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Sample records for assessment item format

  1. Formative Assessment in High School Chemistry Teaching: Investigating the Alignment of Teachers' Goals with Their Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandlin, Benjamin; Harshman, Jordan; Yezierski, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    A 2011 report by the Department of Education states that understanding how teachers use results from formative assessments to guide their practice is necessary to improve instruction. Chemistry teachers have goals for items in their formative assessments, but the degree of alignment between what is assessed by these items and the teachers' goals…

  2. An Evaluation of Forced-Choice and True-False Item Formats in Personality Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Douglas N.; And Others

    In a comparative evaluation of a standard true-false format for personality assessment and a forced-choice format, subjects from college residential units were assigned randomly to respond either to the forced-choice or standard true-false form of the Personality Research Form (PRF). All subjects also rated themselves and the members of their…

  3. An Empirical Investigation of Methods for Assessing Item Fit for Mixed Format Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chon, Kyong Hee; Lee, Won-Chan; Ansley, Timothy N.

    2013-01-01

    Empirical information regarding performance of model-fit procedures has been a persistent need in measurement practice. Statistical procedures for evaluating item fit were applied to real test examples that consist of both dichotomously and polytomously scored items. The item fit statistics used in this study included the PARSCALE's G[squared],…

  4. Assessment of differential item functioning.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Chung

    2008-01-01

    This study addresses several important issues in assessment of differential item functioning (DIF). It starts with the definition of DIF, effectiveness of using item fit statistics to detect DIF, and linear modeling of DIF in dichotomous items, polytomous items, facets, and testlet-based items. Because a common metric over groups of test-takers is a prerequisite in DIF assessment, this study reviews three such methods of establishing a common metric: the equal-mean-difficulty method, the all-other-item method, and the constant-item (CI) method. A small simulation demonstrates the superiority of the CI method over the others. As the CI method relies on a correct specification of DIF-free items to serve as anchors, a method of identifying such items is recommended and its effectiveness is illustrated through a simulation. Finally, this study discusses how to assess practical significance of DIF at both item and test levels.

  5. MIMIC Methods for Assessing Differential Item Functioning in Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Shih, Ching-Lin

    2010-01-01

    Three multiple indicators-multiple causes (MIMIC) methods, namely, the standard MIMIC method (M-ST), the MIMIC method with scale purification (M-SP), and the MIMIC method with a pure anchor (M-PA), were developed to assess differential item functioning (DIF) in polytomous items. In a series of simulations, it appeared that all three methods…

  6. Assessing item fit for unidimensional item response theory models using residuals from estimated item response functions.

    PubMed

    Haberman, Shelby J; Sinharay, Sandip; Chon, Kyong Hee

    2013-07-01

    Residual analysis (e.g. Hambleton & Swaminathan, Item response theory: principles and applications, Kluwer Academic, Boston, 1985; Hambleton, Swaminathan, & Rogers, Fundamentals of item response theory, Sage, Newbury Park, 1991) is a popular method to assess fit of item response theory (IRT) models. We suggest a form of residual analysis that may be applied to assess item fit for unidimensional IRT models. The residual analysis consists of a comparison of the maximum-likelihood estimate of the item characteristic curve with an alternative ratio estimate of the item characteristic curve. The large sample distribution of the residual is proved to be standardized normal when the IRT model fits the data. We compare the performance of our suggested residual to the standardized residual of Hambleton et al. (Fundamentals of item response theory, Sage, Newbury Park, 1991) in a detailed simulation study. We then calculate our suggested residuals using data from an operational test. The residuals appear to be useful in assessing the item fit for unidimensional IRT models.

  7. Assessing the acquisition of requesting a variety of preferred items using different speech generating device formats for children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Gevarter, Cindy; O'Reilly, Mark F; Kuhn, Michelle; Watkins, Laci; Ferguson, Raechal; Sammarco, Nicolette; Rojeski, Laura; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2016-07-22

    Five children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were taught to request preferred items using four different augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) displays on an iPad(®)-based speech-generating device (SGD). Acquisition was compared using multi-element designs. Displays included a symbol-based grid, a photo image with embedded hotspots, a hybrid (photo image with embedded hotspots and symbols), and a pop-up symbol grid. Three participants mastered requesting items from a field of four with at least three displays, and one mastered requesting items in a field of two. The fifth participant did not acquire requests in a field of preferred items. Individualized display effects were present, and the photo image appeared to have provided the most consistent advantages for three participants. Some errors were more or less common with specific displays and/or participants. The results have important implications for AAC assessment and implementation protocols.

  8. Estimating the Reliability of a Test Containing Multiple Item Formats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qualls, Audrey L.

    1995-01-01

    Classically parallel, tau-equivalently parallel, and congenerically parallel models representing various degrees of part-test parallelism and their appropriateness for tests composed of multiple item formats are discussed. An appropriate reliability estimate for a test with multiple item formats is presented and illustrated. (SLD)

  9. A Multilevel Assessment of Differential Item Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Linjun

    A multilevel approach was proposed for the assessment of differential item functioning and compared with the traditional logistic regression approach. Data from the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination for 2,300 freshman osteopathic medical students were analyzed. The multilevel approach used three-level hierarchical generalized…

  10. The Fantastic Four of Mathematics Assessment Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlees, Jane

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author makes reference to four comic book characters to make the point that together they are a formidable team, but on their own they are vulnerable. She examines the four components of mathematics assessment items and the need for implicit instruction within the classroom for student success. Just like the "Fantastic Four"…

  11. Assessing the Item Response Theory with Covariate (IRT-C) Procedure for Ascertaining Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tay, Louis; Vermunt, Jeroen K.; Wang, Chun

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the item response theory with covariates (IRT-C) procedure for assessing differential item functioning (DIF) without preknowledge of anchor items (Tay, Newman, & Vermunt, 2011). This procedure begins with a fully constrained baseline model, and candidate items are tested for uniform and/or nonuniform DIF using the Wald statistic.…

  12. Using Mutual Information for Adaptive Item Comparison and Student Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chao-Lin

    2005-01-01

    The author analyzes properties of mutual information between dichotomous concepts and test items. The properties generalize some common intuitions about item comparison, and provide principled foundations for designing item-selection heuristics for student assessment in computer-assisted educational systems. The proposed item-selection strategies…

  13. Descriptive and Inferential Procedures for Assessing Differential Item Functioning in Polytomous Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwick, Rebecca; Thayer, Dorothy T.; Mazzeo, John

    1997-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) assessment procedures for items with more than two ordered score categories, referred to as polytomous items, were evaluated. Three descriptive statistics (standardized mean difference and two procedures based on the SIBTEST computer program) and five inferential procedures were used. Conditions under which the…

  14. Primary Science Assessment Item Setters' Misconceptions Concerning Biological Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boo, Hong Kwen

    2007-01-01

    Assessment is an integral and vital part of teaching and learning, providing feedback on progress through the assessment period to both learners and teachers. However, if test items are flawed because of misconceptions held by the question setter, then such test items are invalid as assessment tools. Moreover, such flawed items are also likely to…

  15. Item Response Methods for Educational Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mislevy, Robert J.; Rieser, Mark R.

    Multiple matrix sampling (MMS) theory indicates how data may be gathered to most efficiently convey information about levels of attainment in a population, but standard analyses of these data require random sampling of items from a fixed pool of items. This assumption proscribes the retirement of flawed or obsolete items from the pool as well as…

  16. Analysis of Differential Item Functioning in the NAEP History Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwick, Rebecca; Ercikan, Kadriye

    The Mantel-Haenszel approach for investigating differential item functioning (DIF) was applied to U.S. history items that were administered as part of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). DIF analyses were based on the responses of 7,743 students in grade 11. On some items, Blacks, Hispanics, and females performed more poorly…

  17. Classification Accuracy of Mixed Format Tests: A Bi-Factor Item Response Theory Approach

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Drasgow, Fritz; Liu, Liwen

    2016-01-01

    Mixed format tests (e.g., a test consisting of multiple-choice [MC] items and constructed response [CR] items) have become increasingly popular. However, the latent structure of item pools consisting of the two formats is still equivocal. Moreover, the implications of this latent structure are unclear: For example, do constructed response items tap reasoning skills that cannot be assessed with multiple choice items? This study explored the dimensionality of mixed format tests by applying bi-factor models to 10 tests of various subjects from the College Board's Advanced Placement (AP) Program and compared the accuracy of scores based on the bi-factor analysis with scores derived from a unidimensional analysis. More importantly, this study focused on a practical and important question—classification accuracy of the overall grade on a mixed format test. Our findings revealed that the degree of multidimensionality resulting from the mixed item format varied from subject to subject, depending on the disattenuated correlation between scores from MC and CR subtests. Moreover, remarkably small decrements in classification accuracy were found for the unidimensional analysis when the disattenuated correlations exceeded 0.90. PMID:26973568

  18. Test item linguistic complexity and assessments for deaf students.

    PubMed

    Cawthon, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Linguistic complexity of test items is one test format element that has been studied in the context of struggling readers and their participation in paper-and-pencil tests. The present article presents findings from an exploratory study on the potential relationship between linguistic complexity and test performance for deaf readers. A total of 64 students completed 52 multiple-choice items, 32 in mathematics and 20 in reading. These items were coded for linguistic complexity components of vocabulary, syntax, and discourse. Mathematics items had higher linguistic complexity ratings than reading items, but there were no significant relationships between item linguistic complexity scores and student performance on the test items. The discussion addresses issues related to the subject area, student proficiency levels in the test content, factors to look for in determining a "linguistic complexity effect," and areas for further research in test item development and deaf students.

  19. Assessing Scientific Reasoning: A Comprehensive Evaluation of Item Features That Affect Item Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiller, Jurik; Hartmann, Stefan; Mathesius, Sabrina; Straube, Philipp; Tiemann, Rüdiger; Nordmeier, Volkhard; Krüger, Dirk; Upmeier zu Belzen, Annette

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the criterion-related test score interpretation of a text-based assessment of scientific reasoning competencies in higher education by evaluating factors which systematically affect item difficulty. To provide evidence about the specific demands which test items of various difficulty make on pre-service…

  20. Applying Item Response Theory methods to design a learning progression-based science assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing

    Learning progressions are used to describe how students' understanding of a topic progresses over time and to classify the progress of students into steps or levels. This study applies Item Response Theory (IRT) based methods to investigate how to design learning progression-based science assessments. The research questions of this study are: (1) how to use items in different formats to classify students into levels on the learning progression, (2) how to design a test to give good information about students' progress through the learning progression of a particular construct and (3) what characteristics of test items support their use for assessing students' levels. Data used for this study were collected from 1500 elementary and secondary school students during 2009--2010. The written assessment was developed in several formats such as the Constructed Response (CR) items, Ordered Multiple Choice (OMC) and Multiple True or False (MTF) items. The followings are the main findings from this study. The OMC, MTF and CR items might measure different components of the construct. A single construct explained most of the variance in students' performances. However, additional dimensions in terms of item format can explain certain amount of the variance in student performance. So additional dimensions need to be considered when we want to capture the differences in students' performances on different types of items targeting the understanding of the same underlying progression. Items in each item format need to be improved in certain ways to classify students more accurately into the learning progression levels. This study establishes some general steps that can be followed to design other learning progression-based tests as well. For example, first, the boundaries between levels on the IRT scale can be defined by using the means of the item thresholds across a set of good items. Second, items in multiple formats can be selected to achieve the information criterion at all

  1. Development and assessment of floor and ceiling items for the PROMIS physical function item bank

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Disability and Physical Function (PF) outcome assessment has had limited ability to measure functional status at the floor (very poor functional abilities) or the ceiling (very high functional abilities). We sought to identify, develop and evaluate new floor and ceiling items to enable broader and more precise assessment of PF outcomes for the NIH Patient-Reported-Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Methods We conducted two cross-sectional studies using NIH PROMIS item improvement protocols with expert review, participant survey and focus group methods. In Study 1, respondents with low PF abilities evaluated new floor items, and those with high PF abilities evaluated new ceiling items for clarity, importance and relevance. In Study 2, we compared difficulty ratings of new floor items by low functioning respondents and ceiling items by high functioning respondents to reference PROMIS PF-10 items. We used frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations to analyze the data. Results In Study 1, low (n = 84) and high (n = 90) functioning respondents were mostly White, women, 70 years old, with some college, and disability scores of 0.62 and 0.30. More than 90% of the 31 new floor and 31 new ceiling items were rated as clear, important and relevant, leaving 26 ceiling and 30 floor items for Study 2. Low (n = 246) and high (n = 637) functioning Study 2 respondents were mostly White, women, 70 years old, with some college, and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) scores of 1.62 and 0.003. Compared to difficulty ratings of reference items, ceiling items were rated to be 10% more to greater than 40% more difficult to do, and floor items were rated to be about 12% to nearly 90% less difficult to do. Conclusions These new floor and ceiling items considerably extend the measurable range of physical function at either extreme. They will help improve instrument performance in populations with broad functional ranges and those concentrated at

  2. A generalized item response tree model for psychological assessments.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Minjeong; De Boeck, Paul

    2016-09-01

    A new item response theory (IRT) model with a tree structure has been introduced for modeling item response processes with a tree structure. In this paper, we present a generalized item response tree model with a flexible parametric form, dimensionality, and choice of covariates. The utilities of the model are demonstrated with two applications in psychological assessments for investigating Likert scale item responses and for modeling omitted item responses. The proposed model is estimated with the freely available R package flirt (Jeon et al., 2014b).

  3. Scaling Performance Assessments: Strategies for Managing Local Item Dependence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Wendy M.

    1993-01-01

    Results from the Maryland School Performance Assessment Program for 5,392 elementary school students and from the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills (multiple choice) for a national sample are used to explore local item independence (LID) of test items. Some strategies are suggested for measuring LID in performance assessments. (SLD)

  4. Multi-item direct behavior ratings: Dependability of two levels of assessment specificity.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Robert J; Briesch, Amy M

    2015-09-01

    Direct Behavior Rating-Multi-Item Scales (DBR-MIS) have been developed as formative measures of behavioral assessment for use in school-based problem-solving models. Initial research has examined the dependability of composite scores generated by summing all items comprising the scales. However, it has been argued that DBR-MIS may offer assessment of 2 levels of behavioral specificity (i.e., item-level, global composite-level). Further, it has been argued that scales can be individualized for each student to improve efficiency without sacrificing technical characteristics. The current study examines the dependability of 5 items comprising a DBR-MIS designed to measure classroom disruptive behavior. A series of generalizability theory and decision studies were conducted to examine the dependability of each item (calls out, noisy, clowns around, talks to classmates and out of seat), as well as a 3-item composite that was individualized for each student. Seven graduate students rated the behavior of 9 middle-school students on each item over 3 occasions. Ratings were based on 10-min video clips of students during mathematics instruction. Separate generalizability and decision studies were conducted for each item and for a 3-item composite that was individualized for each student based on the highest rated items on the first rating occasion. Findings indicate favorable dependability estimates for 3 of the 5 items and exceptional dependability estimates for the individualized composite.

  5. Item Feature Effects in Evolution Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehm, Ross H.; Ha, Minsu

    2011-01-01

    Despite concerted efforts by science educators to understand patterns of evolutionary reasoning in science students and teachers, the vast majority of evolution education studies have failed to carefully consider or control for item feature effects in knowledge measurement. Our study explores whether robust contextualization patterns emerge within…

  6. Do Images Influence Assessment in Anatomy? Exploring the Effect of Images on Item Difficulty and Item Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Anatomists often use images in assessments and examinations. This study aims to investigate the influence of different types of images on item difficulty and item discrimination in written assessments. A total of 210 of 460 students volunteered for an extra assessment in a gross anatomy course. This assessment contained 39 test items grouped in…

  7. Assessing Existing Item Bank Depth for Computer Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergstrom, Betty A.; Stahl, John A.

    This paper reports a method for assessing the adequacy of existing item banks for computer adaptive testing. The method takes into account content specifications, test length, and stopping rules, and can be used to determine if an existing item bank is adequate to administer a computer adaptive test efficiently across differing levels of examinee…

  8. Cooperative Industrial/Vocational Education. Test Items and Assessment Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clifton L.; Elias, Julie Whitaker

    This document contains multiple-choice test items and assessment techniques in the form of instructional management plans for Missouri's cooperative industrial-vocational education core curriculum. The test items and techniques are relevant to these 15 occupational duties: (1) career research and planning; (2) computer awareness; (3) employment…

  9. Analysis of Differential Item Functioning in the NAEP History Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwick, Rebecca; Ercikan, Kadriye

    1989-01-01

    The Mantel-Haenszel approach for investigating differential item functioning (DIF) was applied to United States history items within the 1986 National Assessment of Educational Progress administered to 7,812 11th graders. DIF analyses were based on responses of 7,743 11th graders. Results concerning sex and racial differences and ethnicity are…

  10. Assessment of Differential Item Functioning for Performance Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwick, Rebecca; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Two extensions of the Mantel Haenszel procedure that may be useful in assessing differential item functioning (DIF) are explored. Simulation results showed that, for both inferential procedures, the studied item should be included in the matching variable, as in the dichotomous case. (SLD)

  11. Mixed-Format Test Score Equating: Effect of Item-Type Multidimensionality, Length and Composition of Common-Item Set, and Group Ability Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Mixed-format tests containing both multiple-choice (MC) items and constructed-response (CR) items are now widely used in many testing programs. Mixed-format tests often are considered to be superior to tests containing only MC items although the use of multiple item formats leads to measurement challenges in the context of equating conducted under…

  12. The Effects of Item Preview on Video-Based Multiple-Choice Listening Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koyama, Dennis; Sun, Angela; Ockey, Gary J.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple-choice formats remain a popular design for assessing listening comprehension, yet no consensus has been reached on how multiple-choice formats should be employed. Some researchers argue that test takers must be provided with a preview of the items prior to the input (Buck, 1995; Sherman, 1997); others argue that a preview may decrease the…

  13. Item Response Theory Models for Wording Effects in Mixed-Format Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Hui-Fang; Jin, Kuan-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Many scales contain both positively and negatively worded items. Reverse recoding of negatively worded items might not be enough for them to function as positively worded items do. In this study, we commented on the drawbacks of existing approaches to wording effect in mixed-format scales and used bi-factor item response theory (IRT) models to…

  14. Assessing Differential Item Functioning in Performance Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwick, Rebecca; And Others

    Although the belief has been expressed that performance assessments are intrinsically more fair than multiple-choice measures, some forms of performance assessment may in fact be more likely than conventional tests to tap construct-irrelevant factors. As performance assessment grows in popularity, it will be increasingly important to monitor the…

  15. The Impact of Test Dimensionality, Common-Item Set Format, and Scale Linking Methods on Mixed-Format Test Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Öztürk-Gübes, Nese; Kelecioglu, Hülya

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of dimensionality, common-item set format, and different scale linking methods on preserving equity property with mixed-format test equating. Item response theory (IRT) true-score equating (TSE) and IRT observed-score equating (OSE) methods were used under common-item nonequivalent groups design.…

  16. Alignment of Content and Effectiveness of Mathematics Assessment Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulm, Gerald; Dager Wilson, Linda; Kitchen, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Alignment has taken on increased importance given the current high-stakes nature of assessment. To make well-informed decisions about student learning on the basis of test results, assessment items need to be well aligned with standards. Project 2061 of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) has developed a procedure for…

  17. Factors Influencing the Mantel and Generalized Mantel-Haenszel Methods for the Assessment of Differential Item Functioning in Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Su, Ya-Hui

    2004-01-01

    Eight independent variables (differential item functioning [DIF] detection method, purification procedure, item response model, mean latent trait difference between groups, test length, DIF pattern, magnitude of DIF, and percentage of DIF items) were manipulated, and two dependent variables (Type I error and power) were assessed through…

  18. Formative Assessment Probes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberle, Francis; Keeley, Page

    2008-01-01

    Formative assessment probes can be effective tools to help teachers build a bridge between students' initial ideas and scientific ones. In this article, the authors describe how using two formative assessment probes can help teachers determine the extent to which students make similar connections between developing a concept of matter and a…

  19. Formative Assessment in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxenford-O'Brian, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation responds to critical gaps in current research on formative assessment practice which could limit successful implementation of this practice within the K-12 classroom context. The study applies a socio cultural perspective of learning to interpret a cross-case analysis of formative assessment practice occurring during one…

  20. Measurement Properties of Two Innovative Item Formats in a Computer-Based Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Lei; Henly, George A.

    2012-01-01

    Many innovative item formats have been proposed over the past decade, but little empirical research has been conducted on their measurement properties. This study examines the reliability, efficiency, and construct validity of two innovative item formats--the figural response (FR) and constructed response (CR) formats used in a K-12 computerized…

  1. Fundamentals of Marketing Core Curriculum. Test Items and Assessment Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clifton L.; And Others

    This document contains multiple choice test items and assessment techniques for Missouri's fundamentals of marketing core curriculum. The core curriculum is divided into these nine occupational duties: (1) communications in marketing; (2) economics and marketing; (3) employment and advancement; (4) human relations in marketing; (5) marketing…

  2. Exploring Crossing Differential Item Functioning by Gender in Mathematics Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Yoke Mooi; Williams, Julian; Lamprianou, Iasonas

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore crossing differential item functioning (DIF) in a test drawn from a national examination of mathematics for 11-year-old pupils in England. An empirical dataset was analyzed to explore DIF by gender in a mathematics assessment. A two-step process involving the logistic regression (LR) procedure for…

  3. Advanced Marketing Core Curriculum. Test Items and Assessment Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clifton L.; And Others

    This document contains duties and tasks, multiple-choice test items, and other assessment techniques for Missouri's advanced marketing core curriculum. The core curriculum begins with a list of 13 suggested textbook resources. Next, nine duties with their associated tasks are given. Under each task appears one or more citations to appropriate…

  4. A Framework for Dimensionality Assessment for Multidimensional Item Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svetina, Dubravka; Levy, Roy

    2014-01-01

    A framework is introduced for considering dimensionality assessment procedures for multidimensional item response models. The framework characterizes procedures in terms of their confirmatory or exploratory approach, parametric or nonparametric assumptions, and applicability to dichotomous, polytomous, and missing data. Popular and emerging…

  5. Demonstrating Local Item Dependence for Recognition and Supply Format Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastick, Tony

    This study tested the hypothesis that the common approach to test construction in which recognition questions (RQs), such as multiple-choice items, are followed by constructed response questions (CRQs) encourages students to use the informationally rich RQs to gain marks on the CRQs, thus introducing Local Item Dependence (LID) and inflating the…

  6. TIFAID: A Test Item Format Selection Job Aid for Use by Instructional Developers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llaneras, Robert E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents a job aid for determining test-item format called TIFAID (Test Item Format Job Aid), based on adequately constructed instructional objectives. The four sections of the job aid are described: (1) a task classification system; (2) task-related questions; (3) a flowchart; and (4) a tips and techniques guide. (Contains four references.) (LRW)

  7. Item Response Theory with Covariates (IRT-C): Assessing Item Recovery and Differential Item Functioning for the Three-Parameter Logistic Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tay, Louis; Huang, Qiming; Vermunt, Jeroen K.

    2016-01-01

    In large-scale testing, the use of multigroup approaches is limited for assessing differential item functioning (DIF) across multiple variables as DIF is examined for each variable separately. In contrast, the item response theory with covariate (IRT-C) procedure can be used to examine DIF across multiple variables (covariates) simultaneously. To…

  8. The Importance of the Item Format with Respect to Gender Differences in Test Performance: A Study of Open-Format Items in the DTM Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wester, Anita

    1995-01-01

    The effect of different item formats (multiple choice and open) on gender differences in test performance was studied for the Swedish Diagrams, Tables, and Maps (DTM) test with 90 secondary school students. The change to open format resulted in no reduction in gender differences on the DTM. (SLD)

  9. The Impact of Reading Self-Efficacy and Task Value on Reading Comprehension Scores in Different Item Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solheim, Oddny Judith

    2011-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that students with low self-efficacy will struggle with complex reading tasks in assessment situations. In this study we examined whether perceived reading self-efficacy and reading task value uniquely predicted reading comprehension scores in two different item formats in a sample of fifth-grade students. Results showed…

  10. IRT-Estimated Reliability for Tests Containing Mixed Item Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shu, Lianghua; Schwarz, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    As a global measure of precision, item response theory (IRT) estimated reliability is derived for four coefficients (Cronbach's a, Feldt-Raju, stratified a, and marginal reliability). Models with different underlying assumptions concerning test-part similarity are discussed. A detailed computational example is presented for the targeted…

  11. Relation of field independence and test-item format to student performance on written piagetian tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ló; Pez-Rupérez, F.; Palacios, C.; Sanchez, J.

    In this study we have investigated the relationship between the field-dependence-independence (FDI) dimension as measured by the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) and subject performance on the Longeot test, a pencil-and-paper Piagetian test, through the open or closed format of its items. The sample consisted of 141 high school students. Correlation and variance analysis show that the FDI dimension and GEFT correlate significantly on only those items on the Longeot test that require formal reasoning. The effect of open- or closed-item format is found exclusively for formal items; only the open format discriminates significantly (at the 0.01 level) between the field-dependent and -independent subjects performing on this type of item. Some implications of these results for science education are discussed.

  12. The Impact of Item Format and Examinee Characteristics on Response Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Brian J.; Johnston, Mary M.; Lipner, Rebecca S.

    2013-01-01

    Current research on examination response time has focused on tests comprised of traditional multiple-choice items. Consequently, the impact of other innovative or complex item formats on examinee response time is not understood. The present study used multilevel growth modeling to investigate examinee characteristics associated with response time…

  13. The Contribution of Constructed Response Items to Large Scale Assessment: Measuring and Understanding Their Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lissitz, Robert W.; Hou, Xiaodong; Slater, Sharon Cadman

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates several questions regarding the impact of different item formats on measurement characteristics. Constructed response (CR) items and multiple choice (MC) items obviously differ in their formats and in the resources needed to score them. As such, they have been the subject of considerable discussion regarding the impact of…

  14. Descriptive Study of High-Stakes Science Assessments: Prevalence, Content, and the Possible Effect of Incorporating Innovative Item Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Shani Malaika

    Framed by a discussion of the heightened importance of science education in the U.S., this paper describes the prevalence, content, and format of high-stakes science assessments in the U.S. and explores the possibility that differences in assessment format may affect score gaps among student subgroups. An analysis of proficiency rates for 2010-11 high school exit exams in science was inconclusive; however, score gaps among ethnic subgroups on the 2009 grade 12 NAEP science assessment were larger for multiple choice items than for performance-based components. Further, a comparison of subgroup score gaps on the 2009 NAEP science assessment and those on the ACT science subtest suggest that the assessment with more diverse and innovative items resulted in a smaller gap in subgroup test scores. These findings point to the need for greater investigation of the extent to which item type affects subgroup score differences on science assessments.

  15. Formative Assessment: Simply, No Additives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskos, Kathleen; Neuman, Susan B.

    2012-01-01

    Among the types of assessment the closest to daily reading instruction is formative assessment. In contrast to summative assessment, which occurs after instruction, formative assessment involves forming judgments frequently in the flow of instruction. Key features of formative assessment include identifying gaps between where students are and…

  16. Predicting Item Difficulty of Science National Curriculum Tests: The Case of Key Stage 2 Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Masri, Yasmine H.; Ferrara, Steve; Foltz, Peter W.; Baird, Jo-Anne

    2017-01-01

    Predicting item difficulty is highly important in education for both teachers and item writers. Despite identifying a large number of explanatory variables, predicting item difficulty remains a challenge in educational assessment with empirical attempts rarely exceeding 25% of variance explained. This paper analyses 216 science items of key stage…

  17. Primary Science Assessment Item Setters' Misconceptions Concerning the State Changes of Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boo, Hong Kwen

    2006-01-01

    Assessment is an integral and vital part of teaching and learning, providing feedback on progress through the assessment period to both learners and teachers. However, if test items are flawed because of misconceptions held by the questions setter, then such test items are invalid as assessment tools. Moreover, such flawed items are also likely to…

  18. Rasch Based Analysis of Oral Presentation Assessment for Item Banking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Yuji

    The Rasch Model is an item response theory, one parameter model developed that states that the probability of a correct response is a function of the difficulty of the item and the ability of the candidate. Item banking is useful for language testing. The Rasch Model provides estimates of item difficulties that are meaningful, irrespective of…

  19. Mathematics Strategy Use in Solving Test Items in Varied Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Although test scores from similar tests in multiple choice and constructed response formats are highly correlated, equivalence in rankings may mask differences in substantive strategy use. The author used an experimental design and participant think-alouds to explore cognitive processes in mathematical problem solving among undergraduate examinees…

  20. Influence of Item Direction on Student Responses in Attitude Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Noma Jo; Grissom, Stephen

    To investigate the effects of wording in attitude test items, a five-point Likert-type rating scale was administered to 173 undergraduate education majors. The test measured attitudes toward college and self, and contained 38 positively-worded items. Thirty-eight negatively-worded items were also written to parallel the positive statements.…

  1. Adaptive testing for psychological assessment: how many items are enough to run an adaptive testing algorithm?

    PubMed

    Wagner-Menghin, Michaela M; Masters, Geoff N

    2013-01-01

    Although the principles of adaptive testing were established in the psychometric literature many years ago (e.g., Weiss, 1977), and practice of adaptive testing is established in educational assessment, it not yet widespread in psychological assessment. One obstacle to adaptive psychological testing is a lack of clarity about the necessary number of items to run an adaptive algorithm. The study explores the relationship between item bank size, test length and measurement precision. Simulated adaptive test runs (allowing a maximum of 30 items per person) out of an item bank with 10 items per ability level (covering .5 logits, 150 items total) yield a standard error of measurement (SEM) of .47 (.39) after an average of 20 (29) items for 85-93% (64-82%) of the simulated rectangular sample. Expanding the bank to 20 items per level (300 items total) did not improve the algorithm's performance significantly. With a small item bank (5 items per ability level, 75 items total) it is possible to reach the same SEM as with a conventional test, but with fewer items or a better SEM with the same number of items.

  2. Reading Grade Levels and Mathematics Assessment: An Analysis of Texas Mathematics Assessment Items and Their Reading Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, John H.

    2010-01-01

    Increased reading difficulty of mathematics assessment items has been shown to negatively affect student performance. The advent of high-stakes testing, which has serious ramifications for students' futures and teachers' careers, necessitates analysis of reading difficulty on state assessment items and student performance on those items. Using…

  3. Missouri Assessment Program (MAP), Spring 2000: High School Health/Physical Education, Released Items, Grade 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City.

    This document presents 10 released items from the Health/Physical Education Missouri Assessment Program (MAP) test given in the spring of 2000 to ninth graders. Items from the test sessions include: selected-response (multiple choice), constructed-response, and a performance event. The selected-response items consist of individual questions…

  4. Missouri Assessment Program (MAP), Spring 2000: Elementary Health/Physical Education, Released Items, Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City.

    This document presents 10 released items from the Health/Physical Education Missouri Assessment Program (MAP) test given in the spring of 2000 to fifth graders. Items from the test sessions include: selected-response (multiple choice), constructed-response, and a performance event. The selected-response items consist of individual questions…

  5. Detection of Gender-Based Differential Item Functioning in a Mathematics Performance Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ning; Lane, Suzanne

    This study used three different differential item functioning (DIF) procedures to examine the extent to which items in a mathematics performance assessment functioned differently for matched gender groups. In addition to examining the appropriateness of individual items in terms of DIF with respect to gender, an attempt was made to identify…

  6. Calibration of an Item Bank for the Assessment of Basque Language Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Cuadrado, Javier; Perez, Tomas A.; Vadillo, Jose A.; Gutierrez, Julian

    2010-01-01

    The main requisite for a functional computerized adaptive testing system is the need of a calibrated item bank. This text presents the tasks carried out during the calibration of an item bank for assessing knowledge of Basque language. It has been done in terms of the 3-parameter logistic model provided by the item response theory. Besides, this…

  7. Developing a Taxonomy of Item Model Types to Promote Assessment Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierl, Mark J.; Zhou, Jiawen; Alves, Cecila

    2008-01-01

    An item model serves as an explicit representation of the variables in an assessment task. An item model includes the "stem", "options", and "auxiliary information". The "stem" is the part of an item which formulates context, content, and/or the question the examinee is required to answer. The "options" contain the alternative answers with one…

  8. Modified Multiple-Choice Items for Alternate Assessments: Reliability, Difficulty, and Differential Boost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettler, Ryan J.; Rodriguez, Michael C.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Beddow, Peter A.; Kurz, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Federal policy on alternate assessment based on modified academic achievement standards (AA-MAS) inspired this research. Specifically, an experimental study was conducted to determine whether tests composed of modified items would have the same level of reliability as tests composed of original items, and whether these modified items helped reduce…

  9. The DIF-Free-Then-DIF Strategy for the Assessment of Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Shih, Ching-Lin; Sun, Guo-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The DIF-free-then-DIF (DFTD) strategy consists of two steps: (a) select a set of items that are the most likely to be DIF-free and (b) assess the other items for DIF (differential item functioning) using the designated items as anchors. The rank-based method together with the computer software IRTLRDIF can select a set of DIF-free polytomous items…

  10. Development of the Assessment Items of Debris Flow Using the Delphi Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Yosep; Seong, Joohyun; Kim, Mingi; Park, Kyunghan; Yoon, Hyungkoo

    2016-04-01

    In recent years in Korea, Typhoon and the localized extreme rainfall caused by the abnormal climate has increased. Accordingly, debris flow is becoming one of the most dangerous natural disaster. This study aimed to develop the assessment items which can be used for conducting damage investigation of debris flow. Delphi method was applied to classify the realms of assessment items. As a result, 29 assessment items which can be classified into 6 groups were determined.

