the potential for cardiac CT to expand as a cardiac imaging modality. Copyright © 2013 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessments for High Dose Radionuclide Therapy Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Darrell R.

    2003-10-01

    Advances in the biotechnology of cell-specific targeting of cancer, and the increased number of clinical trials involving treatment of cancer patients with radiolabeled antibodies, peptides, and similar delivery vehicles have led to an increase in the number of high-dose radionuclide therapy procedures. Optimized radionuclide therapy for cancer treatment is based on the concept of absorbed dose to the dose-limiting normal organ or tissue. The limiting normal tissue is often the red marrow, but it may sometimes be lungs, liver, intestinal tract, or kidneys. Appropriate treatment planning requires assessment of radiation dose to several internal organs and tissues, and usually involves biodistribution studies in the patient using a tracer amount of radionuclide bound to the targeting agent and imaged at sequential time points using a planar gamma camera. Time-activity curves are developed from the imaging data for the major organs tissues of concern, for the whole body, and sometimes for selected tumors. Patient-specific factors often require that dose estimates be customized for each patient. The Food and Drug Administration regulates the experimental use of investigational new drugs and requires reasonable calculation of radiation absorbed dose to the whole body and to critical organs using methods prescribed by the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine. Review of high-dose studies in the U.S. and elsewhere shows that 1) some studies are conducted with minimal dosimetry, 2) the marrow dose is difficult to establish and is subject to large uncertainties, and 3) despite the general availability of MIRD software, internal dosimetry methods are often inconsistent from one clinical center to another.

  7. Radiation Dose from Medical Imaging: A Primer for Emergency Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jesse G.A; Mills, Christopher N.; Mogensen, Monique A.; Lee, Christoph I.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Medical imaging now accounts for most of the US population's exposure to ionizing radiation. A substantial proportion of this medical imaging is ordered in the emergency setting. We aim to provide a general overview of radiation dose from medical imaging with a focus on computed tomography, as well as a literature review of recent efforts to decrease unnecessary radiation exposure to patients in the emergency department setting. Methods We conducted a literature review through calendar year 2010 for all published articles pertaining to the emergency department and radiation exposure. Results The benefits of imaging usually outweigh the risks of eventual radiation-induced cancer in most clinical scenarios encountered by emergency physicians. However, our literature review identified 3 specific clinical situations in the general adult population in which the lifetime risks of cancer may outweigh the benefits to the patient: rule out pulmonary embolism, flank pain, and recurrent abdominal pain in inflammatory bowel disease. For these specific clinical scenarios, a physician-patient discussion about such risks and benefits may be warranted. Conclusion Emergency physicians, now at the front line of patients' exposure to ionizing radiation, should have a general understanding of the magnitude of radiation dose from advanced medical imaging procedures and their associated risks. Future areas of research should include the development of protocols and guidelines that limit unnecessary patient radiation exposure. PMID:22900113

  8. Radiation dose from medical imaging: a primer for emergency physicians.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jesse G A; Mills, Christopher N; Mogensen, Monique A; Lee, Christoph I

    2012-05-01

    Medical imaging now accounts for most of the US population's exposure to ionizing radiation. A substantial proportion of this medical imaging is ordered in the emergency setting. We aim to provide a general overview of radiation dose from medical imaging with a focus on computed tomography, as well as a literature review of recent efforts to decrease unnecessary radiation exposure to patients in the emergency department setting. We conducted a literature review through calendar year 2010 for all published articles pertaining to the emergency department and radiation exposure. The benefits of imaging usually outweigh the risks of eventual radiation-induced cancer in most clinical scenarios encountered by emergency physicians. However, our literature review identified 3 specific clinical situations in the general adult population in which the lifetime risks of cancer may outweigh the benefits to the patient: rule out pulmonary embolism, flank pain, and recurrent abdominal pain in inflammatory bowel disease. For these specific clinical scenarios, a physician-patient discussion about such risks and benefits may be warranted. Emergency physicians, now at the front line of patients' exposure to ionizing radiation, should have a general understanding of the magnitude of radiation dose from advanced medical imaging procedures and their associated risks. Future areas of research should include the development of protocols and guidelines that limit unnecessary patient radiation exposure.

  9. Radiation dose study in nuclear medicine using GATE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguwa, Kasarachi

    Dose as a result of radiation exposure is the notion generally used to disclose the imparted energy in a volume of tissue to a potential biological effect. The basic unit defined by the international system of units (SI system) is the radiation absorbed dose, which is expressed as the mean imparted energy in a mass element of the tissue known as "gray" (Gy) or J/kg. The procedure for ascertaining the absorbed dose is complicated since it involves the radiation transport of numerous types of charged particles and coupled photon interactions. The most precise method is to perform a full 3D Monte Carlo simulation of the radiation transport. There are various Monte Carlo toolkits that have tool compartments for dose calculations and measurements. The dose studies in this thesis were performed using the GEANT4 Application for Emission Tomography (GATE) software (Jan et al., 2011) GATE simulation toolkit has been used extensively in the medical imaging community, due to the fact that it uses the full capabilities of GEANT4. It also utilizes an easy to-learn GATE macro language, which is more accessible than learning the GEANT4/C++ programming language. This work combines GATE with digital phantoms generated using the NCAT (NURBS-based cardiac-torso phantom) toolkit (Segars et al., 2004) to allow efficient and effective estimation of 3D radiation dose maps. The GATE simulation tool has developed into a beneficial tool for Monte Carlo simulations involving both radiotherapy and imaging experiments. This work will present an overview of absorbed dose of common radionuclides used in nuclear medicine and serve as a guide to a user who is setting up a GATE simulation for a PET and SPECT study.

  10. An updated dose assessment for Rongelap Island

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Bogen, K.T.

    1994-07-01

    We have updated the radiological dose assessment for Rongelap Island at Rongelap Atoll using data generated from field trips to the atoll during 1986 through 1993. The data base used for this dose assessment is ten fold greater than that available for the 1982 assessment. Details of each data base are presented along with details about the methods used to calculate the dose from each exposure pathway. The doses are calculated for a resettlement date of January 1, 1995. The maximum annual effective dose is 0.26 mSv y{sup {minus}1} (26 mrem y{sup {minus}1}). The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 0.0059 Sv (0.59 rem), 0.0082 Sv (0.82 rem), and 0.0097 Sv (0.97 rem), respectively. More than 95% of these estimated doses are due to 137-Cesium ({sup 137}Cs). About 1.5% of the estimated dose is contributed by 90-Strontium ({sup 90}Sr), and about the same amount each by 239+240-Plutonium ({sup 239+240}PU), and 241-Americium ({sup 241}Am).

  11. Accumulated Delivered Dose Response of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Liver Metastases.

    PubMed

    Swaminath, Anand; Massey, Christine; Brierley, James D; Dinniwell, Rob; Wong, Rebecca; Kim, John J; Velec, Michael; Brock, Kristy K; Dawson, Laura A

    2015-11-01

    To determine whether the accumulated dose using image guided radiation therapy is a stronger predictor of clinical outcomes than the planned dose in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for liver metastases. From 2003 to 2009, 81 patients with 142 metastases were treated in institutional review board-approved SBRT studies (5-10 fractions). Patients were treated during free breathing (with or without abdominal compression) or with controlled exhale breath-holding. SBRT was planned on a static exhale computed tomography (CT) scan, and the minimum planning target volume dose to 0.5 cm(3) (minPTV) was recorded. The accumulated minimum dose to the 0.5 cm(3) gross tumor volume (accGTV) was calculated after performing dose accumulation from exported image guided radiation therapy data sets registered to the planning CT using rigid (2-dimensional MV/kV orthogonal) or deformable (3-dimensional/4-dimensional cone beam CT) image registration. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression models assessed the factors influencing the time to local progression (TTLP). Hazard ratios for accGTV and minPTV were compared using model goodness-of-fit and bootstrapping. Overall, the accGTV dose exceeded the minPTV dose in 98% of the lesions. For 5 to 6 fractions, accGTV doses of >45 Gy were associated with 1-year local control of 86%. On univariate analysis, the cancer subtype (breast), smaller tumor volume, and increased dose were significant predictors for improved TTLP. The dose and volume were uncorrelated; the accGTV dose and minPTV dose were correlated and were tested separately on multivariate models. Breast cancer subtype, accGTV dose (P<.001), and minPTV dose (P=.02) retained significance in the multivariate models. The univariate hazard ratio for TTLP for 5-Gy increases in accGTV versus minPTV was 0.67 versus 0.74 (all patients; 95% confidence interval of difference 0.03-0.14). Goodness-of-fit testing confirmed the accGTV dose as a stronger dose-response predictor than the

  12. Radiation dose required for the vulcanization of natural rubber latex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, M. E.; Dafader, N. C.; Akhtar, F.; Ahmad, M. U.

    1996-10-01

    The radiation dose required for the vulcanization of natural rubber latex was optimized. To enhance the crosslinking, several sensitizers were used. Among the sensitizers, n-butyl acrylate ( n-BA) alone was found to be the best one. The effects of concentration of n-Ba, mixing and standing time of latex with n-BA on the tensile properties of latex film were investigated. 12 kGy radiation dose, 5 phr n-BA and 30-40 min of mixing time were found to be the optimum conditions for irradiation.

  13. Justification of permissible doses of radiation during prolonged space flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grigoryev, Y. G.; Abel, K.; Varteres, V.; Nilolov, N.; Karpfel, Z.; Prislichka, M.

    1974-01-01

    Maximum permissible radiation doses for astronauts are reported based on chronic radiation experiments with dogs and actual measurements during space flights. Observed were clinical conditions, peripheral blood and marrow, the state of the cardiovascular system, higher nervous activity, the state of the vestibular analyzer, the organ of vision, spermatogenic function and the ability to reproduce, the state of immunity and a number of biological indices in blood and tissues. The following maximum permissible doses are determined as preliminary values: 1 year of flight - 200 rem; 2 years of flight - 250 rem; 3 years of flight - 275 rem.

