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Sample records for assessment documentation package

  1. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume VIII - Risk Assessment Documentation Package

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    Volume VIII of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the risk assessment documentation. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  2. DOE evaluation document for DOT 7A Type A packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Edling, D.A.; Hopkins, D.R.; Williams, R.L.

    1987-03-01

    This document is a support document for the ''DOE Evaluation Document for DOT 7A Type A Packaging,'' MLM-3245, March 1987. Provided herein are details concerning the performance requirements specified in 178.350 Specification 7A, General Packaging, Type A. MLM-3245 references appropriate sections in this document. This document does not by itself meet the documentation requirements specified in 49 CFR 173.415 and has compliance value only when used in conjunction with MLM-3245.

  3. WASTE PACKAGE REMEDIATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    N.D. Sudan

    2000-06-22

    The Waste Package Remediation System remediates waste packages (WPs) and disposal containers (DCs) in one of two ways: preparation of rejected DC closure welds for repair or opening of the DC/WP. DCs are brought to the Waste Package Remediation System for preparation of rejected closure welds if testing of the closure weld by the Disposal Container Handling System indicates an unacceptable, but repairable, welding flaw. DC preparation of rejected closure welds will require removal of the weld in such a way that the Disposal Container Handling System may resume and complete the closure welding process. DCs/WPs are brought to the Waste Package Remediation System for opening if the Disposal Container Handling System testing of the DC closure weld indicates an unrepairable welding flaw, or if a WP is recovered from the subsurface repository because suspected damage to the WP or failure of the WP has occurred. DC/WP opening will require cutting of the DC/WP such that a temporary seal may be installed and the waste inside the DC/WP removed by another system. The system operates in a Waste Package Remediation System hot cell located in the Waste Handling Building that has direct access to the Disposal Container Handling System. One DC/WP at a time can be handled in the hot cell. The DC/WP arrives on a transfer cart, is positioned within the cell for system operations, and exits the cell without being removed from the cart. The system includes a wide variety of remotely operated components including a manipulator with hoist and/or jib crane, viewing systems, machine tools for opening WPs, and equipment used to perform pressure and gas composition sampling. Remotely operated equipment is designed to facilitate DC/WP decontamination and hot cell equipment maintenance, and interchangeable components are provided where appropriate. The Waste Package Remediation System interfaces with the Disposal Container Handling System for the receipt and transport of WPs and DCs. The Waste

  4. Groundwater Data Package for Hanford Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Thorne, Paul D.; Bergeron, Marcel P.; Williams, Mark D.; Freedman, Vicky L.

    2006-01-31

    This report presents data and interpreted information that supports the groundwater module of the System Assessment Capability (SAC) used in Hanford Assessments. The objective of the groundwater module is to predict movement of radioactive and chemical contaminants through the aquifer to the Columbia River or other potential discharge locations. This data package is being revised as part of the deliverables under the Characterization of Systems Project (#49139) aimed at providing documentation for assessments being conducted under the Hanford Assessments Project (#47042). Both of these projects are components of the Groundwater Remediation and Closure Assessments Projects, managed by the Management and Integration Project (#47043).

  5. System design document for the plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-08

    The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements for DOE standards for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This document describes the highest level design information and user characteristics from an operational perspective. It provides guidance for developing procurement and installation specifications, interface requirements, and test plans.

  6. SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL WASTE PACKAGE FILLER TESTING TECHNICAL GUIDELINES DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Cogar

    1996-08-28

    The purpose of this work is to provide supporting calculations for determination of the radiation source terms specific to subsurface shielding design and analysis. These calculations are not intended to provide the absolute values of the source terms, which are under the charter of the Waste Package Operations (WPO) Group. Rather, the calculations focus on evaluation of the various combinations of fuel enrichment, burnup and cooling time for a given decay heat output, consistent with the waste package (WP) thermal design basis. The objective is to determine the worst-case combination of the fuel characteristics (enrichment, burnup and cooling time) which would give the maximum radiation fields for subsurface shielding considerations. The calculations are limited to PWR fuel only, since the WP design is currently evolving with thinner walls and a reduced heat load as compared to the viability assessment (VA) reference design. The results for PWR fuel will provide a comparable indication of the trend for BWR fuel, as their characteristics are similar. The source term development for defense high-level waste and other spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is the responsibility of the WPO Group, and therefore, is not included this work. This work includes the following items responsive to the stated purpose and objective: (1) Determine the possible fuel parameters (initial enrichment, burnup and cooling time), that give the same decay heat value as specified for the waste package thermal design; (2) Obtain the neutron and gamma source terms for the various combinations of the fuel parameters for use in radiation field calculations; and (3) Calculate radiation fields on the surfaces of the waste package and its transporter to quantify the effects of the fuel parameters with the same decay heat value for use in identifying the worst-case combination of the fuel parameters.

  7. Annex II technical documentation assessed.

    PubMed

    van Drongelen, A W; Roszek, B; van Tienhoven, E A E; Geertsma, R E; Boumans, R T; Kraus, J J A M

    2005-12-01

    Annex II of the Medical Device Directive (MDD) is used frequently by manufacturers to obtain CE-marking. This procedure relies on a full quality assurance system and does not require an assessment of the individual medical device by a Notified Body. An investigation into the availability and the quality of technical documentation for Annex II devices revealed severe shortcomings, which are reported here.

  8. River Data Package for Hanford Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Guensch, Gregory R.; Patton, Gregory W.

    2006-08-01

    This data package documents the technical basis for selecting physical and hydraulic parameters and input values that will be used in river modeling for Hanford assessments. This work was originally conducted as part of the Characterization of Systems Task of the Groundwater Remediation Project managed by Fluor Hanford, Inc. and revised as part of the Characterization of Systems Project managed by PNNL for DOE. The river data package provides calculations of flow and transport in the Columbia River system. The module is based on the legacy code for the Modular Aquatic Simulation System II (MASS2), which is a two-dimensional, depth-averaged model that provides the capability to simulate the lateral (bank-to-bank) variation of flow and contaminants. It simulates river hydrodynamics (water velocities and surface elevations), sediment transport, contaminant transport, biotic transport, and sediment-contaminant interaction, including both suspended sediments and bed sediments. This document presents the data assembled to run the river module components for the section of the Columbia River from Vernita Bridge to the confluence with the Yakima River. MASS2 requires data on the river flow rate, downstream water surface elevation, groundwater influx and contaminants flux, background concentrations of contaminants, channel bathymetry, and the bed and suspended sediment properties. Stochastic variability for some input parameters such as partition coefficient (kd) values and background radionuclide concentrations is generated by the Environmental Stochastic Preprocessor. River flow is randomized on a yearly basis. At this time, the conceptual model does not incorporate extreme flooding (for example, 50 to 100 years) or dam removal scenarios.

  9. Documentation of the seawater intrusion (SWI2) package for MODFLOW

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakker, Mark; Schaars, Frans; Hughes, Joseph D.; Langevin, Christian D.; Dausman, Alyssa M.

    2013-01-01

    The SWI2 Package is the latest release of the Seawater Intrusion (SWI) Package for MODFLOW. The SWI2 Package allows three-dimensional vertically integrated variable-density groundwater flow and seawater intrusion in coastal multiaquifer systems to be simulated using MODFLOW-2005. Vertically integrated variable-density groundwater flow is based on the Dupuit approximation in which an aquifer is vertically discretized into zones of differing densities, separated from each other by defined surfaces representing interfaces or density isosurfaces. The numerical approach used in the SWI2 Package does not account for diffusion and dispersion and should not be used where these processes are important. The resulting differential equations are equivalent in form to the groundwater flow equation for uniform-density flow. The approach implemented in the SWI2 Package allows density effects to be incorporated into MODFLOW-2005 through the addition of pseudo-source terms to the groundwater flow equation without the need to solve a separate advective-dispersive transport equation. Vertical and horizontal movement of defined density surfaces is calculated separately using a combination of fluxes calculated through solution of the groundwater flow equation and a simple tip and toe tracking algorithm. Use of the SWI2 Package in MODFLOW-2005 only requires the addition of a single additional input file and modification of boundary heads to freshwater heads referenced to the top of the aquifer. Fluid density within model layers can be represented using zones of constant density (stratified flow) or continuously varying density (piecewise linear in the vertical direction) in the SWI2 Package. The main advantage of using the SWI2 Package instead of variable-density groundwater flow and dispersive solute transport codes, such as SEAWAT and SUTRA, is that fewer model cells are required for simulations using the SWI2 Package because every aquifer can be represented by a single layer of cells

  10. Vadose Zone Hydrogeology Data Package for Hanford Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Last, George V.; Freeman, Eugene J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Fayer, Michael J.; Gee, Glendon W.; Nichols, William E.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.

    2006-06-01

    This data package documents the technical basis for selecting physical and geochemical parameters and input values that will be used in vadose zone modeling for Hanford assessments. This work was originally conducted as part of the Characterization of Systems Task of the Groundwater Remediation Project managed by Fluor Hanford, Inc., Richland, Washington, and revised as part of the Characterization of Systems Project managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL). This data package describes the geologic framework, the physical, hydrologic, and contaminant transport properties of the geologic materials, and deep drainage (i.e., recharge) estimates, and builds on the general framework developed for the initial assessment conducted using the System Assessment Capability (SAC) (Bryce et al. 2002). The general approach for this work was to update and provide incremental improvements over the previous SAC data package completed in 2001. As with the previous SAC data package, much of the data and interpreted information were extracted from existing documents and databases. Every attempt was made to provide traceability to the original source(s) of the data or interpretations.

  11. Environmental assessment of packaging: Sense and sensibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooijman, Jan M.

    1993-09-01

    The functions of packaging are derived from product requirements, thus for insight into the environmental effects of packaging the actual combination of product and package has to be evaluated along the production and distribution system. This extension to all related environmental aspects adds realism to the environmental analysis and provides guidance for design while preventing a too detailed investigation of parts of the production system. This approach is contrary to current environmental studies where packaging is always treated as an independent object, neglecting the more important environmental effects of the product that are influenced by packaging. The general analysis and quantification stages for this approach are described, and the currently available methods for the assessment of environmental effects are reviewed. To limit the workload involved in an environmental assessment, a step-by-step analysis and the use of feedback is recommended. First the dominant environmental effects of a particular product and its production and distribution are estimated. Then, on the basis of these preliminary results, the appropriate system boundaries are chosen and the need for further or more detailed environmental analysis is determined. For typical food and drink applications, the effect of different system boundaries on the outcome of environmental assessments and the advantage of the step-by-step analysis of the food supply system is shown. It appears that, depending on the consumer group, different advice for reduction of environmental effects has to be given. Furthermore, because of interrelated environmental effects of the food supply system, the continuing quest for more detailed and accurate analysis of the package components is not necessary for improved management of the environmental effects of packaging.

  12. A Guide to the Client Assessment Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NTS Research Corp., Durham, NC.

    This guide provides users of the Client Assessment Package (CAP)--a system of forms for recording the process of seeking and using information and assistance for educational improvement--with definitions, operational procedures, and instructions necessary to complete the forms accurately. The purposes of CAP are threefold: to help develop an…

  13. Test and evaluation document for DOT Specification 7A type A packaging. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, D L

    1997-08-04

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has been conducting, through several of its operating contractors, an evaluation and testing program to qualify Type A radioactive material packagings per US Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 7A (DOT-7A) of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 49, Part 178 (49 CFR 178). This document summarizes the evaluation and testing performed for all of the packagings successfully qualified in this program. This document supersedes DOE Evaluation Document for DOT-7A Type A Packaging (Edling 1987), originally issued in 1987 by Monsanto Research Corporation Mound Laboratory (MLM), Miamisburg, Ohio, for the Department of Energy, Security Evaluation Program (I)P-4. Mound Laboratory issued four revisions to the document between November 1988 and December 1989. In September 1989, the program was transferred to Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) in Richland, Washington. One additional revision was issued in March 1990 by Westinghouse Hanford. This revision reflects the earlier material and incorporates a number of changes. Evaluation and testing activities on 1208 three DOT-7A Program Dockets resulted in the qualification of three new packaging configurations, which are incorporated herein and summarized. This document presents approximately 300 different packagings that have been determined to meet the requirements for a DOT-7A, type A packaging per 49 CFR 178.350.

  14. Documentation and analysis for packaging for surface moisture measurement system 7A containers

    SciTech Connect

    Clem, D.K.

    1996-06-17

    This documentation and analysis for packaging documents that two, procured, carbon steel 5-gal drums meet all applicable U.S.Department of Transportation-7A requirements. One container will be used to transport a 0.009 Ci 252 Cf source and the other to transport a 1.7 Ci Am-Be source to and from various 200 Area tank farms.

  15. Release Data Package for Hanford Site Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Robert G.; Lopresti, Charles A.; Engel, David W.

    2006-07-01

    Beginning in fiscal year (FY) 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office initiated activities, including the development of data packages, to support a Hanford assessment. This report describes the data compiled in FY 2003 through 2005 to support the Release Module of the System Assessment Capability (SAC) for the updated composite analysis. This work was completed as part of the Characterization of Systems Project, part of the Remediation and Closure Science Project, the Hanford Assessments Project, and the Characterization of Systems Project managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Related characterization activities and data packages for the vadose zone and groundwater are being developed under the remediation Decision Support Task of the Groundwater Remediation Project managed by Fluor Hanford, Inc. The Release Module applies release models to waste inventory data from the Inventory Module and accounts for site remediation activities as a function of time. The resulting releases to the vadose zone, expressed as time profiles of annual rates, become source terms for the Vadose Zone Module. Radioactive decay is accounted for in all inputs and outputs of the Release Module. The Release Module is implemented as the VADER (Vadose zone Environmental Release) computer code. Key components of the Release Module are numerical models (i.e., liquid, soil-debris, cement, saltcake, and reactor block) that simulate contaminant release from the different waste source types found at the Hanford Site. The Release Module also handles remediation transfers to onsite and offsite repositories.

  16. Exposure Assessment of Chemicals from Packaging Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poças, Maria De Fátima; Hogg, Timothy

    A variety of chemicals may enter our food supply, by means of intentional or unintentional addition, at different stages of the food chain. These chemicals include food additives, pesticide residues, environmental contaminants, mycotox-ins, flavoring substances, and micronutrients. Packaging systems and other food-contact materials are also a source of chemicals contaminating food products and beverages. Monitoring exposure to these chemicals has become an integral part of ensuring the safety of the food supply. Within the context of the risk analysis approach and more specifically as an integral part of risk assessment procedures, the exercise known as exposure assessment is crucial in providing data to allow sound judgments concerning risks to human health. The exercise of obtaining this data is part of the process of revealing sources of contamination and assessing the effectiveness of strategies for minimizing the risk from chemical contamination in the food supply (Lambe, 2002).

  17. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Wei; Gowri, Krishnan; Lane, Michael D.; Thornton, Brian A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Liu, Bing

    2009-09-28

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process, methodology and assumptions for development of the 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings, a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in highway lodging properties over the energy-efficiency levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.

  18. Test and evaluation document for DOT Specification 7A Type A packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Cruse, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has been conducting, through several of its operating contractors, an evaluation and testing program to qualify Type A radioactive material packagings per US Department of Transportation Specification 7A (DOT-7A) of the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 49, Part 178, Section 178.350 (49 CFR 178.350). This program is called the DOT-7A Program. The DOT-7A Program is currently administered by the DOE, Division of Quality Verification and Transportation Safety, DOE/EH-33.3, at DOE-Headquarters in Germantown, Maryland. This document presents approximately 200 different packagings that have been determined to meet the requirements for a DOT Specification 7A Type A packaging per 49 CFR 178.350. It was originally prepared in 1987 by Monsanto Research Corporation -- Mound Laboratory for the DOE`s Security Evaluation Program to facilitate the regulation changes implemented by HM-169 for all DOE contractors. In September 1989, the program was transferred to Westinghouse Hanford Company, which is located in Richland, Washington. The specific packaging data contained in this document will serve to meet the requirements of 49 CFR 173.415(a) for ``. . . documentation of tests . . . `` when the packagings are used as prescribed herein. However, shippers are cautioned that additional documentation will be needed to fulfill all of the requirements for a particular shipment. Most important is the evaluation of the contents to be shipped for compatibility with the packaging and that their characteristics are bounded by the simulated contents used in qualification testing.

  19. Test and evaluation document for DOT Specification 7A Type A Packaging. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has been conducting, through several of its operating contractors, an evaluation and testing program to qualify Type A radioactive material packagings per US Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 7A (DOT-7A) of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 49, Part 178 (49 CFR 178). The program is currently administered by the DOE, Office of Facility Safety Analysis, DOE/EH-32, at DOE-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) in Germantown, Maryland. This document summarizes the evaluation and testing performed for all of the packagings successfully qualified in this program.

  20. Inventory Data Package for Hanford Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Kincaid, Charles T.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Miley, Terri B.; Nelson, Iral C.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Evans, John C.

    2006-06-01

    This document presents the basis for a compilation of inventory for radioactive contaminants of interest by year for all potentially impactive waste sites on the Hanford Site for which inventory data exist in records or could be reasonably estimated. This document also includes discussions of the historical, current, and reasonably foreseeable (1944 to 2070) future radioactive waste and waste sites; the inventories of radionuclides that may have a potential for environmental impacts; a description of the method(s) for estimating inventories where records are inadequate; a description of the screening method(s) used to select those sites and contaminants that might make a substantial contribution to impacts; a listing of the remedial actions and their completion dates for waste sites; and tables showing the best estimate inventories available for Hanford assessments.

  1. Representing nursing assessment documentation with ICNP.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Denise M; Kim, Hyeon-eui; Choi, Jeeyae; Goldberg, Howard S; Dykes, Patricia C

    2008-11-06

    The purpose of this study was to identify key concepts and semantic relations necessary to represent standardized and local patient assessment items in an electronic documentation system and to evaluate the degree to which coverage of both are represented by ICNP. A total of 805 unique assessment concepts were identified. Forty-three percent had exact matches in ICNP, and an additional 20% had matches in the ICNP classified as narrower, broader or other.

  2. Documentation pckage for the RFID temperature monitoring system (Of Model 9977 packages at NTS).

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.; Tsai, H.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2009-02-20

    The technical basis for extending the Model 9977 shipping package periodic maintenance beyond the one-year interval to a maximum of five years is based on the performance of the O-ring seals and the environmental conditions. The DOE Packaging Certification Program (PCP) has tasked Argonne National Laboratory to develop a Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) temperature monitoring system for use by the facility personnel at DAF/NTS. The RFID temperature monitoring system, depicted in the figure below, consists of the Mk-1 RFId tags, a reader, and a control computer mounted on a mobile platform that can operate as a stand-alone system, or it can be connected to the local IT network. As part of the Conditions of Approval of the CoC, the user must complete the prescribed training to become qualified and be certified for operation of the RFID temperature monitoring system. The training course will be administered by Argonne National Laboratory on behalf of the Headquarters Certifying Official. This is a complete documentation package for the RFID temperature monitoring system of the Model 9977 packagings at NTS. The documentation package will be used for training and certification. The table of contents are: Acceptance Testing Procedure of MK-1 RFID Tags for DOE/EM Nuclear Materials Management Applications; Acceptance Testing Result of MK-1 RFID Tags for DOE/EM Nuclear Materials Management Applications; Performance Test of the Single Bolt Seal Sensor for the Model 9977 Packaging; Calibration of Built-in Thermistors in RFID Tags for Nevada Test Site; Results of Calibration of Built-in Thermistors in RFID Tags; Results of Thermal Calibration of Second Batch of MK-I RFID Tags; Procedure for Installing and Removing MK-1 RFID Tag on Model 9977 Drum; User Guide for RFID Reader and Software for Temperature Monitoring of Model 9977 Drums at NTS; Software Quality Assurance Plan (SQAP) for the ARG-US System; Quality Category for the RFID Temperature Monitoring System; The

  3. Assessment of Quality Assurance Measures for Radioactive Material Transport Packages not Requiring Competent Authority Design Approval - 13282

    SciTech Connect

    Komann, Steffen; Groeke, Carsten; Droste, Bernhard

    2013-07-01

    The majority of transports of radioactive materials are carried out in packages which don't need a package design approval by a competent authority. Low-active radioactive materials are transported in such packages e.g. in the medical and pharmaceutical industry and in the nuclear industry as well. Decommissioning of NPP's leads to a strong demand for packages to transport low and middle active radioactive waste. According to IAEA regulations the 'non-competent authority approved package types' are the Excepted Packages and the Industrial Packages of Type IP-1, IP-2 and IP-3 and packages of Type A. For these types of packages an assessment by the competent authority is required for the quality assurance measures for the design, manufacture, testing, documentation, use, maintenance and inspection (IAEA SSR 6, Chap. 306). In general a compliance audit of the manufacturer of the packaging is required during this assessment procedure. Their regulatory level in the IAEA regulations is not comparable with the 'regulatory density' for packages requiring competent authority package design approval. Practices in different countries lead to different approaches within the assessment of the quality assurance measures in the management system as well as in the quality assurance program of a special package design. To use the package or packaging in a safe manner and in compliance with the regulations a management system for each phase of the life of the package or packaging is necessary. The relevant IAEA-SSR6 chap. 801 requires documentary verification by the consignor concerning package compliance with the requirements. (authors)

  4. Assessing Performance through Informal Techniques. Learning Package No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Carol; Smith, Carl, Comp.

    Originally developed for the Department of Defense Schools (DoDDS) system, this learning package on assessing performance through informal techniques is designed for teachers who wish to upgrade or expand their teaching skills on their own. The package includes a comprehensive search of the ERIC database; a lecture giving an overview on the topic;…

  5. The Changing Perspective in Reading Assessment. Learning Package No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simic, Marge; Smith, Carl, Comp.

    Originally developed for the Department of Defense Schools (DoDDS) system, this learning package on changing perspective in reading assessment is designed for teachers who wish to upgrade or expand their teaching skills on their own. The package includes a comprehensive search of the ERIC database; a lecture giving an overview on the topic; the…

  6. Environmental assessment of packaging: The consumer point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dam, Ynte K.

    1996-09-01

    When marketing environmentally responsible packaged products, the producer is confronted with consumer beliefs concerning the environmental friendliness of packaging materials. When making environmentally conscious packaging decisions, these consumer beliefs should be taken into account alongside the technical guidelines. Dutch consumer perceptions of the environmental friendliness of packaged products are reported and compared with the results of a life-cycle analysis assessment. It is shown that consumers judge environmental friendliness mainly from material and returnability. Furthermore, the consumer perception of the environmental friendliness of packaging material is based on the postconsumption waste, whereas the environmental effects of production are ignored. From the consumer beliefs concerning environmental friendliness implications are deduced for packaging policy and for environmental policy.

  7. Advanced Materials Laboratory hazards assessment document

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, B.; Banda, Z.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy Order 55OO.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the AML. The entire inventory was screened according to the potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 23 meters. The highest emergency classification is a General Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is a nominal area that conforms to DOE boundaries and physical/jurisdictional boundaries such as fence lines and streets.

  8. Transmission line environmental assessment guidance document

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.; Pentecost, E.; Muzzarelli, J.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1939, U.S. utility companies have been required to obtain a Presidential Permit to construct electric transmission lines that cross a U.S. border and connect with a foreign utility. The purpose of this document is to provide Presidential Permit applicants with two types of guidance: (1) on the type of environmental and project descriptive information needed to assess the potential impacts of the proposed and alternative actions and (2) on compliance with applicable federal and state regulations. The main three chapters present information on the purpose and content of this document (Chapter 1); legislative, regulatory, and consultation requirements for transmission line interconnect projects (Chapter 2); and identification of basic transmission system design parameters and environmental data requirements for analysis of potential impacts of the proposed action (Chapter 3). Chapter 3 also includes information on possible techniques or measures to mitigate impacts. Appendix A presents an overview of NEPA requirements and DOE`s implementing procedures. Appendix B summarizes information on legislation that may be applicable to transmission line projects proposed in Presidential Permit applications.

  9. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume VII - Tritium Transport Model Documentation Package

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    Volume VII of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the tritium transport model documentation. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  10. Kauai Test Facility hazards assessment document

    SciTech Connect

    Swihart, A

    1995-05-01

    The Department of Energy Order 55003A requires facility-specific hazards assessment be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the Kauai Test Facility, Barking Sands, Kauai, Hawaii. The Kauai Test Facility`s chemical and radiological inventories were screened according to potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance to the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 4.2 kilometers. The highest emergency classification is a General Emergency at the {open_quotes}Main Complex{close_quotes} and a Site Area Emergency at the Kokole Point Launch Site. The Emergency Planning Zone for the {open_quotes}Main Complex{close_quotes} is 5 kilometers. The Emergency Planning Zone for the Kokole Point Launch Site is the Pacific Missile Range Facility`s site boundary.

  11. System specification/system design document comment review: Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System. Notes of conference

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    A meeting was held between DOE personnel and the BNFL team to review the proposed resolutions to DOE comments on the initial issue of the system specification and system design document for the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System. The objectives of this project are to design, fabricate, install, and start up a glovebox system for the safe repackaging of plutonium oxide and metal, with a requirement of a 50-year storage period. The areas discussed at the meeting were: nitrogen in can; moisture instrumentation; glovebox atmosphere; can marking-bar coding; weld quality; NFPA-101 references; inner can swabbing; ultimate storage environment; throughput; convenience can screw-top design; furnace/trays; authorization basis; compactor safety; schedule for DOE review actions; fire protection; criticality safety; applicable standards; approach to MC and A; homogeneous oxide; resistance welder power; and tray overfill. Revised resolutions were drafted and are presented.

  12. Development of a software package for electronic documentation of orthopaedic x-ray findings.

    PubMed

    Dew, Douglas K; Halpern, Steven J; Micheals, Charles E

    2007-10-11

    Proper documentation of x-ray findings, including anatomical location, joint position, arthritis location with severity, fracture patterns, bone changes,changes from joint arthroplasty, and ICD-9 coding,are a vital aspect of the orthopedic surgeons' daily office task. While radiology software is available for certain templated studies, there is little in the way of orthopaedic electronic documentation other than templated "pick-lists" for common findings. The authors developed a software package with line drawings of a selected anatomical area that are color coded to divide individual bones into proximal interarticular,distal inter-articular, and shaft fractures. Each color coded section of a bone details both fracture patterns and bone changes possible for that area of the bone or joint. When a cursor is moved over each section of the bone, the various fracture patterns and bone changes then appear on the screen. The chosen fracture pattern, along with its associated description, is then electronically recorded coupled with its ICD-9 code including the specific digit when appropriate.

  13. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume VI - Groundwater Flow Model Documentation Package

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    Volume VI of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the groundwater flow model data. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  14. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume II - Potentiometric Data Document Package

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    Volume II of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the potentiometric data. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  15. Disposal of LLW and ILW in Germany - Characterisation and Documentation of Waste Packages with Respect to the Change of Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Bandt, G.; Spicher, G.; Steyer, St.; Brennecke, P.

    2008-07-01

    Since the 1998 termination of LLW and ILW emplacement in the Morsleben repository (ERAM), Germany, the treatment, conditioning and documentation of radioactive waste products and packages have been continued on the basis of the waste acceptance requirements as of 1995, prepared for the Konrad repository near Salzgitter in Lower Saxony, Germany. The resulting waste products and packages are stored in interim storage facilities. Due to the Konrad license issued in 2002 the waste acceptance requirements have to be completed by additional requirements imposed by the licensing authority, e. g. for the declaration of chemical waste package constituents. Therefore, documentation of waste products and packages which are checked by independent experts and are in parts approved by the responsible authority (Office for Radiation Protection, BfS) up to now will have to be checked again for fulfilling the final waste acceptance requirements prior to disposal. In order to simplify these additional checks, databases are used to ensure an easy access to all known facts about the waste packages. A short balance of the existing waste products and packages which are already checked and partly approved by BfS as well as an overview on the established databases ensuring a fast access to the known facts about the conditioning processes is presented. (authors)

  16. Documenting Student Performance through Effective Performance Assessments: Workshop Summary. Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Agricultural Education Curriculum Materials Service.

    This document contains materials about and from a workshop that was conducted to help Ohio horticulture teachers learn to document student competence through effective performance assessments. The document begins with background information about the workshop and a list of workshop objectives. Presented next is a key to the 40 performance…

  17. Emergency Response Capability Baseline Needs Assessment - Requirements Document

    SciTech Connect

    Sharry, John A.

    2016-10-04

    This document was prepared by John A. Sharry, LLNL Fire Marshal and LLNL Division Leader for Fire Protection and reviewed by LLNL Emergency Management Department Head James Colson. The document follows and expands upon the format and contents of the DOE Model Fire Protection Baseline Capabilities Assessment document contained on the DOE Fire Protection Web Site, but only addresses emergency response.

  18. Quality assessment of packaged foods by optical oxygen sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papkovsky, Dmitri B.; O'Mahony, Fiach C.; Kerry, Joe P.; Ogurtsov, Vladimir I.

    2005-11-01

    A phase-fluorometric oxygen sensor system has been developed, which allows non-destructive measurement of residual oxygen levels in sealed containers such as packaged foods. It operates with disposable solid-state sensors incorporated in each pack, and a portable detector which interrogates with the sensors through a (semi)transparent packaging material. The system has been optimized for packaging applications and validated in small and medium scale trials with different types of food, including MAP hams, cheese, convenience foods, smoked fish, bakery. It has demonstrated high efficiency in monitoring package integrity, oxygen profiles in packs, performance of packaging process and many other research and quality control tasks, allowing control of 100% of packs. The low-cost batch-calibrated sensors have demonstrated reliability, safety, stability including direct contact with food, high efficiency in the low oxygen range. Another system, which also employs the fluorescence-based oxygen sensing approach, provides rapid assessment of microbial contamination (total viable counts) in complex samples such as food homogenates, industrial waste, environmental samples, etc. It uses soluble oxygen-sensitive probes, standard microtitter plates and fluorescence measurements on conventional plate reader to monitor growth of aerobic bacteria in small test samples (e.g. food homogenates) via their oxygen respiration. The assay provides high sample through put, miniaturization, speed, and can serve as alternative to the established methods such as agar plate colony counts and turbidimetry.

  19. Waste Form Release Data Package for the 2005 Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Eric M.; McGrail, B. Peter; Rodriguez, Elsa A.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Saripalli, Prasad; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Martin, P. F.; Baum, Steven R.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Reed, Lunde R.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2004-09-01

    This data package documents the experimentally derived input data on the representative waste glasses; LAWA44, LAWB45, and LAWC22. This data will be used for Subsurface Transport Over Reactive Multi-phases (STORM) simulations of the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) for immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). The STORM code will be used to provide the near-field radionuclide release source term for a performance assessment to be issued in July 2005. Documented in this data package are data related to 1) kinetic rate law parameters for glass dissolution, 2) alkali (Na+)-hydrogen (H+) ion exchange rate, 3) chemical reaction network of secondary phases that form in accelerated weathering tests, and 4) thermodynamic equilibrium constants assigned to these secondary phases. The kinetic rate law and Na+-H+ ion exchange rate were determined from single-pass flow-through experiments. Pressurized unsaturated flow (PUF) and product consistency (PCT) tests where used for accelerated weathering or aging of the glasses in order to determine a chemical reaction network of secondary phases that form. The majority of the thermodynamic data used in this data package were extracted from the thermody-namic database package shipped with the geochemical code EQ3/6, version 8.0. Because of the expected importance of 129I release from secondary waste streams being sent to IDF from various thermal treatment processes, parameter estimates for diffusional release and solubility-controlled release from cementitious waste forms were estimated from the available literature.

  20. Using Reflection Documents to Assess Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Larkin A.

    2009-01-01

    Traditional assessment methods such as tests and essays may not be adequate to evaluate students' ability to solve problems and think critically. I developed a qualitative assessment technique for a junior-level Wildlife Management Techniques course that incorporated written responses in a pre- and post-course reflection exercise. I provided the…

  1. Waste Form Release Data Package for the 2001 Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    McGrail, B. Peter; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Martin, Paul F.; Schaef, Herbert T.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Rodriguez, Eugenio; Steele, Jackie L.

    2001-02-01

    This data package documents the experimentally derived input data on the representative waste glasses LAWABP1 and HLP-31 that will be used for simulations of the immobilized lowactivity waste disposal system with the Subsurface Transport Over Reactive Multiphases (STORM) code. The STORM code will be used to provide the near-field radionuclide release source term for a performance assessment to be issued in March of 2001. Documented in this data package are data related to 1) kinetic rate law parameters for glass dissolution, 2) alkali-H ion exchange rate, 3) chemical reaction network of secondary phases that form in accelerated weathering tests, and 4) thermodynamic equilibrium constants assigned to these secondary phases. The kinetic rate law and Na+-H+ ion exchange rate were determined from single-pass flow-through experiments. Pressurized unsaturated flow and vapor hydration experiments were used for accelerated weathering or aging of the glasses. The majority of the thermodynamic data were extracted from the thermodynamic database package shipped with the geochemical code EQ3/6. However, several secondary reaction products identified from laboratory tests with prototypical LAW glasses were not included in this database, nor are the thermodynamic data available in the open literature. One of these phases, herschelite, was determined to have a potentially significant impact on the release calculations and so a solubility product was estimated using a polymer structure model developed for zeolites. Although this data package is relatively complete, final selection of ILAW glass compositions has not been done by the waste treatment plant contractor. Consequently, revisions to this data package to address new ILAW glass formulations are to be regularly expected.

  2. Strategy for experimental validation of waste package performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.K.; Abrajano, T.A. Jr.; Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Gerding, T.J.; Seils, C.A.

    1990-07-01

    A strategy for the experimental validation of waste package performance assessment has been developed as part of a program supported by the Repository Technology Program. The strategy was developed by reviewing the results of laboratory analog experiments, in-situ tests, repository simulation tests, and material interaction tests. As a result of the review, a listing of dependent and independent variables that influence the ingress of water into the near-field environment, the reaction between water and the waste form, and the transport of radionuclides from the near-field environment was developed. The variables necessary to incorporate into an experimental validation strategy were chosen by identifying those which had the greatest effect of each of the three major events, i.e., groundwater ingress, waste package reactions, and radionuclide transport. The methodology to perform validation experiments was examined by utilizing an existing laboratory analog approach developed for unsaturated testing of glass waste forms. 185 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Technical Basis Document No. 6: Waste Package and Drip Shield Corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J; Pasupathi, V; Nair, P; Gordon, G; McCright, D; Gdowski, G; Carroll, S; Steinborn, T; Summers, T; Wong, F; Rebak, R; Lian, T; Ilevbare, G; Lee, J; Hua, F; Payer, J

    2003-08-01

    The waste package and drip shield will experience a wide range of interactive environmental conditions and degradation modes that will determine the overall performance of the waste package and repository. The operable modes of degradation are determined by the temperature regime of operation (region), and are summarized here. Dry-Out Region (T {ge} 120 C; 50 to 400 Years): During the pre-closure period, the waste package will be kept dry by ventilation air. During the thermal pulse, heat generated by radioactive decay will eventually increase the temperature of the waste package, drip shield and drift wall to a level above the boiling point, where the probability of seepage into drifts will become insignificant. Further heating will push the waste package surface temperature above the deliquescence point of expected salt mixtures, thereby preventing the formation of deliquescence brines from dust deposits and humid air. Phase and time-temperature-transformation diagrams predicted for Alloy 22, and validated with experimental data, indicates no significant phase instabilities (LRO and TCP precipitation) at temperatures below 300 C for 10,000 years. Neither will dry oxidation at these elevated temperatures limit waste package life. After the peak temperature is reached, the waste package will begin to cool, eventually reaching a point where deliquescence brine formation may occur. However, corrosion testing of Alloy 22 underneath such films has shown no evidence of life-limiting localized corrosion. Transition Region (120 C {ge} T {ge} 100 C; 400 to 1,000 Years): During continued cooling, the temperature of the drift wall will drop to a level close to the boiling point of the seepage brine, thus permitting the onset of seepage. Corrosion in a concentrated, possibly aggressive, liquid-phase brine, evolved through evaporative concentration, is possible while in this region. However, based upon chemical divide theory, most ({ge} 99%) of the seepage water entering the

  4. Laboratory Biosafety and Biosecurity Risk Assessment Technical Guidance Document

    SciTech Connect

    Astuto-Gribble, Lisa M; Caskey, Susan Adele

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this document is threefold: 1) to describe the laboratory bio safety and biosecurity risk assessment process and its conceptual framework; 2) provide detailed guidance and suggested methodologies on how to conduct a risk assessment; and 3) present some practical risk assessment process strategies using realistic laboratory scenarios.

  5. 7 CFR 1260.313 - Document evidencing payment of assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to give the producer from whom the collecting person collected an assessment written evidence of payment of the Beef Promotion and Research Assessments. Such written evidence serving as a receipt shall... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Document evidencing payment of assessments....

  6. Documentation for the State Variables Package for the Groundwater-Management Process of MODFLOW-2005 (GWM-2005)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahlfeld, David P.; Barlow, Paul M.; Baker, Kristine M.

    2011-01-01

    Many groundwater-management problems are concerned with the control of one or more variables that reflect the state of a groundwater-flow system or a coupled groundwater/surface-water system. These system state variables include the distribution of heads within an aquifer, streamflow rates within a hydraulically connected stream, and flow rates into or out of aquifer storage. This report documents the new State Variables Package for the Groundwater-Management Process of MODFLOW-2005 (GWM-2005). The new package provides a means to explicitly represent heads, streamflows, and changes in aquifer storage as state variables in a GWM-2005 simulation. The availability of these state variables makes it possible to include system state in the objective function and enhances existing capabilities for constructing constraint sets for a groundwater-management formulation. The new package can be used to address groundwater-management problems such as the determination of withdrawal strategies that meet water-supply demands while simultaneously maximizing heads or streamflows, or minimizing changes in aquifer storage. Four sample problems are provided to demonstrate use of the new package for typical groundwater-management applications.

  7. Assessment of microelectronics packaging for high temperature, high reliability applications

    SciTech Connect

    Uribe, F.

    1997-04-01

    This report details characterization and development activities in electronic packaging for high temperature applications. This project was conducted through a Department of Energy sponsored Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between Sandia National Laboratories and General Motors. Even though the target application of this collaborative effort is an automotive electronic throttle control system which would be located in the engine compartment, results of this work are directly applicable to Sandia`s national security mission. The component count associated with the throttle control dictates the use of high density packaging not offered by conventional surface mount. An enabling packaging technology was selected and thermal models defined which characterized the thermal and mechanical response of the throttle control module. These models were used to optimize thick film multichip module design, characterize the thermal signatures of the electronic components inside the module, and to determine the temperature field and resulting thermal stresses under conditions that may be encountered during the operational life of the throttle control module. Because the need to use unpackaged devices limits the level of testing that can be performed either at the wafer level or as individual dice, an approach to assure a high level of reliability of the unpackaged components was formulated. Component assembly and interconnect technologies were also evaluated and characterized for high temperature applications. Electrical, mechanical and chemical characterizations of enabling die and component attach technologies were performed. Additionally, studies were conducted to assess the performance and reliability of gold and aluminum wire bonding to thick film conductor inks. Kinetic models were developed and validated to estimate wire bond reliability.

  8. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Medium Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Brian A.; Wang, Weimin; Lane, Michael D.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Liu, Bing

    2009-09-01

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process and methodology for development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium Offices (AEDG-MO or the Guide), a design guidance document which intends to provide recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in medium office buildings that just meet the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.

  9. Types, production and assessment of biobased food packaging materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food packaging performs an essential function, but packaging materials can have a negative impact on the environment. This book describes the latest advances in bio-based food packaging materials. Book provides a comprehensive review on bio-based, biodegradable and recycled materials and discusses t...

  10. Work Package 5: Contingency Management. Mission Planning Requirements Document: Preliminary Version. Revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify the general flight/mission planning requirements for same-day file-and-fly access to the NAS for both civil and military High-Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS). Currently the scope of this document is limited to Step 1, operations above flight level 43,000 feet (FL430). This document describes the current applicable mission planning requirements and procedures for both manned and unmanned aircraft and addresses HALE UAS flight planning considerations in the future National Airspace System (NAS). It also discusses the unique performance and operational capabilities of HALE UAS associated with the Access 5 Project, presents some of the projected performance characteristics and conceptual missions for future systems, and provides detailed analysis of the recommended mission planning elements for operating HALE UAS in the NAS.

  11. Pedagogical Voyeurism: Dialogic Critique of Documentation and Assessment of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matusov, Eugene; Marjanovic-Shane, Ana; Meacham, Sohyun

    2016-01-01

    We challenge a common emphasis on documentation and assessment of learning for providing good education: from the mainstream of neoliberal accountability movement to the progressive Reggio Emilia schools. We develop these arguments through discussing: 1) immeasurableness of education and learning, 2) students' ownership/authorship of education and…

  12. 7 CFR 1260.313 - Document evidencing payment of assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Document evidencing payment of assessments. 1260.313 Section 1260.313 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF...

  13. MODFLOW-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model -Documentation of the Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow (HUF) Package

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderman, E.R.; Hill, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow (HUF) Package for the groundwater modeling computer program MODFLOW-2000. The HUF Package is an alternative internal flow package that allows the vertical geometry of the system hydrogeology to be defined explicitly within the model using hydrogeologic units that can be different than the definition of the model layers. The HUF Package works with all the processes of MODFLOW-2000. For the Ground-Water Flow Process, the HUF Package calculates effective hydraulic properties for the model layers based on the hydraulic properties of the hydrogeologic units, which are defined by the user using parameters. The hydraulic properties are used to calculate the conductance coefficients and other terms needed to solve the ground-water flow equation. The sensitivity of the model to the parameters defined within the HUF Package input file can be calculated using the Sensitivity Process, using observations defined with the Observation Process. Optimal values of the parameters can be estimated by using the Parameter-Estimation Process. The HUF Package is nearly identical to the Layer-Property Flow (LPF) Package, the major difference being the definition of the vertical geometry of the system hydrogeology. Use of the HUF Package is illustrated in two test cases, which also serve to verify the performance of the package by showing that the Parameter-Estimation Process produces the true parameter values when exact observations are used.

  14. Common Ada (tradename) Missile Package (CAMP) Project. Missile Software Parts. Volume 7. Detail Design Document

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    Design Document Page 290’ RefDem_3_2; * Dcm iMatrix(Rowl,Col2) Dcmi Matrix(Rov2,Col3)* RefDcm_3_1 Ref Dcmi 21* Dcm atri(Row3 ,Col3); Dcmi Matrix(Rowl...Coil) :=Ref Dci 3-1; Dcmi Matrix(Row3,Col2) :=Ref Dcmi3 2; return DcmMatrix; end Dcm Initialized FromReference; CAMP Software Detailed Design Document...DcmHatrix(Row3,Coll)); Dcm iMatrix(Ro4~3,Coll) :=Dcm Matrix(Row3,Coll) _ _ _ __ (HalfRow2_DotRow3 * DcmHatrix(Row2,Coll)); Dcmi Matrix(Row2,Col2) Dcm

  15. Waste Receiving and Packaging, Module 2A, Supplemental Design Requirements Document

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberd, D.L.; Boothe, G.F.; Hinkle, A.L.; Horgos, R.M.; LeClair, M.D.; Nash, C.R.; Ocampo, V.P.; Pauly, T.R.; Stroup, J.L.; Weingardt, K.M.

    1994-04-26

    The Supplemental Design Requirements Document (SDRD) is used to communicate plant design information from Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the cognizant Architect Engineer (A/E). Information in the SDRD serves two purposes: to convey design requirements that are too detailed for inclusion in a Functional Design Criteria (FDC) report; and to serve as a means of change control for design commitments in the Conceptual Design Report. The mission of WRAP 2A on the Hanford site is the treatment of contact handled low level mixed waste (MW) for final disposal. The overall systems engineering steps used to reach construction and operation of WRAP 2A are depicted in Figure 1. The WRAP 2A SDRD focuses on the requirements to address the functional analysis provided in Figure 1. This information is provided in sections 2 through 5 of this SDRD. The mission analysis and functional analysis are to be provided in a separate supporting document. The organization of sections 2 through 5 corresponds to the requirements identified in the WRAP 2A functional analysis.

  16. Geochemical Data Package for Performance Assessment Calculations Related to the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, Daniel I.

    2016-07-22

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) disposes of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and stabilizes high-level radioactive waste (HLW) tanks in the subsurface environment. Calculations used to establish the radiological limits of these facilities are referred to as Performance Assessments (PA), Special Analyses (SA), and Composite Analyses (CA). The objective of this document is to revise existing geochemical input values used for these calculations. This work builds on earlier compilations of geochemical data (2007, 2010), referred to a geochemical data packages. This work is being conducted as part of the on-going maintenance program of the SRS PA programs that periodically updates calculations and data packages when new information becomes available. Because application of values without full understanding of their original purpose may lead to misuse, this document also provides the geochemical conceptual model, the approach used for selecting the values, the justification for selecting data, and the assumptions made to assure that the conceptual and numerical geochemical models are reasonably conservative (i.e., bias the recommended input values to reflect conditions that will tend to predict the maximum risk to the hypothetical recipient). This document provides 1088 input parameters for geochemical parameters describing transport processes for 64 elements (>740 radioisotopes) potentially occurring within eight subsurface disposal or tank closure areas: Slit Trenches (ST), Engineered Trenches (ET), Low Activity Waste Vault (LAWV), Intermediate Level (ILV) Vaults, Naval Reactor Component Disposal Areas (NRCDA), Components-in-Grout (CIG) Trenches, Saltstone Facility, and Closed Liquid Waste Tanks. The geochemical parameters described here are the distribution coefficient, Kd value, apparent solubility concentration, ks value, and the cementitious leachate impact factor.

  17. CP-50 calibration facility radiological safety assessment document

    SciTech Connect

    Chilton, M.W.; Hill, R.L.; Eubank, B.F.

    1980-03-01

    The CP-50 Calibration Facility Radiological Safety Assessment document, prepared at the request of the Nevada Operations Office of the US Department of Energy to satisfy provisions of ERDA Manual Chapter 0531, presents design features, systems controls, and procedures used in the operation of the calibration facility. Site and facility characteristics and routine and non-routine operations, including hypothetical incidents or accidents are discussed and design factors, source control systems, and radiation monitoring considerations are described.

  18. The role of assessment packages for diagnostic consultations: A conversation analytic perspective.

    PubMed

    Rossen, Camilla B; Buus, Niels; Stenager, Egon; Stenager, Elsebeth

    2015-05-01

    This article reports a conversation analysis of assessment package consultations. Healthcare delivery packages belong to a highly structured mode of healthcare delivery, in which specific courses of healthcare interventions related to assessment and treatment are predefined, both as to timing and content. Assessment packages are widely used in an increasing number of medical specialities; however, there is a lack of knowledge about how packaged assessment influences the interaction between doctor and patient. In this study, we investigate the final consultation in assessment packages, which is when the final clarification of the patient's symptoms takes place. The primary data of the study were eight audio recordings of consultations, and the secondary data were ethnographic field descriptions. In most consultations, packaged assessment was a resource as it provided fast and efficient clarification. In most cases, clarification was treated as good news since it either confirmed the absence of a serious disease or resulted in a diagnosis leading to relevant treatment offers. However, in some cases, clarification was not perceived as good news. This was the case in consultations with patients whose goal was to leave the consultation with clarification in the form of a definite diagnosis, but who were not offered such clarification. These patients negotiated the outcome of the consultation by applying implicit and explicit pressure, which induced the doctors to disregard the boundaries of the package and offer the patient more tests. The study highlights some of the problems related to introducing narrow, specialized package assessment.

  19. Food losses, shelf life extension and environmental impact of a packaged cheesecake: A life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Michele Mario; Meleddu, Marta; Piga, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Packaging is associated with a high environmental impact. This is also the case in the food industry despite packaging being necessary for maintaining food quality, safety assurance and preventing food waste. The aim of the present study was to identify improvements in food packaging solutions able to minimize environmental externalities while maximizing the economic sustainability. To this end, the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was applied to evaluate the environmental performance of new packaging solutions. The environmental impact of packaging and food losses and the balance between the two were examined in relation to a cheesecake that is normally packaged in low density polyethylene film and has a limited shelf life due to microbial growth. A shelf life extension was sought via application of the well-established modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) technique. Samples for MAP (N2/CO2: 70/30) were placed inside multilayer gas barrier trays, which were then wrapped with a multilayer gas and water barrier film (i.e. AerPack packaging); control batches were packaged in gas barrier recycled polyethylene terephthalate (XrPet) trays and wrapped with a XrPet film. Samples were then stored at 20°C and inspected at regular intervals for chemical-physical, microbiological and sensory parameters. Results show that the new packaging solution could considerably extend the shelf life of cheesecakes, thereby reducing food waste and decreasing the overall environmental impact. Moreover, the new packaging allows one to minimize transport costs and to generate economies of scale in manufacturing.

  20. Chip Scale Package Integrity Assessment by Isothermal Aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    1998-01-01

    Many aspects of chip scale package (CSP) technology, with focus on assembly reliability characteristics, are being investigated by the JPL-led consortia. Three types of test vehicles were considered for evaluation and currently two configurations have been built to optimize attachment processes. These test vehicles use numerous package types. To understand potential failure mechanisms of the packages, particularly solder ball attachment, the grid CSPs were subjected to environmental exposure. Package I/Os ranged from 40 to nearly 300. This paper presents both as assembled, up to 1, 000 hours of isothermal aging shear test results and photo micrographs, and tensile test results before and after 1,500 cycles in the range of -30/100 C for CSPs. Results will be compared to BGAs with the same the same isothermal aging environmental exposures.

  1. Bioburden assessment and gamma radiation inactivation patterns in parchment documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Inês; Mesquita, Nuno; Cabo Verde, Sandra; Carolino, Maria Manuela; Portugal, António; Botelho, Maria Luísa

    2013-07-01

    Parchment documents are part of our cultural heritage and, as historical artifacts that they are, should be preserved. The aim of this study was to validate an appropriate methodology to characterize the bioburden of parchment documents, and to assess the growth and gamma radiation inactivation patterns of the microbiota present in that material. Another goal was to estimate the minimum gamma radiation dose (Dmin) to be applied for the decontamination of parchment as an alternative treatment to the current toxic chemical and non-chemical decontamination methods. Two bioburden assessment methodologies were evaluated: the Swab Method (SM) and the Destructive Method (DM). The recovery efficiency of each method was estimated by artificial contamination, using a Cladosporium cladosporioides spore suspension. The parchment samples' microbiota was typified using morphological methods and the fungal isolates were identified by ITS-DNA sequencing. The inactivation pattern was assessed using the DM after exposure to different gamma radiation doses, and using C. cladosporioides as reference. Based on the applied methodology, parchment samples presented bioburden values lower than 5×103 CFU/cm2 for total microbiota, and lower than 10 CFU/cm2 for fungal propagules. The results suggest no evident inactivation trend for the natural parchment microbiota, especially regarding the fungal community. A minimum gamma radiation dose (Dmin) of 5 kGy is proposed for the decontamination treatment of parchment. Determining the minimal decontamination dose in parchment is essential for a correct application of gamma radiation as an alternative decontamination treatment for this type of documents avoiding the toxicity and the degradation promoted by the traditional chemical and non-chemical treatments.