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Several Methods of Assessing Item Bias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ironson, Gail H.

    Four statistical methods for identifying biased test items were used with data from two ethnic groups (1,691 black and 1,794 white high school seniors). The data were responses to 150 items in five subtests including two traditional tests (reading and mathematics) and three nontraditional tests (picture number test of associative memory, letter…

  12. Assessing the Efficiency of Item Selection in Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Alexander

    This study investigated the efficiency of item selection in a computerized adaptive test (CAT), where efficiency was defined in terms of the accumulated test information at an examinee's true ability level. A simulation methodology compared the efficiency of 2 item selection procedures with 5 ability estimation procedures for CATs of 5, 10, 15,…

  13. Formative Assessment Probes: Is It a Rock? Continuous Formative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2013-01-01

    A lesson plan is provided for a formative assessment probe entitled "Is It a Rock?" This probe is designed for teaching elementary school students about rocks through the use of a formative assessment classroom technique (FACT) known as the group Frayer Model. FACT activates students' thinking about a concept and can be used to…

  14. Assessment of Differential Item Functioning under Cognitive Diagnosis Models: The DINA Model Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xiaomin; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of differential item functioning (DIF) is routinely conducted to ensure test fairness and validity. Although many DIF assessment methods have been developed in the context of classical test theory and item response theory, they are not applicable for cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs), as the underlying latent attributes of CDMs are…

  15. Formative Assessment: A Cybernetic Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roos, Bertil; Hamilton, David

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers alternative assessment, feedback and cybernetics. For more than 30 years, debates about the bi-polarity of formative and summative assessment have served as surrogates for discussions about the workings of the mind, the social implications of assessment and, as important, the role of instruction in the advancement of learning.…

  16. Posterior Predictive Assessment of Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinharay, Sandip; Johnson, Matthew S.; Stern, Hal S.

    2006-01-01

    Model checking in item response theory (IRT) is an underdeveloped area. There is no universally accepted tool for checking IRT models. The posterior predictive model-checking method is a popular Bayesian model-checking tool because it has intuitive appeal, is simple to apply, has a strong theoretical basis, and can provide graphical or numerical…

  17. Assessing Personality Traits through Response Latencies Using Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranger, Jochen; Ortner, Tuulia M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed a relation between the given response and the response latency for personality questionnaire items in the form of an inverted-U effect, which has been interpreted in light of schema-driven behavior. In general, more probable responses are given faster. In the present study, the relationship between the probability of…

  18. Determining When Single Scoring for Constructed-Response Items Is as Effective as Double Scoring in Mixed-Format Licensure Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sooyeon; Moses, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The major purpose of this study is to assess the conditions under which single scoring for constructed-response (CR) items is as effective as double scoring in the licensure testing context. We used both empirical datasets of five mixed-format licensure tests collected in actual operational settings and simulated datasets that allowed for the…

  19. A Monte Carlo Study Investigating the Influence of Item Discrimination, Category Intersection Parameters, and Differential Item Functioning Patterns on the Detection of Differential Item Functioning in Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurman, Carol

    2009-01-01

    The increased use of polytomous item formats has led assessment developers to pay greater attention to the detection of differential item functioning (DIF) in these items. DIF occurs when an item performs differently for two contrasting groups of respondents (e.g., males versus females) after controlling for differences in the abilities of the…

  20. Using Kernel Equating to Assess Item Order Effects on Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim; Yang, Wen-Ling; Wilson, Christine

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the use of kernel equating for integrating and extending two procedures proposed for assessing item order effects in test forms that have been administered to randomly equivalent groups. When these procedures are used together, they can provide complementary information about the extent to which item order effects impact test…

  1. An Approach to Scoring and Equating Tests with Binary Items: Piloting With Large-Scale Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrov, Dimiter M.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an approach to test scoring, referred to as "delta scoring" (D-scoring), for tests with dichotomously scored items. The D-scoring uses information from item response theory (IRT) calibration to facilitate computations and interpretations in the context of large-scale assessments. The D-score is computed from the…

  2. International Assessment: A Rasch Model and Teachers' Evaluation of TIMSS Science Achievement Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glynn, Shawn M.

    2012-01-01

    The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) is a comparative assessment of the achievement of students in many countries. In the present study, a rigorous independent evaluation was conducted of a representative sample of TIMSS science test items because item quality influences the validity of the scores used to inform…

  3. Assessment of Preference for Edible and Leisure Items in Individuals with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Javier Virues; Iwata, Brian A.; Nogales-Gonzalez, Celia; Frades, Belen

    2012-01-01

    We conducted 2 studies on reinforcer preference in patients with dementia. Results of preference assessments yielded differential selections by 14 participants. Unlike prior studies with individuals with intellectual disabilities, all participants showed a noticeable preference for leisure items over edible items. Results of a subsequent analysis…

  4. A HO-IRT Based Diagnostic Assessment System with Constructed Response Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chih-Wei; Kuo, Bor-Chen; Liao, Chen-Huei

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop an on-line assessment system with constructed response items in the context of elementary mathematics curriculum. The system recorded the problem solving process of constructed response items and transfered the process to response codes for further analyses. An inference mechanism based on artificial…

  5. Assessing the Validity of a Single-Item HIV Risk Stage-of-Change Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napper, Lucy E.; Branson, Catherine M.; Fisher, Dennis G.; Reynolds, Grace L.; Wood, Michelle M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the validity of a single-item measure of HIV risk stage of change that HIV prevention contractors were required to collect by the California State Office of AIDS. The single-item measure was compared to the more conventional University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA). Participants were members of Los Angeles…

  6. Applying Unidimensional and Multidimensional Item Response Theory Models in Testlet-Based Reading Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Min, Shangchao; He, Lianzhen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relative effectiveness of the multidimensional bi-factor model and multidimensional testlet response theory (TRT) model in accommodating local dependence in testlet-based reading assessment with both dichotomously and polytomously scored items. The data used were 14,089 test-takers' item-level responses to the testlet-based…

  7. A Multidimensional Scaling Approach to Dimensionality Assessment for Measurement Instruments Modeled by Multidimensional Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Maritsa

    2011-01-01

    The statistical assessment of dimensionality provides evidence of the underlying constructs measured by a survey or test instrument. This study focuses on educational measurement, specifically tests comprised of items described as multidimensional. That is, items that require examinee proficiency in multiple content areas and/or multiple cognitive…

  8. Methodologies for Investigating Item- and Test-Level Measurement Equivalence in International Large-Scale Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveri, Maria Elena; Olson, Brent F.; Ercikan, Kadriye; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the Canadian English and French versions of the Problem-Solving Measure of the Programme for International Student Assessment 2003 were examined to investigate their degree of measurement comparability at the item- and test-levels. Three methods of differential item functioning (DIF) were compared: parametric and nonparametric item…

  9. An Investigation of Alternative Methods for Item Mapping in the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwick, Rebecca; Senturk, Deniz; Wang, Joyce; Loomis, Susan Cooper

    2001-01-01

    Compared four mapping item methods using data from the physical science test of the National Assessment of Educational Progress and studied the opinions of science content area experts about the difficulty of the items through a survey completed by 148 science teachers or scientists. Results of model-based mapping methods were more concordant with…

  10. Factor Structure and Reliability of Test Items for Saudi Teacher Licence Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsadaawi, Abdullah Saleh

    2017-01-01

    The Saudi National Assessment Centre administers the Computer Science Teacher Test for teacher certification. The aim of this study is to explore gender differences in candidates' scores, and investigate dimensionality, reliability, and differential item functioning using confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory. The confirmatory…

  11. Considering the Use of General and Modified Assessment Items in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Albano, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    This article used several data sets from a large-scale state testing program to examine the feasibility of combining general and modified assessment items in computerized adaptive testing (CAT) for different groups of students. Results suggested that several of the assumptions made when employing this type of mixed-item CAT may not be met for…

  12. Fighting bias with statistics: Detecting gender differences in responses to items on a preschool science assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, Ariela Caren

    Differential item functioning (DIF) and differential distractor functioning (DDF) are methods used to screen for item bias (Camilli & Shepard, 1994; Penfield, 2008). Using an applied empirical example, this mixed-methods study examined the congruency and relationship of DIF and DDF methods in screening multiple-choice items. Data for Study I were drawn from item responses of 271 female and 236 male low-income children on a preschool science assessment. Item analyses employed a common statistical approach of the Mantel-Haenszel log-odds ratio (MH-LOR) to detect DIF in dichotomously scored items (Holland & Thayer, 1988), and extended the approach to identify DDF (Penfield, 2008). Findings demonstrated that the using MH-LOR to detect DIF and DDF supported the theoretical relationship that the magnitude and form of DIF and are dependent on the DDF effects, and demonstrated the advantages of studying DIF and DDF in multiple-choice items. A total of 4 items with DIF and DDF and 5 items with only DDF were detected. Study II incorporated an item content review, an important but often overlooked and under-published step of DIF and DDF studies (Camilli & Shepard). Interviews with 25 female and 22 male low-income preschool children and an expert review helped to interpret the DIF and DDF results and their comparison, and determined that a content review process of studied items can reveal reasons for potential item bias that are often congruent with the statistical results. Patterns emerged and are discussed in detail. The quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted in an applied framework of examining the validity of the preschool science assessment scores for evaluating science programs serving low-income children, however, the techniques can be generalized for use with measures across various disciplines of research.

  13. Formative Assessment in Dance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Heidi; Lui, Angela; Palma, Maria; Hefferen, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Feedback is crucial to students' growth as dancers. When used within the framework of formative assessment, or assessment for learning, feedback results in actionable next steps that dancers can use to improve their performances. This article showcases the work of two dance specialists, one elementary and one middle school teacher, who have…

  14. A Q3 Statistic for Unfolding Item Response Theory Models: Assessment of Unidimensionality with Two Factors and Simple Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habing, Brian; Finch, Holmes; Roberts, James S.

    2005-01-01

    Although there are many methods available for dimensionality assessment for items with monotone item response functions, there are few methods available for unfolding item response theory models. In this study, a modification of Yen's Q3 statistic is proposed for the case of these nonmonotone item response models. Through a simulation study, the…

  15. A New Method for Assessing the Statistical Significance in the Differential Functioning of Items and Tests (DFIT) Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshima, T. C.; Raju, Nambury S.; Nanda, Alice O.

    2006-01-01

    A new item parameter replication method is proposed for assessing the statistical significance of the noncompensatory differential item functioning (NCDIF) index associated with the differential functioning of items and tests framework. In this new method, a cutoff score for each item is determined by obtaining a (1-alpha ) percentile rank score…

  16. Improving the Reliability of Student Scores from Speeded Assessments: An Illustration of Conditional Item Response Theory Using a Computer-Administered Measure of Vocabulary

    PubMed Central

    Petscher, Yaacov; Mitchell, Alison M.; Foorman, Barbara R.

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that response latency, the amount of time it takes an individual to respond to an item, may be an important factor to consider when using assessment data to estimate the ability of an individual. Considering that tests of passage and list fluency are being adapted to a computer administration format, it is possible that accounting for individual differences in response times may be an increasingly feasible option to strengthen the precision of individual scores. The present research evaluated the differential reliability of scores when using classical test theory and item response theory as compared to a conditional item response model which includes response time as an item parameter. Results indicated that the precision of student ability scores increased by an average of 5 % when using the conditional item response model, with greater improvements for those who were average or high ability. Implications for measurement models of speeded assessments are discussed. PMID:27721568

  17. Ability or Access-Ability: Differential Item Functioning of Items on Alternate Performance-Based Assessment Tests for Students with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zebehazy, Kim T.; Zigmond, Naomi; Zimmerman, George J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated differential item functioning (DIF) of test items on Pennsylvania's Alternate System of Assessment (PASA) for students with visual impairments and severe cognitive disabilities and what the reasons for the differences may be. Methods: The Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used to analyze differences in the scores…

  18. An Examination of Differential Item Functioning on the Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polikoff, Morgan S.; May, Henry; Porter, Andrew C.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Goldring, Ellen; Murphy, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education is a 360-degree assessment of the effectiveness of principals' learning-centered leadership behaviors. In this report, we present results from a differential item functioning (DIF) study of the assessment. Using data from a national field trial, we searched for evidence of DIF on school level,…

  19. Development and Calibration of an Item Bank for PE Metrics Assessments: Standard 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Weimo; Fox, Connie; Park, Youngsik; Fisette, Jennifer L.; Dyson, Ben; Graber, Kim C.; Avery, Marybell; Franck, Marian; Placek, Judith H.; Rink, Judy; Raynes, De

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and calibrate an assessment system, or bank, using the latest measurement theories and methods to promote valid and reliable student assessment in physical education. Using an anchor-test equating design, a total of 30 items or assessments were administered to 5,021 (2,568 boys and 2,453 girls) students in…

  20. Identifying Items to Assess Methodological Quality in Physical Therapy Trials: A Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Greta G.; Fuentes, Jorge; Saltaji, Humam; Ha, Christine; Chisholm, Annabritt; Pasichnyk, Dion; Rogers, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous tools and individual items have been proposed to assess the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The frequency of use of these items varies according to health area, which suggests a lack of agreement regarding their relevance to trial quality or risk of bias. Objective The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the underlying component structure of items and (2) to determine relevant items to evaluate the quality and risk of bias of trials in physical therapy by using an exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Design A methodological research design was used, and an EFA was performed. Methods Randomized controlled trials used for this study were randomly selected from searches of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Two reviewers used 45 items gathered from 7 different quality tools to assess the methodological quality of the RCTs. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted using the principal axis factoring (PAF) method followed by varimax rotation. Results Principal axis factoring identified 34 items loaded on 9 common factors: (1) selection bias; (2) performance and detection bias; (3) eligibility, intervention details, and description of outcome measures; (4) psychometric properties of the main outcome; (5) contamination and adherence to treatment; (6) attrition bias; (7) data analysis; (8) sample size; and (9) control and placebo adequacy. Limitation Because of the exploratory nature of the results, a confirmatory factor analysis is needed to validate this model. Conclusions To the authors' knowledge, this is the first factor analysis to explore the underlying component items used to evaluate the methodological quality or risk of bias of RCTs in physical therapy. The items and factors represent a starting point for evaluating the methodological quality and risk of bias in physical therapy trials. Empirical evidence of the association among these items with treatment effects and a confirmatory factor

  1. A Classification Matrix of Examination Items to Promote Transformative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Mark; Garrett, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The ability to assess learning hinges on the quality of the instruments that are used. This paper reports on the first stage of the design of software to assist educators in ensuring assessment questions meet educational outcomes. A review of the literature within the field of instructional psychology was undertaken with a view towards…

  2. Dimensionality Assessment of Ordered Polytomous Items with Parallel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmerman, Marieke E.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2011-01-01

    Parallel analysis (PA) is an often-recommended approach for assessment of the dimensionality of a variable set. PA is known in different variants, which may yield different dimensionality indications. In this article, the authors considered the most appropriate PA procedure to assess the number of common factors underlying ordered polytomously…

  3. Formative Assessment in Primary Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughland, Tony; Kilpatrick, Laetitia

    2015-01-01

    This action learning study in a year three classroom explored the implementation of five formative assessment principles to assist students' understandings of the scientific topic of liquids and solids. These principles were employed to give students a greater opportunity to express their understanding of the concepts. The study found that the…

  4. Issues in Grouping Items from the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sameroff, Arnold J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the structure, reliability, stability, validity and usefulness of the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) and the results of factor and regression analyses of data collected using the NBAS. (Author/BH)

  5. Informed and Uninformed Naïve Assessment Constructors' Strategies for Item Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fives, Helenrose; Barnes, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    We present a descriptive analysis of 53 naïve assessment constructors' explanations for selecting test items to include on a summative assessment. We randomly assigned participants to an informed and uninformed condition (i.e., informed participants read an article describing a Table of Specifications). Through recursive thematic analyses of…

  6. Gender-Related Differential Item Functioning on a Middle-School Mathematics Performance Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Suzanne; And Others

    This study examined gender-related differential item functioning (DIF) using a mathematics performance assessment, the QUASAR Cognitive Assessment Instrument (QCAI), administered to middle school students. The QCAI was developed for the Quantitative Understanding: Amplifying Student Achievement and Reading (QUASAR) project, which focuses on…

  7. An Anthropologist among the Psychometricians: Assessment Events, Ethnography, and Differential Item Functioning in the Mongolian Gobi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, Bryan; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Tay-Lim, Brenda; Qu, Demin

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the potential for ethnographic observations to inform the analysis of test item performance. In 2010, a standardized, large-scale adult literacy assessment took place in Mongolia as part of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Literacy Assessment and Monitoring Programme (LAMP). In a novel form…

  8. Assessing Dimensionality of Noncompensatory Multidimensional Item Response Theory with Complex Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svetina, Dubravka

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of complex structure on dimensionality assessment in noncompensatory multidimensional item response models using dimensionality assessment procedures based on DETECT (dimensionality evaluation to enumerate contributing traits) and NOHARM (normal ogive harmonic analysis robust method). Five…

  9. Differential Effects of Question Formats in Math Assessment on Metacognition and Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Harold F., Jr.; Brown, Richard S.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of item format on metacognitive and affective processes of children in a large-scale mathematics assessment program were studied. Results from 1032 eighth graders indicate that open-ended and multiple choice items have differential effects, although these did not vary substantially as a function of gender and ethnicity. (SLD)

  10. Modeling the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II using non-parametric item response models.

    PubMed

    Galindo-Garre, Francisca; Hidalgo, María Dolores; Guilera, Georgina; Pino, Oscar; Rojo, J Emilio; Gómez-Benito, Juana

    2015-03-01

    The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II) is a multidimensional instrument developed for measuring disability. It comprises six domains (getting around, self-care, getting along with others, life activities and participation in society). The main purpose of this paper is the evaluation of the psychometric properties for each domain of the WHO-DAS II with parametric and non-parametric Item Response Theory (IRT) models. A secondary objective is to assess whether the WHO-DAS II items within each domain form a hierarchy of invariantly ordered severity indicators of disability. A sample of 352 patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder is used in this study. The 36 items WHO-DAS II was administered during the consultation. Partial Credit and Mokken scale models are used to study the psychometric properties of the questionnaire. The psychometric properties of the WHO-DAS II scale are satisfactory for all the domains. However, we identify a few items that do not discriminate satisfactorily between different levels of disability and cannot be invariantly ordered in the scale. In conclusion the WHO-DAS II can be used to assess overall disability in patients with schizophrenia, but some domains are too general to assess functionality in these patients because they contain items that are not applicable to this pathology.

  11. Dimensionality assessment of ordered polytomous items with parallel analysis.

    PubMed

    Timmerman, Marieke E; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2011-06-01

    Parallel analysis (PA) is an often-recommended approach for assessment of the dimensionality of a variable set. PA is known in different variants, which may yield different dimensionality indications. In this article, the authors considered the most appropriate PA procedure to assess the number of common factors underlying ordered polytomously scored variables. They proposed minimum rank factor analysis (MRFA) as an extraction method, rather than the currently applied principal component analysis (PCA) and principal axes factoring. A simulation study, based on data with major and minor factors, showed that all procedures consistently point at the number of major common factors. A polychoric-based PA slightly outperformed a Pearson-based PA, but convergence problems may hamper its empirical application. In empirical practice, PA-MRFA with a 95% threshold based on polychoric correlations or, in case of nonconvergence, Pearson correlations with mean thresholds appear to be a good choice for identification of the number of common factors. PA-MRFA is a common-factor-based method and performed best in the simulation experiment. PA based on PCA with a 95% threshold is second best, as this method showed good performances in the empirically relevant conditions of the simulation experiment.

  12. The Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS®) Cultural Competence (CC) Item Set

    PubMed Central

    Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Carle, Adam; Weidmer, Beverly; Hurtado, Margarita; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen; Hays, Ron D.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a need for reliable and valid measures of cultural competence from the patient’s perspective. Objective This paper evaluates the reliability and validity of the Consumer Assessments of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS®) Cultural Competence (CC) item set. Research Design Using 2008 survey data, we assessed the internal consistency of the CAHPS CC scales using Cronbach alphas, and examined the validity of the measures using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, multitrait scaling analysis, and regression analysis. Subjects A random stratified sample (based on race/ethnicity and language) of 991 enrollees, less than 65 years old, from two Medicaid managed care plans in California and New York. Measures CAHPS CC item set after excluding screener items and ratings. Results Confirmatory factor analysis (CFI= 0.98; TLI= 0.98; RMSEA= 0.06) provided support for a seven-factor structure: Doctor Communication-Positive Behaviors; Doctor Communication-Negative Behaviors; Doctor Communication-Health Promotion; Doctor Communication-Alternative Medicine; Shared Decision Making; Equitable Treatment; and Trust. Item--total correlations (corrected for item overlap) for the 7 scales exceeded 0.40. Exploratory factor analysis showed support for one additional factor: Access to Interpreter Services. Internal consistency reliability estimates ranged from 0.58 (Alternative Medicine) to 0.92 (Positive Behaviors), and was 0.70 or higher for four of the eight composites. All composites were positively and significantly associated with the overall doctor rating. Conclusions The CAHPS CC 26-item set demonstrates adequate measurement properties, and can be used as a supplemental item set to the CAHPS Clinician and Group Surveys in assessing culturally competent care from the patient’s perspective. PMID:22895226

  13. How Do You Know if They're Getting It? Writing Assessment Items that Reveal Student Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Melanie; Smith, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Through a project funded by the National Science Foundation, Horizon Research has been developing assessment items for students (in the process, compiling item-writing principles from several sources and adding their own). In this article, the authors share what they have learned about writing items that reveal student understanding, including…

  14. Improving the Reliability of Student Scores from Speeded Assessments: An Illustration of Conditional Item Response Theory Using a Computer-Administered Measure of Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petscher, Yaacov; Mitchell, Alison M.; Foorman, Barbara R.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that response latency, the amount of time it takes an individual to respond to an item, may be an important factor to consider when using assessment data to estimate the ability of an individual. Considering that tests of passage and list fluency are being adapted to a computer administration format, it is…

  15. Psychometrical assessment and item analysis of the General Health Questionnaire in victims of terrorism.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Gomez, David; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; de Leon-Martinez, Victoria; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Cabanas-Arrate, Maria Luisa; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Antonio; Aguado, David

    2013-03-01

    There is a need to assess the psychiatric morbidity that appears as a consequence of terrorist attacks. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) has been used to this end, but its psychometric properties have never been evaluated in a population affected by terrorism. A sample of 891 participants included 162 direct victims of terrorist attacks and 729 relatives of the victims. All participants were evaluated using the 28-item version of the GHQ (GHQ-28). We examined the reliability and external validity of scores on the scale using Cronbach's alpha and Pearson correlation with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), respectively. The factor structure of the scale was analyzed with varimax rotation. Samejima's (1969) graded response model was used to explore the item properties. The GHQ-28 scores showed good reliability and item-scale correlations. The factor analysis identified 3 factors: anxious-somatic symptoms, social dysfunction, and depression symptoms. All factors showed good correlation with the STAI. Before rotation, the first, second, and third factor explained 44.0%, 6.4%, and 5.0% of the variance, respectively. Varimax rotation redistributed the percentages of variance accounted for to 28.4%, 13.8%, and 13.2%, respectively. Items with the highest loadings in the first factor measured anxiety symptoms, whereas items with the highest loadings in the third factor measured suicide ideation. Samejima's model found that high scores in suicide-related items were associated with severe depression. The factor structure of the GHQ-28 found in this study underscores the preeminence of anxiety symptoms among victims of terrorism and their relatives. Item response analysis identified the most difficult and significant items for each factor.

  16. Differential Item Functioning by Gender on a Large-Scale Science Performance Assessment: A Comparison across Grade Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holweger, Nancy; Taylor, Grace

    The fifth-grade and eighth-grade science items on a state performance assessment were compared for differential item functioning (DIF) due to gender. The grade 5 sample consisted of 8,539 females and 8,029 males and the grade 8 sample consisted of 7,477 females and 7,891 males. A total of 30 fifth grade items and 26 eighth grade items were…

  17. Automatic Item Generation of Probability Word Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holling, Heinz; Bertling, Jonas P.; Zeuch, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical word problems represent a common item format for assessing student competencies. Automatic item generation (AIG) is an effective way of constructing many items with predictable difficulties, based on a set of predefined task parameters. The current study presents a framework for the automatic generation of probability word problems…

  18. Limitations of a single-item assessment of suicide attempt history: Implications for standardized suicide risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Hom, Melanie A; Joiner, Thomas E; Bernert, Rebecca A

    2016-08-01

    Although a suicide attempt history is among the single best predictors of risk for eventual death by suicide, little is known about the extent to which reporting of suicide attempts may vary by assessment type. The current study aimed to investigate the correspondence between suicide attempt history information obtained via a single-item self-report survey, multi-item self-report survey, and face-to-face clinical interview. Data were collected among a high-risk sample of undergraduates (N = 100) who endorsed a past attempt on a single-item prescreening survey. Participants subsequently completed a multi-item self-report survey, which was followed by a face-to-face clinical interview, both of which included additional questions regarding the timing and nature of previous attempts. Even though 100% of participants (n = 100) endorsed a suicide attempt history on the single-item prescreening survey, only 67% (n = 67) reported having made a suicide attempt on the multi-item follow-up survey. After incorporating ancillary information from the in-person interview, 60% of participants qualified for a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-defined suicide attempt. Of the 40% who did not qualify for a CDC-defined suicide attempt, 30% instead qualified for no attempt, 7% an aborted attempt, and 3% an interrupted attempt. These findings suggest that single-item assessments of suicide attempt history may result in the misclassification of prior suicidal behaviors. Given that such assessments are commonly used in research and clinical practice, these results emphasize the importance of utilizing follow-up questions and assessments to improve precision in the characterization and assessment of suicide risk. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. A Study of Item Bias in the Maine Educational Assessment Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James Brian

    A study used four statistical item bias analysis strategies to determine the French cross-cultural validity of the Maine Educational Assessment, a standardized test administered in six content areas to students in grades 4, 8, and 11. Analysis was performed on eighth grade pupil performance in test year 1988-89, in the areas of the 100 common…

  20. Applying Item Response Theory Methods to Design a Learning Progression-Based Science Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Learning progressions are used to describe how students' understanding of a topic progresses over time and to classify the progress of students into steps or levels. This study applies Item Response Theory (IRT) based methods to investigate how to design learning progression-based science assessments. The research questions of this study are: (1)…

  1. Improving the Memory Sections of the Standardized Assessment of Concussion Using Item Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElhiney, Danielle; Kang, Minsoo; Starkey, Chad; Ragan, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to improve the immediate and delayed memory sections of the Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC) by identifying a list of more psychometrically sound items (words). A total of 200 participants with no history of concussion in the previous six months (aged 19.60 ± 2.20 years; N?=?93 men, N?=?107 women)…

  2. PSSA Released Reading Items, 2000-2001. The Pennsylvania System of School Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Curriculum and Academic Services.

    This document contains materials directly related to the actual reading test of the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA), including the reading rubric, released passages, selected-response questions with answer keys, performance tasks, and scored samples of students' responses to the tasks. All of these items may be duplicated to…

  3. Differentials of a State Reading Assessment: Item Functioning, Distractor Functioning, and Omission Frequency for Disability Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Kentaro; Moen, Ross E.; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2009-01-01

    Large data sets from a state reading assessment for third and fifth graders were analyzed to examine differential item functioning (DIF), differential distractor functioning (DDF), and differential omission frequency (DOF) between students with particular categories of disabilities (speech/language impairments, learning disabilities, and emotional…

  4. To Sum or Not to Sum: Taxometric Analysis with Ordered Categorical Assessment Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Glenn D.; Ruscio, John

    2009-01-01

    Meehl's taxometric method has been shown to differentiate between categorical and dimensional data, but there are many ways to implement taxometric procedures. When analyzing the ordered categorical data typically provided by assessment instruments, summing items to form input indicators has been a popular practice for more than 20 years. A Monte…

  5. Assessing Model Data Fit of Unidimensional Item Response Theory Models in Simulated Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kose, Ibrahim Alper

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give an example of how to assess the model-data fit of unidimensional IRT models in simulated data. Also, the present research aims to explain the importance of fit and the consequences of misfit by using simulated data sets. Responses of 1000 examinees to a dichotomously scoring 20 item test were simulated with 25…

  6. The Value of Item Response Theory in Clinical Assessment: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Item response theory (IRT) and related latent variable models represent modern psychometric theory, the successor to classical test theory in psychological assessment. Although IRT has become prevalent in the measurement of ability and achievement, its contributions to clinical domains have been less extensive. Applications of IRT to clinical…

  7. The Matching Criterion Purification for Differential Item Functioning Analyses in a Large-Scale Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, HyeSun; Geisinger, Kurt F.

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated the impact of matching criterion purification on the accuracy of differential item functioning (DIF) detection in large-scale assessments. The three matching approaches for DIF analyses (block-level matching, pooled booklet matching, and equated pooled booklet matching) were employed with the Mantel-Haenszel…

  8. Randomised Items in Computer-Based Tests: Russian Roulette in Assessment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Anthony M.; Cronje, Johannes C.

    2008-01-01

    Computer-based assessments are becoming more commonplace, perhaps as a necessity for faculty to cope with large class sizes. These tests often occur in large computer testing venues in which test security may be compromised. In an attempt to limit the likelihood of cheating in such venues, randomised presentation of items is automatically…

  9. Identifying Promising Items: The Use of Crowdsourcing in the Development of Assessment Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Philip M.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Coyle, Harold P.; Miller, Kelly A.

    2016-01-01

    The psychometrically sound development of assessment instruments requires pilot testing of candidate items as a first step in gauging their quality, typically a time-consuming and costly effort. Crowdsourcing offers the opportunity for gathering data much more quickly and inexpensively than from most targeted populations. In a simulation of a…

  10. Using a Constructed-Response Instrument to Explore the Effects of Item Position and Item Features on the Assessment of Students' Written Scientific Explanations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federer, Meghan Rector; Nehm, Ross H.; Opfer, John E.; Pearl, Dennis

    2015-08-01

    A large body of work has been devoted to reducing assessment biases that distort inferences about students' science understanding, particularly in multiple-choice instruments (MCI). Constructed-response instruments (CRI), however, have invited much less scrutiny, perhaps because of their reputation for avoiding many of the documented biases of MCIs. In this study we explored whether known biases of MCIs—specifically item sequencing and surface feature effects—were also apparent in a CRI designed to assess students' understanding of evolutionary change using written explanation (Assessment of COntextual Reasoning about Natural Selection [ACORNS]). We used three versions of the ACORNS CRI to investigate different aspects of assessment structure and their corresponding effect on inferences about student understanding. Our results identified several sources of (and solutions to) assessment bias in this practice-focused CRI. First, along the instrument item sequence, items with similar surface features produced greater sequencing effects than sequences of items with dissimilar surface features. Second, a counterbalanced design (i.e., Latin Square) mitigated this bias at the population level of analysis. Third, ACORNS response scores were highly correlated with student verbosity, despite verbosity being an intrinsically trivial aspect of explanation quality. Our results suggest that as assessments in science education shift toward the measurement of scientific practices (e.g., explanation), it is critical that biases inherent in these types of assessments be investigated empirically.