  14. Dosimeter for measuring skin dose and more deeply penetrating radiation

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Donald E.; Parker, DeRay; Boren, Paul R.

    1981-01-01

    A personnel dosimeter includes a plurality of compartments containing thermoluminescent dosimeter phosphors for registering radiation dose absorbed in the wearer's sensitive skin layer and for registering more deeply penetrating radiation. Two of the phosphor compartments communicate with thin windows of different thicknesses to obtain a ratio of shallowly penetrating radiation, e.g. beta. A third phosphor is disposed within a compartment communicating with a window of substantially greater thickness than the windows of the first two compartments for estimating the more deeply penetrating radiation dose. By selecting certain phosphors that are insensitive to neutrons and by loading the holder material with netruon-absorbing elements, energetic neutron dose can be estimated separately from other radiation dose. This invention also involves a method of injection molding of dosimeter holders with thin windows of consistent thickness at the corresponding compartments of different holders. This is achieved through use of a die insert having the thin window of precision thickness in place prior to the injection molding step.

  15. Cell-oriented alternatives to dose, quality factor, and dose equivalent for low-level radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sondhaus, C.A.; Bond, V.P.; Feinendegen, L.E. )

    1990-07-01

    Randomly occurring energy deposition events produced by low levels of ionizing radiation interacting with tissue deliver variable amounts of energy to sensitive target volumes within a small fraction of the tissue cell population. A model is described in which an experimentally derived function relating event size to cell response probability operates mathematically on the microdosimetric event size distribution characterizing a given irradiation and thus determines the total fractional number of responding cells; this fraction measures the effectiveness of the given radiation. Applying this cell response or hit size effectiveness function (HSEF) to different radiations and normalizing to equal numbers of responses produced by each radiation should define its radiation quality, or relative effectiveness, on a more nearly absolute basis than do the absorbed dose and dose equivalent, both of which are confounded when applied to low-level irradiations. Similar cell response probability functions calculated from different experimental data are presented.

  16. Cell-oriented alternatives to dose, quality factor, and dose equivalent for low-level radiation.

    PubMed

    Sondhaus, C A; Bond, V P; Feinendegen, L E

    1990-07-01

    Randomly occurring energy deposition events produced by low levels of ionizing radiation interacting with tissue deliver variable amounts of energy to sensitive target volumes within a small fraction of the tissue cell population. A model is described in which an experimentally derived function relating event size to cell response probability operates mathematically on the microdosimetric event size distribution characterizing a given irradiation and thus determines the total fractional number of responding cells; this fraction measures the effectiveness of the given radiation. Applying this cell response or hit size effectiveness function (HSEF) to different radiations and normalizing to equal numbers of responses produced by each radiation should define its radiation quality, or relative effectiveness, on a more nearly absolute basis than do the absorbed dose and dose equivalent, both of which are confounded when applied to low-level irradiations. Similar cell response probability functions calculated from different experimental data are presented.

  17. Management of pediatric radiation dose using Agfa computed radiography.

    PubMed

    Schaetzing, R

    2004-10-01

    Radiation dose to patients and its management have become important considerations in modern radiographic imaging procedures, but they acquire particular significance in the imaging of children. Because of their longer life expectancy, children exposed to radiation are thought to have a significantly increased risk of radiation-related late sequelae compared to adults first exposed to radiation later in life. Therefore, current clinical thinking dictates that dose in pediatric radiography be minimized, while simultaneously ensuring sufficient diagnostic information in the image, and reducing the need for repeat exposures. Dose management obviously starts with characterization and control of the exposure technique. However, it extends farther through the imaging chain to the acquisition system, and even to the image processing techniques used to optimize acquired images for display. Further, other factors, such as quality control procedures and the ability to handle special pediatric procedures, like scoliosis exams, also come into play. The need for dose management in modern radiography systems has spawned a variety of different solutions, some of which are similar across different manufacturers, and some of which are unique. This paper covers the techniques used in Agfa Computed Radiography (CR) systems to manage dose in a pediatric environment.

  18. Impact of Drug Therapy, Radiation Dose, and Dose Rate on Renal Toxicity Following Bone Marrow Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jonathan C.; Schultheiss, Timothy E. Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate a radiation dose response and to determine the dosimetric and chemotherapeutic factors that influence the incidence of late renal toxicity following total body irradiation (TBI). Methods and Materials: A comprehensive retrospective review was performed of articles reporting late renal toxicity, along with renal dose, fractionation, dose rate, chemotherapy regimens, and potential nephrotoxic agents. In the final analysis, 12 articles (n = 1,108 patients), consisting of 24 distinct TBI/chemotherapy conditioning regimens were included. Regimens were divided into three subgroups: adults (age {>=}18 years), children (age <18 years), and mixed population (both adults and children). Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify dosimetric and chemotherapeutic factors significantly associated with late renal complications. Results: Individual analysis was performed on each population subgroup. For the purely adult population, the only significant variable was total dose. For the mixed population, the significant variables included total dose, dose rate, and the use of fludarabine. For the pediatric population, only the use of cyclosporin or teniposide was significant; no dose response was noted. A logistic model was generated with the exclusion of the pediatric population because of its lack of dose response. This model yielded the following significant variables: total dose, dose rate, and number of fractions. Conclusion: A dose response for renal damage after TBI was identified. Fractionation and low dose rates are factors to consider when delivering TBI to patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation. Drug therapy also has a major impact on kidney function and can modify the dose-response function.

  19. Alanine Dosimetry Accurately Determines Radiation Dose in Nonhuman Primates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    b) utility of CIP in managing postirradiation infection related to bacterial translocation from the alimentary canal, and (c) side effects of...sequelae seen after these ra- diation doses and prior to death (and at post mortem) is infection , generally of an endog- enous origin arising from...promised situations, can result in opportu- nistic infections . Radiation dose selection Taken together, these data support the use of 6.5 Gy cobalt-60

  20. DRY TRANSFER FACILITY WORKER DOSE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    J.S. Tang

    2004-09-23

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel working in the Dry Transfer Facility No.1 (DTF-1) performing operations to receive transportation casks, transfer wastes, prepare waste packages, and ship out loaded waste packages and empty casks. Doses received by workers due to maintenance operations are also included in this revision. The specific scope of work contained in this calculation covers both collective doses and individual worker group doses on an annual basis, and includes the contributions due to external and internal radiation from normal operation, excluding the remediation area of the building. The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the DTF-1 and to provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application. The calculations contained in this document were developed by Environmental and Nuclear Engineering of the Design and Engineering Organization and are intended solely for the use of the Design and Engineering Organization in its work regarding facility operation. Yucca Mountain Project personnel from the Environmental and Nuclear Engineering should be consulted before use of the calculations for purposes other than those stated herein or use by individuals other than authorized personnel in the Environmental and Nuclear Engineering.

  1. The Assessment of Effective Dose Equivalent Using Personnel Dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xie

    From January 1994, U.S. nuclear plants must develop a technically rigorous approach for determining the effective dose equivalent for their work forces. This dissertation explains concepts associated with effective dose equivalent and describes how to assess effective dose equivalent by using conventional personnel dosimetry measurements. A Monte Carlo computer code, MCNP, was used to calculate photon transport through a model of the human body. Published mathematical phantoms of the human adult male and female were used to simulate irradiation from a variety of external radiation sources in order to calculate organ and tissue doses, as well as effective dose equivalent using weighting factors from ICRP Publication 26. The radiation sources considered were broad parallel photon beams incident on the body from 91 different angles and isotropic point sources located at 234 different locations in contact with or near the body. Monoenergetic photons of 0.08, 0.3, and 1.0 MeV were considered for both sources. Personnel dosimeters were simulated on the surface of the body and exposed to with the same sources. From these data, the influence of dosimeter position on dosimeter response was investigated. Different algorithms for assessing effective dose equivalent from personnel dosimeter responses were proposed and evaluated. The results indicate that the current single-badge approach is satisfactory for most common exposure situations encountered in nuclear plants, but additional conversion factors may be used when more accurate results become desirable. For uncommon exposures involving source situated at the back of the body or source located overhead, the current approach of using multi-badges and assigning the highest dose is overly conservative and unnecessarily expensive. For these uncommon exposures, a new algorithm, based on two dosimeters, one on the front of the body and another one on the back of the body, has been shown to yield conservative assessment of

  2. Absorbed dose thresholds and absorbed dose rate limitations for studies of electron radiation effects on polyetherimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Edward R., Jr.; Long, Sheila Ann T.; Gray, Stephanie L.; Collins, William D.

    1989-01-01

    The threshold values of total absorbed dose for causing changes in tensile properties of a polyetherimide film and the limitations of the absorbed dose rate for accelerated-exposure evaluation of the effects of electron radiation in geosynchronous orbit were studied. Total absorbed doses from 1 kGy to 100 MGy and absorbed dose rates from 0.01 MGy/hr to 100 MGy/hr were investigated, where 1 Gy equals 100 rads. Total doses less than 2.5 MGy did not significantly change the tensile properties of the film whereas doses higher than 2.5 MGy significantly reduced elongation-to-failure. There was no measurable effect of the dose rate on the tensile properties for accelerated electron exposures.