  2. Geochemical Data Package for Performance Assessment Calculations Related to the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D

    2006-02-28

    The Savannah River Site disposes of certain types of radioactive waste within subsurface-engineered facilities. One of the tools used to establish the capacity of a given site to safely store radioactive waste (i.e., that a site does not exceed its Waste Acceptance Criteria) is the Performance Assessment (PA). The objective of this document is to provide the geochemical values for the PA calculations. This work is being conducted as part of the on-going maintenance program that permits the PA to periodically update existing calculations when new data becomes available. Because application of values without full understanding of their original purpose may lead to misuse, this document also provides the geochemical conceptual model, approach used for selecting the values, the justification for selecting data, and the assumptions made to assure that the conceptual and numerical geochemical models are reasonably conservative (i.e., reflect conditions that will tend to predict the maximum risk to the hypothetical recipient). The geochemical parameters describe transport processes for 38 elements (>90 radioisotopes) potentially occurring within eight disposal units (Slit Trenches, Engineered Trenches, Low Activity Waste (LAW) Vault, Intermediate Level (ILV) Vaults, TRU-Pad-1, Naval Reactor Waste Pads, Components-in-Grout Trenches, and Saltstone Facility). This work builds upon well-documented work from previous PA calculations (McDowell-Boyer et al. 2000). The new geochemical concepts introduced in this data package are: (1) In the past, solubility products were used only in a few conditions (element existing in a specific environmental setting). This has been expanded to >100 conditions. (2) Radionuclide chemistry in cementitious environments is described through the use of both the Kd and apparent solubility concentration limit. Furthermore, the solid phase is assumed to age during the assessment period (thousands of years), resulting in three main types of controlling

  3. Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory Building 878 hazards assessment document

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C.; Thornton, W.; Swihart, A.; Gilman, T.

    1994-07-01

    The introduction of the hazards assessment process is to document the impact of the release of hazards at the Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory (AMPL) that are significant enough to warrant consideration in Sandia National Laboratories` operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment is prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requirement that facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment provides an analysis of the potential airborne release of chemicals associated with the operations and processes at the AMPL. This research and development laboratory develops advanced manufacturing technologies, practices, and unique equipment and provides the fabrication of prototype hardware to meet the needs of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The focus of the hazards assessment is the airborne release of materials because this requires the most rapid, coordinated emergency response on the part of the AMPL, SNL/NM, collocated facilities, and surrounding jurisdiction to protect workers, the public, and the environment.

  4. Sandia Administrative Micrographics Facility, Building 802: Hazards assessment document

    SciTech Connect

    Swihart, A.

    1994-12-01

    The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the Sandia Administrative Micrographics Facility, Building 802. The entire inventory was screened according to the potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 33 meters. The highest emergency classification is a Site Area Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is 75 meters.

  5. Sandia Lightning Simulation Facility Building 888. Hazards assessment document

    SciTech Connect

    Banda, Z.; Barnett, B.

    1994-10-01

    The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the Sandia Lightning Simulation Facility, Building 888. The entire inventory was screened according to the potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 23 meters. The highest emergency classification is a Site Area Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is 65 meters.

  6. Simulation Technology Laboratory Building 970 hazards assessment document

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C.L.; Starr, M.D.

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the Simulation Technology Laboratory, Building 970. The entire inventory was screened according to the potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distances at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the ERPG-2 and Early Severe Health Effects thresholds are 78 and 46 meters, respectively. The highest emergency classification is a Site Area Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is 100 meters.

  7. Glass Formulation and Fabrication Laboratory, Building 864, Hazards assessment document

    SciTech Connect

    Banda, Z.; Wood, C.L.

    1995-08-01

    The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the Glass Formulation and Fabrication Laboratory, Building 864. The entire inventory was screened according to the potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distances at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the ERPG-2 threshold is 96 meters. The highest emergency classification is a Site Area Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is 100 meters.

  8. Assessing impact of manufacturing and package configurations to photosensitive compounds.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Thiago C; Escotet, Megerle L; Lin, Judy; Sprockel, Omar L

    2016-01-01

    Determining liability of photosensitive compounds during manufacturing, packaging, and storage remains a challenge for formulation scientists prior to the confirmatory photostability studies as per International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) Q1B guideline. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of light exposure to bulk process intermediates and drug product in the manufacturing environment as well as to evaluate package configurations for tablets containing Compound A. Samples were analyzed for both photodegradant levels and tablet appearance. Final blend, uncoated tablets, and coated tablets were exposed to fluorescent light relevant to the manufacturing environment. Final blend presented linear photodegradant growth from 6 to 72 h of equivalent light exposure in the manufacturing environment. Change in color of uncoated tablets occurred before quantifiable levels of photodegradant were reached. The film-coated tablets did not show photodegradation above quantifiable levels or a color shift for up to 48 h. Tablets in open conditions and packaged in HPDE bottles and PVC/Aclar (clear and opaque) were exposed to light at 1 × and 3 × the cumulative light exposure as defined in the ICH Q1B using Option 2 as the light source. The results showed that photodegradation is not a concern for all package configurations investigated and that extreme light exposure may cause a slight color shift for tablets in packages made of transparent materials. Most importantly, the study design presented herein provided a framework for an end-to-end evaluation of risks of manufacturing and packaging of tablets containing photolabile compounds prior to performing confirmatory photostability studies.

  9. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  10. Summary Describing Integration of ERM Methodology into Supervisory Control Framework with Software Package Documentation; Advanced Reactor Technology Milestone: M4AT-16PN2301052

    SciTech Connect

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Dib, Gerges; Veeramany, Arun; Bonebrake, Christopher A.; Roy, Surajit

    2016-09-20

    This project involved the development of enhanced risk monitors (ERMs) for active components in Advanced Reactor (AdvRx) designs by integrating real-time information about equipment condition with risk monitors. Health monitoring techniques in combination with predictive estimates of component failure based on condition and risk monitors can serve to indicate the risk posed by continued operation in the presence of detected degradation. This combination of predictive health monitoring based on equipment condition assessment and risk monitors can also enable optimization of maintenance scheduling with respect to the economics of plant operation. This report summarizes PNNL’s multi-year project on the development and evaluation of an ERM concept for active components while highlighting FY2016 accomplishments. Specifically, this report provides a status summary of the integration and demonstration of the prototypic ERM framework with the plant supervisory control algorithms being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and describes additional case studies conducted to assess sensitivity of the technology to different quantities. Supporting documentation on the software package to be provided to ONRL is incorporated in this report.

  11. Documentation of the Streamflow-Routing (SFR2) Package to Include Unsaturated Flow Beneath Streams - A Modification to SFR1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Niswonger, Richard G.; Prudic, David E.

    2005-01-01

    Many streams in the United States, especially those in semiarid regions, have reaches that are hydraulically disconnected from underlying aquifers. Ground-water withdrawals have decreased water levels in valley aquifers beneath streams, increasing the occurrence of disconnected streams and aquifers. The U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model (MODFLOW-2000) can be used to model these interactions using the Streamflow-Routing (SFR1) Package. However, the approach does not consider unsaturated flow between streams and aquifers and may not give realistic results in areas with significantly deep unsaturated zones. This documentation describes a method for extending the capabilities of MODFLOW-2000 by incorporating the ability to simulate unsaturated flow beneath streams. A kinematic-wave approximation to Richards' equation was solved by the method of characteristics to simulate unsaturated flow beneath streams in SFR1. This new package, called SFR2, includes all the capabilities of SFR1 and is designed to be used with MODFLOW-2000. Unlike SFR1, seepage loss from the stream may be restricted by the hydraulic conductivity of the unsaturated zone. Unsaturated flow is simulated independently of saturated flow within each model cell corresponding to a stream reach whenever the water table (head in MODFLOW) is below the elevation of the streambed. The relation between unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and water content is defined by the Brooks-Corey function. Unsaturated flow variables specified in SFR2 include saturated and initial water contents; saturated vertical hydraulic conductivity; and the Brooks-Corey exponent. These variables are defined independently for each stream reach. Unsaturated flow in SFR2 was compared to the U.S. Geological Survey's Variably Saturated Two-Dimensional Flow and Transport (VS2DT) Model for two test simulations. For both test simulations, results of the two models were in good agreement with respect to the magnitude and downward

  12. Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Safety Assessment Document

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, K.K.; Kendall, E.W.; Brown, J.J.

    1980-02-01

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Safety Assessment Document evaluates site characteristics, facilities and operating practices which contribute to the safe handling and storage/disposal of radioactive wastes at the Nevada Test Site. Physical geography, cultural factors, climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology (with emphasis on radionuclide migration), ecology, natural phenomena, and natural resources are discussed and determined to be suitable for effective containment of radionuclides. Also considered, as a separate section, are facilities and operating practices such as monitoring; storage/disposal criteria; site maintenance, equipment, and support; transportation and waste handling; and others which are adequate for the safe handling and storage/disposal of radioactive wastes. In conclusion, the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site is suitable for radioactive waste handling and storage/disposal for a maximum of twenty more years at the present rate of utilization.

  13. Hanford patrol firing range complex safety assessment document

    SciTech Connect

    BENDIXSEN, R.B.

    2001-09-19

    Analysis of the US Department of Energy's Central Training Academy) and other DOE complexes (WSI-SRS 1994, Ballistic Risk Assessment of Wackenhut Services, Inc). This safety analysis document (SAD) satisfies the requirements of DOE 0 440.1A. The preparation, review, and approval of this safety assessment document is in accordance with the guidelines of HNF-PRO-700, Safety Analysis and Technical Safety Requirements.

  14. Hazard classification assessment for the MC3423 detonator shipping package

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.B.

    1981-11-05

    An investigation was made to determine whether the MC3423 detonator should be assigned a DOT hazard classification of Detonating Fuze, Class C Explosive, per Federal Register 49 CFR 173.113, when packaged as specified. This study covers two propagation tests which evaluated the effects of two orientations of the MC3423 in its shipping tray. The method of testing was approved by DOE, Albuquerque Operations Office. Test data led to the recommended hazard classification of Detonating Fuze, Class C Explosive for both orientations of the detonator.

  15. Evaluating variability and uncertainty separately in microbial quantitative risk assessment using two R packages.

    PubMed

    Pouillot, Régis; Delignette-Muller, Marie Laure

    2010-09-01

    Quantitative risk assessment has emerged as a valuable tool to enhance the scientific basis of regulatory decisions in the food safety domain. This article introduces the use of two new computing resources (R packages) specifically developed to help risk assessors in their projects. The first package, "fitdistrplus", gathers tools for choosing and fitting a parametric univariate distribution to a given dataset. The data may be continuous or discrete. Continuous data may be right-, left- or interval-censored as is frequently obtained with analytical methods, with the possibility of various censoring thresholds within the dataset. Bootstrap procedures then allow the assessor to evaluate and model the uncertainty around the parameters and to transfer this information into a quantitative risk assessment model. The second package, "mc2d", helps to build and study two dimensional (or second-order) Monte-Carlo simulations in which the estimation of variability and uncertainty in the risk estimates is separated. This package easily allows the transfer of separated variability and uncertainty along a chain of conditional mathematical and probabilistic models. The usefulness of these packages is illustrated through a risk assessment of hemolytic and uremic syndrome in children linked to the presence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef. These R packages are freely available at the Comprehensive R Archive Network (cran.r-project.org).

  16. Recyclability assessment of nano-reinforced plastic packaging.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, C; Hortal, M; Aliaga, C; Devis, A; Cloquell-Ballester, V A

    2014-12-01

    Packaging is expected to become the leading application for nano-composites by 2020 due to the great advantages on mechanical and active properties achieved with these substances. As novel materials, and although there are some current applications in the market, there is still unknown areas under development. One key issue to be addressed is to know more about the implications of the nano-composite packaging materials once they become waste. The present study evaluates the extrusion process of four nanomaterials (Layered silicate modified nanoclay (Nanoclay1), Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3), Silver (Ag) and Zinc Oxide (ZnO) as part of different virgin polymer matrices of polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP) and Polyethyleneterephtalate (PET). Thus, the following film plastic materials: (PE-Nanoclay1, PE-CaCO3, PP-Ag, PET-ZnO, PET-Ag, PET-Nanoclay1) have been processed considering different recycling scenarios. Results on recyclability show that for PE and PP, in general terms and except for some minor variations in yellowness index, tensile modulus, tensile strength and tear strength (PE with Nanoclay1, PP with Ag), the introduction of nanomaterial in the recycling streams for plastic films does not affect the final recycled plastic material in terms of mechanical properties and material quality compared to conventional recycled plastic. Regarding PET, results show that the increasing addition of nanomaterial into the recycled PET matrix (especially PET-Ag) could influence important properties of the recycled material, due to a slight degradation of the polymer, such as increasing pinholes, degradation fumes and elongation at break. Moreover, it should be noted that colour deviations were visible in most of the samples (PE, PP and PET) in levels higher than 0.3 units (limit perceivable by the human eye). The acceptance of these changes in the properties of recycled PE, PP and PET will depend on the specific applications considered (e.g. packaging applications are more

  17. Recyclability assessment of nano-reinforced plastic packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez, C.; Hortal, M.; Aliaga, C.; Devis, A.; Cloquell-Ballester, V.A.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • The study compares the recyclability of polymers with and without nanoparticles. • Visual appearance, material quality and mechanical properties are evaluated. • Minor variations in mechanical properties in R-PE and R-PP with nanoparticles. • Slight degradation of R-PET which affect mechanical properties. • Colour deviations in recycled PE, PP and PET in ranges higher that 0.3 units. - Abstract: Packaging is expected to become the leading application for nano-composites by 2020 due to the great advantages on mechanical and active properties achieved with these substances. As novel materials, and although there are some current applications in the market, there is still unknown areas under development. One key issue to be addressed is to know more about the implications of the nano-composite packaging materials once they become waste. The present study evaluates the extrusion process of four nanomaterials (Layered silicate modified nanoclay (Nanoclay1), Calcium Carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), Silver (Ag) and Zinc Oxide (ZnO) as part of different virgin polymer matrices of polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP) and Polyethyleneterephtalate (PET). Thus, the following film plastic materials: (PE–Nanoclay1, PE–CaCO{sub 3}, PP–Ag, PET–ZnO, PET–Ag, PET–Nanoclay1) have been processed considering different recycling scenarios. Results on recyclability show that for PE and PP, in general terms and except for some minor variations in yellowness index, tensile modulus, tensile strength and tear strength (PE with Nanoclay1, PP with Ag), the introduction of nanomaterial in the recycling streams for plastic films does not affect the final recycled plastic material in terms of mechanical properties and material quality compared to conventional recycled plastic. Regarding PET, results show that the increasing addition of nanomaterial into the recycled PET matrix (especially PET–Ag) could influence important properties of the recycled material, due to a

  18. Vendor Assessment for the Waste Package Closure System (Yucca Mountain Project)

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton-Davis, C.V.

    2003-09-26

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been tasked with developing, designing, constructing, and operating a full-scale prototype of the work package closure system. As a precursor to developing the conceptual design, all commercially available equipment was assessed to identify any existing technology gaps. This report presents the results of that assessment for all major equipment.

  19. Vendor Assessment for the Waste Package Closure System (Yucca Mtn. Project)

    SciTech Connect

    Colleen Shelton-Davis

    2003-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been tasked with developing, designing, constructing, and operating a full-scale prototype of the work package closure system. As a precursor to developing the conceptual design, all commercially available equipment was assessed to identify any existing technology gaps. This report presents the results of that assessment for all major equipment.

  20. Assessment and Documentation Considerations for Postsecondary Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Jennifer H.; Lindstrom, Will

    2011-01-01

    In order to gain access to accommodations and services at colleges and universities, students with learning disabilities must provide documentation of their disabilities, and as students with learning disabilities access higher education at increasing rates, the need for documentation of their disabilities and its impact becomes even more…

  1. Life cycle assessment of a packaging waste recycling system in Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, S.; Cabral, M.; Cruz, N.F. da; Simões, P.; Marques, R.C.

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We modeled a real packaging waste recycling system. • The analysis was performed using the life cycle assessment methodology. • The 2010 situation was compared with scenarios where the materials were not recycled. • The “Baseline” scenario seems to be more beneficial to the environment. - Abstract: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been used to assess the environmental impacts associated with an activity or product life cycle. It has also been applied to assess the environmental performance related to waste management activities. This study analyses the packaging waste management system of a local public authority in Portugal. The operations of selective and refuse collection, sorting, recycling, landfilling and incineration of packaging waste were considered. The packaging waste management system in operation in 2010, which we called “Baseline” scenario, was compared with two hypothetical scenarios where all the packaging waste that was selectively collected in 2010 would undergo the refuse collection system and would be sent directly to incineration (called “Incineration” scenario) or to landfill (“Landfill” scenario). Overall, the results show that the “Baseline” scenario is more environmentally sound than the hypothetical scenarios.

  2. Shelf life assessment of industrial durum wheat bread as a function of packaging system.

    PubMed

    Licciardello, Fabio; Giannone, Virgilio; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Muratore, Giuseppe; Summo, Carmine; Giarnetti, Mariagrazia; Caponio, Francesco; Paradiso, Vito Michele; Pasqualone, Antonella

    2017-06-01

    This study compared the effect of different packaging systems on industrial durum wheat bread shelf-life, with regard to thermoformed packaging (TF) and flow-packaging (FP). Two TFs having different thickness and one FP were compared by assessing physico-chemical and sensorial properties and volatile compounds of sliced bread during 90days of storage. Texture, aw and bread moisture varied according to a first-order kinetic model, with FP samples ageing faster than TFs. Sensorial features such as consistency, stale odor, and sour odor, increased their intensity during storage. Furans decreased, whereas hexanal increased. The Principal Component Analysis of the whole dataset pointed out that the TF system at reduced thickness could be adopted up to 60days, without compromising the standard commercial life of industrial bread and allowing to save packaging material. The FP system would allow further saving, but it should be preferred when the expected product turnover is within 30days.

  3. Documentation of the Ecological Risk Assessment Computer Model ECORSK.5

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony F. Gallegos; Gilbert J. Gonzales

    1999-06-01

    The FORTRAN77 ecological risk computer model--ECORSK.5--has been used to estimate the potential toxicity of surficial deposits of radioactive and non-radioactive contaminants to several threatened and endangered (T and E) species at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). These analyses to date include preliminary toxicity estimates for the Mexican spotted owl, the American peregrine falcon, the bald eagle, and the southwestern willow flycatcher. This work has been performed as required for the Record of Decision for the construction of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility at LANL as part of the Environmental Impact Statement. The model is dependent on the use of the geographic information system and associated software--ARC/INFO--and has been used in conjunction with LANL's Facility for Information Management and Display (FIMAD) contaminant database. The integration of FIMAD data and ARC/INFO using ECORSK.5 allows the generation of spatial information from a gridded area of potential exposure called an Ecological Exposure Unit. ECORSK.5 was used to simulate exposures using a modified Environmental Protection Agency Quotient Method. The model can handle a large number of contaminants within the home range of T and E species. This integration results in the production of hazard indices which, when compared to risk evaluation criteria, estimate the potential for impact from consumption of contaminants in food and ingestion of soil. The assessment is considered a Tier-2 type of analysis. This report summarizes and documents the ECORSK.5 code, the mathematical models used in the development of ECORSK.5, and the input and other requirements for its operation. Other auxiliary FORTRAN 77 codes used for processing and graphing output from ECORSK.5 are also discussed. The reader may refer to reports cited in the introduction to obtain greater detail on past applications of ECORSK.5 and assumptions used in deriving model parameters.

  4. Assessing Usage Patterns of Electronic Clinical Documentation Templates

    PubMed Central

    Vawdrey, David K.

    2008-01-01

    Many vendors of electronic medical records support structured and free-text entry of clinical documents using configurable templates. At a healthcare institution comprising two large academic medical centers, a documentation management data mart and a custom, Web-accessible business intelligence application were developed to track the availability and usage of electronic documentation templates. For each medical center campus, template availability and usage trends were measured from November 2007 through February 2008. By February 2008, approximately 65,000 electronic notes were authored per week on the two campuses. One site had 934 available templates, with 313 being used to author at least one note. The other site had 765 templates, of which 480 were used. The most commonly used template at both campuses was a free text note called “Miscellaneous Nursing Note,” which accounted for 33.3% of total documents generated at one campus and 15.2% at the other. PMID:18998863

  5. Health Instruction Packages: Nursing--Patient Observation and Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Freda; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in this set of three learning modules to instruct nurses and nursing students in patient observation and assessment skills. The first module, "The ABC's of Observation" by Freda Cooper, provides psychiatric nurses and technicians with guidelines for determining the mental status of incoming…

  6. Using Pretreatment and Posttreatment Assessments To Enhance and Evaluate Existing Treatment Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, David M.; Berg, Wendy K.; Wacker, David P.; Stephens, Tracy; Rankin, Barbara; Kilroy, Jennette

    1997-01-01

    Pretreatment assessment data were used to enhance an existing treatment package to reduce aggression and to increase the positive social interactions of a 9-year-old boy with moderate mental retardation and Hunter's syndrome. Additional reinforcements and punishment components were added and resulted in positive social interactions and suppressed…

  7. Simulation processes for the nitrogen loss and environmental assessment package (NLEAP).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Nitrogen Loss and Environmental Assessment Package model with Geographic Information System (GIS) (NLEAP-GIS) has been updated to include a MS Windows© user interface and simulation code refinements for surface residue decay, N2O soil gas emissions, crop rooting, multiple simultaneous simulatio...

  8. Needs Assessment Package for Right to Read School-Based Centers; and Program Planning Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Right to Read Program.

    The Right to Read Needs Assessment Package (NAP) is designed to assist individual schools in evaluating their current reading program, personnel, and achievement in a relatively short period of time as a prelude to planning a more effective approach to reading instruction. The contents include instructions and suggested forms for the collection of…

  9. Assessing Instructional Documents: A Comparison of Writing Faculty, Engineering Faculty and Workplace Technical Communicator Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napierkowski, Harriet

    A study examined the assessment of instructional documents written by undergraduate engineering students in a 300-level technical writing course. The six documents were independently ranked by nine readers--three writing faculty, three engineering faculty, and three technical writing professionals. Besides ranking the documents, the nine readers…

  10. Assessing microbiologically induced corrosion of waste package materials in the Yucca Mountain repository

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, J. M., LLNL

    1998-01-01

    The contribution of bacterial activities to corrosion of nuclear waste package materials must be determined to predict the adequacy of containment for a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), NV. The program to evaluate potential microbially induced corrosion (MIC) of candidate waste container materials includes characterization of bacteria in the post-construction YM environment, determination of their required growth conditions and growth rates, quantitative assessment of the biochemical contribution to metal corrosion, and evaluation of overall MIC rates on candidate waste package materials.

  11. Polylactic acid trays for fresh-food packaging: A Carbon Footprint assessment.

    PubMed

    Ingrao, Carlo; Tricase, Caterina; Cholewa-Wójcik, Agnieszka; Kawecka, Agnieszka; Rana, Roberto; Siracusa, Valentina

    2015-12-15

    This paper discusses application of Carbon Footprint (CF) for quantification of the 100-year Global Warming Potential (GWP100) associated with the life cycle of polylactic acid (PLA) trays for packaging of fresh foods. A comparison with polystyrene (PS)-based trays was done considering two different transport system scenarios for PLA-granule supply to the tray production firm: a transoceanic freight vessel and an intercontinental freight aircraft. Doing so enabled estimation of the influence of the transportation phase on the GHG-emission rate associated with the PLA-trays' life cycle. From the assessment, the GWP100 resulted to be mainly due to PLA-granulate production and to its transportation to the tray manufacturing facility. Also, the study documented that, depending upon the transport system considered, the CF associated with the life cycle of the PLA trays can worsen so much that the latter are no longer GHG-emission saving as they are expected to be compared to the PS ones. Therefore, based upon the findings of the study, it was possible for the authors to understand the importance and the need of accounting for the transport-related issues in the design of PLA-based products, thus preserving their environmental soundness compared to traditional petroleum-based products. In this context, the study could be used as the base to reconsider the merits of PLA usage for product manufacturing, especially when high distances are implied, as in this analysed case. So, the authors believe that new research and policy frameworks should be designed and implemented for both development and promotion of more globally sustainable options.

  12. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR AND DOCUMENTATION OF BIOLOGICAL VALUES FOR USE IN RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. The document consists of an extensive compliation of values gleaned from published li...

  13. Documenting Student Competence through Effective Performance Assessment: Employability Skills. Workshop Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Agricultural Curriculum Materials Service.

    This report contains 26 performance assessments for documenting student employability skills. Each performance assessment consists of the following: a competency; a terminal performance objective (outcome); competency builders and pupil performance objectives (criteria for documenting mastery of the objective); applied academic competencies;…

  14. MODFLOW-2000 : the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model--documentation of the Advective-Transport Observation (ADV2) Package

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderman, Evan R.; Hill, Mary Catherine

    2001-01-01

    Observations of the advective component of contaminant transport in steady-state flow fields can provide important information for the calibration of ground-water flow models. This report documents the Advective-Transport Observation (ADV2) Package, version 2, which allows advective-transport observations to be used in the three-dimensional ground-water flow parameter-estimation model MODFLOW-2000. The ADV2 Package is compatible with some of the features in the Layer-Property Flow and Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow Packages, but is not compatible with the Block-Centered Flow or Generalized Finite-Difference Packages. The particle-tracking routine used in the ADV2 Package duplicates the semi-analytical method of MODPATH, as shown in a sample problem. Particles can be tracked in a forward or backward direction, and effects such as retardation can be simulated through manipulation of the effective-porosity value used to calculate velocity. Particles can be discharged at cells that are considered to be weak sinks, in which the sink applied does not capture all the water flowing into the cell, using one of two criteria: (1) if there is any outflow to a boundary condition such as a well or surface-water feature, or (2) if the outflow exceeds a user specified fraction of the cell budget. Although effective porosity could be included as a parameter in the regression, this capability is not included in this package. The weighted sum-of-squares objective function, which is minimized in the Parameter-Estimation Process, was augmented to include the square of the weighted x-, y-, and z-components of the differences between the simulated and observed advective-front locations at defined times, thereby including the direction of travel as well as the overall travel distance in the calibration process. The sensitivities of the particle movement to the parameters needed to minimize the objective function are calculated for any particle location using the exact sensitivity

  15. 7 CFR 1220.314 - Document evidencing payment of assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1220.314... assessment to a Qualified State Soybean Board or the United Soybean Board is required to give to the producer... producer. (6) Date. (7) State in which soybeans were grown. (b)...

  16. 7 CFR 1220.314 - Document evidencing payment of assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1220.314... assessment to a Qualified State Soybean Board or the United Soybean Board is required to give to the producer... producer. (6) Date. (7) State in which soybeans were grown. (b)...

  17. 7 CFR 1220.314 - Document evidencing payment of assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1220.314... assessment to a Qualified State Soybean Board or the United Soybean Board is required to give to the producer... producer. (6) Date. (7) State in which soybeans were grown. (b)...

  18. 7 CFR 1220.314 - Document evidencing payment of assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1220.314... assessment to a Qualified State Soybean Board or the United Soybean Board is required to give to the producer... producer. (6) Date. (7) State in which soybeans were grown. (b)...

  19. 7 CFR 1220.314 - Document evidencing payment of assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1220.314... assessment to a Qualified State Soybean Board or the United Soybean Board is required to give to the producer... producer. (6) Date. (7) State in which soybeans were grown. (b)...

  20. Documenting Reading Achievement and Growth for Students Taking Alternate Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tindal, Gerald; Nese, Joseph F. T.; Farley, Dan; Saven, Jessica L.; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2016-01-01

    Students with disabilities have been included in state accountability systems for more than a decade; however, only in the past few years have alternate assessments of alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS) become stable enough to allow examination of these students' achievement growth. Using data from Oregon's AA-AAS in Reading during the…

  1. Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) Documentation Version 2.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Http://www.epa.gov/nerlesd1/landsci/agwa/introduction.htm and www.tucson.ars.ag.gov/agwa) tool is a GIS interface jointly developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, USDA-Agricultural Research Service, University of Arizon...

  2. MODFLOW-2000, The U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model -- GMG Linear Equation Solver Package Documentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, John D.; Naff, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    A geometric multigrid solver (GMG), based in the preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm, has been developed for solving systems of equations resulting from applying the cell-centered finite difference algorithm to flow in porous media. This solver has been adapted to the U.S. Geological Survey ground-water flow model MODFLOW-2000. The documentation herein is a description of the solver and the adaptation to MODFLOW-2000.

  3. NUCDAM (Nuclear Damage Assessment Module) Control Document. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-19

    NOSC. Nuclear Damage Assessment BGTCSF NUCDAM Tactical Engagement Training Tactical Nuclear Weapon NWISS - 20 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse aide it...the configuration management plan by which changes to NUCDAM are initiated. U) DD IFORM 1473 EDITION or INOV SS IS OBSOLETEU UNCLASSIFIED TABLE OF...5I 3.2 NUCDAM Module ...... .. ... ....... 7 3.3 Nuclear Environments.. ........... 9 3.4 Unit OATs.......................... 9 3.5 Damage Environments

  4. Safety assessment document for the dynamic test complex (Building 836)

    SciTech Connect

    Odell, B.N.; Pfeifer, H.E.

    1981-11-24

    A safety assessment was performed to determine if potential accidents at the 836 Complex at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. These were earthquake, extreme wind (including missiles), lightning, flood, criticality, high explosive (H) detonation that disperses uranium and beryllium, spontaneous oxidation of plutonium, explosions due to finely divided particles, and a fire.

  5. Digital imaging technology assessment: Digital document storage project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    An ongoing technical assessment and requirements definition project is examining the potential role of digital imaging technology at NASA's STI facility. The focus is on the basic components of imaging technology in today's marketplace as well as the components anticipated in the near future. Presented is a requirement specification for a prototype project, an initial examination of current image processing at the STI facility, and an initial summary of image processing projects at other sites. Operational imaging systems incorporate scanners, optical storage, high resolution monitors, processing nodes, magnetic storage, jukeboxes, specialized boards, optical character recognition gear, pixel addressable printers, communications, and complex software processes.

  6. Documentation and user's guide for interactive spectral analysis and filter program package useful in the processing of seismic reflection data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    The spectral analysis and filter program package is written in the BASIC language for the HP-9845T desktop computer. The program's main purpose is to perform spectral analyses on digitized time-domain data. In addition, band-pass filtering of the data can be performed in the time domain. Various other processes such as autocorrelation can be performed to the time domain data in order to precondition them for spectral analyses. The frequency domain data can also be transformed back into the time domain if desired. Any data can be displayed on the CRT in graphic form using a variety of plot routines. A hard copy can be obtained immediately using the internal thermal printer. Data can also be displayed in tabular form on the CRT or internal thermal printer or it can be stored permanently on a mass storage device like a tape or disk. A list of the processes performed in the order in which they occurred can be displayed at any time.

  7. 75 FR 72829 - Los Alamos Historical Document Retrieval and Assessment (LAHDRA) Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Los Alamos Historical Document Retrieval and... Los Alamos Historical Document Retrieval and Assessment (LAHDRA)Project. Time and Date: 5 p.m.-7...

  8. Listening for Competence through Documentation: Assessing Children with Language Delays Using Digital Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, Stephanie Cox; Daniels, Karen J.

    2009-01-01

    This case study uses documentation as a tool for formative assessment to interpret the learning of twin boys with significantly delayed language skills. Reggio-inspired documentation (the act of collecting, interpreting, and reflecting on traces of learning from video, images, and observation notes) focused on the unfolding of the boys' nonverbal…

  9. 43 CFR 11.90 - What documentation must the authorized official prepare after completing the assessment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What documentation must the authorized official prepare after completing the assessment? 11.90 Section 11.90 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Post-Assessment Phase § 11.90...

  10. 43 CFR 11.90 - What documentation must the authorized official prepare after completing the assessment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What documentation must the authorized official prepare after completing the assessment? 11.90 Section 11.90 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Post-Assessment Phase § 11.90...

  11. A comprehensive plant-wide assessment of Amcor PET Packaging at Fairfield, California

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Losh; Hui Choi; Yin Yin Wu; Bryan W. Hackett; Ahmad R. Ganji

    2008-02-29

    This report includes the results of the plant-wide assessment of AMCOR PET plants in Fairfield, City of Commerce, and Lathrop California. The project (except the assessment of Lathrop plant) was a cost shared effort between US Department of Energy through Golden Field Office, Golden CO and AMCOR PET Packaging Co. The DOE share of the plant-wide assessment cost was awarded to AMCOR PET in response to the RFP DE-PS36-05GO95009, the 2005 round of funding for “Plant-Wide Energy Efficiency Opportunity Assessments.” The plant-wide assessment included the processes, electrical and gas equipment. Current production practices have been evaluated against best practice standards, as well as utilization of modern technology to improve energy efficiency, reduce the wastes, and improve productivity.

  12. Advanced Photon Source experimental beamline Safety Assessment Document: Addendum to the Advanced Photon Source Accelerator Systems Safety Assessment Document (APS-3.2.2.1.0)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This Safety Assessment Document (SAD) addresses commissioning and operation of the experimental beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Purpose of this document is to identify and describe the hazards associated with commissioning and operation of these beamlines and to document the measures taken to minimize these hazards and mitigate the hazard consequences. The potential hazards associated with the commissioning and operation of the APS facility have been identified and analyzed. Physical and administrative controls mitigate identified hazards. No hazard exists in this facility that has not been previously encountered and successfully mitigated in other accelerator and synchrotron radiation research facilities. This document is an updated version of the APS Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR). During the review of the PSAR in February 1990, the APS was determined to be a Low Hazard Facility. On June 14, 1993, the Acting Director of the Office of Energy Research endorsed the designation of the APS as a Low Hazard Facility, and this Safety Assessment Document supports that designation.

  13. Air Quality Modeling Technical Support Document for the 2015 Ozone NAAQS Preliminary Interstate Transport Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In this technical support document (TSD) EPA describes the air quality modeling performed to support the 2015 ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) preliminary interstate transport assessment Notice of Data Availability (NODA).

  14. Anaerobic digestion of starch-polyvinyl alcohol biopolymer packaging: biodegradability and environmental impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Guo, M; Trzcinski, A P; Stuckey, D C; Murphy, R J

    2011-12-01

    The digestibility of a starch-polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) biopolymer insulated cardboard coolbox was investigated under a defined anaerobic digestion (AD) system with key parameters characterized. Laboratory results were combined with industrial operational data to develop a site-specific life cycle assessment (LCA) model. Inoculated with active bacterial trophic groups, the anaerobic biodegradability of three starch-PVOH biopolymers achieved 58-62%. The LCA modeling showed that the environmental burdens of the starch-PVOH biopolymer packaging under AD conditions on acidification, eutrophication, global warming and photochemical oxidation potential were dominated by atmospheric emissions released from substrate degradation and fuel combustion, whereas energy consumption and infrastructure requirements were the causes of abiotic depletion, ozone depletion and toxic impacts. Nevertheless, for this bio-packaging, AD of the starch-PVOH biopolymer combined with recycling of the cardboard emerged as the environmentally superior option and optimization of the energy utilization system could bring further environmental benefits to the AD process.

  15. Safety assessment document for the Dynamic Test Complex B854

    SciTech Connect

    Odell, B.N.; Pfeifer, H.E.

    1981-12-11

    A safety assessment was performed to determine if potential accidents at the 854 Complex at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. These were earthquake, extreme wind (including missiles), lightning, flood, criticality, high explosive (HE) detonation that disperses uranium and beryllium, spontaneous oxidation of plutonium, explosions due to finely divided particles, and a fire. Seismic and extreme wind (including missiles) analyses indicate that the buildings are basically sound. The lightning protection system is in the process of being upgraded to meet AMCR 385-100. These buildings are located high above the dry creek bed so that a flood is improbable. The probability of high explosive detonation involving plutonium is very remote since the radioactive materials are encased and plutonium and HE are not permitted concurrently in the same area at Site 300. (The exception to this policy is that explosive actuating devices are sometimes located in assemblies containing fissile materials. However, an accidental actuation will not affect the safe containment of the plutonium within the assembly.) There is a remote possibility of an HE explosion involving uranium and beryllium since these are permitted in the same area.The possibility of a criticality accident is very remote since the fissile materials are doubly encased in stout metal containers. All operations involving these materials are independently reviewed and inspected by the Criticality Safety Office. It was determined that a fire was unlikely due to the low fire loading and the absence of ignition sources. It was also determined that the consequences of any accidents were reduced by the remote location of these facilities, their design, and by administrative controls.

  16. Waste Form Release Data Package for the 2005 Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment. Erratum

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Gary L.

    2016-09-06

    This report refers to or contains Kg values for glasses LAWA44, LAWB45 and LAWC22 affected by calculations errors as identified by Papathanassiu et al. (2011). The corrected Kg values are reported in an erratum included in the revised version of the original report. The revised report can be referenced as follows: Pierce E. M. et al. (2004) Waste Form Release Data Package for the 2005 Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment. PNNL-14805 Rev. 0 Erratum. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA.

  17. BASINs 4.0 Climate Assessment Tool (CAT): Supporting Documentation and User's Manual (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the report, BASINS 4.0 Climate Assessment Tool (CAT): Supporting Documentation and User's Manual. This report was prepared by the EPA's Global Change Research Program (GCRP), an assessment-oriented program, that sits within the Office of R...

  18. MODFLOW-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model; documentation of packages for simulating evapotranspiration with a segmented function (ETS1) and drains with return flow (DRT1)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banta, Edward R.

    2000-01-01

    Two new packages for the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water-flow model MODFLOW-2000 are documented. The new packages provide flexibility in simulating evapotranspiration and drain features not provided by the MODFLOW-2000 Evapotranspiration (EVT) and Drain (DRN) Packages. The report describes conceptualization of the packages, input instructions, listings and explanations of the source code, and example simulations. The new Evapotranspiration Segments (ETS 1) Package allows simulation of evapotranspiration with a user-defined relation between evapotranspiration rate and hydraulic head. This capability provides a degree of flexibility not supported by the EVT Package, which has been available in MODFLOW since its initial release. In the ETS 1 Package, the relation of evapotranspiration rate to hydraulic head is conceptualized as a segmented line between an evaporation surface, defined as the elevation where the evapotranspiration rate reaches a maximum, and an elevation located at an extinction depth below the evaporation surface, where the evapotranspiration rate reaches zero. The user supplies input to define as many intermediate segment endpoints as desired to define the relation of evapotranspiration rate to head between these two elevations. The EVT Package, in contrast, simulates evapotranspiration with a single linear function. The new Drain Return (DRT1) Package can be used to simulate the return flow of water discharged from a drain feature back into the ground-water system. The DRN Package, which has been available in MODFLOW since its initial release, does not have the capability to simulate return of flow. If the return-flow option of the DRT1 Package is selected, for each cell designated as a drain-return cell, the user has the option of specifying a proportion of the water simulated as leaving the ground-water system through the drain feature that is to be simulated as returning simultaneously to one other cell in the model.

  19. Compilation of Quality Assurance Documentation for Analyses Performed for the Resumption of Transient Testing Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Annette L. Schafer; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2013-11-01

    This is a companion document to the analyses performed in support of the environmental assessment for the Resumption of Transient Fuels and Materials Testing. It is provided to allow transparency of the supporting calculations. It provides computer code input and output. The basis for the calculations is documented separately in INL (2013) and is referenced, as appropriate. Spreadsheets used to manipulate the code output are not provided.

  20. Assessment of documentation requirements under DOE 5481. 1, Safety Analysis and Review System (SARS)

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, E.T.

    1981-03-01

    This report assesses the requirements of DOE Order 5481.1, Safety Analysis and Review System for DOE Operations (SARS) in regard to maintaining SARS documentation. Under SARS, all pertinent details of the entire safety analysis and review process for each DOE operation are to be traceable from the initial identification of a hazard. This report is intended to provide assistance in identifying the points in the SARS cycle at which documentation is required, what type of documentation is most appropriate, and where it ultimately should be maintained.

  1. Global review of open access risk assessment software packages valid for global or continental scale analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James; Simpson, Alanna; Gunasekara, Rashmin; Baca, Abigail; Schaefer, Andreas; Ishizawa, Oscar; Murnane, Rick; Tijssen, Annegien; Deparday, Vivien; Forni, Marc; Himmelfarb, Anne; Leder, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Over the past few decades, a plethora of open access software packages for the calculation of earthquake, volcanic, tsunami, storm surge, wind and flood have been produced globally. As part of the World Bank GFDRR Review released at the Understanding Risk 2014 Conference, over 80 such open access risk assessment software packages were examined. Commercial software was not considered in the evaluation. A preliminary analysis was used to determine whether the 80 models were currently supported and if they were open access. This process was used to select a subset of 31 models that include 8 earthquake models, 4 cyclone models, 11 flood models, and 8 storm surge/tsunami models for more detailed analysis. By using multi-criteria analysis (MCDA) and simple descriptions of the software uses, the review allows users to select a few relevant software packages for their own testing and development. The detailed analysis evaluated the models on the basis of over 100 criteria and provides a synopsis of available open access natural hazard risk modelling tools. In addition, volcano software packages have since been added making the compendium of risk software tools in excess of 100. There has been a huge increase in the quality and availability of open access/source software over the past few years. For example, private entities such as Deltares now have an open source policy regarding some flood models (NGHS). In addition, leaders in developing risk models in the public sector, such as Geoscience Australia (EQRM, TCRM, TsuDAT, AnuGA) or CAPRA (ERN-Flood, Hurricane, CRISIS2007 etc.), are launching and/or helping many other initiatives. As we achieve greater interoperability between modelling tools, we will also achieve a future wherein different open source and open access modelling tools will be increasingly connected and adapted towards unified multi-risk model platforms and highly customised solutions. It was seen that many software tools could be improved by enabling user

  2. Social Work Assessment Notes: A Comprehensive Outcomes-Based Hospice Documentation System.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Angela Gregory; Martin, Ellen; Jones, Barbara L; Pomeroy, Elizabeth C

    2015-08-01

    This article describes the development of an integrated psychosocial patient and caregiver assessment and plan of care for hospice social work documentation. A team of hospice social workers developed the Social Work Assessment Notes as a quality improvement project in collaboration with the information technology department. Using the Social Work Assessment Tool as an organizing framework, this comprehensive hospice social work documentation system is designed to integrate assessment, planning, and outcomes measurement. The system was developed to guide the assessment of patients' and caregivers' needs related to end-of-life psychosocial issues, to facilitate collaborative care plan development, and to measure patient- and family-centered outcomes. Goals established with the patient and the caregiver are documented in the plan of care and become the foundation for patient-centered, strengths-based interventions. Likert scales are used to assign numerical severity levels for identified issues and progress made toward goals and to track the outcome of social work interventions across nine psychosocial constructs. The documentation system was developed for use in an electronic health record but can be used for paper charting. Future plans include automated aggregate outcomes measurement to identify the most effective interventions and best practices in end-of-life care.

  3. Principles for social impact assessment: A critical comparison between the international and US documents

    SciTech Connect

    Vanclay, Frank . E-mail: Frank.Vanclay@utas.edu.au

    2006-01-15

    The 'International Principles for Social Impact Assessment' and the 'Principles and Guidelines for Social Impact Assessment in the USA', both developed under the auspices of the International Association for Impact Assessment and published in 2003, are compared. Major differences in the definition and approach to social impact assessment (SIA) are identified. The US Principles and Guidelines is shown to be positivist/technocratic while the International Principles is identified as being democratic, participatory and constructivist. Deficiencies in both documents are identified. The field of SIA is changing to go beyond the prevention of negative impacts, to include issues of building social capital, capacity building, good governance, community engagement and social inclusion.

  4. Documentation assessment, Project C-018H, 200-E area effluent treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Peres, M.W.; Connor, M.D.; Mertelendy, J.I.

    1994-12-21

    Project C-018H is one of the fourteen subprojects to the Hanford Environmental Compliance (HEC) Project. Project C-018H provides treatment and disposal for the 242-A Evaporator and PUREX plant process condensate waste streams. This project used the Integrated Management Team (IMT) approach proposed by RL. The IMT approach included all affected organizations on the project team to coordinate and execute all required project tasks, while striving to integrate and satisfy all technical, operational, functional, and organizational objectives. The HEC Projects were initiated in 1989. Project C-018H began in early 1990, with completion of construction currently targeted for mid-1995. This assessment was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the management control on design documents and quality assurance records developed and submitted for processing, use, and retention for the Project. The assessment focused primarily on the overall adequacy and quality of the design documentation currently being submitted to the project document control function.

  5. Nystagmus Assessments Documented by Emergency Physicians in Acute Dizziness Presentations: A Target for Decision Support?

    PubMed Central

    Kerber, Kevin A.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Meurer, William J.; McLaughlin, Thomas; Hall, Pamela A.; Forman, Jane; Fendrick, A. Mark; Newman-Toker, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Dizziness is a common presenting complaint to the emergency department (ED), and emergency physicians (EPs) consider these presentations a priority for decision support. Assessing for nystagmus and defining its features are important steps for any acute dizziness decision algorithm. The authors sought to describe nystagmus documentation in routine ED care to determine if nystagmus assessments might be an important target in decision support efforts. Methods Medical records from ED visits for dizziness were captured as part of a surveillance study embedded within an ongoing population-based cohort study. Visits with documentation of a nystagmus assessment were reviewed and coded for presence or absence of nystagmus, ability to draw a meaningful inference from the description, and coherence with the final EP diagnosis when a peripheral vestibular diagnosis was made. Results Of 1,091 visits for dizziness, 887 (81.3%) documented a nystagmus assessment. Nystagmus was present in 185 out of 887 (20.9%) visits. When nystagmus was present, no further characteristics were recorded in 48 of the 185 visits (26%). The documentation of nystagmus (including all descriptors recorded) enabled a meaningful inference about the localization or cause in only 10 of the 185 (5.4%) visits. The nystagmus description conflicted with the EP diagnosis in 113 (80.7%) of the 140 visits that received a peripheral vestibular diagnosis. Conclusions Nystagmus assessments are frequently documented in acute dizziness presentations, but details do not generally enable a meaningful inference. Recorded descriptions usually conflict with the diagnosis when a peripheral vestibular diagnosis is rendered. Nystagmus assessments might be an important target in developing decision support for dizziness presentations. PMID:21676060

  6. Utilization of biobased polymers in food packaging: Assessment of materials, production and commercialization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food packaging contains and protects food, keeps it safe and secure, retains food quality and freshness, and increases shelf-life of food. Packaging should be affordable and biodegradable. Packaging is the core of the businesses of fast-foods, ready meals, on-the-go beverages, snacks and manufacture...

  7. 75 FR 1793 - Study Team for the Los Alamos Historical Document Retrieval and Assessment (LAHDRA) Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Study Team for the Los Alamos Historical...: Public Meeting of the Study Team for the Los Alamos Historical Document Retrieval and Assessment Project...://www.ohkay.com/contactus.html . Status: Open to the public, limited only by the space available....

  8. Essential Communication and Documentation Skills. Module: Final Assessment and Action Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina, Muriel; And Others

    This module is the 10th of 10 in the Essential Communication and Documentation Skills curriculum. It develops final assessment and action planning, workplace literacy skills identified as being directly related to the job of the direct care worker. The curriculum is designed to improve the competence of New York State Division for Youth direct…

  9. Recharge Data Package for the 2005 Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Fayer, Michael J.; Szecsody, Jim E.

    2004-06-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory assisted CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc., (CHG) by providing estimates of recharge rates for current conditions and long-term scenarios involving disposal in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The IDF will be located in the 200 East Area at the Hanford Site and will receive several types of waste including immobilized low-activity waste. The recharge estimates for each scenario were derived from lysimeter and tracer data collected by the IDF PA Project and from modeling studies conducted for the project. Recharge estimates were provided for three specific site features (the surface barrier; possible barrier side slopes; and the surrounding soil) and four specific time periods (pre-Hanford; Hanford operations; surface barrier design life; post-barrier design life). CHG plans to conduct a performance assessment of the latest IDF design and call it the IDF 2005 PA; this recharge data package supports the upcoming IDF 2005 PA.

  10. The leak location package for assessment of the time-frequency correlation method for leak location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faerman, V. A.; Cheremnov, A. G.; Avramchuk, V. S.; Shepetovsky, D. V.

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes the simplest implementation of a software and hardware package for acoustic correlation leak location and results of its performance assessment for location of water leaks from a metallic pipe in laboratory conditions. A distinctive feature of this leak locator is the use of the software based on the time-frequency correlation analysis of signals, which was proposed in our previous papers. Comparative analysis results are given for the information content of classical and time-frequency cross-correlation functions as obtained during processing of experimental data. The results obtained justify comparatively higher efficiency of a time-frequency cross correlation method to solve the leak location task. Improved efficiency is determined by bandpass filtration embedded into the time-frequency cross-correlation function calculation.

  11. Secondary Waste Cementitious Waste Form Data Package for the Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R Jeffrey; Um, Wooyong; Cozzi, Alex D.

    2016-05-16

    A review of the most up-to-date and relevant data currently available was conducted to develop a set of recommended values for use in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) performance assessment (PA) to model contaminant release from a cementitious waste form for aqueous wastes treated at the Hanford Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). This data package relies primarily upon recent data collected on Cast Stone formulations fabricated with simulants of low-activity waste (LAW) and liquid secondary wastes expected to be produced at Hanford. These data were supplemented, when necessary, with data developed for saltstone (a similar grout waste form used at the Savannah River Site). Work is currently underway to collect data on cementitious waste forms that are similar to Cast Stone and saltstone but are tailored to the characteristics of ETF-treated liquid secondary wastes. Recommended values for key parameters to conduct PA modeling of contaminant release from ETF-treated liquid waste are provided.

  12. Computer program documentation modified version of the JA70 aerodynamic heating computer program H800 (MINIVER with a DISSPLA plot package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olmedo, L.

    1980-01-01

    The changes, modifications, and inclusions which were adapted to the current version of the MINIVER program are discussed. Extensive modifications were made to various subroutines, and a new plot package added. This plot package is the Johnson Space Center DISSPLA Graphics System currently driven under an 1110 EXEC 8 configuration. User instructions on executing the MINIVER program are provided and the plot package is described.

  13. Evaluation of a software package for automated quality assessment of contrast detail images—comparison with subjective visual assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascoal, A.; Lawinski, C. P.; Honey, I.; Blake, P.

    2005-12-01

    Contrast detail analysis is commonly used to assess image quality (IQ) associated with diagnostic imaging systems. Applications include routine assessment of equipment performance and optimization studies. Most frequently, the evaluation of contrast detail images involves human observers visually detecting the threshold contrast detail combinations in the image. However, the subjective nature of human perception and the variations in the decision threshold pose limits to the minimum image quality variations detectable with reliability. Objective methods of assessment of image quality such as automated scoring have the potential to overcome the above limitations. A software package (CDRAD analyser) developed for automated scoring of images produced with the CDRAD test object was evaluated. Its performance to assess absolute and relative IQ was compared with that of an average observer. Results show that the software does not mimic the absolute performance of the average observer. The software proved more sensitive and was able to detect smaller low-contrast variations. The observer's performance was superior to the software's in the detection of smaller details. Both scoring methods showed frequent agreement in the detection of image quality variations resulting from changes in kVp and KERMAdetector, which indicates the potential to use the software CDRAD analyser for assessment of relative IQ.

  14. Every document and picture tells a story: using internal corporate document reviews, semiotics, and content analysis to assess tobacco advertising

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, S J; Dewhirst, T; Ling, P M

    2006-01-01

    In this article we present communication theory as a conceptual framework for conducting documents research on tobacco advertising strategies, and we discuss two methods for analysing advertisements: semiotics and content analysis. We provide concrete examples of how we have used tobacco industry documents archives and tobacco advertisement collections iteratively in our research to yield a synergistic analysis of these two complementary data sources. Tobacco promotion researchers should consider adopting these theoretical and methodological approaches. PMID:16728758

  15. Every document and picture tells a story: using internal corporate document reviews, semiotics, and content analysis to assess tobacco advertising.

    PubMed

    Anderson, S J; Dewhirst, T; Ling, P M

    2006-06-01

    In this article we present communication theory as a conceptual framework for conducting documents research on tobacco advertising strategies, and we discuss two methods for analysing advertisements: semiotics and content analysis. We provide concrete examples of how we have used tobacco industry documents archives and tobacco advertisement collections iteratively in our research to yield a synergistic analysis of these two complementary data sources. Tobacco promotion researchers should consider adopting these theoretical and methodological approaches.