  11. Successful Student Writing through Formative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Harry Grover

    2010-01-01

    Use formative assessment to dramatically improve your students' writing. In "Successful Student Writing Through Formative Assessment", educator and international speaker Harry G. Tuttle shows you how to guide middle and high school students through the prewriting, writing, and revision processes using formative assessment techniques that work.…

  12. Formative Assessment: Responding to Your Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Harry Grover

    2009-01-01

    This "how-to" book on formative assessment is filled with practical suggestions for teachers who want to use formative assessment in their classrooms. With practical strategies, tools, and examples for teachers of all subjects and grade levels, this book shows you how to use formative assessment to promote successful student learning. Topics…

  13. Implementing Formative Mathematics Assessments in Prekindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komara, Cecile; Herron, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Authentic assessment "refers to the systematic collection of information about the naturally occurring behaviors of young children and families in their daily routines" (Neisworth & Bagnato, 2004, p. 204). In formative assessments, the assessment information informs instruction. Formative assessments are given periodically and should be used to…

  14. Item Format as a Factor Affecting the Relative Standing of Countries in the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Michael

    Data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) were examined to determine the extent to which the rank ordering of countries based on pupil test performance was consistent across three different item formats: multiple-choice, short-answer, and extended-response. Findings from the analysis are used to make the case that…

  15. Using Item Response Theory (IRT) to Reduce Patient Burden When Assessing Desire for Hastened Death.

    PubMed

    Kolva, Elissa; Rosenfeld, Barry; Liu, Ying; Pessin, Hayley; Breitbart, William

    2016-06-09

    Desire for hastened death (DHD) represents a wish to die sooner than might occur by natural disease progression. Efficient and accurate assessment of DHD is vital for clinicians providing care to terminally ill patients. The Schedule of Attitudes Toward Hastened Death (SAHD) is a commonly used self-report measure of DHD. The goal of this study was to use methods grounded in item response theory (IRT) to analyze the psychometric properties of the SAHD and identify an abbreviated version of the scale. Data were drawn from 4 studies of psychological distress at the end of life. Participants were 1,076 patients diagnosed with either advanced cancer or AIDS. The sample was divided into 2 subsamples for scale analysis and development of the shortened form. IRT was used to estimate item parameters. A 6-item version of the SAHD (SAHD-A) was identified through examination of item parameter estimations. The SAHD-A demonstrated adequate convergent validity. Receiver operating characteristic analyses indicated comparable cut scores to identify patients with high levels of DHD. These analyses support the utility of the SAHD-A, which can be more easily integrated into research studies and clinical assessments of DHD. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. PISA Test Items and School-Based Examinations in Greece: Exploring the Relationship between Global and Local Assessment Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anagnostopoulou, Kyriaki; Hatzinikita, Vassilia; Christidou, Vasilia; Dimopoulos, Kostas

    2013-01-01

    The paper explores the relationship of the global and the local assessment discourses as expressed by Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) test items and school-based examinations, respectively. To this end, the paper compares PISA test items related to living systems and the context of life, health, and environment, with Greek…

  17. Application of Item Analysis to Assess Multiple-Choice Examinations in the Mississippi Master Cattle Producer Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Jane A.; Karisch, Brandi B.

    2013-01-01

    Item analysis can serve as a useful tool in improving multiple-choice questions used in Extension programming. It can identify gaps between instruction and assessment. An item analysis of Mississippi Master Cattle Producer program multiple-choice examination responses was performed to determine the difficulty of individual examinations, assess the…

  18. A Beginning Validation of Causes of Local Item Dependence in a Large Scale Hands-On Science Performance Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steven; And Others

    A study was conducted to begin a process of validating hypothesized causes of local item dependence (LID) in large-scale performance assessments. Data for the study are item level scores from 26 science tasks from the 1993 edition of the Maryland School Performance Assessment Program. Causes of high LID were hypothesized from studies by Ferrara et…

  19. Modeling Local Item Dependence Due to Common Test Format with a Multidimensional Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghaei, Purya; Aryadoust, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that test method can exert a significant impact on test takers' performance and thereby contaminate test scores. We argue that common test method can exert the same effect as common stimuli and violate the conditional independence assumption of item response theory models because, in general, subsets of items which have a shared…

  20. State Assessment Program Item Banks: Model Language for Request for Proposals (RFP) and Contracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Leonard C.

    2010-01-01

    This document provides recommendations for request for proposal (RFP) and contract language that state education agencies can use to specify their requirements for access to test item banks. An item bank is a repository for test items and data about those items. Item banks are used by state agency staff to view items and associated data; to…

  1. Formative Assessment: Guidance for Early Childhood Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley-Ayers, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    This policy report provides a guide and framework to early childhood policymakers considering formative assessment. The report defines formative assessment and outlines its process and application in the context of early childhood. The substance of this document is the issues for consideration in the implementation of the formative assessment…

  2. Assessment of the quality and applicability of an e-portfolio capstone assessment item within a bachelor of midwifery program.

    PubMed

    Baird, Kathleen; Gamble, Jenny; Sidebotham, Mary

    2016-09-01

    Education programs leading to professional licencing need to ensure assessments throughout the program are constructively aligned and mapped to the specific professional expectations. Within the final year of an undergraduate degree, a student is required to transform and prepare for professional practice. Establishing assessment items that are authentic and able to reflect this transformation is a challenge for universities. This paper both describes the considerations around the design of a capstone assessment and evaluates, from an academics perspective, the quality and applicability of an e-portfolio as a capstone assessment item for undergraduate courses leading to a professional qualification. The e-portfolio was seen to meet nine quality indicators for assessment. Academics evaluated the e-portfolio as an authentic assessment item that would engage the students and provide them with a platform for ongoing professional development and lifelong learning. The processes of reflection on strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, comparison of clinical experiences with national statistics, preparation of professional philosophy and development of a curriculum vitae, whilst recognised as comprehensive and challenging were seen as highly valuable to the student transforming into the profession.

  3. Designing K-2 Formative Assessment Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Kristen E.; Goldenberg, E. Paul

    2016-01-01

    Formative assessment is a process used by teachers and students during instruction that provides feedback to adjust ongoing teaching and learning to improve students' achievements of intended instructional outcomes. Formative assessment means assessment embedded in instruction. That definition was adopted in 2006 by the Council of Chief State…

  4. Elementary Teacher Use of Formative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotton, Donna McLamb

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation was designed to examine elementary teacher use of formative assessment and the impact formative assessment may have on student achievement as measured by benchmark assessments. The study was conducted in a school district in northwestern North Carolina. The teachers in this study have had NCFALCON training in the use of formative…

  5. Formative and Summative Assessment in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixson, Dante D.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we provide brief overviews of the definitions of formative and summative assessment and a few examples of types of formative and summative assessments that can be used in classroom contexts. We highlight the points that these two types of assessment are complementary and the differences between them are often in the way these…

  6. Item Difficulty Modeling of Paragraph Comprehension Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorin, Joanna S.; Embretson, Susan E.

    2006-01-01

    Recent assessment research joining cognitive psychology and psychometric theory has introduced a new technology, item generation. In algorithmic item generation, items are systematically created based on specific combinations of features that underlie the processing required to correctly solve a problem. Reading comprehension items have been more…

  7. Contextual Explanations of Local Dependence in Item Clusters in a Large Scale Hands-On Science Performance Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steven; Huynh, Huynh; Michaels, Hillary

    1999-01-01

    Provides hypothesized explanations for local item dependence (LID) in a large-scale hands-on science performance assessment involving approximately 55,000 students each at grades 3, 5, and 8. Items that appear to elicit locally dependent responses require examinees to answer and explain their answers or to use given or generalized information to…

  8. Exploring Individual and Item Factors that Affect Assessment Validity for Diverse Learners: Results from a Large-Scale Cognitive Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Phoebe C.; Kopriva, Rebecca J.; Chen, Chen-Su; Emick, Jessica E.

    2006-01-01

    A cognitive lab technique (n=156) was used to investigate interactions between individual factors and item factors presumed to affect assessment validity for diverse students, including English language learners. Findings support the concept of "access"--an interaction between specific construct-irrelevant item features and individual…

  9. The Development of Multiple-Choice Items Consistent with the AP Chemistry Curriculum Framework to More Accurately Assess Deeper Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domyancich, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-choice questions are an important part of large-scale summative assessments, such as the advanced placement (AP) chemistry exam. However, past AP chemistry exam items often lacked the ability to test conceptual understanding and higher-order cognitive skills. The redesigned AP chemistry exam shows a distinctive shift in item types toward…

  10. Alternate item types: continuing the quest for authentic testing.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Anne; Kenny, Lorraine E

    2009-03-01

    Many test developers suggest that multiple-choice items can be used to evaluate critical thinking if the items are focused on measuring higher order thinking ability. The literature supports the use of alternate item types to assess additional competencies, such as higher level cognitive processing and critical thinking, as well as ways to allow examinees to demonstrate their competencies differently. This research study surveyed nurses after taking a test composed of alternate item types paired with multiple-choice items. The participants were asked to provide opinions regarding the items and the item formats. Demographic information was asked. In addition, information was collected as the participants responded to the items. The results of this study reveal that the participants thought that, in general, the items were more authentic and allowed them to demonstrate their competence better than multiple-choice items did. Further investigation into the optimal blend of alternate items and multiple-choice items is needed.

  11. Test Industry Split over "Formative" Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    There's a war of sorts going on within the normally staid assessment industry, and it's a war over the definition of a type of assessment that many educators understand in only a sketchy fashion. Formative assessments, also known as "classroom assessments," are in some ways easier to define by what they are not. They're not like the long,…

  12. Formative Assessment Probes: With a Purpose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2011-01-01

    The first thing that comes to mind for many teachers when they think of assessment is testing, quizzes, performance tasks, and other summative forms used for grading purposes. Such assessment practices represent only a fraction of the kinds of assessment that occur on an ongoing basis in an effective science classroom. Formative assessment is a…

  13. Formative Assessments in a Professional Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Todd; Moore, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    The ideas and examples in this book help teachers successfully collaborate to raise student achievement through the use of formative assessments. Here, Todd Stanley and Betsy Moore, educators with over 40 years of combined experience, offer proven formative assessment strategies to teachers in a professional learning community. Contents include:…

  14. Implementation of Formative Assessment in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edman, Elaina; Gilbreth, Stephen G.; Wynn, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    This report details the work defined by a doctoral team looking at the literacy and implementation of formative assessment in classrooms in Southwest Missouri. The mission of this project was to identify the formative assessment literacy levels and the degree of classroom implementation of these strategies in districts and the resulting…

  15. Harnessing Collaborative Annotations on Online Formative Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Lai, Yuan-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    This paper harnesses collaborative annotations by students as learning feedback on online formative assessments to improve the learning achievements of students. Through the developed Web platform, students can conduct formative assessments, collaboratively annotate, and review historical records in a convenient way, while teachers can generate…

  16. An Investigation of Explanation Multiple-Choice Items in Science Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Lee, Hee-Sun; Linn, Marcia C.

    2011-01-01

    Both multiple-choice and constructed-response items have known advantages and disadvantages in measuring scientific inquiry. In this article we explore the function of explanation multiple-choice (EMC) items and examine how EMC items differ from traditional multiple-choice and constructed-response items in measuring scientific reasoning. A group…

  17. A Comparison of Traditional Test Blueprinting and Item Development to Assessment Engineering in a Licensure Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, James S.

    2010-01-01

    With the need for larger and larger banks of items to support adaptive testing and to meet security concerns, large-scale item generation is a requirement for many certification and licensure programs. As part of the mass production of items, it is critical that the difficulty and the discrimination of the items be known without the need for…

  18. A Simulation Study of Methods for Assessing Differential Item Functioning in Computer-Adaptive Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwick, Rebecca; And Others

    Simulated data were used to investigate the performance of modified versions of the Mantel-Haenszel and standardization methods of differential item functioning (DIF) analysis in computer-adaptive tests (CATs). Each "examinee" received 25 items out of a 75-item pool. A three-parameter logistic item response model was assumed, and…

  19. Are CAFAS subscales and item weights valid? A preliminary investigation of the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale.

    PubMed

    Bates, Michael P; Furlong, Michael J; Green, Jennifer Greif

    2006-11-01

    Presents a psychometric analysis of the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS), one of the most commonly used measures of functional impairment in youths with emotional and behavioral disorders. Specific aims of the current investigation were to (a) examine the conceptual organization of the CAFAS items, (b) explore its scaling properties, and (c) investigate its construct validity. In Phase 1, a group of advanced graduate students and clinicians rated CAFAS items with respect to the degree that they reflect the originally assigned subscales. In Phase 2, additional raters assigned severity values to the subset of CAFAS items selected from Phase 1. Items were then scaled using simplified successive intervals scaling techniques. Results show differences between new empirically derived item weights and the original scoring method. This investigation highlights the benefits of continued examination and critique of level-of-functioning scaling for diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis in children and adolescents.

  20. Formative Assessment: Assessment Is for Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The article draws from 199 sources on assessment, learning, and motivation to present a detailed decomposition of the values, theories, and goals of formative assessment. This article will discuss the extent to which formative feedback actualizes and reinforces self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies among students. Theoreticians agree that SRL…

  1. Formative Assessment at the Crossroads: Conformative, Deformative and Transformative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrance, Harry

    2012-01-01

    The theory and practice of formative assessment seems to be at a crossroads, even an impasse. Different theoretical justifications for the development of formative assessment, and different empirical exemplifications, have been apparent for many years. Yet practice, while quite widespread, is often limited in terms of its scope and its utilisation…

  2. The Relation Between Item Format and the Structure of the Eysenck Personality Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velicer, Wayne F.; Stevenson, John F.

    1978-01-01

    A Likert seven-choice response format for personality inventories allows finer distinctions by subjects than the traditional two-choice format. The Eysenck Personality Inventory was employed in the present study to test the hypothesis that use of the expanded format would result in a clearer and more accurate indication of test structure.…

  3. Formative Assessment Requires Artistic Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macintyre Latta, Margaret; Buck, Gayle; Beckenhauer, April

    2007-01-01

    This two-year study focused on the lived terms of inquiry in middle-school science classrooms. The conditions that enable teachers to see and act on science learning as ongoing inquiry were deliberately sought in Year 2. Nine science teachers participated in search of capacities connecting curriculum, teaching, and assessment for greater student…

  4. Assessment of the Assessment Tool: Analysis of Items in a Non-MCQ Mathematics Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoshaim, Heba Bakr; Rashid, Saima

    2016-01-01

    Assessment is one of the vital steps in the teaching and learning process. The reported action research examines the effectiveness of an assessment process and inspects the validity of exam questions used for the assessment purpose. The instructors of a college-level mathematics course studied questions used in the final exams during the academic…

  5. Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.

    2012-02-01

    The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

  6. Teachers' Self-Assessment of the Effects of Formative and Summative Electronic Portfolios on Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Robert J.; Livne, Nava L.; Bear, Sharon L.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the effects of four electronic portfolio curricula on pre-service and beginning teachers' self-ratings of their professional development (n =207), using a 34 item electronic Portfolio Assessment Scale (ePAS). Three formative portfolios, A, C and D, had teacher development as a primary objective and used participants' narrative…

  7. Missouri Assessment Program (MAP), Spring 2000: Intermediate Communication Arts, Released Items, Grade 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City.

    This document deals with testing in intermediate communication arts for seventh graders in Missouri public schools. The document contains the following items from the Session 1 Test Booklet: "Swimming in Snow" (Diana C. Conway) (Items 1, 2, and 5); "Discovery" (Marion Dane Bauer) (Item 13); writing prompt; and a writer's…

  8. Naive Versus Sophisticated Item-Writers for the Assessment of Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpley, Christopher F.; Rogers, H. Jane

    1985-01-01

    Compared items from psychologically naive vs. psychologically sophisticated item-writers vs. a standardized test (N=552). Results showed that nonpsychologists with no formal definition of the construct they were to measure were able to write items that were as valid as those elicited from psychologists. (BH)

  9. Sex Differences in Item Functioning in the Comprehensive Inventory of Basic Skills-II Vocabulary Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Brian F.; Gotch, Chad M.

    2013-01-01

    The Brigance Comprehensive Inventory of Basic Skills-II (CIBS-II) is a diagnostic battery intended for children in grades 1st through 6th. The aim of this study was to test for item invariance, or differential item functioning (DIF), of the CIBS-II across sex in the standardization sample through the use of item response theory DIF detection…

  10. Missouri Assessment Program (MAP), Spring 1999: High School Communication Arts, Released Items, Grade 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City.

    This document deals with testing in communication arts for 11th graders in Missouri public schools. The document contains the following items from the Test Booklet: "Two Words" (Isabel Allende) (Session 1, Items 5, 6, and 7); "Gumshoes Turn to Internet for Spadework" (Nicole Gaouette) (Session 1, Item 5); a writing prompt; and…

  11. Development of a Self-Report Physical Function Instrument for Disability Assessment: Item Pool Construction and Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, Christine M.; Jette, Alan M.; Ni, Pengsheng; Bogusz, Kara; Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Brandt, Diane E; Chan, Leighton; Meterko, Mark; Haley, Stephen M.; Rasch, Elizabeth K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To build a comprehensive item pool representing work-relevant physical functioning and to test the factor structure of the item pool. These developmental steps represent initial outcomes of a broader project to develop instruments for the assessment of function within the context of Social Security Administration (SSA) disability programs. Design Comprehensive literature review; gap analysis; item generation with expert panel input; stakeholder interviews; cognitive interviews; cross-sectional survey administration; and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to assess item pool structure. Setting In-person and semi-structured interviews; internet and telephone surveys. Participants A sample of 1,017 SSA claimants, and a normative sample of 999 adults from the US general population. Interventions Not Applicable. Main Outcome Measure Model fit statistics Results The final item pool consisted of 139 items. Within the claimant sample 58.7% were white; 31.8% were black; 46.6% were female; and the mean age was 49.7 years. Initial factor analyses revealed a 4-factor solution which included more items and allowed separate characterization of: 1) Changing and Maintaining Body Position, 2) Whole Body Mobility, 3) Upper Body Function and 4) Upper Extremity Fine Motor. The final 4-factor model included 91 items. Confirmatory factor analyses for the 4-factor models for the claimant and the normative samples demonstrated very good fit. Fit statistics for claimant and normative samples respectively were: Comparative Fit Index = 0.93 and 0.98; Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.92 and 0.98; Root Mean Square Error Approximation = 0.05 and 0.04. Conclusions The factor structure of the Physical Function item pool closely resembled the hypothesized content model. The four scales relevant to work activities offer promise for providing reliable information about claimant physical functioning relevant to work disability. PMID:23542402

  12. Instruction and Learning through Formative Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossé, Michael J.; Lynch-Davis, Kathleen; Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Chandler, Kayla

    2016-01-01

    Assessment and instruction are interwoven in mathematically rich formative assessment tasks, so employing these tasks in the classrooms is an exciting and time-efficient opportunity. To provide a window into how these tasks work in the classroom, this article analyzes summaries of student work on such a task and considers several students'…

  13. Formative Assessment Probes: Representing Microscopic Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2011-01-01

    This column focuses on promoting learning through assessment. The author discusses the formative assessment probe "Pond Water," which reveals how elementary children will often apply what they know about animal structures to newly discovered microscopic organisms, connecting their knowledge of the familiar to the unfamiliar through…

  14. Screencasts: Formative Assessment for Mathematical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto, Melissa; Ambrose, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Increased attention to reasoning and justification in mathematics classrooms requires the use of more authentic assessment methods. Particularly important are tools that allow teachers and students opportunities to engage in formative assessment practices such as gathering data, interpreting understanding, and revising thinking or instruction.…

  15. Pedagogy of Science Teaching Tests: Formative assessments of science teaching orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobern, William W.; Schuster, David; Adams, Betty; Skjold, Brandy Ann; Zeynep Muğaloğlu, Ebru; Bentz, Amy; Sparks, Kelly

    2014-09-01

    A critical aspect of teacher education is gaining pedagogical content knowledge of how to teach science for conceptual understanding. Given the time limitations of college methods courses, it is difficult to touch on more than a fraction of the science topics potentially taught across grades K-8, particularly in the context of relevant pedagogies. This research and development work centers on constructing a formative assessment resource to help expose pre-service teachers to a greater number of science topics within teaching episodes using various modes of instruction. To this end, 100 problem-based, science pedagogy assessment items were developed via expert group discussions and pilot testing. Each item contains a classroom vignette followed by response choices carefully crafted to include four basic pedagogies (didactic direct, active direct, guided inquiry, and open inquiry). The brief but numerous items allow a substantial increase in the number of science topics that pre-service students may consider. The intention is that students and teachers will be able to share and discuss particular responses to individual items, or else record their responses to collections of items and thereby create a snapshot profile of their teaching orientations. Subsets of items were piloted with students in pre-service science methods courses, and the quantitative results of student responses were spread sufficiently to suggest that the items can be effective for their intended purpose.

  16. The frequency of item writing flaws in multiple-choice questions used in high stakes nursing assessments.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, Marie; Knierim, Aimee; Hayes, Sasha K; Ware, James

    2006-12-01

    Multiple-choice questions are a common assessment method in nursing examinations. Few nurse educators, however, have formal preparation in constructing multiple-choice questions. Consequently, questions used in baccalaureate nursing assessments often contain item-writing flaws, or violations to accepted item-writing guidelines. In one nursing department, 2770 MCQs were collected from tests and examinations administered over a five-year period from 2001 to 2005. Questions were evaluated for 19 frequently occurring item-writing flaws, for cognitive level, for question source, and for the distribution of correct answers. Results show that almost half (46.2%) of the questions contained violations of item-writing guidelines and over 90% were written at low cognitive levels. Only a small proportion of questions were teacher generated (14.1%), while 36.2% were taken from testbanks and almost half (49.4%) had no source identified. MCQs written at a lower cognitive level were significantly more likely to contain item-writing flaws. While there was no relationship between the source of the question and item-writing flaws, teacher-generated questions were more likely to be written at higher cognitive levels (p<0.001). Correct answers were evenly distributed across all four options and no bias was noted in the placement of correct options. Further training in item-writing is recommended for all faculty members who are responsible for developing tests. Pre-test review and quality assessment is also recommended to reduce the occurrence of item-writing flaws and to improve the quality of test questions.

  17. The frequency of item writing flaws in multiple-choice questions used in high stakes nursing assessments.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, Marie; Knierim, Aimee; Hayes, Sasha K; Ware, James

    2006-12-01

    Multiple-choice questions are a common assessment method in nursing examinations. Few nurse educators, however, have formal preparation in constructing multiple-choice questions. Consequently, questions used in baccalaureate nursing assessments often contain item-writing flaws, or violations to accepted item-writing guidelines. In one nursing department, 2770 MCQs were collected from tests and examinations administered over a five-year period from 2001 to 2005. Questions were evaluated for 19 frequently occurring item-writing flaws, for cognitive level, for question source, and for the distribution of correct answers. Results show that almost half (46.2%) of the questions contained violations of item-writing guidelines and over 90% were written at low cognitive levels. Only a small proportion of questions were teacher generated (14.1%), while 36.2% were taken from testbanks and almost half (49.4%) had no source identified. MCQs written at a lower cognitive level were significantly more likely to contain item-writing flaws. While there was no relationship between the source of the question and item-writing flaws, teachergenerated questions were more likely to be written at higher cognitive levels (p<0.001). Correct answers were evenly distributed across all four options and no bias was noted in the placement of correct options. Further training in item-writing is recommended for all faculty members who are responsible for developing tests. Pre-test review and quality assessment is also recommended to reduce the occurrence of item-writing flaws and to improve the quality of test questions.

  18. Teachers' Use of Test-Item Banks for Student Assessment in North Carolina Secondary Agricultural Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Joy Morgan

    2014-01-01

    Higher expectations are on all parties to ensure students successfully perform on standardized tests. Specifically in North Carolina agriculture classes, students are given a CTE Post Assessment to measure knowledge gained and proficiency. Prior to students taking the CTE Post Assessment, teachers have access to a test item bank system that…

  19. Developing Parallel Career and Occupational Development Objectives and Exercise (Test) Items in Spanish for Assessment and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muratti, Jose E.; And Others

    A parallel Spanish edition was developed of released objectives and objective-referenced items used in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in the field of Career and Occupational Development (COD). The Spanish edition was designed to assess the identical skills, attitudes, concepts, and knowledge of Spanish-dominant students…

  20. Measuring Teaching Best Practice in the Induction Years: Development and Validation of an Item-Level Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsley, Laurie; Romine, William

    2014-01-01

    Schools and teacher induction programs around the world routinely assess teaching best practice to inform accreditation, tenure/promotion, and professional development decisions. Routine assessment is also necessary to ensure that teachers entering the profession get the assistance they need to develop and succeed. We introduce the Item-Level…

  1. NAEP Validity Studies: Improving the Information Value of Performance Items in Large Scale Assessments. Working Paper No. 2003-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, P. David; Garavaglia, Diane R.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to explore both what is known and what needs to be learned about the information value of performance items "when they are used in large scale assessments." Within the context of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), there is substantial motivation for answering these questions. Over the…

  2. Data Collection Design for Equivalent Groups Equating: Using a Matrix Stratification Framework for Mixed-Format Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbella, Kinge Keka

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-format assessments are increasingly being used in large scale standardized assessments to measure a continuum of skills ranging from basic recall to higher order thinking skills. These assessments are usually comprised of a combination of (a) multiple-choice items which can be efficiently scored, have stable psychometric properties, and…

  3. Assessment of item-writing flaws in multiple-choice questions.

    PubMed

    Nedeau-Cayo, Rosemarie; Laughlin, Deborah; Rus, Linda; Hall, John

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the quality of multiple-choice questions used in a hospital's e-learning system. Constructing well-written questions is fraught with difficulty, and item-writing flaws are common. Study results revealed that most items contained flaws and were written at the knowledge/comprehension level. Few items had linked objectives, and no association was found between the presence of objectives and flaws. Recommendations include education for writing test questions.

  4. The Impact of Varied Discrimination Parameters on Mixed-Format Item Response Theory Model Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Chang, Wanchen; Dodd, Barbara G.

    2013-01-01

    Whittaker, Chang, and Dodd compared the performance of model selection criteria when selecting among mixed-format IRT models and found that the criteria did not perform adequately when selecting the more parameterized models. It was suggested by M. S. Johnson that the problems when selecting the more parameterized models may be because of the low…

  5. Innovative Application of a Multidimensional Item Response Model in Assessing the Influence of Social Desirability on the Pseudo-Relationship between Self-Efficacy and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Kathy; Baranowski, Tom; Thompson, Debbe; Jago, Russell; Baranowski, Janice; Klesges, Lisa M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) modeling to assess social desirability (SocD) influences on self-reported physical activity self-efficacy (PASE) and fruit and vegetable self-efficacy (FVSE). The observed sample included 473 Houston-area adolescent males (10-14 years). SocD (nine items), PASE (19 items) and FVSE (21…

  6. Using Distractor-Driven Standards-Based Multiple-Choice Assessments and Rasch Modeling to Investigate Hierarchies of Chemistry Misconceptions and Detect Structural Problems with Individual Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann-Abell, Cari F.; DeBoer, George E.

    2011-01-01

    Distractor-driven multiple-choice assessment items and Rasch modeling were used as diagnostic tools to investigate students' understanding of middle school chemistry ideas. Ninety-one items were developed according to a procedure that ensured content alignment to the targeted standards and construct validity. The items were administered to 13360…

  7. Item Banking. Basic Testing Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Roy

    This pamphlet describes the exciting potential of item banking--a new approach to testing which combines both comparability of scores with flexibility of test format. Item banks are collections of items where the characteristics of each item is known and these characteristics can be summated to described a test made from such items. The principle…

  8. An Application of Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment on TIMMS-2007 8th Grade Mathematics Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toker, Turker; Green, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    The least squares distance method (LSDM) was used in a cognitive diagnostic analysis of TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) items administered to 4,498 8th-grade students from seven geographical regions of Turkey, extending analysis of attributes from content to process and skill attributes. Logit item positions were…

  9. Efficiently Assessing Negative Cognition in Depression: An Item Response Theory Analysis of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beevers, Christopher G.; Strong, David R.; Meyer, Bjorn; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Miller, Ivan R.

    2007-01-01

    Despite a central role for dysfunctional attitudes in cognitive theories of depression and the widespread use of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, form A (DAS-A; A. Weissman, 1979), the psychometric development of the DAS-A has been relatively limited. The authors used nonparametric item response theory methods to examine the DAS-A items and…

  10. Missouri Assessment Program (MAP), Spring 1999: Intermediate Communication Arts, Released Items, Grade 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City.

    This document deals with testing in intermediate communication arts for seventh graders in Missouri public schools. The document contains the following items from the Test Booklet: "Under the Rice Moon" (Rhiannon Puck); "Dogspirit" (Gary Paulsen) (Session 1, Items 4, 5, 6, and 8); a writing prompt; and a writer's checklist. It…

  11. Missouri Assessment Program (MAP), Spring 2000: High School Communication Arts, Released Items, Grade 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City.

    This document deals with testing in communication arts for 11th graders in Missouri public schools. The document contains the following items from Session 1 in the Test Booklet: "Thomas Hart Benton: Champion of the American Scene" (Jan Greenberg and Sandra Jordan) (Items 5, 6, and 7); "Rhythms of the River" (Rebecca Christian)…

  12. A Simulation Study of Methods for Assessing Differential Item Functioning in Computerized Adaptive Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwick, Rebecca; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Simulated data were used to investigate the performance of modified versions of the Mantel-Haenszel method of differential item functioning (DIF) analysis in computerized adaptive tests (CAT). Results indicate that CAT-based DIF procedures perform well and support the use of item response theory-based matching variables in DIF analysis. (SLD)

  13. Online Formative Assessments with Social Network Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Lai, Yuan-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Social network awareness (SNA) has been used extensively as one of the strategies to increase knowledge sharing and collaboration opportunities. However, most SNA studies either focus on being aware of peer's knowledge context or on social context. This work proposes online formative assessments with SNA, trying to address the problems of online…

  14. Formative Assessment Probes: To Hypothesize or Not

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2010-01-01

    Formative assessment probes are used not only to uncover the ideas students bring to their learning, they can also be used to reveal teachers' common misconceptions. Consider a process widely used in inquiry science--developing hypotheses. In this article, the author features the probe "Is It a Hypothesis?", which serves as an example of how…

  15. Maximizing the Effective Use of Formative Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Nancy B.

    2016-01-01

    In the current age of accountability, teachers must be able to produce tangible evidence of students' concept mastery. This article focuses on implementation of formative assessments before, during, and after instruction in order to maximize teachers' ability to effectively monitor student achievement. Suggested strategies are included to help…

  16. Targeting Instruction with Formative Assessment Probes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Emily R.; Tobey, Cheryl Rose; Brodesky, Amy R.