  3. Radiation dose reduction efficiency of buildings after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station.

    PubMed

    Monzen, Satoru; Hosoda, Masahiro; Osanai, Minoru; Tokonami, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Numerous radionuclides were released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (F1-NPS) in Japan following the magnitude 9.0 earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011. Local residents have been eager to calculate their individual radiation exposure. Thus, absorbed dose rates in the indoor and outdoor air at evacuation sites in the Fukushima Prefecture were measured using a gamma-ray measuring devices, and individual radiation exposure was calculated by assessing the radiation dose reduction efficiency (defined as the ratio of absorbed dose rate in the indoor air to the absorbed dose rate in the outdoor air) of wood, aluminum, and reinforced concrete buildings. Between March 2011 and July 2011, dose reduction efficiencies of wood, aluminum, and reinforced concrete buildings were 0.55 ± 0.04, 0.15 ± 0.02, and 0.19 ± 0.04, respectively. The reduction efficiency of wood structures was 1.4 times higher than that reported by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The efficiency of reinforced concrete was similar to previously reported values, whereas that of aluminum structures has not been previously reported. Dose reduction efficiency increased in proportion to the distance from F1-NPS at 8 of the 18 evacuation sites. Time variations did not reflect dose reduction efficiencies at evacuation sites although absorbed dose rates in the outdoor air decreased. These data suggest that dose reduction efficiency depends on structure types, levels of contamination, and evacuee behaviors at evacuation sites.

  4. Radiation Dose Reduction Efficiency of Buildings after the Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

    PubMed Central

    Monzen, Satoru; Hosoda, Masahiro; Osanai, Minoru; Tokonami, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Numerous radionuclides were released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (F1-NPS) in Japan following the magnitude 9.0 earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011. Local residents have been eager to calculate their individual radiation exposure. Thus, absorbed dose rates in the indoor and outdoor air at evacuation sites in the Fukushima Prefecture were measured using a gamma-ray measuring devices, and individual radiation exposure was calculated by assessing the radiation dose reduction efficiency (defined as the ratio of absorbed dose rate in the indoor air to the absorbed dose rate in the outdoor air) of wood, aluminum, and reinforced concrete buildings. Between March 2011 and July 2011, dose reduction efficiencies of wood, aluminum, and reinforced concrete buildings were 0.55±0.04, 0.15±0.02, and 0.19±0.04, respectively. The reduction efficiency of wood structures was 1.4 times higher than that reported by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The efficiency of reinforced concrete was similar to previously reported values, whereas that of aluminum structures has not been previously reported. Dose reduction efficiency increased in proportion to the distance from F1-NPS at 8 of the 18 evacuation sites. Time variations did not reflect dose reduction efficiencies at evacuation sites although absorbed dose rates in the outdoor air decreased. These data suggest that dose reduction efficiency depends on structure types, levels of contamination, and evacuee behaviors at evacuation sites. PMID:24999992

  5. Dose build up correction for radiation monitors in high-energy bremsstrahlung photon radiation fields.

    PubMed

    Nair, Haridas G; Nayak, M K; Dev, Vipin; Thakkar, K K; Sarkar, P K; Sharma, D N

    2006-01-01

    Conventional radiation monitors have been found to underestimate the personal dose equivalent in the high-energy bremsstrahlung photon radiation fields encountered near electron storage rings. Depth-dose measurements in a water phantom were carried out with a radiation survey meter in the bremsstrahlung photon radiation fields from a 450 MeV electron storage ring to find out the magnitude of the underestimation. Dose equivalent indicated by the survey meter was found to build up with increase in thickness of water placed in front of the meter up to certain depth and then reduce with further increase in thickness. A dose equivalent build up factor was estimated from the measurements. An absorbed dose build up factor in a water phantom was also estimated from calculations performed using the Monte Carlo codes, EGS-4 and EGSnrc. The calculations are found to be in very good agreement with the measurements. The studies indicate inadequacy of commercially available radiation monitors for radiation monitoring within shielded enclosures and in streaming high-energy photon radiation fields from electron storage rings, and the need for proper correction for use in such radiation fields.

  6. Changing Attitude Toward Radiation Carcinogenesis and Prospects for Novel Low-Dose Radiation Treatments.

    PubMed

    Socol, Yehoshua; Welsh, James S

    2016-12-01

    All procedures involving ionizing radiation, whether diagnostic or therapeutic, are subject to strict regulation, and public concerns have been raised about even the low levels of radiation exposures involved in diagnostic imaging. During the last 2 decades, there are signs of more balanced attitude to ionizing radiation hazards, as opposed to the historical "radiophobia." The linear no-threshold hypothesis, based on the assumption that every radiation dose increment constitutes increased cancer risk for humans, is increasingly debated. In particular, the recent memorandum of the International Commission on Radiological Protection admits that the linear no-threshold hypothesis predictions at low doses (that International Commission on Radiological Protection itself has used and continues to use) are "speculative, unproven, undetectable, and 'phantom'." Moreover, numerous experimental, ecological, and epidemiological studies suggest that low doses of ionizing radiation may actually be beneficial to human health. Although these advances in scientific understanding have not yet yielded significant changes in radiation regulation and policy, we are hopeful such changes may happen in the relatively near future. This article reviews the present status of the low-dose radiation hazard debate and outlines potential opportunities in the field of low-dose radiation therapy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Compelling Issues Compounding the Understanding of Low Dose Radiation Effects: But Do They Matter?

    PubMed

    Morgan, William F

    2016-03-01

    Recent advances in low dose radiation research have raised a number of compelling issues that have compounded the understanding of low dose radiation effects. Here some of them are outlined: the linear no-threshold model for predicting effects at low radiation doses, dose rate effectiveness factor, attributability, and public perception of low dose radiation effects. The impact of changes in any of these hotly debated issues on radiation protection is considered.

  8. Nuclear Energy and Health: And the Benefits of Low-Dose Radiation Hormesis

    PubMed Central

    Cuttler, Jerry M.; Pollycove, Myron

    2009-01-01

    Energy needs worldwide are expected to increase for the foreseeable future, but fuel supplies are limited. Nuclear reactors could supply much of the energy demand in a safe, sustainable manner were it not for fear of potential releases of radioactivity. Such releases would likely deliver a low dose or dose rate of radiation, within the range of naturally occurring radiation, to which life is already accustomed. The key areas of concern are discussed. Studies of actual health effects, especially thyroid cancers, following exposures are assessed. Radiation hormesis is explained, pointing out that beneficial effects are expected following a low dose or dose rate because protective responses against stresses are stimulated. The notions that no amount of radiation is small enough to be harmless and that a nuclear accident could kill hundreds of thousands are challenged in light of experience: more than a century with radiation and six decades with reactors. If nuclear energy is to play a significant role in meeting future needs, regulatory authorities must examine the scientific evidence and communicate the real health effects of nuclear radiation. Negative images and implications of health risks derived by unscientific extrapolations of harmful effects of high doses must be dispelled. PMID:19343116

  9. Nuclear energy and health: and the benefits of low-dose radiation hormesis.

    PubMed

    Cuttler, Jerry M; Pollycove, Myron

    2009-01-01

    Energy needs worldwide are expected to increase for the foreseeable future, but fuel supplies are limited. Nuclear reactors could supply much of the energy demand in a safe, sustainable manner were it not for fear of potential releases of radioactivity. Such releases would likely deliver a low dose or dose rate of radiation, within the range of naturally occurring radiation, to which life is already accustomed. The key areas of concern are discussed. Studies of actual health effects, especially thyroid cancers, following exposures are assessed. Radiation hormesis is explained, pointing out that beneficial effects are expected following a low dose or dose rate because protective responses against stresses are stimulated. The notions that no amount of radiation is small enough to be harmless and that a nuclear accident could kill hundreds of thousands are challenged in light of experience: more than a century with radiation and six decades with reactors. If nuclear energy is to play a significant role in meeting future needs, regulatory authorities must examine the scientific evidence and communicate the real health effects of nuclear radiation. Negative images and implications of health risks derived by unscientific extrapolations of harmful effects of high doses must be dispelled.

  10. Detecting ionizing radiation with optical fibers down to biomedical doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avino, S.; D'Avino, V.; Giorgini, A.; Pacelli, R.; Liuzzi, R.; Cella, L.; De Natale, P.; Gagliardi, G.

    2013-10-01

    We report on a passive ionizing radiation sensor based on a fiber-optic resonant cavity interrogated by a high resolution interferometric technique. After irradiation in clinical linear accelerators, we observe significant variations of the fiber thermo-optic coefficient. Exploiting this effect, we demonstrate an ultimate detection limit of 160 mGy with an interaction volume of only 6 × 10-4 mm3. Thanks to its reliability, compactness, and sensitivity at biomedical dose levels, our system lends itself to real applications in radiation therapy procedures as well as in radiation monitoring and protection in medicine, aerospace, and nuclear power plants.

  11. Ambient dose and dose rate measurements in the vicinity of Elekta Precise accelerators for radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Zutz, H; Hupe, O

    2014-12-01

    In radiation therapy, commercially available medical linear accelerators (LINACs) are used. At high primary beam energies in the 10-MeV range, the leakage dose of the accelerator head and the backscatter from the room walls, the air and the patient become more important. Therefore, radiation protection measurements of photon dose rates in the treatment room and in the maze are performed to quantify the radiation field. Since the radiation of the LINACs is usually pulsed with short radiation pulse durations in the microsecond range, there are problems with electronic dose (rate) meters commonly used in radiation protection. In this paper measurements with ionisation chambers are presented and electronic dosemeters are used for testing at selected positions. The measured time-averaged dose rate ranges from a few microsieverts per hour in the maze to some millisieverts per hour in the vicinity of the accelerator head and up to some sieverts per hour in the blanked primary beam and several hundred sieverts per hour in the direct primary beam.

  12. Prototype Operational Advances for Atmospheric Radiation Dose Rate Specification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. K.; Bouwer, D.; Bailey, J. J.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Judge, K.; Garrett, H. B.; Atwell, W.; Gersey, B.; Wilkins, R.; Rice, D.; Schunk, R. W.; Bell, D.; Mertens, C. J.; Xu, X.; Crowley, G.; Reynolds, A.; Azeem, I.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Wiley, S.; Bacon, S.; Teets, E.; Sim, A.; Dominik, L.