  16. ss3sim: an R package for fisheries Stock Assessment simulation with stock synthesis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sean C; Monnahan, Cole C; Johnson, Kelli F; Ono, Kotaro; Valero, Juan L

    2014-01-01

    Simulation testing is an important approach to evaluating fishery stock assessment methods. In the last decade, the fisheries stock assessment modeling framework Stock Synthesis (SS3) has become widely used around the world. However, there lacks a generalized and scriptable framework for SS3 simulation testing. Here, we introduce ss3sim, an R package that facilitates reproducible, flexible, and rapid end-to-end simulation testing with SS3. ss3sim requires an existing SS3 model configuration along with plain-text control files describing alternative population dynamics, fishery properties, sampling scenarios, and assessment approaches. ss3sim then generates an underlying 'truth' from a specified operating model, samples from that truth, modifies and runs an estimation model, and synthesizes the results. The simulations can be run in parallel, reducing runtime, and the source code is free to be modified under an open-source MIT license. ss3sim is designed to explore structural differences between the underlying truth and assumptions of an estimation model, or between multiple estimation model configurations. For example, ss3sim can be used to answer questions about model misspecification, retrospective patterns, and the relative importance of different types of fisheries data. We demonstrate the software with an example, discuss how ss3sim complements other simulation software, and outline specific research questions that ss3sim could address.

  17. Environmental assessment of the milk life cycle: the effect of packaging selection and the variability of milk production data.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Montse; Pasqualino, Jorgelina; Castells, Francesc

    2012-09-30

    Milk is a very important part of our diet, which is why there is a wide variety of packaging alternatives with considerable local variants on the market. This study assesses the environmental impact of the commonest packaging options on the Spanish market and evaluates (from the point of view of global warming and acidification) the production of the various packaging materials and sizes and their final disposal (landfilling, incineration and recycling). For the two indicators studied (global warming and acidification) larger aseptic carton packages and recycling disposal have the best environmental impact. The global warming and acidification potential of the milk life cycle were also studied: milk production, transport (local conditions), packaging production and packaging disposal. Of the two indicators studied, the milk production stage has the largest impact on the milk life cycle. It should be taken into account that the impact of the milk production stage can vary considerably and has a significant influence on the global warming and acidification potential of the milk life cycle.

  18. MODFLOW–LGR—Documentation of ghost node local grid refinement (LGR2) for multiple areas and the boundary flow and head (BFH2) package

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mehl, Steffen W.; Hill, Mary C.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the addition of ghost node Local Grid Refinement (LGR2) to MODFLOW-2005, the U.S. Geological Survey modular, transient, three-dimensional, finite-difference groundwater flow model. LGR2 provides the capability to simulate groundwater flow using multiple block-shaped higher-resolution local grids (a child model) within a coarser-grid parent model. LGR2 accomplishes this by iteratively coupling separate MODFLOW-2005 models such that heads and fluxes are balanced across the grid-refinement interface boundary. LGR2 can be used in two-and three-dimensional, steady-state and transient simulations and for simulations of confined and unconfined groundwater systems. Traditional one-way coupled telescopic mesh refinement methods can have large, often undetected, inconsistencies in heads and fluxes across the interface between two model grids. The iteratively coupled ghost-node method of LGR2 provides a more rigorous coupling in which the solution accuracy is controlled by convergence criteria defined by the user. In realistic problems, this can result in substantially more accurate solutions and require an increase in computer processing time. The rigorous coupling enables sensitivity analysis, parameter estimation, and uncertainty analysis that reflects conditions in both model grids. This report describes the method used by LGR2, evaluates accuracy and performance for two-and three-dimensional test cases, provides input instructions, and lists selected input and output files for an example problem. It also presents the Boundary Flow and Head (BFH2) Package, which allows the child and parent models to be simulated independently using the boundary conditions obtained through the iterative process of LGR2.

  19. Geochemical Data Package for the 2005 Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Krupka, Kenneth M.; Serne, R JEFFREY.; Kaplan, D I.

    2004-09-30

    CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CH2M HILL) is designing and assessing the performance of an integrated disposal facility (IDF) to receive low-level waste (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW), and failed or decommissioned melters. The CH2M HILL project to assess the performance of this disposal facility is the Hanford IDF Performance Assessment (PA) activity. The goal of the Hanford IDF PA activity is to provide a reasonable expectation that the disposal of the waste is protective of the general public, groundwater resources, air resources, surface-water resources, and inadvertent intruders. Achieving this goal will require prediction of contaminant migration from the facilities. This migration is expected to occur primarily via the movement of water through the facilities, and the consequent transport of dissolved contaminants in the vadose zone to groundwater where contaminants may be re-introduced to receptors via drinking water wells or mixing in the Columbia River. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) assists CH2M HILL in their performance assessment activities. One of the PNNL tasks is to provide estimates of the geochemical properties of the materials comprising the IDF, the disturbed region around the facility, and the physically undisturbed sediments below the facility (including the vadose zone sediments and the aquifer sediments in the upper unconfined aquifer). The geochemical properties are expressed as parameters that quantify the adsorption of contaminants and the solubility constraints that might apply for those contaminants that may exceed solubility constraints. The common parameters used to quantify adsorption and solubility are the distribution coefficient (Kd) and the thermodynamic solubility product (Ksp), respectively. In this data package, we approximate the solubility of contaminants using a more simplified construct, called the solution concentration limit, a constant value. The Kd values and

  20. Metric-based no-reference quality assessment of heterogeneous document images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayef, Nibal; Ogier, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    No-reference image quality assessment (NR-IQA) aims at computing an image quality score that best correlates with either human perceived image quality or an objective quality measure, without any prior knowledge of reference images. Although learning-based NR-IQA methods have achieved the best state-of-the-art results so far, those methods perform well only on the datasets on which they were trained. The datasets usually contain homogeneous documents, whereas in reality, document images come from different sources. It is unrealistic to collect training samples of images from every possible capturing device and every document type. Hence, we argue that a metric-based IQA method is more suitable for heterogeneous documents. We propose a NR-IQA method with the objective quality measure of OCR accuracy. The method combines distortion-specific quality metrics. The final quality score is calculated taking into account the proportions of, and the dependency among different distortions. Experimental results show that the method achieves competitive results with learning-based NR-IQA methods on standard datasets, and performs better on heterogeneous documents.

  1. Job Profiling Guide. Results of 1994 Job Profiling. Part of the Ohio Vocational Competency Assessment (OVCA) Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This guide explains the process of job profiling and details the results of a 1994 profiling of 34 occupations. Discussed in section 1 are the following: purpose and components of the Ohio Vocational Competency Assessment (OVCA) package; purpose, contents, and use of the Ohio Competency Analysis Profiles and Work Keys components of the OVCA…

  2. Geochemical Data Package for Performance Assessment Calculations Related to the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, Daniel I.

    2010-03-15

    The Savannah River Site disposes of low-activity radioactive waste within subsurface-engineered facilities. One of the tools used to establish the capacity of a given site to safely store radioactive waste (i.e., that a site does not exceed its Waste Acceptance Criteria) is the Performance Assessment (PA). The objective of this document is to provide the geochemical values for the PA calculations. This work is being conducted as part of the on-going maintenance program that permits the PA to periodically update existing calculations when new data become available.

  3. Role of health technology assessment in shaping the benefits package in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Stolk, Elly A; de Bont, Antoinette; van Halteren, Arnold R; Bijlmer, Rob J; Poley, Marten J

    2009-02-01

    In many countries of the Western world, the role of health technology assessment (HTA) in funding decisions of medical technologies is increasing. HTAs are expected to support decision-makers in delineating the collectively funded benefits package. To maximize their potential, it is essential that assessments are valid, reliable and timely, and that it is transparent how information provided in assessments is used in decision-making. Against this background, this article aims to review the current state of affairs regarding the use of HTA in the area of medical specialist care in The Netherlands and to evaluate strengths and weaknesses of the HTA-based system for priority setting. The reason to do so was the introduction of a new hospital financing system in The Netherlands, which allowed for expansion of the HTA system that already existed for pharmaceuticals to medical specialist care. A comprehensive account of the HTA system for medical specialist care was created using the so-called Hutton framework, followed by an exploration of its strengths and weaknesses. An important lesson to be learned from the early Dutch experiences with HTA in the area of medical specialist care is that the nature and complexity of health technologies in this area create practical problems regarding the amount and quality of available data needed to make the HTA-based system work. This hampers an unambiguous interpretation of assessment data and thus calls for stronger requirements regarding transparency and stakeholder participation. Future work focusing on the role of HTA in funding decisions is needed to provide insights in best practices for HTA systems in circumstances where a delicate balance needs to be achieved between promoting innovation, supporting effective and timely decision-making and preventing the coverage of technologies that represent a waste of resources.

  4. Near-Field Hydrology Data Package for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste 2001 Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    PD Meyer; RJ Serne

    1999-12-21

    Lockheed Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) is designing and assessing the performance of disposal facilities to receive radioactive wastes that are currently stored in single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The preferred method for disposing of the portion that is classified as immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) is to vitrify the waste and place the product in new-surface, shallow land burial facilities. The LMHC project to assess the performance of these disposal facilities is the Hanford ILAW Performance Assessment (PA) Activity. The goal of this project is to provide a reasonable expectation that the disposal of the waste is protective of the general public, groundwater resources, air resources, surface water resources, and inadvertent intruders. Achieving this goal will require prediction of contaminant migration from the facilities. This migration is expected to occur primarily via the movement of water through the facilities and the consequent transport of dissolved contaminants in the pore water of the vadose zone. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) assists LMHC in its performance assessment activities. One of PNNL's tasks is to provide estimates of the physical, hydraulic, and transport properties of the materials comprising the disposal facilities and the disturbed region around them. These materials are referred to as the near-field materials. Their properties are expressed as parameters of constitutive models used in simulations of subsurface flow and transport. In addition to the best-estimate parameter values, information on uncertainty in the parameter values and estimates of the changes in parameter values over time are required to complete the PA. These parameter estimates and information are contained in this report, the Near-Field Hydrology Data Package.

  5. Sequestration: Documenting and Assessing Lessons Learned Would Assist DOD in Planning for Future Budget Uncertainty

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    Future Budget Uncertainty 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK...SEQUESTRATION Documenting and Assessing Lessons Learned Would Assist DOD in Planning for Future Budget Uncertainty...UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Government Accountability Office,441 G Street NW,Washington,DC,20548 8

  6. The development and evaluation of a holistic needs assessment and care planning learning package targeted at cancer nurses in the UK.

    PubMed

    Henry, R; Hartley, B; Simpson, M; Doyle, N

    2014-01-01

    A project team from the United Kingdom Oncology Nursing Society developed a blended e-learning website to facilitate nurses to further develop their confidence and competencies in a range of skills related to assessing the holistic needs of people with cancer. The project team identified three areas which were integral to an holistic needs assessment (HNA) implementation project. These were project support information, project management skills, and practical competencies delivered in a blended e-learning package containing a series of accessible video presentations, supporting documents, and practical activities. The team worked with internal and external partners to ensure that a robust and inspiring programme was created. www.hnaforcancer.com was launched in October 2012 as a blended learning programme that incorporates e-learning on core subjects. These subjects are packaged as videoed presentations with supporting learning material and can be accessed via the UKONS website. By the end of the programme participants were equipped to identify and explore the essential requirements for HNA and care planning, more able to recognise potential need, and initiate care to prevent or minimise the risk of complications. Participants had also developed confidence and competency in new skills, including basic project management.

  7. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Emergency Response Capability Baseline Needs Assessment Requirement Document

    SciTech Connect

    Sharry, J A

    2009-12-30

    This revision of the LLNL Fire Protection Baseline Needs Assessment (BNA) was prepared by John A. Sharry, LLNL Fire Marshal and LLNL Division Leader for Fire Protection and reviewed by Martin Gresho, Sandia/CA Fire Marshal. The document follows and expands upon the format and contents of the DOE Model Fire Protection Baseline Capabilities Assessment document contained on the DOE Fire Protection Web Site, but only address emergency response. The original LLNL BNA was created on April 23, 1997 as a means of collecting all requirements concerning emergency response capabilities at LLNL (including response to emergencies at Sandia/CA) into one BNA document. The original BNA documented the basis for emergency response, emergency personnel staffing, and emergency response equipment over the years. The BNA has been updated and reissued five times since in 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002, and 2004. A significant format change was performed in the 2004 update of the BNA in that it was 'zero based.' Starting with the requirement documents, the 2004 BNA evaluated the requirements, and determined minimum needs without regard to previous evaluations. This 2010 update maintains the same basic format and requirements as the 2004 BNA. In this 2010 BNA, as in the previous BNA, the document has been intentionally divided into two separate documents - the needs assessment (1) and the compliance assessment (2). The needs assessment will be referred to as the BNA and the compliance assessment will be referred to as the BNA Compliance Assessment. The primary driver for separation is that the needs assessment identifies the detailed applicable regulations (primarily NFPA Standards) for emergency response capabilities based on the hazards present at LLNL and Sandia/CA and the geographical location of the facilities. The needs assessment also identifies areas where the modification of the requirements in the applicable NFPA standards is appropriate, due to the improved fire protection provided, the

  8. Documentation of the Unsaturated-Zone Flow (UZF1) Package for modeling Unsaturated Flow Between the Land Surface and the Water Table with MODFLOW-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Niswonger, Richard G.; Prudic, David E.; Regan, R. Steven

    2006-01-01

    Percolation of precipitation through unsaturated zones is important for recharge of ground water. Rain and snowmelt at land surface are partitioned into different pathways including runoff, infiltration, evapotranspiration, unsaturated-zone storage, and recharge. A new package for MODFLOW-2005 called the Unsaturated-Zone Flow (UZF1) Package was developed to simulate water flow and storage in the unsaturated zone and to partition flow into evapotranspiration and recharge. The package also accounts for land surface runoff to streams and lakes. A kinematic wave approximation to Richards? equation is solved by the method of characteristics to simulate vertical unsaturated flow. The approach assumes that unsaturated flow occurs in response to gravity potential gradients only and ignores negative potential gradients; the approach further assumes uniform hydraulic properties in the unsaturated zone for each vertical column of model cells. The Brooks-Corey function is used to define the relation between unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and water content. Variables used by the UZF1 Package include initial and saturated water contents, saturated vertical hydraulic conductivity, and an exponent in the Brooks-Corey function. Residual water content is calculated internally by the UZF1 Package on the basis of the difference between saturated water content and specific yield. The UZF1 Package is a substitution for the Recharge and Evapotranspiration Packages of MODFLOW-2005. The UZF1 Package differs from the Recharge Package in that an infiltration rate is applied at land surface instead of a specified recharge rate directly to ground water. The applied infiltration rate is further limited by the saturated vertical hydraulic conductivity. The UZF1 Package differs from the Evapotranspiration Package in that evapotranspiration losses are first removed from the unsaturated zone above the evapotranspiration extinction depth, and if the demand is not met, water can be removed

  9. Feasibility assessment of copper-base waste package container materials in a tuff repository

    SciTech Connect

    Acton, C.F.; McCright, R.D.

    1986-09-30

    This report discussed progress made during the second year of a two-year study on the feasibility of using copper or a copper-base alloy as a container material for a waste package in a potential repository in tuff rock at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. Corrosion testing in potentially corrosive irradiated environments received emphasis during the feasibility study. Results of experiments to evaluate the effect of a radiation field on the uniform corrosion rate of the copper-base materials in repository-relevant aqueous environments are given as well as results of an electrochemical study of the copper-base materials in normal and concentrated J-13 water. Results of tests on the irradiation of J-13 water and on the subsequent formation of hydrogen peroxide are given. A theoretical study was initiated to predict the long-term corrosion behavior of copper in the repository. Tests were conducted to determine whether copper would adversely affect release rates of radionuclides to the environment because of degradation of the Zircaloy cladding. A manufacturing survey to determine the feasibility of producing copper containers utilizing existing equipment and processes was completed. The cost and availability of copper was also evaluated and predicted to the year 2000. Results of this feasibility assessment are summarized.

  10. NI-79RAPID ASSESSMENT OF LESION VOLUMES FOR PATIENTS WITH GLIOMA USING THE SMARTBRUSH SOFTWARE PACKAGE

    PubMed Central

    Vaziri, Sana; Lafontaine, Marisa; Olson, Beck; Crane, Jason C.; Chang, Susan; Lupo, Janine; Nelson, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing interest in enhancing the RANO criteria by using quantitative assessments of changes in lesion size and image intensities has highlighted the need for rapid, easy-to-use tools that provide DICOM compatible outputs for evaluation of patients with glioma. To evaluate the performance of the SmartBrush software (Brainlab AG), which provides computer-assisted definitions of regions of interest (ROIs), a cohort of 20 patients with glioma (equal number having high and low grade and treated and un-treated) were scanned using a 3T whole-body MR system prior to surgical resection. The T2-weighted FLAIR, pre- and post-contrast T1-weighted gradient echo DICOM images were pushed from the scanner to an offline workstation where analysis of lesion volumes was performed using SmartBrush. Volumes of the T2Ls ranged from 7.9 to 110.2cm3 and the volumes of the CELs was 0.1 to 28.5 cm3 with 19/20 of the subjects having CELs and all 20 having T2Ls. the computer-assisted analysis was performed rapidly and efficiently, with the mean time for defining both lesions per subject was 5.77 (range 3.5 to 7.5) minutes. Prior analysis of ROIS with the SLICER package (www.slicer.org) took approximately 30 minutes/subject. SmartBrush provides lesion volumes and cross-sectional diameter as a PDF report, which can be stored in DICOM. The ROIs were also saved as DICOM objects and transferred to other packages for performing histogram analysis from ADC or other functional parameter maps. Ongoing studies that will be reported in this presentation are performing a similar analysis with multiple users in order to compare the relative intra- and inter-operator variations in terms of both the speed of analysis and the ROIs that are identified. Acknowledgements: The authors would like to acknowledge Rowena Thomson and Natalie Wright from Brainlab for helping to set up this study.

  11. Geochemical data package for the Hanford immobilized low-activity tank waste performance assessment (ILAW PA)

    SciTech Connect

    DI Kaplan; RJ Serne

    2000-02-24

    Lockheed Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) is designing and assessing the performance of disposal facilities to receive radioactive wastes that are stored in single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The preferred method of disposing of the portion that is classified as low-activity waste is to vitrify the liquid/slurry and place the solid product in near-surface, shallow-land burial facilities. The LMHC project to assess the performance of these disposal facilities is the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste (ILAW) Performance Assessment (PA) activity. The goal of this project is to provide a reasonable expectation that the disposal of the waste is protective of the general public, groundwater resources, air resources, surface-water resources, and inadvertent intruders. Achieving this goal will require prediction of contaminant migration from the facilities. This migration is expected to occur primarily via the movement of water through the facilities, and the consequent transport of dissolved contaminants in the porewater of the vadose zone. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory assists LMHC in their performance assessment activities. One of the PNNL tasks is to provide estimates of the geochemical properties of the materials comprising the disposal facility, the disturbed region around the facility, and the physically undisturbed sediments below the facility (including the vadose zone sediments and the aquifer sediments in the upper unconfined aquifer). The geochemical properties are expressed as parameters that quantify the adsorption of contaminants and the solubility constraints that might apply for those contaminants that may exceed solubility constraints. The common parameters used to quantify adsorption and solubility are the distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) and the thermodynamic solubility product (K{sub sp}), respectively. In this data package, the authors approximate the solubility of contaminants using a more simplified construct

  12. Recharge Data Package for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste 2001 Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    MJ Fayer; EM Murphy; JL Downs; FO Khan; CW Lindenmeier; BN Bjornstad

    2000-01-18

    Lockheed Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) is designing and assessing the performance of disposal facilities to receive radioactive wastes that are currently stored in single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The preferred method of disposing of the portion that is classified as immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) is to vitrify the waste and place the product in near-surface, shallow-land burial facilities. The LMHC project to assess the performance of these disposal facilities is known as the Hanford ILAW Performance Assessment (PA) Activity, hereafter called the ILAW PA project. The goal of this project is to provide a reasonable expectation that the disposal of the waste is protective of the general public, groundwater resources, air resources, surface-water resources, and inadvertent intruders. Achieving this goal will require predictions of contaminant migration from the facility. To make such predictions will require estimates of the fluxes of water moving through the sediments within the vadose zone around and beneath the disposal facility. These fluxes, loosely called recharge rates, are the primary mechanism for transporting contaminants to the groundwater. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) assists LMHC in their performance assessment activities. One of the PNNL tasks is to provide estimates of recharge rates for current conditions and long-term scenarios involving the shallow-land disposal of ILAW. Specifically, recharge estimates are needed for a filly functional surface cover; the cover sideslope, and the immediately surrounding terrain. In addition, recharge estimates are needed for degraded cover conditions. The temporal scope of the analysis is 10,000 years, but could be longer if some contaminant peaks occur after 10,000 years. The elements of this report compose the Recharge Data Package, which provides estimates of recharge rates for the scenarios being considered in the 2001 PA. Table S.1 identifies the surface features and

  13. Geologic Data Package for 2001 Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    SP Reidel; DG Horton

    1999-12-21

    This database is a compilation of existing geologic data from both the existing and new immobilized low-activity waste disposal sites for use in the 2001 Performance Assessment. Data were compiled from both surface and subsurface geologic sources. Large-scale surface geologic maps, previously published, cover the entire 200-East Area and the disposal sites. Subsurface information consists of drilling and geophysical logs from nearby boreholes and stored sediment samples. Numerous published geological reports are available that describe the subsurface geology of the area. Site-specific subsurface data are summarized in tables and profiles in this document. Uncertainty in data is mainly restricted to borehole information. Variations in sampling and drilling techniques present some correlation uncertainties across the sites. A greater degree of uncertainty exists on the new site because of restricted borehole coverage. There is some uncertainty to the location and orientation of elastic dikes across the sites.

  14. A needs assessment for DOE`s packaging and transportation activities - a look into the twenty-first century

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, R.; Turi, G.; Brancato, R.; Blalock, L.; Merrill, O.

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has performed a department-wide scoping of its packaging and transportation needs and has arrived at a projection of these needs for well into the twenty-first century. The assessment, known as the Transportation Needs Assessment (TNA) was initiated during August 1994 and completed in December 1994. The TNA will allow DOE to better prepare for changes in its transportation requirements in the future. The TNA focused on projected, quantified shipping needs based on forecasts of inventories of materials which will ultimately require transport by the DOE for storage, treatment and/or disposal. In addition, experts provided input on the growing needs throughout DOE resulting from changes in regulations, in DOE`s mission, and in the sociopolitical structure of the United States. Through the assessment, DOE`s transportation needs have been identified for a time period extending from the present through the first three decades of the twenty-first century. The needs assessment was accomplished in three phases: (1) defining current packaging, shipping, resource utilization, and methods of managing packaging and transportation activities; (2) establishing the inventory of materials which DOE will need to transport on into the next century and scenarios which project when, from where, and to where these materials will need to be transported; and (3) developing requirements and projected changes for DOE to accomplish the necessary transport safely and economically.

  15. Assessment of actinide mass embedded in large concrete waste packages by photon interrogation and photofission.

    PubMed

    Gmar, M; Jeanneau, F; Lainé, F; Makil, H; Poumarède, B; Tola, F

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a method based on photofission developed in our laboratory to characterize in depth large waste packages. The method consists in using photons of high-energy (Bremsstrahlung radiation) in order to induce reactions of photofission on the heavy nuclei present in the wastes. The measurement of the delayed neutrons allows quantifying the actinides in the wastes. We present the first results of measurement performed with a concrete mock-up of 870l and two real waste packages.

  16. Human exposure assessment of silver and copper migrating from an antimicrobial nanocoated packaging material into an acidic food simulant.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Joseph Christopher; Kerry, Joseph P; Cruz-Romero, Malco; Azlin-Hasim, Shafrina; Morris, Michael; Cummins, Enda

    2016-09-01

    To examine the human exposure to a novel silver and copper nanoparticle (AgNP and CuNP)/polystyrene-polyethylene oxide block copolymer (PS-b-PEO) food packaging coating, the migration of Ag and Cu into 3% acetic acid (3% HAc) food simulant was assessed at 60 °C for 10 days. Significantly lower migration was observed for Ag (0.46 mg/kg food) compared to Cu (0.82 mg/kg food) measured by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). In addition, no distinct population of AgNPs or CuNPs were observed in 3% HAc by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The predicted human exposure to Ag and Cu was used to calculate a margin of exposure (MOE) for ionic species of Ag and Cu, which indicated the safe use of the food packaging in a hypothetical scenario (e.g. as fruit juice packaging). While migration exceeded regulatory limits, the calculated MOE suggests current migration limits may be conservative for specific nano-packaging applications.

  17. Packaging waste prevention in the distribution of fruit and vegetables: An assessment based on the life cycle perspective.

    PubMed

    Tua, Camilla; Nessi, Simone; Rigamonti, Lucia; Dolci, Giovanni; Grosso, Mario

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, alternative food supply chains based on short distance production and delivery have been promoted as being more environmentally friendly than those applied by the traditional retailing system. An example is the supply of seasonal and possibly locally grown fruit and vegetables directly to customers inside a returnable crate (the so-called 'box scheme'). In addition to other claimed environmental and economic advantages, the box scheme is often listed among the packaging waste prevention measures. To check whether such a claim is soundly based, a life cycle assessment was carried out to verify the real environmental effectiveness of the box scheme in comparison to the Italian traditional distribution. The study focused on two reference products, carrots and apples, which are available in the crate all year round. An experience of a box scheme carried out in Italy was compared with some traditional scenarios where the product is distributed loose or packaged at the large-scale retail trade. The packaging waste generation, 13 impact indicators on environment and human health and energy consumptions were calculated. Results show that the analysed experience of the box scheme, as currently managed, cannot be considered a packaging waste prevention measure when compared with the traditional distribution of fruit and vegetables. The weaknesses of the alternative system were identified and some recommendations were given to improve its environmental performance.

  18. Packaging waste prevention activities: A life cycle assessment of the effects on a regional waste management system.

    PubMed

    Nessi, Simone; Rigamonti, Lucia; Grosso, Mario

    2015-09-01

    A life cycle assessment was carried out to evaluate the effects of two packaging waste prevention activities on the overall environmental performance of the integrated municipal waste management system of Lombardia region, Italy. The activities are the use of refined tap water instead of bottled water for household consumption and the substitution of liquid detergents packaged in single-use containers by those distributed 'loose' through self-dispensing systems and refillable containers. A 2020 baseline scenario without waste prevention is compared with different waste prevention scenarios, where the two activities are either separately or contemporaneously implemented, by assuming a complete substitution of the traditional product(s). The results show that, when the prevention activities are carried out effectively, a reduction in total waste generation ranging from 0.14% to 0.66% is achieved, corresponding to a 1-4% reduction of the affected packaging waste fractions (plastics and glass). However, the improvements in the overall environmental performance of the waste management system can be far higher, especially when bottled water is substituted. In this case, a nearly 0.5% reduction of the total waste involves improvements ranging mostly between 5 and 23%. Conversely, for the substitution of single-use packaged liquid detergents (0.14% reduction of the total waste), the achieved improvements do not exceed 3% for nearly all impact categories.

  19. Skylab 3 preliminary reference Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP) pass planning document. Volume 2: EREP sites and S190 swath study of selected revs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunde, A. N.

    1971-01-01

    The ground tracks and S190 swaths are presented of selected revolutions over areas containing earth resources experiment package (EREP) sites. The following eight EREP disciplines are shown: sensor performance evaluation, forestry, geology, hydrology, land use mapping, oceanography, pollution, and weather. Most of the data reported consists of passes over the continental United States.

  20. Methodological guidance documents for evaluation of ethical considerations in health technology assessment: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Assasi, Nazila; Schwartz, Lisa; Tarride, Jean-Eric; Campbell, Kaitryn; Goeree, Ron

    2014-04-01

    Despite the advances made in the development of ethical frameworks for health technology assessment (HTA), there is no clear agreement on the scope and details of a practical approach to address ethical aspects in HTA. This systematic review aimed to identify existing guidance documents for incorporation of ethics in HTA to provide an overview of their methodological features. The review identified 43 conceptual frameworks or practical guidelines, varying in their philosophical approach, structure, and comprehensiveness. They were designed for different purposes throughout the HTA process, ranging from helping HTA-producers in identification, appraisal and analysis of ethical data to supporting decision-makers in making value-sensitive decisions. They frequently promoted using analytical methods that combined normative reflection with participatory approaches. The choice of a method for collection and analysis of ethical data seems to depend on the context in which technology is being assessed, the purpose of analysis, and availability of required resources.

  1. Microelectronics packaging research directions for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galbraith, L.

    2003-01-01

    The Roadmap begins with an assessment of needs from the microelectronics for aerospace applications viewpoint. Needs Assessment is divided into materials, packaging components, and radiation characterization of packaging.

  2. Implementation of an Evidence Based Guideline for Assessment and Documentation of the Civil Commitment Process.

    PubMed

    Perrigo, Tabitha L; Williams, Kimberly A

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this quality improvement project was to implement an evidence-based practice guideline for assessment and documentation of the civil commitment process. Participants included six civil commitment examiners who conduct court ordered psychiatric evaluations at two crisis intervention centers in rural area of southeaster state. Data collection was conducted utilizing a chart audit tool both pre and post intervention of 100 civil commitment evaluations. The intervention included the development of an evidenced based form for documentation of civil commitment evaluations and a one on one educational training session was conducted for each participant. Descriptive statistics (t test) was utilized to analyze the data collected. The project demonstrated a significant increase as 25.5 % of evaluations contained the America Psychiatric Association's recommended 11 domains of assessment prior to implementation compared to 65.6 % (p value = 0.018) post implementation. Moreover, participants with family practice training showed an increase in commitment rates from 60 to 77.3 % (p value = 0.066). Whereas, psychiatric trained participants showed a decrease from 83.75 to 77.66 % (p value = 0.38). Demonstrating that court ordered evaluations guided by a standardized form based on evidence affected examiners recommendations for commitments.

  3. Assessment and Assurance of Microelectronics Packaging Technology of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2000-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have shown a significant promise in the last decade for a variety of applications such as air-bag, pressure sensors, accelerometer, microgyro, etc. Standard semiconductor microelectronics packaging needs the integrated circuits to be protected from the harsh environment, and provide electrical communication with the other parts of the circuit, facilitate thermal dissipation efficiently, and impart mechanical strength to the silicon die. Microelectronics packaging involves wafer dicing, bonding, lead attachment, encapsulation to protect from the environment, electrical integrity, and package leak tests to assure the packaging technology. In the case of MEMS the microstructures (active elements) often interfaces with the hostile environment where packaging leak tests and testing of such devices using chemical and mechanical parameters will be very difficult and expensive. Packaging of MEMS is significantly complex as they serve to protect from the environment and microstructures interact with the same environment to measure or affect the desired physical or chemical parameters. The most of the silicon circuitry is sensitive to temperature, moisture, magnetic field, light, and electromagnetic interference. The package must then protect the on-board silicon circuitry while simultaneously exposing the microsensor to the effect it 'measures to assure the MEMS technology by lowering the risk to zero. MEMS technology has a major application in developing a microspacecraft for space systems provided assurance of MEMS technology is sufficiently addressed nondestructively. This technology would eventually miniaturize many of the components of the spacecraft to reach the NASA's safety and mission assurance goal by building faster, cheaper, better, smaller spacecraft to explore the space more effectively by teaming-up with the other NASA centers using the limited resources available. This paper discusses the latest developments in the MEMS

  4. Nanocomposites in food packaging applications and their risk assessment for health

    PubMed Central

    Honarvar, Zohreh; Hadian, Zahra; Mashayekh, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology has shown many advantages in different fields. As the uses of nanotechnology have progressed, it has been found to be a promising technology for the food packaging industry in the global market. It has proven capabilities that are valuable in packaging foods, including improved barriers; mechanical, thermal, and biodegradable properties; and applications in active and intelligent food packaging. Examples of the latter are anti-microbial agents and nanosensors, respectively. However, the use of nanocomposites in food packaging might be challenging due to the reduced particle size of nanomaterials and the fact that the chemical and physical characteristics of such tiny materials may be quite different from those of their macro-scale counterparts. In order to discuss the potential risks of nanoparticles for consumers, in addition to the quantification of data, a thorough investigation of their characteristics is required. Migration studies must be conducted to determine the amounts of nanomaterials released into the food matrices. In this article, different applications of nanocomposites in food packaging, migration issues, analyzing techniques, and the main concerns about their usage are discussed briefly. PMID:27504168

  5. Development of a new modelling tool (FACET) to assess exposure to chemical migrants from food packaging.

    PubMed

    Oldring, P K T; O'Mahony, C; Dixon, J; Vints, M; Mehegan, J; Dequatre, C; Castle, L

    2014-01-01

    The approach used to obtain European Union-wide data on the usage and concentration of substances in different food packaging materials is described. Statistics were collected on pack sizes and market shares for the different materials used to package different food groups. The packaging materials covered were plastics (both flexible and rigid), metal containers, light metal packaging, paper and board, as well as the adhesives and inks used on them. An explanation as to how these data are linked in various ways in the FACET exposure modelling tool is given as well as an overview of the software along with examples of the intermediate tables of data. The example of bisphenol A (BPA), used in resins that may be incorporated into some coatings for canned foodstuffs, is used to illustrate how the data in FACET are combined to produce concentration distributions. Such concentration distributions are then linked probabilistically to the amounts of each food item consumed, as recorded in national food consumption survey diaries, in order to estimate exposure to packaging migrants. Estimates of exposure are at the level of the individual consumer and thus can be expressed for various percentiles of different populations and subpopulations covered by the national dietary surveys.

  6. Nanocomposites in food packaging applications and their risk assessment for health.

    PubMed

    Honarvar, Zohreh; Hadian, Zahra; Mashayekh, Morteza

    2016-06-01

    Nanotechnology has shown many advantages in different fields. As the uses of nanotechnology have progressed, it has been found to be a promising technology for the food packaging industry in the global market. It has proven capabilities that are valuable in packaging foods, including improved barriers; mechanical, thermal, and biodegradable properties; and applications in active and intelligent food packaging. Examples of the latter are anti-microbial agents and nanosensors, respectively. However, the use of nanocomposites in food packaging might be challenging due to the reduced particle size of nanomaterials and the fact that the chemical and physical characteristics of such tiny materials may be quite different from those of their macro-scale counterparts. In order to discuss the potential risks of nanoparticles for consumers, in addition to the quantification of data, a thorough investigation of their characteristics is required. Migration studies must be conducted to determine the amounts of nanomaterials released into the food matrices. In this article, different applications of nanocomposites in food packaging, migration issues, analyzing techniques, and the main concerns about their usage are discussed briefly.

  7. High level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document phase 1 assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Biebesheimer, E., Westinghouse Hanford Co.

    1996-09-30

    This document, the Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) Phase I Assessment Report for the subject facility, represents the results of an Administrative Assessment to determine whether S/RID requirements are fully addressed by existing policies, plans or procedures. It contains; compliance status, remedial actions, and an implementing manuals report linking S/RID elements to requirement source to implementing manual and section.

  8. Visible spectroscopy as a tool for the assessment of storage conditions of fresh pork packaged in modified atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Spanos, Dimitrios; Christensen, Mette; Tørngren, Mari Ann; Baron, Caroline P

    2016-03-01

    The storage conditions of fresh meat are known to impact its colour and microbial shelf life. In the present study, visible spectroscopy was evaluated as a method to assess meat storage conditions and its optimisation. Fresh pork steaks (longissimus thoracis et lumborum and semimembranosus) were placed in modified atmosphere packaging using gas mixtures containing 0, 40, 50, and 80% oxygen, and stored with or without light for up to 9days. Principal component analysis of visible reflectance spectra (400-700nm) showed that the colour of the different meat cuts was affected by presence of oxygen, illumination, and storage time. Differences in the oxygen levels did not contribute to the observed variance. Predictive models based on partial least squares regression-discriminant analysis exhibited high potency in the classification of the storage parameters of meat cuts packaged in modified atmosphere. The study demonstrates the applicability of visible spectroscopy as a tool to assess the storage conditions of meat cuts packaged in modified atmosphere.

  9. The aquamet Package for R: A Tool for Use with the National Rivers and Streams Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of R software in environmental data analysis has become increasingly common because it is very powerful, versatile and available free of charge, with hundreds of contributed add-on packages available that perform almost every conceivable type of analysis or task. The Envi...

  10. Risk management measures for chemicals in consumer products: documentation, assessment, and communication across the supply chain.

    PubMed

    Bruinen de Bruin, Yuri; Hakkinen, Pertti Bert; Lahaniatis, Majlinda; Papameletiou, Demosthenes; Del Pozo, Carlos; Reina, Vittorio; Van Engelen, Jacqueline; Heinemeyer, Gerhard; Viso, Anne Catherine; Rodriguez, Carlos; Jantunen, Matti

    2007-12-01

    This paper analyzes the way risk management measures (RMMs) for consumer products have been used to date in authority and industry risk assessments. A working concept for consumer product RMMs is developed, aimed at controlling, limiting or avoiding exposures, and helping to insure the safe use (or handling) of a substance as part of a consumer product. Particular focus is placed on new requirements introduced by REACH (registration, evaluation, and authorization of chemicals). A RMMs categorization approach is also developed, dividing consumer product RMMs into those that are product integrated and those that are communicated to consumers. For each of these categories, RMMs for normal use, accidental use or misuse need to be distinguished. The level of detail for documenting, assessing and communicating RMMs across supply chains can vary, depending on the type of the assessment (tiered approach). Information on RMMs was collected from published sources to demonstrate that a taxonomical approach using standard descriptors for RMMs libraries is needed for effective information exchange across supply chains.

  11. Assessing research productivity in an oncology research institute: the role of the documentation center.

    PubMed Central

    Ugolini, D; Bogliolo, A; Parodi, S; Casilli, C; Santi, L

    1997-01-01

    An evaluation method used to assess the quality of research productivity and to provide priorities for budget allocation purposes is presented. This method, developed by a working group of the National Institute for Research on Cancer (IST), Genoa, Italy, is based on the partitioning of categories of the Science Citation Index and Journal Citation Reports (SCI-JCR) into deciles, which normalizes journal impact factors in order to gauge the quality of the productivity. A second parameter related to the number of staff of each institute department co-authoring a given paper has been introduced in order to guide departmental budget allocations. The information scientists of the IST Documentation Center who participated in the working group played a pivotal role in developing the computerized database of publications, providing and analyzing data, supplying and evaluating literature on the topic, and placing international bibliographic databases at the working group's disposal. PMID:9028569

  12. An Assessment of the Influence of the Industry Distribution Chain on the Oxygen Levels in Commercial Modified Atmosphere Packaged Cheddar Cheese Using Non-Destructive Oxygen Sensor Technology

    PubMed Central

    O’ Callaghan, Karen A.M.; Papkovsky, Dmitri B.; Kerry, Joseph P.

    2016-01-01

    The establishment and control of oxygen levels in packs of oxygen-sensitive food products such as cheese is imperative in order to maintain product quality over a determined shelf life. Oxygen sensors quantify oxygen concentrations within packaging using a reversible optical measurement process, and this non-destructive nature ensures the entire supply chain can be monitored and can assist in pinpointing negative issues pertaining to product packaging. This study was carried out in a commercial cheese packaging plant and involved the insertion of 768 sensors into 384 flow-wrapped cheese packs (two sensors per pack) that were flushed with 100% carbon dioxide prior to sealing. The cheese blocks were randomly assigned to two different storage groups to assess the effects of package quality, packaging process efficiency, and handling and distribution on package containment. Results demonstrated that oxygen levels increased in both experimental groups examined over the 30-day assessment period. The group subjected to a simulated industrial distribution route and handling procedures of commercial retailed cheese exhibited the highest level of oxygen detected on every day examined and experienced the highest rate of package failure. The study concluded that fluctuating storage conditions, product movement associated with distribution activities, and the possible presence of cheese-derived contaminants such as calcium lactate crystals were chief contributors to package failure. PMID:27331815

  13. An Assessment of the Influence of the Industry Distribution Chain on the Oxygen Levels in Commercial Modified Atmosphere Packaged Cheddar Cheese Using Non-Destructive Oxygen Sensor Technology.

    PubMed

    O' Callaghan, Karen A M; Papkovsky, Dmitri B; Kerry, Joseph P

    2016-06-20

    The establishment and control of oxygen levels in packs of oxygen-sensitive food products such as cheese is imperative in order to maintain product quality over a determined shelf life. Oxygen sensors quantify oxygen concentrations within packaging using a reversible optical measurement process, and this non-destructive nature ensures the entire supply chain can be monitored and can assist in pinpointing negative issues pertaining to product packaging. This study was carried out in a commercial cheese packaging plant and involved the insertion of 768 sensors into 384 flow-wrapped cheese packs (two sensors per pack) that were flushed with 100% carbon dioxide prior to sealing. The cheese blocks were randomly assigned to two different storage groups to assess the effects of package quality, packaging process efficiency, and handling and distribution on package containment. Results demonstrated that oxygen levels increased in both experimental groups examined over the 30-day assessment period. The group subjected to a simulated industrial distribution route and handling procedures of commercial retailed cheese exhibited the highest level of oxygen detected on every day examined and experienced the highest rate of package failure. The study concluded that fluctuating storage conditions, product movement associated with distribution activities, and the possible presence of cheese-derived contaminants such as calcium lactate crystals were chief contributors to package failure.

  14. Development of a Health Screening Package Under the Universal Health Coverage: The Role of Health Technology Assessment.

    PubMed

    Teerawattananon, Yot; Kingkaew, Pritaporn; Koopitakkajorn, Tanunya; Youngkong, Sitaporn; Tritasavit, Nattha; Srisuwan, Patsri; Tantivess, Sripen

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the systematic development of a population-based health screening package for all Thai people under the universal health coverage (UHC). To determine major disease areas and health problems for which health screening could mitigate health burden, a consultation process was conducted in a systematic, participatory, and evidence-based manner that involved 41 stakeholders in a half-day workshop. Twelve diseases/health problems were identified during the discussion. Subsequently, health technology assessments, including systematic review and meta-analysis of health benefits as well as economic evaluations and budget impact analyses of corresponding population-based screening interventions, were completed. The results led to advice against elements of current clinical practice, such as annual chest X-rays and particular blood tests (e.g. kidney function test), and indicated that the introduction of certain new population-based health screening programs, such as for chronic hepatitis B, would provide substantial health and economic benefits to the Thais. The final results were presented to a wide group of stakeholders, including decision-makers at the Ministry of Public Health and the public health insurance schemes, to verify and validate the findings and policy recommendations. The package has been endorsed by the Thai UHC Benefit Package Committee for implementation in fiscal year 2016.

  15. Reliability Assessment of Advanced Flip-clip Interconnect Electronic Package Assemblies under Extreme Cold Temperatures (-190 and -120 C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Ghaffarian, Reza; Shapiro, Andrew; Napala, Phil A.; Martin, Patrick A.

    2005-01-01

    Flip-chip interconnect electronic package boards have been assembled, underfilled, non-destructively evaluated and subsequently subjected to extreme temperature thermal cycling to assess the reliability of this advanced packaging interconnect technology for future deep space, long-term, extreme temperature missions. In this very preliminary study, the employed temperature range covers military specifications (-55 C to 100 C), extreme cold Martian (-120 C to 115 C) and asteroid Nereus (-180 C to 25 C) environments. The resistance of daisy-chained, flip-chip interconnects were measured at room temperature and at various intervals as a function of extreme temperature thermal cycling. Electrical resistance measurements are reported and the tests to date have not shown significant change in resistance as a function of extreme temperature thermal cycling. However, the change in interconnect resistance becomes more noticeable with increasing number of thermal cycles. Further research work has been carried out to understand the reliability of flip-chip interconnect packages under extreme temperature applications (-190 C to 85 C) via continuously monitoring the daisy chain resistance. Adaptation of suitable diagnostic techniques to identify the failure mechanisms is in progress. This presentation will describe the experimental test results of flip-chip testing under extreme temperatures.

  16. PU/SS EUTECTIC ASSESSMENT IN 9975 PACKAGINGS IN A STORAGE FACILITY DURING EXTENDED FIRE

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N.

    2012-03-26

    In a radioactive material (RAM) packaging, the formation of eutectic at the Pu/SS (plutonium/stainless steel) interface is a serious concern and must be avoided to prevent of leakage of fissile material to the environment. The eutectic temperature for the Pu/SS is rather low (410 C) and could seriously impact the structural integrity of the containment vessel under accident conditions involving fire. The 9975 packaging is used for long term storage of Pu bearing materials in the DOE complex where the Pu comes in contact with the stainless steel containment vessel. Due to the serious consequences of the containment breach at the eutectic site, the Pu/SS interface temperature is kept well below the eutectic formation temperature of 410 C. This paper discusses the thermal models and the results for the extended fire conditions (1500 F for 86 minutes) that exist in a long term storage facility and concludes that the 9975 packaging Pu/SS interface temperature is well below the eutectic temperature.

  17. MODFLOW-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model -- Documentation of the Model-Layer Variable-Direction Horizontal Anisotropy (LVDA) capability of the Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow (HUF) package

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderman, Evan R.; Kipp, K.L.; Hill, Mary C.; Valstar, Johan; Neupauer, R.M.

    2002-01-01

    This report documents the model-layer variable-direction horizontal anisotropy (LVDA) capability of the Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow (HUF) Package of MODFLOW-2000. The LVDA capability allows the principal directions of horizontal anisotropy to be different than the model-grid row and column directions, and for the directions to vary on a cell-by-cell basis within model layers. The HUF Package calculates effective hydraulic properties for model grid cells based on hydraulic properties of hydrogeologic units with thicknesses defined independently of the model layers. These hydraulic properties include, among other characteristics, hydraulic conductivity and a horizontal anisotropy ratio. Using the LVDA capability, horizontal anisotropy direction is defined for model grid cells within which one or more hydrogeologic units may occur. For each grid cell, the HUF Package calculates the effective horizontal hydraulic conductivity along the primary direction of anisotropy using the hydrogeologic-unit hydraulic conductivities, and calculates the effective horizontal hydraulic conductivity along the orthogonal anisotropy direction using the effective primary direction hydraulic conductivities and horizontal anisotropy ratios. The direction assigned to the model layer effective primary hydraulic conductivity is specified using a new data set defined by the LVDA capability, when active, to calculate coefficients needed to solve the ground-water flow equation. Use of the LVDA capability is illustrated in four simulation examples, which also serve to verify hydraulic heads, advective-travel paths, and sensitivities calculated using the LVDA capability. This version of the LVDA capability defines variable-direction horizontal anisotropy using model layers, not the hydrogeologic units defined by the HUF Package. This difference needs to be taken into account when designing model layers and hydrogeologic units to produce simulations that accurately represent a given field problem. This

  18. Privacy Impact Assessment for the Superfund Cost Recovery Package Imaging and On-Line System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This system collects financial data, associated documents, including travel, payroll and voucher data. Learn about how this data is collected, used, accessed, and the record retention policies for this data.

  19. WASTE CONTAINER AND WASTE PACKAGE PERFORMANCE MODELING TO SUPPORT SAFETY ASSESSMENT OF LOW AND INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.

    2004-06-30

    Prior to subsurface burial of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes, a demonstration that disposal of the wastes can be accomplished while protecting the health and safety of the general population is required. The long-time frames over which public safety must be insured necessitates that this demonstration relies, in part, on computer simulations of events and processes that will occur in the future. This demonstration, known as a Safety Assessment, requires understanding the performance of the disposal facility, waste containers, waste forms, and contaminant transport to locations accessible to humans. The objective of the coordinated research program is to examine the state-of-the-art in testing and evaluation short-lived low- and intermediate-level waste packages (container and waste form) in near surface repository conditions. The link between data collection and long-term predictions is modeling. The objective of this study is to review state-of-the-art modeling approaches for waste package performance. This is accomplished by reviewing the fundamental concepts behind safety assessment and demonstrating how waste package models can be used to support safety assessment. Safety assessment for low- and intermediate-level wastes is a complicated process involving assumptions about the appropriate conceptual model to use and the data required to support these models. Typically due to the lack of long-term data and the uncertainties from lack of understanding and natural variability, the models used in safety assessment are simplistic. However, even though the models are simplistic, waste container and waste form performance are often central to the case for making a safety assessment. An overview of waste container and waste form performance and typical models used in a safety assessment is supplied. As illustrative examples of the role of waste container and waste package performance, three sample test cases are provided. An example of the impacts of

  20. An evaluation of the documented requirements of the SSP UIL and a review of commercial software packages for the development and testing of UIL prototypes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Esther Naomi

    1986-01-01

    A review was conducted of software packages currently on the market which might be integrated with the interface language and aid in reaching the objectives of customization, standardization, transparency, reliability, maintainability, language substitutions, expandability, portability, and flexibility. Recommendations are given for best choices in hardware and software acquisition for inhouse testing of these possible integrations. Software acquisition in the line of tools to aid expert-system development and/or novice program development, artificial intelligent voice technology and touch screen or joystick or mouse utilization as well as networking were recommended. Other recommendations concerned using the language Ada for the user interface language shell because of its high level of standardization, structure, and ability to accept and execute programs written in other programming languages, its DOD ownership and control, and keeping the user interface language simple so that multiples of users will find the commercialization of space within their realm of possibility which is, after all, the purpose of the Space Station.

  1. EQPT, a data file preprocessor for the EQ3/6 software package: User`s guide and related documentation (Version 7.0); Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Daveler, S.A.; Wolery, T.J.

    1992-12-17

    EQPT is a data file preprocessor for the EQ3/6 software package. EQ3/6 currently contains five primary data files, called datao files. These files comprise alternative data sets. These data files contain both standard state and activity coefficient-related data. Three (com, sup, and nea) support the use of the Davies or B-dot equations for the activity coefficients; the other two (hmw and pit) support the use of Pitzer`s (1973, 1975) equations. The temperature range of the thermodynamic data on these data files varies from 25{degrees}C only to 0-300{degrees}C. The principal modeling codes in EQ3/6, EQ3NR and EQ6, do not read a data0 file, however. Instead, these codes read an unformatted equivalent called a data1 file. EQPT writes a datal file, using the corresponding data0 file as input. In processing a data0 file, EQPT checks the data for common errors, such as unbalanced reactions. It also conducts two kinds of data transformation. Interpolating polynomials are fit to data which are input on temperature adds. The coefficients of these polynomials are then written on the datal file in place of the original temperature grids. A second transformation pertains only to data files tied to Pitzer`s equations. The commonly reported observable Pitzer coefficient parameters are mapped into a set of primitive parameters by means of a set of conventional relations. These primitive form parameters are then written onto the datal file in place of their observable counterparts. Usage of the primitive form parameters makes it easier to evaluate Pitzer`s equations in EQ3NR and EQ6. EQPT and the other codes in the EQ3/6 package are written in FORTRAN 77 and have been developed to run under the UNIX operating system on computers ranging from workstations to supercomputers.

  2. Packaging and transportation manual. Chapter on the packaging and transportation of hazardous and radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to outline the requirements that Los Alamos National Laboratory employees and contractors must follow when they package and ship hazardous and radioactive waste. This chapter is applied to on-site, intra-Laboratory, and off-site transportation of hazardous and radioactive waste. The chapter contains sections on definitions, responsibilities, written procedures, authorized packaging, quality assurance, documentation for waste shipments, loading and tiedown of waste shipments, on-site routing, packaging and transportation assessment and oversight program, nonconformance reporting, training of personnel, emergency response information, and incident and occurrence reporting. Appendices provide additional detail, references, and guidance on packaging for hazardous and radioactive waste, and guidance for the on-site transport of these wastes.