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the formative assessment probe--a powerful tool for collecting focused, actionable information about student thinking and potential misconceptions--along with a process for targeting instruction in response to probe results. Drawing on research about common student mathematical misconceptions as well as the former work of…

  17. A Historical Investigation into Item Formats of ACS Exams and Their Relationships to Science Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandriet, Alexandra; Reed, Jessica J.; Holme, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The release of the "NRC Framework for K-12 Science Education" and the "Next Generation Science Standards" has important implications for classroom teaching and assessment. Of particular interest is the implementation of science practices in the chemistry classroom, and the definitions established by the NRC makes these…

  18. Examination of the Assumptions and Properties of the Graded Item Response Model: An Example Using a Mathematics Performance Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Suzanne; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Over 5,000 students participated in a study of the dimensionality and stability of the item parameter estimates of a mathematics performance assessment developed for the Quantitative Understanding: Amplifying Student Achievement and Reasoning (QUASAR) Project. Results demonstrate the test's dimensionality and illustrate ways to examine use of the…

  19. Development of an Item Bank for Assessing Generic Competences in a Higher-Education Institute: A Rasch Modelling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Qin; Zhong, Xiaoling; Wang, Wen-Chung; Lim, Cher Ping

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of an item bank designed for students to assess their own achievements across an undergraduate-degree programme in seven generic competences (i.e., problem-solving skills, critical-thinking skills, creative-thinking skills, ethical decision-making skills, effective communication skills, social…

  20. Using Data Mining to Predict K-12 Students' Performance on Large-Scale Assessment Items Related to Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiufeng; Ruiz, Miguel E.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports a study on using data mining to predict K-12 students' competence levels on test items related to energy. Data sources are the 1995 Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 1999 TIMSS-Repeat, 2003 Trend in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), and the National Assessment of Educational…

  1. Assessment formats in dental medicine: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Gerhard-Szep, Susanne; Güntsch, Arndt; Pospiech, Peter; Söhnel, Andreas; Scheutzel, Petra; Wassmann, Torsten; Zahn, Tugba

    2016-01-01

    Aim: At the annual meeting of German dentists in Frankfurt am Main in 2013, the Working Group for the Advancement of Dental Education (AKWLZ) initiated an interdisciplinary working group to address assessments in dental education. This paper presents an overview of the current work being done by this working group, some of whose members are also actively involved in the German Association for Medical Education's (GMA) working group for dental education. The aim is to present a summary of the current state of research on this topic for all those who participate in the design, administration and evaluation of university-specific assessments in dentistry. Method: Based on systematic literature research, the testing scenarios listed in the National Competency-based Catalogue of Learning Objectives (NKLZ) have been compiled and presented in tables according to assessment value. Results: Different assessment scenarios are described briefly in table form addressing validity (V), reliability (R), acceptance (A), cost (C), feasibility (F), and the influence on teaching and learning (EI) as presented in the current literature. Infoboxes were deliberately chosen to allow readers quick access to the information and to facilitate comparisons between the various assessment formats. Following each description is a list summarizing the uses in dental and medical education. Conclusion: This overview provides a summary of competency-based testing formats. It is meant to have a formative effect on dental and medical schools and provide support for developing workplace-based strategies in dental education for learning, teaching and testing in the future. PMID:27579365

  2. The Effect of Response Format on the Psychometric Properties of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory: Consequences for Item Meaning and Factor Structure.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Robert A; Donnellan, M Brent; Roberts, Brent W; Fraley, R Chris

    2016-04-01

    The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is currently the most widely used measure of narcissism in social/personality psychology. It is also relatively unique because it uses a forced-choice response format. We investigate the consequences of changing the NPI's response format for item meaning and factor structure. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: 40 forced-choice items (n = 2,754), 80 single-stimulus dichotomous items (i.e., separate true/false responses for each item; n = 2,275), or 80 single-stimulus rating scale items (i.e., 5-point Likert-type response scales for each item; n = 2,156). Analyses suggested that the "narcissistic" and "nonnarcissistic" response options from the Entitlement and Superiority subscales refer to independent personality dimensions rather than high and low levels of the same attribute. In addition, factor analyses revealed that although the Leadership dimension was evident across formats, dimensions with entitlement and superiority were not as robust. Implications for continued use of the NPI are discussed.

  3. Formative Assessment Probes: Big and Small Seeds. Linking Formative Assessment Probes to the Scientific Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2016-01-01

    This column focuses on promoting learning through assessment. Formative assessment probes are designed to uncover students' ideas about objects, events, and processes in the natural world. This assessment information is then used throughout instruction to move students toward an understanding of the scientific ideas behind the probes. During the…

  4. A Nonparametric Approach for Assessing Goodness-of-Fit of IRT Models in a Mixed Format Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Tie; Wells, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    Investigating the fit of a parametric model plays a vital role in validating an item response theory (IRT) model. An area that has received little attention is the assessment of multiple IRT models used in a mixed-format test. The present study extends the nonparametric approach, proposed by Douglas and Cohen (2001), to assess model fit of three…

  5. PISA Test Items and School-Based Examinations in Greece: Exploring the relationship between global and local assessment discourses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostopoulou, Kyriaki; Hatzinikita, Vassilia; Christidou, Vasilia; Dimopoulos, Kostas

    2013-03-01

    The paper explores the relationship of the global and the local assessment discourses as expressed by Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) test items and school-based examinations, respectively. To this end, the paper compares PISA test items related to living systems and the context of life, health, and environment, with Greek school-based biology examinations' test items in terms of the nature of their textual construction. This nature is determined by the interplay of the notions of classification (content specialisation) and formality (code specialisation) modulated by both the linguistic and the visual expressive modes. The results of the analysis reveal disparities between assessment discourses promoted at the global and the local level. In particular, while PISA test items convey their scientific message (specialised content and code) principally through their visual mode, the specialised scientific meaning of school-based examinations test is mainly conveyed through their linguistic mode. On the other hand, the linguistic mode of PISA test items is mainly compatible with textual practices of the public domain (non-specialised content and code). Such a mismatch between assessment discourses at local and global level is expected to place Greek students at different discursive positions, promoting different types of knowledge. The expected shift from the epistemic positioning promoted in Greece to the one promoted by PISA could significantly restrict Greek students' ability to infer the PISA discursive context and produce appropriate responses. This factor could provide a meaningful contribution in the discussion of the relatively low achievement of Greek students in PISA scientific literacy assessment.

  6. Modern psychometric methods for detection of differential item functioning: application to cognitive assessment measures.

    PubMed

    Teresi, J A; Kleinman, M; Ocepek-Welikson, K

    Cognitive screening tests and items have been found to perform differently across groups that differ in terms of education, ethnicity and race. Despite the profound implications that such bias holds for studies in the epidemiology of dementia, little research has been conducted in this area. Using the methods of modern psychometric theory (in addition to those of classical test theory), we examined the performance of the Attention subscale of the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale. Several item response theory models, including the two- and three-parameter dichotomous response logistic model, as well as a polytomous response model were compared. (Log-likelihood ratio tests showed that the three-parameter model was not an improvement over the two-parameter model.) Data were collected as part of the ten-study National Institute on Aging Collaborative investigation of special dementia care in institutional settings. The subscale KR-20 estimate for this sample was 0.92. IRT model-based reliability estimates, provided at several points along the latent attribute, ranged from 0.65 to 0.97; the measure was least precise at the less disabled tail of the distribution. Most items performed in similar fashion across education groups; the item characteristic curves were almost identical, indicating little or no differential item functioning (DIF). However, four items were problematic. One item (digit span backwards) demonstrated a large error term in the confirmatory factor analysis; item-fit chi-square statistics developed using BIMAIN confirm this result for the IRT models. Further, the discrimination parameter for that item was low for all education subgroups. Generally, persons with the highest education had a greater probability of passing the item for most levels of theta. Model-based tests of DIF using MULTILOG identified three other items with significant, albeit small, DIF. One item, for example, showed non-uniform DIF in that at the impaired tail of the latent distribution

  7. A new ten-item questionnaire for assessing sensitive skin: the Sensitive Scale-10.

    PubMed

    Misery, Laurent; Jean-Decoster, Catherine; Mery, Sophie; Georgescu, Victor; Sibaud, Vincent

    2014-11-01

    Sensitive skin is common but until now there has been no scale for measuring its severity. The Sensitive Scale is a new scale with a 14-item and a 10-item version that was tested in 11 countries in different languages on 2,966 participants. The aim of this study was to validate the pertinence of using the Sensitive Scale to measure the severity of sensitive skin. The internal consistency was high. Correlations with the dry skin type, higher age, female gender, fair phototypes and Dermatology Life Quality Index were found. Using the 10-item version appeared to be preferable because it was quicker and easier to complete, with the same internal consistency and the 4 items that were excluded were very rarely observed in patients. The mean initial scores were around 44/140 and 37/100. The use of a cream for sensitive skin showed the pertinence of the scale before and after treatment.

  8. Illustrating the Use of Nonparametric Regression To Assess Differential Item and Bundle Functioning among Multiple Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierl, Mark J.; Bolt, Daniel M.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an overview of nonparametric regression as it allies to differential item functioning analysis and then provides three examples to illustrate how nonparametric regression can be applied to multilingual, multicultural data to study group differences. (SLD)

  9. Evolution of a Test Item

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaan, Mary

    2007-01-01

    This article follows the development of test items (see "Language Assessment Quarterly", Volume 3 Issue 1, pp. 71-79 for the article "Test and Item Specifications Development"), beginning with a review of test and item specifications, then proceeding to writing and editing of items, pretesting and analysis, and finally selection of an item for a…

  10. Assessing Middle and High School Mathematics & Science: Differentiating Formative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterman, Sheryn Spencer

    2010-01-01

    For middle and high school teachers of mathematics and science, this book is filled with examples of instructional strategies that address students' readiness levels, interests, and learning preferences. It shows teachers how to formatively assess their students by addressing differentiated learning targets. Included are detailed examples of…

  11. A 14-Item Mediterranean Diet Assessment Tool and Obesity Indexes among High-Risk Subjects: The PREDIMED Trial

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; García-Arellano, Ana; Toledo, Estefanía; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Corella, Dolores; Covas, Maria Isabel; Schröder, Helmut; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Lapetra, José; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa Maria; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Pintó, Xavier; Muñoz, Miguel Angel; Wärnberg, Julia; Ros, Emilio; Estruch, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Objective Independently of total caloric intake, a better quality of the diet (for example, conformity to the Mediterranean diet) is associated with lower obesity risk. It is unclear whether a brief dietary assessment tool, instead of full-length comprehensive methods, can also capture this association. In addition to reduced costs, a brief tool has the interesting advantage of allowing immediate feedback to participants in interventional studies. Another relevant question is which individual items of such a brief tool are responsible for this association. We examined these associations using a 14-item tool of adherence to the Mediterranean diet as exposure and body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) as outcomes. Design Cross-sectional assessment of all participants in the “PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea” (PREDIMED) trial. Subjects 7,447 participants (55–80 years, 57% women) free of cardiovascular disease, but with either type 2 diabetes or ≥3 cardiovascular risk factors. Trained dietitians used both a validated 14-item questionnaire and a full-length validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary habits. Trained nurses measured weight, height and waist circumference. Results Strong inverse linear associations between the 14-item tool and all adiposity indexes were found. For a two-point increment in the 14-item score, the multivariable-adjusted differences in WHtR were −0.0066 (95% confidence interval, –0.0088 to −0.0049) for women and –0.0059 (–0.0079 to –0.0038) for men. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for a WHtR>0.6 in participants scoring ≥10 points versus ≤7 points was 0.68 (0.57 to 0.80) for women and 0.66 (0.54 to 0.80) for men. High consumption of nuts and low consumption of sweetened/carbonated beverages presented the strongest inverse associations with abdominal obesity. Conclusions A brief 14-item tool was able to capture a strong monotonic inverse association between

  12. Review of Formative Assessment Use and Training in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Lindsey

    2013-01-01

    This literature review examines formative assessment education practices currently being utilized in Africa, as well as recent research regarding professional development on such assessments. Two main conclusions about formative assessment use and training, as well as a set of recommendations about teacher training on formative assessment, can be…

  13. Formative and Summative Assessment in Veterinary Pathology and Other Courses at a Mexican Veterinary College.

    PubMed

    Valero, Germán; Cárdenas, Paula

    2016-10-25

    The Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) uses the Moodle learning management system for formative and summative computer assessment. The authors of this article-the teacher primarily responsible for Moodle implementation and a researcher who is a recent Moodle adopter-describe and discuss the students' and teachers' attitudes to summative and formative computer assessment in Moodle. Item analysis of quiz results helped us to identify and fix poorly performing questions, which greatly reduced student complaints and improved objective assessment. The use of Certainty-Based Marking (CBM) in formative assessment in veterinary pathology was well received by the students and should be extended to more courses. The importance of having proficient computer support personnel should not be underestimated. A properly translated language pack is essential for the use of Moodle in a language other than English.

  14. Construct and Differential Item Functioning in the Assessment of Prescription Opioid Use Disorders among American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Yang, Chongming; Reeve, Bryce B.; Pan, Jeng-Jong; Blazer, Dan G.

    2009-01-01

    DSM-IV's hierarchical distinction between abuse of and dependence on prescription opioids is not supported since the symptoms of abuse in adolescents are not less severe than dependence. The finding is based on the examination of the DSM-IV criteria for opioid use disorders using item response theory.

  15. Investigation of a Nonparametric Procedure for Assessing Goodness-of-Fit in Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Craig S.; Bolt, Daniel M.

    2008-01-01

    Tests of model misfit are often performed to validate the use of a particular model in item response theory. Douglas and Cohen (2001) introduced a general nonparametric approach for detecting misfit under the two-parameter logistic model. However, the statistical properties of their approach, and empirical comparisons to other methods, have not…

  16. Missouri Assessment Program, Spring 2001: Communication Arts, Released Items, Grade 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City.

    This document deals with testing in communication arts for 11th graders in Missouri public schools. The document contains a short poem "Signs for My Father, Who Stressed the Bunt" (David Bottoms) for students to read and gives four questions for students to answer (Items 15, 16, 17, and 18) in Session 1. It also provides scoring guides…

  17. Use of differential item functioning analysis to assess the equivalence of translations of a questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Morten Aa; Groenvold, Mogens; Bjorner, Jakob B; Aaronson, Neil; Conroy, Thierry; Cull, Ann; Fayers, Peter; Hjermstad, Marianne; Sprangers, Mirjam; Sullivan, Marianne

    2003-06-01

    In cross-national comparisons based on questionnaires, accurate translations are necessary to obtain valid results. Differential item functioning (DIF) analysis can be used to test whether translations of items in multi-item scales are equivalent to the original. In data from 10,815 respondents representing 10 European languages we tested for DIF in the nine translations of the EORTC QLQ-C30 emotional function scale when compared to the original English version. We tested for DIF using two different methods in parallel, a contingency table method and logistic regression. The DIF results obtained with the two methods were similar. We found indications of DIF in seven of the nine translations. At least two of the DIF findings seem to reflect linguistic problems in the translation. 'Imperfect' translations can affect conclusions drawn from cross-national comparisons. Given that translations can never be identical to the original we discuss how findings of DIF can be interpreted and discuss the difference between linguistic DIF and DIF caused by confounding, cross-cultural differences, or DIF in other items in the scale. We conclude that testing for DIF is a useful way to validate questionnaire translations.

  18. An Assessment of the Nonparametric Approach for Evaluating the Fit of Item Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Tie; Wells, Craig S.; Hambleton, Ronald K.

    2014-01-01

    As item response theory has been more widely applied, investigating the fit of a parametric model becomes an important part of the measurement process. There is a lack of promising solutions to the detection of model misfit in IRT. Douglas and Cohen introduced a general nonparametric approach, RISE (Root Integrated Squared Error), for detecting…

  19. A Multidimensional Partial Credit Model with Associated Item and Test Statistics: An Application to Mixed-Format Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Lihua; Schwarz, Richard D.

    2006-01-01

    Multidimensional item response theory (IRT) models have been proposed for better understanding the dimensional structure of data or to define diagnostic profiles of student learning. A compensatory multidimensional two-parameter partial credit model (M-2PPC) for constructed-response items is presented that is a generalization of those proposed to…

  20. Item Order, Response Format, and Examinee Sex and Handedness and Performance on a Multiple-Choice Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinke, David J.

    Four forms of a 36-item adaptation of the Stanford Achievement Test were administered to 484 fourth graders. External factors potentially influencing test performance were examined, namely: (1) item order (easy-to-difficult vs. uniform); (2) response location (left column vs. right column); (3) handedness which may interact with response location;…

  1. Assessing the Feasibility of a Test Item Bank and Assessment Clearinghouse: Strategies to Measure Technical Skill Attainment of Career and Technical Education Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derner, Seth; Klein, Steve; Hilber, Don

    2008-01-01

    This report documents strategies that can be used to initiate development of a technical skill test item bank and/or assessment clearinghouse and quantifies the cost of creating and maintaining such a system. It is intended to inform state administrators on the potential uses and benefits of system participation, test developers on the needs and…

  2. Formative Assessment of Writing in English as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burner, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of formative assessment, this mixed-methods study investigates how four teachers and 100 students respond to the new emphasis on formative assessment in English as a foreign language (EFL) writing classes in Norway. While previous studies have examined formative assessment in oral classroom interactions and focused on…

  3. Hitting the Reset Button: Using Formative Assessment to Guide Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirksen, Debra J.

    2011-01-01

    Using formative assessment gives students a second chance to learn material they didn't master the first time around. It lets failure become a learning experience rather than something to fear. Several types of formative assessment are discussed, including how to use summative assessments formatively. (Contains 2 figures.)

  4. Student Perceptions of Formative Assessment in the Chemistry Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haroldson, Rachelle Ann

    2012-01-01

    Research on formative assessment has focused on the ways teachers implement and use formative assessment to check student understanding in order to guide their instruction. This study shifted emphasis away from teachers to look at how students use and perceive formative assessment in the science classroom. Four key strategies of formative…

  5. Valuing a More Rigorous Review of Formative Assessment's Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apthorp, Helen; Klute, Mary; Petrites, Tony; Harlacher, Jason; Real, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Prior reviews of evidence for the impact of formative assessment on student achievement suggest widely different estimates of formative assessment's effectiveness, ranging from 0.40 and 0.70 standard deviations in one review. The purpose of this study is to describe variability in the effectiveness of formative assessment for promoting student…

  6. Single-item vs multiple-item measures of stage of change in compliance with prescribed medications.

    PubMed

    Cook, Christopher L; Perri, Matthew

    2004-02-01

    The Stage of Change construct from the Transtheoretical Model of behavioral change has been widely utilized in the assessment of various health behaviors. The majority of these tests measure the Stage of Change construct using the single-item. multiple-choice format. This study validated the use of a single-item measure in measuring readiness to comply with taking a prescribed medication. A sample of 161 subjects tested the multiple-item Stage of Change measure, then a refined multiple-item survey was tested with 59 subjects. With the latter survey, discriminating subjects at the differing stages of change dimensions was difficult. A correlation of .91 was found for stage classifications between ratings on the single-item and multiple-item scales. The use of the single-item measure seems reasonable when assessing stage of change in compliance with prescribed medication.

  7. Investigating an Invariant Item Ordering for Polytomously Scored Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ligtvoet, Rudy; van der Ark, L. Andries; te Marvelde, Janneke M.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the concept of an invariant item ordering (IIO) for polytomously scored items and proposes methods for investigating an IIO in real test data. Method manifest IIO is proposed for assessing whether item response functions intersect. Coefficient H[superscript T] is defined for polytomously scored items. Given that an IIO…

  8. Innovative learning: employing medical students to write formative assessments.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Suzanne; Freeman, Adrian; Oldham, James; Sanders, David; Hudson, Nicky; Ricketts, Chris

    2006-11-01

    Peninsula Medical School, UK, employed six students to write MCQ items for a formative applied medical knowledge item bank. The students successfully generated 260 quality MCQs in their six-week contracted period. Informal feedback from students and two staff mentors suggests that the exercise provided a very effective learning environment and that students felt they were 'being paid to learn'. Further research is under way to track the progress of the students involved in the exercise, and to formally evaluate the impact on learning.

  9. A Faculty Toolkit for Formative Assessment in Pharmacy Education.

    PubMed

    DiVall, Margarita V; Alston, Greg L; Bird, Eleanora; Buring, Shauna M; Kelley, Katherine A; Murphy, Nanci L; Schlesselman, Lauren S; Stowe, Cindy D; Szilagyi, Julianna E

    2014-11-15

    This paper aims to increase understanding and appreciation of formative assessment and its role in improving student outcomes and the instructional process, while educating faculty on formative techniques readily adaptable to various educational settings. Included are a definition of formative assessment and the distinction between formative and summative assessment. Various formative assessment strategies to evaluate student learning in classroom, laboratory, experiential, and interprofessional education settings are discussed. The role of reflective writing and portfolios, as well as the role of technology in formative assessment, are described. The paper also offers advice for formative assessment of faculty teaching. In conclusion, the authors emphasize the importance of creating a culture of assessment that embraces the concept of 360-degree assessment in both the development of a student's ability to demonstrate achievement of educational outcomes and a faculty member's ability to become an effective educator.

  10. A Faculty Toolkit for Formative Assessment in Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    Alston, Greg L.; Bird, Eleanora; Buring, Shauna M.; Kelley, Katherine A.; Murphy, Nanci L.; Schlesselman, Lauren S.; Stowe, Cindy D.; Szilagyi, Julianna E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to increase understanding and appreciation of formative assessment and its role in improving student outcomes and the instructional process, while educating faculty on formative techniques readily adaptable to various educational settings. Included are a definition of formative assessment and the distinction between formative and summative assessment. Various formative assessment strategies to evaluate student learning in classroom, laboratory, experiential, and interprofessional education settings are discussed. The role of reflective writing and portfolios, as well as the role of technology in formative assessment, are described. The paper also offers advice for formative assessment of faculty teaching. In conclusion, the authors emphasize the importance of creating a culture of assessment that embraces the concept of 360-degree assessment in both the development of a student’s ability to demonstrate achievement of educational outcomes and a faculty member’s ability to become an effective educator. PMID:26056399

  11. Helping Poor Readers Demonstrate Their Science Competence: Item Characteristics Supporting Text-Picture Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saß, Steffani; Schütte, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Solving test items might require abilities in test-takers other than the construct the test was designed to assess. Item and student characteristics such as item format or reading comprehension can impact the test result. This experiment is based on cognitive theories of text and picture comprehension. It examines whether integration aids, which…

  12. Formative Assessment Probes: Talk Moves. A Formative Assessment Strategy for Fostering Productive Probe Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2016-01-01

    Formative assessment probes can be used to foster productive science discussions in which students make their thinking visible to themselves, their peers, and the teacher. During these discussions, there is an exchange between the teacher and students that encourages exploratory thinking, supports careful listening to others' ideas, asks for…

  13. Formative Assessment Probes: Constructing Cl-Ev-R Explanations to Formative Assessment Probes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2015-01-01

    A distinguishing feature of all the formative assessment probes in the "Uncovering Student Ideas" series is that each probe has two parts: (1) a selected answer choice that usually mirrors the research on commonly held ideas students have about concepts or phenomena; and (2) an explanation that supports their answer choice. It is this…

  14. Formative Assessment Probes: Is It Melting? Formative Assessment for Teacher Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2013-01-01

    Formative assessment probes are effective tools for uncovering students' ideas about the various concepts they encounter when learning science. They are used to build a bridge from where the student is in his or her thinking to where he or she needs to be in order to construct and understand the scientific explanation for observed phenomena.…

  15. A Comparison of Methods for Estimating Conditional Item Score Differences in Differential Item Functioning (DIF) Assessments. Research Report. ETS RR-10-15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim; Miao, Jing; Dorans, Neil

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the accuracies of four differential item functioning (DIF) estimation methods, where each method makes use of only one of the following: raw data, logistic regression, loglinear models, or kernel smoothing. The major focus was on the estimation strategies' potential for estimating score-level, conditional DIF. A secondary focus…

  16. Academic staff perspectives of formative assessment in nurse education.

    PubMed

    Koh, Lai Chan

    2010-07-01

    High quality formative assessment has been linked to positive benefits on learning while good feedback can make a considerable difference to the quality of learning. It is proposed that formative assessment and feedback is intricately linked to enhancement of learning and has to be interactive. Underlying this proposition is the recognition of the importance of staff perspectives of formative assessment and their influence on assessment practice. However, there appears to be a paucity of literature exploring this area relevant to nurse education. The aim of the research was to explore the perspectives of twenty teachers of nurse education on formative assessment and feedback of theoretical assessment. A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews was adopted. The interview data were analysed and the following themes identified: purposes of formative assessment, involvement of peers in the assessment process, ambivalence of timing of assessment, types of formative assessment and quality of good feedback. The findings offer suggestions which may be of value to teachers facilitating formative assessment. The conclusion is that teachers require changes to the practice of formative assessment and feedback by believing that learning is central to the purposes of formative assessment and regarding students as partners in this process.

  17. An approach for estimating item sensitivity to within-person change over time: An illustration using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog).

    PubMed

    Dowling, N Maritza; Bolt, Daniel M; Deng, Sien

    2016-12-01

    When assessments are primarily used to measure change over time, it is important to evaluate items according to their sensitivity to change, specifically. Items that demonstrate good sensitivity to between-person differences at baseline may not show good sensitivity to change over time, and vice versa. In this study, we applied a longitudinal factor model of change to a widely used cognitive test designed to assess global cognitive status in dementia, and contrasted the relative sensitivity of items to change. Statistically nested models were estimated introducing distinct latent factors related to initial status differences between test-takers and within-person latent change across successive time points of measurement. Models were estimated using all available longitudinal item-level data from the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale, including participants representing the full-spectrum of disease status who were enrolled in the multisite Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Five of the 13 Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive items demonstrated noticeably higher loadings with respect to sensitivity to change. Attending to performance change on only these 5 items yielded a clearer picture of cognitive decline more consistent with theoretical expectations in comparison to the full 13-item scale. Items that show good psychometric properties in cross-sectional studies are not necessarily the best items at measuring change over time, such as cognitive decline. Applications of the methodological approach described and illustrated in this study can advance our understanding regarding the types of items that best detect fine-grained early pathological changes in cognition. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Writing better test items.

    PubMed

    Aucoin, Julia W

    2005-01-01

    Professional development specialists have had little opportunity to learn how to write test items to meet the expectations of today's graduate nurse. Schools of nursing have moved away from knowledge-level test items and have had to develop more application and analysis items to prepare graduates for the National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX). This same type of question can be used effectively to support a competence assessment system and document critical thinking skills.

  19. Assessment and treatment of problem behavior maintained by escape from attention and access to tangible items.

    PubMed

    Hagopian, L P; Wilson, D M; Wilder, D A

    2001-01-01

    The results obtained from two consecutive functional analyses conducted with a 6-year-old child with autism are described. In the initial functional analysis, the highest rates of problem behavior occurred in the play condition. In that condition, the delivery of attention appeared to occasion problem behaviors. A second functional analysis was conducted wherein an escape from attention condition and a tangible condition were added. In the second functional analysis, higher rates of responding were observed in the escape from attention and tangible conditions. The results suggested that problem behavior was maintained by negative reinforcement in the form of escape from attention and positive reinforcement in the form of gaining access to preferred tangible items. Problem behavior was treated using functional communication training combined with noncontingent reinforcement.

  20. Making Room for Formative Assessment Processes: A Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEntarffer, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative instrumental multiple case study (Stake, 2005) explored how teachers made room for formative assessment processes in their classrooms, and how thinking about assessment changed during those formative assessment experiences. Data were gathered from six teachers over three months and included teacher interviews, student interviews,…

  1. Written Formative Assessment and Silence in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee Hang, Desmond Mene; Bell, Beverley

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, we build on Xinying Yin and Gayle Buck's discussion by exploring the cultural practices which are integral to formative assessment, when it is viewed as a sociocultural practice. First we discuss the role of assessment and in particular oral and written formative assessments in both western and Samoan cultures, building on the…

  2. Psychometric Properties and Responsiveness to Change of 15- and 28-Item Versions of the SCORE: A Family Assessment Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Elena; Carr, Alan; Cahill, Paul; Cassells, Ciara; Hartnett, Dan

    2015-09-01

    The SCORE (Systemic Clinical Outcome and Routine Evaluation) is a 40-item questionnaire for completion by family members 12 years and older to assess outcome in systemic therapy. This study aimed to investigate psychometric properties of two short versions of the SCORE and their responsiveness to therapeutic change. Data were collected at 19 centers from 701 families at baseline and from 433 of these 3-5 months later. Results confirmed the three-factor structure (strengths, difficulties, and communication) of the 15- and 28-item versions of the SCORE. Both instruments had good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. They also showed construct and criterion validity, correlating with measures of parent, child, and family adjustment, and discriminating between clinical and nonclinical cases. Total and factor scales of the SCORE-15 and -28 were responsive to change over 3-5 months of therapy. The SCORE-15 and SCORE-28 are brief psychometrically robust family assessment instruments which may be used to evaluate systemic therapy.

  3. The School Age Gender Gap in Reading Achievement: Examining the Influences of Item Format and Intrinsic Reading Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwabe, Franziska; McElvany, Nele; Trendtel, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The importance of reading competence for both individuals and society underlines the strong need to understand the gender gap in reading achievement. Beyond mean differences in reading comprehension, research has indicated that girls possess specific advantages on constructed-response items compared with boys of the same reading ability. Moreover,…

  4. Category Scoring Techniques from National Assessment: Applications to Free Response Items from Career and Occupational Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Donald L.

    The Career and Occupational Development (COD) assessment of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) was made up of about 70 percent free response exercises requiring hand scoring. This paper describes the techniques used in developing the "scoring guides" for these exercises and summarizes the results of two empirical…

  5. A Critical Item Analysis of the QABF: Development of a Short Form Assessment Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Ashvind N.; Matson, Johnny L.; Mouttapa, Michelle; Pella, Russell D.; Hill, B. D.; Thorson, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Due to the relative inability of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) to provide an accurate and reliable self-report, assessment in this population is more difficult than with individuals in the general population. As a result, assessment procedures must be adjusted to compensate for the relative lack of information that the individual…

  6. Multilevel Item Response Modeling: Applications to Large-Scale Assessment of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Xiaohui

    2009-01-01

    The call for standards-based reform and educational accountability has led to increased attention to large-scale assessments. Over the past two decades, large-scale assessments have been providing policymakers and educators with timely information about student learning and achievement to facilitate their decisions regarding schools, teachers and…

  7. Virginia Standards of Learning Assessments. Grade 3 Released Test Items, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept.of Education, Richmond. Div. of Assessment and Reporting.

    Beginning in Spring 1998, Virginia students participated in the Standards of Learning (SOL) Assessments designed to test student knowledge of the content and skills specified in the state's standards. This document contains questions that approximately 83,000 students in grade 3 were required to answer as part of the SOL assessments. These…

  8. Virginia Standards of Learning Assessments. Grade 5 Released Test Items, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept.of Education, Richmond. Div. of Assessment and Reporting.

    Beginning in Spring 1998, Virginia students participated in the Standards of Learning (SOL) assessments designed to test student knowledge of the content and skills specified in the state's standards. This document contains questions that approximately 80,000 students in grade 5 were required to answer as part of the SOL assessments. These…

  9. Virginia Standards of Learning Assessments. Grade 8 Released Test Items, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept.of Education, Richmond. Div. of Assessment and Reporting.

    Beginning in Spring 1998, Virginia students participated in the Standards of Learning (SOL) assessments designed to test student knowledge of the content and skills specified in the state's standards. This document contains questions that approximately 79,000 students in grade 8 were required to answer as part of the SOL assessments. These…

  10. Virginia Standards of Learning Assessments. End of Course Released Test Items, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept.of Education, Richmond. Div. of Assessment and Reporting.

    Beginning in Spring 1998, Virginia students participated in the Standards of Learning (SOL) assessments designed to test student knowledge of the content and skills specified in the state's standards. This document contains questions that students were required to answer as part of the SOL End-of-Course assessments. These questions are…

  11. Common Core State Standards Benchmark Assessments: Item Alignment to the Shifts in Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stugart, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Our nation is in the midst of one of the largest education reforms in decades centered on the adoption of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and aligned assessments. In an era of rising accountability measures and declining literacy proficiency, it is vital to ensure that educational resources, such as benchmark assessments, are appropriately…

  12. Exploring Plausible Causes of Differential Item Functioning in the PISA Science Assessment: Language, Curriculum or Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Xiaoting; Wilson, Mark; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, large-scale international assessments have been increasingly used to evaluate and compare the quality of education across regions and countries. However, measurement variance between different versions of these assessments often posts threats to the validity of such cross-cultural comparisons. In this study, we investigated the…

  13. Formative Assessment Probes: Mountaintop Fossil: A Puzzling Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2015-01-01

    This column focuses on promoting learning through assessment. This month's issue describes using formative assessment probes to uncover several ways of thinking about the puzzling discovery of a marine fossil on top of a mountain.

  14. Formative Assessment Probes: Is It Erosion or Weathering?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2016-01-01

    This column focuses on promoting learning through assessment. The formative assessment probe in this month's issue can be used as an initial elicitation before students are introduced to the formal concepts of weathering and erosion.

  15. Motivating student learning using a formative assessment journey.

    PubMed

    Evans, Darrell J R; Zeun, Paul; Stanier, Robert A

    2014-03-01

    Providing formative assessment opportunities has been recognised as a significant benefit to student learning. The outcome of any formative assessment should be one that ultimately helps improve student learning through familiarising students with the levels of learning required, informing them about gaps in their learning and providing feedback to guide the direction of learning. This article provides an example of how formative assessments can be developed into a formative assessment journey where a number of different assessments can be offered to students during the course of a module of teaching, thus utilising a spaced-education approach. As well as incorporating the specific drivers of formative assessment, we demonstrate how approaches deemed to be stimulating, interactive and entertaining with the aim of maximising enthusiasm and engagement can be incorporated. We provide an example of a mixed approach to evaluating elements of the assessment journey that focuses student reaction, appraisal of qualitative and quantitative feedback from student questionnaires, focus group analysis and teacher observations. Whilst it is not possible to determine a quantifiable effect of the assessment journey on student learning, usage data and student feedback shows that formative assessment can achieve high engagement and positive response to different assessments. Those assessments incorporating an active learning element and a quiz-based approach appear to be particularly popular. A spaced-education format encourages a building block approach to learning that is continuous in nature rather than focussed on an intense period of study prior to summative examinations.