    2014-12-01

    Space weather's effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the energy transfer processes from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. The coupling between the solar and galactic high-energy particles, the magnetosphere, and atmospheric regions can significantly affect humans and our technology as a result of radiation exposure. Space Environment Technologies (SET) has developed innovative, new space weather observations that will become part of the toolset that is transitioned into operational use. One prototype operational system for providing timely information about the effects of space weather is SET's Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) system. ARMAS will provide the "weather" of the radiation environment to improve aircraft crew and passenger safety. Through several dozen flights the ARMAS project has successfully demonstrated the operation of a micro dosimeter on commercial aviation altitude aircraft that captures the real-time radiation environment resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Energetic Particles. The real-time radiation exposure is computed as an effective dose rate (body-averaged over the radiative-sensitive organs and tissues in units of microsieverts per hour); total ionizing dose is captured on the aircraft, downlinked in real-time via Iridium satellites, processed on the ground into effective dose rates, compared with NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) most recent Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation System (NAIRAS) global radiation climatology model runs, and then made available to end users via the web and smart phone apps. We are extending the dose measurement domain above commercial aviation altitudes into the stratosphere with a collaborative project organized by NASA's Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) called Upper-atmospheric Space and Earth Weather eXperiment (USEWX). In USEWX we will be flying on the ER-2 high altitude aircraft a micro dosimeter for

  13. A review of some epidemiological studies on cancer risk from low-dose radiation or other carcinogenic agents.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Hiromitsu

    2011-07-01

    It is extremely difficult to assess cancer risks accurately due to health effects of low-dose radiation exposure or other carcinogens based on epidemiological studies. For the detection of minute increases of the risk at low-level exposure, most of epidemiological studies lack statistical power, and they involve various complicated confounding factors. This paper reports on a literature survey of epidemiological studies published since 2000 on cancer risks associated with low-dose radiation and other carcinogens to gather major epidemiological data. Integrated risk indices were derived from those data by using, where possible, statistical models. Regarding risk assessment of low-dose radiation exposure, it is important to lower the degree of uncertainty arising from risk estimation. Risk assessment of low-dose radiation exposure could be scientific evidence when uncertainty is considered in comparing carcinogenic risks of radiation with those of other carcinogens.

  14. Missing dose from mortality studies of radiation effects among workers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Kerr, G D

    1994-02-01

    Missing dose is a problem that has not been adequately addressed in the mortality studies of radiation effects among workers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The missing dose is a result of recording a zero for below-detectable doses, especially for frequent (weekly) film badge readings. To make the thorough dosimetry assessment needed in the current Oak Ridge National Laboratory worker studies, it will probably be necessary to consider all data at hand including personnel dose records, daily pocket meter readings used to supplement weekly and quarterly readings from other dosimeters, and monitoring results from both building surveys and fixed stations. The fixed-station data should be extremely useful in developing a better understanding of the unusual temporal variation of the external radiation doses to Oak Ridge National Laboratory workers during the high exposure-rate periods of the 1950s and early 1960s.

  15. Assessing dose rate distributions in VMAT plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackeprang, P.-H.; Volken, W.; Terribilini, D.; Frauchiger, D.; Zaugg, K.; Aebersold, D. M.; Fix, M. K.; Manser, P.

    2016-04-01

    Dose rate is an essential factor in radiobiology. As modern radiotherapy delivery techniques such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) introduce dynamic modulation of the dose rate, it is important to assess the changes in dose rate. Both the rate of monitor units per minute (MU rate) and collimation are varied over the course of a fraction, leading to different dose rates in every voxel of the calculation volume at any point in time during dose delivery. Given the radiotherapy plan and machine specific limitations, a VMAT treatment plan can be split into arc sectors between Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine control points (CPs) of constant and known MU rate. By calculating dose distributions in each of these arc sectors independently and multiplying them with the MU rate, the dose rate in every single voxel at every time point during the fraction can be calculated. Independently calculated and then summed dose distributions per arc sector were compared to the whole arc dose calculation for validation. Dose measurements and video analysis were performed to validate the calculated datasets. A clinical head and neck, cranial and liver case were analyzed using the tool developed. Measurement validation of synthetic test cases showed linac agreement to precalculated arc sector times within  ±0.4 s and doses  ±0.1 MU (one standard deviation). Two methods for the visualization of dose rate datasets were developed: the first method plots a two-dimensional (2D) histogram of the number of voxels receiving a given dose rate over the course of the arc treatment delivery. In similarity to treatment planning system display of dose, the second method displays the dose rate as color wash on top of the corresponding computed tomography image, allowing the user to scroll through the variation over time. Examining clinical cases showed dose rates spread over a continuous spectrum, with mean dose rates hardly exceeding 100 cGy min-1 for conventional

  16. Pathology effects at radiation doses below those causing increased mortality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnes, Bruce A.; Gavrilova, Natalia; Grahn, Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Mortality data from experiments conducted at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) on the long-term effects of external whole-body irradiation on B6CF(1) mice were used to investigate radiation-induced effects at intermediate doses of (60)Co gamma rays or fission-spectrum neutrons either delivered as a single exposure or protracted over 60 once-weekly exposures. Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to identify the lowest dose in the ANL data (within radiation quality, pattern of exposure, and sex) at which radiation-induced mortality caused by primary tumors could be detected (approximately 1-2 Gy for gamma rays and 10-15 cGy for neutrons). Doses at and below these levels were then examined for radiation-induced shifts in the spectrum of pathology detected at death. To do this, specific pathology events were pooled into larger assemblages based on whether they were cancer, cardiovascular disease or non-neoplastic diseases detected within the lungs and pleura, liver and biliary tract, reproductive organs, or urinary tract. Cancer and cardiovascular disease were further subdivided into categories based on whether they caused death, contributed to death, or were simply observed at death. Counts of how often events falling within each of these combined pathology categories occurred within a mouse were then used as predictor variables in logistic regression to determine whether irradiated mice could be distinguished from control mice. Increased pathology burdens were detected in irradiated mice at doses lower than those causing detectable shifts in mortality-22 cGy for gamma rays and 2 cGy for neutrons. These findings suggest that (1) models based on mortality data alone may underestimate radiation effects, (2) radiation may have adverse health consequences (i.e. elevated health risks) even when mortality risks are not detected, and (3) radiation-induced pathologies other than cancer do occur, and they involve multiple organ systems.

  17. Influence of Flat-Panel Fluoroscopic Equipment Variables on Cardiac Radiation Doses

    SciTech Connect

    Nickoloff, Edward L. Lu Zhengfeng; Dutta, Ajoy; So, James; Balter, Stephen; Moses, Jeffrey

    2007-04-15

    Purpose. To assess the influence of physician-selectable equipment variables on the potential radiation dose reductions during cardiac catheterization examinations using modern imaging equipment. Materials. A modern bi-plane angiography unit with flat-panel image receptors was used. Patients were simulated with 15-30 cm of acrylic plastic. The variables studied were: patient thickness, fluoroscopy pulse rates, record mode frame rates, image receptor field-of-view (FoV), automatic dose control (ADC) mode, SID/SSD geometry setting, automatic collimation, automatic positioning, and others. Results. Patient radiation doses double for every additional 3.5-4.5 cm of soft tissue. The dose is directly related to the imaging frame rate; a decrease from 30 pps to 15 pps reduces the dose by about 50%. The dose is related to [(FoV){sup -N}] where 2.0 < N < 3.0. Suboptimal positioning of the patient can nearly double the dose. The ADC system provides three selections that can vary the radiation level by 50%. For pediatric studies (2-5 years old), the selection of equipment variables can result in entrance radiation doses that range between 6 and 60 cGy for diagnostic cases and between 15 and 140 cGy for interventional cases. For adult studies, the equipment variables can produce entrance radiation doses that range between 13 and 130 cGy for diagnostic cases and between 30 and 400 cGy for interventional cases. Conclusions. Overall dose reductions of 70-90% can be achieved with pediatric patients and about 90% with adult patients solely through optimal selection of equipment variables.

  18. Influence of flat-panel fluoroscopic equipment variables on cardiac radiation doses.

    PubMed

    Nickoloff, Edward L; Lu, Zheng Feng; Dutta, Ajoy; So, James; Balter, Stephen; Moses, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    To assess the influence of physician-selectable equipment variables on the potential radiation dose reductions during cardiac catheterization examinations using modern imaging equipment. A modern bi-plane angiography unit with flat-panel image receptors was used. Patients were simulated with 15-30 cm of acrylic plastic. The variables studied were: patient thickness, fluoroscopy pulse rates, record mode frame rates, image receptor field-of-view (FoV), automatic dose control (ADC) mode, SID/SSD geometry setting, automatic collimation, automatic positioning, and others. Patient radiation doses double for every additional 3.5-4.5 cm of soft tissue. The dose is directly related to the imaging frame rate; a decrease from 30 pps to 15 pps reduces the dose by about 50%. The dose is related to [(FoV)(-N )] where 2.0 < N < 3.0. Suboptimal positioning of the patient can nearly double the dose. The ADC system provides three selections that can vary the radiation level by 50%. For pediatric studies (2-5 years old), the selection of equipment variables can result in entrance radiation doses that range between 6 and 60 cGy for diagnostic cases and between 15 and 140 cGy for interventional cases. For adult studies, the equipment variables can produce entrance radiation doses that range between 13 and 130 cGy for diagnostic cases and between 30 and 400 cGy for interventional cases. Overall dose reductions of 70-90% can be achieved with pediatric patients and about 90% with adult patients solely through optimal selection of equipment variables.