  3. A retrospective quality assessment of pre-hospital emergency medical documentation in motor vehicle accidents in south-eastern Norway

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Few studies have evaluated pre-hospital documentation quality. We retrospectively assessed emergency medical service (EMS) documentation of key logistic, physiologic, and mechanistic variables in motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). Methods Records from police, Emergency Medical Communication Centers (EMCC), ground and air ambulances were retrospectively collected for 189 MVAs involving 392 patients. Documentation of Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), respiratory rate (RR), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) was classified as exact values, RTS categories, clinical descriptions enabling post-hoc inference of RTS categories, or missing. The distribution of values of exact versus inferred RTS categories were compared (Chi-square test for trend). Results 25% of ground and 11% of air ambulance records were unretrieveable. Patient name, birth date, and transport destination was documented in >96% of ambulance records and 81% of EMCC reports. Only 54% of patient encounter times were transmitted to the EMCC, but 77% were documented in ground and 96% in air ambulance records. Ground ambulance records documented exact values of GCS in 48% and SBP in 53% of cases, exact RR in 10%, and RR RTS categories in 54%. Clinical descriptions made post-hoc inference of RTS categories possible in another 49% of cases for GCS, 26% for RR, and 20% for SBP. Air ambulance records documented exact values of GCS in 89% and SBP in 84% of cases, exact RR in 7% and RR RTS categories in 80%. Overall, for lower RTS categories of GCS, RR and SBP the proportion of actual documented values to inferred values increased (All: p < 0.001). Also, documentation of repeated assessment was more frequent for low RTS categories of GCS, RR, and SBP (All: p < 0.001). Mechanism of injury was documented in 80% of cases by ground and 92% of cases by air ambulance. Conclusion EMS documentation of logistic and mechanistic variables was adequate. Patient physiology was frequently documented only as descriptive text. Our

  4. A quality assessment framework for natural hazard event documentations: application to trans-basin flood reports in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlemann, S.; Thieken, A. H.; Merz, B.

    2013-02-01

    Written sources that aim at documenting and analysing a particular natural hazard event in the recent past are published at vast majority as grey literature (e.g. as technical reports) and therefore outside of the scholarly publication routes. In consequence, the application of event specific documentations in natural hazard research has been constrained by barriers in accessibility and concerns of credibility towards these sources and by limited awareness of their content and its usefulness for research questions. In this study we address the concerns of credibility for the first time and present a quality assessment framework for written sources from a user's perspective, i.e. we assess the documents' fitness for use to enhance the understanding of trans-basin floods in Germany in the period 1952-2002. The framework is designed to be generally applicable for any natural hazard event documentation and assesses the quality of a document addressing accessibility as well as representational, contextual, and intrinsic dimensions of quality. We introduce an ordinal scaling scheme to grade the quality in the single quality dimensions and the Pedigree score which serves as a measure for the overall document quality. We present results of an application of the framework to a set of 133 event specific documentations relevant for understanding trans-basin floods in Germany. Our results show that the majority of flood event specific reports are of a good quality, i.e. they are well enough drafted, largely accurate and objective, and contain a substantial amount of information on the sources, pathways and receptors/consequences of the floods. The validation of our results against assessments of two independent peers confirms the objectivity and transparency of the quality assessment framework. Using an example flood event that occurred in October/November 1998 we demonstrate how the information from multiple reports can be synthesised under consideration of their quality.

  5. A quality assessment framework for natural hazard event documentation: application to trans-basin flood reports in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlemann, S.; Thieken, A. H.; Merz, B.

    2014-02-01

    Written sources that aim at documenting and analysing a particular natural hazard event in the recent past are published at vast majority as grey literature (e.g. as technical reports) and therefore outside of the scholarly publication routes. In consequence, the application of event-specific documentation in natural hazard research has been constrained by barriers in accessibility, concerns of credibility towards these sources and by limited awareness of their content and its usefulness for research questions. In this study we address the concerns of credibility for the first time and present a quality assessment framework for written sources from a user's perspective, i.e. we assess the documents' fitness for use to enhance the understanding of trans-basin floods in Germany in the period 1952-2002. The framework is designed to be generally applicable for any natural hazard event documentation and assesses the quality of a document, addressing accessibility as well as representational, contextual, and intrinsic dimensions of quality. We introduce an ordinal scaling scheme to grade the quality in the individual quality dimensions and the Pedigree score which serves as a measure for the overall document quality. We present results of an application of the framework to a set of 133 cases of event-specific documentation relevant for understanding trans-basin floods in Germany. Our results show that the majority of flood event-specific reports are of good quality, i.e. they are well enough drafted, largely accurate and objective, and contain a substantial amount of information on the sources, pathways and receptors/consequences of the floods. The validation of our results against assessments of two independent peers confirms the objectivity and transparency of the quality assessment framework. Using an example flood event that occurred in October/November 1998 we demonstrate how the information from multiple reports can be synthesised.

  6. Assessment of collection schemes for packaging and other recyclable waste in European Union-28 Member States and capital cities.

    PubMed

    Seyring, Nicole; Dollhofer, Marie; Weißenbacher, Jakob; Bakas, Ioannis; McKinnon, David

    2016-09-01

    The Waste Framework Directive obliged European Union Member States to set up separate collection systems to promote high quality recycling for at least paper, metal, plastic and glass by 2015. As implementation of the requirement varies across European Union Member States, the European Commission contracted BiPRO GmbH/Copenhagen Resource Institute to assess the separate collection schemes in the 28 European Union Member States, focusing on capital cities and on metal, plastic, glass (with packaging as the main source), paper/cardboard and bio-waste. The study includes an assessment of the legal framework for, and the practical implementation of, collection systems in the European Union-28 Member States and an in depth-analysis of systems applied in all capital cities. It covers collection systems that collect one or more of the five waste streams separately from residual waste/mixed municipal waste at source (including strict separation, co-mingled systems, door-to-door, bring-point collection and civic amenity sites). A scoreboard including 13 indicators is elaborated in order to measure the performance of the systems with the capture rates as key indicators to identify best performers. Best performance are by the cities of Ljubljana, Helsinki and Tallinn, leading to the key conclusion that door-to-door collection, at least for paper and bio-waste, and the implementation of pay-as-you-throw schemes results in high capture and thus high recycling rates of packaging and other municipal waste.

  7. How accessible was information about H1N1 flu? Literacy assessments of CDC guidance documents for different audiences.

    PubMed

    Lagassé, Lisa P; Rimal, Rajiv N; Smith, Katherine C; Storey, J Douglas; Rhoades, Elizabeth; Barnett, Daniel J; Omer, Saad B; Links, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the literacy level and readability of online communications about H1N1/09 influenza issued by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) during the first month of outbreak. Documents were classified as targeting one of six audiences ranging in technical expertise. Flesch-Kincaid (FK) measure assessed literacy level for each group of documents. ANOVA models tested for differences in FK scores across target audiences and over time. Readability was assessed for documents targeting non-technical audiences using the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM). Overall, there was a main-effect by audience, F(5, 82) = 29.72, P<.001, but FK scores did not vary over time, F(2, 82) = .34, P>.05. A time-by-audience interaction was significant, F(10, 82) = 2.11, P<.05. Documents targeting non-technical audiences were found to be text-heavy and densely-formatted. The vocabulary and writing style were found to adequately reflect audience needs. The reading level of CDC guidance documents about H1N1/09 influenza varied appropriately according to the intended audience; sub-optimal formatting and layout may have rendered some text difficult to comprehend.

  8. Crossmodal correspondences in product packaging. Assessing color-flavor correspondences for potato chips (crisps).

    PubMed

    Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina; Spence, Charles

    2011-12-01

    We report a study designed to investigate consumers' crossmodal associations between the color of packaging and flavor varieties in crisps (potato chips). This product category was chosen because of the long-established but conflicting color-flavor conventions that exist for the salt and vinegar and cheese and onion flavor varieties in the UK. The use of both implicit and explicit measures of this crossmodal association revealed that consumers responded more slowly, and made more errors, when they had to pair the color and flavor that they implicitly thought of as being "incongruent" with the same response key. Furthermore, clustering consumers by the brand that they normally purchased revealed that the main reason why this pattern of results was observed could be their differing acquaintance with one brand versus another. In addition, when participants tried the two types of crisps from "congruently" and "incongruently" colored packets, some were unable to guess the flavor correctly in the latter case. These strong crossmodal associations did not have a significant effect on participants' hedonic appraisal of the crisps, but did arouse confusion. These results are relevant in terms of R&D, since ascertaining the appropriate color of the packaging across flavor varieties ought normally to help achieve immediate product recognition and consumer satisfaction.

  9. Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain. Volume 2: Preliminary Design Concept for the Repository and Waste Package

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This volume describes the major design features of the Monitored Geologic Repository. This document is not intended to provide an exhaustive, detailed description of the repository design. Rather, this document summarizes the major systems and primary elements of the design that are radiologically significant, and references the specific technical documents and design analyses wherein the details can be found. Not all portions of the design are at the same level of completeness. Highest priority has been given to assigning resources to advance the design of the Monitored Geologic Repository features that are important to radiological safety and/or waste isolation and for which there is no NRC licensing precedent. Those features that are important to radiological safety and/or waste isolation, but for which there is an NRC precedent, receive second priority. Systems and features that have no impact on radiological safety or waste isolation receive the lowest priority. This prioritization process, referred to as binning, is discussed in more detail in Section 2.3. Not every subject discussed in this volume is given equal treatment with regard to the level of detail provided. For example, less detail is provided for the surface facility design than for the subsurface and waste package designs. This different level of detail is intentional. Greater detail is provided for those functions, structures, systems, and components that play key roles with regard to protecting radiological health and safety and that are not common to existing nuclear facilities already licensed by NRC. A number of radiological subjects are not addressed in the VA, (e.g., environmental qualification of equipment). Environmental qualification of equipment and other radiological safety considerations will be addressed in the LA. Non-radiological safety considerations such as silica dust control and other occupational safety considerations are considered equally important but are not addressed in

  10. DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION OF SHIPPING PACKAGE 9975-03431

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2012-05-30

    Destructive and non-destructive examinations have been performed on specified components of shipping package 9975-03431. For those attributes that were also measured during the field surveillance, no significant changes were observed. All observations and test results met identified criteria, or were collected for information and trending purposes. Except for modest corrosion of the lead shield (which is typical of these packages following several years service), no evidence of a degraded condition was found in this package. The Savannah River Site (SRS) stores packages containing plutonium (Pu) materials in the KArea Complex (KAC). The Pu materials are packaged per the DOE 3013 Standard and stored within Model 9975 shipping packages in KAC. The KAC facility DSA (Document Safety Analysis) credits the Model 9975 package to perform several safety functions, including criticality prevention, impact resistance, containment, and fire resistance to ensure the plutonium materials remain in a safe configuration during normal and accident conditions. The Model 9975 package is expected to perform its safety function for at least 12 years from initial packaging. The DSA recognizes the degradation potential for the materials of package construction over time in the KAC storage environment and requires an assessment of materials performance to validate the assumptions of the analysis and ultimately predict service life. As part of the comprehensive Model 9975 package surveillance program, destructive examination of package 9975-03431 was performed following field surveillance in accordance with Reference. Field surveillance of the Model 9975 package in KAC included nondestructive examination of the drum, fiberboard, lead shield and containment vessels. Results of the field surveillance are provided in Attachment 1.

  11. Plain Language in Environmental Policy Documents: An Assessment of Reader Comprehension and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Natasha; McDavid, Justin; Derthick, Katie; Dowell, Randy; Spyridakis, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Several government agencies are seeking quality improvement in environmental policy documents by asking for the implementation of Plain Language (PL) guidelines. Our mixed-methods research examines whether the application of certain PL guidelines affects the comprehension and perceptions of readers of environmental policy documents. Results show…

  12. Basins 4.0 Climate Assessment Tool (Cat): Supporting Documentation and User Manual (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has released of the draft document solely for the purpose of pre-dissemination peer review under applicable Information Quality Guidelines (IQGs). This document has not been formally disseminated by EPA. It does not represent and should not be construed to represent any Agenc...

  13. Assessing Student Learning Outcomes and Documenting Success through a Capstone Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sum, Paul E.; Light, Steven Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Colleges and universities are increasingly intentional about meeting well-articulated and consistent general education goals and documenting substantive learning outcomes. Institutional imperatives to document the successful teaching of essential knowledge and skill sets frequently fall to faculty and departments, posing new challenges in an…

  14. Pre-Packaged vs. Tailor-Made: The Assessment Center Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Stephen L.

    1980-01-01

    The difficulties of over-reliance on prepackaged assessment center programs are discussed, along with pointers for determining whether a company should use prepackaged or custom-designed assessment centers. (JOW)

  15. The INTERGROWTH-21st Project Neurodevelopment Package: A Novel Method for the Multi-Dimensional Assessment of Neurodevelopment in Pre-School Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Michelle; Stein, Alan; Newton, Charles R.; Cheikh-Ismail, Leila; Kihara, Michael; Wulff, Katharina; de León Quintana, Enrique; Aranzeta, Luis; Soria-Frisch, Aureli; Acedo, Javier; Ibanez, David; Abubakar, Amina; Giuliani, Francesca; Lewis, Tamsin; Kennedy, Stephen; Villar, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Background The International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century (INTERGROWTH-21st) Project is a population-based, longitudinal study describing early growth and development in an optimally healthy cohort of 4607 mothers and newborns. At 24 months, children are assessed for neurodevelopmental outcomes with the INTERGROWTH-21st Neurodevelopment Package. This paper describes neurodevelopment tools for preschoolers and the systematic approach leading to the development of the Package. Methods An advisory panel shortlisted project-specific criteria (such as multi-dimensional assessments and suitability for international populations) to be fulfilled by a neurodevelopment instrument. A literature review of well-established tools for preschoolers revealed 47 candidates, none of which fulfilled all the project's criteria. A multi-dimensional assessment was, therefore, compiled using a package-based approach by: (i) categorizing desired outcomes into domains, (ii) devising domain-specific criteria for tool selection, and (iii) selecting the most appropriate measure for each domain. Results The Package measures vision (Cardiff tests); cortical auditory processing (auditory evoked potentials to a novelty oddball paradigm); and cognition, language skills, behavior, motor skills and attention (the INTERGROWTH-21st Neurodevelopment Assessment) in 35–45 minutes. Sleep-wake patterns (actigraphy) are also assessed. Tablet-based applications with integrated quality checks and automated, wireless electroencephalography make the Package easy to administer in the field by non-specialist staff. The Package is in use in Brazil, India, Italy, Kenya and the United Kingdom. Conclusions The INTERGROWTH-21st Neurodevelopment Package is a multi-dimensional instrument measuring early child development (ECD). Its developmental approach may be useful to those involved in large-scale ECD research and surveillance efforts. PMID:25423589

  16. DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION OF SHIPPING PACKAGE 9975-02028

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.; Stefek, T.

    2009-12-30

    Destructive and non-destructive examinations have been performed on specified components of shipping package 9975-02028. For those attributes that were also measured during the field surveillance, no significant changes were observed. Four conditions were identified that do not meet inspection criteria. These conditions are subject to additional investigation and disposition by the Surveillance Program Authority. The conditions include: (1) The lead shield was covered with a white corrosion layer; (2) The lead shield height exceeds drawing requirements; (3) Mold was observed on the lower fiberboard subassembly; and (4) Fiberboard thermal conductivity in the axial direction exceeded the specified range. The Surveillance Program Authority was notified of these conditions and will document the disposition by surveillance report. All other observations and test results met identified criteria, or were collected for information and trending purposes. The Savannah River Site (SRS) stores packages containing plutonium (Pu) materials in the K-Area Complex (KAC). The Pu materials are packaged per the DOE 3013 Standard and stored within Model 9975 shipping packages in KAC. The KAC facility DSA (Document Safety Analysis) credits the Model 9975 package to perform several safety functions, including criticality prevention, impact resistance, containment, and fire resistance to ensure the plutonium materials remain in a safe configuration during normal and accident conditions. The Model 9975 package is expected to perform its safety function for at least 12 years from initial packaging. The DSA recognizes the degradation potential for the materials of package construction over time in the KAC storage environment and requires an assessment of materials performance to validate the assumptions of the analysis and ultimately predict service life. As part of the comprehensive Model 9975 package surveillance program, destructive examination of package 9975-02028 was performed

  17. DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION OF SHIPPING PACKAGE 9975-02168

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2010-11-18

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) stores packages containing plutonium (Pu) materials in the K-Area Complex (KAC). The Pu materials are packaged per the DOE 3013 Standard and stored within Model 9975 shipping packages in KAC. The KAC facility DSA (Document Safety Analysis) credits the Model 9975 package to perform several safety functions, including criticality prevention, impact resistance, containment, and fire resistance to ensure the plutonium materials remain in a safe configuration during normal and accident conditions. The Model 9975 package is expected to perform its safety function for at least 12 years from initial packaging. The DSA recognizes the degradation potential for the materials of package construction over time in the KAC storage environment and requires an assessment of materials performance to validate the assumptions of the analysis and ultimately predict service life. As part of the comprehensive Model 9975 package surveillance program, destructive examination of package 9975-02028 was performed following field surveillance in accordance with Reference. Field surveillance of the Model 9975 package in KAC included nondestructive examination of the drum, fiberboard, lead shield and containment vessels. Results of the field surveillance are provided in Attachment 1. Destructive and non-destructive examinations have been performed on specified components of shipping package 9975-02168. For those attributes that were also measured during the field surveillance, no significant changes were observed. Two conditions were identified that do not meet inspection criteria. These conditions are subject to additional investigation and disposition by the Surveillance Program Authority. The conditions include: (1) The lead shield was covered with a white corrosion layer, and (2) Fiberboard thermal conductivity in the axial direction exceeded the specified range. The Surveillance Program Authority was notified of these conditions and will document the findings

  18. MODFLOW-2005, The U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model - Documentation of the Multiple-Refined-Areas Capability of Local Grid Refinement (LGR) and the Boundary Flow and Head (BFH) Package

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mehl, Steffen W.; Hill, Mary C.

    2007-01-01

    This report documents the addition of the multiple-refined-areas capability to shared node Local Grid Refinement (LGR) and Boundary Flow and Head (BFH) Package of MODFLOW-2005, the U.S. Geological Survey modular, three-dimensional, finite-difference ground-water flow model. LGR now provides the capability to simulate ground-water flow by using one or more block-shaped, higher resolution local grids (child model) within a coarser grid (parent model). LGR accomplishes this by iteratively coupling separate MODFLOW-2005 models such that heads and fluxes are balanced across the shared interfacing boundaries. The ability to have multiple, nonoverlapping areas of refinement is important in situations where there is more than one area of concern within a regional model. In this circumstance, LGR can be used to simulate these distinct areas with higher resolution grids. LGR can be used in two-and three-dimensional, steady-state and transient simulations and for simulations of confined and unconfined ground-water systems. The BFH Package can be used to simulate these situations by using either the parent or child models independently.

  19. Analysis of Prehospital Documentation of Injury-Related Pain Assessment and Analgesic Administration on the Contemporary Battlefield.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, Robert T; Reeves, Patrick T; Kotwal, Russ S; Mabry, Robert L; Robinson, John B; Butler, Frank

    2016-01-01

    In addition to life-saving interventions, the assessment of pain and subsequent administration of analgesia are primary benchmarks for quality emergency medical services care which should be documented and analyzed. Analyze US combat casualty data from the Department of Defense Trauma Registry (DoDTR) with a primary focus on prehospital pain assessment, analgesic administration and documentation. Retrospective cohort study of battlefield prehospital and hospital casualty data were abstracted by DoDTR from available records from 1 September 2007 through 30 June 2011. Data included demographics; injury mechanism; prehospital and initial combat hospital pain assessment documented by standard 0-to-10 numeric rating scale; analgesics administered; and survival outcome. Records were available for 8,913 casualties (median ISS of 5 [IQR 2 to 10]; 98.7% survived). Prehospital analgesic administration was documented for 1,313 cases (15%). Prehospital pain assessment was recorded for 581 cases (7%; median pain score 6 [IQR 3 to 8]), hospital pain assessment was recorded for 5,007 cases (56%; median pain score5 [CI95% 3 to 8]), and 409 cases (5%) had both prehospital and hospital pain assessments that could be paired. In this paired group, 49.1% (201/409) had alleviation of pain evidenced by a decrease in pain score (median 4,, IQR 2 to 5); 23.5% (96/409) had worsening of pain evidenced by an increase in pain score (median 3, CI95 2.8 to 3.7, IQR 1 to 5); 27.4% (112/409) had no change; and the overall difference was an average decrease in pain score of 1.1 (median 0, IQR 0 to 3, p < 0.01). Time-series analysis showed modest increases in prehospital and hospital pain assessment documentation and prehospital analgesic documentation. Our study demonstrates that prehospital pain assessment, management, and documentation remain primary targets for performance improvement on the battlefield. Results of paired prehospital to hospital pain scores and time-series analysis demonstrate

  20. Repository environmental parameters and models/methodologies relevant to assessing the performance of high-level waste packages in basalt, tuff, and salt

    SciTech Connect

    Claiborne, H.C.; Croff, A.G.; Griess, J.C.; Smith, F.J.

    1987-09-01

    This document provides specifications for models/methodologies that could be employed in determining postclosure repository environmental parameters relevant to the performance of high-level waste packages for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) at Richland, Washington, the tuff at Yucca Mountain by the Nevada Test Site, and the bedded salt in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Guidance is provided on the identify of the relevant repository environmental parameters; the models/methodologies employed to determine the parameters, and the input data base for the models/methodologies. Supporting studies included are an analysis of potential waste package failure modes leading to identification of the relevant repository environmental parameters, an evaluation of the credible range of the repository environmental parameters, and a summary of the review of existing models/methodologies currently employed in determining repository environmental parameters relevant to waste package performance. 327 refs., 26 figs., 19 tabs.

  1. Evidence-based risk assessment and recommendations for physical activity clearance: Consensus Document 2011.

    PubMed

    Warburton, Darren E R; Gledhill, Norman; Jamnik, Veronica K; Bredin, Shannon S D; McKenzie, Don C; Stone, James; Charlesworth, Sarah; Shephard, Roy J

    2011-07-01

    The Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q) and the Physical Activity Readiness Medical Evaluation (PARmed-X) are internationally known preparticipation screening tools developed on the basis of expert opinion. The primary purposes of this consensus document were to seek evidence-based support for the PAR-Q and PARmed-X forms, to identify whether further revisions of these instruments are warranted, to determine how people responding positively to questions on the PAR-Q can be safely cleared without medical referral, and to develop exercise clearance procedures appropriate for various clinical conditions across the human lifespan. Seven systematic reviews were conducted, examining physical-activity-related risks and effective risk-stratification procedures for various prevalent chronic conditions. An additional systematic review assessed the risks associated with exercise testing and training of the general population. Two gap areas were identified and evaluated systematically: the role of the qualified exercise professional and the requisite core competencies required by those working with various chronic conditions; and the risks associated with physical activity during pregnancy. The risks associated with being physically inactive are markedly higher than transient risks during and following an acute bout of exercise in both asymptomatic and symptomatic populations across the lifespan. Further refinements of the PAR-Q and the PARmed-X (including online versions of the forms) are required to address the unique limitations imposed by various chronic health conditions, and to allow the inclusion of individuals across their entire lifespan. A probing decision-tree process is proposed to assist in risk stratification and to reduce barriers to physical activity. Qualified exercise professionals will play an essential role in this revised physical activity clearance process.

  2. Data Packages for the Hanford Immobilized Low Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment 2001 Version [SEC 1 THRU 5

    SciTech Connect

    MANN, F.M.

    2000-03-02

    Data package supporting the 2001 Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance Analysis. Geology, hydrology, geochemistry, facility, waste form, and dosimetry data based on recent investigation are provided. Verification and benchmarking packages for selected software codes are provided.

  3. Genotoxicity assessment of propyl thiosulfinate oxide, an organosulfur compound from Allium extract, intended to food active packaging.

    PubMed

    Mellado-García, P; Maisanaba, S; Puerto, M; Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Prieto, A I; Marcos, R; Pichardo, S; Cameán, A M

    2015-12-01

    Essential oils from onion (Allium cepa L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and their main components, such as propyl thiosulfinate oxide (PTSO) are being intended for active packaging with the purpose of maintaining and extending food product quality and shelf life. The present work aims to assess for the first time the potential mutagenicity/genotoxicity of PTSO (0-50 µM) using the following battery of genotoxicity tests: (1) the bacterial reverse-mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium (Ames test, OECD 471); (2) the micronucleus test (OECD 487) (MN) and (3) the mouse lymphoma thymidine-kinase assay (OECD 476) (MLA) on L5178YTk(+/-), cells; and (4) the comet assay (with and without Endo III and FPG enzymes) on Caco-2 cells. The results revealed that PTSO was not mutagenic in the Ames test, however it was mutagenic in the MLA assay after 24 h of treatment (2.5-20 µM). The parent compound did not induce MN on mammalian cells; however, its metabolites (in the presence S9) produced positive results (from 15 µM). Data from the comet assay indicated that PTSO did not induce DNA breaks or oxidative DNA damage. Further in vivo genotoxicity tests are needed to confirm its safety before it is used as active additive in food packaging.

  4. Assessing the impact of cigarette package health warning labels: a cross-country comparison in Brazil, Uruguay, and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F; Villalobos, Victor; Szklo, André; Fong, Geoffrey T; Pérez, Cristina; Sebrié, Ernesto; Sansone, Natalie; Figueiredo, Valeska; Boado, Marcelo; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Bianco, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of different health warning labels (HWL). Material and Methods Data from the International Tobacco Control Survey (ITC Survey) were analyzed from adult smokers in Brazil, Uruguay and Mexico, each of which used a different HWL strategy (pictures of human suffering and diseased organs; abstract pictorial representations of risk; and text-only messages, respectively). Main outcomes were HWL salience and cognitive impact. Results HWLs in Uruguay (which was the only country with a HWL on the front of the package) had higher salience than either Brazilian or Mexican packs. People at higher levels of educational attainment in Mexico were more likely to read the text-only HWLs whereas education was unassociated with salience in Brazil or Uruguay. Brazilian HWLs had greater cognitive impacts than HWLs in either Uruguay or Mexico. HWLs in Uruguay generated lower cognitive impacts than the text-only HWLs in Mexico. In Brazil, cognitive impacts were strongest among smokers with low educational attainment. Conclusions This study suggests that HWLs have the most impact when they are prominent (i.e., front and back of the package) and include emotionally engaging imagery that illustrates negative bodily impacts or human suffering due to smoking. PMID:21243191

  5. Immediate effects of plain packaging health warnings on quitting intention and potential mediators: Results from two ecological momentary assessment studies.

    PubMed

    Schüz, Natalie; Eid, Michael; Schüz, Benjamin; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the immediate, everyday impact of health warnings on cigarette packages on potential smoking cessation mediators and to test for differences in immediate reactions to branded and plain tobacco packaging during the transition phase when plain packs where first introduced in Australia. Two Ecological Momentary Assessment studies tested whether smokers report higher risk appraisals, self-efficacy, and quitting intentions immediately after seeing a warning compared to random times of the day (Study 1), and whether smoking from plain packs results in higher quitting intention, risk appraisal, and self-efficacy than smoking from branded packs (Study 2). There was no immediate increase in self-efficacy, risk appraisal, or intention after encountering health warnings, and no differences in cognitions when using plain compared with branded packs. Moreover, cognitions were not different when warnings were encountered in proximity to smoking compared to nonsmoking events. However, self-efficacy and risk appraisal were significantly associated with quitting intention. Current health warnings do not seem to have an immediate impact on important predictors of quitting intention and might benefit from including messages that place a stronger focus on increasing smokers' confidence that they can quit. Replication of the results with larger sample and cluster sizes is warranted.

  6. The Environmental footprint of morphine: a life cycle assessment from opium poppy farming to the packaged drug

    PubMed Central

    McAlister, Scott; Ou, Yanjun; Neff, Elise; Hapgood, Karen; Story, David; Mealey, Philip; McGain, Forbes

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the environmental life cycle from poppy farming through to production of 100 mg in 100 mL of intravenous morphine (standard infusion bag). Design ‘Cradle-to-grave’ process-based life cycle assessment (observational). Settings Australian opium poppy farms, and facilities for pelletising, manufacturing morphine, and sterilising and packaging bags of morphine. Main outcome measures The environmental effects (eg, CO2 equivalent (‘CO2 e’) emissions and water use) of producing 100 mg of morphine. All aspects of morphine production from poppy farming, pelletising, bulk morphine manufacture through to final formulation. Industry-sourced and inventory-sourced databases were used for most inputs. Results Morphine sulfate (100 mg in 100 mL) had a climate change effect of 204 g CO2 e (95% CI 189 to 280 g CO2 e), approximating the CO2 e emissions of driving an average car 1 km. Water use was 7.8 L (95% CI 6.7– to 9.0 L), primarily stemming from farming (6.7 L). All other environmental effects were minor and several orders of magnitude less than CO2 e emissions and water use. Almost 90% of CO2 e emissions occurred during the final stages of 100 mg of morphine manufacture. Morphine's packaging contributed 95 g CO2 e, which accounted for 46% of the total CO2 e (95% CI 82 to 155 g CO2 e). Mixing, filling and sterilisation of 100 mg morphine bags added a further 86 g CO2 e, which accounted for 42% (95% CI 80 to 92 g CO2 e). Poppy farming (6 g CO2 e, 3%), pelletising and manufacturing (18 g CO2 e, 9%) made smaller contributions to CO2 emissions. Conclusions The environmental effects of growing opium poppies and manufacturing bulk morphine were small. The final stages of morphine production, particularly sterilisation and packaging, contributed to almost 90% of morphine's carbon footprint. Focused measures to improve the energy efficiency and sources for drug sterilisation and packaging could be explored as these are

  7. Assessment and Accountability in Higher Education. Proceedings Document (Sante Fe, New Mexico, December 5-7, 1989). ECS Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    The conference reported in this document was attended by representatives of seven states (Florida, Illinois, New Jersey, New Mexico, Tennessee, Virginia, and Washington). Participants focused on three key questions: (1) what are the issues and objectives behind assessment in each state? (2) what can be done regarding the implementation of…

  8. A Question of Authenticity: The Document-Based Question as an Assessment of Students' Knowledge of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, S. G.; Gradwell, Jill M.; Cimbricz, Sandra K.

    2004-01-01

    In this article we consider the extent to which the Document-Based Question (DBQ) on the New York State Global History and Geography exam represents an authentic task. The DBQ seems like a significant step toward authenticity, especially when compared with traditional forced-choice assessments. Drawing on the characteristics of authentic tasks as…

  9. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2008-01-12

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package (also known as the "RH-TRU 72-B cask") and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a

  10. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-09-11

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the pplication." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  11. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  12. Life characteristics assessment of the communications technology satellite transmitter experiment package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetana, J.; Curren, A. N.

    1979-01-01

    The performance characteristics of the transmitter experiment package (TEP) aboard the Communications Technology Satellite (CTS) measured during its first 2 years in orbit are presented. The TEP consists of a nominal 200 watt output stage tube (OST), a supporting power processing system (PPS), and a variable conductance heat pipe system (VCHPS). The OST, a traveling wave tube augmented with a 10 stage depressed collector has an overall saturated average efficiency of 51.5 percent and an average saturated radio frequency (rf) output power at center band frequency of 240 watts. The PPS operated with a measured efficiency of 86.5 to 88.5 percent. The VCHPS, using three pipes to conduct heat from the PPS and the OST to a 52 by 124 centimeter radiator fin, maintained the PPS baseplate temperature below 50 C for all operating conditions. The TEP performance characteristics presented include frequency response, rf output power, thermal performance, and efficiency. Communications characteristics were evaluated by using both video and audio modulated signals. On four occasions, the TEP experienced temporary thermal control system malfunctions. The anomalies were terminated safely, and the problem was investigated because of the potential for TEP damage due to the signficant temperature increases. Safe TEP operating procedures were established.

  13. Quantitative assessment of microbiological contributions to corrosion of candidate nuclear waste-package materials

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, J.; Jones, D.; Lian, T.; Martin, S.

    1998-10-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy is contributing to the design of a potential nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A system to predict the contribution of Yucca Mountain (YM) bacteria to overall corrosion rates of candidate waste-package (WP) materials was designed and implemented. DC linear polarization resistance techniques were applied to candidate material coupons that had been inoculated with a mixture of YM-derived bacteria with potentially corrosive activities or left sterile. Inoculated bacteria caused a 5- to 6-fold increase in corrosion rate of carbon steel C1020 (to approximately 7Ð8mm/yr) and an almost 100-fold increase in corrosion rate of Alloy 400 (to approximately 1mm/yr). Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) rates on more resistant materials (CRMs: Alloy 625, Type 304 Stainless Steel, and Alloy C22) were on the order of hundredths of micrometers per year (mm/yr). Bulk chemical and surfacial end-point analyses of spent media and coupon surfaces showed preferential dissolution of nickel from Alloy 400 coupons and depletion of chromium from CRMs after incubation with YM bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) also showed greater damage to the Alloy 400 surface than that indicated by electrochemical detection methods.

  14. Plasma diagnostics package assessment of the STS-3 orbiter environment and systems for science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shawhan, S. D.; Murphy, G. B.

    1983-01-01

    Primary objectives of the Plasma Diagnostics Package (PDP) on STS-3 as part of the OSS-1 'Pathfinder' payload were to measure aspects of the Orbiter's induced environment and to utilize Orbiter crew and subsystems in the conduct of scientific investigations. Instrumentation temperatures were found to be within predicted limits, payload bay pressure varied from ambient up to 0.001 torr with thruster firings, EMI levels were found to be below worst case estimates, and V x B motional potentials were observed to vary + or - 5 V with respect to Orbiter ground. These parameters exhibited orbit-period modulation. Payload bay plasma varied in density and composition from ambient to a rarefied mixture with Orbiter-produced H2O(+). Energetic electrons and ions with energies up to 10's of eV were observed occasionally. Primary and vernier thrusters induce a momentary perturbation to the electron density, to the pressure and to the electric field with low energy ions and electrons occasionally produced. With the PDP on the RMS, both automode and manual modes were used to seek sources of EMI, to characterize the Orbiter's plasma wake and to measure beam-plasma phenomena.

  15. The Pollutant Hazard Assessment System Version 3: Documentation and Users Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-15

    necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Risk Assessment Baseline Assessments BASIC 12 05 Public Health Superfund 24 07 Environmental...is designed for general use in risk assessments, such as the "baseline assessment" detailed in the most recent Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund ...conform to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund risk assessment guidance2 ’ 3 . The system structure is reviewed in Section 3. Sections 4

  16. Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations & Development (PO&D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage.

  17. Assessment of error rates in acoustic monitoring with the R package monitoR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, Jonathan; Hafner, Sasha D.; Donovan, Therese

    2016-01-01

    Detecting population-scale reactions to climate change and land-use change may require monitoring many sites for many years, a process that is suited for an automated system. We developed and tested monitoR, an R package for long-term, multi-taxa acoustic monitoring programs. We tested monitoR with two northeastern songbird species: black-throated green warbler (Setophaga virens) and ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla). We compared detection results from monitoR in 52 10-minute surveys recorded at 10 sites in Vermont and New York, USA to a subset of songs identified by a human that were of a single song type and had visually identifiable spectrograms (e.g. a signal:noise ratio of at least 10 dB: 166 out of 439 total songs for black-throated green warbler, 502 out of 990 total songs for ovenbird). monitoR’s automated detection process uses a ‘score cutoff’, which is the minimum match needed for an unknown event to be considered a detection and results in a true positive, true negative, false positive or false negative detection. At the chosen score cut-offs, monitoR correctly identified presence for black-throated green warbler and ovenbird in 64% and 72% of the 52 surveys using binary point matching, respectively, and 73% and 72% of the 52 surveys using spectrogram cross-correlation, respectively. Of individual songs, 72% of black-throated green warbler songs and 62% of ovenbird songs were identified by binary point matching. Spectrogram cross-correlation identified 83% of black-throated green warbler songs and 66% of ovenbird songs. False positive rates were  for song event detection.

  18. Anhydrous Ammonia Training Module. Trainer's Package. Participant's Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudin, Bart; And Others

    This document contains a trainer's and a participant's package for teaching employees on site safe handling procedures for working with anhydrous ammonia, especially on farms. The trainer's package includes the following: a description of the module; a competency; objectives; suggested instructional aids; a training outline (or lesson plan) for…

  19. NFR TRIGA package design review report

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, M.D.

    1994-08-26

    The purpose of this document is to compile, present and document the formal design review of the NRF TRIGA packaging. The contents of this document include: the briefing meeting presentations, package description, design calculations, package review drawings, meeting minutes, action item lists, review comment records, final resolutions, and released drawings. This design review required more than two meeting to resolve comments. Therefore, there are three meeting minutes and two action item lists.

  20. Sustainable Library Development Training Package

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This Sustainable Library Development Training Package supports Peace Corps' Focus In/Train Up strategy, which was implemented following the 2010 Comprehensive Agency Assessment. Sustainable Library Development is a technical training package in Peace Corps programming within the Education sector. The training package addresses the Volunteer…

  1. Reliability assessment of ceramic column grid array (CCGA717) interconnect packages under extreme temperatures for space applications (-185°C to +125°C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2010-02-01

    Ceramic Column Grid Array packages have been increasing in use based on their advantages such as high interconnect density, very good thermal and electrical performance, compatibility with standard surface-mount packaging assembly processes, etc. CCGA packages are used in space applications such as in logics and microprocessor functions, telecommunications, flight avionics, payload electronics, etc. As these packages tend to have less solder joint strain relief than leaded packages, the reliability of CCGA packages is very important for short and long-term space missions. CCGA interconnect electronic package printed wiring boards (PWBs) of polyimide have been assembled, inspected non-destructively and subsequently subjected to extreme temperature thermal cycling to assess the reliability for future deep space, short and long-term, extreme temperature missions. In this investigation, the employed temperature range covers from -185°C to +125°C extreme thermal environments. The test hardware consists of two CCGA717 packages with each package divided into four daisy-chained sections, for a total of eight daisy chains to be monitored. The CCGA717 package is 33 mm × 33 mm with a 27×27 array of 80%/20% Pb/Sn columns on a 1.27 mm pitch. The resistance of daisy-chained, CCGA interconnects were continuously monitored as a function of thermal cycling. Electrical resistance measurements as a function of thermal cycling are reported and the tests to date have shown significant change in daisy chain resistance as a function of thermal cycling. The change in interconnect resistance becomes more noticeable with increasing number of thermal cycles. This paper will describe the experimental test results of CCGA testing under wide extreme temperatures. Standard Weibull analysis tools were used to extract the Weibull parameters to understand the CCGA failures. Optical inspection results clearly indicate that the solder joints of columns with the board and the ceramic package have

  2. YWCA Vocational Readiness Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Jeanne

    This document outlines, in detail, the Vocational Readiness Package for young girls, which is a week-long program utilizing simulation games and role-playing, while employing peer group counseling techniques to dramatize the realities concerning women in marriage and careers today. After three years of using this program, the authors have compiled…

  3. Packaging, transportation of LLW

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, P.

    1994-12-31

    This presentation is an overview of the regulations and requirements for the packaging and transportation of low-level radioactive wastes. United States Environmental Protection Agency and Department of Transportation regulations governing the classification of wastes and the transport documentation are also described.

  4. Applying Multiple Methods to Assess the Readability of a Large Corpus of Medical Documents

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Danny T.Y.; Hanauer, David A.; Mei, Qiaozhu; Clark, Patricia M.; An, Lawrence C.; Lei, Jianbo; Proulx, Joshua; Zeng-Treitler, Qing; Zheng, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Medical documents provided to patients at the end of an episode of care, such as discharge summaries and referral letters, serve as an important vehicle to convey critical information to patients and families. Increasingly, healthcare institutions are also experimenting with granting patients direct electronic access to other types of clinical narratives that are not typically shared unless explicitly requested, such as progress notes. While these efforts have great potential to improve information transparency, their value can be severely diminished if patients are unable to read and thus unable to properly interpret the medical documents shared to them. In this study, we approached the problem by contrasting the ‘readability’ of two types of medical documents: referral letters vs. other genres of narrative clinician notes not explicitly intended for direct viewing by patients. To establish a baseline for comparison, we also computed readability scores of MedlinePlus articles—exemplars of fine patient education materials carefully crafted for lay audiences. We quantified document readability using four different measures. Differences in the results obtained through these measures are also discussed. PMID:23920636

  5. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-02-28

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.

  6. Examining the Efficacy of a Basic Functional Behavioral Assessment Training Package for School Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loman, Sheldon L.; Horner, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of manualized training in "Basic" functional behavioral assessment (FBA) for typical school professionals on the ability of these professionals to complete technically adequate FBAs. Twelve school professionals participated in four 1-hr training sessions using the Basic FBA training handbook. After…

  7. Assessment of the risk of physical contamination of bread packaged in perforated oriented polypropylene films: measurements, procedures and results.

    PubMed

    Piergiovanni, L; Limbo, S; Riva, M; Fava, P

    2003-02-01

    Perforated films used for wrapping factory-manufactured bread must permit a very rapid and intense moisture exchange because the packaging operation is carried out while the bread is still warm (about 80 degrees C) and releasing a high quantity of moisture. The open surface of the wrapping of those products sold in self-service retail outlets generates suspicion about possible contamination of bread not properly handled by the consumers and a better knowledge of the performance of these materials seems appropriate. Using two different approaches, the geometrical characteristics and perforation pattern of 13 different oriented polypropylene (OPP) films representative of the whole European market were assessed objectively. All the measured parameters (density of perforation, hole dimension, open surface, etc.) showed asymmetric distributions, i.e. with averages close to the lowest figures. Similar asymmetric distribution was shown from the 'risk of contamination' by artificial sweat and saliva: an empirical parameter which was measured by procedures developed to simulate the worst possible case of inappropriate manipulation of the packed bread. Good correlation was found between the 'risk of contamination' and both the 'hole surface' (mm(2)) and the 'open surface' (percentage holes surface/film surface), leading to the conclusion that the proposed procedures could represent useful methodologies for assessment of such a particular case of possible food contamination.

  8. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions, LLC

    2003-08-25

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. The C of C states: ''...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, ''Operating Procedures,'' of the application.'' It further states: ''...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, ''Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR {section} 71.11, ''Deliberate Misconduct.'' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the RH-TRU 72-B packaging. This Program Guidance standardizes instructions for all users. Users shall follow these instructions. Following these instructions assures that operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARP. This document is available on the Internet at: ttp://www.ws/library/t2omi/t2omi.htm. Users are responsible for ensuring they are using the current revision and change notices. Sites may prepare their own document using the word

  9. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2006-04-25

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package TransporterModel II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant| (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations(CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions ofapproval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  10. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2007-12-13

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  11. AVLIS documentation overview and tables of contents

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-15

    Three documents constitute the executive summary series in Data Package III: this document (Documentation Overview and Tables of Contents (E001)) plus the AVLIS Production Plant Executive Summary (E010) and the AVLIS Production Plant Overall Design Report (E020). They provide progressively greater detail on the key information and conclusions contained within the data package. The Executive Summary and Overall Design Report present summaries of each Data Package III document. They are intended to provide a global overview of AVLIS Production Plant deployment including program planning, project management, schedules, engineering design, production, operations, capital cost, and operating cost. The purpose of Overview and Tables of Contents is threefold: to briefly review AVLIS goals for Data Package III documentation, to present an overview of the contents of the data package, and to provide a useful guide to information contained in the numerous documents comprising the package.

  12. The Pollution Hazard Assessment System Version 20: Documentation and Users Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-15

    block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-ROUP Risk Assessment BASIC -- Public Health Baseline Assessments Environmental Effects Su r und 19. ABSTRACT (Continue...universal in application. PHAS20 lets the user incorporate information about potential effects to indigenous biota in the environment so that the assessment...PHAS20 health- effects related concepts and operational instructions. Appendix A presents a glossary of terms and data identifications. Appendix B

  13. An assessment strateqy whose time has come for documenting competency in dental education and beyond.

    PubMed

    Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C

    2010-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine report on dental education in the mid-1990s called specific attention to the need for authentic assessment of student progress and outcomes. This corresponded with the advent of competency-based dental education, resulting in recognition of the need for new methods to assess dental students knowledge, skills, and values in the context of beginning independent dental practice. The portfolio approach to assessment uses a rich collection of cumulative evidence from multiple sources in ways that address this need. Because students take some responsibility for maintaining their portfolios, the competency of reflective critical thinking can also be assessed by means of portfolios.

  14. Hazardous materials package performance regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, N. A.; Glass, R. E.; McClure, J. D.; Finley, N. C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a hazardous materials Hazmat Packaging Performance Evaluation (HPPE) project being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories for the US Department of Transportation Research Special Programs Administration (DOT-RSPA) to look at the subset of bulk packagings that are larger than 2000 gallons. The objectives of this project are to evaluate current hazmat specification packagings and develop supporting documentation for determining performance requirements for packagings in excess of 2000 gallons that transport hazardous materials that have been classified as extremely toxic by inhalation (METBI).

  15. 78 FR 14510 - Notice of Availability of a Treatment Evaluation Document and an Environmental Assessment for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... and environmental assessment available to the public for review and comment. DATES: We will consider... the Environmental Protection Agency's regulations, the chemicals available for use to control imported...'' (March 2012). We are making this environmental assessment available to the public for review and...

  16. Exploring the (Un-) Usefulness of Mandatory Assessment Documents in Primary Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartell, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Every student in the Swedish compulsory school system is entitled to information regarding their progress in all school subjects given. In 2008, a mandatory assessment tool, called the individual development plan (IDP) with written assessment, was introduced by the Government. The statutory purpose was to provide teachers with a formative…

  17. BASINS 4.0 CLIMATE ASSESSMENT TOOL (CAT): SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION AND USER'S MANUAL (FINAL REPORT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Global Change Research Program (GCRP) is an assessment-oriented program within the Office of Research and Development that focuses on assessing how potential changes in climate and other global environmental stressors may impact water qu...

  18. Document Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The charters of Freedom Monitoring System will periodically assess the physical condition of the U.S. Constitution, Declaration of Independence and Bill of Rights. Although protected in helium filled glass cases, the documents are subject to damage from light vibration and humidity. The photometer is a CCD detector used as the electronic film for the camera system's scanning camera which mechanically scans the document line by line and acquires a series of images, each representing a one square inch portion of the document. Perkin-Elmer Corporation's photometer is capable of detecting changes in contrast, shape or other indicators of degradation with 5 to 10 times the sensitivity of the human eye. A Vicom image processing computer receives the data from the photometer stores it and manipulates it, allowing comparison of electronic images over time to detect changes.

  19. [Harmonisation of the Marketing Authorisation Application dossier: perspectives due to harmonised requirements. Assessing Rules and the Common Technical Document].

    PubMed

    Menges, Klaus

    2008-07-01

    Assessing Rules for Marketing Authorisation Applications and the Common Technical Document provide the framework regarding data-related requirements and regarding the structural requirements of marketing authorisation application dossiers, similar to the structural levels and rooms of buildings on the one hand and their interior equipment on the other hand. Since the 1970s requirements about how to submit application dossiers and how to assess them have become increasingly harmonised, aiming for the use of a single format and identical rules for assessment. In regard of the format, harmonisation has been achieved beyond Europe by implementing the mandatory use of CTD in the three main regions of interests of the pharmaceutical industry, Japan, the United States of America and Europe. The assessment rules have been extensively harmonised throughout Europe in a way that the same rules apply to the marketing authorisation applications submitted in Germany as well as in other Member States. Different interpretations of the guidance documents, different understanding of the provided data or divergent conclusions drawn up may still occur. All stakeholders within the European network of Drug Regulatory Affairs will act on the level floor of the European and--apart from some exceptions--also nationally implemented legislation. This will not only serve the internationally acting pharmaceutical companies' interests but also consumer interests in obtaining consistent information on drug products based on transparent rules safeguarding the necessary pharmaceutical quality, efficacy and safety with respect to an adequate risk-benefit relationship.

  20. Antimicrobial Exposure Assessment Task Force II (AEATF II) Volume 5: Governing Document for a Multi-Year Antimicrobial Chemical Exposure Monitoring Program (interim draft document with changes)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document describes the overall scope of the AEATF II program, demonstrates the need for additional human exposure monitoring data and explains the proposed methodology for the exposure monitoring studies proposed for conduct by the AEATF II.

  1. Technical assessment of processing plants as exemplified by the sorting of beverage cartons from lightweight packaging wastes.

    PubMed

    Feil, A; Thoden van Velzen, E U; Jansen, M; Vitz, P; Go, N; Pretz, T

    2016-02-01

    The recovery of beverage cartons (BC) in three lightweight packaging waste processing plants (LP) was analyzed with different input materials and input masses in the area of 21-50Mg. The data was generated by gravimetric determination of the sorting products, sampling and sorting analysis. Since the particle size of beverage cartons is larger than 120mm, a modified sampling plan was implemented and targeted multiple sampling (3-11 individual samplings) and a total sample size of respectively 1200l (ca. 60kg) for the BC-products and of about 2400l (ca. 120kg) for material-heterogeneous mixed plastics (MP) and sorting residue products. The results infer that the quantification of the beverage carton yield in the process, i.e., by including all product-containing material streams, can be specified only with considerable fluctuation ranges. Consequently, the total assessment, regarding all product streams, is rather qualitative than quantitative. Irregular operation conditions as well as unfavorable sampling conditions and capacity overloads are likely causes for high confidence intervals. From the results of the current study, recommendations can basically be derived for a better sampling in LP-processing plants. Despite of the suboptimal statistical results, the results indicate very clear that the plants show definite optimisation potentials with regard to the yield of beverage cartons as well as the required product purity. Due to the test character of the sorting trials the plant parameterization was not ideal for this sorting task and consequently the results should be interpreted with care.

  2. Large area crop inventory experiment crop assessment subsystem software requirements document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The functional data processing requirements are described for the Crop Assessment Subsystem of the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment. These requirements are used as a guide for software development and implementation.

  3. AgRISTARS: Soil moisture/early warning and crop condition assessment. Interface control document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The interactions and support functions required between the early warning/crop condition assessment (EW/CCA) project and soil moisture (SM) project are defined. The EW Project aims to develop, test and evaluate techniques and procedures for adapting remote sensing technology to provide early warning of events and the timely assessment of those factors which affect the quality and quantity of production of economically important crops. Those techniques to augment and reinforce the current assessment activities are to be developed to improve the definition of the relationship between the plant(s) and its environment. This assessment and evaluation will certainly include the need for soil moisture measurement and estimation. The SM Project aims to develop, test, and evaluate techniques and procedures to measure or predict soil moisture in the root zone using both contact and remote sensors.

  4. Projection models for health-effects assessment in populations exposed to radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants. Volume III. SPAHR interactive package guide

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.J.

    1982-09-01

    The Simulation Package for the Analysis of Health Risk (SPAHR) is a computer software package based upon a demographic model for health risk projectons. The model extends several health risk projection models by making realistic assumptions about the population at risk, adn thus represents a distinct improvement over previous models. Complete documentation for use of SPAHR is contained in this five-volume publication. The demographic model in SPAHR estimates population response to environmental toxic exposures. Latency of response, changing dose level over time, competing risks from other causes of death, and population structure can be incorporated into SPAHR to project health risks. Risks are measured by morbid years, number of deaths, and loss of life expectancy. Comparisons of estimates of excess deaths demonstrate that previous health risk projection models may have underestimated excess deaths by a factor of from 2 to 10, depending on the pollutant and the exposure scenario. The software supporting the use of the demographic model is designed to be user oriented. Complex risk projections are made by responding to a series of prompts generated by the package. The flexibility and ease of use of SPAHR make it an important contribution to existing models and software packages. This manual outlines the use of the interactive capabilities of SPAHR. SPAHR is an integrated system of computer programs designed for simulating numerous health risk scenarios using the techniques of demographic modeling. This system of computer programs has been designed to be very flexible so as to allow the user to simulate a large variety of scenarios. It provides the user with an integrated package for projecting the impacts on human health of exposure to various hazards, particularly those resulting from the effluents related to energy production.

  5. Scoring Package

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Scoring Package (PC database for purchase)   The NIST Scoring Package (Special Database 1) is a reference implementation of the draft Standard Method for Evaluating the Performance of Systems Intended to Recognize Hand-printed Characters from Image Data Scanned from Forms.