  16. Development and Standardization of the Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale: Application of Item Response Theory to the Assessment of Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tassé, Marc J.; Schalock, Robert L.; Thissen, David; Balboni, Giulia; Bersani, Henry, Jr.; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A.; Spreat, Scott; Widaman, Keith F.; Zhang, Dalun; Navas, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was developed using item response theory (IRT) methods and was constructed to provide the most precise and valid adaptive behavior information at or near the cutoff point of making a decision regarding a diagnosis of intellectual disability. The DABS initial item pool consisted of 260 items. Using IRT…

  17. Using Conditional Percentages During Free-Operant Stimulus Preference Assessments to Predict the Effects of Preferred Items on Stereotypy: Preliminary Findings.

    PubMed

    Frewing, Tyla M; Rapp, John T; Pastrana, Sarah J

    2015-09-01

    To date, researchers have not identified an efficient methodology for selecting items that will compete with automatically reinforced behavior. In the present study, we identified high preference, high stereotypy (HP-HS), high preference, low stereotypy (HP-LS), low preference, high stereotypy (LP-HS), and low preference, low stereotypy (LP-LS) items based on response allocation to items and engagement in stereotypy during one to three, 30-min free-operant competing stimulus assessments (CSAs). The results showed that access to HP-LS items decreased stereotypy for all four participants; however, the results for other items were only predictive for one participant. Reanalysis of the CSA results revealed that the HP-LS item was typically identified by (a) the combined results of the first 10 min of the three 30-min assessments or (b) the results of one 30-min assessment. The clinical implications for the use of this method, as well as future directions for research, are briefly discussed.

  18. Formative Assessment in the Visual Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Heidi; Hefferen, Joanna; Palma, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Classroom assessment is a hot topic in K-12 education because of compelling evidence that assessment in the form of feedback is a powerful teaching and learning tool (Hattie & Timperley, 2007). Although formal evaluation has been anathema to many art specialists and teachers (Colwell, 2004), informal assessment in the form of feedback is not.…

  19. e-GovQual: A Multiple-Item Scale for Assessing e-Government Service Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadomichelaki, Xenia; Mentzas, Gregoris

    2012-01-01

    A critical element in the evolution of governmental services through the internet is the development of sites that better serve the citizens' needs. To deliver superior service quality, we must first understand how citizens perceive and evaluate online. Citizen assessment is built on defining quality, identifying underlying dimensions, and…

  20. Assessing Dimensionality of a Set of Items--Comparison of Different Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nandakumar, Ratna

    The performance of the following four methodologies for assessing unidimensionality was examined: (1) DIMTEST; (2) the approach of P. W. Holland and P. R. Rosenbaum; (3) linear factor analysis; and (4) non-linear factor analysis. Each method is examined and compared with other methods using simulated data sets and real data sets. Seven data sets,…

  1. Assessing Dimensionality of a Set of Item Responses--Comparison of Different Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nandakumar, Ratna

    1994-01-01

    Using simulated and real data, this study compares the performance of three methodologies for assessing unidimensionality: (1) DIMTEST; (2) the approach of Holland and Rosenbaum; and (3) nonlinear factor analysis. All three models correctly confirm unidimensionality, but they differ in their ability to detect the lack of unidimensionality.…

  2. Assessing Dimensionality of a Set of Items--Comparison of Different Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nandakumar, Ratna

    Performance in assessing the unidimensionality of tests was examined for four methods: (1) W. F. Stout's procedure (1987); (2) the approach of P. W. Holland and P. R. Rosenbaum (1986); (3) linear factor analysis; and (4) non-linear factor analysis. Each method was examined and compared with the others using simulated and real test data. Seven data…

  3. Psychometrical Assessment and Item Analysis of the General Health Questionnaire in Victims of Terrorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado-Gomez, David; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; de Leon-Martinez, Victoria; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Cabanas-Arrate, Maria Luisa; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Antonio; Aguado, David

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to assess the psychiatric morbidity that appears as a consequence of terrorist attacks. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) has been used to this end, but its psychometric properties have never been evaluated in a population affected by terrorism. A sample of 891 participants included 162 direct victims of terrorist attacks and…

  4. Test Item Construction and Validation: Developing a Statewide Assessment for Agricultural Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    The State of New York Agriculture Science Education secondary program is required to have a certification exam for students to assess their agriculture science education experience as a Regent's requirement towards graduation. This paper focuses on the procedure used to develop and validate two content sub-test questions within a…

  5. Assessing the Dimensionality of Item Response Matrices with Small Sample Sizes and Short Test Lengths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Champlain, Andre; Gessaroli, Marc E.

    1998-01-01

    Type I error rates and rejection rates for three-dimensionality assessment procedures were studied with data sets simulated to reflect short tests and small samples. Results show that the G-squared difference test (D. Bock, R. Gibbons, and E. Muraki, 1988) suffered from a severely inflated Type I error rate at all conditions simulated. (SLD)

  6. Revisiting the Impact of Formative Assessment Opportunities on Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Mary; Franklin, Sue; Devlin, Marcia; Charles, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    This project developed as a result of some inconclusive data from an investigation of whether a relationship existed between the use of formative assessment opportunities and performance, as measured by final grade. We were expecting to show our colleagues and students that use of formative assessment resources had the potential to improve…

  7. Formative Assessment: Improvement, Immediacy and the Edge for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staunton, Mike; Dann, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Formative assessment is about strengthening student learning and can dramatically improve student achievement when it guides changes in day-to-day classroom practice. Any attempt to understand formative assessment must therefore be grounded in a notion of learning, which this paper approaches from a constructivist/experiential perspective.…

  8. Connected Classroom Technology Facilitates Multiple Components of Formative Assessment Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirley, Melissa L.; Irving, Karen E.

    2015-01-01

    Formative assessment has been demonstrated to result in increased student achievement across a variety of educational contexts. When using formative assessment strategies, teachers engage students in instructional tasks that allow the teacher to uncover levels of student understanding so that the teacher may change instruction accordingly. Tools…

  9. The Relationship between Formative Assessment and Teachers' Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eufemia, Francine

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study sought to examine the relationship between teachers' use of formative assessment and their self-efficacy beliefs. Specifically, this study involved a quantitative analysis of the relationship between teachers' beliefs, knowledge base, and the use of formative assessment to make informed instructional changes and their…

  10. Formative Assessment Jump-Starts a Middle Grades Differentiation Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doubet, Kristina J.

    2012-01-01

    A rural middle level school had stalled in its third year of a district-wide differentiation initiative. This article describes the way teachers and the leadership team engaged in collaborative practices to put a spotlight on formative assessment. Teachers learned to systematically gather formative assessment data from their students and to use…

  11. Construct Validity in Formative Assessment: Purpose and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rix, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the utilization of construct validity in formative assessment for classroom-based purposes. Construct validity pertains to the notion that interpretations are made by educators who analyze test scores during formative assessment. The purpose of this paper is to note the challenges that educators face when interpreting these…

  12. Leading Formative Assessment Change: A 3-Phase Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2016

    2016-01-01

    If you are seeking greater student engagement and growth, you need to integrate high-impact formative assessment practices into daily instruction. Read the final article in our five-part series to find advice aimed at leaders determined to bring classroom formative assessment practices district wide. Learn: (1) what you MUST consider when…

  13. Psychometric Evaluation of 5- and 4-Item Versions of the LATCH Breastfeeding Assessment Tool during the Initial Postpartum Period among a Multiethnic Population

    PubMed Central

    Htun, Tha Pyai; Lim, Peng Im; Ho-Lim, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the internal consistency, structural validity, sensitivity and specificity of the 5- and 4-item versions of the LATCH assessment tool among a multiethnic population in Singapore. Methods The study was a secondary analysis of a subset of data (n = 907) from our previous breastfeeding survey from 2013 to 2014. The internal consistency of the LATCH was examined using Cronbach’s alpha. The structural validity was assessed using an exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and the proposed factors were confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using separate samples. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the LATCH score thresholds for predicting non-exclusive breastfeeding. Results The Cronbach’s alpha values of the 5- and 4-item LATCH assessments were 0.70 and 0.74, respectively. The EFA demonstrated a one-factor structure for the 5- and 4-item LATCH assessments among a randomized split of 334 vaginally delivered women. Two CFA of the 4-item LATCH demonstrated better fit indices of the models compared to the two CFA of the 5-item LATCH among another randomized split of 335 vaginally delivered women and 238 cesarean delivered women. Using cutoffs of 5.5 and 3.5 were recommended when predicting non-exclusive breastfeeding for 5- and 4-item versions of the LATCH assessment among vaginally delivered women (n = 669), with satisfactory sensitivities (94% and 95%), low specificities (0% and 2%), low positive predictive values (25%) and negative predictive values (20% and 47%). A cutoff of 5.5 was recommended to predict non-exclusive breastfeeding for 5- and 4-item versions among cesarean delivered women (n = 238) with satisfactory sensitivities (93% and 98%), low specificities (4% and 9%), low positive predictive values (41%) and negative predictive values (65% and 75%). Therefore, the tool has good sensitivity but poor specificity, positive and negative predictive

  14. Development and Standardization of the Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale: Application of Item Response Theory to the Assessment of Adaptive Behavior.

    PubMed

    Tassé, Marc J; Schalock, Robert L; Thissen, David; Balboni, Giulia; Bersani, Henry Hank; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A; Spreat, Scott; Widaman, Keith F; Zhang, Dalun; Navas, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was developed using item response theory (IRT) methods and was constructed to provide the most precise and valid adaptive behavior information at or near the cutoff point of making a decision regarding a diagnosis of intellectual disability. The DABS initial item pool consisted of 260 items. Using IRT modeling and a nationally representative standardization sample, the item set was reduced to 75 items that provide the most precise adaptive behavior information at the cutoff area determining the presence or not of significant adaptive behavior deficits across conceptual, social, and practical skills. The standardization of the DABS is described and discussed.

  15. 41 CFR 302-7.21 - If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer... is assessed by the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer, ultralight vehicle), am I responsible...

  16. A Third-Order Item Response Theory Model for Modeling the Effects of Domains and Subdomains in Large-Scale Educational Assessment Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rijmen, Frank; Jeon, Minjeong; von Davier, Matthias; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    Second-order item response theory models have been used for assessments consisting of several domains, such as content areas. We extend the second-order model to a third-order model for assessments that include subdomains nested in domains. Using a graphical model framework, it is shown how the model does not suffer from the curse of…

  17. U.S. Naval Unit Behavioral Health Needs Assessment Survey, Overview of Survey Items and Measures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-20

    stress, coping behaviors , alcohol use, and sleep . The scores for each issue were trichotomized by risk level, as green, yellow, or orange/red. The...military efforts. The Naval Unit Behavioral Health Needs Assessment Survey (NUBHNAS) will undertake the surveillance of Navy and Marine Corps personnel in... Behavioral health issues, including depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), are an ongoing problem for U.S. military forces. Rates of diagnosed

  18. IRT Item Parameter Scaling for Developing New Item Pools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hyeon-Ah; Lu, Ying; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Increasing use of item pools in large-scale educational assessments calls for an appropriate scaling procedure to achieve a common metric among field-tested items. The present study examines scaling procedures for developing a new item pool under a spiraled block linking design. The three scaling procedures are considered: (a) concurrent…

  19. Does Computer-Aided Formative Assessment Improve Learning Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannah, John; James, Alex; Williams, Phillipa

    2014-01-01

    Two first-year engineering mathematics courses used computer-aided assessment (CAA) to provide students with opportunities for formative assessment via a series of weekly quizzes. Most students used the assessment until they achieved very high (>90%) quiz scores. Although there is a positive correlation between these quiz marks and the final…

  20. Using Concept Cartoons in Formative Assessment: Scaffolding Students' Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Christine; Teou, Lay-Yen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how concept cartoons, together with other diagnostic and scaffolding tools, could be used in formative assessment, to stimulate talk and argumentation among students in small groups, as part of peer-assessment and self-assessment; and to provide diagnostic feedback about students' misconceptions to the…

  1. Assessing reliability and validity of the Arabic language version of the Post-traumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) symptom items.

    PubMed

    Norris, Anne E; Aroian, Karen J

    2008-09-30

    Arab immigrant women are vulnerable to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) because of gender, higher probability of being exposed to war-related violence, traditional cultural values, and immigration stressors. A valid and reliable screen is needed to assess PTSD incidence in this population. This study evaluated the reliability and validity of an Arabic language version of the symptom items in Foa et al.'s [Foa, E.B., Cashman, L., Jaycox, L., and Perry, K. 1997. The validation of a self report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder: the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale. Psychological Assessment 9(4), 445-451]. Post-traumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) in a sample of Arab immigrant women (n=453). Reliability was supported by Cronbach's alpha values for the Arabic language version (0.93) and its subscales (0.77-0.91). Results of group comparisons supported validity: Women who had lived in a refugee camp or emigrated from Iraq - a country where exposure to war and torture is common - were exhibiting depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) score above 18), or reported moderately to severely impaired functioning had significantly higher mean PDS total and symptom subscale scores than women who had not had these experiences or were not exhibiting depressive symptoms. Scores on the PDS and its subscales were also positively correlated with the Profile of Mood States (POMS) depression and anxiety subscales and negatively correlated with the POMS vigor subscale (r=-.29 to-.39).

  2. Determining if Active Learning through a Formative Assessment Process Translates to Better Performance in Summative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosas, Aidan Bradley; Raju, Shiwani Rani; Schuett, Burkhardt Siegfried; Chuck, Jo-Anne; Millar, Thomas James

    2016-01-01

    Formative assessment used in a level 2 unit, Immunology, gave outcomes that were both surprising and applicable across disciplines. Four formative tests were given and reviewed during class time. The students' attitudes to formative assessment were evaluated using questionnaires and its effectiveness in closing the gap was measured by the…

  3. Mathematics Formative Assessment: 75 Practical Strategies for Linking Assessment, Instruction, and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page; Tobey, Cheryl Rose

    2011-01-01

    Award-winning author Page Keeley and mathematics expert Cheryl Rose Tobey apply the successful format of Keeley's best-selling "Science Formative Assessment" to mathematics. They provide 75 formative assessment strategies and show teachers how to use them to inform instructional planning and better meet the needs of all students. Research shows…

  4. Formative Assessment Probes: Teachers as Classroom Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2011-01-01

    This column focuses on promoting learning through assessment. In 1999, a group of researchers from Indiana University and Purdue University decided to investigate data about students' ideas in science by inviting National Science Teachers Association members to participate in a research study about children's conceptions of animals. Published in…

  5. Let's Talk Formative Assessment ... and Evaluation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Karee E.; Mulvenon, Sean W.

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) in 2002 and subsequent sanctions for lower performing school systems has resulted in a number of both positive and negative consequences. One negative effect of NCLB is that teachers report a great deal of anxiety with regard to state-mandated assessments. The authors propose that one cause for the…

  6. Using a Constructed-Response Instrument to Explore the Effects of Item Position and Item Features on the Assessment of Students' Written Scientific Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federer, Meghan Rector; Nehm, Ross H.; Opfer, John E.; Pearl, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    A large body of work has been devoted to reducing assessment biases that distort inferences about students' science understanding, particularly in multiple-choice instruments (MCI). Constructed-response instruments (CRI), however, have invited much less scrutiny, perhaps because of their reputation for avoiding many of the documented biases of…

  7. An exploration of student nurses' experiences of formative assessment.

    PubMed

    Duers, Lorraine E; Brown, Norrie

    2009-08-01

    The idea that formative assessment has the potential to prepare students, not only to succeed in summative assessments during the course, but also in the world beyond the classroom [Melland, H., Volden, C., 1998. Classroom assessment: linking teaching and learning. Journal of Nursing Education 37(6), 275-277] fuelled the desire to explore student nurses experiences of being assessed formatively. Focus group discussion, within a UK Higher Education setting, captured the holistic, dynamic and individual experiences student nurses (n=14) have of formative assessment. Ethical approval was obtained. Findings from three separate focus group discussions indicate that lecturers do not use the term "formative assessment" in their communication with the student nurses; student preparation and effort is greater when assessment is for summative purposes; oral feedback is preferable to written feedback which can, at times, be illegible and utilise unfamiliar vocabulary; lecturer comments are regarded as being more valuable than grades; student nurses are not being prepared for the critical feedback associated with peer review and they may, therefore, be vulnerable to the process and outcome of peer review. Thus, the UK centric focus of this small qualitative research study need not detract from its ability to add to the global knowledge base on formative assessment in nursing.

  8. The science achievement of various subgroups on alternative assessment formats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrenz, Frances; Huffman, Douglas; Welch, Wayne

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the science achievement outcomes for different subgroups of students using different assessment formats. A nationally representative sample of approximately 3,500 ninth grade science students from 13 high schools throughout the United States completed a series of science assessments designed to measure their level of achievement on the national science education standards. All of the schools were using a curriculum designed to meet the standards. The assessments included a multiple-choice test, a written open-ended test, a hands-on lab skills test, and a hands-on full investigation. The results show that the student outcomes on the different assessment formats are more highly correlated for higher achieving students than for lower achieving students. Patterns for different cultural groups also vary by assessment format. There were no differences found for sex. The results support the notion that different assessment formats assess different competencies and that the achievement of students from different subgroups varies by assessment format.

  9. Assessing Psychopathy Among Justice Involved Adolescents with the PCL: YV: An Item Response Theory Examination Across Gender

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Siny; Schmidt, Karen M.; Vincent, Gina M.; Salekin, Randall T.; Moretti, Marlene M.; Odgers, Candice L.

    2014-01-01

    This study used an item response theory (IRT) model and a large adolescent sample of justice involved youth (N = 1,007, 38% female) to examine the item functioning of the Psychopathy Checklist – Youth Version (PCL: YV). Items that were most discriminating (or most sensitive to changes) of the latent trait (thought to be psychopathy) among adolescents included “Glibness/superficial charm”, “Lack of remorse”, and “Need for stimulation”, whereas items that were least discriminating included “Pathological lying”, “Failure to accept responsibility”, and “Lacks goals.” The items “Impulsivity” and “Irresponsibility” were the most likely to be rated high among adolescents, whereas “Parasitic lifestyle”, and “Glibness/superficial charm” were the most likely to be rated low. Evidence of differential item functioning (DIF) on four of the 13 items was found between boys and girls. “Failure to accept responsibility” and “Impulsivity” were endorsed more frequently to describe adolescent girls than boys at similar levels of the latent trait, and vice versa for “Grandiose sense of self-worth” and “Lacks goals.” The DIF findings suggest that four PCL: YV items function differently between boys and girls. PMID:25580672

  10. Assessing reprogramming by chimera formation and tetraploid complementation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Xia, Bao-long; Li, Wei; Zhou, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells can be evaluated by pluripotent markers expression, embryoid body aggregation, teratoma formation, chimera contribution and even more, tetraploid complementation. Whether iPS cells in general are functionally equivalent to normal ESCs is difficult to establish. Here, we present the detailed procedure for chimera formation and tetraploid complementation, the most stringent criterion, to assessing pluripotency.

  11. Using Out-of-Level Items in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Hua; Lin, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Out-of-level testing refers to the practice of assessing a student with a test that is intended for students at a higher or lower grade level. Although the appropriateness of out-of-level testing for accountability purposes has been questioned by educators and policymakers, incorporating out-of-level items in formative assessments for accurate…

  12. Connected Classroom Technology Facilitates Multiple Components of Formative Assessment Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirley, Melissa L.; Irving, Karen E.

    2015-02-01

    Formative assessment has been demonstrated to result in increased student achievement across a variety of educational contexts. When using formative assessment strategies, teachers engage students in instructional tasks that allow the teacher to uncover levels of student understanding so that the teacher may change instruction accordingly. Tools that support the implementation of formative assessment strategies are therefore likely to enhance student achievement. Connected classroom technologies (CCTs) include a family of devices that show promise in facilitating formative assessment. By promoting the use of interactive student tasks and providing both teachers and students with rapid and accurate data on student learning, CCT can provide teachers with necessary evidence for making instructional decisions about subsequent lessons. In this study, the experiences of four middle and high school science teachers in their first year of implementing the TI-Navigator™ system, a specific type of CCT, are used to characterize the ways in which CCT supports the goals of effective formative assessment. We present excerpts of participant interviews to demonstrate the alignment of CCT with several main phases of the formative assessment process. CCT was found to support implementation of a variety of instructional tasks that generate evidence of student learning for the teacher. The rapid aggregation and display of student learning evidence provided teachers with robust data on which to base subsequent instructional decisions.

  13. Formative assessment in undergraduate medical education: concept, implementation and hurdles.

    PubMed

    Rauf, Ayesha; Shamim, Muhammad Shahid; Aly, Syed Moyn; Chundrigar, Tariq; Alam, Shams Nadeem

    2014-01-01

    Formative assessment, described as "the process of appraising, judging or evaluating students' work or performance and using this to shape and improve students' competence", is generally missing from medical schools of Pakistan. Progressive institutions conduct "formative assessment" as a fleeting part of the curriculum by using various methods that may or may not include feedback to learners. The most important factor in the success of formative assessment is the quality of feedback, shown to have the maximum impact on student accomplishment. Inclusion of formative assessment into the curriculum and its implementation will require the following: Enabling Environment, Faculty and student Training, Role of Department of Medical Education (DME). Many issues can be predicted that may jeopardize the effectiveness of formative assessment including faculty resistance, lack of motivation from students and faculty and paucity of commitment from the top administration. For improvement in medical education in Pakistan, we need to develop a system considered worthy by national and international standards. This paper will give an overview of formative assessment, its implications and recommendations for implementation in medical institutes of Pakistan.

  14. Assessing consumer program needs: advantages of a brief unstructured format.

    PubMed

    Blankertz, Laura; Hazem, Denis

    2002-08-01

    To be empowered, consumers must provide feedback on services so that modifications can be made. The most frequently used method to attain such information is consumer satisfaction measures. However, often the measures are not useful because they have a strong positive response bias or because they do not contain items that reflect consumer needs. An alternative brief unstructured assessment was piloted with individuals served by four Community Treatment Teams in Delaware. The high number of needs expressed suggests that further work should be done in this area.

  15. Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Schizophrenia and Other Psychiatric Disorders: A Systematic Review of the Validity, Reliability, and Item Content of 10 Available Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jay P.; Serper, Mark; Reinharth, Jonathan; Fazel, Seena

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To undertake a systematic review on structured violence risk assessment tools in individuals with schizophrenia. Methods: A systematic search was conducted from 1990 to 2011 to identify violence risk assessment tools and studies examining their predictive validity. Item content of the identified instruments was analyzed, and areas under the curve (AUC) from the studies were extracted. In addition, an 11-item checklist was developed to assess the utility and psychometric properties of these tools. Results: Ten risk assessment tools designed to predict community violence in psychiatric patients were identified, but only 2 studies reporting predictive validity estimates in patients with schizophrenia were found (median AUC = 0.69; interquartile range = 0.60–0.77). When inclusion criteria was broadened to include studies measuring accuracy for any diagnostic group, mixed evidence of predictive validity was found, with median AUCs ranging from 0.62 to 0.85 depending on the population. Item content included mostly clinical, sociodemographic, and criminal history factors. As only 1 tool included a neurobiological item, a structured review of brain-based and cognitive risk factors for violence was included, and 3 clusters (neurocognitive ability, neurocognitive awareness, and attitudinal cognition) were identified. Conclusions: While a number of violence risk assessment tools exist that can be used to predict the likelihood of community violence in psychiatric patients, there is currently little direct evidence for their utility in individuals with schizophrenia. In addition, there is large variation in item content between instruments, and further research is necessary to determine whether the inclusion of alternative factors could improve risk assessment. PMID:21860036

  16. Assessing Understanding of the Concept of Function: A Study Comparing Prospective Secondary Mathematics Teachers' Responses to Multiple-Choice and Constructed-Response Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeley, Susan Jane

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether multiple-choice and constructed-response items assessed prospective secondary mathematics teachers' understanding of the concept of function. The conceptual framework for the study was the Dreyfus and Eisenberg (1982) Function Block. The theoretical framework was Sierpinska's (1992, 1994)…

  17. A Comparison between Robust z and 0.3-Logit Difference Procedures in Assessing Stability of Linking Items for the Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huynh, Huynh; Rawls, Anita

    2011-01-01

    There are at least two procedures to assess item difficulty stability in the Rasch model: robust z procedure and "0.3 Logit Difference" procedure. The robust z procedure is a variation of the z statistic that reduces dependency on outliers. The "0.3 Logit Difference" procedure is based on experiences in Rasch linking for tests…

  18. Using Differential Item Functioning to Investigate the Impact of Testing Accommodations on an English-Language Arts Assessment for Students Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Elizabeth; Cook, Linda; Cahalan-Laitusis, Cara; Cline, Frederick

    2010-01-01

    This validity study examined differential item functioning (DIF) results on large-scale state standards-based English-language arts assessments at grades 4 and 8 for students without disabilities taking the test under standard conditions and students who are blind or visually impaired taking the test with either a large print or braille form.…

  19. 41 CFR 302-7.21 - If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer... the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer, ultralight vehicle), am I responsible for payment? (a) No,...

  20. 41 CFR 302-7.21 - If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer... Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY...

  1. Differential Item Functioning Comparisons on a Performance-Based Alternate Assessment for Students with Severe Cognitive Impairments, Autism and Orthopedic Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laitusis, Cara Cahalan; Maneckshana, Behroz; Monfils, Lora; Ahlgrim-Delzell, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine Differential Item Functioning (DIF) by disability groups on an on-demand performance assessment for students with severe cognitive impairments. Researchers examined the presence of DIF for two comparisons. One comparison involved students with severe cognitive impairments who served as the reference group…

  2. Q-Matrix Construction: Defining the Link between Constructs and Test Items in Large-Scale Reading and Listening Comprehension Assessments--The Authors Respond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawaki, Yasuyo; Kim, Hae-Jin; Gentile, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the authors' response to the insightful comments provided by Charles Alderson and Fred Davidson regarding their article entitled "Q-matrix construction: Defining the link between constructs and test items in large-scale reading and listening comprehension assessments" (Sawaki, Kim, & Gentile, 2009). Many issues raised by both…

  3. Scoring Subjectivity and Item Performance on Measures Used to Assess Violence Risk: The PCL-R and HCR-20 as Exemplars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rufino, Katrina A.; Boccaccini, Marcus T.; Guy, Laura S.

    2011-01-01

    Although reliability is essential to validity, most research on violence risk assessment tools has paid little attention to strategies for improving rater agreement. The authors evaluated the degree to which perceived subjectivity in scoring guidelines for items from two measures--the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and the Historical,…

  4. Action Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Mark; Keane, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Maximizing school resources and managing a shrinking budget--these are two important items affected when a building's roofing system does not perform properly. Rather than acting in haste, school and university administrators should do what every teacher tells a student prior to answering any question: think through the research and studies to…

  5. Assessment of Person Fit for Mixed-Format Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinharay, Sandip

    2015-01-01

    Person-fit assessment may help the researcher to obtain additional information regarding the answering behavior of persons. Although several researchers examined person fit, there is a lack of research on person-fit assessment for mixed-format tests. In this article, the lz statistic and the ?2 statistic, both of which have been used for tests…

  6. Developing Classroom Formative Assessment in Dutch Primary Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Berg, M.; Harskamp, E. G.; Suhre, C. J. M.

    2016-01-01

    In the last two decades Dutch primary school students scored below expectation in international mathematics tests. An explanation for this may be that teachers fail to adequately assess their students' understanding of learning goals and provide timely feedback. To improve the teachers' formative assessment practice, researchers, curriculum…

  7. A Formative Approach to National Assessments: The Case of Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravela, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a case of national achievement assessment at the primary level within a formative approach. Many countries experience an increasing obligation to attach high stakes to national assessments, which results in greater pressure on teachers and schools. The author's view is that this kind of approach is…

  8. Exploring Formative Assessment Using Cultural Historical Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asghar, Mandy

    2013-01-01

    Formative assessment is a pedagogic practice that has been the subject of much research and debate, as to how it can be used most effectively to deliver enhanced student learning in the higher education setting. Often described as a complex concept it embraces activities that range from facilitating students understanding of assessment standards,…

  9. Scaling up Strategies for Change: Change in Formative Assessment Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekker, Truus; Feijs, Els

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses some of the results of the CATCH (Classroom Assessment as a basis for Teacher Change) project. CATCH was meant to develop, apply and scale up a professional development programme designed to change teachers' instruction by helping them change their formative assessment practices. The authors focus on the analysis of three…

  10. Developing Formative Teacher Assessment: Knowledge, Practice, and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Constant

    2004-01-01

    Classroom-based formative assessment by teachers has received a good deal of renewed scholarly and policy interest. The overall aim of this article is to foreground some of the key constitutive issues in this approach to teacher assessment and to suggest possible ways of conceptualizing key epistemological and empirical questions. This discussion…

  11. Automated Formative Feedback and Summative Assessment Using Individualised Spreadsheet Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blayney, Paul; Freeman, Mark

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on the effects of automating formative feedback at the student's discretion and automating summative assessment with individualised spreadsheet assignments. Quality learning outcomes are achieved when students adopt deep approaches to learning (Ramsden, 2003). Learning environments designed to align assessment to learning…

  12. How Teachers Can Use PE Metrics for Formative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisette, Jennifer L.; Franck, D. Marian

    2012-01-01

    Two forms of assessment, summative and formative, are the primary means by which teachers determine student progress and achievement. Summative assessments help teachers determine what students have learned at the end of a unit of instruction. They are often used to help teachers determine whether their instruction was effective or to grade…

  13. Formative Assessment in Year 12 English: A Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dargusch, Jo

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a research project investigating the formative assessment practices of two teachers of Year 12 English in Queensland. This is a high-stakes year that is focused on summative assessment for certification purposes. In this school-based, externally-moderated, standards-referenced system, however, teachers are also expected to…

  14. Rating Scale Items: A Brief Review of Nomenclature, Components, and Formatting to Inform the Development of Direct Behavior Rating (DBR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Theodore J.; Boice, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Ratings scales are a common component of many multisource, multimethod frameworks for socioemotional and behavior assessment of children. There is a modest literature base to support the use of attitudinal, behavioral, and personality rating scales. Much of that historic literature focuses on the characteristics and interpretations of specific…

  15. An international quality of life instrument to assess wellbeing in adults who are HIV-positive: a short form of the WHOQOL-HIV (31 items).

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Kathryn Ann; Skevington, Suzanne M

    2012-02-01

    Few cross-cultural measures are available to assess quality of life (QoL) in HIV/AIDS. A short form of the WHOQOL-HIV-the WHOQOL-HIV BREF-was developed and tested. Survey data from 1,923 HIV-positive adults (selected for age, gender and disease stage) were collected in 8 culturally diverse centres. The 'best' HIV-specific item was extracted from five HIV facets of the WHOQOL-HIV long form using information about item correlations with QoL, health and domains, item discriminant validity and centre problems. The five identified items were then integrated with the WHOQOL-BREF to complete the 31 item WHOQOL-HIV BREF. This short form shows good internal consistency reliability and discriminant validity for 'known' disease stages. Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed an overall good fit for a six domains model (Comparative Fit Index = 0.97), supporting scoring. Quality of life in different cultures is reported. A value of the WHOQOL-HIV short form is in monitoring QoL in multi-national clinical trials, and in clinical practice.

  16. Integrating Data-Based Decision Making, Assessment for Learning and Diagnostic Testing in Formative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Kleij, Fabienne M.; Vermeulen, Jorine A.; Schildkamp, Kim; Eggen, Theo J. H .M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has highlighted the lack of a uniform definition of formative assessment, although its effectiveness is widely acknowledged. This paper addresses the theoretical differences and similarities amongst three approaches to formative assessment that are currently most frequently discussed in educational research literature: data-based…

  17. Creating a brief rating scale for the assessment of learning disabilities using reliability and true score estimates of the scale's items based on the Rasch model.