  19. Thyroid Cancer Following Childhood Low-Dose Radiation Exposure: A Pooled Analysis of Nine Cohorts.

    PubMed

    Lubin, Jay H; Adams, M Jacob; Shore, Roy; Holmberg, Erik; Schneider, Arthur B; Hawkins, Michael M; Robison, Leslie L; Inskip, Peter D; Lundell, Marie; Johansson, Robert; Kleinerman, Ruth A; de Vathaire, Florent; Damber, Lena; Sadetzki, Siegal; Tucker, Margaret; Sakata, Ritsu; Veiga, Lene H S

    2017-07-01

    The increased use of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that involve radiation raises concerns about radiation effects, particularly in children and the radiosensitive thyroid gland. Evaluation of relative risk (RR) trends for thyroid radiation doses <0.2 gray (Gy); evidence of a threshold dose; and possible modifiers of the dose-response, e.g., sex, age at exposure, time since exposure. Pooled data from nine cohort studies of childhood external radiation exposure and thyroid cancer with individualized dose estimates, ≥1000 irradiated subjects or ≥10 thyroid cancer cases, with data limited to individuals receiving doses <0.2 Gy. Cohorts included the following: childhood cancer survivors (n = 2); children treated for benign diseases (n = 6); and children who survived the atomic bombings in Japan (n = 1). There were 252 cases and 2,588,559 person-years in irradiated individuals and 142 cases and 1,865,957 person-years in nonirradiated individuals. There were no interventions. Incident thyroid cancers. For both <0.2 and <0.1 Gy, RRs increased with thyroid dose (P < 0.01), without significant departure from linearity (P = 0.77 and P = 0.66, respectively). Estimates of threshold dose ranged from 0.0 to 0.03 Gy, with an upper 95% confidence bound of 0.04 Gy. The increasing dose-response trend persisted >45 years after exposure, was greater at younger age at exposure and younger attained age, and was similar by sex and number of treatments. Our analyses reaffirmed linearity of the dose response as the most plausible relationship for "as low as reasonably achievable" assessments for pediatric low-dose radiation-associated thyroid cancer risk.

  20. Space Radiation Organ Doses for Astronauts on Past and Future Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    We review methods and data used for determining astronaut organ dose equivalents on past space missions including Apollo, Skylab, Space Shuttle, NASA-Mir, and International Space Station (ISS). Expectations for future lunar missions are also described. Physical measurements of space radiation include the absorbed dose, dose equivalent, and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra, or a related quantity, the lineal energy (y) spectra that is measured by a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC). These data are used in conjunction with space radiation transport models to project organ specific doses used in cancer and other risk projection models. Biodosimetry data from Mir, STS, and ISS missions provide an alternative estimate of organ dose equivalents based on chromosome aberrations. The physical environments inside spacecraft are currently well understood with errors in organ dose projections estimated as less than plus or minus 15%, however understanding the biological risks from space radiation remains a difficult problem because of the many radiation types including protons, heavy ions, and secondary neutrons for which there are no human data to estimate risks. The accuracy of projections of organ dose equivalents described here must be supplemented with research on the health risks of space exposure to properly assess crew safety for exploration missions.

  1. Low-Dose Radiation and Genotoxic Chemicals Can Protect Against Stochastic Biological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Bobby R.; Walker, Dale M.; Walker, Vernon E.

    2004-01-01

    A protective apoptosis-mediated (PAM) process that is turned on in mammalian cells by low-dose photon (X and γ) radiation and appears to also be turned on by the genotoxic chemical ethylene oxide is discussed. Because of the PAM process, exposure to low-dose photon radiation (and possibly also some genotoxic chemicals) can lead to a reduction in the risk of stochastic effects such as problematic mutations, neoplastic transformation (an early step in cancer occurrence), and cancer. These findings indicate a need to revise the current low-dose risk assessment paradigm for which risk of cancer is presumed to increase linearly with dose (without a threshold) after exposure to any amount of a genotoxic agent such as ionizing radiation. These findings support a view seldom mentioned in the past, that cancer risk can actually decrease, rather than increase, after exposure to low doses of photon radiation and possibly some other genotoxic agents. The PAM process (a form of natural protection) may contribute substantially to cancer prevention in humans and other mammals. However, new research is needed to improve our understanding of the process. The new research could unlock novel strategies for optimizing cancer prevention and novel protocols for low-dose therapy for cancer. With low-dose cancer therapy, normal tissue could be spared from severe damage while possibly eliminating the cancer. PMID:19330143

  2. Radiation effect in mouse skin: Dose fractionation and wound healing

    SciTech Connect

    Gorodetsky, R.; Mou, X.D.; Fisher, D.R.; Taylor, J.M.; Withers, H.R. )

    1990-05-01

    Radiation induced dermal injury was measured by the gain in the physical strength of healing wounds in mouse skin. A sigmoid dose response for the inhibition of wound healing 14 days after surgery was found for single doses of X rays. The sparing of dermal damage from fractionation of the X-ray dose was quantified in terms of the alpha/beta ratio in the linear-quadratic (LQ) model, at a wide range of doses per fraction reaching as low as about 1 Gy. The fit and the appropriateness of the LQ model for the skin wound healing assay was examined with the use of the Fe-plot in which inverse total dose is plotted versus dose per fraction for wound strength isoeffects. The alpha/beta ratio of the skin was about 2.5 Gy (95% confidence of less than +/- 1 Gy) and was appropriate over a dose range of 1 Gy to about 8 Gy. The low alpha/beta value is typical for a late responding tissue. This assay, therefore, has the advantage of measuring and forecasting late radiation responses of the dermis within a short time after irradiation.

  3. Radiation Doses and Associated Risk From the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo

    2017-03-01

    The magnitude of dose due to the Fukushima Daiichi Accident was estimated by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) 2013 report published in April 2014. Following this, the UNSCEAR white paper, which comprises a digest of new information for the 2013 Fukushima report, was published in October 2015. Another comprehensive report on radiation dose due to the accident is the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) report on the Fukushima Daiichi Accident published in August 2015. Although the UNSCEAR and IAEA publications well summarize doses received by residents, they review only literature published before the end of December 2014 and the end of March 2015, respectively. However, some studies on dose estimation have been published since then. In addition, the UNSCEAR 2013 report states it was likely that some overestimation had been introduced generally by the methodology used by the Committee. For example, effects of decontamination were not considered in the lifetime external dose estimated. Decontamination is in progress for most living areas in Fukushima Prefecture, which could reduce long-term external dose to residents. This article mainly reviews recent English language articles that may add new information to the UNSCEAR and IAEA publications. Generally, recent articles suggest lower doses than those presented by the UNSCEAR 2013 report.

  4. Estimation of radiation-induced cancer from three-dimensional dose distributions: Concept of organ equivalent dose

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Uwe . E-mail: uwe.schneider@psi.ch; Zwahlen, Daniel; Ross, Dieter; Kaser-Hotz, Barbara

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: Estimates of secondary cancer risk after radiotherapy are becoming more important for comparative treatment planning. Modern treatment planning systems provide accurate three-dimensional dose distributions for each individual patient. These data open up new possibilities for more precise estimates of secondary cancer incidence rates in the irradiated organs. We report a new method to estimate organ-specific radiation-induced cancer incidence rates. The concept of an organ equivalent dose (OED) for radiation-induced cancer assumes that any two dose distributions in an organ are equivalent if they cause the same radiation-induced cancer incidence. Methods and Materials: The two operational parameters of the OED concept are the organ-specific cancer incidence rate at low doses, which is taken from the data of the atomic bomb survivors, and cell sterilization at higher doses. The effect of cell sterilization in various organs was estimated by analyzing the secondary cancer incidence data of patients with Hodgkin's disease who were treated with radiotherapy in between 1962 and 1993. The radiotherapy plans used at the time the patients had been treated were reconstructed on a fully segmented whole body CT scan. The dose distributions were calculated in individual organs for which cancer incidence data were available. The model parameter that described cell sterilization was obtained by analyzing the dose and cancer incidence rates for the individual organs. Results: We found organ-specific cell radiosensitivities that varied from 0.017 for the mouth and pharynx up to 1.592 for the bladder. Using the two model parameters (organ-specific cancer incidence rate and the parameter characterizing cell sterilization), the OED concept can be applied to any three-dimensional dose distribution to analyze cancer incidence. Conclusion: We believe that the concept of OED presented in this investigation represents a first step in assessing the potential risk of secondary

  5. Cellular response to low dose radiation: Role of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase like kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Balajee, A.S.; Meador, J.A.; Su, Y.

    2011-03-24

    It is increasingly realized that human exposure either to an acute low dose or multiple chronic low doses of low LET radiation has the potential to cause different types of cancer. Therefore, the central theme of research for DOE and NASA is focused on understanding the molecular mechanisms and pathways responsible for the cellular response to low dose radiation which would not only improve the accuracy of estimating health risks but also help in the development of predictive assays for low dose radiation risks associated with tissue degeneration and cancer. The working hypothesis for this proposal is that the cellular mechanisms in terms of DNA damage signaling, repair and cell cycle checkpoint regulation are different for low and high doses of low LET radiation and that the mode of action of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase like kinases (PIKK: ATM, ATR and DNA-PK) determines the dose dependent cellular responses. The hypothesis will be tested at two levels: (I) Evaluation of the role of ATM, ATR and DNA-PK in cellular response to low and high doses of low LET radiation in simple in vitro human cell systems and (II) Determination of radiation responses in complex cell microenvironments such as human EpiDerm tissue constructs. Cellular responses to low and high doses of low LET radiation will be assessed from the view points of DNA damage signaling, DNA double strand break repair and cell cycle checkpoint regulation by analyzing the activities (i.e. post-translational modifications and kinetics of protein-protein interactions) of the key target proteins for PI-3 kinase like kinases both at the intra-cellular and molecular levels. The proteins chosen for this proposal are placed under three categories: (I) sensors/initiators include ATM ser1981, ATR, 53BP1, gamma-H2AX, MDC1, MRE11, Rad50 and Nbs1; (II) signal transducers include Chk1, Chk2, FANCD2 and SMC1; and (III) effectors include p53, CDC25A and CDC25C. The primary goal of this proposal is to elucidate the

  6. HOSPITAL PHYSICS: Patient radiation doses from diagnostic radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, D.