  6. An Assessment of State Board of Pharmacy Legal Documents for Public Health Emergency Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Trent, Shane; Wickizer, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To estimate pharmaceutical emergency preparedness of US states and commonwealth territories. Methods. A quantitative content analysis was performed to evaluate board of pharmacy legal documents (ie, statutes, rules, and regulations) for the presence of the 2006 Rules for Public Health Emergencies (RPHE) from the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy’s (NABP) Model Pharmacy Practice Act. Results. The median number of state-adopted RPHE was one, which was significantly less than the hypothesized value of four. Rule Two, which recommended policies and procedures for reporting disasters, was adopted significantly more than other RPHE. Ten states incorporated language specific to public health emergency refill dispensing, and among these, only six allowed 30-day refill quantities. Conclusion. Based on the 2006 NABP model rules, it does not appear that states are prepared to expedite an effective pharmaceutical response during a public health emergency. Boards of pharmacy should consider adding the eight RPHE to their state pharmacy practice acts. PMID:27073273

  7. Radar remote sensing for crop classification and canopy condition assessment: Ground-data documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T. (Principal Investigator); Jung, B.; Gillespie, K.; Hemmat, M.; Aslam, A.; Brunfeldt, D.; Dobson, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    A vegetation and soil-moisture experiment was conducted in order to examine the microwave emission and backscattering from vegetation canopies and soils. The data-acquisition methodology used in conjunction with the mobile radar scatterometer (MRS) systems is described and associated ground-truth data are documented. Test fields were located in the Kansas River floodplain north of Lawrence, Kansas. Ten fields each of wheat, corn, and soybeans were monitored over the greater part of their growing seasons. The tabulated data summarize measurements made by the sensor systems and represent target characteristics. Target parameters describing the vegetation and soil characteristics include plant moisture, density, height, and growth stage, as well as soil moisture and soil-bulk density. Complete listings of pertinent crop-canopy and soil measurements are given.

  8. Consumer exposure to substances in plastic packaging. I. Assessment of the contribution of styrene from yogurt pots.

    PubMed

    Vitrac, Olivier; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2007-02-01

    A generic methodology for the assessment of consumer exposure to substances migrating from packaging materials into foodstuffs during storage is presented. Consumer exposure at the level of individual households is derived from the probabilistic modeling of the contamination of all packed food product units (e.g. yogurt pot, milk bottle, etc.) consumed by a given household over 1 year. Exposure of a given population is estimated by gathering the exposure distributions of individual households to suitable weights (conveniently, household sizes). Calculations are made by combining (i) an efficient resolution of migration models and (ii) a methodology utilizing different sources of uncertainty and variability. The full procedure was applied to the assessment of consumer exposure to styrene from yogurt pots based on yearly purchase data of more than 5400 households in France (about 2 million yogurt pots) and an initial concentration c0 of styrene in yogurt pot walls, which is assumed to be normally distributed with an average value of 500 mg kg-1 and a standard deviation of 150 mg kg-1. Results are discussed regarding both sensitivity of the migration model to boundary conditions and household practices. By assuming a partition coefficient of 1 and a Biot number of 100, the estimated median household exposure to styrene ranged between 1 and 35 microg day-1 person-1 (5th and 95th percentiles) with a likely value of 12 microg day-1 person-1 (50th percentile). It was found that exposure does not vary independently with the average consumption rate and contact times. Thus, falsely assuming a uniform contact time equal to the sell-by-date for all yogurts overestimates significantly the daily exposure (5th and 95th percentiles of 2 and 110 microg day-1 person-1, respectively) since high consumers showed quicker turnover of stock.

  9. Damage Assessment and Digital 2D-3D Documentation of PetraTreasury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala'awi, Fadi; Alshawabkeh, Yahya; Alawneh, Firas; Masri, Eyed al

    The treasury is the icon monument of the world heritage site of ancient Petra city. Unfortunately, this important part of the world's cultural heritage is gradually being diminished due to weathering and erosion problems. This give rise to the need to have a comprehensive study and full documentation of the monument in order to evaluate its status. In this research a comprehensive approach utilizing 2D-3D documentation of the structure using laser scanner and photogrammetry is carried parallel with a laboratory analysis and a correlation study of the salt content and the surface weathering forms. In addition, the research extends to evaluate a set of chemical and physical properties of the case study monument. Studies of stone texture and spatial distribution of soluble salts were carried out at the monument in order to explain the mechanism of the weathering problem. Then a series of field work investigations and laboratory work were undertaken to study the effect of relative humidity, temperature, and wind are the main factors in the salt damage process. The 3D modelling provides accurate geometric and radiometric properties of the damage shape. In order to support the visual quality of 3D surface details and cracks, a hybrid approach combining data from the laser scanner and the digital imagery was developed. Based on the findings, salt damage appears to be one of the main problems at this monument. Although, the total soluble salt content are quite low, but the salts contamination is all over the tested samples in all seasons, with higher concentrations at deep intervals. The thermodynamic calculations carried out by this research have also shown that salt damage could be minimised by controlling the surrounding relative humidity conditions. This measure is undoubtedly the most challenging of all, and its application, if deemed feasible, should be carried out in parallel with other conservation measures.

  10. Health Assessment Document for 1,3-Butadiene (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This risk assessment of 1,3-butadiene, a gas used commercially in the production of various resins and plastics, concludes that 1,3-butadiene is a known human carcinogen, based on three types of evidence: 1) excess leukemias in workers occupationally exposed to 1,3-butadiene (by ...

  11. Private Sector Initiative Program. Documentation and Assessment of CETA Title VII Implementation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Thomas J.

    The development and performance, through 1981, of Private Industry Councils (PICs) in 16 study sites are described and assessed in this report. (PICs were set up under Title VII of the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) to serve as a hub for attracting increased private sector involvement in employment and training activities for the…

  12. Tank 241-AY-102 Leak Assessment Supporting Documentation: Miscellaneous Reports, Letters, Memoranda, And Data

    SciTech Connect

    Engeman, J. K.; Girardot, C. L.; Harlow, D. G.; Rosenkrance, C. L.

    2012-12-20

    This report contains reference materials cited in RPP-ASMT -53793, Tank 241-AY-102 Leak Assessment Report, that were obtained from the National Archives Federal Records Repository in Seattle, Washington, or from other sources including the Hanford Site's Integrated Data Management System database (IDMS).

  13. Modular Engine Noise Component Prediction System (MCP) Technical Description and Assessment Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herkes, William H.; Reed, David H.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes an empirical prediction procedure for turbofan engine noise. The procedure generates predicted noise levels for several noise components, including inlet- and aft-radiated fan noise, and jet-mixing noise. This report discusses the noise source mechanisms, the development of the prediction procedures, and the assessment of the accuracy of these predictions. Finally, some recommendations for future work are presented.

  14. National Assessment of School Resource Officer Programs. Final Project Report. Document Number 209273

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter; McDevitt, Jack

    2005-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in placing sworn police officers in schools as SROs to improve school safety. The purpose of the National Assessment was to identify what program "models" have been implemented, how programs have been implemented, and what the programs' possible effects may be. To obtain this information, Abt Associates conducted…

  15. Performance-oriented packagings for hazardous materials: Resource guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This document provides recommendations to US Department of Energy (DOE) shippers regarding packaging that meet performance-oriented packaging requirements implemented by US Department of Transportation (DOT) in rulemaking HM-181 (December 21, 1990) and subsequent actions. The packaging described in this document are certified by their vendor to comply with requirements for Packing Group I, II, or III hazardous materials packaging. The intent of this document is to share information between DOE and contractors and at all DOE facilities.

  16. Web-based documentation of clinical skills to assess the competency of veterinary students.

    PubMed

    Rush, Bonnie R; Biller, David S; Davis, Elizabeth G; Higginbotham, Mary Lynn; Klocke, Emily; Miesner, Matt D; Rankin, David C

    2011-01-01

    Kansas State University implemented a Web-based program to assess students' competency to perform technical skills during clinical rotations throughout the fourth year of the veterinary curriculum. The classes of 2009 and 2010 recorded a minimum number of procedures (104 and 103, respectively) from a menu of more than 220 recommended procedures. Procedures were categorized by species (small animal, equine, food animal) and disciplines (imaging, anesthesia, diagnostic medicine/necropsy). Ophthalmology was added as a fourth discipline for the class of 2010. Students recorded procedures into the Web-based system, including information about the patient, procedure performed, supervisor, and a self-assessment of performance. Faculty, staff, and house officers evaluated the procedures electronically by confirming that they witnessed the procedure and providing qualitative and written feedback. The class of 2009 recorded 18,492 procedures (M=171/student) and the class of 2010 recorded 16,935 procedures (M=158/student). Two students from each class (2009 and 2010) did not complete the minimum required skills during clinical rotations and returned to perform procedures immediately before (n=3) or immediately after (n=1) graduation to receive their diploma. The Web-based system captured a large number of assessments of technical competency performed in the clinical setting. The system provided students with formative feedback throughout the clinical year, ensured equitable distribution of procedural opportunities across the student body, and required minimal additional resources.

  17. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. CIRMIS data system. Volume 1. Initialization, operation, and documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrichs, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    The Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program is developing and applying the methodology for assessing the far-field, long-term post-closure safety of deep geologic nuclear waste repositories. AEGIS is being performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) for the Department of Energy (DOE). One task within AEGIS is the development of methodology for analysis of the consequences (water pathway) from loss of repository containment as defined by various release scenarios. The various input parameters required in the analysis are compiled in data systems. The data are organized and prepared by various input subroutines for use by the hydrologic and transport codes. The hydrologic models simulate the groundwater flow systems and provide water flow directions, rates, and velocities as inputs to the transport models. Outputs from the transport models are basically graphs of radionuclide concentration in the groundwater plotted against time. After dilution in the receiving surface-water body (e.g., lake, river, bay), these data are the input source terms for the dose models, if dose assessments are required. The dose models calculate radiation dose to individuals and populations. CIRMIS (Comprehensive Information Retrieval and Model Input Sequence) Data System, a storage and retrieval system for model input and output data, including graphical interpretation and display is described. This is the first of four volumes of the description of the CIRMIS Data System.

  18. A workshop on developing risk assessment methods for medical use of radioactive material. Volume 2: Supporting documents

    SciTech Connect

    Tortorelli, J.P.

    1995-08-01

    A workshop was held at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, August 16--18, 1994 on the topic of risk assessment on medical devices that use radioactive isotopes. Its purpose was to review past efforts to develop a risk assessment methodology to evaluate these devices, and to develop a program plan and a scoping document for future methodology development. This report contains presentation material and a transcript of the workshop. Participants included experts in the fields of radiation oncology, medical physics, risk assessment, human-error analysis, and human factors. Staff from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) associated with the regulation of medical uses of radioactive materials and with research into risk-assessment methods participated in the workshop. The workshop participants concurred in NRC`s intended use of risk assessment as an important technology in the development of regulations for the medical use of radioactive material and encouraged the NRC to proceed rapidly with a pilot study. Specific recommendations are included in the executive summary and the body of this report.

  19. MODFLOW-2005, the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model - documentation of shared node local grid refinement (LGR) and the boundary flow and head (BFH) package

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mehl, Steffen W.; Hill, Mary C.

    2006-01-01

    This report documents the addition of shared node Local Grid Refinement (LGR) to MODFLOW-2005, the U.S. Geological Survey modular, transient, three-dimensional, finite-difference ground-water flow model. LGR provides the capability to simulate ground-water flow using one block-shaped higher-resolution local grid (a child model) within a coarser-grid parent model. LGR accomplishes this by iteratively coupling two separate MODFLOW-2005 models such that heads and fluxes are balanced across the shared interfacing boundary. LGR can be used in two-and three-dimensional, steady-state and transient simulations and for simulations of confined and unconfined ground-water systems. Traditional one-way coupled telescopic mesh refinement (TMR) methods can have large, often undetected, inconsistencies in heads and fluxes across the interface between two model grids. The iteratively coupled shared-node method of LGR provides a more rigorous coupling in which the solution accuracy is controlled by convergence criteria defined by the user. In realistic problems, this can result in substantially more accurate solutions and require an increase in computer processing time. The rigorous coupling enables sensitivity analysis, parameter estimation, and uncertainty analysis that reflects conditions in both model grids. This report describes the method used by LGR, evaluates LGR accuracy and performance for two- and three-dimensional test cases, provides input instructions, and lists selected input and output files for an example problem. It also presents the Boundary Flow and Head (BFH) Package, which allows the child and parent models to be simulated independently using the boundary conditions obtained through the iterative process of LGR.

  20. Well installation and documentation, and ground-water sampling protocols for the pilot National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hardy, M.A.; Leahy, P.P.; Alley, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    Several pilot projects are being conducted as part of the National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The purpose of the pilot program is to test and refine concepts for a proposed full-scale program. Three of the pilot projects are specifically designed to assess groundwater. The purpose of this report is to describe the criteria that are being used in the NAWQA pilot projects for selecting and documenting wells, installing new wells, and sampling wells for different water quality constituents. Guidelines are presented for the selection of wells for sampling. Information needed to accurately document each well includes site characteristics related to the location of the well, land use near the well, and important well construction features. These guidelines ensure the consistency of the information collected and will provide comparable data for interpretive purposes. Guidelines for the installation of wells are presented and include procedures that need to be followed for preparations prior to drilling, the selection of the drilling technique and casing type, the grouting procedure, and the well-development technique. A major component of the protocols is related to water quality sampling. Tasks are identified that need to be completed prior to visiting the site for sampling. Guidelines are presented for purging the well prior t sampling, both in terms of the volume of water pumped and the chemical stability of field parameters. Guidelines are presented concerning sampler selection as related to both inorganic and organic constituents. Documentation needed to describe the measurements and observations related to sampling each well and treating and preserving the samples are also presented. Procedures are presented for the storage and shipping of water samples, equipment cleaning, and quality assurance. Quality assurance guidelines include the description of the general distribution of the various quality assurance samples (blanks, spikes, duplicates, and

  1. Strategic environmental assessment in tourism planning - Extent of application and quality of documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho Lemos, Clara; Fischer, Thomas B.; Pereira Souza, Marcelo

    2012-07-15

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has been applied throughout the world in different sectors and in various ways. This paper reports on results of a PhD research on SEA applied to tourism development planning, reflecting the situation in mid-2010. First, the extent of tourism specific SEA application world-wide is established. Then, based on a review of the quality of 10 selected SEA reports, good practice, as well as challenges, trends and opportunities for tourism specific SEA are identified. Shortcomings of SEA in tourism planning are established and implications for future research are outlined. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The extent of tourism specific SEA practice is identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Selected SEA/Tourism reports are evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEA application to tourism planning is still limited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A number of shortcomings can be pointed out.

  2. Using the Genetics Concept Assessment to document persistent conceptual difficulties in undergraduate genetics courses.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michelle K; Knight, Jennifer K

    2012-05-01

    To help genetics instructors become aware of fundamental concepts that are persistently difficult for students, we have analyzed the evolution of student responses to multiple-choice questions from the Genetics Concept Assessment. In total, we examined pretest (before instruction) and posttest (after instruction) responses from 751 students enrolled in six genetics courses for either majors or nonmajors. Students improved on all 25 questions after instruction, but to varying degrees. Notably, there was a subgroup of nine questions for which a single incorrect answer, called the most common incorrect answer, was chosen by >20% of students on the posttest. To explore response patterns to these nine questions, we tracked individual student answers before and after instruction and found that particular conceptual difficulties about genetics are both more likely to persist and more likely to distract students than other incorrect ideas. Here we present an analysis of the evolution of these incorrect ideas to encourage instructor awareness of these genetics concepts and provide advice on how to address common conceptual difficulties in the classroom.

  3. Naval Waste Package Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    M.M. Lewis

    2004-03-15

    A design methodology for the waste packages and ancillary components, viz., the emplacement pallets and drip shields, has been developed to provide designs that satisfy the safety and operational requirements of the Yucca Mountain Project. This methodology is described in the ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' Mecham 2004 [DIRS 166168]. To demonstrate the practicability of this design methodology, four waste package design configurations have been selected to illustrate the application of the methodology. These four design configurations are the 21-pressurized water reactor (PWR) Absorber Plate waste package, the 44-boiling water reactor (BWR) waste package, the 5-defense high-level waste (DHLW)/United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) Co-disposal Short waste package, and the Naval Canistered SNF Long waste package. Also included in this demonstration is the emplacement pallet and continuous drip shield. The purpose of this report is to document how that design methodology has been applied to the waste package design configurations intended to accommodate naval canistered SNF. This demonstrates that the design methodology can be applied successfully to this waste package design configuration and support the License Application for construction of the repository.

  4. Environmental assessment of the relocation of Neutron Tube Target Loading Operations. Final document

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-11

    Neutron Tube Target Loading (NTTL) is an operation that involves the transferring (i.e. loading) of radioactive tritium gas onto metal target disks under an inert nitrogen atmosphere using a glovebox operation. The relocation of NTTL operations from the Pinellas Plant to the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in Los Alamos, New Mexico, was addressed in the Non-nuclear Consolidation Environmental Assessment (EA) of June 1993. This EA analyzes a Proposed Action to relocate the NTTL operations at LANL from Building 209 at TA-21 to Building 450 at TA-16. The Proposed Action would require the remodeling of Building 450 and some modifications to Buildings 205 and 205A, collectively referred to as the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) in TA-16. The construction of a change room addition would also be required to connect Building 450 and the WETF to take advantage of existing tritium control and confinement systems. Other construction activities and site modifications would include a new electrical substation, a new mechanical and electrical room, minor demolition work, two additional transportable buildings and a new parking area. An alternative to the Proposed Action includes keeping the NTTL operations at TA-21 (No Action). Alternatives considered but dismissed include the construction of a new NTTL laboratory at LANL, and the renovation of an alternative facility to Building 450 for conducting NTTL operations. None of the alternatives would enable the DOE to meet its mission responsibilities at LANL in a timely manner. The principle environmental issues associated with the Proposed Action include a minor amount of air emissions associated with construction activities and tritium operations and a small quantity of construction and low-level radioactive wastes. Human health and cumulative effects are expected to be negligible. On-site transportation of tritium between TA-21 and TA-16 to support NTTL operations would be eliminated.

  5. Safety assessment document for the environmental test complex (Building 834) at Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Odell, B.N.; Pfeifer, H.E.

    1981-03-03

    A safety assessment was performed to determine if accidents occurring at the 834 Complex at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. These were earthquake, extreme wind (including missiles), lightning, flood, criticality, high explosive (HE) detonation that disperses uranium and beryllium, spontaneous oxidation of plutonium, explosions due to finely divided particles, and a fire. Seismic and extreme wind (including missiles) analyses indicate that the buildings are basically sound. (However, there are a few recommendations to further enhance the structural integrity of these facilities). Additional lightning protection for these facilities is being installed. These buildings are located high above the dry creek bed so that a flood is improbable. A criticality or a high explosive detonation involving plutonium is very remote since the radioactive materials are encased and plutonium and HE are not permitted concurrently in the same area at Site 300. (The exceptions to this policy are that explosive actuating devices are sometimes located in assemblies containing fissile materials. However, a planned or accidental actuation will not effect the safe containment of the fissile material within the assembly). Even though the possibility of an HE explosion involving uranium and beryllium is remote, the off-site lung doses were calculated and found to be below the accepted standards. It was determined that a fire was unlikely due to the low fire loading and the absence of ignition sources. It was also determined that the consequences of any accidents were reduced by the remote location of these facilities, their design, and by administrative controls.

  6. Procedural Documentation and Accuracy Assessment of Bathymetric Maps and Area/Capacity Tables for Small Reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Gary L.; Richards, Joseph M.

    2006-01-01

    Because of the increasing use and importance of lakes for water supply to communities, a repeatable and reliable procedure to determine lake bathymetry and capacity is needed. A method to determine the accuracy of the procedure will help ensure proper collection and use of the data and resulting products. It is important to clearly define the intended products and desired accuracy before conducting the bathymetric survey to ensure proper data collection. A survey-grade echo sounder and differential global positioning system receivers were used to collect water-depth and position data in December 2003 at Sugar Creek Lake near Moberly, Missouri. Data were collected along planned transects, with an additional set of quality-assurance data collected for use in accuracy computations. All collected data were imported into a geographic information system database. A bathymetric surface model, contour map, and area/capacity tables were created from the geographic information system database. An accuracy assessment was completed on the collected data, bathymetric surface model, area/capacity table, and contour map products. Using established vertical accuracy standards, the accuracy of the collected data, bathymetric surface model, and contour map product was 0.67 foot, 0.91 foot, and 1.51 feet at the 95 percent confidence level. By comparing results from different transect intervals with the quality-assurance transect data, it was determined that a transect interval of 1 percent of the longitudinal length of Sugar Creek Lake produced nearly as good results as 0.5 percent transect interval for the bathymetric surface model, area/capacity table, and contour map products.

  7. Authorized manufacturing changes for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) documents.

    PubMed

    Vezér, Balázs; Buzás, Zsuzsanna; Sebeszta, Miklós; Zrubka, Zsombor

    2016-05-01

    Background The quality of biologicals, including biosimilars, is subject to change as a result of manufacturing process modifications following initial authorization. It is important that such product changes have no adverse impact on product efficacy or safety, including immunogenicity. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the number and types of manufacturing changes for originator mAbs (the reference for the comparability exercise to confirm biosimilarity) according to European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) documentation and to ascertain the level of risk these changes might impart. The extensive body of evidence contained in the EPAR documents can help support the EMA during the EC marketing authorization approval process for biosimilars, since it provides a broad base of scientific experience. Research designs and methods For EPAR-listed mAbs, details of all changes listed chronologically in the EPAR were evaluated and described. Based on these descriptions the manufacturing changes can be categorized by risk status (low, moderate or high). Results Entries for 29 mAbs with publicly available EPAR reports were reviewed. These contained details of 404 manufacturing changes authorized by the European Medicines Agency (EMA): 22 were categorized as high risk, 286 as moderate risk and 96 as low risk manufacturing changes. A limitation of this analysis is that it only summarizes publicly available data from EPAR documents. Conclusions Manufacturing change data indicate that the EMA has significant experience of process changes for originator mAbs, and the impact they may have on the efficacy and safety of biologicals. This experience will be useful in biosimilar product development to ensure adherence to sound scientific principles. Compared with the established manufacturing process for a reference product, the production of biosimilars will usually be different. Consequently, in addition to a comprehensive comparative functional and physicochemical

  8. General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Waste Package Outer Barrier

    SciTech Connect

    K.G. Mon

    2004-10-01

    The waste package design for the License Application is a double-wall waste package underneath a protective drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169480]). The purpose and scope of this model report is to document models for general and localized corrosion of the waste package outer barrier (WPOB) to be used in evaluating waste package performance. The WPOB is constructed of Alloy 22 (UNS N06022), a highly corrosion-resistant nickel-based alloy. The inner vessel of the waste package is constructed of Stainless Steel Type 316 (UNS S31600). Before it fails, the Alloy 22 WPOB protects the Stainless Steel Type 316 inner vessel from exposure to the external environment and any significant degradation. The Stainless Steel Type 316 inner vessel provides structural stability to the thinner Alloy 22 WPOB. Although the waste package inner vessel would also provide some performance for waste containment and potentially decrease the rate of radionuclide transport after WPOB breach before it fails, the potential performance of the inner vessel is far less than that of the more corrosion-resistant Alloy 22 WPOB. For this reason, the corrosion performance of the waste package inner vessel is conservatively ignored in this report and the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). Treatment of seismic and igneous events and their consequences on waste package outer barrier performance are not specifically discussed in this report, although the general and localized corrosion models developed in this report are suitable for use in these scenarios. The localized corrosion processes considered in this report are pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion. Stress corrosion cracking is discussed in ''Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169985]).

  9. GEOSAT Follow-on (GFO) Altimeter Document Series. Volume 3; GFO Altimeter Engineering Assessment Report, Version 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, David W., III; Hayne, George S.; Brooks, Ronald E.; Lockwood, Dennis W.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Navy's Geosat Follow-On (GFO) Mission, launched on February 20, 1998, is one of a series of altimetric satellites which include Seasat, Geosat, ERS-1, and TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P). The purpose of this report is to document the GFO altimeter performance determined from the analyses and results performed by NASA's GSFC and Wallops altimeter, calibration team. It is the second of an anticipated series of NASA's GSFC and Wallops GFO performance documents, each of which will update assessment results. This report covers the performance from instrument acceptance by the Navy on November 29, 2000, to the end of Cycle 20 on November 21, 2001. Data derived from GFO will lead to improvements in the knowledge of ocean circulation, ice sheet topography, and climate change. In order to capture the maximum amount of information from the GFO data, accurate altimeter calibrations are required for the civilian data set which NOAA will produce. Wallops Flight Facility has provided similar products for the Geosat and T/P missions and is doing the same for GFO.

  10. An improved approach for flight readiness certification: Methodology for failure risk assessment and application examples. Volume 2: Software documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, N. R.; Ebbeler, D. H.; Newlin, L. E.; Sutharshana, S.; Creager, M.

    1992-01-01

    An improved methodology for quantitatively evaluating failure risk of spaceflight systems to assess flight readiness and identify risk control measures is presented. This methodology, called Probabilistic Failure Assessment (PFA), combines operating experience from tests and flights with engineering analysis to estimate failure risk. The PFA methodology is of particular value when information on which to base an assessment of failure risk, including test experience and knowledge of parameters used in engineering analyses of failure phenomena, is expensive or difficult to acquire. The PFA methodology is a prescribed statistical structure in which engineering analysis models that characterize failure phenomena are used conjointly with uncertainties about analysis parameters and/or modeling accuracy to estimate failure probability distributions for specific failure modes, These distributions can then be modified, by means of statistical procedures of the PFA methodology, to reflect any test or flight experience. Conventional engineering analysis models currently employed for design of failure prediction are used in this methodology. The PFA methodology is described and examples of its application are presented. Conventional approaches to failure risk evaluation for spaceflight systems are discussed, and the rationale for the approach taken in the PFA methodology is presented. The statistical methods, engineering models, and computer software used in fatigue failure mode applications are thoroughly documented.

  11. Integrated Approach To An Efficiency Assessment Of Self-Organizing Textile Materials Packages In The Subnormal Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodicheva, M.; Abramov, A.; Kanatnikova, P.; Kanatnikov, N.; Kharlamov, G.

    2017-01-01

    Design of heat-shielding clothes for subnormal climate still remains one of the unsolved problems of complex security. The solution is connected with the use of the self-organizing textile materials. Reasoning of textile package optimal selection requires the development of a comprehensive approach combining theoretical and experimental researches.

  12. THE USE OF COMPUTER MODELING PACKAGES TO ILLUSTRATE UNCERTAINTY IN RISK ASSESSMENTS: AN EASE OF USE AND INTERPRETATION COMPARISON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consistent improvements in processor speed and computer access have substantially increased the use of computer modeling by experts and non-experts alike. Several new computer modeling packages operating under graphical operating systems (i.e. Microsoft Windows or Macintosh) m...

  13. New hierarchical classification of food items for the assessment of exposure to packaging migrants: use of hub codes for different food groups.

    PubMed

    Northing, P; Oldring, P K T; Castle, L; Mason, P A S S

    2009-04-01

    This paper describes development work undertaken to expand the capabilities of an existing two-dimensional probabilistic modelling approach for assessing dietary exposure to chemicals migrating out of food contact materials. A new three-level hub-coding system has been devised for coding different food groups with regards to their consumption by individuals. The hub codes can be used at three different levels representing a high, medium and low level of aggregation of individual food items. The hub codes were developed because they have a greater relevance to packaging migration than coding used (largely and historically) for nutritional purposes. Also, the hub codes will assist pan-europeanization of the exposure model in the future, when up to 27 or more different food coding systems from 27 European Union Member States will have to be assimilated into the modelling approach. The applicability of the model with the new coding system has been tested by incorporating newly released 2001 UK consumption data. The example used was exposure to a hypothetical migrant from coated metal packaging for foodstuffs. When working at the three hierarchical levels, it was found that the tiered approach gave conservative estimates at the cruder level of refinement and a more realistic assessment was obtained as the refinement progressed. The work overall revealed that changes in eating habits over time had a relatively small impact on estimates of exposure. More important impacts are changes over time in packaging usage, packaging composition and migration levels. For countries like the UK, which has sophisticated food consumption data, it is uncertainties in these other areas that need to be addressed by new data collection.

  14. The use of telemedicine in burn care: development of a mobile system for TBSA documentation and remote assessment.

    PubMed

    Parvizi, D; Giretzlehner, M; Dirnberger, J; Owen, R; Haller, H L; Schintler, M V; Wurzer, P; Lumenta, D B; Kamolz, L P

    2014-06-30

    The requirements for accurate documentation within the process of burn assessment have increased dramatically over the years. TBSA (total body surface area) and burn depth are commonly determined by visual inspection, especially in the emergency or acute care setting. However, inexperience often results in incorrect estimation of these factors. In 2001, BurnCase 3D was initiated in order to develop a tool for objective burn assessment and documentation on mobile devices (Apple iPhoneTM). The centerpiece is a 3D model representing the actual patient. At two international burn meetings, a survey containing three pictures of patients was conducted and this data was collected. A patient-specific 3D model adapted to the height and weight of the real patient was created and the digital picture was superimposed in the computer system. The burns were transferred to the model and the TBSA in % was calculated by the software BurnCase 3D. The preferred methods of the 80 respondents for burn extent estimation were: the Rule of Nines (38%), the Rule of Palm (37%) and the Lund-Browder chart (18%). Analysis showed very high deviations of TBSA within the participants, even among the group of experts. In comparison to a computer-aided method we found massive overestimation of up to 230%. The use of BurnCase 3D could have a true impact on the quality of treatment in burns. In the acute care setting for burn injuries, telemedicine has great potential to help guide decisions regarding triage and transfer based on TBSA, burn depth, patient age and injury mechanism.

  15. The use of telemedicine in burn care: development of a mobile system for TBSA documentation and remote assessment

    PubMed Central

    Parvizi, D.; Giretzlehner, M.; Dirnberger, J.; Owen, R.; Haller, H.L..; Schintler, M.V.; Wurzer, P.; Lumenta, D.B.; Kamolz, L.P.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The requirements for accurate documentation within the process of burn assessment have increased dramatically over the years. TBSA (total body surface area) and burn depth are commonly determined by visual inspection, especially in the emergency or acute care setting. However, inexperience often results in incorrect estimation of these factors. In 2001, BurnCase 3D was initiated in order to develop a tool for objective burn assessment and documentation on mobile devices (Apple iPhoneTM). The centerpiece is a 3D model representing the actual patient. At two international burn meetings, a survey containing three pictures of patients was conducted and this data was collected. A patient-specific 3D model adapted to the height and weight of the real patient was created and the digital picture was superimposed in the computer system. The burns were transferred to the model and the TBSA in % was calculated by the software BurnCase 3D. The preferred methods of the 80 respondents for burn extent estimation were: the Rule of Nines (38%), the Rule of Palm (37%) and the Lund-Browder chart (18%). Analysis showed very high deviations of TBSA within the participants, even among the group of experts. In comparison to a computer-aided method we found massive overestimation of up to 230%. The use of BurnCase 3D could have a true impact on the quality of treatment in burns. In the acute care setting for burn injuries, telemedicine has great potential to help guide decisions regarding triage and transfer based on TBSA, burn depth, patient age and injury mechanism. PMID:26170783

  16. The Packaging Handbook -- A guide to package design

    SciTech Connect

    Shappert, L.B.

    1995-12-31

    The Packaging Handbook is a compilation of 14 technical chapters and five appendices that address the life cycle of a packaging which is intended to transport radioactive material by any transport mode in normal commerce. Although many topics are discussed in depth, this document focuses on the design aspects of a packaging. The Handbook, which is being prepared under the direction of the US Department of Energy, is intended to provide a wealth of technical guidance that will give designers a better understanding of the regulatory approval process, preferences of regulators in specific aspects of packaging design, and the types of analyses that should be seriously considered when developing the packaging design. Even though the Handbook is concerned with all packagings, most of the emphasis is placed on large packagings that are capable of transporting large radioactive sources that are also fissile (e.g., spent fuel). These are the types of packagings that must address the widest range of technical topics in order to meet domestic and international regulations. Most of the chapters in the Handbook have been drafted and submitted to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for editing; the majority of these have been edited. This report summarizes the contents.

  17. Demographic, Clinical, and Health System Characteristics Associated With Pain Assessment Documentation and Pain Severity in U.S. Military Patients in Combat Zone Emergency Departments, 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    Blackman, Virginia Schmied; Cooper, Bruce A; Puntillo, Kathleen; Franck, Linda S

    2016-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) pain assessment documentation in trauma patients is critical to ED pain care. This retrospective, cross-sectional study used trauma registry data to evaluate U.S. military combat zone trauma patients injured between 2010 and 2013 requiring ≥ 24-hr inpatient care. Study aims were to identify the frequency of combat zone ED pain assessment documentation and describe pain severity. Secondary aims were to construct statistical models to explain variation in pain assessment documentation and pain severity.Pain scores were documented in 60.5% (n = 3,339) of the 5,518 records evaluated. The proportion of records with ED pain scores increased yearly. Pain assessment documentation was associated with documentation of ED vital signs, comprehensive facility, more recent year, prehospital (PH) heart rate of 60-100 beats/min, ED Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15 vs. 14, blunt trauma, and lower injury severity score (ISS).Pain severity scores ranged from 0 to 10; mean = 5.5 (SD = 3.1); median = 6. Higher ED pain scores were associated with Army service compared with Marine Corps, no documented PH vital signs, higher PH pain score, ED respiratory rate < 12 or >16, moderate or severe ISS compared with minor ISS, treatment in a less-equipped facility, and injury in 2011 or 2012 vs. 2010. The pain severity model explained 20.4% of variance in pain severity.Overall, frequency of pain assessment documentation in combat-zone EDs improved yearly, but remained suboptimal. Pain severity was poorly predicted by demographic, clinical, and health system variables available from the trauma registry, emphasizing the importance of individual assessment.

  18. Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    P. Bernot

    2004-08-16

    The purpose of this model report is to assess the potential impacts of igneous intrusion on waste packages and waste forms in the emplacement drifts at the Yucca Mountain Repository. The model is based on conceptual models and includes an assessment of deleterious dynamic, thermal, hydrologic, and chemical impacts. This constitutes the waste package and waste form impacts submodel of the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) model assessing the impacts of a hypothetical igneous intrusion event on the repository total system performance. This submodel is carried out in accordance with Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of SR and LA (BSC 2003a) and Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approaches (BSC 2002a). The technical work plan is governed by the procedures of AP-SIII.10Q, Models. Any deviations from the technical work plan are documented in the TSPA-LA approach to implementing the models for waste package and waste form response during igneous intrusion is based on identification of damage zones. Zone 1 includes all emplacement drifts intruded by the basalt dike, and Zone 2 includes all other emplacement drifts in the repository that are not in Zone 1. This model report will document the following model: (1) Impacts of magma intrusion on the components of engineered barrier system (e.g., drip shields and cladding) of emplacement drifts in Zone 1, and the fate of waste forms. (2) Impacts of conducting magma heat and diffusing magma gases on the drip shields, waste packages, and cladding in the Zone 2 emplacement drifts adjacent to the intruded drifts. (3) Impacts of intrusion on Zone 1 in-drift thermal and geochemical environments, including seepage hydrochemistry. The scope of this model only includes impacts to the components stated above, and does not include impacts to other engineered barrier system (EBS) components such as the invert and

  19. PORFLOW TESTING AND VERIFICATION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Aleman, S

    2007-06-18

    The PORFLOW software package is a comprehensive mathematical model for simulation of multi-phase fluid flow, heat transfer and mass transport in variably saturated porous and fractured media. PORFLOW can simulate transient or steady-state problems in Cartesian or cylindrical geometry. The porous medium may be anisotropic and heterogeneous and may contain discrete fractures or boreholes with the porous matrix. The theoretical models within the code provide a unified treatment of concepts relevant to fluid flow and transport. The main features of PORFLOW that are relevant to Performance Assessment modeling at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) include variably saturated flow and transport of parent and progeny radionuclides. This document involves testing a relevant sample of problems in PORFLOW and comparing the outcome of the simulations to analytical solutions or other commercial codes. The testing consists of the following four groups. Group 1: Groundwater Flow; Group 2: Contaminant Transport; Group 3: Numerical Dispersion; and Group 4: Keyword Commands.

  20. Assessing the progress of rehabilitation in patients with ACL reconstruction using the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leguizamon, J. H.; Braidot, A.; Catalfamo Formento, P.

    2011-12-01

    There are numerous assessment tools designed to provide information on the results of reconstructive surgery of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). They are also used for monitoring progress and facilitating clinical decision-making during the rehabilitation process. A brief summary of some existing tools specifically designed to evaluate knee ligament injuries is presented in this article. Then, one of those outcome measures, the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC) was applied to a group of patients (N = 10) who had undergone surgery for ACL reconstruction. The patients attended the same physiotherapy service and followed a unified rehabilitation protocol. The assessment was performed twice: four and six months after surgery. The results showed an improvement in the rehabilitation of most patients tested (verified by a difference equal to or greater than 9 points on the IKDC outcome between measurements 1 and 2). The IKDC probed to be an instrument of quick and easy application. It provided quantitative data about the progress of rehabilitation and could be applied in everyday clinical physiotherapy practice. However, the results suggested considering the IKDC as one component of an evaluation kit to make decisions regarding the progress of the rehabilitation treatment.

  1. FY 1985 status report on feasibility assessment of copper-base waste package container materials in a tuff repository

    SciTech Connect

    McCright, R.D.

    1985-09-30

    This report discusses progress made during the first year of a two-year study on the feasibility of using copper or a copper-base alloy as a container material for a waste package in a potential repository in tuff rock at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. The expected corrosion and oxidation performances of oxygen-free copper, aluminum bronze, and 70% copper-30% nickel are presented; a test plan for determining whether copper or one of the alloys can meet the containment requirements is outlined. Some preliminary corrosion test data are presented and discussed. Fabrication and joining techniques for forming waste package containers are descibed. Preliminary test data and analyses indicate that copper and copper-base alloys have several attractive features as waste package container materials, but additional work is needed before definitive conclusions can be made on the feasibility of using copper or a copper-base alloy for containers. Plans for work to be undertaken in the second year are indicated.

  2. Materials Assessment of Insulating Foam in the 9977 Shipping Package for Long-Term Storage - Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    McWilliams, A. J.

    2016-08-01

    The 9977 shipping package is being evaluated for long-term storage applications in the K-Area Complex (KAC) with specific focus on the packaging foam material. A rigid closed cell polyurethane foam, LAST-A-FOAM® FR-3716, produced by General Plastics Manufacturing Company is sprayed and expands to fill the void between the inner container and the outer shell of the package. The foam is sealed in this annular space and is not accessible. During shipping and storage, the foam experiences higher than ambient temperatures from the heat generated by nuclear material within the package creating the potential for degradation of the foam. A series of experiments is underway to determine the extent of foam degradation. Foam samples of three densities have been aging at elevated temperatures 160 °F, 160 °F + 50% relative humidity (RH), 185 °F, 215 °F, and 250 °F since 2014. Samples were periodically removed and tested. After approximately 80 weeks, samples conditioned at 160 °F, 160 °F + 50% RH, and 185 °F have retained initial property values while samples conditioned at 215 °F have reduced intumescence. Samples conditioned at 250 °F have shown the most degradation, loss of volume, mass, absorbed energy under compression, intumescence, and increased flammability. Based on the initial data, temperatures up to 185 °F have not yet shown an adverse effect on the foam properties and it is recommended that exposure of FR-3716 foam to temperatures in excess of 250 °F be avoided or minimized. Testing will continue beyond the 96 week mark. This will provide additional data to help define the long-term behavior for the lower temperature conditions. Additional testing will be pursued in an attempt to identify transition points (threshold times and temperatures) at the higher temperatures of interest, as well as possible benefits of aging within the relatively oxygen-free environment the foam experiences inside the 9977 shipping package.

  3. Seafood Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center worked with a New Orleans seafood packaging company to develop a container to improve the shipping longevity of seafood, primarily frozen and fresh fish, while preserving the taste. A NASA engineer developed metalized heat resistant polybags with thermal foam liners using an enhanced version of the metalized mylar commonly known as 'space blanket material,' which was produced during the Apollo era.

  4. Packaged Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    After studies found that many elderly persons don't eat adequately because they can't afford to, they have limited mobility, or they just don't bother, Innovated Foods, Inc. and JSC developed shelf-stable foods processed and packaged for home preparation with minimum effort. Various food-processing techniques and delivery systems are under study and freeze dried foods originally used for space flight are being marketed. (See 77N76140)

  5. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    E. Thomas

    2005-07-14

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H{sub 2}O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package.

  6. Antimicrobial effectiveness of bioactive packaging materials from edible chitosan and casein polymers: assessment on carrot, cheese, and salami.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Maria del Rosario; Pereda, Mariana; Marcovich, Norma E; Roura, Sara I

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial packaging is one of the most promising active packaging systems for controlling spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. In this work, the intrinsic antimicrobial properties of chitosan (CH) were combined with the excellent thermoplastic and film-forming properties of sodium caseinate (SC) to prepare SC/CH film-forming solutions and films. The antimicrobial effectiveness of SC, CH, and SC/CH coatings on the native microfloras of cheese, salami, and carrots was evaluated. In vitro assays through the test tube assay indicated that the most significant antimicrobial effect was achieved by CH and SC/CH solutions on carrot and cheese native microfloras. SC film-forming solutions did not exert antimicrobial activity on any of the native microflora studied. SC, CH, and SC/CH films stored in controlled environments showed that the retention of the antimicrobial action was observed until 5-d storage, at 65% relative humidity in both temperatures (10 °C and 20 °C). In vivo assays were also performed with SC, CH, and SC/CH applied as coatings or wrappers on the 3 food substrates. CH and SC/CH applied at both immersion and wrapper exerted a significant bactericidal action on mesophilic, psychrotrophic, and yeasts and molds counts, showing the 3 microbial populations analyzed a significant reduction (2.0 to 4.5 log CFU/g). An improvement of the bactericidal properties of the CH/SC blend respect to those of the neat CH film is reported. The ionic interaction between both macromolecules enhances its antimicrobial properties. Practical Application: The continuous consumer interest in high quality and food safety, combined with environmental concerns has stimulated the development and study of biodegradable coatings that avoid the use of synthetic materials. Among them, edible coatings, obtained from generally recognized as safe (GRAS) materials, have the potential to reduce weight loss, respiration rate, and improve food appearance and integrity. They can be used in

  7. Medical ethnobotany of the Zapotecs of the Isthmus-Sierra (Oaxaca, Mexico): documentation and assessment of indigenous uses.

    PubMed

    Frei, B; Baltisberger, M; Sticher, O; Heinrich, M

    1998-09-01

    The Zapotec inhabitants of the Sierra de Oaxaca foothills (Mexico) live in an area of great botanic diversity. In daily subsistence and in response to illness, plants play a major role. An inventory of the Zapotec medicinal ethnobotany was carried out during 17 months of fieldwork. A total of 3611 individual responses concerning medicinal and non-medicinal uses for 445 different species of plants were documented. For the subsequent semi-quantitative analysis of data, the uses were grouped into ten categories and the responses for each species were summed up in each of these ten groups to yield rank-ordered lists. For the high rank-ordered and, hence, culturally important species, an assessment of the therapeutic potential was conducted using ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological data in the literature. Studies confirming the attributed properties or a scientific explanation of therapeutic use, as well as toxicological data, are still lacking for many of these species. The quantitative approach described will be the basis for future studies on the pharmacology and phytochemistry of Zapotec medicinal species. Finally, these data should also serve as a basis for biodiversity conservation and community development.

  8. Introduction to Software Packages. [Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Sheila, Ed.; And Others

    This document provides an introduction to applications computer software packages that support functional managers in government and encourages the use of such packages as an alternative to in-house development. A review of current application areas includes budget/project management, financial management/accounting, payroll, personnel,…

  9. Naval Waste Package Design Sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    T. Schmitt

    2006-12-13

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to varying inner cavity dimensions when subjected to a comer drop and tip-over from elevated surface. This calculation will also determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to the upper bound of the naval canister masses. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of through-wall stress intensities in the outer corrosion barrier. This calculation is intended for use in support of the preliminary design activities for the license application design of the Naval waste package. It examines the effects of small changes between the naval canister and the inner vessel, and in these dimensions, the Naval Long waste package and Naval Short waste package are similar. Therefore, only the Naval Long waste package is used in this calculation and is based on the proposed potential designs presented by the drawings and sketches in References 2.1.10 to 2.1.17 and 2.1.20. All conclusions are valid for both the Naval Long and Naval Short waste packages.

  10. High level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document phase 1 assessment corrective actions/compliance schedule approval report

    SciTech Connect

    Biebesheimer, E.

    1996-09-30

    This document, the Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) Phase I Assessment Corrective Actions/Compliance Schedule Approval Report for the subject facility, contains the corrective actions required to bring the facility into compliance as a result of an Administrative Assessment to determine whether S/RID requirements are fully addressed by existing policies, plans or procedures. These actions are delineated in the Compliance Schedule Approvals which also contain; noncompliances, risks, compensatory measures, schedules for corrective actions, justifications for approval, and resource impacts.

  11. 324 Building B-Cell Pressurized Water Reactor Spent Fuel Packaging & Shipment RL Readiness Assessment Final Report [SEC 1 Thru 3

    SciTech Connect

    HUMPHREYS, D C

    2002-08-01

    A parallel readiness assessment (RA) was conducted by independent Fluor Hanford (FH) and U. S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) team to verify that an adequate state of readiness had been achieved for activities associated with the packaging and shipping of pressurized water reactor fuel assemblies from B-Cell in the 324 Building to the interim storage area at the Canister Storage Building in the 200 Area. The RL review was conducted in parallel with the FH review in accordance with the Joint RL/FH Implementation Plan (Appendix B). The RL RA Team members were assigned a FH RA Team counterpart for the review. With this one-on-one approach, the RL RA Team was able to assess the FH Team's performance, competence, and adherence to the implementation plan and evaluate the level of facility readiness. The RL RA Team agrees with the FH determination that startup of the 324 Building B-Cell pressurized water reactor spent nuclear fuel packaging and shipping operations can safely proceed, pending completion of the identified pre-start items in the FH final report (see Appendix A), completion of the manageable list of open items included in the facility's declaration of readiness, and execution of the startup plan to operations.

  12. The dynamics of the HS/SPME-GC/MS as a tool to assess the spoilage of minced beef stored under different packaging and temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Argyri, Anthoula A; Mallouchos, Athanasios; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Nychas, George-John E

    2015-01-16

    The aim of the current study was to assess meat spoilage through the evolution of volatile compounds using chemometrics. Microbiological and sensory assessment, pH measurement and headspace solid phase microextraction gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (headspace SPME-GC/MS) analysis were carried out in minced beef stored aerobically and under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) at 0, 5, 10, and 15 °C. It was shown that the HS/SPME-GC/MS analysis provided useful information about a great number of volatile metabolic compounds detected during meat storage. Many of the identified and semi-quantified compounds were correlated with the sensory scores through the use of chemometrics, depicting possible spoilage indicators such as 2-pentanone, 2-nonanone, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl propanoate, ethyl lactate, ethyl acetate, ethanol, 2-heptanone, 3-octanone, diacetyl, and acetoin. Finally, the applied GC/MS global models were able to estimate the microbial counts of the different microorganisms and the sensory scores of a meat sample regardless of storage conditions (i.e. packaging and temperature).

  13. Assessment of the impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives on the Nuclear Waste Isolation System. [Preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    The objective of this report was to evaluate four possible alternative methods of preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal against the Reference Process of unmodified spent fuel. The four alternative processes were: (1) End fitting removal, (2) Fission gas venting and resealing, (3) Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins, and (4) Fuel shearing and immobilization. Systems analysis was used to develop a basis of comparison of the alternatives. Conceptual processes and facility layouts were devised for each of the alternatives, based on technology deemed feasible for the purpose. Assessments were made of 15 principal attributes from the technical, operational, safety/risk, and economic considerations related to each of the alternatives, including both the surface packaging and underground repository operations. Specific attributes of the alternative processes were evaluated by assigning a number for each that expressed its merit relative to the corresponding attribute of the Reference Process. Each alternative process was then ranked by summing the numbers for attributes in each of the four assessment areas and collectively. Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins was ranked the preferred method of disposal of spent fuel. 63 references, 46 figures, 46 tables.

  14. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. Volume 6, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and transportation package acceptable concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. This volume contains introduction section containing a brief SDS background and lists the general assumptions and considerations used during the development of the system concepts. The introduction section is followed by sections describing two system concepts that produce a waste form in compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and transportation package (TRAMPAC) requirements. This system concept category is referred to as Waste Form 4, ``WIPP and TRAMPAC Acceptable.`` The following two system concepts are under this category: Sort, Treat, and Repackage System (4-BE-2); Volume Reduction and Packaging System (4-BE-4).

  15. PRIDE Surveillance Projects Data Packaging Project Information Package Specification Version 1.1

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, D. M.; Shipp, R. L.; Mason, J. D.

    2010-08-31

    Information Package Specification version 1.1 describes an XML document format called an information package that can be used to store information in information management systems and other information archives. An information package consists of package information, the context required to understand and use that information, package metadata that describes the information, and XML signatures that protect the information. The information package described in this specification was designed to store Department of Energy (DOE) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) information and includes the metadata required for that information: a unique package identifier, information marking that conforms to DOE and NNSA requirements, and access control metadata. It is an implementation of the Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Reference Model archival information package tailored to meet NNSA information storage requirements and designed to be used in the computing environments at the Y-12 National Security Complex and at other NNSA sites.

  16. Reflective Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  17. Gary M. Klingler Algebra Teacher Assistance Packages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingler, Gary

    2005-01-01

    Several packages designed by Elizabeth Marquez for mathematics teachers of grades 6-12, officially entitled the Teacher Assistance Package in Support of Better Algebra Assessment, is a series of resources developed to accompany ET's End-of-Course Algebra Assessment. It is designed to enhance teachers classroom assessment by providing examples of…

  18. Assessment of the migration potential of nanosilver from nanoparticle-coated low-density polyethylene food packaging into food simulants.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Joseph Christopher; Kerry, Joseph P; Cruz-Romero, Malco; Azlin-Hasim, Shafrina; Morris, Michael; Cummins, Enda

    2016-01-01

    An experimental nanosilver-coated low-density polyethylene (LDPE) food packaging was incubated with food simulants using a conventional oven and tested for migration according to European Commission Regulation No. 10/2011. The commercial LDPE films were coated using a layer-by-layer (LbL) technique and three levels of silver (Ag) precursor concentration (0.5%, 2% and 5% silver nitrate (AgNO3), respectively) were used to attach antimicrobial Ag. The experimental migration study conditions (time, temperature and food simulant) under conventional oven heating (10 days at 60°C, 2 h at 70°C, 2 h at 60°C or 10 days at 70°C) were chosen to simulate the worst-case storage period of over 6 months. In addition, migration was quantified under microwave heating. The total Ag migrant levels in the food simulants were quantified by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Mean migration levels obtained by ICP-AES for oven heating were in the range 0.01-1.75 mg l(-1). Migration observed for microwave heating was found to be significantly higher when compared with oven heating for similar temperatures (100°C) and identical exposure times (2 min). In each of the packaging materials and food simulants tested, the presence of nanoparticles (NPs) was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). On inspection of the migration observed under conventional oven heating, an important finding was the significant reduction in migration resulting from the increased Ag precursor concentration used to attach Ag on the LDPE LbL-coated films. This observation merits further investigation into the LbL coating process used, as it suggests potential for process modifications to reduce migration. In turn, any reduction in NP migration below regulatory limits could greatly support the antimicrobial silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-LDPE LbL-coated films being used as a food packaging material.