    PubMed

    Sideridis, Georgios; Padeliadu, Susana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to provide the means to create brief versions of instruments that can aid the diagnosis and classification of students with learning disabilities and comorbid disorders (e.g., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder). A sample of 1,108 students with and without a diagnosis of learning disabilities took part in study 1. Using information from modern theory methods (i.e., the Rasch model), a scale was created that included fewer than one third of the original battery items designed to assess reading skills. This best item synthesis was then evaluated for its predictive and criterion validity with a valid external reading battery (study 2). Using a sample of 232 students with and without learning disabilities, results indicated that the brief version of the scale was equally effective as the original scale in predicting reading achievement. Analysis of the content of the brief scale indicated that the best item synthesis involved items from cognition, motivation, strategy use, and advanced reading skills. It is suggested that multiple psychometric criteria be employed in evaluating the psychometric adequacy of scales used for the assessment and identification of learning disabilities and comorbid disorders.

  18. Item-Writing Guidelines for Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regan, Tom

    2015-01-01

    A teacher learning how to write test questions (test items) will almost certainly encounter item-writing guidelines--lists of item-writing do's and don'ts. Item-writing guidelines usually are presented as applicable across all assessment settings. Table I shows some guidelines that I believe to be generally applicable and two will be briefly…

  19. Elementary teachers'assessment actions and elementary science education: Formative assessment enactment in elementary science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierson, David Riley

    A comparative case study was conducted of two elementary science teachers' enactment of a formative assessment strategy, known as Reflective Assessment. Qualitative analysis of three data sources addressed the two research questions of the differences in enactment of RA and what those differences look like. This study suggests that differences do exist in how teachers implement formative assessment in the enactment of the same science curricula, though further investigation into this is needed.

  20. Investigating the Dynamics of Formative Assessment: Relationships between Teacher Knowledge, Assessment Practice and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Joan; Osmundson, Ellen; Dai, Yunyun; Ringstaff, Cathy; Timms, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study of elementary school science examines questions central to policy, practice and research on formative assessment: What is the quality of teachers' content-pedagogical and assessment knowledge? What is the relationship between teacher knowledge and assessment practice? What is the relationship between teacher knowledge,…

  1. Scoring subjectivity and item performance on measures used to assess violence risk: the PCL-R and HCR-20 as exemplars.

    PubMed

    Rufino, Katrina A; Boccaccini, Marcus T; Guy, Laura S

    2011-12-01

    Although reliability is essential to validity, most research on violence risk assessment tools has paid little attention to strategies for improving rater agreement. The authors evaluated the degree to which perceived subjectivity in scoring guidelines for items from two measures-the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and the Historical, Clinical, Risk Management-20 (HCR-20)-were related to indices of interrater agreement reported in the research literature. Nine doctoral students with experience scoring the PCL-R and HCR-20 showed a high level of agreement with respect to the amount of subjectivity required to score items. Decreased subjectivity was associated with increased rater agreement for both tools. For the PCL-R, items on aggregate measures that have the strongest effects in predictive validity research (i.e., Factor 2, Facet 4) were rated as the least subjective. For the HCR-20, items on the Historical scale were rated as the least subjective. Implications for measure development and refinement are discussed.

  2. The Impact of Feedback as Formative Assessment on Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Leanne

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an evaluation of the redesign of a research methods course intended to enhance students' learning for understanding and transfer. Drawing on principles of formative assessment from the existing academic literature, the instructor introduced a number of increasingly complex low-stakes assignments for students to complete prior…

  3. Teacher Inquiry into Formative Assessment Practices in Remedial Reading Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.; Moss, Connie M.; Long, Beverly A.

    2010-01-01

    Six remedial reading teachers in a large, rural school district participated in a form of professional development called Teaching as Intentional Learning, based on an inquiry process. Their topic of inquiry was formative assessment. Professional development comprised both direct instruction and inquiry learning in teachers' own classrooms. This…

  4. Checking for Understanding: Formative Assessment Techniques for Your Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    If you ever have students who are reluctant to tell you when they don't understand something--or worse, tell you they understand when they really don't--then here's a book that gives you lots of ways to check for understanding. Learn why typical methods to check for understanding are usually ineffective. And explore formative assessment techniques…

  5. Commentary: Evaluating the Validity of Formative and Interim Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Lorrie A.

    2009-01-01

    In many school districts, the pressure to raise test scores has created overnight celebrity status for formative assessment. Its powers to raise student achievement have been touted, however, without attending to the research on which these claims were based. Sociocultural learning theory provides theoretical grounding for understanding how…

  6. Teacher Learning of Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Ian D.; Feldman, Allan; Leonard, William J.; Gerace, William J.; St. Cyr, Karen; Lee, Hyunju; Harris, Robby

    2008-01-01

    "Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment" (TEFA) is an innovative pedagogy for teaching secondary school science or mathematics with "classroom response system" technology. "Teacher Learning of TEFA" (TLT) is a five year research project studying teacher change in the context of an intensive, sustained, on-site professional development (PD)…

  7. A Step-by-Step Study of Formative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietsch, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a guide to the development of formative assessments for school librarians participating in professional learning communities (PLC). It describes librarians' reading of assigned books, meeting with their PLCs, and incorporation of learned strategies in their daily instruction. Central library service readers' regular visits to…

  8. Using Formative Assessment and Metacognition to Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudesman, John; Crosby, Sara; Flugman, Bert; Issac, Sharlene; Everson, Howard; Clay, Dorie B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a multistep Enhanced Formative Assessment Program (EFAP) that features a Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) component. The program, which teaches students to become more effective learners, has been applied in a wide range of academic disciplines. In this paper we report on how the EFAP-SRL model can be applied to the area of…

  9. Intuitive Analysis of Variance-- A Formative Assessment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumpower, David

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an assessment activity that can show students how much they intuitively understand about statistics, but also alert them to common misunderstandings. How the activity can be used formatively to help improve students' conceptual understanding of analysis of variance is discussed. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table.)

  10. Formative plus Summative Assessment in Large Undergraduate Courses: Why Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Nirit

    2014-01-01

    One of the main challenges in large undergraduate courses in higher education, especially those with multiple-sections, is to monitor what is going on at the section level and to track the consistency across sections in both instruction and grading. In this paper, it can be argued that a combination of both formative and summative assessment is…

  11. Formative Assessment Professional Development: Impact on Teacher Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBiase, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    With increasing demands on student achievement as set forth by the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) (2001), teachers are the catalyst for improving their students' performance (Marzano, 2000). Existing studies on the use of formative assessment as a process by which teachers elicit information of their students' progress and use that information to…

  12. Formative Assessment Design for PDA Integrated Ecology Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Pi-Hsia; Lin, Yu-Fen; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2010-01-01

    Ubiquitous computing and mobile technologies provide a new perspective for designing innovative outdoor learning experiences. The purpose of this study is to propose a formative assessment design for integrating PDAs into ecology observations. Three learning activities were conducted in this study. An action research approach was applied to…

  13. Formative Assessment and Writing: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Steve; Hebert, Michael; Harris, Karen R.

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether formative writing assessments that are directly tied to everyday classroom teaching and learning enhance students' writing performance, we conducted a meta-analysis of true and quasi-experiments conducted with students in grades 1 to 8. We found that feedback to students about writing from adults, peers, self, and computers…

  14. How Does Using Formative Assessment Empower Students in Their Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campos, Jennifer; O'Hern, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to increase student empowerment through the use of formative assessment. The targeted population consisted of first and fifth grade students in the same school. Evidence for the existence of the problem included teacher observation, students' lack of knowledge and skills to complete classroom assignments, and low test…

  15. 3 Reasons Savvy District Leaders Prioritize Formative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Teachers and leaders who say "yes!" to classroom formative assessment practice find it's a fast, proven, sustainable way to collect and act on key information while engaging ALL students. It's also an ideal complement to MAP and other data. Curious about which research-based practices get the most raves? Then check out the first article…

  16. 4 Formative Assessment Practices That Make a Difference in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Teachers know they need to focus on practices that can make the biggest difference to their students--but which practices have a track record of improving learning and growth? Read the second article in our five-part series to discover specific classroom formative assessment practices proven to take students from zoned out to tuned in. You'll…

  17. Differential Item Functioning Analysis Using Rasch Item Information Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Mapuranga, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) analysis is a statistical technique used for ensuring the equity and fairness of educational assessments. This study formulates a new DIF analysis method using the information similarity index (ISI). ISI compares item information functions when data fits the Rasch model. Through simulations and an international…

  18. The Impact of Model Misspecification on Parameter Estimation and Item-Fit Assessment in Log-Linear Diagnostic Classification Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunina-Habenicht, Olga; Rupp, Andre A.; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Using a complex simulation study we investigated parameter recovery, classification accuracy, and performance of two item-fit statistics for correct and misspecified diagnostic classification models within a log-linear modeling framework. The basic manipulated test design factors included the number of respondents (1,000 vs. 10,000), attributes (3…

  19. An Assessment of Character and Leadership Development Latent Factor Structures through Confirmatory Factor, Item Response Theory, and Latent Class Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginbotham, David L.

    2013-01-01

    This study leveraged the complementary nature of confirmatory factor (CFA), item response theory (IRT), and latent class (LCA) analyses to strengthen the rigor and sophistication of evaluation of two new measures of the Air Force Academy's "leader of character" definition--the Character Mosaic Virtues (CMV) and the Leadership Mosaic…

  20. A Statistical Assessment of Order of Presentation in Multiple Item Likert Scale Survey Responses, or "Who's on First?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, Chester H., Jr.; Gardner, Suzanne

    The Research Services of the National Education Association (NEA) conducted a nationwide teacher opinion poll (TOP) based upon a stratified disproportionate two-state cluster sample of classroom teachers. This research study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the order of presentation of items would make no difference in the conclusions…

  1. The Structure of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory With Binary and Rating Scale Items.

    PubMed

    Boldero, Jennifer M; Bell, Richard C; Davies, Richard C

    2015-01-01

    Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) items typically have a forced-choice format, comprising a narcissistic and a nonnarcissistic statement. Recently, some have presented the narcissistic statements and asked individuals to either indicate whether they agree or disagree that the statements are self-descriptive (i.e., a binary response format) or to rate the extent to which they agree or disagree that these statements are self-descriptive on a Likert scale (i.e., a rating response format). The current research demonstrates that when NPI items have a binary or a rating response format, the scale has a bifactor structure (i.e., the items load on a general factor and on 6 specific group factors). Indexes of factor strength suggest that the data are unidimensional enough for the NPI's general factor to be considered a measure of a narcissism latent trait. However, the rating item general factor assessed more narcissism components than the binary item one. The positive correlations of the NPI's general factor, assessed when items have a rating response format, were moderate with self-esteem, strong with a measure of narcissistic grandiosity, and weak with 2 measures of narcissistic vulnerability. Together, the results suggest that using a rating format for items enhances the information provided by the NPI.

  2. A Comparison of Item Fit Statistics for Mixed IRT Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chon, Kyong Hee; Lee, Won-Chan; Dunbar, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we examined procedures for assessing model-data fit of item response theory (IRT) models for mixed format data. The model fit indices used in this study include PARSCALE's G[superscript 2], Orlando and Thissen's S-X[superscript 2] and S-G[superscript 2], and Stone's chi[superscript 2*] and G[superscript 2*]. To investigate the…

  3. An Investigation of Item Fit Statistics for Mixed IRT Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chon, Kyong Hee

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate procedures for assessing model fit of IRT models for mixed format data. In this study, various IRT model combinations were fitted to data containing both dichotomous and polytomous item responses, and the suitability of the chosen model mixtures was evaluated based on a number of model fit procedures.…

  4. Career and Occupational Development Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO. National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    The career and occupational development items contained in this document are part of a kit consisting of four documents which bring together different types of items that measure a number of career and occupational development (COD) objectives developed by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). (NAEP--which completed a national…

  5. Using Formative Assessments to Improve Student Learning Outcomes: A Study of the Different Types of Formative Assessments Teachers Use to Drive Instruction and Their Effects on Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alzina, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the difference between summative and formative assessments is still unclear for many teachers and principals as well as the effects formative assessments have on student learning outcomes. This quantitative study was conducted to explicitly explore formative assessments as a means to improve student learning outcomes, while examining…

  6. The Role of Content and Context in PISA Interest Scales: A study of the embedded interest items in the PISA 2006 science assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drechsel, Barbara; Carstensen, Claus; Prenzel, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses interest in science as one of the attitudinal aspects of scientific literacy. Large-scale data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2006 are analysed in order to describe student interest more precisely. So far the analyses have provided a general indicator of interest, aggregated over all contexts and contents in the science test. With its innovative approach PISA embeds interest items within the cognitive test unit and its contents and contexts. The main difference from conventional interest measures is that in most questionnaires, a relatively small number of interest items cover broad fields of contents and contexts. The science units represent a number of systematically differentiated scientific contexts and contents. The units' stimulus texts allow for concrete descriptions of relevant content aspects, applications, and contexts. In the analyses, multidimensional item response models are applied in order to disentangle student interest. The results indicate that multidimensional models fit the data. A two-dimensional model separating interest into two different knowledge of science dimensions described in the PISA science framework is further analysed with respect to gender, performance differences, and country. The findings give a comprehensive description of students' interest in science. The paper deals with methodological problems and describes requirements of the test construction for further assessments. The results are discussed with regard to their significance for science education.

  7. Body-Efficacy Expectation: Assessment of Beliefs concerning Bodily Coping Capabilities with a Five-Item Scale

    PubMed Central

    Schützler, Lena; Witt, Claudia M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Expectancies regarding a treatment play an important role in recovery as has been shown in placebo research. The role of expectations regarding the bodily capability to overcome illness is less investigated although in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) such capability is the target of interventions. We introduced a new construct, body-efficacy expectation, defined as the conviction that one's body is able to deal with health-threatening factors by itself, and developed and validated a scale for its measurement. Methods. The scale was developed following expert recommendations. Using online survey data from 1054 participants an exploratory factor analysis was conducted and psychometric properties of the scale were examined (item characteristics, reliability, and validity). Results. The exploratory factor analysis yielded a one-factor solution explaining 51.96% of total variance (Cronbach's α = 0.77). One of the originally six items was removed due to poor item characteristics. Correlations with several validation measures were in line with the theoretical background of the construct. Most importantly, participants with better general health showed higher body-efficacy expectation than participants with poorer health status. Conclusions. Further studies confirming the factor structure and using clinical samples are recommended. Also, the relations with the appraisal of CAM and CAM use warrant further research. PMID:24312132

  8. Comparing the Effects of Different Smoothing Algorithms on the Assessment of Dimensionality of Ordered Categorical Items with Parallel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Debelak, Rudolf; Tran, Ulrich S.

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of polychoric correlations via principal component analysis and exploratory factor analysis are well-known approaches to determine the dimensionality of ordered categorical items. However, the application of these approaches has been considered as critical due to the possible indefiniteness of the polychoric correlation matrix. A possible solution to this problem is the application of smoothing algorithms. This study compared the effects of three smoothing algorithms, based on the Frobenius norm, the adaption of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors, and on minimum-trace factor analysis, on the accuracy of various variations of parallel analysis by the means of a simulation study. We simulated different datasets which varied with respect to the size of the respondent sample, the size of the item set, the underlying factor model, the skewness of the response distributions and the number of response categories in each item. We found that a parallel analysis and principal component analysis of smoothed polychoric and Pearson correlations led to the most accurate results in detecting the number of major factors in simulated datasets when compared to the other methods we investigated. Of the methods used for smoothing polychoric correlation matrices, we recommend the algorithm based on minimum trace factor analysis. PMID:26845032

  9. Adapting Item Format for Cultural Effects in Translated Tests: Cultural Effects on Construct Validity of the Chinese Versions of the MBTI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterlind, Steven J.; Miao, Danmin; Sheng, Yanyan; Chia, Rosina C.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the interaction between different cultural groups and item type, and the ensuing effect on construct validity for a psychological inventory, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI, Form G). The authors analyzed 94 items from 2 Chinese-translated versions of the MBTI (Form G) for factorial differences among groups of…

  10. Formative Assessment Probes: Is It Made of Parts?: Scaffolding a Formative Assessment Probe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2013-01-01

    This column focuses on promoting learning through assessment. This month's issue explores structure and function as it relates to animals and plants. One of the disciplinary core ideas in "A Framework for K-12 Science Education" is LS1.A Structure and Function (NRC 2012). This disciplinary core idea is included in the "Next…

  11. Formative Assessment of Teacher Learning: Issues about Quality, Design Characteristics and Impact on Teacher Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kari

    2013-01-01

    deeper understanding of assessment of, as, and for teaching. The alert reader might have noticed that the title of this author's contribution is not "Formative Assessment of Teachers", but "Formative Assessment of Teacher Learning". In her opinion…

  12. Instructional Topics in Educational Measurement (ITEMS) Module: Using Automated Processes to Generate Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierl, Mark J.; Lai, Hollis

    2013-01-01

    Changes to the design and development of our educational assessments are resulting in the unprecedented demand for a large and continuous supply of content-specific test items. One way to address this growing demand is with automatic item generation (AIG). AIG is the process of using item models to generate test items with the aid of computer…

  13. How to Assess while You Teach Math: Formative Assessment Practices and Lessons, Grades K-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Islas, Dana

    2011-01-01

    "How to Assess While You Teach Math" is the ideal resource for further understanding the process of formative assessment in addition to improving your teaching of mathematics. All lessons are correlated to the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics and Standards for Mathematical Practice. In this multimedia resource, award-winning teacher…

  14. Students' Assessment Preferences and Approaches to Learning: Can Formative Assessment Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gijbels, David; Dochy, Filip

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into the relationships between hands-on experiences with formative assessment, students' assessment preferences and their approaches to learning. The sample consisted of 108 university first-year Bachelor's students studying criminology. Data were obtained using the "Revised two-factor study…

  15. A Case Study of Teacher Personal Practice Assessment Theories and Complexities of Implementing Formative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Box, Cathy; Skoog, Gerald; Dabbs, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    The value and effectiveness of formative assessment in the classroom has gained an increasing amount of attention during the past decade, especially since the publication of seminal work by Black and Wiliam titled "Assessment and Classroom Learning." Since that time, there has been a renewed interest in describing and evaluating teacher…

  16. Current issues in dietary acrylamide: formation, mitigation and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Pedreschi, Franco; Mariotti, María Salomé; Granby, Kit

    2014-01-15

    Acrylamide (AA) is known as a neurotoxin in humans and it is classified as a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency of Research on Cancer. AA is produced as by-product of the Maillard reaction in starchy foods processed at high temperatures (>120 °C). This review includes the investigation of AA precursors, mechanisms of AA formation and AA mitigation technologies in potato, cereal and coffee products. Additionally, most relevant issues of AA risk assessment are discussed. New technologies tested from laboratory to industrial scale face, as a major challenge, the reduction of AA content of browned food, while still maintaining its attractive organoleptic properties. Reducing sugars such as glucose and fructose are the major contributors to AA in potato-based products. On the other hand, the limiting substrate of AA formation in cereals and coffee is the free amino acid asparagine. For some products the addition of glycine or asparaginase reduces AA formation during baking. Since, for potatoes, the limiting substrate is reducing sugars, increases in sugar content in potatoes during storage then introduce some difficulties and potentially quite large variations in the AA content of the final product. Sugars in potatoes may be reduced by blanching. Levels of AA in different foods show large variations and no general upper limit is easily applicable, since some formation will always occur. Current policy is that practical measures should be taken voluntarily to reduce AA formation in vulnerable foods since AA is considered a health risk at the concentrations found in foods.

  17. Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment of Plant Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conejo, Ricardo; Garcia-Viñas, Juan Ignacio; Gastón, Aitor; Barros, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    Developing plant identification skills is an important part of the curriculum of any botany course in higher education. Frequent practice with dried and fresh plants is necessary to recognize the diversity of forms, states, and details that a species can present. We have developed a web-based assessment system for mobile devices that is able to pose appropriate questions according to the location of the student. A student's location can be obtained using the device position or by scanning a QR code attached to a dried plant sheet in a herbarium or to a fresh plant in an arboretum. The assessment questions are complemented with elaborated feedback that, according to the students' responses, provides indications of possible mistakes and correct answers. Three experiments were designed to measure the effectiveness of the formative assessment using dried and fresh plants. Three questionnaires were used to evaluate the system performance from the students' perspective. The results clearly indicate that formative assessment is objectively effective compared to traditional methods and that the students' attitudes towards the system were very positive.

  18. Item Response Theory and Health Outcomes Measurement in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Hays, Ron D.; Morales, Leo S.; Reise, Steve P.

    2006-01-01

    Item response theory (IRT) has a number of potential advantages over classical test theory in assessing self-reported health outcomes. IRT models yield invariant item and latent trait estimates (within a linear transformation), standard errors conditional on trait level, and trait estimates anchored to item content. IRT also facilitates evaluation of differential item functioning, inclusion of items with different response formats in the same scale, and assessment of person fit and is ideally suited for implementing computer adaptive testing. Finally, IRT methods can be helpful in developing better health outcome measures and in assessing change over time. These issues are reviewed, along with a discussion of some of the methodological and practical challenges in applying IRT methods. PMID:10982088

  19. Does computer-aided formative assessment improve learning outcomes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannah, John; James, Alex; Williams, Phillipa

    2014-02-01

    Two first-year engineering mathematics courses used computer-aided assessment (CAA) to provide students with opportunities for formative assessment via a series of weekly quizzes. Most students used the assessment until they achieved very high (>90%) quiz scores. Although there is a positive correlation between these quiz marks and the final exam marks, spending time on the CAA component of the course was negatively correlated with final exam performance. Students across the ability spectrum reduced their time commitment to CAA in their second semester, with weaker students achieving lower quiz totals, but with more able students' quiz marks hardly affected. Despite this lower quiz performance, the weaker students still improved their final exam marks in the second semester.

  20. What Strategies are Effective for Formative Assessment in an E-Learning Environment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tzu-Hua

    2007-01-01

    The web-based formative assessment developed in this research is named Formative Assessment Module of the Web-based Assessment and Test Analysis System (FAM-WATA). FAM-WATA is a multiple-choice web-based formative assessment module containing six effective strategies: 'repeat the test', 'correct answers are not given', 'query scores', 'ask…

  1. Methodology for the development and calibration of the SCI-QOL item banks

    PubMed Central

    Tulsky, David S.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Victorson, David; Choi, Seung W.; Gershon, Richard; Heinemann, Allen W.; Cella, David

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a comprehensive, psychometrically sound, and conceptually grounded patient reported outcomes (PRO) measurement system for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods Individual interviews (n = 44) and focus groups (n = 65 individuals with SCI and n = 42 SCI clinicians) were used to select key domains for inclusion and to develop PRO items. Verbatim items from other cutting-edge measurement systems (i.e. PROMIS, Neuro-QOL) were included to facilitate linkage and cross-population comparison. Items were field tested in a large sample of individuals with traumatic SCI (n = 877). Dimensionality was assessed with confirmatory factor analysis. Local item dependence and differential item functioning were assessed, and items were calibrated using the item response theory (IRT) graded response model. Finally, computer adaptive tests (CATs) and short forms were administered in a new sample (n = 245) to assess test-retest reliability and stability. Participants and Procedures A calibration sample of 877 individuals with traumatic SCI across five SCI Model Systems sites and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center completed SCI-QOL items in interview format. Results We developed 14 unidimensional calibrated item banks and 3 calibrated scales across physical, emotional, and social health domains. When combined with the five Spinal Cord Injury – Functional Index physical function banks, the final SCI-QOL system consists of 22 IRT-calibrated item banks/scales. Item banks may be administered as CATs or short forms. Scales may be administered in a fixed-length format only. Conclusions The SCI-QOL measurement system provides SCI researchers and clinicians with a comprehensive, relevant and psychometrically robust system for measurement of physical-medical, physical-functional, emotional, and social outcomes. All SCI-QOL instruments are freely available on Assessment CenterSM. PMID:26010963

  2. An NCME Instructional Module on Polytomous Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penfield, Randall David

    2014-01-01

    A polytomous item is one for which the responses are scored according to three or more categories. Given the increasing use of polytomous items in assessment practices, item response theory (IRT) models specialized for polytomous items are becoming increasingly common. The purpose of this ITEMS module is to provide an accessible overview of…

  3. Study Protocol on Intentional Distortion in Personality Assessment: Relationship with Test Format, Culture, and Cognitive Ability

    PubMed Central

    Van Geert, Eline; Orhon, Altan; Cioca, Iulia A.; Mamede, Rui; Golušin, Slobodan; Hubená, Barbora; Morillo, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Self-report personality questionnaires, traditionally offered in a graded-scale format, are widely used in high-stakes contexts such as job selection. However, job applicants may intentionally distort their answers when filling in these questionnaires, undermining the validity of the test results. Forced-choice questionnaires are allegedly more resistant to intentional distortion compared to graded-scale questionnaires, but they generate ipsative data. Ipsativity violates the assumptions of classical test theory, distorting the reliability and construct validity of the scales, and producing interdependencies among the scores. This limitation is overcome in the current study by using the recently developed Thurstonian item response theory model. As online testing in job selection contexts is increasing, the focus will be on the impact of intentional distortion on personality questionnaire data collected online. The present study intends to examine the effect of three different variables on intentional distortion: (a) test format (graded-scale versus forced-choice); (b) culture, as data will be collected in three countries differing in their attitudes toward intentional distortion (the United Kingdom, Serbia, and Turkey); and (c) cognitive ability, as a possible predictor of the ability to choose the more desirable responses. Furthermore, we aim to integrate the findings using a comprehensive model of intentional distortion. In the Anticipated Results section, three main aspects are considered: (a) the limitations of the manipulation, theoretical approach, and analyses employed; (b) practical implications for job selection and for personality assessment in a broader sense; and (c) suggestions for further research. PMID:27445902

  4. Study Protocol on Intentional Distortion in Personality Assessment: Relationship with Test Format, Culture, and Cognitive Ability.

    PubMed

    Van Geert, Eline; Orhon, Altan; Cioca, Iulia A; Mamede, Rui; Golušin, Slobodan; Hubená, Barbora; Morillo, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Self-report personality questionnaires, traditionally offered in a graded-scale format, are widely used in high-stakes contexts such as job selection. However, job applicants may intentionally distort their answers when filling in these questionnaires, undermining the validity of the test results. Forced-choice questionnaires are allegedly more resistant to intentional distortion compared to graded-scale questionnaires, but they generate ipsative data. Ipsativity violates the assumptions of classical test theory, distorting the reliability and construct validity of the scales, and producing interdependencies among the scores. This limitation is overcome in the current study by using the recently developed Thurstonian item response theory model. As online testing in job selection contexts is increasing, the focus will be on the impact of intentional distortion on personality questionnaire data collected online. The present study intends to examine the effect of three different variables on intentional distortion: (a) test format (graded-scale versus forced-choice); (b) culture, as data will be collected in three countries differing in their attitudes toward intentional distortion (the United Kingdom, Serbia, and Turkey); and (c) cognitive ability, as a possible predictor of the ability to choose the more desirable responses. Furthermore, we aim to integrate the findings using a comprehensive model of intentional distortion. In the Anticipated Results section, three main aspects are considered: (a) the limitations of the manipulation, theoretical approach, and analyses employed; (b) practical implications for job selection and for personality assessment in a broader sense; and

  5. 34 CFR 200.8 - Assessment reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... assessment is given; (ii) In an understandable and uniform format, including an alternative format (e.g... understand. (b) Itemized score analyses for LEAs and schools. (1) A State's academic assessment system must produce and report to LEAs and schools itemized score analyses, consistent with § 200.2(b)(4), so...

  6. 34 CFR 200.8 - Assessment reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... assessment is given; (ii) In an understandable and uniform format, including an alternative format (e.g... understand. (b) Itemized score analyses for LEAs and schools. (1) A State's academic assessment system must produce and report to LEAs and schools itemized score analyses, consistent with § 200.2(b)(4), so...

  7. 34 CFR 200.8 - Assessment reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... assessment is given; (ii) In an understandable and uniform format, including an alternative format (e.g... understand. (b) Itemized score analyses for LEAs and schools. (1) A State's academic assessment system must produce and report to LEAs and schools itemized score analyses, consistent with § 200.2(b)(4), so...

  8. Computer Equipment Repair Test Item Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This guide contains 321 test items for use in teaching a course in repairing computer equipment. All test items were reviewed, revised, and validated by incumbent workers and subject matter instructors. Items are provided for assessing student achievement in the following skill areas (with selected skills mentioned in brackets): performing…

  9. Computerized Numerical Control Test Item Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This guide contains 285 test items for use in teaching a course in computerized numerical control. All test items were reviewed, revised, and validated by incumbent workers and subject matter instructors. Items are provided for assessing student achievement in such aspects of programming and planning, setting up, and operating machines with…

  10. Item Selection in Computerized Classification Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Several alternatives for item selection algorithms based on item response theory in computerized classification testing (CCT) have been suggested, with no conclusive evidence on the substantial superiority of a single method. It is argued that the lack of sizable effect is because some of the methods actually assess items very similarly through…

  11. Diagnostic Value of Subjective Memory Complaints Assessed with a Single Item in Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer's Disease: Results of the DIAN Study

    PubMed Central

    Laske, Christoph; Sohrabi, Hamid R.; Jasielec, Mateusz S.; Müller, Stephan; Koehler, Niklas K.; Gräber, Susanne; Förster, Stefan; Drzezga, Alexander; Mueller-Sarnowski, Felix; Danek, Adrian; Jucker, Mathias; Bateman, Randall J.; Buckles, Virginia; Saykin, Andrew J.; Martins, Ralph N.; Morris, John C.; Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN)

    2015-01-01

    Objective. We examined the diagnostic value of subjective memory complaints (SMCs) assessed with a single item in a large cross-sectional cohort consisting of families with autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease (ADAD) participating in the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN). Methods. The baseline sample of 183 mutation carriers (MCs) and 117 noncarriers (NCs) was divided according to Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale into preclinical (CDR 0; MCs: n = 107; NCs: n = 109), early symptomatic (CDR 0.5; MCs: n = 48; NCs: n = 8), and dementia stage (CDR ≥ 1; MCs: n = 28; NCs: n = 0). These groups were subdivided by the presence or absence of SMCs. Results. At CDR 0, SMCs were present in 12.1% of MCs and 9.2% of NCs (P = 0.6). At CDR 0.5, SMCs were present in 66.7% of MCs and 62.5% of NCs (P = 1.0). At CDR ≥ 1, SMCs were present in 96.4% of MCs. SMCs in MCs were significantly associated with CDR, logical memory scores, Geriatric Depression Scale, education, and estimated years to onset. Conclusions. The present study shows that SMCs assessed by a single-item scale have no diagnostic value to identify preclinical ADAD in asymptomatic individuals. These results demonstrate the need of further improvement of SMC measures that should be examined in large clinical trials. PMID:25922840

  12. An Investigation of Saudi English-Major Learners' Perceptions of Formative Assessment Tasks and Their Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umer, Muhammad; Omer, Abdul Majeed Attayib

    2015-01-01

    The effect of standardised and summative assessment on teaching and learning has been explored in various settings. Formative assessment or classroom assessment, however, has not captured considerable attention of washback researchers. The prime goal of the inclusion of formative assessment in the assessment regime of a curriculum is to allow…

  13. Formative Assessment and Teachers' Sensitivity to Student Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haug, Berit S.; Ødegaard, Marianne

    2015-03-01

    Formative assessment, and especially feedback, is considered essential to student learning. To provide effective feedback, however, teachers must act upon the information that students reveal during instruction. In this study, we apply a framework of formative assessment to explore how sensitive teachers are to students' thoughts and ideas when teaching for conceptual understanding. Six elementary school teachers were interviewed and videotaped as they implemented a curriculum that emphasized the teaching of key science concepts through different modes of learning (doing, reading, writing, and talking). We created four main categories for fostering conceptual understanding: identifying learning goals, eliciting student information, interpreting student information, and acting. Findings indicate that elementary school teachers with low levels of pedagogical content knowledge in science do not always know the key concepts of a scientific idea or how to teach them to increase student learning. Therefore, teachers' interpretation of students' responses and their subsequent actions are not likely to be aligned to the scientific idea the key concepts represent. We suggest that teachers need support to identify the key concepts within the discipline of science. Equally important is to realize that to make meaning, these concepts must be taught in a context and in relation to other words within the discipline.

  14. Developing and evaluating innovative items for the NCLEX: Part 2, item characteristics and cognitive processing.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Anne; Harmes, J Christine

    2009-01-01

    This article is a continuation of the research on the development and evaluation of innovative item formats for the NCLEX examinations that was published in the March/April 2009 edition of Nurse Educator. The authors discuss the innovative item templates and evaluate the statistical characteristics and level of cognitive processing required to answer the examination items.