    1996-03-01

    X-ray examinations may be of great benefit but they also carry a slight risk. This article explains how doses to patients are measured and describes how different techniques expose patients to differing amounts of ionizing radiation. These figures are compared with other natural and man-made sources.

  7. ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION DOSE AND AMPHIBIAN DISTRIBUTIONS IN NATIONAL PARKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ultraviolet Radiation Dose and Amphibian Distributions in National Parks. Diamond, S. A., Detenbeck, N. E., USEPA, Duluth, MN, USA, Bradford, D. F., USEPA, Las Vegas, NV, USA, Trenham, P. C., University of California, Davis, CA., USA, Adams, M. J., Corn, P. S., Hossack, B., USGS,...

  8. ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION DOSE AND AMPHIBIAN DISTRIBUTIONS IN NATIONAL PARKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ultraviolet Radiation Dose and Amphibian Distributions in National Parks. Diamond, S. A., Detenbeck, N. E., USEPA, Duluth, MN, USA, Bradford, D. F., USEPA, Las Vegas, NV, USA, Trenham, P. C., University of California, Davis, CA., USA, Adams, M. J., Corn, P. S., Hossack, B., USGS,...

  9. Estimated ultraviolet radiation doses in wetlands in six national parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diamond, S.A.; Trenham, P.C.; Adams, Michael J.; Hossack, B.R.; Knapp, R.A.; Stark, L.; Bradford, D.; Corn, P.S.; Czarnowski, K.; Brooks, P.D.; Fagre, D.B.; Breen, B.; Dentenbeck, N.E.; Tonnessen, K.

    2005-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280–320-nm wavelengths) doses were estimated for 1024 wetlands in six national parks: Acadia (Acadia), Glacier (Glacier), Great Smoky Mountains (Smoky), Olympic (Olympic), Rocky Mountain (Rocky), and Sequoia/Kings Canyon (Sequoia). Estimates were made using ground-based UV-B data (Brewer spectrophotometers), solar radiation models, GIS tools, field characterization of vegetative features, and quantification of DOC concentration and spectral absorbance. UV-B dose estimates were made for the summer solstice, at a depth of 1 cm in each wetland. The mean dose across all wetlands and parks was 19.3 W-h m−2 (range of 3.4–32.1 W-h m−2). The mean dose was lowest in Acadia (13.7 W-h m−2) and highest in Rocky (24.4 W-h m−2). Doses were significantly different among all parks. These wetland doses correspond to UV-B flux of 125.0 μW cm−2 (range 21.4–194.7 μW cm−2) based on a day length, averaged among all parks, of 15.5 h. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), a key determinant of water-column UV-B flux, ranged from 0.6 (analytical detection limit) to 36.7 mg C L−1 over all wetlands and parks, and reduced potential maximal UV-B doses at 1-cm depth by 1%–87 %. DOC concentration, as well as its effect on dose, was lowest in Sequoia and highest in Acadia (DOC was equivalent in Acadia, Glacier, and Rocky). Landscape reduction of potential maximal UV-B doses ranged from zero to 77% and was lowest in Sequoia. These regional differences in UV-B wetland dose illustrate the importance of considering all aspects of exposure in evaluating the potential impact of UV-B on aquatic organisms.

  10. Scattered radiation doses to some critical organs during pediatric radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Agard, E T; Ehlers, G; Kirchberg, S

    1985-04-01

    The levels of scattered radiation doses imparted to the eyes, thyroid and gonads of pediatric patients treated with orthovoltage radiation (300 kVp, 2.0 mmCu HVL) and with a 4-MV linear accelerator, were determined by making thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) measurements in three paraffin phantoms of different sizes. These phantoms were made from molds of mannequins used for store display, of approximate heights 30", 40" and 50", representing children of ages 1-2, 4-5 and 8-10 yr, respectively. The sites chosen for irradiation were (1) the whole brain, (2) the chest, (3) the kidney bed, (4) the whole abdomen and (5) the spinal column. These sites are normally treated in such pediatric malignancies as medulloblastoma, neuroblastoma and Wilms' tumor. Some of the doses measured are less than 10 rad for an entire treatment regimen, and would therefore be categorized as low-level doses. Where radiation was the only mode of treatment for long-term survivors of such malignancies, especially those treated 20-30 yr ago with orthovoltage radiation, useful data may be extracted for contributing to our knowledge about the long-term effects of low levels of radiation.

  11. Background radiation dose of dumpsites in Ota and Environs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usikalu, M. R.; Ola, O. O.; Achuka, J. A.; Babarimisa, I. O.; Ayara, W. A.

    2017-05-01

    In-situ measurement of background radiation dose from selected dumpsites in Ota and its environs was done using Radialert Nuclear Radiation Monitor (Digilert 200). Ten measurements were taken from each dumpsite. The measured background radiation range between 0.015 mRhr-1 for AOD and 0.028 mRhr-1 for SUS dumpsites. The calculated annual equivalent doses vary between 1.31 mSvyr-1 for AOD and 2.28 mSv/yr for SUS dumpsites. The air absorbed dose calculated ranged from 150 nGyhr-1 to 280 nGy/hr for AOD and SUS dumpsites respectively with an average value of 217 nGyhr-1 for all the locations. All the estimated parameters were higher than permissible limit set for background radiation for the general public. Conclusively, the associated challenge and radiation burden posed by the wastes on the studied locations and scavengers is high. Therefore, there is need by the regulatory authorities to look into the way and how waste can be properly managed so as to alleviate the effects on the populace leaving and working in the dumpsites vicinity.

  12. [Fetus radiation doses from nuclear medicine and radiology diagnostic procedures. Potential risks and radiation protection instructions].

    PubMed

    Markou, Pavlos

    2007-01-01

    Although in pregnancy it is strongly recommended to avoid diagnostic nuclear medicine and radiology procedures, in cases of clinical necessity or when pregnancy is not known to the physician, these diagnostic procedures are to be applied. In such cases, counseling based on accurate information and comprehensive discussion about the risks of radiation exposure to the fetus should follow. In this article, estimations of the absorbed radiation doses due to nuclear medicine and radiology diagnostic procedures during the pregnancy and their possible risk effects to the fetus are examined and then discussed. Stochastic and detrimental effects are evaluated with respect to other risk factors and related to the fetus absorbed radiation dose and to the post-conception age. The possible termination of a pregnancy, due to radiation exposure is discussed. Special radiation protection instructions are given for radiation exposures in cases of possible, confirmed or unknown pregnancies. It is concluded that nuclear medicine and radiology diagnostic procedures, if not repeated during the pregnancy, are rarely an indication for the termination of pregnancy, because the dose received by the fetus is expected to be less than 100 mSv, which indicates the threshold dose for having deterministic effects. Therefore, the risk for the fetus due to these diagnostic procedures is low. However, stochastic effects are still possible but will be minimized if the radiation absorbed dose to the fetus is kept as low as possible.

  13. Radiation Dose Estimation for Pediatric Patients Undergoing Cardiac Catheterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chu

    Patients undergoing cardiac catheterization are potentially at risk of radiation-induced health effects from the interventional fluoroscopic X-ray imaging used throughout the clinical procedure. The amount of radiation exposure is highly dependent on the complexity of the procedure and the level of optimization in imaging parameters applied by the clinician. For cardiac catheterization, patient radiation dosimetry, for key organs as well as whole-body effective, is challenging due to the lack of fixed imaging protocols, unlike other common X-ray based imaging modalities. Pediatric patients are at a greater risk compared to adults due to their greater cellular radio-sensitivities as well as longer remaining life-expectancy following the radiation exposure. In terms of radiation dosimetry, they are often more challenging due to greater variation in body size, which often triggers a wider range of imaging parameters in modern imaging systems with automatic dose rate modulation. The overall objective of this dissertation was to develop a comprehensive method of radiation dose estimation for pediatric patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. In this dissertation, the research is divided into two main parts: the Physics Component and the Clinical Component. A proof-of-principle study focused on two patient age groups (Newborn and Five-year-old), one popular biplane imaging system, and the clinical practice of two pediatric cardiologists at one large academic medical center. The Physics Component includes experiments relevant to the physical measurement of patient organ dose using high-sensitivity MOSFET dosimeters placed in anthropomorphic pediatric phantoms. First, the three-dimensional angular dependence of MOSFET detectors in scatter medium under fluoroscopic irradiation was characterized. A custom-made spherical scatter phantom was used to measure response variations in three-dimensional angular orientations. The results were to be used as angular dependence

  14. High dose bystander effects in spatially fractionated radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Asur, Rajalakshmi; Butterworth, Karl T.; Penagaricano, Jose A.; Prise, Kevin M.; Griffin, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional radiotherapy of bulky tumors has certain limitations. Spatially fractionated radiation therapy (GRID) and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) are examples of advanced modulated beam therapies that help in significant reductions in normal tissue damage. GRID refers to the delivery of a single high dose of radiation to a large treatment area that is divided into several smaller fields, while IMRT allows improved dose conformity to the tumor target compared to conventional three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. In this review, we consider spatially fractionated radiotherapy approaches focusing on GRID and IMRT, and present complementary evidence from different studies which support the role of radiation induced signaling effects in the overall radiobiological rationale for these treatments. PMID:24246848