  19. Health assessment for Packaging Corporation of America, Filer City, Manistee County, Michigan, Region 5. CERCLIS No. MID980794747. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-10

    Packaging Corporation of America is listed on the National Priorities List. The site is located in Filer City, Stronach Township, Manistee County, Michigan. The Packaging Corporation of America (PCA) and its prior owner, American Box Board Company (ABBCo), have operated a neutral sulfite semi-chemical (NSSC) pulping mill in Filer City for the production of corrugated medium for corrugated boxes. Seepage lagoons operated from 1951 through 1974, receiving a total of 7.2 billion gallons of waste materials. Inorganic chemicals detected in lagoon sediments in 1986 include (with maximum concentrations in ppm): aluminum, 6,250; barium, 633; cadmium, 33; calcium, 228,000; chromium, 29; copper, 173; iron, 25,900; lead, 128; magnesium, 11,300; manganese, 2,200; mercury, 2.5; nickel, 20; potassium, 8,940; sodium, 74,300; vanadium, 15; and zinc, 2,080. A similar profile of inorganics was found in subsurface soils and ground water in 1987. Arsenic and cadmium were also detected off-site in high concentrations in a monitoring well sample from 1981. Organic chemicals were also detected in the ground water in the 1987 sampling. These included (maximum concentrations in ppb); 2-butanone, 1,700; tetrachloroethene, 18; chloroform, 8.7; bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, 10; phenol, 70,000; 2-methylphenol, 6,200; 4-methylphenol, 16,000; and benzoic acid, 240,000. The site is of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health that could result from possible exposure to hazardous substances at levels that may result in adverse health effects over time. Human exposure to heavy metals and organic chemicals may occur via ground water contamination.

  20. Assessing the Proper Use of Child Study Committees. Report of the Department of Education to the Governor and the General Assembly of Virginia. House Document No. 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond.

    In response to a Virginia legislative mandate, this study examined the use of Child Study Committees (CSCs) for identifying and assessing the educational needs of children with attention deficit disorder (ADD). The study reviewed a 1986 Department of Education policy document on child studies and conducted a telephone survey of elementary, middle,…

  1. Documenting Student Connectivity and Use of Digital Annotation Devices in Virginia Commonwealth University Connected Courses: An Assessment Toolkit for Digital Pedagogies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogia, Laura Park

    2016-01-01

    Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) is implementing a large scale exploration of digital pedagogies, including connected learning and open education, in an effort to promote digital fluency and integrative thinking among students. The purpose of this study was to develop a classroom assessment toolkit for faculty who wish to document student…

  2. TECHNICAL SUPPORT DOCUMENT: NATIONAL-SCALE MERCURY RISK ASSESSMENT SUPPORTING THE APPROPRIATE AND NECESSARY FINDING FOR COAL- AND OIL-FIRED ELECTRIC GENERATING UNITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA has completed a national-scale risk assessment for mercury to inform the appropriate and necessary determination for electric utility steam generating unites in the United States (U.S. EGU's), persuant to Section 112(n)(1)(A) of the Clean Air Act. This document describes...

  3. Assessing Acceptability of a Diagnostic and Malaria Treatment Package Delivered by Community Health Workers in Malaria-Endemic Settings of Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Jegede, Ayodele S.; Oshiname, Frederick O.; Sanou, Armande K.; Nsungwa-Sabiiti, Jesca; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo O.; Siribié, Mohamadou; Afonne, Chinenye; Sermé, Luc; Falade, Catherine O.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and rectal artesunate for severe malaria in children is proven. However, acceptability of a package of interventions that included use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), ACTs, and rectal artesunate when provided by community health workers (CHWs) is uncertain. This study assessed acceptability of use of CHWs for case management of malaria using RDTs, ACTs, and rectal artesunate. Methods. The study was carried out in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda in 2015 toward the end of an intervention using CHWs to provide diagnosis and treatment. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews (KIIs) were conducted with parents of sick children, community leaders, and health workers to understand whether they accepted the package for case management of malaria using CHWs. Transcripts from FGDs and KII recordings were analyzed using content analysis. The findings were described, interpreted, and reported in the form of narratives. Results. Treatment of malaria using the CHWs was acceptable to caregivers and communities. The CHWs were perceived to be accessible, diligent, and effective. There were no physical, social, or cultural barriers to accessing the CHWs’ services. Respondents were extremely positive about the intervention and were concerned that CHWs had limited financial and nonfinancial incentives that would reduce their motivation and willingness to continue. Conclusions. Treatment of malaria using CHWs was fully accepted. CHWs should be compensated, trained, and well supervised. Clinical Trials Registration. ISRCTN13858170. PMID:27941109

  4. Integrated biodepuration of pesticide-contaminated wastewaters from the fruit-packaging industry using biobeds: Bioaugmentation, risk assessment and optimized management.

    PubMed

    Karas, Panagiotis A; Perruchon, Chiara; Karanasios, Evangelos; Papadopoulou, Evangelia S; Manthou, Elena; Sitra, Stefania; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G

    2016-12-15

    Wastewaters from fruit-packaging plants contain high loads of toxic and persistent pesticides and should be treated on site. We evaluated the depuration performance of five pilot biobeds against those effluents. In addition we tested bioaugmentation with bacterial inocula as a strategy for optimization of their depuration capacity. Finally we determined the composition and functional dynamics of the microbial community via q-PCR. Practical issues were also addressed including the risk associated with the direct environmental disposal of biobed-treated effluents and decontamination methods for the spent packing material. Biobeds showed high depuration capacity (>99.5%) against all pesticides with bioaugmentation maximizing their depuration performance against the persistent fungicide thiabendazole (TBZ). This was followed by a significant increase in the abundance of bacteria, fungi and of catabolic genes of aromatic compounds catA and pcaH. Bioaugmentation was the most potent decontamination method for spent packing material with composting being an effective alternative. Risk assessment based on practical scenarios (pome and citrus fruit-packaging plants) and the depuration performance of the pilot biobeds showed that discharge of the treated effluents into an 0.1-ha disposal site did not entail an environmental risk, except for TBZ-containing effluents where a larger disposal area (0.2ha) or bioaugmentation alleviated the risk.

  5. Documents for Recommended Toxicity Equivalency Factors for Human Health Risk Assessments of Dioxin and Dioxin-Like Compounds

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document describes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA’s) updated approach for evaluating the human health risks from exposures to environmental media containing dioxin-like compounds (DLCs).

  6. 48 CFR 211.272 - Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., packaging, and packing. 211.272 Section 211.272 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Requirements Documents 211.272 Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing. Use the provision at 252.211-7004, Alternate Preservation, Packaging, and Packing, in solicitations which include...

  7. A New Assessment Tool. A Professional Development Kit for Trainers and Assessors Incorporating Language, Literacy and Numeracy Skills into Training Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulbourn, Barbara; Alexander, Ann

    This kit is designed to help trainers and assessors understand the importance of workplace communication in training packages. Section 1 explains what trainers and assessors need to know about communication skills, and how to use the kit. Section 2 provides an overview of training packages. It describes the endorsed parts of the package, which…

  8. PRIDE Surveillance Projects Data Packaging Project, Information Package Specification Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, D.M.; Shipp, R. L.; Mason, J. D.

    2009-09-28

    This document contains a specification for a standard XML document format called an information package that can be used to store information and the context required to understand and use that information in information management systems and other types of information archives. An information package consists of packaged information, a set of information metadata that describes the packaged information, and an XML signature that protects the packaged information. The information package described in this specification was designed to be used to store Department of Energy (DOE) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) information and includes the metadata required for that information: a unique package identifier, information marking that conforms to DOE and NNSA requirements, and access control metadata. Information package metadata can also include information search terms, package history, and notes. Packaged information can be text content, binary content, and the contents of files and other containers. A single information package can contain multiple types of information. All content not in a text form compatible with XML must be in a text encoding such as base64. Package information is protected by a digital XML signature that can be used to determine whether the information has changed since it was signed and to identify the source of the information. This specification has been tested but has not been used to create production information packages. The authors expect that gaps and unclear requirements in this specification will be identified as this specification is used to create information packages and as information stored in information packages is used. The authors expect to issue revised versions of this specification as needed to address these issues.

  9. Health-related external cost assessment in Europe: methodological developments from ExternE to the 2013 Clean Air Policy Package.

    PubMed

    van der Kamp, Jonathan; Bachmann, Till M

    2015-03-03

    "Getting the prices right" through internalizing external costs is a guiding principle of environmental policy making, one recent example being the EU Clean Air Policy Package released at the end of 2013. It is supported by impact assessments, including monetary valuation of environmental and health damages. For over 20 years, related methodologies have been developed in Europe in the Externalities of Energy (ExternE) project series and follow-up activities. In this study, we aim at analyzing the main methodological developments over time from the 1990s until today with a focus on classical air pollution-induced human health damage costs. An up-to-date assessment including the latest European recommendations is also applied. Using a case from the energy sector, we identify major influencing parameters: differences in exposure modeling and related data lead to variations in damage costs of up to 21%; concerning risk assessment and monetary valuation, differences in assessing long-term exposure mortality risks together with assumptions on particle toxicity explain most of the observed changes in damage costs. These still debated influencing parameters deserve particular attention when damage costs are used to support environmental policy making.

  10. What States Can Learn about State Standards and Assessment Systems from No Child Left Behind Documents and Interviews with Central Region Assessment Directors. Issues & Answers. REL 2008-No. 036

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Elisabeth A.; Barley, Zoe A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the No Child Left Behind requirements for state standards and assessment systems. It examined official documents and peer review decision letters and included interviews with state assessment directors in the Central Region to highlight the challenges states face in developing and implementing approved…

  11. Packaging Your Training Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espeland, Pamela

    1977-01-01

    The types of packaging and packaging materials to use for training materials should be determined during the planning of the training programs, according to the packaging market. Five steps to follow in shopping for packaging are presented, along with a list of packaging manufacturers. (MF)

  12. Cigarette package inserts can promote efficacy beliefs and sustained smoking cessation attempts: A longitudinal assessment of an innovative policy in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F.; Swayampakala, Kamala; Cummings, K. Michael; Hammond, David; Anshari, Dien; Krugman, Dean M.; Hardin, James W.

    2016-01-01

    Background In June 2012, Canada implemented new pictorial warnings on cigarette packages, along with package inserts with messages to promote response efficacy (i.e., perceived quitting benefits) and self-efficacy (i.e., confidence to quit). This study assessed smokers’ attention towards warnings and inserts and its relationship with efficacy beliefs, risk perceptions and cessation at follow-up. Methods Data were analysed in 2015 from a prospective online consumer panel of adult Canadian smokers surveyed every four months between September 2012 and September 2014. Generalized Estimating Equation models assessed associations between reading inserts, reading warnings and efficacy beliefs (self-efficacy, response efficacy), risk perceptions, quit attempts of any length, and sustained quit attempts (i.e., 30 days or more) at follow-up. Models adjusted for socio-demographics, smoking-related variables, and time-in-sample effects. Results Over the study period, reading warnings significantly decreased (p<0.0001) while reading inserts increased (p=0.004). More frequent reading of warnings was associated independently with stronger response efficacy (Boften/very often vs never=0.28, 95% CI: 0.11–0.46) and risk perceptions at follow-up (Boften/very often vs never=0.31, 95% CI: 0.06–0.56). More frequent reading of inserts was associated independently with stronger self-efficacy to quit at follow-up (Btwice or more vs none=0.30, 95% CI: 0.14–0.47), quit attempts (ORtwice or more vs none= 1.68, 95% CI: 1.28–2.19), and quit attempts lasting 30 days or longer (ORtwice or more vs none=1.48, 95% CI: 1.01 – 2.17). Conclusions More frequent reading of inserts was associated with self-efficacy to quit, quit attempts, and sustained quitting at follow-up, suggesting that inserts complement pictorial HWLs. PMID:26970037

  13. Termination Documentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Mike; Hill, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined 11 workplaces to determine how they handle termination documentation, an empirically unexplored area in technical communication and rhetoric. We found that the use of termination documentation is context dependent while following a basic pattern of infraction, investigation, intervention, and termination. Furthermore,…

  14. Declassified Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Karen M.

    Journalists and other investigators are daily using declassified government documents to shed light on historical and current events, but few have discovered how to tap the wealth of documents once classified but now in the public realm. An executive order from President Reagan eliminating declassification procedures and allowing released…

  15. A survey of packages for large linear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kesheng; Milne, Brent

    2000-02-11

    This paper evaluates portable software packages for the iterative solution of very large sparse linear systems on parallel architectures. While we cannot hope to tell individual users which package will best suit their needs, we do hope that our systematic evaluation provides essential unbiased information about the packages and the evaluation process may serve as an example on how to evaluate these packages. The information contained here include feature comparisons, usability evaluations and performance characterizations. This review is primarily focused on self-contained packages that can be easily integrated into an existing program and are capable of computing solutions to very large sparse linear systems of equations. More specifically, it concentrates on portable parallel linear system solution packages that provide iterative solution schemes and related preconditioning schemes because iterative methods are more frequently used than competing schemes such as direct methods. The eight packages evaluated are: Aztec, BlockSolve,ISIS++, LINSOL, P-SPARSLIB, PARASOL, PETSc, and PINEAPL. Among the eight portable parallel iterative linear system solvers reviewed, we recommend PETSc and Aztec for most application programmers because they have well designed user interface, extensive documentation and very responsive user support. Both PETSc and Aztec are written in the C language and are callable from Fortran. For those users interested in using Fortran 90, PARASOL is a good alternative. ISIS++is a good alternative for those who prefer the C++ language. Both PARASOL and ISIS++ are relatively new and are continuously evolving. Thus their user interface may change. In general, those packages written in Fortran 77 are more cumbersome to use because the user may need to directly deal with a number of arrays of varying sizes. Languages like C++ and Fortran 90 offer more convenient data encapsulation mechanisms which make it easier to implement a clean and intuitive user

  16. INITIAL WASTE PACKAGE PROBABILISTIC CRITICALITY ANALYSIS: UNCANISTERED FUEL (TBV)

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Massari

    1995-10-06

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) to provide an assessment of the present waste package design from a criticality risk standpoint, The specific objectives of this initial analysis are to: (1) Establish a process for determining the probability of waste package criticality as a function of time (in terms of a cumulative distribution function, probability distribution function, or expected number of criticalities in a specified time interval) for various waste package concepts; (2) Demonstrate the established process by estimating the probability of criticality as a function of time since emplacement for an intact uncanistered fuel waste package (UCF-WP) configuration; and (3) Identify the dominant sequences leading to waste package criticality for subsequent detailed analysis. The purpose of this analysis is to document and demonstrate the developed process as it has been applied to the UCF-WP. This revision is performed to correct deficiencies in the previous revision and provide further detail on the calculations performed. Due to the current lack of knowledge in a number of areas, every attempt has been made to ensure that the all calculations and assumptions were conservative. This analysis is preliminary in nature, and is intended to be superseded by at least two more versions prior to license application. The information and assumptions used to generate this analysis are unverified and have been globally assigned TBV identifier TBV-059-WPD. Future versions of this analysis will update these results, possibly replacing the global TBV with a small number of TBV's on individual items, with the goal of removing all TBV designations by license application submittal. The final output of this document, the probability of UCF-WP criticality as a function of time, is therefore, also TBV. This document is intended to deal only with the risk of internal criticality with unaltered fuel

  17. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) SERF cask

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, W.S.

    1997-10-24

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) documents the ability of the Special Environmental Radiometallurgy Facility (SERF) Cask to meet the requirements of WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, for transfer of Type B quantities (up to highway route controlled quantities) of radioactive material within the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. This document shall be used to ensure that loading, tie down, transport, and unloading of the SERF Cask are performed in accordance with WHC-CM-2-14. This SEP is valid until October 1, 1999. After this date, an update or upgrade to this document is required.

  18. Science packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-01-01

    Primary science teachers in Scotland have a new updating method at their disposal with the launch of a package of CDi (Compact Discs Interactive) materials developed by the BBC and the Scottish Office. These were a response to the claim that many primary teachers felt they had been inadequately trained in science and lacked the confidence to teach it properly. Consequently they felt the need for more in-service training to equip them with the personal understanding required. The pack contains five disks and a printed user's guide divided up as follows: disk 1 Investigations; disk 2 Developing understanding; disks 3,4,5 Primary Science staff development videos. It was produced by the Scottish Interactive Technology Centre (Moray House Institute) and is available from BBC Education at £149.99 including VAT. Free Internet distribution of science education materials has also begun as part of the Global Schoolhouse (GSH) scheme. The US National Science Teachers' Association (NSTA) and Microsoft Corporation are making available field-tested comprehensive curriculum material including 'Micro-units' on more than 80 topics in biology, chemistry, earth and space science and physics. The latter are the work of the Scope, Sequence and Coordination of High School Science project, which can be found at http://www.gsh.org/NSTA_SSandC/. More information on NSTA can be obtained from its Web site at http://www.nsta.org.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF A FISH INDEX OF BIOTIC INTEGRITY TO ASSESS THE CONDITION OF WEST VIRGINIA STREAMS: TECHNICAL SUPPORT DOCUMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the development of a fish index of biotic integrity (IBI) for wadeable streams in West Virginia and to determine the applicability of the IBI in streams with different thermal regimes. The IBI will be developed using fish data collected at EMAP sites from 1...

  20. 76 FR 31363 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement: Document-Tools in Assessing Inmates' Risks & Needs: The...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... Corrections (NIC) Jails Division is seeking applications for the development of a written guide on how to use interviews to determine inmate risks and needs within the jail environment more accurately. This document... and tools, (2) the interview environment, (3) skills required of the interviewer, (4) strategies...

  1. Assessment of 3D Viewers for the Display of Interactive Documents in the Learning of Graphic Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbero, Basilio Ramos; Pedrosa, Carlos Melgosa; Mate, Esteban Garcia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine which 3D viewers should be used for the display of interactive graphic engineering documents, so that the visualization and manipulation of 3D models provide useful support to students of industrial engineering (mechanical, organizational, electronic engineering, etc). The technical features of 26 3D…

  2. Assessment and recommendations for fissile-material packaging exemptions and general licenses within 10 CFR Part 71

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, C.V.; Hopper, C.M.; Lichtenwalter, J.L.

    1998-07-01

    This report provides a technical and regulatory assessment of the fissile material general licenses and fissile material exemptions within Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. The assessment included literature studies and calculational analyses to evaluate the technical criteria; review of current industry practice and concerns; and a detailed evaluation of the regulatory text for clarity, consistency and relevance. Recommendations for potential consideration by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff are provided. The recommendations call for a simplification and consolidation of the general licenses and a change in the technical criteria for the first fissile material exemptions.

  3. Assessing the Role of Shape and Label in the Misleading Packaging of Food Imitating Products: From Empirical Evidence to Policy Recommendation.

    PubMed

    Basso, Frédéric; Bouillé, Julien; Le Goff, Kévin; Robert-Demontrond, Philippe; Oullier, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Food imitating products are chemical consumer items used frequently in the household for cleaning and personal hygiene (e.g., bleach, soap, and shampoo), which resemble food products. Their containers replicate elements of food package design such as possessing a shape close in style to drinking product containers or bearing labels that depict colorful fruits. In marketing, these incongruent forms are designed to increase the appeal of functional products, leading to chemical consumer product embellishment. However, due to the resulting visual ambiguity, food imitating products may expose consumers to the risk of being poisoned from ingestion. Thus, from a public health perspective, food imitating products are considered dangerous chemical products that should not be sold, and may merit being recalled for the safety of consumers. To help policymakers address the hazardous presence of food imitating products, the purpose of this article is to identify the specific design features that generate most ambiguity for the consumer, and therefore increase the likelihood of confusion with foodstuffs. Among the visual elements of food packaging, the two most important features (shape and label) are manipulated in a series of three lab studies combining six Implicit Association Tests (IATs) and two explicit measures on products' drinkability and safety. IATs were administered to assess consumers' implicit association of liquid products with tastiness in a within-subject design in which the participants (N = 122) were presented with two kinds of food imitating products with a drink shape or drink label compared with drinks (experiential products with congruent form) and classic chemical products (hygiene products) (functional products with congruent form). Results show that chemical consumer products with incongruent drink shapes (but not drink labels) as an element of food package design are both implicitly associated with tastiness and explicitly judged as safe and drinkable

  4. Assessing the Role of Shape and Label in the Misleading Packaging of Food Imitating Products: From Empirical Evidence to Policy Recommendation

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Frédéric; Bouillé, Julien; Le Goff, Kévin; Robert-Demontrond, Philippe; Oullier, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Food imitating products are chemical consumer items used frequently in the household for cleaning and personal hygiene (e.g., bleach, soap, and shampoo), which resemble food products. Their containers replicate elements of food package design such as possessing a shape close in style to drinking product containers or bearing labels that depict colorful fruits. In marketing, these incongruent forms are designed to increase the appeal of functional products, leading to chemical consumer product embellishment. However, due to the resulting visual ambiguity, food imitating products may expose consumers to the risk of being poisoned from ingestion. Thus, from a public health perspective, food imitating products are considered dangerous chemical products that should not be sold, and may merit being recalled for the safety of consumers. To help policymakers address the hazardous presence of food imitating products, the purpose of this article is to identify the specific design features that generate most ambiguity for the consumer, and therefore increase the likelihood of confusion with foodstuffs. Among the visual elements of food packaging, the two most important features (shape and label) are manipulated in a series of three lab studies combining six Implicit Association Tests (IATs) and two explicit measures on products' drinkability and safety. IATs were administered to assess consumers' implicit association of liquid products with tastiness in a within-subject design in which the participants (N = 122) were presented with two kinds of food imitating products with a drink shape or drink label compared with drinks (experiential products with congruent form) and classic chemical products (hygiene products) (functional products with congruent form). Results show that chemical consumer products with incongruent drink shapes (but not drink labels) as an element of food package design are both implicitly associated with tastiness and explicitly judged as safe and drinkable

  5. Ground-Water Data-Collection Protocols and Procedures for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program: Selection, Installation, and Documentation of Wells, and Collection of Related Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lapham, Wayne W.; Wilde, Franceska D.; Koterba, Michael T.

    1995-01-01

    Protocols for well installation and documentation are included in a 1989 report written for the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Pilot Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). These protocols were reviewed and revised to address the needs of the full-scale implementation of the NAWQA Program that began in 1991. This report, which is a collaborative effort between the National Water-Quality Assessment Program and the Office of Water Quality, is the result of that review and revision. This report describes protocols and recommended procedures for the collection of data from wells for the NAWQA Program. Protocols and procedures discussed are well selection, installation of monitoring wells, documentation, and the collection of water level and additional hydrogeologic and geologic data.

  6. Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention

    PubMed Central

    DiFranza, JR; Clark, DM; Pollay, RW

    2003-01-01

    Objective To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. Methods A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Data Synthesis Cigarette manufacturers devote a great deal of attention and expense to package design because it is central to their efforts to create brand images. Colors, graphic elements, proportioning, texture, materials and typography are tested and used in various combinations to create the desired product and user images. Designs help to create the perceived product attributes and project a personality image of the user with the intent of fulfilling the psychological needs of the targeted type of smoker. The communication of these images and attributes is conducted through conscious and subliminal processes. Extensive testing is conducted using a variety of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. Conclusion The promotion of tobacco products through appealing imagery cannot be stopped without regulating the package design. The same marketing research techniques used by the tobacco companies can be used to design generic packaging and more effective warning labels targeted at specific consumers.

  7. Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention

    PubMed Central

    DiFranza, JR; Clark, DM; Pollay, RW

    2003-01-01

    Objective To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. Methods A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Data Synthesis Cigarette manufacturers devote a great deal of attention and expense to package design because it is central to their efforts to create brand images. Colors, graphic elements, proportioning, texture, materials and typography are tested and used in various combinations to create the desired product and user images. Designs help to create the perceived product attributes and project a personality image of the user with the intent of fulfilling the psychological needs of the targeted type of smoker. The communication of these images and attributes is conducted through conscious and subliminal processes. Extensive testing is conducted using a variety of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. Conclusion The promotion of tobacco products through appealing imagery cannot be stopped without regulating the package design. The same marketing research techniques used by the tobacco companies can be used to design generic packaging and more effective warning labels targeted at specific consumers. PMID:19570250

  8. An analysis of the qualification criteria for small radioactive material shipping packages

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, J.D.

    1983-05-01

    The RAM package design certification process has two important elements, testing and acceptance. These terms sound very similar but they have specific meanings. Qualification testing in the context of this study is the imposition of simulated accident test conditions upon the candidate package design. (Normal transportation environments may also be included.) Following qualification testing, the acceptance criteria provide the performance levels which, if demonstrated, indicate the ability of the RAM package to sustain the severity of the qualification testing sequence and yet maintain specified levels of package integrity. This study has used Severities of Transportation Accidents as a data base to examine the regulatory test criteria which are required to be met by small packages containing Type B quantities of radioactive material (RAM). The basic findings indicate that the present regulatory test standards provide significantly higher levels of protection for the surface transportation modes (truck, rail) than for RAM packages shipped by aircraft. It should also be noted that various risk assessment studies have shown that the risk to the public due to severe transport accidents by surface and air transport modes is very low. A key element in this study was the quantification of the severity of the transportation accident environment and the severity of the present qualification test standards (called qualification test standards in this document) so that a direct comparison could be made between them to assess the effectiveness of the existing qualification test standards. The manner in which this was accomplished is described.

  9. GENII Version 2 Software Design Document

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Ramsdell, James V.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Fosmire, Christian J.

    2004-03-08

    This document describes the architectural design for the GENII-V2 software package. This document defines details of the overall structure of the software, the major software components, their data file interfaces, and specific mathematical models to be used. The design represents a translation of the requirements into a description of the software structure, software components, interfaces, and necessary data. The design focuses on the major components and data communication links that are key to the implementation of the software within the operating framework. The purpose of the GENII-V2 software package is to provide the capability to perform dose and risk assessments of environmental releases of radionuclides. The software also has the capability of calculating environmental accumulation and radiation doses from surface water, groundwater, and soil (buried waste) media when an input concentration of radionuclide in these media is provided. This report represents a detailed description of the capabilities of the software product with exact specifications of mathematical models that form the basis for the software implementation and testing efforts. This report also presents a detailed description of the overall structure of the software package, details of main components (implemented in the current phase of work), details of data communication files, and content of basic output reports. The GENII system includes the capabilities for calculating radiation doses following chronic and acute releases. Radionuclide transport via air, water, or biological activity may be considered. Air transport options include both puff and plume models, each allow use of an effective stack height or calculation of plume rise from buoyant or momentum effects (or both). Building wake effects can be included in acute atmospheric release scenarios. The code provides risk estimates for health effects to individuals or populations; these can be obtained using the code by applying

  10. A comparison of mental state examination documentation by junior clinicians in electronic health records before and after the introduction of a semi-structured assessment template (OPCRIT+)

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Sarah E.M.; Rucker, James; Kerr, Madeleine; Gallo, Fidel; Constable, Giles; Hotopf, Matthew; Stewart, Robert; Broadbent, Matthew; Baggaley, Martin; Lovestone, Simon; McGuffin, Peter; Amarasinghe, Myanthi; Newman, Stuart; Schumann, Gunter; Brittain, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The mental state examination (MSE) provides crucial information for healthcare professionals in the assessment and treatment of psychiatric patients as well as potentially providing valuable data for mental health researchers accessing electronic health records (EHRs). We wished to establish if improvements could be achieved in the documenting of MSEs by junior doctors within a large United Kingdom mental health trust following the introduction of an EHR based semi-structured MSE assessment template (OPCRIT+). Methods First, three consultant psychiatrists using a modified version of the Physician Documentation Quality Instrument-9 (PDQI-9) blindly rated fifty MSEs written using OPCRIT+ and fifty normal MSEs written with no template. Second, we conducted an audit to compare the frequency with which individual components of the MSE were documented in the normal MSEs compared with the OPCRIT + MSEs. Results PDQI-9 ratings indicated that the OPCRIT + MSEs were more ‘Thorough’, ‘Organized’, ‘Useful’ and ‘Comprehensible’ as well as being of an overall higher quality than the normal MSEs. The audit identified that the normal MSEs contained fewer mentions of the individual components of ‘Thought content’, ‘Anxiety’ and ‘Cognition & Insight’. Conclusions These results indicate that a semi-structured assessment template significantly improves the quality of MSE recording by junior doctors within EHRs. Future work should focus on whether such improvements translate into better patient outcomes and have the ability to improve the quality of information available on EHRs to researchers. PMID:26033569

  11. Software requirements specification document for the AREST code development

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, D.W.; McGrail, B.P.; Whitney, P.D.; Gray, W.J.; Williford, R.E.; White, M.D.; Eslinger, P.W.; Altenhofen, M.K.

    1993-11-01

    The Analysis of the Repository Source Term (AREST) computer code was selected in 1992 by the U.S. Department of Energy. The AREST code will be used to analyze the performance of an underground high level nuclear waste repository. The AREST code is being modified by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in order to evaluate the engineered barrier and waste package designs, model regulatory compliance, analyze sensitivities, and support total systems performance assessment modeling. The current version of the AREST code was developed to be a very useful tool for analyzing model uncertainties and sensitivities to input parameters. The code has also been used successfully in supplying source-terms that were used in a total systems performance assessment. The current version, however, has been found to be inadequate for the comparison and selection of a design for the waste package. This is due to the assumptions and simplifications made in the selection of the process and system models. Thus, the new version of the AREST code will be designed to focus on the details of the individual processes and implementation of more realistic models. This document describes the requirements of the new models that will be implemented. Included in this document is a section describing the near-field environmental conditions for this waste package modeling, description of the new process models that will be implemented, and a description of the computer requirements for the new version of the AREST code.

  12. DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES IN ANDRA'S ASSESSMENT OF ACTIVITIES CARRIED OUT BY RADIOACTIVE WASTE GENERATORS AND AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF IL-LL SHORT-LIVED WASTE PACKAGES AND HL-IL LONG-LIVED WASTE PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Trentesaux, C.; Cairon, P.; Dumont, J.-N.; Felix, B.; Losada, F.

    2003-02-27

    In both cases of packages for either low-level and intermediate-level short-lived (LL-IL/SL) or high-level and intermediate-level long-lived (HL-IL/LL) radioactive waste, Andra has defined a quality reference system, manages it, follows up its appropriate implementation in production plants and verifies its effectiveness in production. The purpose of such a reference system is to ensure, in the first case, that waste packages comply with the Centre de l'Aube's acceptance criteria and, in the second case, that the characteristics submitted by the waste generators to Andra as input data for the deep geological repository project reflect the actual production conditions. In that context, the three management steps of the quality reference system include differences due to the fact that HL-IL/SL packages have not been submitted yet to any technical acceptance criterion. Compliance with any such criterion should be the subject of a characterization report during the qualification phase and of a examination during the verification phase. The management of the quality reference system also involves similarities that facilitate the joint work carried out by Andra with the waste generators, especially in the facilities where both package types are produced.

  13. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-05-27

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing Shielded Container Payload Assembly; 1.7, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.8, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence, except as noted.

  14. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-09-11

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.7, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence.

  15. Assessing the risks of trace gases that can modify the stratosphere. Volume 6. Technical support documentation production projections

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, J.S.

    1987-12-01

    This document is one of a series that examines the human health, environmental, and atmospheric risks associated with a decrease in stratospheric ozone. This volume includes reports on: Probabilistic projections of chlorofluorocarbon consumption; Scenarios of chlorofluorocarbon use: 1985-2075; Product uses and market trends for potential ozone depleting substance 1985-2000; and An analytic method for constructing scenarios from a subjective joint possibility distribution.

  16. Joint Improvised-Threat Defeat Agency Needs to Improve Assessment and Documentation of Counter-Improvised Explosive Device Initiatives (Redacted)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-09

    Documentation of Counter‑Improvised Explosive Device Initiatives Visit us at www.dodig.mil Objective Our audit objective was to determine whether...Initiatives (Report No. DODIG‐2016‐120) We are providing this report for review and comment. This audit was in response to a congressional reporting...that his personnel followed established policy to justify management actions. We conducted this audit in accordance with generally accepted government

  17. Database Technology Activities and Assessment for Defense Modeling and Simulation Office (DMSO) (August 1991-November 1992). A Documented Briefing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    using IDEFIX methodology is currently under development; and (3) future plans call for development of a schema for a directory/catalog of models and...FIPS) for IDEFO and IDEFIX methodologies based on the original Air Force documents. These are expected to be published in the Federal Register by first...elements (attributes of the entities). NIST has established draft standards for IDEFO, business process or functional modeling methodology, and IDEFIX

  18. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    E. Thomas

    2004-11-09

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste package has been

  19. Generic Degraded Congiguration Probability Analysis for DOE Codisposal Waste Package

    SciTech Connect

    S.F.A. Deng; M. Saglam; L.J. Gratton

    2001-05-23

    In accordance with the technical work plan, ''Technical Work Plan For: Department of Energy Spent Nuclear Fuel Work Packages'' (CRWMS M&O 2000c), this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is developed for the purpose of screening out degraded configurations for U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) types. It performs the degraded configuration parameter and probability evaluations of the overall methodology specified in the ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2000, Section 3) to qualifying configurations. Degradation analyses are performed to assess realizable parameter ranges and physical regimes for configurations. Probability calculations are then performed for configurations characterized by k{sub eff} in excess of the Critical Limit (CL). The scope of this document is to develop a generic set of screening criteria or models to screen out degraded configurations having potential for exceeding a criticality limit. The developed screening criteria include arguments based on physical/chemical processes and probability calculations and apply to DOE SNF types when codisposed with the high-level waste (HLW) glass inside a waste package. The degradation takes place inside the waste package and is long after repository licensing has expired. The emphasis of this AMR is on degraded configuration screening and the probability analysis is one of the approaches used for screening. The intended use of the model is to apply the developed screening criteria to each DOE SNF type following the completion of the degraded mode criticality analysis internal to the waste package.

  20. Inspection, testing, and operating requiremens for the packaging and shipping of uranium trioxide in 55-gallon Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 6M shipping packagings

    SciTech Connect

    Toomer, D.V.

    1991-06-01

    This document identifies the inspection, testing and operating requirements for the packaging, loading, and shipping of uranium trioxide (UO{sub 3}) in 55-gallon DOT Specification 6M shipping packagings from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Compliance with this document assures established controls for the purchasing, packaging, loading, and shipping of DOT Specification 6M shipping packagings are maintained in strict accordance with applicable Code of Federal Regulations (CFRs) and Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. IGNEOUS INTRUSION IMPACTS ON WASTE PACKAGES AND WASTE FORMS

    SciTech Connect

    P. Bernot

    2004-04-19

    The purpose of this model report is to assess the potential impacts of igneous intrusion on waste packages and waste forms in the emplacement drifts at the Yucca Mountain Repository. The models are based on conceptual models and includes an assessment of deleterious dynamic, thermal, hydrologic, and chemical impacts. The models described in this report constitute the waste package and waste form impacts submodel of the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) model assessing the impacts of a hypothetical igneous intrusion event on the repository total system performance. This submodel is carried out in accordance with Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of LA (BSC 2004 [DIRS:167796]) and Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approaches (BSC 2003 [DIRS: 166296]). The technical work plan was prepared in accordance with AP-2.27Q, Planning for Science Activities. Any deviations from the technical work plan are documented in the following sections as they occur. The TSPA-LA approach to implementing the models for waste package and waste form response during igneous intrusion is based on identification of damage zones. Zone 1 includes all emplacement drifts intruded by the basalt dike, and Zone 2 includes all other emplacement drifts in the repository that are not in Zone 1. This model report will document the following model assessments: (1) Mechanical and thermal impacts of basalt magma intrusion on the invert, waste packages and waste forms of the intersected emplacement drifts of Zone 1. (2) Temperature and pressure trends of basaltic magma intrusion intersecting Zone 1 and their potential effects on waste packages and waste forms in Zone 2 emplacement drifts. (3) Deleterious volatile gases, exsolving from the intruded basalt magma and their potential effects on waste packages of Zone 2 emplacement drifts. (4) Post-intrusive physical

  2. Packaging food for radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komolprasert, Vanee

    2016-12-01

    Irradiation can play an important role in reducing pathogens that cause food borne illness. Food processors and food safety experts prefer that food be irradiated after packaging to prevent post-irradiation contamination. Food irradiation has been studied for the last century. However, the implementation of irradiation on prepackaged food still faces challenges on how to assess the suitability and safety of these packaging materials used during irradiation. Irradiation is known to induce chemical changes to the food packaging materials resulting in the formation of breakdown products, so called radiolysis products (RP), which may migrate into foods and affect the safety of the irradiated foods. Therefore, the safety of the food packaging material (both polymers and adjuvants) must be determined to ensure safety of irradiated packaged food. Evaluating the safety of food packaging materials presents technical challenges because of the range of possible chemicals generated by ionizing radiation. These challenges and the U.S. regulations on food irradiation are discussed in this article.

  3. Watergate. Documents from the National Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.

    The documents in this package focus on the three basic questions raised by Watergate: (1) Should President Nixon have been impeached?; (2) Should he have been prosecuted?; and (3) Should he have been pardoned? These documents do not begin to tell the whole story of Watergate, but they do suggest some of the issues involved. "Suggestions for…

  4. A methodology to assess the energetic valorization of bio-based polymers from the packaging industry: pyrolysis of reprocessed polylactide.

    PubMed

    Badia, J D; Santonja-Blasco, L; Martínez-Felipe, A; Ribes-Greus, A

    2012-05-01

    The energetic valorization process of bio-based polymers is addressed in this study, taking polylactide (PLA) as model. The pyrolysis of virgin and multiple-injected PLA was simulated by means of multi-rate linear-non-isothermal thermogravimetric experiments. A complete methodology, involving control of gases, thermal stability and thermal decomposition kinetics was proposed. The release of gases was monitored by Evolved Gas Analysis of the fumes of pyrolysis, by in-line FT-IR, with the aid of 2D-correlation IR characterization. A novel model to establish the thermal stability of PLAs under any linear heating profile was proposed. A kinetic strategy was methodically applied to assess the thermal decomposition in terms of activation energy and kinetic model. It was found that the pyrolysis technologies for virgin PLA could be straightforwardly transferred for the valorization of its recyclates.

  5. HIV Provider Documentation and Actions Following Patient Reports of At-risk Behaviors and Conditions When Identified by a Web-Based Point-of-Care Assessment.

    PubMed

    Crane, Heidi M; Crane, Paul K; Tufano, James T; Ralston, James D; Wilson, Ira B; Brown, Tyler D; Davis, Thomas E; Smith, Laurie F; Lober, William B; McReynolds, Justin; Dhanireddy, Shireesha; Harrington, Robert D; Rodriguez, Carla V; Nance, Robin M; Delaney, Joseph A C; Safren, Steven A; Kitahata, Mari M; Fredericksen, Rob J

    2017-02-15

    We compared same-day provider medical record documentation and interventions addressing depression and risk behaviors before and after delivering point-of-care patient-reported outcomes (PROs) feedback for patients who self-reported clinically relevant levels of depression or risk behaviors. During the study period (1 January 2006-15 October 2010), 2289 PRO assessments were completed by HIV-infected patients. Comparing the 8 months before versus after feedback implementation, providers were more likely to document depression (74% before vs. 87% after feedback, p = 0.02) in patients with moderate-to-severe depression (n = 317 assessments), at-risk alcohol use (41 vs. 64%, p = 0.04, n = 155) and substance use (60 vs. 80%, p = 0.004, n = 212). Providers were less likely to incorrectly document good adherence among patients with inadequate adherence after feedback (42 vs. 24%, p = 0.02, n = 205). While PRO feedback of depression and adherence were followed by increased provider intervention, other domains were not. Further investigation of factors associated with the gap between awareness and intervention are needed in order to bridge this divide.

  6. "Notable Documents."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Government Publications Review, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 569 documents from local, state, provincial, and national governments and from international organizations that have been selected on the basis of their reference value and/or subject coverage. Topics covered include health sciences, business and economics, government and politics, social problems, education,…

  7. Scientific Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieper, Gail W.

    1980-01-01

    Describes how scientific documentation is taught in three 50-minute sessions in a technical writing course. Tells how session one distinguishes between in-text notes, footnotes, and reference entries; session two discusses the author-year system of citing references; and session three is concerned with the author-number system of reference…

  8. Training package 1 for slitting data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Prime, Michael Bruce

    2015-03-23

    This document and accompanying files are intended as a first training package on how to analyze slitting data. The end goal is to have Idaho National Laboratory (INL) personnel trained to analyze future slitting data taken in the INL Hot Cell on clad, Low-Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel plates. This first data package will cover data analysis for a monolithic material (as compared to a layered material like the clad fuel plates). The additional issues for layered specimens will be covered in a future training package.

  9. The psychiatric inpatient physical health assessment sheet (PIPHAS): a useful tool to improve the speed, efficiency, and documentation of physical examination in new psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Pettipher, Alexander; Ovens, Richard

    2015-01-01

    There is increased morbidity and mortality among patients suffering from mental illness. This is believed to be multi-factorial. Poor access to healthcare, the stigma of mental illness, reduced clinic attendance, lifestyle factors, and side effects of medications are cited as possible contributing factors. It is therefore vital to perform a physical examination to identify previously undiagnosed conditions during the admission of a psychiatric inpatient. The Royal College of Psychiatrists recommends that all patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital should receive a full physical examination on admission, or within twenty-four hours of admission. A snapshot audit was carried out at Prospect Park Hospital in Reading, which highlighted that The Royal College of Psychiatrist's recommendation, along with Trust guidelines regarding physical examination were not being met, with only 78 out of 111 patients (70.3%) undergoing an examination during their admission. In addition to this, examinations were often poorly documented and not covering all examination domains. A psychiatric inpatient physical health assessment sheet (PIPHAS) was designed and introduced, providing a quick and standardised approach to the documentation of a physical examination. After the intervention was put into practice, its impact was assessed by performing a retrospective review of the admission clerking notes of the next 100 admissions to Prospect Park Hospital. Following the introduction of the PIPHAS form there was an increase in the number of patients undergoing physical examination on admission to hospital (75 out of 100 patients, 75%). There was also an increase in the thorough documentation of all examination domains (e.g. respiratory examination) for patients that had a completed PIPHAS form scanned within their medical records. This quality improvement project demonstrates that the PIPHAS form is a useful tool to improve the speed, efficiency, and documentation of a thorough physical

  10. Transportation and packaging resource guide

    SciTech Connect

    Arendt, J.W.; Gove, R.M.; Welch, M.J.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this resource guide is to provide a convenient reference document of information that may be useful to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractor personnel involved in packaging and transportation activities. An attempt has been made to present the terminology of DOE community usage as it currently exists. DOE`s mission is changing with emphasis on environmental cleanup. The terminology or nomenclature that has resulted from this expanded mission is included for the packaging and transportation user for reference purposes. Older terms still in use during the transition have been maintained. The Packaging and Transportation Resource Guide consists of four sections: Sect. 1, Introduction; Sect. 2, Abbreviations and Acronyms; Sect. 3, Definitions; and Sect. 4, References for packaging and transportation of hazardous materials and related activities, and Appendices A and B. Information has been collected from DOE Orders and DOE documents; U.S Department of Transportation (DOT), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations; and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standards and other international documents. The definitions included in this guide may not always be a regulatory definition but are the more common DOE usage. In addition, the definitions vary among regulatory agencies. It is, therefore, suggested that if a definition is to be used in a regulatory or a legal compliance issue, the definition should be verified with the appropriate regulation. To assist in locating definitions in the regulations, a listing of all definition sections in the regulations are included in Appendix B. In many instances, the appropriate regulatory reference is indicated in the right-hand margin.

  11. Can pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages address smoking-related health disparities?: Field experiments in Mexico to assess warning label content

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F.; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Villalobos, Victor; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Hammond, David; Carter, Jarvis; Sebrié, Ernesto; Sansores, Raul; Regalado-Piñeda, Justino

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine the most effective content of pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) and whether educational attainment moderates these effects. Methods Field experiments were conducted with 529 adult smokers and 530 young adults (258 nonsmokers; 271 smokers), wherein participants reported responses to different HWLs printed on cigarette packages. One experiment involved manipulating textual form (testimonial narrative vs didactic) and the other involved manipulating imagery type (diseased organs vs human suffering). Results Tests of mean ratings and rankings indicated that HWLs with didactic textual forms had equivalent or significantly higher credibility, relevance, and impact than HWLs with testimonial forms. Results from mixed-effects models confirmed these results. However, responses differed by participant educational attainment: didactic forms were consistently rated higher than testimonials among participants with higher education, whereas the difference between didactic and testimonial narrative forms was weaker or not statistically significant among participants with lower education. In the second experiment, with textual content held constant, greater credibility, relevance and impact was found for graphic imagery of diseased organs than imagery of human suffering. Conclusions Pictorial HWLs with didactic textual forms appear to work better than with testimonial narratives. Future research should determine which pictorial HWL content has the greatest real-world impact among consumers from disadvantaged groups, including assessment of how HWL content should change to maintain its impact as tobacco control environments strengthen and consumer awareness of smoking-related risks increases. PMID:22350859

  12. WASTE PACKAGE DESIGN SENSITIVITY REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    P. Mecharet

    2001-03-09

    The purpose of this technical report is to present the current designs for waste packages and determine which designs will be evaluated for the Site Recommendation (SR) or Licence Application (LA), to demonstrate how the design will be shown to comply with the applicable design criteria. The evaluations to support SR or LA are based on system description document criteria. The objective is to determine those system description document criteria for which compliance is to be demonstrated for SR; and, having identified the criteria, to refer to the documents that show compliance. In addition, those system description document criteria for which compliance will be addressed for LA are identified, with a distinction made between two steps of the LA process: the LA-Construction Authorization (LA-CA) phase on one hand, and the LA-Receive and Possess (LA-R&P) phase on the other hand. The scope of this work encompasses the Waste Package Project disciplines for criticality, shielding, structural, and thermal analysis.

  13. Engineered waste-package-system design specification

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    This report documents the waste package performance requirements and geologic and waste form data bases used in developing the conceptual designs for waste packages for salt, tuff, and basalt geologies. The data base reflects the latest geotechnical information on the geologic media of interest. The parameters or characteristics specified primarily cover spent fuel, defense high-level waste, and commercial high-level waste forms. The specification documents the direction taken during the conceptual design activity. A separate design specification will be developed prior to the start of the preliminary design activity.

  14. Assessment of the Relative Effectiveness of Job Corps Current Training Occupations. Job Corps Vocational Offerings Review. Documentation Report No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

    As part of a multiphased evaluation of vocational training provided by the Job Corps in fiscal year 1982, an assessment was made of the relative effectiveness of current Job Corps training operations. To arrive at an estimate of overall effectiveness, the researchers weighed the following factors: job-placement percentage, average wage of job,…

  15. Environmental Asbestos Assessment Manual Superfund Method for the Determination of Asbestos in Ambient Air Part 2: Technical Background Document

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sampling and analysis method for the determination of asbestos in air is presented in Part 1 of this report, under separate cover. This method is designed specifically to provide results suitable for supporting risk assessments at Superfund sites, although it is applicable t...

  16. Waste Package Component Design Methodology Report

    SciTech Connect

    D.C. Mecham

    2004-07-12

    This Executive Summary provides an overview of the methodology being used by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) to design waste packages and ancillary components. This summary information is intended for readers with general interest, but also provides technical readers a general framework surrounding a variety of technical details provided in the main body of the report. The purpose of this report is to document and ensure appropriate design methods are used in the design of waste packages and ancillary components (the drip shields and emplacement pallets). The methodology includes identification of necessary design inputs, justification of design assumptions, and use of appropriate analysis methods, and computational tools. This design work is subject to ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description''. The document is primarily intended for internal use and technical guidance for a variety of design activities. It is recognized that a wide audience including project management, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others are interested to various levels of detail in the design methods and therefore covers a wide range of topics at varying levels of detail. Due to the preliminary nature of the design, readers can expect to encounter varied levels of detail in the body of the report. It is expected that technical information used as input to design documents will be verified and taken from the latest versions of reference sources given herein. This revision of the methodology report has evolved with changes in the waste package, drip shield, and emplacement pallet designs over many years and may be further revised as the design is finalized. Different components and analyses are at different stages of development. Some parts of the report are detailed, while other less detailed parts are likely to undergo further refinement. The design methodology is intended to provide designs that satisfy the safety and operational

  17. Technology resource document for the assembled chemical weapons assessment environmental impact statement. Vol. 2 : assembled systems for weapons destruction at Anniston Army Depot.

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmell, T.; Folga, S., Frey, G.; Molberg, J.; Kier, P.; Templin, B.; Goldberg, M.

    2001-05-04

    This volume of the Technical Resource Document (TRD) for the ''Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Design, Construction and Operation of One or More Pilot Test Facilities for Assembled Chemical Weapons Destruction Technologies at One or More Sites'' (PMACWA 2001g) pertains to the destruction of assembled chemical weapons (ACW) stored at Anniston Army Depot (ANAD), located outside Anniston, Alabama. This volume presents technical and process information on each of the destruction technologies applicable to treatment of the specific ACW stored at ANAD. The destruction technologies described are those that have been demonstrated as part of the Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA) selection process (see Volume 1).

  18. Packaging for Food Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stilwell, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the key areas of concern in packaging the three principle food forms for the space station were covered. It can be generally concluded that there are no significant voids in packaging materials availability or in current packaging technology. However, it must also be concluded that the process by which packaging decisions are made for the space station feeding program will be very synergistic. Packaging selection will depend heavily on the preparation mechanics, the preferred presentation and the achievable disposal systems. It will be important that packaging be considered as an integral part of each decision as these systems are developed.

  19. Packaging of MEMS microphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feiertag, Gregor; Winter, Matthias; Leidl, Anton

    2009-05-01

    To miniaturize MEMS microphones we have developed a microphone package using flip chip technology instead of chip and wire bonding. In this new packaging technology MEMS and ASIC are flip chip bonded on a ceramic substrate. The package is sealed by a laminated polymer foil and by a metal layer. The sound port is on the bottom side in the ceramic substrate. In this paper the packaging technology is explained in detail and results of electro-acoustic characterization and reliability testing are presented. We will also explain the way which has led us from the packaging of Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) components to the packaging of MEMS microphones.

  20. Assessment and documentation of non-healing, chronic wounds in inpatient health care facilities in the Czech Republic: an evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Pokorná, Andrea; Leaper, David

    2015-04-01

    The foundation of health care management of patients with non-healing, chronic wounds needs accurate evaluation followed by the selection of an appropriate therapeutic strategy. Assessment of non-healing, chronic wounds in clinical practice in the Czech Republic is not standardised. The aim of this study was to analyse the methods being used to assess non-healing, chronic wounds in inpatient facilities in the Czech Republic. The research was carried out at 77 inpatient medical facilities (8 university/faculty hospitals, 63 hospitals and 6 long- term hospitals) across all regions of the Czech Republic. A mixed model was used for the research (participatory observation including creation of field notes and content analysis of documents for documentation and analysis of qualitative and quantitative data). The results of this research have corroborated the suspicion of inconsistencies in procedures used by general nurses for assessment of non-healing, chronic wounds. However, the situation was found to be more positive with regard to evaluation of basic/fundamental parameters of a wound (e.g. size, depth and location of a wound) compared with the evaluation of more specific parameters (e.g. exudate or signs of infection). This included not only the number of observed variables, but also the action taken. Both were significantly improved when a consultant for wound healing was present (P = 0·047). The same applied to facilities possessing a certificate of quality issued by the Czech Wound Management Association (P = 0·010). In conclusion, an effective strategy for wound management depends on the method and scope of the assessment of non-healing, chronic wounds in place in clinical practice in observed facilities; improvement may be expected following the general introduction of a 'non-healing, chronic wound assessment' algorithm.

  1. Fiberboard humidity data for 9975 shipping packages

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W. L.

    2015-07-31

    The 9975 surveillance program is identifying a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in KAC beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis.Two efforts have been undertaken to better understand the levels and behavior of moisture within the fiberboard assemblies of the 9975 shipping package. In the first effort, an initial survey of humidity and temperature in the upper air space of 26 packages stored in KAC was made. The data collected within this first effort help to illustrate how the upper air space humidity varies with the local ambient temperature and package heat load. In the second effort, direct measurements of two test packages are providing a correlation between humidity and fiberboard moisture levels within the package, and variations in moisture throughout the fiberboard assembly. This effort has examined packages with cane fiberboard and internal heat levels of 5 and 10W to date. Additional testing is expected to include 15 and 19W heat levels, and then repeat the same four heat levels with softwood fiberboard assemblies. This report documents the data collected to date within these two efforts.