  15. Connecting Lines of Research on Task Model Variables, Automatic Item Generation, and Learning Progressions in Game-Based Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf, Edith Aurora

    2014-01-01

    In "How Task Features Impact Evidence from Assessments Embedded in Simulations and Games," Almond, Kim, Velasquez, and Shute have prepared a thought-provoking piece contrasting the roles of task model variables in a traditional assessment of mathematics word problems to their roles in "Newton's Playground," a game designed…

  16. Assessment for Writing Development: Trainee English Teachers' Understanding of Formative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keen, John

    2005-01-01

    This article considers the development in understanding of aspects of formative assessment of students' writing at Key Stage 3 (11-14 years) by a group of trainee English teachers. An "analysis and application" approach to writing development, which requires students to master categories and processes then apply them, is outlined and…

  17. Assessing Middle and High School Social Studies & English: Differentiating Formative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterman, Sheryn Spencer

    2010-01-01

    For middle and high school teachers of social studies and English, this book is filled with examples of instructional strategies that address students' readiness levels, interests, and learning preferences. It shows teachers how to formatively assess their students by addressing differentiated learning targets. Included are detailed examples of…

  18. Incremental and Predictive Utility of Formative Assessment Methods of Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcotte, Amanda M.; Hintze, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Formative assessment measures are commonly used in schools to assess reading and to design instruction accordingly. The purpose of this research was to investigate the incremental and concurrent validity of formative assessment measures of reading comprehension. It was hypothesized that formative measures of reading comprehension would contribute…

  19. Evaluating Design-Based Formative Assessment Practices in Outdoor Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmeyer, Rikke; Stevenson, Matt P.; Bentsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose: Research in formative assessment often pays close attention to the strategies which can be used by teachers. However, less emphasis in the literature seems to have been paid to study the application of formative assessment designs in practice. In this paper, we argue that a formative assessment design that we call…

  20. Exploring Formative Assessment in Primary School Classrooms: Developing a Framework of Actions and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antoniou, Panayiotis; James, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The importance of formative assessment in facilitating student learning has been well established in the literature. However, defining and implementing formative assessment in classroom settings is a rather complicated task. The aim of this study is to explore formative assessment, as implemented in primary classrooms in Cyprus, and develop a…

  1. Calibration of Automatically Generated Items Using Bayesian Hierarchical Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Matthew S.; Sinharay, Sandip

    For complex educational assessments, there is an increasing use of "item families," which are groups of related items. However, calibration or scoring for such an assessment requires fitting models that take into account the dependence structure inherent among the items that belong to the same item family. C. Glas and W. van der Linden…

  2. Assessment of free and cued recall in Alzheimer's disease and vascular and frontotemporal dementia with 24-item Grober and Buschke test.

    PubMed

    Cerciello, Milena; Isella, Valeria; Proserpi, Alice; Papagno, Costanza

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are the most common forms of dementia. It is well known that memory deficits in AD are different from those in VaD and FTD, especially with respect to cued recall. The aim of this clinical study was to compare the memory performance in 15 AD, 10 VaD and 9 FTD patients and 20 normal controls by means of a 24-item Grober-Buschke test [8]. The patients' groups were comparable in terms of severity of dementia. We considered free and total recall (free plus cued) both in immediate and delayed recall and computed an Index of Sensitivity to Cueing (ISC) [8] for immediate and delayed trials. We assessed whether cued recall predicted the subsequent free recall across our patients' groups. We found that AD patients recalled fewer items from the beginning and were less sensitive to cueing supporting the hypothesis that memory disorders in AD depend on encoding and storage deficit. In immediate recall VaD and FTD showed a similar memory performance and a stronger sensitivity to cueing than AD, suggesting that memory disorders in these patients are due to a difficulty in spontaneously implementing efficient retrieval strategies. However, we found a lower ISC in the delayed recall compared to the immediate trials in VaD than FTD due to a higher forgetting in VaD.

  3. Calibrating Item Families and Summarizing the Results Using Family Expected Response Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinharay, Sandip; Johnson, Matthew S.; Williamson, David M.

    2003-01-01

    Item families, which are groups of related items, are becoming increasingly popular in complex educational assessments. For example, in automatic item generation (AIG) systems, a test may consist of multiple items generated from each of a number of item models. Item calibration or scoring for such an assessment requires fitting models that can…

  4. Test Excavations at 3CT219 and 3CT220: Archaeological Assessment of Two Sites Along the Big Creek Channel Enlargement, Item 2, Crittenden County, Arkansas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    Big Creek, Item 1 Memphis COE Survey & LeeDecker (1979c) (Sta 0+00-50+60) Testing 1978 Blackfish Bayou, Memphis COE Survey & LeeDecker (1979a) Items 2...the Blackfish Bayou channel enlarRement project, items 2 and 3, St. Francis and Crittenden counties, Arkansas. Iroquois Research Institute. Fairfax

  5. Methodology for assessing thioarsenic formation potential in sulfidic landfill environments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianye; Kim, Hwidong; Townsend, Timothy

    2014-07-01

    Arsenic leaching and speciation in landfills, especially those with arsenic bearing waste and drywall disposal (such as construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills), may be affected by high levels of sulfide through the formation of thioarsenic anions. A methodology using ion chromatography (IC) with a conductivity detector was developed for the assessment of thioarsenic formation potential in sulfidic landfill environments. Monothioarsenate (H2AsSO3(-)) and dithioarsenate (H2AsS2O2(-)) were confirmed in the IC fractions of thioarsenate synthesis mixture, consistent with previous literature results. However, the observation of AsSx(-) (x=5-8) in the supposed trithioarsenate (H2AsS3O(-)) and tetrathioarsenate (H2AsS4(-)) IC fractions suggested the presence of new arsenic polysulfide complexes. All thioarsenate anions, particularly trithioarsenate and tetrathioarsenate, were unstable upon air exposure. The method developed for thioarsenate analysis was validated and successfully used to analyze several landfill leachate samples. Thioarsenate anions were detected in the leachate of all of the C&D debris landfills tested, which accounted for approximately 8.5% of the total aqueous As in the leachate. Compared to arsenite or arsenate, thioarsenates have been reported in literature to have lower adsorption on iron oxide minerals. The presence of thioarsenates in C&D debris landfill leachate poses new concerns when evaluating the impact of arsenic mobilization in such environments.

  6. A Multi-Faceted Formative Assessment Approach: Better Recognising the Learning Needs of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, James O.

    2010-01-01

    Students are increasingly subject to a series of learning pressures that prevent effective engagement in assessment. Thus, the aim of this study was to create a multi-faceted formative assessment approach that better enabled students to engage in the assessment process. A formative assessment approach, consisting of six key initiatives, is…

  7. Internal and External Factors Affecting Teachers' Adoption of Formative Assessment to Support Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izci, Kemal

    2016-01-01

    Assessment forms an important part of instruction. Assessment that aims to support learning is known as formative assessment and it contributes student's learning gain and motivation. However, teachers rarely use assessment formatively to aid their students' learning. Thus reviewing the factors that limit or support teachers' practices of…

  8. Are We There Yet? Using Rubrics to Support Progress toward Proficiency and Model Formative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinne, Lenore J.; Hasenbank, Jon F.; Coffey, David

    2014-01-01

    Classroom assessment, especially formative assessment, is one of the most challenging areas for new teachers, so it is imperative that teacher educators model effective classroom assessment practices. This article describes the use of rubrics in formative assessment, to support candidates in their progress toward mastery of course outcomes and to…

  9. The Meaning of Goodness-of-Fit Tests: Commentary on "Goodness-of-Fit Assessment of Item Response Theory Models"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thissen, David

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary, David Thissen states that "Goodness-of-fit assessment for IRT models is maturing; it has come a long way from zero." Thissen then references prior works on "goodness of fit" in the index of Lord and Novick's (1968) classic text; Yen (1984); Drasgow, Levine, Tsien, Williams, and Mead (1995); Chen and…

  10. Nonrestricted multiple-choice examination items.

    PubMed

    Kolstad, R; Goaz, P; Kolstad, R

    1982-08-01

    Multiple-choice items are frequently used in objective examinations. The format chosen should conform to the nature of the instruction. Knowledge about cumulative information, such as lists of attributes, can be tested efficiently by means of multiple-choice items that include a variable number of correct answers. In contrast to conventional, single-answer questions, nonrestricted multiple-choice items are capable of including more facts and fewer incorrect responses. In addition, the nonrestricted format is not burdened with the repetitious pattern of one correct answer coupled with several incorrect responses, a cue that may promote successful guessing. Item analyses can be performed on examinations that include both conventional and nonrestricted items. The reliability of one examination constructed totally with nonrestricted items was analyzed by means of the Kuder-Richardson Formula No. 20. The value 0.72 proved this examination to be both discriminating and consistent.

  11. What Do You Think You Are Measuring? A Mixed-Methods Procedure for Assessing the Content Validity of Test Items and Theory-Based Scaling.

    PubMed

    Koller, Ingrid; Levenson, Michael R; Glück, Judith

    2017-01-01

    The valid measurement of latent constructs is crucial for psychological research. Here, we present a mixed-methods procedure for improving the precision of construct definitions, determining the content validity of items, evaluating the representativeness of items for the target construct, generating test items, and analyzing items on a theoretical basis. To illustrate the mixed-methods content-scaling-structure (CSS) procedure, we analyze the Adult Self-Transcendence Inventory, a self-report measure of wisdom (ASTI, Levenson et al., 2005). A content-validity analysis of the ASTI items was used as the basis of psychometric analyses using multidimensional item response models (N = 1215). We found that the new procedure produced important suggestions concerning five subdimensions of the ASTI that were not identifiable using exploratory methods. The study shows that the application of the suggested procedure leads to a deeper understanding of latent constructs. It also demonstrates the advantages of theory-based item analysis.

  12. What Do You Think You Are Measuring? A Mixed-Methods Procedure for Assessing the Content Validity of Test Items and Theory-Based Scaling

    PubMed Central

    Koller, Ingrid; Levenson, Michael R.; Glück, Judith

    2017-01-01

    The valid measurement of latent constructs is crucial for psychological research. Here, we present a mixed-methods procedure for improving the precision of construct definitions, determining the content validity of items, evaluating the representativeness of items for the target construct, generating test items, and analyzing items on a theoretical basis. To illustrate the mixed-methods content-scaling-structure (CSS) procedure, we analyze the Adult Self-Transcendence Inventory, a self-report measure of wisdom (ASTI, Levenson et al., 2005). A content-validity analysis of the ASTI items was used as the basis of psychometric analyses using multidimensional item response models (N = 1215). We found that the new procedure produced important suggestions concerning five subdimensions of the ASTI that were not identifiable using exploratory methods. The study shows that the application of the suggested procedure leads to a deeper understanding of latent constructs. It also demonstrates the advantages of theory-based item analysis. PMID:28270777

  13. Screening Test Items for Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longford, Nicholas T.

    2014-01-01

    A method for medical screening is adapted to differential item functioning (DIF). Its essential elements are explicit declarations of the level of DIF that is acceptable and of the loss function that quantifies the consequences of the two kinds of inappropriate classification of an item. Instead of a single level and a single function, sets of…

  14. Refining Inquiry with Multi-Form Assessment: Formative and summative assessment functions for flexible inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuiker, Steven; Reid Whitaker, J.

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes the 5E+I/A inquiry model and reports a case study of one curricular enactment by a US fifth-grade classroom. A literature review establishes the model's conceptual adequacy with respect to longstanding research related to both the 5E inquiry model and multiple, incremental innovations of it. As a collective line of research, the review highlights a common emphasis on formative assessment, at times coupled either with differentiated instruction strategies or with activities that target the generalization of learning. The 5E+I/A model contributes a multi-level assessment strategy that balances formative and summative functions of multiple forms of assessment in order to support classroom participation while still attending to individual achievement. The case report documents the enactment of a weeklong 5E+I/A curricular design as a preliminary account of the model's empirical adequacy. A descriptive and analytical narrative illustrates variable ways that multi-level assessment makes student thinking visible and pedagogical decision-making more powerful. In light of both, it also documents productive adaptations to a flexible curricular design and considers future research to advance this collective line of inquiry.

  15. Comparative validity and repeatability of a single question, a twenty-eight-item FFQ and estimated food records to assess takeaway meal intake.

    PubMed

    Cook, Amelia S; McCook, Rochelle; Petocz, Peter; O'Leary, Fiona; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2016-11-01

    A single question (SQ) and a twenty-eight-item FFQ to measure takeaway meal intake were compared with two 7-d estimated food records (EFR; reference method). Test methods were completed after the reference period and repeated 6-8 d later for repeatability. The SQ asked about intake of high-SFA takeaway meals. FFQ items included low- and high-SFA meals. Test methods were compared with EFR for sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values, using a goal of ≤1 high-SFA weekly takeaway meals. Bland-Altman analyses were used to check agreement between measurement approaches, the κ coefficient was used to summarise the observed level of agreement, and Spearman's correlation was used to assess the degree to which instruments ranked individuals. Young adults were recruited from two universities, and 109 participants (61 % female) completed the study. The mean age was 24·4 (sd 4·9) years, and the mean BMI was 23·5 (sd 3·7) kg/m2. The SQ and the FFQ had a sensitivity of 97 and 83 % and a specificity of 46 and 92 %, respectively. Both methods exhibited moderate correlation for measuring total and high-SFA takeaway meal intakes (r s ranging from 0·64 to 0·80). Neither instrument could measure precise, absolute intake at the group or individual level. Test methods ranged from fair (κ w =0·24) to moderate agreement (κ w =0·59). The repeatability for all was acceptable. The FFQ identified excessive high-SFA takeaway meal intake and measured individuals' category for total and high-SFA takeaway intakes. Both methods are suitable for ranking individuals for total or high-SFA takeaway meal intakes.

  16. Investigating Computer-Based Formative Assessments in a Medical Terminology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbanks, Jammie T.

    2012-01-01

    Research has been conducted on the effectiveness of formative assessments and on effectively teaching medical terminology; however, research had not been conducted on the use of formative assessments in a medical terminology course. A quantitative study was performed which captured data from a pretest, self-assessment, four module exams, and a…

  17. "Formative Good, Summative Bad?"--A Review of the Dichotomy in Assessment Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Alice Man Sze

    2016-01-01

    The debate between summative and formative assessment is creating a situation that increasingly calls to mind the famous slogan in George Orwell's (1945) "Animal Farm"--"Four legs good, two legs bad". Formative assessment is increasingly being portrayed in the literature as "good" assessment, which tutors should…

  18. Unpacking the Formative Assessment Processes of Secondary Mathematics Teachers Who Use Wireless Networked Classroom Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roble, Amanda Jean

    2015-01-01

    The use of formative assessment can increase student achievement (Black & Wiliam, 1998a). However, some of the challenges of incorporating formative assessment into instruction include the length of time needed to collect, assess and provide feedback to all students and dealing with students misunderstandings and incorrect answers that are…

  19. A Case Study of Teachers' Practices Using Formative Assessment for Fifth Grade Mathematics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veon, Kenneth E.

    2016-01-01

    Formative assessment is a classroom learning process that consists of clear goals and objectives, assessing students' knowledge, providing feedback and adjusting instruction based upon the data within a socially interactive process. Because of inconsistent implementation of the formative assessment process within classrooms, the efficacy of the…

  20. How Is Formative Assessment Related to Students' Reading Achievement? Findings from PISA 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hongli

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on the programme for international student assessment 2009 US data-set, this study examines the relationship between formative assessment and students' reading achievement using a structural equation modelling approach. We find that formative assessment is positively related to students' reading achievement directly and indirectly (through…

  1. Using Formative Assessment to Drive Mathematics Instruction in Grades 3-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberdorf, Christine; Taylor-Cox, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This book provides targeted mathematics instruction for every child. This book combines formative assessment with practical activities to differentiate the elementary classroom. The formative assessments include student work samples at varying levels. The authors: (1) Illustrate the distinction between a "traditional" assessment and an "enhanced"…

  2. Using Formative Assessment to Drive Mathematics Instruction in Grades PreK-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberdorf, Christine; Taylor-Cox, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Provide targeted mathematics instruction for every child. These books combine formative assessment with practical activities to differentiate the elementary classroom. The formative assessments include student work samples at varying levels. The authors: (1) Illustrate the distinction between a "traditional" assessment and an "enhanced"…

  3. Negotiating the Use of Formative Assessment for Learning in an Era of Accountability Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Xinying

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this collaborative action research was to understand how science educators can negotiate the tension between integrating formative assessment (FA) for students' learning and meeting the need for standardized summative assessment (testing) from a critical perspective. Using formative assessment in the era of accountability testing…

  4. Interpretations of Formative Assessment in the Teaching of English at Two Chinese Universities: A Sociocultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Qiuxian; Kettle, Margaret; Klenowski, Val; May, Lyn

    2013-01-01

    Formative assessment is increasingly being implemented through policy initiatives in Chinese educational contexts. As an approach to assessment, formative assessment derives many of its key principles from Western contexts, notably through the work of scholars in the UK, the USA and Australia. The question for this paper is the ways that formative…

  5. Formative Assessment as a Vehicle for Changing Classroom Practice in a Specific Cultural Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jingping

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, I interpret Xinying Yin and Gayle Ann Buck's collaborative action research from a social-cultural perspective. Classroom implementation of formative assessment is viewed as interaction between this assessment method and the local learning culture. I first identify Yin and Buck's definition of the formative assessment, and then…

  6. Engaging Professionals: Investigating in Service Teachers Use of Formative Classroom Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tariq, Muhammad Arshad

    2013-01-01

    This study examined in-service teachers use of formative classroom assessment (FCA) approach. The research aimed at to achieve following three major objectives: (a) to identify in-service teachers' comprehension of determining the purpose of formative classroom assessment, (b) to investigate teachers' use of process and techniques of assessment in…

  7. Clickers and CATs: Using Learner Response Systems for Formative Assessments in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Charlotte L.; Keyek-Franssen, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Formative assessment can play a critical role in fostering student success by engaging students in their own learning process, focusing their attention on what really matters, and helping instructors adjust to student learning needs in real time. Classroom assessment techniques (CATs) are a powerful formative assessment tool, and many CATs can be…

  8. An Analytical Method of Identifying Biased Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plake, Barbara S.; Hoover, H. D.

    1979-01-01

    A follow-up technique is needed to identify items contributing to items-by-groups interaction when using an ANOVA procedure to examine a test for biased items. The method described includes distribution theory for assessing level of significance and is sensitive to items at all difficulty levels. (Author/GSK)

  9. Formative assessment and academic achievement in pre-graduate students of health sciences.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-de-la-Peña, María T; Baillès, Eva; Caseras, Xavier; Martínez, Alvar; Ortet, Generós; Pérez, Jorge

    2009-03-01

    Although educational experts recommend the use of formative assessment, there is a dearth of empirical studies on its impact on academic achievement. In this research the authors analyse to what extent participation and performance in formative assessment are associated with positive academic outcomes of pre-graduate students of health sciences. A total of 548 students from three health science degrees (Medicine, Psychology and Biology) from four Spanish universities were involved in this study. The students who carried out mid-term formative assessment got better marks and had higher success rates in final summative assessment that the students who did not participate. In addition, success in formative assessment tests was associated with better summative marks. Interestingly, participation in formative assessment was a better predictor of final outcome than success in formative assessment, a result that supports the key role of feedback in formative assessment. Students who took the mid-term examination, irrespective of their success, obtained feedback about their achievement and probably this determined their greater involvement in the learning process. Although causal relationships between formative and summative assessment cannot be established from this research, the generalized benefits of formative assessments found here encourage the practice of them in health sciences education.

  10. Science Teachers' Representations of Classroom Practice in the Process of Formative Assessment Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heredia, Sara C.; Furtak, Erin Marie; Morrison, Deb; Renga, Ian Parker

    2016-11-01

    Formative assessment has been recognized as an essential element of effective classroom practice; as a result, teachers are increasingly required to create formative assessments for their classrooms. This study examines data drawn from a long-term, site-based professional development program that supported a department of biology teachers in the iterative design and enactment of common formative assessment tools. We analyze teacher conversations to understand how teachers collaborated to design formative assessments. Results indicate that when teachers attended to problems of practice related to teaching evolution, increased transparency in their talk helped build consensus about the design of formative assessment tools. These results highlight the importance of encouraging transparency in teacher dialog when they are engaged in collaborative design of formative assessments.

  11. Factoring handedness data: I. Item analysis.

    PubMed

    Messinger, H B; Messinger, M I

    1995-12-01

    Recently in this journal Peters and Murphy challenged the validity of factor analyses done on bimodal handedness data, suggesting instead that right- and left-handers be studied separately. But bimodality may be avoidable if attention is paid to Oldfield's questionnaire format and instructions for the subjects. Two characteristics appear crucial: a two-column LEFT-RIGHT format for the body of the instrument and what we call Oldfield's Admonition: not to indicate strong preference for handedness item, such as write, unless "... the preference is so strong that you would never try to use the other hand unless absolutely forced to...". Attaining unimodality of an item distribution would seem to overcome the objections of Peters and Murphy. In a 1984 survey in Boston we used Oldfield's ten-item questionnaire exactly as published. This produced unimodal item distributions. With reflection of the five-point item scale and a logarithmic transformation, we achieved a degree of normalization for the items. Two surveys elsewhere based on Oldfield's 20-item list but with changes in the questionnaire format and the instructions, yielded markedly different item distributions with peaks at each extreme and sometimes in the middle as well.

  12. A geochemical assessment of possible lunar ore formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, Larry A.; Colson, Russell O.; Vaniman, David

    1991-01-01

    The Moon apparently formed without appreciable water or other relatively volatile materials. Interior concentrations of water or other volatile substances appear to be extremely low. On Earth, water is important to the genesis of nearly all types of ores. Thus, some have reasoned that only abundant elements would occur in ore concentrations. The definition and recognition of ores on the Moon challenge the imaginations and the terrestrial perceptions of ore bodies. Lunar ores included solar-wind soaked soils, which contain abundant but dilute H, C, N, and noble gases (including He-3). Oxygen must be mined; soils contain approximately 45 percent (wt). Mainstream processes of rock formation concentrated Si, Mg, Al, Fe, and Ca, and possibly Ti and Cr. The highland surface contains approximately 70 percent (wt) feldspar (mainly CaAl2Si2O8), which can be separated from some highland soils. Small fragments of dunite were collected; dunite may occur in walls and central peaks of some craters. Theoretical extensions of observations of lunar samples suggest that the Moon may have produced ores of trace elements. Some small fragments have trace-element concentrations 10(exp 4) times higher than the lunar average, indicating that effective geochemical separations occurred; processes included fractional crystallization, silicate immiscibility, vaporization and condensation, and sulfide metamorphism. Operations of these processes acting on indigenous materials and on meteoritic material in the regolith could have produced ores. Infalling carbonaceous meteorites and comets have added water and hydrocarbons that may have been cold-trapped. Vesicles in basalts, pyroclastic beads, and reported transient events suggest gag emission from the lunar interior; such gas might concentrate and transport rare elements. Large impacts may disperse ores or produce them through deposition of heat at depth and by vaporization and subsequent condensation. The main problem in assessing lunar

  13. Assessing Goodness of Fit in Item Response Theory with Nonparametric Models: A Comparison of Posterior Probabilities and Kernel-Smoothing Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sueiro, Manuel J.; Abad, Francisco J.

    2011-01-01

    The distance between nonparametric and parametric item characteristic curves has been proposed as an index of goodness of fit in item response theory in the form of a root integrated squared error index. This article proposes to use the posterior distribution of the latent trait as the nonparametric model and compares the performance of an index…

  14. A Review of ETS Differential Item Functioning Assessment Procedures: Flagging Rules, Minimum Sample Size Requirements, and Criterion Refinement. Research Report. ETS RR-12-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwick, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) analysis is a key component in the evaluation of the fairness and validity of educational tests. The goal of this project was to review the status of ETS DIF analysis procedures, focusing on three aspects: (a) the nature and stringency of the statistical rules used to flag items, (b) the minimum sample size…

  15. Differential Item and Person Functioning in Large-Scale Writing Assessments within the Context of the SAT®. Research Report 2013-6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhard, George, Jr.; Wind, Stefanie A.; Kobrin, Jennifer L.; Chajewski, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to illustrate the use of explanatory models based on Rasch measurement theory to detect systematic relationships between student and item characteristics and achievement differences using differential item functioning (DIF), differential group functioning (DGF), and differential person functioning (DPF) techniques. The…

  16. Exploring the Utility of Background and Cognitive Variables in Explaining Latent Differential Item Functioning: An Example of the PISA 2009 Reading Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ying-Fang; Jiao, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) may be caused by an interaction of multiple manifest grouping variables or unexplored manifest variables, which cannot be detected by conventional DIF detection methods that are based on a single manifest grouping variable. Such DIF may be detected by a latent approach using the mixture item response theory…

  17. Qualitative Development of the PROMIS® Pediatric Stress Response Item Banks

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, William; Pajer, Kathleen; Riley, Anne W.; Forrest, Christopher B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the qualitative development of the Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) Pediatric Stress Response item banks. Methods Stress response concepts were specified through a literature review and interviews with content experts, children, and parents. A library comprising 2,677 items derived from 71 instruments was developed. Items were classified into conceptual categories; new items were written and redundant items were removed. Items were then revised based on cognitive interviews (n = 39 children), readability analyses, and translatability reviews. Results 2 pediatric Stress Response sub-domains were identified: somatic experiences (43 items) and psychological experiences (64 items). Final item pools cover the full range of children’s stress experiences. Items are comprehensible among children aged ≥8 years and ready for translation. Conclusions Child- and parent-report versions of the item banks assess children’s somatic and psychological states when demands tax their adaptive capabilities. PMID:23124904

  18. Validity of the 12-Item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) in individuals with Huntington disease (HD)

    PubMed Central

    Carlozzi, Noelle E.; Kratz, Anna L.; Downing, Nancy R.; Goodnight, Siera; Miner, Jennifer A.; Migliore, Nicholas; Paulsen, Jane S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The reliability and construct validity of the 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) was examined in individuals with Huntington disease (HD). Methods We examined factor structure (confirmatory factor analysis), internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha), floor and ceiling effects, convergent validity (Pearson correlations), and known-groups validity (multivariate analysis). Results Results of a confirmatory factor analysis replicated the six factor latent model that reflects the six separate scales within the WHODAS 2.0 (understanding and communicating; getting around; self-care; getting along with others, life activities; participation). Cronbach’s alpha for the scale was 0.94, suggesting good internal consistency reliability. The WHODAS demonstrated a ceiling effect for 19.5% of participants; there were no floor effects. There was evidence for convergent validity; the WHODAS demonstrated moderate significant correlations with other general measures of health-related quality of life (HRQOL; i.e., RAND-12, EQ5D). Multivariate analyses indicated that late-stage HD participants indicated poorer HRQOL than both early-stage HD and prodromal HD participants for all HRQOL measures. Conclusions Findings provide support for both the reliability and validity of the WHODAS 2.0 in individuals with HD. PMID:25636661

  19. Comparative energy storage assessment item

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giudici, B.

    1984-01-01

    This analysis, a Space Station application study, rediscovered Integrated Power and Attitude Control (IPAC) and found the approach to have lower initial and resupply weight and lower initial and resupply cost than either battery/CMG or regenerative fuel cell/CMG systems. Preliminary trade studies were performed comparing (IPAC) with equivalent independent electrochemical power and control moment gyro (CMG) control approaches. Technologies considered to have adequate status for an initial Space Station were: (1) nickel cadmium batteries (NiCd batteries), (2) regenerative fuel cells (RFC), (3) Skylab class CMG's, and (4) state of the art IPAC using metal wheels and ball bearing suspension (SOA-IPAC). An advanced IPAC (ADV-IPAC) employing composite rotor material and magnetic suspension was included in the comparisons to illustrate a possible range of performance and cost of inertial systems. The candidates were compared on the basis of initial weight and cost and on the basis of resupply weight and cost for a 15 year mission. Thus, SOA-IPAC would appear to be an attractive approach for the initial Space Station and possible technology improvements would further the appeal for the initial and/or growth Space Station.

  20. Lessons Learned from the Process of Curriculum Developers' and Assessment Developers' Collaboration on the Development of Embedded Formative Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, Paul R.; Young, Donald B.; Shavelson, Richard J.; Jones, Rachael; Ayala, Carlos C.; Ruiz-Primo, Maria Araceli; Yin, Yue; Tomita, Miki K.; Furtak, Erin Marie

    2008-01-01

    Our project to embed formative student assessments in the Foundational Approaches in Science Teaching curriculum required a close collaboration between curriculum developers at the Curriculum Research & Development Group (CRDG) and assessment developers at the Stanford Educational Assessment Laboratory (SEAL). This was a new endeavor for each…

  1. New hierarchical classification of food items for the assessment of exposure to packaging migrants: use of hub codes for different food groups.

    PubMed

    Northing, P; Oldring, P K T; Castle, L; Mason, P A S S

    2009-04-01

    This paper describes development work undertaken to expand the capabilities of an existing two-dimensional probabilistic modelling approach for assessing dietary exposure to chemicals migrating out of food contact materials. A new three-level hub-coding system has been devised for coding different food groups with regards to their consumption by individuals. The hub codes can be used at three different levels representing a high, medium and low level of aggregation of individual food items. The hub codes were developed because they have a greater relevance to packaging migration than coding used (largely and historically) for nutritional purposes. Also, the hub codes will assist pan-europeanization of the exposure model in the future, when up to 27 or more different food coding systems from 27 European Union Member States will have to be assimilated into the modelling approach. The applicability of the model with the new coding system has been tested by incorporating newly released 2001 UK consumption data. The example used was exposure to a hypothetical migrant from coated metal packaging for foodstuffs. When working at the three hierarchical levels, it was found that the tiered approach gave conservative estimates at the cruder level of refinement and a more realistic assessment was obtained as the refinement progressed. The work overall revealed that changes in eating habits over time had a relatively small impact on estimates of exposure. More important impacts are changes over time in packaging usage, packaging composition and migration levels. For countries like the UK, which has sophisticated food consumption data, it is uncertainties in these other areas that need to be addressed by new data collection.

  2. Integrating Formative and Summative Assessment: Progress toward a Seamless System? OECD Education Working Papers, No. 58

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Janet W.

    2011-01-01

    A long-held ambition for many educators and assessment experts has been to integrate summative and formative assessments so that data from external assessments used for system monitoring may also be used to shape teaching and learning in classrooms. In turn, classroom-based assessments may provide valuable data for decision makers at school and…

  3. Geography Library of Test Items. Volume Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouimanos, John, Ed.

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items of value from past tests are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests, term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The…

  4. Geography Library of Test Items. Volume One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouimanos, John, Ed.

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items of value from past tests are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests, term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The…

  5. Geography Library of Test Items. Volume Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouimanos, John, Ed.

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items of value from past tests are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests, term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The…

  6. Geography: Library of Test Items. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouimanos, John, Ed.

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items of value from past tests are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests, term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The…

  7. Formative Assessment in HL Teaching: Purposes, Procedures, and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carreira, Maria M.

    2012-01-01

    Discussions surrounding assessment in the foreign languages generally focus on the two ends of the teaching/learning process: diagnostic assessment, typically used for placement purposes and administered prior to the start of instruction, and summative assessment, which evaluates learning after instruction for purposes of assigning a grade or…

  8. Theoretical assessment of bonaccordite formation in pressurized water reactors

    DOE PAGES

    Rak, Zsolt; O'Brien, Chris; Shin, Dongwon; ...

    2016-03-04

    The free energy of formation of bonaccordite (Ni2FeBO5) as a function of temperature has been calculated using a technique that combines first principles calculations with experimental free energies of formation of aqueous species. The results suggest that bonaccordite formation from aqueous metal ions (Ni2+ andFe3+) and boric acid is thermodynamically favorable at elevated temperature and pH that have been predicted to exist at the CRUD-clad interface in deposits thicker than 60 μm.

  9. Theoretical assessment of bonaccordite formation in pressurized water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Rak, Zsolt; O'Brien, Chris; Shin, Dongwon; Andersson, Anders David; Stanek, Christopher; Brenner, Donald

    2016-03-04

    The free energy of formation of bonaccordite (Ni2FeBO5) as a function of temperature has been calculated using a technique that combines first principles calculations with experimental free energies of formation of aqueous species. The results suggest that bonaccordite formation from aqueous metal ions (Ni2+ andFe3+) and boric acid is thermodynamically favorable at elevated temperature and pH that have been predicted to exist at the CRUD-clad interface in deposits thicker than 60 μm.