  15. Trans-Atlantic Comparison of CT Radiation Doses in the Era of Radiation Dose-Tracking Software.

    PubMed

    Parakh, Anushri; Euler, Andre; Szucs-Farkas, Zsolt; Schindera, Sebastian T

    2017-09-12

    The purpose of this study is to compare diagnostic reference levels from a local European CT dose registry, using radiation-tracking software from a large patient sample, with preexisting European and North American diagnostic reference levels. Data (n = 43,761 CT scans obtained over the course of 2 years) for the European local CT dose registry were obtained from eight CT scanners at six institutions. Means, medians, and interquartile ranges of volumetric CT dose index (CTDIvol), dose-length product (DLP), size-specific dose estimate, and effective dose values for CT examinations of the head, paranasal sinuses, thorax, pulmonary angiogram, abdomen-pelvis, renal-colic, thorax-abdomen-pelvis, and thoracoabdominal angiogram were obtained using radiation-tracking software. Metrics from this registry were compared with diagnostic reference levels from Canada and California (published in 2015), the American College of Radiology (ACR) dose index registry (2015), and national diagnostic reference levels from local CT dose registries in Switzerland (2010), the United Kingdom (2011), and Portugal (2015). Our local registry had a lower 75th percentile CTDIvol for all protocols than did the individual internationally sourced data. Compared with our study, the ACR dose index registry had higher 75th percentile CTDIvol values by 55% for head, 240% for thorax, 28% for abdomen-pelvis, 42% for thorax-abdomen-pelvis, 128% for pulmonary angiogram, 138% for renal-colic, and 58% for paranasal sinus studies. Our local registry had lower diagnostic reference level values than did existing European and North American diagnostic reference levels. Automated radiation-tracking software could be used to establish and update existing diagnostic reference levels because they are capable of analyzing large datasets meaningfully.

  16. Radiation dose implications of airborne contaminant deposition to humans.

    PubMed

    Andersson, K G; Fogh, C L; Byrne, M A; Roed, J; Goddard, A J H; Hotchkiss, S A M

    2002-02-01

    In nuclear accident consequence assessment, dose contributions from radionuclide deposition on the human body have in the past generally been either ignored or estimated on the basis of rather simple models. Recent experimental work has improved the state of knowledge of relevant processes and parameter ranges. The results presented in this paper represent a first approach to a detailed assessment of doses from radiopollutant deposition on the human body, based on contaminant-specific data. Both the dose to skin from beta-emitters and the whole-body dose from gamma-emitters on body surfaces were found to give potentially significant contributions to dose. Further, skin penetration of some contaminants could lead to significant internal doses.

  17. The Monte Carlo calculation of integral radiation dose in xeromammography.

    PubMed

    Dance, D R

    1980-01-01

    A Monte Carlo computer program has been developed for the computation of integral radiation dose to the breast in xeromammography. The results are given in terms of the integral dose per unit area of the breast per unit incident exposure. The calculations have been made for monoenergetic incident photons and the results integrated over a variety of X-ray spectra from both tungsten and molybdenum targets. This range incorporates qualities used in conventional and xeromammography. The program includes the selenium plate used in xeroradiography; the energy absorbed in this detector has also been investigated. The latter calculations have been used to predict relative values of exposure and of integral dose to the breast for xeromammograms taken at various radiation qualities. The results have been applied to recent work on the reduction of patient exposure in xeromammography by the addition of aluminium filters to the X-ray beam.

  18. Impact of dose calculation algorithm on radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Zhou; Xiao, Ying; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The quality of radiation therapy depends on the ability to maximize the tumor control probability while minimize the normal tissue complication probability. Both of these two quantities are directly related to the accuracy of dose distributions calculated by treatment planning systems. The commonly used dose calculation algorithms in the treatment planning systems are reviewed in this work. The accuracy comparisons among these algorithms are illustrated by summarizing the highly cited research papers on this topic. Further, the correlation between the algorithms and tumor control probability/normal tissue complication probability values are manifested by several recent studies from different groups. All the cases demonstrate that dose calculation algorithms play a vital role in radiation therapy. PMID:25431642

  19. Dose and volume impact on radiation-induced xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Marmiroli, Luca; Salvi, Giovanna; Caiazza, Adolfo; Di Rienzo, Luigi; Massaccesi, Mariangela; Murino, Paola; Macchia, Gabriella

    2005-01-01

    Radiation-induced xerostomia consists in the chronic dryness of the mouth caused by parotid gland irradiation. Parotid glands produce approximately 60% of saliva while the rest is secreted by submandibular and accessory salivary glands. Methods of measuring the salivary output are essentially represented by 99mTc-pertechnate scintigraphy or simpler albeit less accurate methods in stimulated or unstimulated saliva. There are subjective and objective criteria of classification and grading of the secretion of saliva. Radiation-induced xerostomia, namely the residual salivary gland function is evidently associated with the mean dose absorbed. The salivary output tends to decrease after the end of radiotherapy. The partial dose-volume is substantially correlated with the mean dose to the whole gland. As for ipsilateral irradiation for head and neck cancer, conformal RT or IMRT allow to spare the contralateral parotid gland without increasing the risk of contralateral nodal recurrences. The monitoring system of late toxicity used by the authors is presented.

  20. PET/CT-guided Interventions: Personnel Radiation Dose

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, E. Ronan Thornton, Raymond; Sofocleous, Constantinos T.; Erinjeri, Joseph P.; Hsu, Meier; Quinn, Brian; Dauer, Lawrence T.; Solomon, Stephen B.

    2013-08-01

    PurposeTo quantify radiation exposure to the primary operator and staff during PET/CT-guided interventional procedures.MethodsIn this prospective study, 12 patients underwent PET/CT-guided interventions over a 6 month period. Radiation exposure was measured for the primary operator, the radiology technologist, and the nurse anesthetist by means of optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters. Radiation exposure was correlated with the procedure time and the use of in-room image guidance (CT fluoroscopy or ultrasound).ResultsThe median effective dose was 0.02 (range 0-0.13) mSv for the primary operator, 0.01 (range 0-0.05) mSv for the nurse anesthetist, and 0.02 (range 0-0.05) mSv for the radiology technologist. The median extremity dose equivalent for the operator was 0.05 (range 0-0.62) mSv. Radiation exposure correlated with procedure duration and with the use of in-room image guidance. The median operator effective dose for the procedure was 0.015 mSv when conventional biopsy mode CT was used, compared to 0.06 mSv for in-room image guidance, although this did not achieve statistical significance as a result of the small sample size (p = 0.06).ConclusionThe operator dose from PET/CT-guided procedures is not significantly different than typical doses from fluoroscopically guided procedures. The major determinant of radiation exposure to the operator from PET/CT-guided interventional procedures is time spent in close proximity to the patient.

  1. PET/CT-guided interventions: personnel radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Ryan, E Ronan; Thornton, Raymond; Sofocleous, Constantinos T; Erinjeri, Joseph P; Hsu, Meier; Quinn, Brian; Dauer, Lawrence T; Solomon, Stephen B

    2013-08-01

    To quantify radiation exposure to the primary operator and staff during PET/CT-guided interventional procedures. In this prospective study, 12 patients underwent PET/CT-guided interventions over a 6 month period. Radiation exposure was measured for the primary operator, the radiology technologist, and the nurse anesthetist by means of optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters. Radiation exposure was correlated with the procedure time and the use of in-room image guidance (CT fluoroscopy or ultrasound). The median effective dose was 0.02 (range 0-0.13) mSv for the primary operator, 0.01 (range 0-0.05) mSv for the nurse anesthetist, and 0.02 (range 0-0.05) mSv for the radiology technologist. The median extremity dose equivalent for the operator was 0.05 (range 0-0.62) mSv. Radiation exposure correlated with procedure duration and with the use of in-room image guidance. The median operator effective dose for the procedure was 0.015 mSv when conventional biopsy mode CT was used, compared to 0.06 mSv for in-room image guidance, although this did not achieve statistical significance as a result of the small sample size (p = 0.06). The operator dose from PET/CT-guided procedures is not significantly different than typical doses from fluoroscopically guided procedures. The major determinant of radiation exposure to the operator from PET/CT-guided interventional procedures is time spent in close proximity to the patient.

  2. Contemporary radiation doses to murine rodents inhabiting the most contaminated part of the EURT.

    PubMed

    Malinovsky, G P; Yarmoshenko, I V; Zhukovsky, M V; Starichenko, V I; Chibiryak, M V

    2014-03-01

    The contemporary radiation doses to the organs and tissues of murine rodents inhabiting the most contaminated part of the EURT were estimated. The bones of animals trapped in 2005 at territories with a surface (90)Sr contamination of 24-40 MBq/m(2) were used for dose reconstruction. The concentration of (90)Sr in the animals' skulls was measured using the nondestructive method of bone radiometry. The dose estimation procedure included application of the published values of absorbed fractions of beta-radiation energy for different combinations of source and target organs, accounting for the distribution of radionuclide by organs and tissues. Twelve conversion coefficients were obtained to link the skeleton (90)Sr concentration and doses to eleven organs and the whole body. The whole-body dose rate on the 45th day after the beginning of exposure normalised to whole-body activity is 0.015 (mGy day(-1))/(Bq g(-1)). The estimation yields the following values of doses for Microtus agrestis, Sylvaemus uralensis and Clethrionomys rutilus, respectively: maximum absorbed doses in the skeleton: 267, 121 and 160 mGy; mean whole body internal doses: 37, 14 and 23 mGy; mean internal dose rates on the last day before trapping: 1.2; 0.44 and 0.75 mGy/day. Approaches to the assessment of doses to foetuses and to offspring before weaning were also developed.

  3. Quantitative Proteomic Profiling of Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Effects in a Human Skin Model

    SciTech Connect

    Hengel, Shawna; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Waters, Katrina M.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Stenoien, David L.