  2. Fiberboard Humidity Data for 9975 Shipping Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2015-07-31

    The 9975 surveillance program is identifying a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in KAC beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis. Two efforts have been undertaken to better understand the levels and behavior of moisture within the fiberboard assemblies of the 9975 shipping package. In the first effort, an initial survey of humidity and temperature in the upper air space of 26 packages stored in KAC was made. The data collected within this first effort help to illustrate how the upper air space humidity varies with the local ambient temperature and package heat load. In the second effort, direct measurements of two test packages are providing a correlation between humidity and fiberboard moisture levels within the package, and variations in moisture throughout the fiberboard assembly. This effort has examined packages with cane fiberboard and internal heat levels of 5 and 10W to date. Additional testing is expected to include 15 and 19W heat levels, and then repeat the same four heat levels with softwood fiberboard assemblies. This report documents the data collected to date within these two efforts

  3. Evaluation Framework and Analyses for Thermal Energy Storage Integrated with Packaged Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, F.; Deru, M.; Bonnema, E.

    2013-10-01

    Few third-party guidance documents or tools are available for evaluating thermal energy storage (TES) integrated with packaged air conditioning (AC), as this type of TES is relatively new compared to TES integrated with chillers or hot water systems. To address this gap, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted a project to improve the ability of potential technology adopters to evaluate TES technologies. Major project outcomes included: development of an evaluation framework to describe key metrics, methodologies, and issues to consider when assessing the performance of TES systems integrated with packaged AC; application of multiple concepts from the evaluation framework to analyze performance data from four demonstration sites; and production of a new simulation capability that enables modeling of TES integrated with packaged AC in EnergyPlus. This report includes the evaluation framework and analysis results from the project.

  4. The Mississippi Embayment Regional Aquifer Study (MERAS): Documentation of a Groundwater-Flow Model Constructed to Assess Water Availability in the Mississippi Embayment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Brian R.; Hart, Rheannon M.

    2009-01-01

    The Mississippi Embayment Regional Aquifer Study (MERAS) was conducted with support from the Groundwater Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey Office of Groundwater. This report documents the construction and calibration of a finite-difference groundwater model for use as a tool to quantify groundwater availability within the Mississippi embayment. To approximate the differential equation, the MERAS model was constructed with the U.S. Geological Survey's modular three-dimensional finite-difference code, MODFLOW-2005; the preconditioned conjugate gradient solver within MODFLOW-2005 was used for the numerical solution technique. The model area boundary is approximately 78,000 square miles and includes eight States with approximately 6,900 miles of simulated streams, 70,000 well locations, and 10 primary hydrogeologic units. The finite-difference grid consists of 414 rows, 397 columns, and 13 layers. Each model cell is 1 square mile with varying thickness by cell and by layer. The simulation period extends from January 1, 1870, to April 1, 2007, for a total of 137 years and 69 stress periods. The first stress period is simulated as steady state to represent predevelopment conditions. Areal recharge is applied throughout the MERAS model area using the MODFLOW-2005 Recharge Package. Irrigation, municipal, and industrial wells are simulated using the Multi-Node Well Package. There are 43 streams simulated by the MERAS model. Each stream or river in the model area was simulated using the Streamflow-Routing Package. The perimeter of the model area and the base of the flow system are represented as no-flow boundaries. The downgradient limit of each model layer is a no-flow boundary, which approximates the extent of water with less than 10,000 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids. The MERAS model was calibrated by making manual changes to parameter values and examining residuals for hydraulic heads and streamflow. Additional calibration was achieved through

  5. The Package-Based Development Process in the Flight Dynamics Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parra, Amalia; Seaman, Carolyn; Basili, Victor; Kraft, Stephen; Condon, Steven; Burke, Steven; Yakimovich, Daniil

    1997-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) has been operating for more than two decades in the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) and has adapted to the constant movement of the software development environment. The SEL's Improvement Paradigm shows that process improvement is an iterative process. Understanding, Assessing and Packaging are the three steps that are followed in this cyclical paradigm. As the improvement process cycles back to the first step, after having packaged some experience, the level of understanding will be greater. In the past, products resulting from the packaging step have been large process documents, guidebooks, and training programs. As the technical world moves toward more modularized software, we have made a move toward more modularized software development process documentation, as such the products of the packaging step are becoming smaller and more frequent. In this manner, the QIP takes on a more spiral approach rather than a waterfall. This paper describes the state of the FDD in the area of software development processes, as revealed through the understanding and assessing activities conducted by the COTS study team. The insights presented include: (1) a characterization of a typical FDD Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) intensive software development life-cycle process, (2) lessons learned through the COTS study interviews, and (3) a description of changes in the SEL due to the changing and accelerating nature of software development in the FDD.

  6. Truss Performance and Packaging Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin M.; Collins, Timothy J.; Doggett, William; Dorsey, John; Watson, Judith

    2006-01-01

    In the present paper a set of performance metrics are derived from first principals to assess the efficiency of competing space truss structural concepts in terms of mass, stiffness, and strength, for designs that are constrained by packaging. The use of these performance metrics provides unique insight into the primary drivers for lowering structural mass and packaging volume as well as enabling quantitative concept performance evaluation and comparison. To demonstrate the use of these performance metrics, data for existing structural concepts are plotted and discussed. Structural performance data is presented for various mechanical deployable concepts, for erectable structures, and for rigidizable structures.

  7. Prevention policies addressing packaging and packaging waste: Some emerging trends.

    PubMed

    Tencati, Antonio; Pogutz, Stefano; Moda, Beatrice; Brambilla, Matteo; Cacia, Claudia

    2016-10-01

    Packaging waste is a major issue in several countries. Representing in industrialized countries around 30-35% of municipal solid waste yearly generated, this waste stream has steadily grown over the years even if, especially in Europe, specific recycling and recovery targets have been fixed. Therefore, an increasing attention starts to be devoted to prevention measures and interventions. Filling a gap in the current literature, this explorative paper is a first attempt to map the increasingly important phenomenon of prevention policies in the packaging sector. Through a theoretical sampling, 11 countries/states (7 in and 4 outside Europe) have been selected and analyzed by gathering and studying primary and secondary data. Results show evidence of three specific trends in packaging waste prevention policies: fostering the adoption of measures directed at improving packaging design and production through an extensive use of the life cycle assessment; raising the awareness of final consumers by increasing the accountability of firms; promoting collaborative efforts along the packaging supply chains.

  8. List of currently classified documents relative to Hanford Operations and of potential use in the Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment, January 1, 1973--June 20, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, T.B.; Huesties, L.R.

    1995-02-01

    The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA) Project seeks to estimate the current risk from the Columbia River resulting from past and present Hanford activities. To resolve the question of the current risk, it is necessary for the CRCIA Project to have access to any classified information that may be relevant to this study. The purpose of this report is to present the results of the search for relevant classified information. There are two classified matter control centers operated by two prime contractors at the Hanford Site. One is operated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and the other is operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). Only the WHC collection contained information relevant to a study of the Columbia River in the time frame of interest: January 1, 1973 through June 20, 1994. A list of the classified documents in the WHC collection is maintained in the WHC Classified Document Control database. The WHC Classified Document Control database was searched. The search criteria were the dates of interest and the basic keywords used for the CRCIA Project`s data compendium (Eslinger et al. 1994). All Hanford-generated, Hanford-related entries that were applicable to the CRCIA Project and the dates of interest were provided. The resulting list of 477 titles comprises the Appendix of this report. The information give for each title is exactly as it appears in the database. Any inconsistencies are the result of duplicating the database.

  9. Natural biopolimers in organic food packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieczynska, Justyna; Cavoski, Ivana; Chami, Ziad Al; Mondelli, Donato; Di Donato, Paola; Di Terlizzi, Biagio

    2014-05-01

    Concerns on environmental and waste problems caused by use of non-biodegradable and non-renewable based plastic packaging have caused an increase interest in developing biodegradable packaging using renewable natural biopolymers. Recently, different types of biopolymers like starch, cellulose, chitosan, casein, whey protein, collagen, egg white, soybean protein, corn zein, gelatin and wheat gluten have attracted considerable attention as potential food packaging materials. Recyclable or biodegradable packaging material in organic processing standards is preferable where possible but specific principles of packaging are not precisely defined and standards have to be assessed. There is evidence that consumers of organic products have specific expectations not only with respect to quality characteristics of processed food but also in social and environmental aspects of food production. Growing consumer sophistication is leading to a proliferation in food eco-label like carbon footprint. Biopolymers based packaging for organic products can help to create a green industry. Moreover, biopolymers can be appropriate materials for the development of an active surfaces designed to deliver incorporated natural antimicrobials into environment surrounding packaged food. Active packaging is an innovative mode of packaging in which the product and the environment interact to prolong shelf life or enhance safety or sensory properties, while maintaining the quality of the product. The work will discuss the various techniques that have been used for development of an active antimicrobial biodegradable packaging materials focusing on a recent findings in research studies. With the current focus on exploring a new generation of biopolymer-based food packaging materials with possible applications in organic food packaging. Keywords: organic food, active packaging, biopolymers , green technology

  10. Socioeconomic Impact Assessment: Communications Industry. Phase I. Description and Documentation of the Current State-of-the-Art. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-22

    project, for a two-year duration, is expected to ac- complish the following objectives: o To forecast the state of the art in communications technology...to the year 2000; o To forecast the diffusion of these developments into generic aviation communication systems to the year 2020; o To assess the...impact of the forecasted aviation communi- cations system developments; and o To develop a set of policy options which may be appro- priate for FAA

  11. Consensus document. Recommendations on assessing proteinuria during the diagnosis and follow-up of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Montañés Bermúdez, R; Gràcia García, S; Pérez Surribas, D; Martínez Castelao, A; Bover Sanjuán, J

    2011-01-01

    The presence of persistently elevated urinary concentrations of protein or albumin is considered a sign of kidney damage. The diagnosis and staging of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is nowadays based upon the presence of signs of kidney damage together with the estimation of the glomerular filtration rate.The presence of either proteinuria or albuminuria identifies a group of patients with higher risk of CKD progression and higher cardiovascular risk. Treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers,for instance, decreases both the progression of CKD and the incidence of cardiovascular events and death in patients with CKD and proteinuria. Thus, proteinuria is currently considered a therapeutic target by itself. Despite of the importance of detecting and monitoring proteinuria in the diagnosis and follow-up of CKD, there is not a consensus among the clinical practice guidelines published by different scientific societies on the diagnostic cut-off levels, on different sampling procedures,on the units used in laboratory reports or just on whether it should be defined in terms of albumin or proteinuria. The goal of this document, created by the consensus of the Spanish Society of Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Pathology(SEQC, representing its spanish acronym) and the Spanish Society of Nephrology (S.E.N.), is to recommend to medical and laboratory clinicians appropriate guidelines for the detection and monitorization of proteinuria as a marker of CKD in adults and children. These recommendations result from searching,evaluating and summarizing current scientific evidence published in the last years.

  12. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-06-13

    This procedure provides instructions for assembling the CH Packaging Drum payload assembly, Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly, Abnormal Operations and ICV and OCV Preshipment Leakage Rate Tests on the packaging seals, using a nondestructive Helium (He) Leak Test.

  13. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Antonini, David

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a comparative packaging study for use on long duration space missions. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Deliverables; 3) Food Sample Selection; 4) Experimental Design Matrix; 5) Permeation Rate Comparison; and 6) Packaging Material Information.

  14. ADVANCED ELECTRONIC PACKAGING TECHNIQUES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    MICROMINIATURIZATION (ELECTRONICS), *PACKAGED CIRCUITS, CIRCUITS, EXPERIMENTAL DATA, MANUFACTURING, NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING, RESISTANCE (ELECTRICAL), SEMICONDUCTORS, TESTS, THIN FILMS (STORAGE DEVICES), WELDING.

  15. Capacity assessment of selected health care facilities for the pilot implementation of Package for Essential Non-communicable Diseases (PEN) intervention in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Nyarko, Kofi Mensah; Ameme, Donne Kofi; Ocansey, Dennis; Commeh, Efua; Markwei, Mehitabel Tori; Ohene, Sally-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) continue to pose threats to human health and development worldwide. Though preventable, NCDs kill more people annually than all other diseases combined. The four major NCDs namely cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes and cancers share common modifiable risk factors. In order to prevent and control NCDs, Ghana has adopted the World Health Organisation Package for Essential NCD (WHO-PEN) intervention, to be piloted in selected districts before a nationwide scale-up. We assessed the capacity of these facilities for the implementation of the WHO-PEN pilot. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional health facility-based survey using a multistage sampling technique. We collected data on human resource, equipment, service utilization, medicines availability and health financing through interviews and observation. Descriptive data analysis was performed and expressed in frequencies and relative frequencies. Results In all, 23 health facilities comprising two regional hospitals, three district hospitals, nine health centres and nine Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) compounds from three regions were surveyed. All the hospitals had medical officers whilst 4 (44.4%) of the health centres had physician assistants. Health financing is mainly by the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS). None of the health facilities had spacers and only one health centre had oxygen cylinder, glucometer and nebulizer. Conclusion Gaps exist in the human resource capacity and service delivery at the primary care levels, the focus of WHO-PEN intervention. Adequately equipping the primary health care level with trained health workers, basic equipment, medications and diagnostics will optimize the performance of WHO-PEN intervention when implemented. PMID:28149441

  16. Trends in Food Packaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Dana B.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses developments in food packaging, processing, and preservation techniques in terms of packaging materials, technologies, consumer benefits, and current and potential food product applications. Covers implications due to consumer life-style changes, cost-effectiveness of packaging materials, and the ecological impact of…

  17. Documenting Early Science Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jacqueline; Courtney, Rosalea

    2002-01-01

    Three principles that guide documentation and assessment of children's early science understanding are: collect a variety of forms of evidence, collect evidence over a period of time, and collect evidence on the understanding of groups of children as well as individuals. Information and insights gained from this process help teachers plan future…

  18. Surface attachment of active antimicrobial coatings onto conventional plastic-based laminates and performance assessment of these materials on the storage life of vacuum packaged beef sub-primals.

    PubMed

    Clarke, David; Tyuftin, Andrey A; Cruz-Romero, Malco C; Bolton, Declan; Fanning, Seamus; Pankaj, Shashi K; Bueno-Ferrer, Carmen; Cullen, Patrick J; Kerry, Joe P

    2017-04-01

    Two antimicrobial coatings, namely Sodium octanoate and Auranta FV (a commercial antimicrobial composed of bioflavonoids, citric, malic, lactic, and caprylic acids) were used. These two antimicrobials were surface coated onto the inner polyethylene layer of cold plasma treated polyamide films using beef gelatin as a carrier and coating polymer. This packaging material was then used to vacuum pack beef sub-primal cuts and stored at 4 °C. A control was prepared using the non-coated commercial laminate and the same vacuum packaged sub-primal beef cuts. During storage, microbial and quality assessments were carried out. Sodium octanoate treated packages significantly (p < 0.05) reduced microbial counts for all bacteria tested with an increase of 7 and 14 days, respectively compared to control samples. No significant effect on pH was observed with any treatment. The results suggested that these food grade antimicrobials have the potential to be used in antimicrobial active packaging applications for beef products.

  19. Orbitmpi Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa L. Lowe

    2000-10-05

    Orbitmpi is a parallelized version of Roscoe White's Orbit code. The code has been parallelized using MPI, which makes it portable to many types of machines. The guidelines used for the parallelization were to increase code performance with minimal changes to the code's original structure. This document gives a general description of how the parallel sections of the code run. It discusses the changes made to the original code and comments on the general procedure for future additions to Orbitmpi, as well as describing the effects of a parallelized random number generator on the code's output. Finally, the scaling results from Hecate and from Puffin are presented. Hecate is a 64-processor Origin 2000 machine, with MIPS R12000 processors and 16GB of memory, and Puffin is a PC cluster with 9 dual-processor 450 MHz Pentium III (18 processors max.), with 100Mbits ethernet communication.

  20. Neural Network Simulation Package from Ohio State University

    SciTech Connect

    Wickham, K.L.

    1990-08-01

    This report describes the Neural Network Simulation Package acquired from Ohio State University. The package known as Neural Shell V2.1 was evaluated and benchmarked at the INEL Supercomputing Center (ISC). The emphasis was on the Back Propagation Net which is currently considered one of the more promising types of neural networks. This report also provides additional documentation that may be helpful to anyone using the package.

  1. Designing an Electronics Data Package for Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    package to help avoid errors and rework . II. PCB DATA PACKAGE REQUIREMENTS LIST The technical data package is comprised of documentation including an...Memory Card International Association)  IPC-6015 MCM-L (Multi-Chip Module – Laminated )  IPC-6016 HDI (High Density Interconnect)  IPC-6018...Interconnect ICT In Circuit Tester IPC Association Connecting Electronics Industries MCM-L Multi-Chip Module – Laminated MIL Military NEMA National

  2. Environmental assessment for the transfer of the DP Road tract to the County of Los Alamos. Final document

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-23

    The purpose of an Environmental Assessment (EA) is to provide the DOE with sufficient evidence and analysis to determine whether to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) or a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). Additional considerations (such as costs, timing, or non-environmental legal issues) that influence DOE decisions are not analyzed in this EA. As part of its initiative to fulfill its responsibilities to provide support for the County of Los Alamos (the County), in northern New Mexico, the US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to transfer ownership of the undeveloped, so called, DP Road property to the County. Transfer of this tract would permanently reduce the size of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) by approximately 0.1%. Approximately 12 hectares (28 acres) would be changed from an undeveloped to a developed status. This would result in an equivalent loss of wildlife habitat. A hypothetical accident was analyzed that evaluated potential radiological dose to the public at the DP Road tract from LANL operations. The dose to the hypothetical worker population of 450 new employees could result in an increase of approximately three latent cancer fatalities in the population. The DOE finds that there would be no significant impact from proceeding with the transfer of the 28-acre tract for development and use as a business park or for light industrial purposes.

  3. Environmental assessment for the proposed CMR Building upgrades at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico. Final document

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-04

    In order to maintain its ability to continue to conduct uninterrupted radioactive and metallurgical research in a safe, secure, and environmentally sound manner, the US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to upgrade the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Building. The building was built in the early 1950s to provide a research and experimental facility for analytical chemistry, plutonium and uranium chemistry, and metallurgy. Today, research and development activities are performed involving nuclear materials. A variety of radioactive and chemical hazards are present. The CMR Building is nearing the end of its original design life and does not meet many of today`s design codes and standards. The Proposed Action for this Environmental Assessment (EA) includes structural modifications to some portions of the CMR Building which do not meet current seismic criteria for a Hazard Category 2 Facility. Also included are upgrades and improvements in building ventilation, communications, monitoring, and fire protection systems. This EA analyzes the environmental effects of construction of the proposed upgrades. The Proposed Action will have no adverse effects upon agricultural and cultural resources, wetlands and floodplains, endangered and threatened species, recreational resources, or water resources. The Proposed Action would have negligible effects on human health and transportation, and would not pose a disproportionate adverse health or environmental impact on minority or low-income populations within an 80 kilometer (50 mile) radius of the CMR Building.

  4. Assessing direct analysis in real-time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) for the rapid identification of additives in food packaging.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, L K; Noonan, G O; Begley, T H

    2009-12-01

    The ambient ionization technique direct analysis in real time (DART) was characterized and evaluated for the screening of food packaging for the presence of packaging additives using a benchtop mass spectrometer (MS). Approximate optimum conditions were determined for 13 common food-packaging additives, including plasticizers, anti-oxidants, colorants, grease-proofers, and ultraviolet light stabilizers. Method sensitivity and linearity were evaluated using solutions and characterized polymer samples. Additionally, the response of a model additive (di-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate) was examined across a range of sample positions, DART, and MS conditions (temperature, voltage and helium flow). Under optimal conditions, molecular ion (M+H+) was the major ion for most additives. Additive responses were highly sensitive to sample and DART source orientation, as well as to DART flow rates, temperatures, and MS inlet voltages, respectively. DART-MS response was neither consistently linear nor quantitative in this setting, and sensitivity varied by additive. All additives studied were rapidly identified in multiple food-packaging materials by DART-MS/MS, suggesting this technique can be used to screen food packaging rapidly. However, method sensitivity and quantitation requires further study and improvement.

  5. Horizontal Drop of 21- PWR Waste Package

    SciTech Connect

    A.K. Scheider

    2007-01-31

    The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of the waste package (WP) dropped horizontally from a specified height. The WP used for that purpose is the 21-Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) WP. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in-terms of stress intensities. This calculation is associated with the WP design and was performed by the Waste Package Design group in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Waste Package Design Description for LA'' (Ref. 16). AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'' (Ref. 1 1) is used to perform the calculation and develop the document. The sketches attached to this calculation provide the potential dimensions and materials for the 21-PWR WP design.

  6. Updated Guidelines for Training Package Developers. Australia's National Training Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian National Training Authority, Melbourne.

    This document contains the latest guidelines for developing nationally endorsed training packages for use in Australia's system of vocational education and training (VET). Discussed in section A are the following aspects of the context in which the training packages emerged: development of the National Training Framework and associated new…

  7. Edible packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications.

  8. Performance-oriented packaging: A guide to identifying, procuring, and using. Procurement and use of packaging using HM-181 regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This document addresses procurement of nonbulk packaging used for nonradioactive, hazardous materials that are transported by highway. The basic procedure is the same when making shipments by other modes. However, other sections of the regulations may affect the packaging requirements when shipping by other modes. The variation in requirements is extensive when air transportation is selected. A packaging engineer or transportation specialist should be contacted for guidance wen transport is by a mode other than highway.

  9. ALPS: Advanced Learning Packages, 1978-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Juan Unified School District, Carmichael, CA.

    The document describes the ALPS (Advanced Learning Packages) program for teaching gifted students. Introductory materials provide information on teacher requirements, school requirements, ALPS teacher orientation responsibilities, orientation week, field trip procedures, gifted money available, ALPS costs, ALPS evaluations, the Structure of…

  10. Cleanup Verification Package for the 300-8 Waste Site

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2005-11-07

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 300-8 waste site. This waste site was formerly used to stage scrap metal from the 300 Area in support of a program to recycle aluminum.

  11. Cleanup Verification Package for the 300-18 Waste Site

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2005-08-26

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 300-18 waste site. This site was identified as containing radiologically contaminated soil, metal shavings, nuts, bolts, and concrete.

  12. ExactPack Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, Jr., Robert; Israel, Daniel M.; Doebling, Scott William; Woods, Charles Nathan; Kaul, Ann; Walter, Jr., John William; Rogers, Michael Lloyd

    2016-05-09

    For code verification, one compares the code output against known exact solutions. There are many standard test problems used in this capacity, such as the Noh and Sedov problems. ExactPack is a utility that integrates many of these exact solution codes into a common API (application program interface), and can be used as a stand-alone code or as a python package. ExactPack consists of python driver scripts that access a library of exact solutions written in Fortran or Python. The spatial profiles of the relevant physical quantities, such as the density, fluid velocity, sound speed, or internal energy, are returned at a time specified by the user. The solution profiles can be viewed and examined by a command line interface or a graphical user interface, and a number of analysis tools and unit tests are also provided. We have documented the physics of each problem in the solution library, and provided complete documentation on how to extend the library to include additional exact solutions. ExactPack’s code architecture makes it easy to extend the solution-code library to include additional exact solutions in a robust, reliable, and maintainable manner.

  13. Environmental Assessment for Electrical Power System Upgrades at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico - Final Document

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2000-03-09

    The ''National Environmental Policy Act of 1969'' (NEPA) requires Federal agency officials to consider the environmental consequences of their proposed actions before decisions are made. In complying with NEPA, the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) follows the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 1500-1508) and DOE's NEPA implementing procedures (10 CFR 1021). The purpose of an Environmental Assessment (EA) is to provide Federal decision makers with sufficient evidence and analysis to determine whether to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) or issue a Finding of No Significant Impact. In this case, the DOE decision to be made is whether to construct and operate a 19.5-mile (mi) (31-kilometer [km]) electric transmission line (power line) reaching from the Norton Substation, west across the Rio Grande, to locations within the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Technical Areas (TAs) 3 and 5 at Los Alamos, New Mexico. The construction of one electric substation at LANL would be included in the project as would the construction of two line segments less than 1,200 feet (ft) (366 meters [m]) long that would allow for the uncrossing of a portion of two existing power lines. Additionally, a fiber optics communications line would be included and installed concurrently as part of the required overhead ground conductor for the power line. The new power line would improve the reliability of electric service in the LANL and Los Aktrnos County areas as would the uncrossing of the crossed segments of the existing lines. Additionally, installation of the new power line would enable the LANL and the Los Alamos County electric grid, which is a shared resource, to be adapted to accommodate the future import of increased power when additional power service becomes available in the northern New Mexico area. Similarly, the fiber optics line would allow DOE to take advantage of future opportunities in

  14. North Portal Fuel Storage System Fire Hazard Analysis-ESF Surface Design Package ID

    SciTech Connect

    N.M. Ruonavaara

    1995-01-18

    The purpose of the fire hazard analysis is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire within the individual fire areas. This document will only assess the fire hazard analysis within the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Design Package ID, which includes the fuel storage system area of the North Portal facility, and evaluate whether the following objectives are met: 1.1.1--This analysis, performed in accordance with the requirements of this document, will satisfy the requirements for a fire hazard analysis in accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.7A. 1.1.2--Ensure that property damage from fire and related perils does not exceed an acceptable level. 1.1.3--Provide input to the ESF Basis For Design (BFD) Document. 1.1.4 Provide input to the facility Safety Analysis Report (SAR) (Paragraph 3.8).

  15. Assessment of Adverse Events in Protocols, Clinical Study Reports, and Published Papers of Trials of Orlistat: A Document Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schroll, Jeppe Bennekou; Penninga, Elisabeth I.; Gøtzsche, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about how adverse events are summarised and reported in trials, as detailed information is usually considered confidential. We have acquired clinical study reports (CSRs) from the European Medicines Agency through the Freedom of Information Act. The CSRs describe the results of studies conducted as part of the application for marketing authorisation for the slimming pill orlistat. The purpose of this study was to study how adverse events were summarised and reported in study protocols, CSRs, and published papers of orlistat trials. Methods and Findings We received the CSRs from seven randomised placebo controlled orlistat trials (4,225 participants) submitted by Roche. The CSRs consisted of 8,716 pages and included protocols. Two researchers independently extracted data on adverse events from protocols and CSRs. Corresponding published papers were identified on PubMed and adverse event data were extracted from this source as well. All three sources were compared. Individual adverse events from one trial were summed and compared to the totals in the summary report. None of the protocols or CSRs contained instructions for investigators on how to question participants about adverse events. In CSRs, gastrointestinal adverse events were only coded if the participant reported that they were “bothersome,” a condition that was not specified in the protocol for two of the trials. Serious adverse events were assessed for relationship to the drug by the sponsor, and all adverse events were coded by the sponsor using a glossary that could be updated by the sponsor. The criteria for withdrawal due to adverse events were in one case related to efficacy (high fasting glucose led to withdrawal), which meant that one trial had more withdrawals due to adverse events in the placebo group. Finally, only between 3% and 33% of the total number of investigator-reported adverse events from the trials were reported in the publications because of post hoc

  16. Omega documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Howerton, R.J.; Dye, R.E.; Giles, P.C.; Kimlinger, J.R.; Perkins, S.T.; Plechaty, E.F.

    1983-08-01

    OMEGA is a CRAY I computer program that controls nine codes used by LLNL Physical Data Group for: 1) updating the libraries of evaluated data maintained by the group (UPDATE); 2) calculating average values of energy deposited in secondary particles and residual nuclei (ENDEP); 3) checking the libraries for internal consistency, especially for energy conservation (GAMCHK); 4) producing listings, indexes and plots of the library data (UTILITY); 5) producing calculational constants such as group averaged cross sections and transfer matrices for diffusion and Sn transport codes (CLYDE); 6) producing and updating standard files of the calculational constants used by LLNL Sn and diffusion transport codes (NDFL); 7) producing calculational constants for Monte Carlo transport codes that use group-averaged cross sections and continuous energy for particles (CTART); 8) producing and updating standard files used by the LLNL Monte Carlo transport codes (TRTL); and 9) producing standard files used by the LANL pointwise Monte Carlo transport code MCNP (MCPOINT). The first four of these functions and codes deal with the libraries of evaluated data and the last five with various aspects of producing calculational constants for use by transport codes. In 1970 a series, called PD memos, of internal and informal memoranda was begun. These were intended to be circulated among the group for comment and then to provide documentation for later reference whenever questions arose about the subject matter of the memos. They have served this purpose and now will be drawn upon as source material for this more comprehensive report that deals with most of the matters covered in those memos.

  17. BatTool: an R package with GUI for assessing the effect of White-nose syndrome and other take events on Myotis spp. of bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erickson, Richard A.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Szymanski, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Myotis species of bats such as the Indiana Bat and Little Brown Bat are facing population declines because of White-nose syndrome (WNS). These species also face threats from anthropogenic activities such as wind energy development. Population models may be used to provide insights into threats facing these species. We developed a population model, BatTool, as an R package to help decision makers and natural resource managers examine factors influencing the dynamics of these species. The R package includes two components: 1) a deterministic and stochastic model that are accessible from the command line and 2) a graphical user interface (GUI). Results: BatTool is an R package allowing natural resource managers and decision makers to understand Myotis spp. population dynamics. Through the use of a GUI, the model allows users to understand how WNS and other take events may affect the population. The results are saved both graphically and as data files. Additionally, R-savvy users may access the population functions through the command line and reuse the code as part of future research. This R package could also be used as part of a population dynamics or wildlife management course. Conclusions: BatTool provides access to a Myotis spp. population model. This tool can help natural resource managers and decision makers with the Endangered Species Act deliberations for these species and with issuing take permits as part of regulatory decision making. The tool is available online as part of this publication.

  18. BatTool: an R package with GUI for assessing the effect of White-nose syndrome and other take events on Myotis spp. of bats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Myotis species of bats such as the Indiana Bat and Little Brown Bat are facing population declines because of White-nose syndrome (WNS). These species also face threats from anthropogenic activities such as wind energy development. Population models may be used to provide insights into threats facing these species. We developed a population model, BatTool, as an R package to help decision makers and natural resource managers examine factors influencing the dynamics of these species. The R package includes two components: 1) a deterministic and stochastic model that are accessible from the command line and 2) a graphical user interface (GUI). Results BatTool is an R package allowing natural resource managers and decision makers to understand Myotis spp. population dynamics. Through the use of a GUI, the model allows users to understand how WNS and other take events may affect the population. The results are saved both graphically and as data files. Additionally, R-savvy users may access the population functions through the command line and reuse the code as part of future research. This R package could also be used as part of a population dynamics or wildlife management course. Conclusions BatTool provides access to a Myotis spp. population model. This tool can help natural resource managers and decision makers with the Endangered Species Act deliberations for these species and with issuing take permits as part of regulatory decision making. The tool is available online as part of this publication. PMID:24955110

  19. Contamination of packaged food by substances migrating from a direct-contact plastic layer: Assessment using a generic quantitative household scale methodology.

    PubMed

    Vitrac, Olivier; Challe, Blandine; Leblanc, Jean-Charles; Feigenbaum, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    The contamination risk in 12 packaged foods by substances released from the plastic contact layer has been evaluated using a novel modeling technique, which predicts the migration that accounts for (i) possible variations in the time of contact between foodstuffs and packaging and (ii) uncertainty in physico-chemical parameters used to predict migration. Contamination data, which are subject to variability and uncertainty, are derived through a stochastic resolution of transport equations, which control the migration into food. Distributions of contact times between packaging materials and foodstuffs were reconstructed from the volumes and frequencies of purchases of a given panel of 6422 households, making assumptions about household storage behaviour. The risk of contamination of the packaged foods was estimated for styrene (a monomer found in polystyrene yogurt pots) and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene (a representative of the widely used phenolic antioxidants). The results are analysed and discussed regarding sensitivity of the model to the set parameters and chosen assumptions.

  20. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS FOR THE FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM - ESF PACKAGE 1E

    SciTech Connect

    N.M. Ruonavaara

    1995-04-12

    The purpose of the fire hazards analysis is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas in accordance with US. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.7h (Reference 4.4.7.4). This document will assess the fire hazard risk within the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) fuel supply system, Package 1E, and evaluate whether the following objectives are met: (1) Ensure that property damage from fire and related perils do not exceed an acceptable level. (2) Provide input to the facility Safety Analysis Report (SAR).

  1. Smart packaging for photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.; Carson, R.F.; Sullivan, C.T.; McClellan, G.; Palmer, D.W.

    1997-09-01

    Unlike silicon microelectronics, photonics packaging has proven to be low yield and expensive. One approach to make photonics packaging practical for low cost applications is the use of {open_quotes}smart{close_quotes} packages. {open_quotes}Smart{close_quotes} in this context means the ability of the package to actuate a mechanical change based on either a measurement taken by the package itself or by an input signal based on an external measurement. One avenue of smart photonics packaging, the use of polysilicon micromechanical devices integrated with photonic waveguides, was investigated in this research (LDRD 3505.340). The integration of optical components with polysilicon surface micromechanical actuation mechanisms shows significant promise for signal switching, fiber alignment, and optical sensing applications. The optical and stress properties of the oxides and nitrides considered for optical waveguides and how they are integrated with micromechanical devices were investigated.

  2. Automating clinical dietetics documentation.

    PubMed

    Grace-Farfaglia, P; Rosow, P

    1995-06-01

    A review of commonly used charting formats discussed in the dietetics literature revealed that the subjective, objective assessment and planning (SOAP) approach is most frequently used by dietitians. Formats reported in the nursing literature were charting by exception (CBE); problem, intervention, evaluation (PIE); and focus/data, action, response (Focus/DAR). The strengths and weaknesses of the charting styles as they apply to the needs of clinical dietetic specialists were reviewed. We then decided to test in house the Focus/DAR format by assessing chart entries for adherence to style, brevity, and physician response. Dietitians pilot tested all the methods, but found them time consuming to use. The consensus was that SOAP could be adapted to the documentation needs of the individual situation and required little additional staff training. Often because of time limitations, a narrative summary was most appropriate. Chart entry length was reduced as much as 200% when staff were given brief clinical communication as a goal, and a further reduction when line limits were imposed. The physician response was positive, with recommendations followed in 50% of charts, compared with 34% in a previous audit. A nutrition documentation system was developed by the researchers by reviewing medical chart structure, documentation standards, methods of risk identification, and terminology for clinical documentation style. The resulting system affected the decision making of physicians, who could now scan notes more quickly and implement nutrition recommendations in a more timely fashion.

  3. GENERAL PURPOSE ADA PACKAGES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Ten families of subprograms are bundled together for the General-Purpose Ada Packages. The families bring to Ada many features from HAL/S, PL/I, FORTRAN, and other languages. These families are: string subprograms (INDEX, TRIM, LOAD, etc.); scalar subprograms (MAX, MIN, REM, etc.); array subprograms (MAX, MIN, PROD, SUM, GET, and PUT); numerical subprograms (EXP, CUBIC, etc.); service subprograms (DATE_TIME function, etc.); Linear Algebra II; Runge-Kutta integrators; and three text I/O families of packages. In two cases, a family consists of a single non-generic package. In all other cases, a family comprises a generic package and its instances for a selected group of scalar types. All generic packages are designed to be easily instantiated for the types declared in the user facility. The linear algebra package is LINRAG2. This package includes subprograms supplementing those in NPO-17985, An Ada Linear Algebra Package Modeled After HAL/S (LINRAG). Please note that LINRAG2 cannot be compiled without LINRAG. Most packages have widespread applicability, although some are oriented for avionics applications. All are designed to facilitate writing new software in Ada. Several of the packages use conventions introduced by other programming languages. A package of string subprograms is based on HAL/S (a language designed for the avionics software in the Space Shuttle) and PL/I. Packages of scalar and array subprograms are taken from HAL/S or generalized current Ada subprograms. A package of Runge-Kutta integrators is patterned after a built-in MAC (MIT Algebraic Compiler) integrator. Those packages modeled after HAL/S make it easy to translate existing HAL/S software to Ada. The General-Purpose Ada Packages program source code is available on two 360K 5.25" MS-DOS format diskettes. The software was developed using VAX Ada v1.5 under DEC VMS v4.5. It should be portable to any validated Ada compiler and it should execute either interactively or in batch. The largest package

  4. The ZOOM minimization package

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, Mark S.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

  5. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers including draft environmental assessment, regulatory impact analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-12) and by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Amendments of 1988 (P.L. 100-357), and by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486), provides energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products` covered by the Act, and authorizes the Secretary of Energy to prescribe amended or new energy standards for each type (or class) of covered product. The assessment of the proposed standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers presented in this document is designed to evaluate their economic impacts according to the criteria in the Act. It includes an engineering analysis of the cost and performance of design options to improve the efficiency of the products; forecasts of the number and average efficiency of products sold, the amount of energy the products will consume, and their prices and operating expenses; a determination of change in investment, revenues, and costs to manufacturers of the products; a calculation of the costs and benefits to consumers, electric utilities, and the nation as a whole; and an assessment of the environmental impacts of the proposed standards.

  6. ProUCL version 4.1.00 Documentation Downloads

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ProUCL version 4.1.00 represents a comprehensive statistical software package equipped with statistical methods and graphical tools needed to address many environmental sampling and statistical issues as described in various these guidance documents.

  7. Number of Waste Package Hit by Igneous Intrusion

    SciTech Connect

    M. Wallace

    2004-10-13

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report is to document calculations of the number of waste packages that could be damaged in a potential future igneous event through a repository at Yucca Mountain. The analyses include disruption from an intrusive igneous event and from an extrusive volcanic event. This analysis supports the evaluation of the potential consequences of future igneous activity as part of the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). Igneous activity is a disruptive event that is included in the TSPA-LA analyses. Two igneous activity scenarios are considered: (1) The igneous intrusion groundwater release scenario (also called the igneous intrusion scenario) considers the in situ damage to waste packages or failure of waste packages that occurs if they are engulfed or otherwise affected by magma as a result of an igneous intrusion. (2) The volcanic eruption scenario depicts the direct release of radioactive waste due to an intrusion that intersects the repository followed by a volcanic eruption at the surface. An igneous intrusion is defined as the ascent of a basaltic dike or dike system (i.e., a set or swarm of multiple dikes comprising a single intrusive event) to repository level, where it intersects drifts. Magma that does reach the surface from igneous activity is an eruption (or extrusive activity) (Jackson 1997 [DIRS 109119], pp. 224, 333). The objective of this analysis is to develop a probabilistic measure of the number of waste packages that could be affected by each of the two scenarios.

  8. The Role of Packaging in Solid Waste Management 1966 to 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darnay, Arsen; Franklin, William E.

    The goals of waste processors and packagers obviously differ: the packaging industry seeks durable container material that will be unimpaired by external factors. Until recently, no systematic analysis of the relationship between packaging and solid waste disposal had been undertaken. This three-part document defines these interactions, and the…

  9. Energy Savings Measure Packages. Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Sean; Booten, Chuck

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the United States. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home; this typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  10. Energy Savings Measure Packages: Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, S.; Booten, C.

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the US. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for given source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home. The dollar value of the maximum annual savings varies significantly by location but typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  11. Readability of Documentation for End User Searchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Debora

    1989-01-01

    Describes a study that analyzed the readability of documentation designed for physicians searching the Physician's Data Query cancer database, using the readability formulas in AT&T's Writer's Workbench software package. The results of the analysis are discussed and suggestions for future research are made. (20 references) (CLB)

  12. Public health assessment for Packaging Corporation of America, Filer City, Manistee County, Michigan, Region 5, Cerclis No. MID980794747. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-19

    The Packaging Corporation of America site located in Stronach Township, Manistee County, Michigan, was the site of eight lagoons used from 1951 to 1974 for the disposal of liquid wastes from a Packaging Corporation of America corrugated cardboard plant in nearby Filer City, Michigan. Wastes from the lagoons have seeped into the groundwater and produced a plume of discolored groundwater (black water), that contains organic chemicals and heavy metals, that extends from the site to nearby Manistee Lake. The site poses an indeterminate public health hazard under current conditions, since actual surface material has not been sampled. Based on the results of shallow sub-surface soil samples, trespassers are not likely to experience significant exposure to the chemicals on the site.

  13. Developing Large CAI Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Mary Jac M.; Smith, Lynn H.

    1983-01-01

    When developing large computer-assisted instructional (CAI) courseware packages, it is suggested that there be more attentive planning to the overall package design before actual lesson development is begun. This process has been simplified by modifying the systems approach used to develop single CAI lessons, followed by planning for the…

  14. Project Information Packages: Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RMC Research Corp., Mountain View, CA.

    This brochure describes a new series of Project Information Packages, a U.S. Office of Education response to the need for a systematic approach to disseminating exemplary projects. The packages describe procedures for developing the necessary administrative support and management framework, as well as instructional methods and techniques. The six…

  15. Packaging issues: avoiding delamination.

    PubMed

    Hall, R

    2005-10-01

    Manufacturers can minimise delamination occurrence by applying the appropriate packaging design and process features. The end user can minimise the impact of fibre tear and reduce subsequent delamination by careful package opening. The occasional inconvenient delamination is a small price to pay for the high level of sterility assurance that comes with the use of Tyvek.

  16. Investigations into High Temperature Components and Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Marlino, L.D.; Seiber, L.E.; Scudiere, M.B.; M.S. Chinthavali, M.S.; McCluskey, F.P.

    2007-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to document the work that was performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of the development of high temperature power electronics and components with monies remaining from the Semikron High Temperature Inverter Project managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). High temperature electronic components are needed to allow inverters to operate in more extreme operating conditions as required in advanced traction drive applications. The trend to try to eliminate secondary cooling loops and utilize the internal combustion (IC) cooling system, which operates with approximately 105 C water/ethylene glycol coolant at the output of the radiator, is necessary to further reduce vehicle costs and weight. The activity documented in this report includes development and testing of high temperature components, activities in support of high temperature testing, an assessment of several component packaging methods, and how elevated operating temperatures would impact their reliability. This report is organized with testing of new high temperature capacitors in Section 2 and testing of new 150 C junction temperature trench insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBTs) in Section 3. Section 4 addresses some operational OPAL-GT information, which was necessary for developing module level tests. Section 5 summarizes calibration of equipment needed for the high temperature testing. Section 6 details some additional work that was funded on silicon carbide (SiC) device testing for high temperature use, and Section 7 is the complete text of a report funded from this effort summarizing packaging methods and their reliability issues for use in high temperature power electronics. Components were tested to evaluate the performance characteristics of the component at different operating temperatures. The temperature of the component is determined by the ambient temperature (i.e., temperature surrounding the device) plus the

  17. Asymptotic cost in document conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blostein, Dorothea; Nagy, George

    2012-01-01

    In spite of a hundredfold decrease in the cost of relevant technologies, the role of document image processing systems is gradually declining due to the transition to an on-line world. Nevertheless, in some high-volume applications, document image processing software still saves millions of dollars by accelerating workflow, and similarly large savings could be realized by more effective automation of the multitude of low-volume personal document conversions. While potential cost savings, based on estimates of costs and values, are a driving force for new developments, quantifying such savings is difficult. The most important trend is that the cost of computing resources for DIA is becoming insignificant compared to the associated labor costs. An econometric treatment of document processing complements traditional performance evaluation, which focuses on assessing the correctness of the results produced by document conversion software. Researchers should look beyond the error rate for advancing both production and personal document conversion.

  18. Packaging Concerns/Techniques for Large Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews packaging challenges and options for electronic parts. The presentation includes information about non-hermetic packages, space challenges for packaging and complex package variations.

  19. Performance and completion assessment of an in-situ aerated municipal solid waste landfill - Final scientific documentation of an Austrian case study.

    PubMed

    Hrad, Marlies; Huber-Humer, Marion

    2016-08-23

    By converting anaerobic landfills into a biologically stabilized state through accelerating aerobic organic matter degradation, the effort and duration necessary for post-closure procedures can be shortened. In Austria, the first full-scale application of in-situ landfill aeration by means of low pressure air injection with simultaneous off-gas collection and treatment was implemented on an old MSW-landfill and operated between 2007 and 2013. Besides complementary laboratory investigations, which included waste sampling from the landfill site prior to aeration start, a comprehensive field monitoring program was conducted to assess the influence of the aeration measure on the emission behavior of the landfilled waste during the aeration period as well as after aeration completion. Although the initial waste material was described as rather stable, the lab-scale aeration tests indicated a significant improvement of the leachate quality and even the biological solid waste stability. However, the aeration success was less pronounced for the application at the landfill site, mainly due to technical limitations in the full-scale operation. In this paper main performance data of the field investigation are compared to four other scientifically documented case studies along with stability indicators for solid waste and leachate characteristics in order to evaluate the success of aeration as well as the progress of a landfill towards completion and end of post-closure care. A number of quantitative benchmarks and relevant context information for the performance assessment of the five hitherto conducted international aeration projects are proposed aiming to support the systematization and harmonization of available results from diverse field studies and full-scale applications in future.

  20. Document Update and Compare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoch, C. F.; Caldwell, D. C.; Caldwell, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    Document Update and Compare programs provide simple computerized documentmaintenance system on Data General NOVA 840 computer. Document Update program allows user to update document either by batch or terminal input. Documents are modified and lists of modifications printed out.

  1. An assessment of the status and trends in satellite communications 1986-2000: An information document prepared for the Communications Subcommittee of the Space Applications Advisory Committee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poley, W. A.; Stevens, G. H.; Stevenson, S. M.; Lekan, J.; Arth, C. H.; Hollansworth, J. E.; Miller, E. F.

    1986-01-01

    This is a response to a Space Applications Advisory Committee (SAAC) request for information about the status and trends in satellite communications, to be used to support efforts to conceive and recommend long range goals for NASA communications activities. Included in this document are assessments of: (1) the outlook for satellite communications, including current applications, potential future applications, and impact of the changing environment such as optical fiber networks, the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) standard, and the rapidly growing market for Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSAT); (2) the restrictions imposed by our limited spectrum resource; and (3) technology needs indicated by future trends. Potential future systems discussed include: large powerful satellites for providing personal communications; VSAT compatible satellites with onboard switching and having voice capability; large satellites which offer a pervasive T1 network service (primarily for video-phone); and large geostationary communications facilities which support common use by several carriers. Also, discussion is included of NASA particular needs and possible future systems. Based on the mentioned system concepts, specific technology recommendations are provided for the time frames of now - 1993, 1994 - 2000, and 2000 - 2010.

  2. BALLISTICS TESTING OF THE 9977 SHIPPING PACKAGE FOR STORAGE APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Loftin, B.; Abramczyk, G.; Koenig, R.

    2012-06-06

    Radioactive materials are stored in a variety of locations throughout the DOE complex. At the Savannah River Site (SRS), materials are stored within dedicated facilities. Each of those facilities has a documented safety analysis (DSA) that describes accidents that the facility and the materials within it may encounter. Facilities at the SRS are planning on utilizing the certified Model 9977 Shipping Package as a long term storage package and one of these facilities required ballistics testing. Specifically, in order to meet the facility DSA, the radioactive materials (RAM) must be contained within the storage package after impact by a .223 caliber round. In order to qualify the Model 9977 Shipping Package for storage in this location, the package had to be tested under these conditions. Over the past two years, the Model 9977 Shipping Package has been subjected to a series of ballistics tests. The purpose of the testing was to determine if the 9977 would be suitable for use as a storage package at a Savannah River Site facility. The facility requirements are that the package must not release any of its contents following the impact in its most vulnerable location by a .223 caliber round. A package, assembled to meet all of the design requirements for a certified 9977 shipping configuration and using simulated contents, was tested at the Savannah River Site in March of 2011. The testing was completed and the package was examined. The results of the testing and examination are presented in this paper.

  3. Compostability of bioplastic packaging materials: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kale, Gaurav; Kijchavengkul, Thitisilp; Auras, Rafael; Rubino, Maria; Selke, Susan E; Singh, Sher Paul

    2007-03-08

    Packaging waste accounted for 78.81 million tons or 31.6% of the total municipal solid waste (MSW) in 2003 in the USA, 56.3 million tons or 25% of the MSW in 2005 in Europe, and 3.3 million tons or 10% of the MSW in 2004 in Australia. Currently, in the USA the dominant method of packaging waste disposal is landfill, followed by recycling, incineration, and composting. Since landfill occupies valuable space and results in the generation of greenhouse gases and contaminants, recovery methods such as reuse, recycling and/or composting are encouraged as a way of reducing packaging waste disposal. Most of the common materials used in packaging (i.e., steel, aluminum, glass, paper, paperboard, plastics, and wood) can be efficiently recovered by recycling; however, if packaging materials are soiled with foods or other biological substances, physical recycling of these materials may be impractical. Therefore, composting some of these packaging materials is a promising way to reduce MSW. As biopolymers are developed and increasingly used in applications such as food, pharmaceutical, and consumer goods packaging, composting could become one of the prevailing methods for disposal of packaging waste provided that industry, governments, and consumers encourage and embrace this alternative. The main objective of this article is to provide an overview of the current situation of packaging compostability, to describe the main mechanisms that make a biopolymer compostable, to delineate the main methods to compost these biomaterials, and to explain the main standards for assessing compostability, and the current status of biopolymer labeling. Biopolymers such as polylactide and poly(hydroxybutyrate) are increasingly becoming available for use in food, medical, and consumer goods packaging applications. The main claims of these new biomaterials are that they are obtained from renewable resources and that they can be biodegraded in biological environments such as soil and compost

  4. Background studies in support of a feasibility assessment on the use of copper-base materials for nuclear waste packages in a repository in tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Kundig, K.J.A.; Lyman, W.S.; Prager, M.; Meyers, J.R.; Servi, I.S.

    1990-06-01

    This report combines six work units performed in FY`85--86 by the Copper Development Association and the International Copper Research Association under contract with the University of California. The work includes literature surveys and state-of-the-art summaries on several considerations influencing the feasibility of the use of copper-base materials for fabricating high-level nuclear waste packages for the proposed repository in tuff rock at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The general conclusion from this work was that copper-base materials are viable candidates for inclusion in the materials selection process for this application. 55 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  5. STRUMPACK -- STRUctured Matrices PACKage

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-01

    STRUMPACK - STRUctured Matrices PACKage - is a package for computations with sparse and dense structured matrix, i.e., matrices that exhibit some kind of low-rank property, in particular Hierarchically Semi Separable structure (HSS). Such matrices appear in many applications, e.g., FEM, BEM, Integral equations. etc. Exploiting this structure using certain compression algorithms allow for fast solution of linear systems and/or fast computation of matrix-vector products, which are the two main building blocks of matrix computations. STRUMPACK has presently two main components: a distributed-memory dense matrix computations package and a shared-memory sparse direct solver.

  6. Single-source tumor documentation - reusing oncology data for different purposes.

    PubMed

    Ries, Markus; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Beckmann, Matthias W; Bürkle, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We present a path towards single-source tumor documentation established at the Comprehensive Cancer Center Erlangen-Nürnberg (CCC-EN). Our goal was to derive data for cancer quality assurance and certification, cancer registry documentation and cancer research directly from routine care documentation. Therefore, clinical documentation activities were analyzed and a cancer data superset, containing these required elements, was developed. This superset was then split into appropriate clinical documentation packages, and the existing information technology infrastructure was analyzed and adapted to accommodate those documentation packages. A clinical documentation package is the amount of cancer-relevant data that can be captured within a clinical encounter. This grouping of data enables integration into existing clinical documentation workflows. We present examples in which single-source tumor documentation has been successfully established at the CCC-EN. The resulting cancer documentation reference model is described and its transferability to other institutions discussed.

  7. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES IN TRANSPORT CONFIGURATION

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N.

    2010-03-04

    Drum type packages are routinely used to transport radioactive material (RAM) in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. These packages are designed to meet the federal regulations described in 10 CFR Part 71. The packages are transported in specially designed vehicles like Safe Secure Transport (SST) for safety and security. In the transport vehicles, the packages are placed close to each other to maximize the number of units in the vehicle. Since the RAM contents in the packagings produce decay heat, it is important that they are spaced sufficiently apart to prevent overheating of the containment vessel (CV) seals and the impact limiter to ensure the structural integrity of the package. This paper presents a simple methodology to assess thermal performance of a typical 9975 packaging in a transport configuration.