    2014-07-29

    To assess molecular responses to low doses of radiation that may be encountered during medical diagnostic procedures, nuclear accidents, or terrorist acts, a quantitative global proteomic approach was used to identify protein alterations in a reconstituted human skin tissue treated with 10 cGy of ionizing radiation. Subcellular fractionation was employed to remove highly abundant structural proteins and provide insight on radiation induced alterations in protein abundance and localization. In addition, peptides were post-fractionated using high resolution 2-dimensional liquid chromatography to increase the dynamic range of detection of protein abundance and translocation changes. Quantitative data was obtained by labeling peptides with 8-plex isobaric iTRAQ tags. A total of 207 proteins were detected with statistically significant alterations in abundance and/or subcellular localization compared to sham irradiated tissues. Bioinformatics analysis of the data indicated that the top canonical pathways affected by low dose radiation are related to cellular metabolism. Among the proteins showing alterations in abundance, localization and proteolytic processing was the skin barrier protein filaggrin which is consistent with our previous observation that ionizing radiation alters profilaggrin processing with potential effects on skin barrier functions. In addition, a large number of proteases and protease regulators were affected by low dose radiation exposure indicating that altered proteolytic activity may be a hallmark of low dose radiation exposure. While several studies have demonstrated altered transcriptional regulation occurs following low dose radiation exposures, the data presented here indicates post-transcriptional regulation of protein abundance, localization, and proteolytic processing play an important role in regulating radiation responses in complex human tissues.

  4. Mechanisms underlying cellular responses of cells from haemopoietic tissue to low dose/low LET radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Munira A Kadhim

    2010-03-05

    To accurately define the risks associated with human exposure to relevant environmental doses of low LET ionizing radiation, it is necessary to completely understand the biological effects at very low doses (i.e., less than 0.1 Gy), including the lowest possible dose, that of a single electron track traversal. At such low doses, a range of studies have shown responses in biological systems which are not related to the direct interaction of radiation tracks with DNA. The role of these “non-targeted” responses in critical tissues is poorly understood and little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms. Although critical for dosimetry and risk assessment, the role of individual genetic susceptibility in radiation risk is not satisfactorily defined at present. The aim of the proposed grant is to critically evaluate radiation-induced genomic instability and bystander responses in key stem cell populations from haemopoietic tissue. Using stem cells from two mouse strains (CBA/H and C57BL/6J) known to differ in their susceptibility to radiation effects, we plan to carefully dissect the role of genetic predisposition on two non-targeted radiation responses in these models; the bystander effect and genomic instability, which we believe are closely related. We will specifically focus on the effects of low doses of low LET radiation, down to doses approaching a single electron traversal. Using conventional X-ray and γ-ray sources, novel dish separation and targeted irradiation approaches, we will be able to assess the role of genetic variation under various bystander conditions at doses down to a few electron tracks. Irradiations will be carried out using facilities in routine operation for bystander targeted studies. Mechanistic studies of instability and the bystander response in different cell lineages will focus initially on the role of cytokines which have been shown to be involved in bystander signaling and the initiation of instability. These studies also aim

  5. Radiation doses from computed tomography practice in Johor Bahru, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, M. K. A.; Hashim, S.; Bradley, D. A.; Bakar, K. A.; Haron, M. R.; Kayun, Z.

    2016-04-01

    Radiation doses for Computed Tomography (CT) procedures have been reported, encompassing a total of 376 CT examinations conducted in one oncology centre (Hospital Sultan Ismail) and three diagnostic imaging departments (Hospital Sultanah Aminah, Hospital Permai and Hospital Sultan Ismail) at Johor hospital's. In each case, dose evaluations were supported by data from patient questionnaires. Each CT examination and radiation doses were verified using the CT EXPO (Ver. 2.3.1, Germany) simulation software. Results are presented in terms of the weighted computed tomography dose index (CTDIw), dose length product (DLP) and effective dose (E). The mean values of CTDIw, DLP and E were ranged between 7.6±0.1 to 64.8±16.5 mGy, 170.2±79.2 to 943.3±202.3 mGy cm and 1.6±0.7 to 11.2±6.5 mSv, respectively. Optimization techniques in CT are suggested to remain necessary, with well-trained radiology personnel remaining at the forefront of such efforts.

  6. Radiation dose-reduction strategies for neuroradiology CT protocols.

    PubMed

    Smith, A B; Dillon, W P; Gould, R; Wintermark, M

    2007-10-01

    Within the past 2 decades, the number of CT examinations performed has increased almost 10-fold. This is in large part due to advances in multidetector-row CT technology, which now allows faster image acquisition and improved isotropic imaging. The increased use, along with multidetector technique, has led to a significantly increased radiation dose to the patient from CT studies. This places increased responsibility on the radiologist to ensure that CT examinations are indicated and that the "as low as reasonably achievable" concept is adhered to. Neuroradiologists are familiar with factors that affect patient dose such as pitch, milliamperes, kilovolt peak (kVp), collimation, but with increasing attention being given to dose reduction, they are looking for additional ways to further reduce the radiation associated with their CT protocols. In response to increasing concern, CT manufacturers have developed dose-reduction tools, such as dose modulation, in which the tube current is adjusted along with the CT acquisition, according to patient's attenuation. This review will describe the available techniques for reducing dose associated with neuroradiologic CT imaging protocols.

  7. ASSESSMENT OF AGE-DEPENDENT RADIATION DOSE DUE TO INTAKE OF URANIUM AND THORIUM IN DRINKING WATER FROM SIKAR DISTRICT, RAJASTHAN, INDIA.

    PubMed

    Duggal, Vikas; Rani, Asha; Balaram, V

    2016-10-01

    The concentrations of (238)U and (232)Th have been determined in drinking water samples collected from the Sikar district of Rajasthan State, India. The samples have been analysed by using high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. (238)U content in water samples ranged from 8.20 to 202.63 µg l(-1) and (232)Th content ranged from 0.57 to 1.46 µg l(-1) The measured (238)U content in 25 % of the analysed samples exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) and United States Environmental Protection Agency drinking water guidelines of 30 µg l(-1) and 12.5 % of the samples exceeded the 60 µg l(-1) Indian maximum acceptable concentration recommended by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, India. The annual effective doses (µSv y(-1)) due to ingestion of (238)U and (232)Th for different age groups were also calculated. The results compared with the recommended value reported by the WHO. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Contribution of maternal radionuclide burdens to prenatal radiation doses

    SciTech Connect

    Sikov, M.R.; Hui, T.E.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes approaches to calculating and expressing radiation doses to the embryo/fetus from internal radionuclides. Information was obtained for selected, occupationally significant radioelements that provide a spectrum of metabolic and dosimetric characteristics. Evaluations are also presented for inhaled inert gases and for selected radiopharmaceuticals. Fractional placental transfer and/or ratios of concentration in the embryo/fetus to that in the woman were calculated for these materials. The ratios were integrated with data from biokinetic transfer models to estimate radioactivity levels in the embryo/fetus as a function of stage of pregnancy and time after entry into the transfer compartment or blood of the pregnant woman. These results are given as tables of deposition and retention in the embryo/fetus as a function of gestational age at exposure and elapsed time following exposure. Methodologies described by MIRD were extended to formalize and describe details for calculating radiation absorbed doses to the embryo/fetus. Calculations were performed using a model situation that assumed a single injection of 1 {mu}Ci into a woman`s blood; independent calculations were performed for administration at successive months of pregnancy. Gestational -stage-dependent dosimetric tabulations are given together with tables of correlations and relationships. Generalized surrogate dose factors and categorizations are provided in the report to provide for use in operational radiological protection situations. These approaches to calculation yield radiation absorbed doses that can be converted to dose equivalent by multiplication by quality factor. Dose equivalent is the most common quantity for stating prenatal dose limits in the United States and is appropriate for the types of effect that are usually associated with prenatal exposure. If it is desired to obtain alternatives for other purposes, this value can be multiplied by appropriate weighting factors.

  9. Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose Projection Graphical User Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Hu, Shaowen; Nounu, Hateni N.; Kim, Myung-Hee

    2011-01-01

    The integration of human space applications risk projection models of organ dose and acute radiation risk has been a key problem. NASA has developed an organ dose projection model using the BRYNTRN with SUM DOSE computer codes, and a probabilistic model of Acute Radiation Risk (ARR). The codes BRYNTRN and SUM DOSE are a Baryon transport code and an output data processing code, respectively. The risk projection models of organ doses and ARR take the output from BRYNTRN as an input to their calculations. With a graphical user interface (GUI) to handle input and output for BRYNTRN, the response models can be connected easily and correctly to BRYNTRN. A GUI for the ARR and BRYNTRN Organ Dose (ARRBOD) projection code provides seamless integration of input and output manipulations, which are required for operations of the ARRBOD modules. The ARRBOD GUI is intended for mission planners, radiation shield designers, space operations in the mission operations directorate (MOD), and space biophysics researchers. BRYNTRN code operation requires extensive input preparation. Only a graphical user interface (GUI) can handle input and output for BRYNTRN to the response models easily and correctly. The purpose of the GUI development for ARRBOD is to provide seamless integration of input and output manipulations for the operations of projection modules (BRYNTRN, SLMDOSE, and the ARR probabilistic response model) in assessing the acute risk and the organ doses of significant Solar Particle Events (SPEs). The assessment of astronauts radiation risk from SPE is in support of mission design and operational planning to manage radiation risks in future space missions. The ARRBOD GUI can identify the proper shielding solutions using the gender-specific organ dose assessments in order to avoid ARR symptoms, and to stay within the current NASA short-term dose limits. The quantified evaluation of ARR severities based on any given shielding configuration and a specified EVA or other mission

  10. EYE LENS EXPOSURE TO MEDICAL STAFF PERFORMING ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY PROCEDURES: DOSE ASSESSMENT AND CORRELATION TO PATIENT DOSE.

    PubMed

    Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera; Antic, Vojislav; Selakovic, Jovana; Bozovic, Predrag; Arandjic, Danijela; Pavlovic, Sinisa

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the patient exposure and staff eye