  8. wrv: An R Package for Groundwater Flow Model Construction, Wood River Valley Aquifer System, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater models are one of the main tools used in the hydrogeological sciences to assess resources and to simulate possible effects from future water demands and changes in climate. The hydrological inputs to groundwater models can be numerous and can vary in both time and space. Difficulties associated with model construction are often related to extensive datasets and cumbersome data processing tasks. To mitigate these difficulties, a graphical user interface (GUI) is often employed to aid the input of data for creating models. Unfortunately, GUI software presents an obstacle to reproducibility, a cornerstone of research. The considerable effort required to document processing steps in a GUI program, and the rapid obsoleteness of these steps with subsequent versions of the software, has prompted modelers to explicitly write down processing steps as source code to make them 'easily' reproducible. This research describes the R package wrv, a collection of datasets and functions for pre- and post-processing the numerical groundwater flow model of the Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho. R largely facilitates reproducible modeling with the package vignette; a document that is a combination of content and source code. The code is run when the vignette is built, and all data analysis output (such as figures and tables) is created on the fly and inserted into the final document. The wrv package includes two vignettes that explain and run steps that (1) create package datasets from raw data files located on a publicly accessible repository, and (2) create and run the groundwater flow model. MODFLOW-USG, the numerical groundwater model used in this study, is executed from the vignette, and model output is returned for exploratory analyses. The ability of R to perform all processing steps in a single workflow is attributed to its comprehensive list of features; that include geographic information system and time series functionality.

  9. Generalized waste package containment model

    SciTech Connect

    Liebetrau, A.M.; Apted, M.J.

    1985-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a performance assessment strategy to demonstrate compliance with standards and technical requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear wastes in geologic repositories. One aspect of this strategy is the development of a unified performance model of the entire geologic repository system. Details of a generalized waste package containment (WPC) model and its relationship with other components of an overall repository model are presented in this paper. The WPC model provides stochastically determined estimates of the distributions of times-to-failure of the barriers of a waste package by various corrosion mechanisms and degradation processes. The model consists of a series of modules which employ various combinations of stochastic (probabilistic) and mechanistic process models, and which are individually designed to reflect the current state of knowledge. The WPC model is designed not only to take account of various site-specific conditions and processes, but also to deal with a wide range of site, repository, and waste package configurations. 11 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Reliability Assessment and Activation Energy Study of Au and Pd-Coated Cu Wires Post High Temperature Aging in Nanoscale Semiconductor Packaging.

    PubMed

    Gan, C L; Hashim, U

    2013-06-01

    Wearout reliability and high temperature storage life (HTSL) activation energy of Au and Pd-coated Cu (PdCu) ball bonds are useful technical information for Cu wire deployment in nanoscale semiconductor device packaging. This paper discusses the influence of wire type on the wearout reliability performance of Au and PdCu wire used in fine pitch BGA package after HTSL stress at various aging temperatures. Failure analysis has been conducted to identify the failure mechanism after HTSL wearout conditions for Au and PdCu ball bonds. Apparent activation energies (Eaa) of both wire types are investigated after HTSL test at 150 °C, 175 °C and 200 °C aging temperatures. Arrhenius plot has been plotted for each ball bond types and the calculated Eaa of PdCu ball bond is 0.85 eV and 1.10 eV for Au ball bond in 110 nm semiconductor device. Obviously Au ball bond is identified with faster IMC formation rate with IMC Kirkendall voiding while PdCu wire exhibits equivalent wearout and or better wearout reliability margin compare to conventional Au wirebond. Lognormal plots have been established and its mean to failure (t50) have been discussed in this paper.

  11. Packaging for Posterity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sias, Jim

    1990-01-01

    A project in which students designed environmentally responsible food packaging is described. The problem definition; research on topics such as waste paper, plastic, metal, glass, incineration, recycling, and consumer preferences; and the presentation design are provided. (KR)

  12. Battery packaging - Technology review

    SciTech Connect

    Maiser, Eric

    2014-06-16

    This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows 'lessons learned' in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production.

  13. Electronic Packaging Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A characteristic of aerospace system design is that equipment size and weight must always be kept to a minimum, even in small components such as electronic packages. The dictates of spacecraft design have spawned a number of high-density packaging techniques, among them methods of connecting circuits in printed wiring boards by processes called stitchbond welding and parallel gap welding. These processes help designers compress more components into less space; they also afford weight savings and lower production costs.

  14. DOT-7A packaging test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, D.L.

    1995-01-23

    This test procedure documents the steps involved with performance testing of Department of Transportation Specification 7A (DOT-7A) Type A packages. It includes description of the performance tests, the personnel involved, appropriate safety considerations, and the procedures to be followed while performing the tests. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is conducting the evaluation and testing discussed herein for the Department of Energy-Headquarters, Division of Quality Verification and Transportation Safety (EH-321). Please note that this report is not in WHC format. This report is being submitted through the Engineering Documentation System so that it may be used for reference and information purposes.

  15. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Oziomek, Thomas V.

    2009-01-01

    Future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit will require the food system to remain safe, acceptable and nutritious. Development of high barrier food packaging will enable this requirement by preventing the ingress and egress of gases and moisture. New high barrier food packaging materials have been identified through a trade study. Practical application of this packaging material within a shelf life test will allow for better determination of whether this material will allow the food system to meet given requirements after the package has undergone processing. The reason to conduct shelf life testing, using a variety of packaging materials, stems from the need to preserve food used for mission durations of several years. Chemical reactions that take place during longer durations may decrease food quality to a point where crew physical or psychological well-being is compromised. This can result in a reduction or loss of mission success. The rate of chemical reactions, including oxidative rancidity and staling, can be controlled by limiting the reactants, reducing the amount of energy available to drive the reaction, and minimizing the amount of water available. Water not only acts as a media for microbial growth, but also as a reactant and means by which two reactants may come into contact with each other. The objective of this study is to evaluate three packaging materials for potential use in long duration space exploration missions.

  16. Centrality based Document Ranking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    approach. We model the documents to be ranked as nodes in a graph and place edges between documents based on their similarity. Given a query, we compute...similarity of the query with respect to every document in the graph . Based on these similarity values, documents are ranked for a given query...clinical documents using centrality based approach. We model the documents to be ranked as nodes in a graph and place edges between documents based on their

  17. QUAD: a computer package for the analysis of QUantal Assay Data.

    PubMed

    Morgan, B J; Pack, S E; Smith, D M

    1989-12-01

    The computer package QUAD has been developed at the University of Kent, U.K. It is menu driven and written in Advanced BASIC. It runs on IBM PC compatible machines equipped with a suitable graphics facility such as CGA or simulated CGA. QUAD is available on a floppy disk, for a small handling charge. QUAD has four main functions: it performs a logit analysis of quantal assay data; it provides a flexible way of analysing the data, allowing dose transformations and providing alternative confidence intervals for EDp values; it produces a range of diagnostics for assessing the fit of models to data; it provides and fits two families of extended models, each containing the logit as a special case. The package makes use of the latest statistical research, and fitted models are displayed by means of the good graphics facilities available on microcomputers. This document describes the facilities available in detail, and provides and discusses, illustrations of the package at work. QUAD has been designed as a pilot package. Further additions and developments are planned and described later.

  18. Circadian time organization of professional firemen: desynchronization-tau differing from 24.0 hours-documented by longitudinal self-assessment of 16 variables.

    PubMed

    Reinberg, Alain; Riedel, Marc; Brousse, Eric; Floc'h, Nadine Le; Clarisse, René; Mauvieux, Benoît; Touitou, Yvan; Smolensky, Michael H; Marlot, Michel; Berrez, Stéphane; Mechkouri, Mohamed

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the circadian synchronization/desynchronization (by field-study assessment of differences in period, τ, of 16 coexisting and well-documented rhythms) of 30 healthy firemen (FM) exposed to irregular, difficult, and stressful nocturnal work hours who demonstrated excellent clinical tolerance (allochronism). Three groups of FM were studied (A = 12 FM on 24-h duty at the fire station; B = 9 FM on 24-h duty at the emergency call center; C = 9 day-shift administrative FM) of mostly comparable average age, body mass index, career duration, chronotype-morningness/eveningness, and trait of field dependence/independence. The self-assessed 16 circadian rhythms were (i) physiological ones of sleep-wake (sleep log), activity-rest (actography), body temperature (internal transmitter pill probe), right- and left-hand grip strength (hand dynamometer), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) plus heart rate (ambulatory BP monitoring device); (ii) psychological ones (visual analog self-rating scales) of sleepiness, fatigue, fitness for work, and capacity to cope with aggressive social behavior; and (iii) cognitive ones of eye-hand skill and letter cancellation, entailing performance speed (tasks completed/unit time) and accuracy (errors). Data (4-6 time points/24 h; 2 591 480 values in total) were gathered continuously throughout two 8-d spans, one in winter 2010-2011 and one in summer 2011. Each of the resulting 938 unequal-interval time series was analyzed by a special power spectrum analysis to objectively determine the prominent τ. The desynchronization ratio (DR: number of study variables with τ = 24.0 h/number of study variables × 100) served to ascertain the strength/weakness of each rhythm per individual, group, and season. The field study confirmed, independent of group and season, coexistence of rather strong and weak circadian oscillators. Interindividual differences in DR were detected between groups and seasons (χ(2), correlation tests, analysis

  19. The Old and the New in Document Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allport, Graham; Jarratt, Peter

    1992-01-01

    Discusses document processing software packages and describes the TEX system, a document compiler intended to produce high quality typesetting. It is noted that the X-window system provides a windowing environment that makes the system faster, more efficient, and more user friendly, and its use in connection with the TEX system is explained. (four…

  20. DOT-7A Type A packaging design guide

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, D.L.

    1995-01-23

    The purpose of this Design Guide is to provide instruction for designing a U.S. Department of Transportation Specification 7A (DOT-7A) Type A packaging. Another purpose for this Design Guide is to support the evaluation and testing activities that are performed on new designs by a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) test facility. This evaluation and testing program is called the DOT-7A Program. When an applicant has determined that a DOT-7A packaging is needed and not commercially available, a design may be created according to this document. The design should include a packaging drawing, specifications, analysis report, operating instructions, and a Packaging Qualification Checklist; all of which should be forwarded to a DOE/HQ approved test facility for evaluation and testing. This report is being submitted through the Engineering Documentation System so that it may be used for reference and information purposes.

  1. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria from modified atmosphere packaged sliced cooked meat products at sell-by date assessed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Audenaert, Kris; D'Haene, Klaas; Messens, Kathy; Ruyssen, Tony; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

    2010-02-01

    The predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) microbiota associated with three types of modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) sliced cooked meat products (i.e. ham, turkey and chicken) was analyzed at sell-by date using a combination of culturing and molecular population fingerprinting. Likewise routine analyses during industrial MAP production, meat samples were plated on the general heterotrophic Plate Count Agar (PCA) and on the LAB-specific de Man, Rogosa, Sharpe (MRS) agar under different temperature and atmosphere conditions. Subsequently, community DNA extracts were prepared from culturable bacterial fractions harvested from both media and used for PCR targeting the V3 hyper-variable region of the 16S rRNA gene followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR amplicons (PCR-DGGE). Irrespective of aerobic or anaerobic incubation conditions, V3-16S rDNA DGGE fingerprints of culturable fractions from PCA and MRS medium displayed a high level of similarity indicating that LAB constituted the most dominant group in the culturable bacterial community. Comparison of DGGE profiles of fractions grown at 20, 28 or 37 degrees C indicated that part of the culturable community consisted of psychrotrophs. Four DGGE bands were common among cooked ham, turkey and chicken products, suggesting that these represent the microbiota circulating in the plant where all three MAP product types were sliced and packaged. Based on band sequencing and band position analysis using LAB reference strains, these four bands could be assigned to Lactobacillus sakei and/or the closely related Lactobacillus fuchuensis, Lactobacillus curvatus, Carnobacterium divergens and Leuconostoc carnosum. In conclusion, the PCR-DGGE approach described in this study allows to discriminate, identify and monitor core and occasional LAB microbiota of MAP sliced cooked meat products and provides valuable complementary information to the current plating procedures routinely used in industrial plants.

  2. Food Packaging Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The photos show a few of the food products packaged in Alure, a metallized plastic material developed and manufactured by St. Regis Paper Company's Flexible Packaging Division, Dallas, Texas. The material incorporates a metallized film originally developed for space applications. Among the suppliers of the film to St. Regis is King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Ma'ssachusetts. Initially used by NASA as a signal-bouncing reflective coating for the Echo 1 communications satellite, the film was developed by a company later absorbed by King-Seeley. The metallized film was also used as insulating material for components of a number of other spacecraft. St. Regis developed Alure to meet a multiple packaging material need: good eye appeal, product protection for long periods and the ability to be used successfully on a wide variety of food packaging equipment. When the cost of aluminum foil skyrocketed, packagers sought substitute metallized materials but experiments with a number of them uncovered problems; some were too expensive, some did not adequately protect the product, some were difficult for the machinery to handle. Alure offers a solution. St. Regis created Alure by sandwiching the metallized film between layers of plastics. The resulting laminated metallized material has the superior eye appeal of foil but is less expensive and more easily machined. Alure effectively blocks out light, moisture and oxygen and therefore gives the packaged food long shelf life. A major packaging firm conducted its own tests of the material and confirmed the advantages of machinability and shelf life, adding that it runs faster on machines than materials used in the past and it decreases product waste; the net effect is increased productivity.

  3. Detecting small holes in packages

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.; Cadieux, J.R.

    1996-03-19

    A package containing a tracer gas, and a method for determining the presence of a hole in the package by sensing the presence of the gas outside the package are disclosed. The preferred tracer gas, especially for food packaging, is sulfur hexafluoride. A quantity of the gas is added to the package and the package is closed. The concentration of the gas in the atmosphere outside the package is measured and compared to a predetermined value of the concentration of the gas in the absence of the package. A measured concentration greater than the predetermined value indicates the presence of a hole in the package. Measuring may be done in a chamber having a lower pressure than that in the package. 3 figs.

  4. Detecting small holes in packages

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.; Cadieux, James R.

    1996-01-01

    A package containing a tracer gas, and a method for determining the presence of a hole in the package by sensing the presence of the gas outside the package. The preferred tracer gas, especially for food packaging, is sulfur hexafluoride. A quantity of the gas is added to the package and the package is closed. The concentration of the gas in the atmosphere outside the package is measured and compared to a predetermined value of the concentration of the gas in the absence of the package. A measured concentration greater than the predetermined value indicates the presence of a hole in the package. Measuring may be done in a chamber having a lower pressure than that in the package.

  5. Applications of Nanomaterials in Food Packaging.

    PubMed

    Bumbudsanpharoke, Nattinee; Choi, Jungwook; Ko, Seonghyuk

    2015-09-01

    Nanomaterials have drawn great interest in recent years due to their extraordinary properties that make them advantageous in food packaging applications. Specifically, nanoparticles can impart significant barrier properties, as well as mechanical, optical, catalytic, and antimicrobial properties into packaging. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and nanoclay account for the majority of the nano-enabled food packaging on the market, while others, such as nano-zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium, share less of the current market. In current food packaging, these nanomaterials are primarily used to impart antimicrobial function and to improve barrier properties, thereby extending the shelf life and freshness of packaged food. On the other hand, there is growing concern about the migration of nanomaterials from food contact materials to foodstuffs and its associated potential risks. Indeed, insufficient data about environmental and human safety assessments of migration and exposure of nanomaterials are hindering their market growth. To overcome this barrier, the public believes that legislation from government agencies is critical. This review provides an overview of the characteristics and functions of major nanomaterials that are commonly applied to food packaging, including available and near- future products. Migration research, safety issues, and public concerns are also discussed.

  6. 36 CFR 219.30 - Plan documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... overall strategy for maintenance or restoration of sustainability, including desired conditions and... environmental documents, assessments, conservation agreements and strategies, biological opinions,...

  7. Safety Evaluation for Packaging (onsite) T Plant Canyon Items

    SciTech Connect

    OBRIEN, J.H.

    2000-07-14

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the ability to safely ship mostly unique inventories of miscellaneous T Plant canyon waste items (T-P Items) encountered during the canyon deck clean off campaign. In addition, this SEP addresses contaminated items and material that may be shipped in a strong tight package (STP). The shipments meet the criteria for onsite shipments as specified by Fluor Hanford in HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments.

  8. River Data Package for the 2004 Composite Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Guensch, Gregory R.; Patton, Gregory W.

    2004-08-01

    Beginning in fiscal year 2003, the DOE Richland Operations Office initiated activities, including the development of data packages, to support the 2004 Composite Analysis. The river data package provides calculations of flow and transport in the Columbia River system. This document presents the data assembled to run the river module components for the section of the Columbia River from Vernita Bridge to the confluence with the Yakima River.

  9. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) sample pig transport system

    SciTech Connect

    MCCOY, J.C.

    1999-03-16

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides a technical evaluation of the Sample Pig Transport System as compared to the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1, Change 1, Chapter III. The evaluation concludes that the package is acceptable for the onsite transport of Type B, fissile excepted radioactive materials when used in accordance with this document.

  10. Generic safety documentation model

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A.

    1994-04-01

    This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ``core`` upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information.

  11. CH Packaging Operations for High Wattage Waste at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-03-21

    This procedure provides instructions for assembling the following contact-handled (CH) packaging payloads: - Drum payload assembly - Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly - Ten-Drum Overpack (TDOP) In addition, this procedure also provides operating instructions for the TRUPACT-II CH waste packaging. This document also provides instructions for performing ICV and OCV preshipment leakage rate tests on the following packaging seals, using a nondestructive helium (He) leak test: - ICV upper main O-ring seal - ICV outer vent port plug O-ring seal - OCV upper main O-ring seal - OCV vent port plug O-ring seal.

  12. CH Packaging Operations for High Wattage Waste at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-08-28

    This procedure provides instructions for assembling the following contact-handled (CH) packaging payloads: - Drum payload assembly - Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly - Ten-Drum Overpack (TDOP) In addition, this procedure also provides operating instructions for the TRUPACT-II CH waste packaging. This document also provides instructions for performing ICV and OCV preshipment leakage rate tests on the following packaging seals, using a nondestructive helium (He) leak test: - ICV upper main O-ring seal - ICV outer vent port plug O-ring seal - OCV upper main O-ring seal - OCV vent port plug O-ring seal.

  13. CH Packaging Operations for High Wattage Waste at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-05-06

    This procedure provides instructions for assembling the following contact-handled (CH) packaging payloads: - Drum payload assembly - Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly - Ten-Drum Overpack (TDOP) In addition, this procedure also provides operating instructions for the TRUPACT-II CH waste packaging. This document also provides instructions for performing ICV and OCV preshipment leakage rate tests on the following packaging seals, using a nondestructive helium (He) leak test: - ICV upper main O-ring seal - ICV outer vent port plug O-ring seal - OCV upper main O-ring seal - OCV vent port plug O-ring seal.

  14. CH Packaging Operations for High Wattage Waste at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-12-18

    This procedure provides instructions for assembling the following contact-handled (CH) packaging payloads: - Drum payload assembly - Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly - Ten-Drum Overpack (TDOP) In addition, this procedure also provides operating instructions for the TRUPACT-II CH waste packaging. This document also provides instructions for performing ICV and OCV preshipment leakage rate tests on the following packaging seals, using a nondestructive helium (He) leak test: - ICV upper main O-ring seal - ICV outer vent port plug O-ring seal - OCV upper main O-ring seal - OCV vent port plug O-ring seal.

  15. CH Packaging Operations for High Wattage Waste at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-10-17

    This procedure provides instructions for assembling the following contact-handled (CH) packaging payloads: - Drum payload assembly - Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly - Ten-Drum Overpack (TDOP) In addition, this procedure provides operating instructions for the TRUPACT-II CH waste packaging. This document also provides instructions for performing ICV and OCV preshipment leakage rate tests on the following packaging seals, using a nondestructive helium (He) leak test: - ICV upper main O-ring seal - ICV outer vent port plug O-ring seal - OCV upper main O-ring seal - OCV vent port plug O-ring seal.

  16. Computerized waste-accountability shipping and packaging system. [WASP

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.A.; Baston, M. Jr.; DeVer, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Waste Accountability, Shipping and Packaging System (WASP) is a real-time computerized system designed and implemented by Mound Facility to meet the stringent packaging and reporting requirements of radioactive waste being shipped to burial sites. The system stores packaging data and inspection results for each unit and prepares all necessary documents at the time of shipment. Shipping data specific for each burial site are automatically prepared on magnetic tape for transmission to the computing center at that site. WASP has enabled Mound Facility to effectively meet the requirements of the burial sites, diminishing the possibility of being rejected from a site because of noncompliance.

  17. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) multicanister overpack cask

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, W.S.

    1997-07-14

    This safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) documents the safety of shipments of irradiated fuel elements in the MUlticanister Overpack (MCO) and MCO Cask for a highway route controlled quantity, Type B fissile package. This SARP evaluates the package during transfers of (1) water-filled MCOs from the K Basins to the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and (2) sealed and cold vacuum dried MCOs from the CVDF in the 100 K Area to the Canister Storage Building in the 200 East Area.

  18. 7 CFR 650.11 - Environmental documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental documents. 650.11 Section 650.11....11 Environmental documents. (a) NRCS is to use the following documents in compliance with NEPA (see § 650.4): (1) Environmental assessments (EA) (2) Environmental impact statements (EIS) (3) Notice...

  19. 7 CFR 650.11 - Environmental documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental documents. 650.11 Section 650.11....11 Environmental documents. (a) NRCS is to use the following documents in compliance with NEPA (see § 650.4): (1) Environmental assessments (EA) (2) Environmental impact statements (EIS) (3) Notice...

  20. 40 CFR 68.39 - Documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Documentation. 68.39 Section 68.39... ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.39 Documentation. The owner or operator shall... passive mitigation that were assumed to limit the quantity that could be released. Documentation...

  1. Technical Review Report for the Model 9975-96 Package Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (S-SARP-G-00003, Revision 0, January 2008)

    SciTech Connect

    West, M

    2009-05-22

    This Technical Review Report (TRR) documents the review, performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Staff, at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), on the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging, Model 9975, Revision 0, dated January 2008 (S-SARP-G-00003, the SARP). The review includes an evaluation of the SARP, with respect to the requirements specified in 10 CFR 71, and in International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Standards Series No. TS-R-1. The Model 9975-96 Package is a 35-gallon drum package design that has evolved from a family of packages designed by DOE contractors at the Savannah River Site. Earlier package designs, i.e., the Model 9965, the Model 9966, the Model 9967, and the Model 9968 Packagings, were originally designed and certified in the early 1980s. In the 1990s, updated package designs that incorporated design features consistent with the then newer safety requirements were proposed. The updated package designs at the time were the Model 9972, the Model 9973, the Model 9974, and the Model 9975 Packagings, respectively. The Model 9975 Package was certified by the Packaging Certification Program, under the Office of Safety Management and Operations. The safety analysis of the Model 9975-85 Packaging is documented in the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging, Model 9975, B(M)F-85, Revision 0, dated December 2003. The Model 9975-85 Package is certified by DOE Certificate of Compliance (CoC) package identification number, USA/9975/B(M)F-85, for the transportation of Type B quantities of uranium metal/oxide, {sup 238}Pu heat sources, plutonium/uranium metals, plutonium/uranium oxides, plutonium composites, plutonium/tantalum composites, {sup 238}Pu oxide/beryllium metal.

  2. MMIC packaging with Waffleline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, R. W.; Ellis, T. T.; Schineller, E. R.

    1990-06-01

    The design principle of Waffleline, a patented MMIC packaging technology, is discussed, and several recent applications are described and illustrated with drawings, diagrams, and photographs. Standard Waffleline is a foil-covered waffle-iron-like grid with dielectric-coated signal and power wires running in the channels and foil-removed holes for mounting prepackaged chips or chip carriers. With spacing of 50 mils between center conductors, this material is applicable at frequencies up to 40 GHz; EHF devices require Waffleline with 25-mil spacing. Applications characterized include a subassembly for a man-transportable SHF satellite-communication terminal, a transmitter driver for a high-power TWT, and a 60-GHz receiver front end (including an integrated monolithic microstrip antenna, a low-noise amplifier, a mixer, and an IF amplifier in a 0.25-inch-thick 1.6-inch-diameter package). The high package density and relatively low cost of Waffleline are emphasized.

  3. Hypertext-based computer vision teaching packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, A. David

    1994-10-01

    The World Wide Web Initiative has provided a means for providing hypertext and multimedia based information across the whole INTERNET. Many applications have been developed on such http servers. At Cardiff we have developed a http hypertext based multimedia server, the Cardiff Information Server, using the widely available Mosaic system. The server provides a variety of information ranging from the provision of teaching modules, on- line documentation, timetables for departmental activities to more light hearted hobby interests. One important and novel development to the server has been the development of courseware facilities. This ranges from the provision of on-line lecture notes, exercises and their solutions to more interactive teaching packages. A variety of disciplines have benefitted notably Computer Vision, and Image Processing but also C programming, X Windows, Computer Graphics and Parallel Computing. This paper will address the issues of the implementation of the Computer Vision and Image Processing packages, the advantages gained from using a hypertext based system and also will relate practical experiences of using the packages in a class environment. The paper addresses issues of how best to provide information in such a hypertext based system and how interactive image processing packages can be developed and integrated into courseware. The suite of tools developed facilitates a flexible and powerful courseware package that has proved popular in the classroom and over the Internet. The paper will also detail many future developments we see possible. One of the key points raised in the paper is that Mosaic's hypertext language (html) is extremely powerful and yet relatively straightforward to use. It is also possible to link in Unix calls so that programs and shells can be executed. This provides a powerful suite of utilities that can be exploited to develop many packages.

  4. Aqueous Corrosion Rates for Waste Package Materials

    SciTech Connect

    S. Arthur

    2004-10-08

    The purpose of this analysis, as directed by ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]), is to compile applicable corrosion data from the literature (journal articles, engineering documents, materials handbooks, or standards, and national laboratory reports), evaluate the quality of these data, and use these to perform statistical analyses and distributions for aqueous corrosion rates of waste package materials. The purpose of this report is not to describe the performance of engineered barriers for the TSPA-LA. Instead, the analysis provides simple statistics on aqueous corrosion rates of steels and alloys. These rates are limited by various aqueous parameters such as temperature (up to 100 C), water type (i.e., fresh versus saline), and pH. Corrosion data of materials at pH extremes (below 4 and above 9) are not included in this analysis, as materials commonly display different corrosion behaviors under these conditions. The exception is highly corrosion-resistant materials (Inconel Alloys) for which rate data from corrosion tests at a pH of approximately 3 were included. The waste package materials investigated are those from the long and short 5-DHLW waste packages, 2-MCO/2-DHLW waste package, and the 21-PWR commercial waste package. This analysis also contains rate data for some of the materials present inside the fuel canisters for the following fuel types: U-Mo (Fermi U-10%Mo), MOX (FFTF), Thorium Carbide and Th/U Carbide (Fort Saint Vrain [FSVR]), Th/U Oxide (Shippingport LWBR), U-metal (N Reactor), Intact U-Oxide (Shippingport PWR, Commercial), aluminum-based, and U-Zr-H (TRIGA). Analysis of corrosion rates for Alloy 22, spent nuclear fuel, defense high level waste (DHLW) glass, and Titanium Grade 7 can be found in other analysis or model reports.

  5. Ada Namelist Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, Allan R.

    1991-01-01

    Ada Namelist Package, developed for Ada programming language, enables calling program to read and write FORTRAN-style namelist files. Features are: handling of any combination of types defined by user; ability to read vectors, matrices, and slices of vectors and matrices; handling of mismatches between variables in namelist file and those in programmed list of namelist variables; and ability to avoid searching entire input file for each variable. Principle benefits derived by user: ability to read and write namelist-readable files, ability to detect most file errors in initialization phase, and organization keeping number of instantiated units to few packages rather than to many subprograms.

  6. SPHINX experimenters information package

    SciTech Connect

    Zarick, T.A.

    1996-08-01

    This information package was prepared for both new and experienced users of the SPHINX (Short Pulse High Intensity Nanosecond X-radiator) flash X-Ray facility. It was compiled to help facilitate experiment design and preparation for both the experimenter(s) and the SPHINX operational staff. The major areas covered include: Recording Systems Capabilities,Recording System Cable Plant, Physical Dimensions of SPHINX and the SPHINX Test cell, SPHINX Operating Parameters and Modes, Dose Rate Map, Experiment Safety Approval Form, and a Feedback Questionnaire. This package will be updated as the SPHINX facilities and capabilities are enhanced.

  7. Automated document analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Jeffrey D.; Dietzel, Robert; Hartnett, David

    2002-08-01

    A software application has been developed to aid law enforcement and government intelligence gathering organizations in the translation and analysis of foreign language documents with potential intelligence content. The Automated Document Analysis System (ADAS) provides the capability to search (data or text mine) documents in English and the most commonly encountered foreign languages, including Arabic. Hardcopy documents are scanned by a high-speed scanner and are optical character recognized (OCR). Documents obtained in an electronic format bypass the OCR and are copied directly to a working directory. For translation and analysis, the script and the language of the documents are first determined. If the document is not in English, the document is machine translated to English. The documents are searched for keywords and key features in either the native language or translated English. The user can quickly review the document to determine if it has any intelligence content and whether detailed, verbatim human translation is required. The documents and document content are cataloged for potential future analysis. The system allows non-linguists to evaluate foreign language documents and allows for the quick analysis of a large quantity of documents. All document processing can be performed manually or automatically on a single document or a batch of documents.

  8. Focussing on Generic Skills in Training Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawe, Susan

    A study assessed whether training packages gave sufficient focus to attainment of generic skills and examined approaches that can be used to enhance the delivery of these skills so students are better prepared for the new demands of the workplace. A literature review and consultations with stakeholders provided information on development of the…

  9. A comparison of dose results from the Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988, personal computer (CAP88-PC), version 3 to previous versions.

    PubMed

    Rhoads, Kathleen; Snyder, Sandra; Staven, Lissa

    2013-08-01

    Computer software packages approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), including CAP88-PC, are used by U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) sites to demonstrate compliance with the radionuclide air emission standard under the Clean Air Act. CAP88-PC version 3, was approved by the U.S. EPA in February 2006 for use by U.S. DOE facilities. Version 3 incorporates several major changes that have the potential to affect calculated doses relative to calculations using earlier versions. This analysis examined the types and magnitudes of changes to dose estimates for specific radionuclides calculated using the version 3 software compared with the previous versions. For parent radionuclides and for the total dose from radionuclide chains, total effective dose calculated with version 3 was compared to effective dose equivalent calculated with previous versions. Various comparisons were also performed to determine which of the updates in version 3 accounted for changes in overall dose estimates. CAP88-PC version 3 would produce substantially different results relative to previous versions of the code for a number of radionuclides, including some isotopes that may be present at U.S. DOE facilities, as well as those used for industrial and medical applications. In general, doses for many radionuclides were lower using version 3 but doses for a few key radionuclides increased relative to the previous versions.

  10. A COMPARISON OF DOSE RESULTS FROM THE CLEAN AIR ACT ASSESSMENT PACKAGE-1988, PERSONAL COMPUTER (CAP88-PC), VERSION 3 TO PREVIOUS VERSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoads, Kathleen; Snyder, Sandra F.; Staven, Lissa H.

    2013-08-01

    EPA-approved computer software packages, including CAP88-PC, are used by Department of Energy sites to demonstrate compliance with the radionuclide air emission standard under the Clean Air Act. The most recent update, CAP88-PC version 3, was approved by EPA in February 2006 for use by Department of Energy facilities. Version 3 incorporates several major changes that have the potential to affect calculated doses relative to calculations using earlier versions. This analysis examined the types and magnitudes of changes to dose estimates for specific radionuclides calculated using the version 3 software compared with the previous versions. Total effective dose calculated with version 3 was compared to effective dose equivalent calculated with previous versions for parent radionuclides and for the total dose from radionuclide chains. Various comparisons were also performed to determine which of the updates in version 3 accounted for changes in overall dose estimates. CAP88-PC version 3 would produce substantially different results relative to previous versions of the code for a number of radionuclides, including some isotopes that may be present at Department of Energy facilities, as well as those used for industrial and medical applications. In general, doses for many radionuclides are lower using version 3 but doses for a few key radionuclides would be higher.

  11. What Do We Really Know about the EdTPA? Research, PACT, and Packaging a Local Teacher Performance Assessment for National Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hébert, Cristyne

    2017-01-01

    This article calls attention to the overreliance on research about the Performance Assessment for California Teachers (PACT)--often labeled edTPA's predecessor--as justification for the edTPA. The article argues that the distinctions between the assessments are too vast to rely on PACT data to support the edTPA, given the localized nature of PACT…

  12. AN ADA NAMELIST PACKAGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Ada Namelist Package, developed for the Ada programming language, enables a calling program to read and write FORTRAN-style namelist files. A namelist file consists of any number of assignment statements in any order. Features of the Ada Namelist Package are: the handling of any combination of user-defined types; the ability to read vectors, matrices, and slices of vectors and matrices; the handling of mismatches between variables in the namelist file and those in the programmed list of namelist variables; and the ability to avoid searching the entire input file for each variable. The principle user benefits of this software are the following: the ability to write namelist-readable files, the ability to detect most file errors in the initialization phase, a package organization that reduces the number of instantiated units to a few packages rather than to many subprograms, a reduced number of restrictions, and an increased execution speed. The Ada Namelist reads data from an input file into variables declared within a user program. It then writes data from the user program to an output file, printer, or display. The input file contains a sequence of assignment statements in arbitrary order. The output is in namelist-readable form. There is a one-to-one correspondence between namelist I/O statements executed in the user program and variables read or written. Nevertheless, in the input file, mismatches are allowed between assignment statements in the file and the namelist read procedure statements in the user program. The Ada Namelist Package itself is non-generic. However, it has a group of nested generic packages following the nongeneric opening portion. The opening portion declares a variety of useraccessible constants, variables and subprograms. The subprograms are procedures for initializing namelists for reading, reading and writing strings. The subprograms are also functions for analyzing the content of the current dataset and diagnosing errors. Two nested

  13. iCosmo: an interactive cosmology package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refregier, A.; Amara, A.; Kitching, T. D.; Rassat, A.

    2011-04-01

    Aims: The interactive software package iCosmo, designed to perform cosmological calculations is described. Methods: iCosmo is a software package to perfom interactive cosmological calculations for the low-redshift universe. Computing distance measures, the matter power spectrum, and the growth factor is supported for any values of the cosmological parameters. It also computes derived observed quantities for several cosmological probes such as cosmic shear, baryon acoustic oscillations, and type Ia supernovae. The associated errors for these observable quantities can be derived for customised surveys, or for pre-set values corresponding to current or planned instruments. The code also allows for calculation of cosmological forecasts with Fisher matrices, which can be manipulated to combine different surveys and cosmological probes. The code is written in the IDL language and thus benefits from the convenient interactive features and scientific libraries available in this language. iCosmo can also be used as an engine to perform cosmological calculations in batch mode, and forms a convenient adaptive platform for the development of further cosmological modules. With its extensive documentation, it may also serve as a useful resource for teaching and for newcomers to the field of cosmology. Results: The iCosmo package is described with a number of examples and command sequences. The code is freely available with documentation at http://www.icosmo.org, along with an interactive web interface and is part of the Initiative for Cosmology, a common archive for cosmological resources.

  14. Waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  15. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  16. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-01-01

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  17. Automatic Differentiation Package

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, David M.; Phipps, Eric; Bratlett, Roscoe

    2007-03-01

    Sacado is an automatic differentiation package for C++ codes using operator overloading and C++ templating. Sacado provide forward, reverse, and Taylor polynomial automatic differentiation classes and utilities for incorporating these classes into C++ codes. Users can compute derivatives of computations arising in engineering and scientific applications, including nonlinear equation solving, time integration, sensitivity analysis, stability analysis, optimization and uncertainity quantification.

  18. Learning Activity Package, Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Diane

    A set of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in beginning algebra and nine in intermediate algebra, these units cover sets, properties of operations, number systems, open expressions, solution sets of equations and inequalities in one and two variables, exponents, factoring and polynomials, relations and functions, radicals,…

  19. Radiographic film package

    SciTech Connect

    Muylle, W. E.

    1985-08-27

    A radiographic film package for non-destructive testing, comprising a radiographic film sheet, an intensifying screen with a layer of lead bonded to a paper foil, and a vacuum heat-sealed wrapper with a layer of aluminum and a heat-sealed easy-peelable thermoplastic layer.

  20. Project Information Packages Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RMC Research Corp., Mountain View, CA.

    Presented are an overview booklet, a project selection guide, and six Project Information Packages (PIPs) for six exemplary projects serving underachieving students in grades k through 9. The overview booklet outlines the PIP projects and includes a chart of major project features. A project selection guide reviews the PIP history, PIP contents,…

  1. Nutrition Learning Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This book presents nine packages of learning materials for trainers to use in teaching community health workers to carry out the nutrition element of their jobs. Lessons are intended to help health workers acquire skill in presenting to communities the principles and practice of good nutrition. Responding to the most common causes of poor…

  2. Jpetra Kernel Package

    SciTech Connect

    Heroux, Michael A.

    2004-03-01

    A package of classes for constructing and using distributed sparse and dense matrices, vectors and graphs, written in Java. Jpetra is intended to provide the foundation for basic matrix and vector operations for Java developers. Jpetra provides distributed memory operations via an abstract parallel machine interface. The most common implementation of this interface will be Java sockets.

  3. Electro-Microfluidic Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benavides, G. L.; Galambos, P. C.

    2002-06-01

    There are many examples of electro-microfluidic products that require cost effective packaging solutions. Industry has responded to a demand for products such as drop ejectors, chemical sensors, and biological sensors. Drop ejectors have consumer applications such as ink jet printing and scientific applications such as patterning self-assembled monolayers or ejecting picoliters of expensive analytes/reagents for chemical analysis. Drop ejectors can be used to perform chemical analysis, combinatorial chemistry, drug manufacture, drug discovery, drug delivery, and DNA sequencing. Chemical and biological micro-sensors can sniff the ambient environment for traces of dangerous materials such as explosives, toxins, or pathogens. Other biological sensors can be used to improve world health by providing timely diagnostics and applying corrective measures to the human body. Electro-microfluidic packaging can easily represent over fifty percent of the product cost and, as with Integrated Circuits (IC), the industry should evolve to standard packaging solutions. Standard packaging schemes will minimize cost and bring products to market sooner.

  4. High Efficiency Integrated Package

    SciTech Connect

    Ibbetson, James

    2013-09-15

    Solid-state lighting based on LEDs has emerged as a superior alternative to inefficient conventional lighting, particularly incandescent. LED lighting can lead to 80 percent energy savings; can last 50,000 hours – 2-50 times longer than most bulbs; and contains no toxic lead or mercury. However, to enable mass adoption, particularly at the consumer level, the cost of LED luminaires must be reduced by an order of magnitude while achieving superior efficiency, light quality and lifetime. To become viable, energy-efficient replacement solutions must deliver system efficacies of ≥ 100 lumens per watt (LPW) with excellent color rendering (CRI > 85) at a cost that enables payback cycles of two years or less for commercial applications. This development will enable significant site energy savings as it targets commercial and retail lighting applications that are most sensitive to the lifetime operating costs with their extended operating hours per day. If costs are reduced substantially, dramatic energy savings can be realized by replacing incandescent lighting in the residential market as well. In light of these challenges, Cree proposed to develop a multi-chip integrated LED package with an output of > 1000 lumens of warm white light operating at an efficacy of at least 128 LPW with a CRI > 85. This product will serve as the light engine for replacement lamps and luminaires. At the end of the proposed program, this integrated package was to be used in a proof-of-concept lamp prototype to demonstrate the component’s viability in a common form factor. During this project Cree SBTC developed an efficient, compact warm-white LED package with an integrated remote color down-converter. Via a combination of intensive optical, electrical, and thermal optimization, a package design was obtained that met nearly all project goals. This package emitted 1295 lm under instant-on, room-temperature testing conditions, with an efficacy of 128.4 lm/W at a color temperature of ~2873

  5. Computer software documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comella, P. A.

    1973-01-01

    A tutorial in the documentation of computer software is presented. It presents a methodology for achieving an adequate level of documentation as a natural outgrowth of the total programming effort commencing with the initial problem statement and definition and terminating with the final verification of code. It discusses the content of adequate documentation, the necessity for such documentation and the problems impeding achievement of adequate documentation.

  6. 30 CFR 1218.41 - Assessments for failure to submit payment of same amount as Form MMS-2014 or bill document or to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... amount of a payment submitted by a reporter/payor for geothermal, solid minerals, and Indian oil and gas... oil and gas leases submitted by a reporter/payor that cannot be automatically applied to the... reporter/payor in Block 4 on Form MMS-2014 (document 4 number), or the reuse of the same incorrect...

  7. 30 CFR 1218.41 - Assessments for failure to submit payment of same amount as Form MMS-2014 or bill document or to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... oil and gas leases is not equivalent in amount to the total of individual line items on the associated..., and Indian oil and gas leases submitted by a reporter/payor that cannot be automatically applied to... by the reporter/payor in Block 4 on Form MMS-2014 (document 4 number), or the reuse of the...

  8. 30 CFR 1218.41 - Assessments for failure to submit payment of same amount as Form ONRR-2014 or bill document or to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... oil and gas leases is not equivalent in amount to the total of individual line items on the associated..., and Indian oil and gas leases submitted by a reporter/payor that cannot be automatically applied to... by the reporter/payor in Block 4 on Form ONRR-2014 (document 4 number), or the reuse of the...

  9. The "Packaging" of Maternal Stimulation in Relation to Infant Facial-Visual Engagement: A Case Study at Four Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Beatrice; Gerstman, Louis J.

    1980-01-01

    It is generally assumed, but infrequently documented, that naturally-occurring maternal "packages" of stimulation make a functional difference in the organization of the infant's concurrent social behavior. This study aims to document that these maternal kinesic-rhythmic-facial packages have functional significance for an infant's…

  10. Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material

    SciTech Connect

    G. Gordon

    2004-10-13

    Stress corrosion cracking is one of the most common corrosion-related causes for premature breach of metal structural components. Stress corrosion cracking is the initiation and propagation of cracks in structural components due to three factors that must be present simultaneously: metallurgical susceptibility, critical environment, and static (or sustained) tensile stresses. This report was prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of this report is to provide an evaluation of the potential for stress corrosion cracking of the engineered barrier system components (i.e., the drip shield, waste package outer barrier, and waste package stainless steel inner structural cylinder) under exposure conditions consistent with the repository during the regulatory period of 10,000 years after permanent closure. For the drip shield and waste package outer barrier, the critical environment is conservatively taken as any aqueous environment contacting the metal surfaces. Appendix B of this report describes the development of the SCC-relevant seismic crack density model (SCDM). The consequence of a stress corrosion cracking breach of the drip shield, the waste package outer barrier, or the stainless steel inner structural cylinder material is the initiation and propagation of tight, sometimes branching, cracks that might be induced by the combination of an aggressive environment and various tensile stresses that can develop in the drip shields or the waste packages. The Stainless Steel Type 316 inner structural cylinder of the waste package is excluded from the stress corrosion cracking evaluation because the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA) does not take credit for the inner cylinder. This document provides a detailed description of the process-level models that can be applied to assess the performance of Alloy 22

  11. AUTHORIZING THE DOT SPECIFICATION 6M PACKAGING FOR CONTINUED USE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R.; Loftin, B.; Hoang, D.

    2010-03-04

    The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 6M packaging was in extensive use for more than 40 years for in-commerce shipments of Type B quantities of fissile and radioactive material (RAM) across the USA, among the Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, and between facilities in the DOE production complex. In January 2004, the DOT Research and Special Programs Administration (RSPA) Agency issued a final rule in the Federal Register to ammend requirements in the Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR) pertaining to the transportation of radioactive materials. The final rule became effective on October 1, 2004. One of those changes discontinued the use of the DOT specification 6M, along with other DOT specification packagings, on October 1, 2008. A main driver for the change was due to the fact that 6M specification packagings were not supported by a Safety Analysis Report for Packagings (SARP) that was compliant with Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 71 (10 CFR 71). The regulatory rules for the discontinued use have been edited in Title 49 of the CFR Parts 100-185, 2004 edition and thereafter. Prior to October 1, 2008, the use of the 6M within the boundaries of the Savannah River Site (SRS), called an onsite transfer, was governed by an onsite transportation document that referenced 49 CFR Parts 100-185. SRS had to develop an Onsite Safety Assessment (OSA) which was independent of 49 CFR in order to justify the continued use of the DOT Specification 6M for the transfer of radioactive material (RAM) at the SRS after October 1, 2008. This paper will discuss the methodology for and difficulties associated with authorizing the DOT Specification 6M Packaging for continued use at the Savannah River Site.

  12. Food packaging history and innovations.

    PubMed

    Risch, Sara J

    2009-09-23

    Food packaging has evolved from simply a container to hold food to something today that can play an active role in food quality. Many packages are still simply containers, but they have properties that have been developed to protect the food. These include barriers to oxygen, moisture, and flavors. Active packaging, or that which plays an active role in food quality, includes some microwave packaging as well as packaging that has absorbers built in to remove oxygen from the atmosphere surrounding the product or to provide antimicrobials to the surface of the food. Packaging has allowed access to many foods year-round that otherwise could not be preserved. It is interesting to note that some packages have actually allowed the creation of new categories in the supermarket. Examples include microwave popcorn and fresh-cut produce, which owe their existence to the unique packaging that has been developed.

  13. Packaging legislation. Objectives and consequences.

    PubMed

    Christmann, H

    1995-05-01

    The recently published Directive on packaging and packaging waste makes new demands on the industry. This article highlights the key areas and raises some of the issues that must be confronted in the future.

  14. Analytical screening studies on irradiated food packaging.

    PubMed

    Driffield, M; Bradley, E L; Leon, I; Lister, L; Speck, D R; Castle, L; Potter, E L J

    2014-01-01

    Foods may be irradiated in their final packaging and this process may affect the composition of the packaging and in turn affect the migration of substances into food. Headspace and liquid injection GC-MS and HPLC with time-of-flight MS have been used to identify and estimate levels of radiolytic products in irradiated finished plastic packaging materials. Fifteen retail packaging materials were studied. Investigations were carried out into the effect of different irradiation types (gamma and electron beam), irradiation doses (1, 3, 7 and 10 kGy) and dose rates (5 kGy s(-1) for electron beam and 0.4 and 1.85 kGy h(-1) for gamma) on the radiolytic products. Any differences seen in comparing the two ionising radiation types were attributed largely to the very different dose rates; for electron beam a 10 kGy dose was delivered in just 2 s whereas using gamma it took 5.4 h. Differences were also seen when comparing the same samples irradiated at different doses. Some substances were not affected by irradiation, others decreased in concentration and others were formed upon increasing doses of irradiation. These results confirm that irradiation-induced changes do occur in substances with the potential to migrate and that the safety of the finished packaging material following irradiation should be assessed.

  15. Degraded document image enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agam, G.; Bal, G.; Frieder, G.; Frieder, O.

    2007-01-01

    Poor quality documents are obtained in various situations such as historical document collections, legal archives, security investigations, and documents found in clandestine locations. Such documents are often scanned for automated analysis, further processing, and archiving. Due to the nature of such documents, degraded document images are often hard to read, have low contrast, and are corrupted by various artifacts. We describe a novel approach for the enhancement of such documents based on probabilistic models which increases the contrast, and thus, readability of such documents under various degradations. The enhancement produced by the proposed approach can be viewed under different viewing conditions if desired. The proposed approach was evaluated qualitatively and compared to standard enhancement techniques on a subset of historical documents obtained from the Yad Vashem Holocaust museum. In addition, quantitative performance was evaluated based on synthetically generated data corrupted under various degradation models. Preliminary results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  16. Package for Interactive Analysis of Line Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashyap, Vinay; Hunter, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    PINTofALE is an IDL based package to analyze high-resolution grating spectra. The first version was made available to the public on 3 February 2001. Since then we have carried out numerous changes and subsidiary releases. The current release is version 2.0 (released 6 Apr 2004), and we are preparing to release v2.1 within the next month. The changes include bug fixes, upgrades to handle higher versions of IDL and the CHIANTI database, enhancements in user-friendliness, handling of instrument response matrices, and the release of a Markov Chain Monte Carlo based DEM fitting routines. A detailed description of the package, together with fairly detailed documentation, example walk-throughs, and downloadable tar files, are available on-line from http://hea.harvard.edu/PINTofALE/ The website also lists papers that have used PINTofALE in their analysis.

  17. Hydrogen generation in tru waste transportation packages

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, B; Sheaffer, M K; Fischer, L E

    2000-03-27

    This document addresses hydrogen generation in TRU waste transportation packages. The potential sources of hydrogen generation are summarized with a special emphasis on radiolysis. After defining various TRU wastes according to groupings of material types, bounding radiolytic G-values are established for each waste type. Analytical methodologies are developed for prediction of hydrogen gas concentrations for various packaging configurations in which hydrogen generation is due to radiolysis. Representative examples are presented to illustrate how analytical procedures can be used to estimate the hydrogen concentration as a function of time. Methodologies and examples are also provided to show how the time to reach a flammable hydrogen concentration in the innermost confinement layer can be estimated. Finally, general guidelines for limiting the hydrogen generation in the payload and hydrogen accumulation in the innermost confinement layer are described.

  18. Anticounterfeit packaging technologies

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ruchir Y.; Prajapati, Prajesh N.; Agrawal, Y. K.

    2010-01-01

    Packaging is the coordinated system that encloses and protects the dosage form. Counterfeit drugs are the major cause of morbidity, mortality, and failure of public interest in the healthcare system. High price and well-known brands make the pharma market most vulnerable, which accounts for top priority cardiovascular, obesity, and antihyperlipidemic drugs and drugs like sildenafil. Packaging includes overt and covert technologies like barcodes, holograms, sealing tapes, and radio frequency identification devices to preserve the integrity of the pharmaceutical product. But till date all the available techniques are synthetic and although provide considerable protection against counterfeiting, have certain limitations which can be overcome by the application of natural approaches and utilization of the principles of nanotechnology. PMID:22247875

  19. TIDEV: Tidal Evolution package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuartas-Restrepo, P.; Melita, M.; Zuluaga, J.; Portilla, B.; Sucerquia, M.; Miloni, O.

    2016-09-01

    TIDEV (Tidal Evolution package) calculates the evolution of rotation for tidally interacting bodies using Efroimsky-Makarov-Williams (EMW) formalism. The package integrates tidal evolution equations and computes the rotational and dynamical evolution of a planet under tidal and triaxial torques. TIDEV accounts for the perturbative effects due to the presence of the other planets in the system, especially the secular variations of the eccentricity. Bulk parameters include the mass and radius of the planet (and those of the other planets involved in the integration), the size and mass of the host star, the Maxwell time and Andrade's parameter. TIDEV also calculates the time scale that a planet takes to be tidally locked as well as the periods of rotation reached at the end of the spin-orbit evolution.

  20. Fair Package Assignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahaie, Sébastien; Parkes, David C.

    We consider the problem of fair allocation in the package assignment model, where a set of indivisible items, held by single seller, must be efficiently allocated to agents with quasi-linear utilities. A fair assignment is one that is efficient and envy-free. We consider a model where bidders have superadditive valuations, meaning that items are pure complements. Our central result is that core outcomes are fair and even coalition-fair over this domain, while fair distributions may not even exist for general valuations. Of relevance to auction design, we also establish that the core is equivalent to the set of anonymous-price competitive equilibria, and that superadditive valuations are a maximal domain that guarantees the existence of anonymous-price competitive equilibrium. Our results are analogs of core equivalence results for linear prices in the standard assignment model, and for nonlinear, non-anonymous prices in the package assignment model with general valuations.