  10. Theoretical assessment of bonaccordite formation in pressurized water reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rak, Zs; O'Brien, C. J.; Shin, D.; Andersson, A. D.; Stanek, C. R.; Brenner, D. W.

    2016-06-01

    The free energy of formation of bonaccordite (Ni2FeBO5) as a function of temperature has been calculated using a technique that combines first principles calculations with experimental free energies of formation of aqueous species. The results suggest that bonaccordite formation from aqueous metal ions (Ni2+ andFe3+) and boric acid is thermodynamically favorable at elevated temperature and pH that have been predicted to exist at the CRUD-clad interface in deposits thicker than 60 μm.

  11. Classroom Currency as a Means of Formative Feedback, Reflection, and Assessment in the World Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachelor, Jeremy W.; Bachelor, Robin Barnard

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the formative aspects of teaching in the World Language community college classroom: formative feedback, reflection, and assessment, and then recommends a new educational technique that applies the aforementioned formative elements into the classroom. To this end, in the fall semester of 2015, three sections of Spanish I at the…

  12. Evaluation of a Multiple-Stimulus Presentation Format for Assessing Reinforcer Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLeon, Iser G.; Iwata, Brian A.

    1996-01-01

    A study of seven adults with profound developmental disabilities compared methods for presenting stimuli during reinforcer-preference assessments. It found that a multiple-stimulus format in which selections were made without replacement may share the advantages of a paired-stimulus format and a multiple-stimulus format with replacement, while…

  13. Formative Assessment: A Meta-Analysis and a Call for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Neal; Nash, Brooke

    2011-01-01

    An effect size of about 0.70 (or 0.40-0.70) is often claimed for the efficacy of formative assessment, but is not supported by the existing research base. More than 300 studies that appeared to address the efficacy of formative assessment in grades K-12 were reviewed. Many of the studies had severely flawed research designs yielding…

  14. Use of Formative Classroom Assessment Techniques in a Project Management Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Bernice M.

    2014-01-01

    Formative assessment is considered to be an evaluation technique that informs the instructor of the level of student learning, giving evidence when it may be necessary for the instructor to make a change in delivery based upon the results. Several theories of formative assessment exist, all which propound the importance of feedback to the student.…

  15. Formative Assessment and Academic Achievement in Pre-Graduate Students of Health Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrillo-de-la-Pena, Maria T.; Bailles, Eva; Caseras, Xavier; Martinez, Alvar; Ortet, Generos; Perez, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Although educational experts recommend the use of formative assessment, there is a dearth of empirical studies on its impact on academic achievement. In this research the authors analyse to what extent participation and performance in formative assessment are associated with positive academic outcomes of pre-graduate students of health sciences. A…

  16. Using Video to Examine Formative Assessment Practices as Measures of Expertise for Mathematics and Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotwals, Amelia Wenk; Philhower, Joanne; Cisterna, Dante; Bennett, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Formative assessment practices, including eliciting a broad range of student ideas, noticing the nuances in students' ideas, using these ideas to guide instruction, and promoting student self-regulation of learning are key components of expert teaching. Given the inherent dialogical nature of formative assessment in the classroom, video can…

  17. Teachers and Testing: An Investigation into Teachers' Perceptions of Formative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sach, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Research conducted within the past decade contributes much to an understanding of the role and potential value of formative assessment in learning. As an Advisory Teacher within a local authority, the researcher was interested to find out how teachers actually perceive formative assessment. This study therefore set out to investigate the range and…

  18. Combination of Formative and Summative Assessment Instruments in Elementary Algebra Classes: A Prescription for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Euguenia; Siadat, M. Vali

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the implementation of formative assessment on student achievement in elementary algebra classes at Richard J. Daley College in Chicago, IL. The formative assessment is defined in this case as frequent, cumulative, time-restricted, multiple-choice quizzes with immediate constructive feedback.…

  19. Drawing and Writing in Digital Science Notebooks: Sources of Formative Assessment Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Angi; Smith, Andrew; Wiebe, Eric; Behrle, Courtney; Sirkin, Ruth; Lester, James

    2016-01-01

    Formative assessment strategies are used to direct instruction by establishing where learners' understanding is, how it is developing, informing teachers and students alike as to how they might get to their next set of goals of conceptual understanding. For the science classroom, one rich source of formative assessment data about scientific…

  20. Web-Based Quiz-Game-Like Formative Assessment: Development and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tzu-Hua

    2008-01-01

    This research aims to develop a multiple-choice Web-based quiz-game-like formative assessment system, named GAM-WATA. The unique design of "Ask-Hint Strategy" turns the Web-based formative assessment into an online quiz game. "Ask-Hint Strategy" is composed of "Prune Strategy" and "Call-in Strategy".…

  1. Student-Generated Reading Questions: Diagnosing Student Thinking with Diverse Formative Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offerdahl, Erika G.; Montplaisir, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Formative assessment has long been identified as a critical element to teaching for conceptual development in science. It is therefore important for university instructors to have an arsenal of formative assessment tools at their disposal which enable them to effectively uncover and diagnose all students' thinking, not just the most vocal or…

  2. An Investigation into E-Tool Use for Formative Assignment Assessment--Status and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrich, Eva; Milne, John; Moore, Maurice

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a comprehensive study, investigating the use of e-tools for formative assignment assessment. The study conducted a large-scale literature review and interviews with 90 academics at five New Zealand tertiary institutions. The focus of the study was on formative assessment provided in assignments, an area in which educational…

  3. Using S-P Chart and Bloom Taxonomy to Develop Intelligent Formative Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Wen-Chih; Yang, Hsuan-Che; Shih, Timothy K.; Chao, Louis R.

    2009-01-01

    E-learning provides a convenient and efficient way for learning. Formative assessment not only guides student in instruction and learning, diagnose skill or knowledge gaps, but also measures progress and evaluation. An efficient and convenient e-learning formative assessment system is the key character for e-learning. However, most e-learning…

  4. Resources to Inform Technical Assistance on Formative Assessment. CEELO FastFacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors-Tadros, L.; Schilder, D.

    2013-01-01

    In this "FastFacts," a state requested recommendations about research and practical resources to inform technical assistance conducted with state education staff on formative assessment. The Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes (CEELO) responds by describing what is currently known on this topic. Formative assessment is one key…

  5. Exploring Pre-Service Science Teachers' Pedagogical Capacity for Formative Assessment through Analyses of Student Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydeniz, Mehmet; Dogan, Alev

    2016-01-01

    Background: There has been an increasing emphasis on empowering pre-service and in-service science teachers to attend student reasoning and use formative assessments to guide student learning in recent years. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore pre-service science teachers' pedagogical capacity for formative assessment. Sample: This…

  6. Does Formative Assessment Improve Student Learning and Performance in Soil Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopittke, Peter M.; Wehr, J. Bernhard; Menzies, Neal W.

    2012-01-01

    Soil science students are required to apply knowledge from a range of disciplines to unfamiliar scenarios to solve complex problems. To encourage deep learning (with student performance an indicator of learning), a formative assessment exercise was introduced to a second-year soil science subject. For the formative assessment exercise, students…

  7. Formative Computer-Based Assessment in Higher Education: The Effectiveness of Feedback in Supporting Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Tess

    2009-01-01

    A formative computer-based assessment (CBA) was one of three instruments used for assessment in a Bachelor of Education course at Queen's University (Ontario, Canada) with an enrolment of approximately 700 students. The formative framework fostered a self-regulated learning environment whereby feedback on the CBA was used to support rather than…

  8. The Impact of the Technology Used in Formative Assessment: The Case of Spelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vásquez, Andrea; Nussbaum, Miguel; Sciarresi, Enzo; Martínez, Tomás; Barahona, Camila; Strasser, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    This study demonstrates how the technology used to assist formative assessment in spelling can have an impact on learning. Formative assessment represents a set of student-centered practices, the results of which are not always optimal. Furthermore, different technologies are better suited to certain tasks than to others. The study follows a…

  9. Informal Formative Assessment of Students' Understanding of Scientific Inquiry. CSE Report 639

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Primo, Maria Araceli; Furtak, Erin Marie

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides information on an exploratory study about informal formative assessment practices in three science classrooms implementing a physical science curriculum focusing in buoyancy. We provide a framework for examining these practices based on three components of formative assessment (eliciting, recognizing and using information) and…

  10. Exploring Teachers' Informal Formative Assessment Practices and Students' Understanding in the Context of Scientific Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Primo, Maria Araceli; Furtak, Erin Marie

    2007-01-01

    This study explores teachers' informal formative assessment practices in three middle school science classrooms. We present a model for examining these practices based on three components of formative assessment (eliciting, recognizing, and using information) and the three domains linked to scientific inquiry (epistemic frameworks, conceptual…

  11. Science Teachers' Representations of Classroom Practice in the Process of Formative Assessment Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heredia, Sara C.; Furtak, Erin Marie; Morrison, Deb; Renga, Ian Parker

    2016-01-01

    Formative assessment has been recognized as an essential element of effective classroom practice; as a result, teachers are increasingly required to create formative assessments for their classrooms. This study examines data drawn from a long-term, site-based professional development program that supported a department of biology teachers in the…

  12. The Impact on Student Achievement Following Professional Development on the Principles of Formative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeNome, Evonne C.

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative study reviews the impact on student achievement following professional development on the principles of formative assessment. The study compared mathematics and reading performance data from student populations with teachers who received training in formative assessment to performance data from student populations with teachers…

  13. Implementing Curriculum-Embedded Formative Assessment in Primary School Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hondrich, Annika Lena; Hertel, Silke; Adl-Amini, Katja; Klieme, Eckhard

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of formative assessment strategies is challenging for teachers. We evaluated teachers' implementation fidelity of a curriculum-embedded formative assessment programme for primary school science education, investigating both material-supported, direct application and subsequent transfer. Furthermore, the relationship between…

  14. The Fidelity of Formative Assessment Implementation: Issues of Breadth and Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wylie, E. Caroline; Lyon, Christine J.

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the breadth and quality of formative assessment implementation of 202 mathematics and science teachers who participated in a two-year, school-based professional development programme that focused on formative assessment. Results are triangulated using three sources of data: baseline and end-of-Year 2 data from an annual survey,…

  15. Integrated online formative assessments in the biomedical sciences for medical students: benefits for learning

    PubMed Central

    Velan, Gary M; Jones, Philip; McNeil, H Patrick; Kumar, Rakesh K

    2008-01-01

    Background Online formative assessments have a sound theoretical basis, and are prevalent and popular in higher education settings, but data to establish their educational benefits are lacking. This study attempts to determine whether participation and performance in integrated online formative assessments in the biomedical sciences has measurable effects on learning by junior medical students. Methods Students enrolled in Phase 1 (Years 1 and 2) of an undergraduate Medicine program were studied over two consecutive years, 2006 and 2007. In seven consecutive courses, end-of-course (EOC) summative examination marks were analysed with respect to the effect of participation and performance in voluntary online formative assessments. Online evaluation surveys were utilized to gather students' perceptions regarding online formative assessments. Results Students rated online assessments highly on all measures. Participation in formative assessments had a statistically significant positive relationship with EOC marks in all courses. The mean difference in EOC marks for those who participated in formative assessments ranged from 6.3% (95% confidence intervals 1.6 to 11.0; p = 0.009) in Course 5 to 3.2% (0.2 to 6.2; p = 0.037) in Course 2. For all courses, performance in formative assessments correlated significantly with EOC marks (p < 0.001 for each course). The variance in EOC marks that could be explained by performance in the formative assessments ranged from 21.8% in Course 6 to 4.1% in Course 7. Conclusion The results support the contention that well designed formative assessments can have significant positive effects on learning. There is untapped potential for use of formative assessments to assist learning by medical students and postgraduate medical trainees. PMID:19032738

  16. A novel flow cytometric method to assess inflammasome formation.

    PubMed

    Sester, David P; Thygesen, Sara J; Sagulenko, Vitaliya; Vajjhala, Parimala R; Cridland, Jasmyn A; Vitak, Nazarii; Chen, Kaiwen W; Osborne, Geoffrey W; Schroder, Kate; Stacey, Katryn J

    2015-01-01

    Inflammasomes are large protein complexes induced by a wide range of microbial, stress, and environmental stimuli that function to induce cell death and inflammatory cytokine processing. Formation of an inflammasome involves dramatic relocalization of the inflammasome adapter protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) into a single speck. We have developed a flow cytometric assay for inflammasome formation, time of flight inflammasome evaluation, which detects the change in ASC distribution within the cell. The transit of ASC into the speck is detected by a decreased width or increased height of the pulse of emitted fluorescence. This assay can be used to quantify native inflammasome formation in subsets of mixed cell populations ex vivo. It can also provide a rapid and sensitive technique for investigating molecular interactions in inflammasome formation, by comparison of wild-type and mutant proteins in inflammasome reconstitution experiments.

  17. MBBS student perceptions about physiology subject teaching and objective structured practical examination based formative assessment for improving competencies.

    PubMed

    Lakshmipathy, K

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of the present study were to 1) assess student attitudes to physiology, 2) evaluate student opinions about the influence of an objective structured practical examination (OSPE) on competence, and 3) assess the validity and reliability of an indigenously designed feedback questionnaire. A structured questionnaire containing 16 item statements, 8 items on an Osgood's 5-point semantic differential scale and 8 items on a Likert's 5-point scale, was used. Options were assigned scores of 1-5 according to weightage. For Osgood's semantic differential scale items, a χ(2)-test was done to analyze student attitudes toward the subject. For Likert scale items, mean score and SD were calculated to analyze student opinions of the OSPE. Item validity was assessed by item analysis, and reliability was assessed by calculating Crohnbach's α. The subject as a whole was interesting to 82% of the students (n = 135). The theory was interesting to 75% of the students (n = 132) but complex to 42% (n = 118). The practical was interesting to 93% of the students (n = 134); 76% of the students (n = 104) felt that the practical was simple, whereas 4% felt it was complex. The OSPE was interesting to 79% of the students (n = 131); 57% of the students (n = 116) felt it was simple, whereas 24% found it complex. Components of the subject, intricateness, and student interests were strongly associated. Students chose options on a higher weight scale, favoring the OSPE. Items were found to be valid and reliable. In conclusion, the subject of physiology was interesting but not simple to understand. Student interests varied with the components of the subject, and the components of the subject had varied intricateness. Students were in favor of the OSPE for assessment. The questionnaire used for the study was valid and reliable.

  18. 17 CFR 229.10 - (Item 10) General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... management must have the option to present in Commission filings its good faith assessment of a registrant's... persons, promoters and certain control persons. Item 407 Corporate governance. Item 503 Prospectus...

  19. 17 CFR 229.10 - (Item 10) General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... management must have the option to present in Commission filings its good faith assessment of a registrant's... persons, promoters and certain control persons. Item 407 Corporate governance. Item 503 Prospectus...

  20. Grounding formative assessment in high-school chemistry classrooms: Connections between professional development and teacher practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisterna Alburquerque, Dante Igor

    This study describes and analyzes the experiences of two high-school chemistry teachers who participated in a team-based professional development program to learn about and enact formative assessment in their classrooms. The overall purpose of this study is to explain how participation in this professional development influenced both teachers' classroom enactment of formative assessment practices. This study focuses on 1) teachers' participation in the professional development program, 2) teachers' enactment of formative assessment, and 3) factors that enabled or hindered enactment of formative assessment. Drawing on cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) and using evidence from teacher lessons, teacher interviews, professional development meetings as data sources, this single embedded case study analyzes how these two teachers who participated in the same learning team and have similar characteristics (i.e., teaching in the same school, teaching the same courses and population of students, and using the same materials) differentially used the professional development learning about formative assessment as mediating tools to improve their classroom instruction. The learning team experience contributed to both teachers' development of a better understanding of formative assessment---especially in recognizing that their current grading and assessment practices were not appropriate to promote student learning---and the co-creation of artifacts to gather evidence of students' ideas. Although both teachers demonstrated understanding about how formative assessment may serve to promote student learning and had a set of tools available to utilize for formative assessment use, they did not enact these tools in the same way. One teacher appropriated formative assessment as mediating tool to verify if the students were following her explanations, and to check if the students were able to provide the correct response. The other teacher used the mediating tool to promote

  1. Investigating Gender Differential Item Functioning across Countries and Test Languages for PISA Science Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Luc T.

    2009-01-01

    This study uses PISA cycle 3 field trial data to investigate the relationships between gender differential item functioning (DIF) across countries and test languages for science items and their formats and the four other dimensions defined in PISA framework: focus, context, competency, and scientific knowledge. The data used were collected from 60…

  2. Use of Formative Assessment, Self- and Peer-Assessment in the Classrooms: Some Insights from Recent Language Testing and Assessment (LTA) Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afitska, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    A considerable number of studies on formative teacher assessment and feedback, learner self- and peer-assessment have been carried out in the field of Language Testing and Assessment (LTA) research over the last two decades. These studies investigated the above mentioned concepts from different perspectives (impact of assessment on learning,…

  3. Technology Enhanced Formative Assessment for 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, J. Michael; Ifenthaler, Dirk; Sampson, Demetrios; Yang, Lan; Mukama, Evode; Warusavitarana, Amali; Dona, Kulari Lokuge; Eichhorn, Koos; Fluck, Andrew; Huang, Ronghuai; Bridges, Susan; Lu, Jiingyan; Ren, Youqun; Gui, Xiaoqing; Deneen, Christopher C.; San Diego, Jonathan; Gibson, David C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on the deliberations of the Assessment Working Group at EDUsummIT 2015 in Bangkok, Thailand. All of the members of Thematic Working Group 5 (TWG5) have contributed to this synthesis of potentials, concerns and issues with regard to the role of technology in assessment as, for and of learning in the 21st century. The group…

  4. Formative Assessment: What Do Teachers Need to Know and Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heritage, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    To many of today's teachers, assessment is synonymous with high-stakes standardized tests. It is often viewed as something in competition with teaching, rather than as an integral part of teaching and learning. In the current accountability environment, assessment is not regarded as a source of information that can be used during instruction.…

  5. Formative Assessment in the Digital Age: Blogging with Third Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Katie; Yearta, Lindsay; Harris, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    There are numerous benefits of using blogs to discuss reading in the elementary classroom. Teachers can assess reading comprehension for individual students while managing several book clubs in a digital space. The resulting assessment-based data can be used to differentiate instruction. Additionally, students can experience growth as independent,…

  6. Online Formative Assessment in Higher Education: Its Pros and Cons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baleni, Zwelijongile Gaylard

    2015-01-01

    Online and blended learning have become common educational strategy in higher education. Lecturers have to re-theorise certain basic concerns of teaching, learning and assessment in non-traditional environments. These concerns include perceptions such as cogency and trustworthiness of assessment in online environments in relation to serving the…

  7. Embedded Formative E-Assessment: Who Benefits, Who Falters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Glenberg, Mina C.

    2010-01-01

    This research examined the impact of formative quizzes on e-learning designed to teach volunteers how to tutor struggling readers. Three research questions were addressed: (1) Do embedded quizzes facilitate learning of e-content? (2) Does the announcement of upcoming quizzes affect learning? (3) Does prior knowledge interact with quizzing and…

  8. Formative Assessment Can Be Fun as well as Educational

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, J. N.; Bristow, D. R.

    2006-01-01

    An understanding of the hormonal basis of normal growth and development, including the changes occurring at puberty, is important foundation knowledge for contemporary medical practice in most fields of medicine. A quiz, testing the important physiological concepts of growth and puberty, was designed using the format of the well-known television…

  9. Varying properties of in situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation based on assessed viscosities

    DOEpatents

    Karanikas, John Michael; Vinegar, Harold J

    2014-03-04

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. A viscosity of one or more zones of the hydrocarbon layer is assessed. The heating rates in the zones are varied based on the assessed viscosities. The heating rate in a first zone of the formation is greater than the heating rate in a second zone of the formation if the viscosity in the first zone is greater than the viscosity in the second zone. Fluids are produced from the formation through the production wells.

  10. A model of formative assessment practice in secondary science classrooms using an audience response system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirley, Melissa L.

    Formative assessment involves the probing of students' ideas to determine their level of understanding during the instructional sequence. Often conceptualized as a cycle, formative assessment consists of the teacher posing an instructional task to students, collecting data about student understanding, and engaging in follow-up strategies such as clarifying student understanding and adjusting instruction to meet learning needs. Despite having been shown to increase student achievement in a variety of classroom settings, formative assessment remains a relative weak area of teacher practice. Methods that enhance formative assessment strategies may therefore have a positive effect on student achievement. Audience response systems comprise a broad category of technologies that support richer classroom interaction and have the potential to facilitate formative assessment. Results from a large national research study, Classroom Connectivity in Promoting Mathematics and Science Achievement (CCMS), show that students in algebra classrooms where the teacher has implemented a type of audience response system experience significantly higher achievement gains compared to a control group. This suggests a role for audience response systems in promoting rich formative assessment. The importance of incorporating formative assessment strategies into regular classroom practice is widely recognized. However, it remains challenging to identify whether rich formative assessment is occurring during a particular class session. This dissertation uses teacher interviews and classroom observations to develop a fine-grained model of formative assessment in secondary science classrooms employing a type of audience response system. This model can be used by researchers and practitioners to characterize components of formative assessment practice in classrooms. A major component of formative assessment practice is the collection and aggregation of evidence of student learning. This dissertation

  11. Preference and reinforcer efficacy of high- and low-tech items: A comparison of item type and duration of access.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Audrey N; Samaha, Andrew L; Bloom, Sarah E; Boyle, Megan A

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the interactions of stimulus type (high- vs. low-tech) and magnitude (duration of access) on preference and reinforcer efficacy. Two preference assessments were conducted to identify highly preferred high-tech and low-tech items for each participant. A subsequent assessment examined preference for those items when provided at 30-s and 600-s durations. We then evaluated reinforcer efficacy for those same items when provided for a range of durations using progressive-ratio schedules. Results suggested item type and access duration interacted to influence preference and reinforcer efficacy. Participants preferred high-tech items at longer durations of access and engaged in more responding when the high-tech item was provided for long durations, but these patterns were reversed for the low-tech item. In addition, participants engaged in less responding when the high-tech item was provided for short durations and when the low-tech item was provided for long durations.

  12. Formative Assessment for All: A Whole-School Approach to Pedagogic Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priestley, Mark; Sime, Daniela

    2005-01-01

    Scotland's "Assessment is for Learning" initiative (AifL) seeks to introduce a co-ordinated national system for assessment in schools. Formative assessment is a major plank in this. The initiative has moved beyond its pilot phase and it is intended that it will be adopted by all Scottish schools by 2007. This article draws upon the…

  13. Designing a Formative E-Assessment: Latent Class Analysis of Early Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sainsbury, Marian; Benton, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Computer-based testing, or e-assessment, has the potential to deliver immediate results for the benefit of schools. This paper describes a project that aimed to exploit this potential by designing e-assessments where the results were intended for use by teachers in planning the next steps in teaching and learning: low-stakes, formative assessment.…

  14. Formative Assessment Probes: When Is the Next Full Moon? Using K-2 Concept Cartoons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2013-01-01

    This column focuses on promoting learning through assessment. This month's issue uses concept cartoons to assess students' ideas about the moon. Concept cartoons, formative assessment tools that reveal students' preconceptions and probe for conceptual understanding, have recently become popular in the United States, with teachers…

  15. Formative Assessment of Teachers in the Context of an Online Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinoca, Luis; Oliveira, Isolina

    2013-01-01

    This case study looked at how an assessment strategy designed for an online learning environment can support teachers' professional development. More specifically, we intended to evaluate how a particular online assessment design can help the participating in-service teachers to recognize the added value of formative assessment, and promote their…

  16. Perspectives and Practices of Elementary Teachers Using an Internet-Based Formative Assessment Tool: The Case of "Assessing Mathematics Concepts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Christie S.; Polly, Drew; Wang, Chuang; Lambert, Richard G.; Pugalee, David K.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of professional development on elementary school teachers' perceptions of and use of an internet-based formative assessment tool focused on students' number sense skills. Data sources include teacher-participants' pre and post survey, open ended response on post survey, use of the assessment tool and their written…

  17. The Promise and Reality of Formative Assessment Practice in a Continuous Assessment Scheme: The Case of Trinidad and Tobago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Lisle, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    Continuous Assessment (CA) systems are externally directed, curriculum-based assessment schemes used for both summative and formative purposes within classrooms. CA has been implemented as national policy in several postcolonial developing countries and is believed to hold great promise for improving education outcomes. This theory-driven…

  18. Assessing the Potential for Nitrogen Bubble Formation in Diving Odontocetes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    first compartment within which exchange occurs is the blood pool, and assuming that cetacean hematological factors do not inhibit bubble formation...relationship between “bubble-like” cavitary lesions reported in the portal system of some stranding cetaceans , and the accessibility of these vessels...Dorian Houser served as the PI on project and was responsible for facilities coordination, animal welfare issues, ultrasound inspections and blood

  19. Using case method to explicitly teach formative assessment in preservice teacher science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentz, Amy Elizabeth

    The process of formative assessment improves student understanding; however, the topic of formative assessment in preservice education has been severely neglected. Since a major goal of teacher education is to create reflective teaching professionals, preservice teachers should be provided an opportunity to critically reflect on the use of formative assessment in the classroom. Case method is an instructional methodology that allows learners to engage in and reflect on real-world situations. Case based pedagogy can play an important role in enhancing preservice teachers' ability to reflect on teaching and learning by encouraging alternative ways of thinking about assessment. Although the literature on formative assessment and case methodology are extensive, using case method to explore the formative assessment process is, at best, sparse. The purpose of this study is to answer the following research questions: To what extent does the implementation of formative assessment cases in methods instruction influence preservice elementary science teachers' knowledge of formative assessment? What descriptive characteristics change between the preservice teachers' pre-case and post-case written reflection that would demonstrate learning had occurred? To investigate these questions, preservice teachers in an elementary methods course were asked to reflect on and discuss five cases. Pre/post-case data was analyzed. Results indicate that the preservice teachers modified their ideas to reflect the themes that were represented within the cases and modified their reflections to include specific ideas or examples taken directly from the case discussions. Comparing pre- and post-case reflections, the data supports a noted change in how the preservice teachers interpreted the case content. The preservice teachers began to evaluate the case content, question the lack of formative assessment concepts and strategies within the case, and apply formative assessment concepts and

  20. Focusing on the Formative: Building an Assessment System Aimed at Student Growth and Development.

    PubMed

    Konopasek, Lyuba; Norcini, John; Krupat, Edward

    2016-11-01

    This Perspective addresses the need for an integrated system of formative and summative assessment in undergraduate medical education with a focus on the formative. While acknowledging the importance of summative assessment, which asks whether trainees have met criteria for progression, the authors propose that a formatively focused assessment system can best accomplish a central task of competency-based medical education: transmitting feedback to learners in a format and a manner that will help them to improve, develop, and grow. Formative assessment should not be seen as a set of singular events but, rather, as a process that is organized and integrated over time, much like the cycle of quality improvement in medicine. To justify this position, the authors discuss its conceptual underpinnings and rationale, including the need to prepare learners for the formatively focused assessment system of graduate medical education. Next, the authors identify assessment strategies that could be employed, as well as the characteristics of an institutional culture and the learner-teacher relationship necessary for a learner-centered, improvement-focused assessment system to succeed. Finally, an infrastructure for such a system is proposed. This consists of a foundation of well-articulated and disseminated milestones for achievement and four pillars: faculty development, learner development, longitudinal academic advising and coaching, and documentation of developing competence. The authors conclude by suggesting that the guidelines proposed are analogous to the principles of continuity and coordination of care, so much valued in the world of medicine yet often overlooked in the world of education.

  1. An Objective Structured Clinical Examination to Improve Formative Assessment for Senior Pediatrics Residents

    PubMed Central

    Mangold, Karen A.; Jeffers, Justin M.; Burns, Rebekah A.; Trainor, Jennifer L.; Unti, Sharon M.; Eppich, Walter; Adler, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Residency programs are developing new methods to assess resident competence and to improve the quality of formative assessment and feedback to trainees. Simulation is a valuable tool for giving formative feedback to residents. Objective To develop an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) to improve formative assessment of senior pediatrics residents. Methods We developed a multistation examination using various simulation formats to assess the skills of senior pediatrics residents in communication and acute resuscitation. We measured several logistical factors (staffing and program costs) to determine the feasibility of such a program. Results Thirty-one residents participated in the assessment program over a 3-month period. Residents received formative feedback comparing their performance to both a standard task checklist and to peers' performance. The program required 16 faculty members per session, and had a cost of $624 per resident. Conclusions A concentrated assessment program using simulation can be a valuable tool to assess residents' skills in communication and acute resuscitation and provide directed formative feedback. However, such a program requires considerable financial and staffing resources. PMID:26457159

  2. Teachers Expanding Pedagogical Content Knowledge: Learning about Formative Assessment Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Nance S.

    2008-01-01

    The present study explores the ways in which participating in a study group helped five US middle school teachers alter their construction of knowledge. The members came together to improve their knowledge on assessment for learning in response to school-level and district-level pressures. The analysis was a recursive review of teacher statements…

  3. Data Mining: A Systems Approach to Formative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Dale

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how using raw data and information from reliable assessments can inform teachers' decisions leading to improved instruction. The primary aim is to use a systems approach to provide evidence of what students know and how they demonstrate mastery. Such evidence can empower teachers to reach all students. The pedagogic…

  4. Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment of Plant Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conejo, Ricardo; Garcia-Viñas, Juan Ignacio; Gastón, Aitor; Barros, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Developing plant identification skills is an important part of the curriculum of any botany course in higher education. Frequent practice with dried and fresh plants is necessary to recognize the diversity of forms, states, and details that a species can present. We have developed a web-based assessment system for mobile devices that is able to…

  5. Formative Assessment Probes: Uncovering Students' Ideas in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page; Eberle, Francis; Farrin, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    Seventh-grade science teacher Sonia Mangano stared at the results of her district's mid-year science assessment and asked herself, "Why is it my students seem to have trouble with matter-related ideas? Our district's spiral science curriculum builds on previous concepts from year to year. Yet these results show my students have difficulty with…

  6. Risk assessment of PCDD/Fs levels in human tissues related to major food items based on chemical analyses and micro-EROD assay.

    PubMed

    Tsang, H L; Wu, S C; Wong, C K C; Leung, C K M; Tao, S; Wong, M H

    2009-10-01

    Nine groups of food items (freshwater fish, marine fish, pork, chicken, chicken eggs, leafy, non-leafy vegetables, rice and flour) and three types of human samples (human milk, maternal serum and cord serum) were collected for the analysis of PCDD/Fs. Results of chemical analysis revealed PCDD/Fs concentrations (pg g(-1) fat) in the following ascending order: pork (0.289 pg g(-1) fat), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) (freshwater fish) (0.407), golden thread (Nemipterus virgatus) (marine fish) (0.511), chicken (0.529), mandarin fish (Siniperca kneri) (marine fish) (0.535), chicken egg (0.552), and snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii) (marine fish) (1.219). The results of micro-EROD assay showed relatively higher PCDD/Fs levels in fish (2.65 pg g(-1) fat) when compared with pork (0.47), eggs (0.33), chicken (0.13), flour (0.07), vegetables (0.05 pg g(-1) wet wt) and rice (0.05). The estimated average daily intake of PCDD/Fs of 3.51 pg EROD-TEQ/kg bw/day was within the range of WHO Tolerable Daily Intake (1-4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day) and was higher than the Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PMTL) (70 pg for dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs) recommended by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) [Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), Summary and conclusions of the fifty-seventh meeting, JECFA, 2001.]. Nevertheless, the current findings were significantly lower than the TDI (14 pg WHO-TEQ/kg/bw/day) recommended by the Scientific Committee on Food of the Europe Commission [European Scientific Committee on Food (EU SCF), Opinions on the SCF on the risk assessment of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in food, 2000.]. However, it should be noted that micro-EROD assay overestimates the PCDD/Fs levels by 2 to 7 folds which may also amplify the PCDD/Fs levels accordingly. Although the levels of PCDD/Fs obtained from micro-EROD assay were much higher than those obtained by chemical analysis by 2 to 7 folds, it provides a cost-effective and

  7. Estimating Bias in Test Items Utilizing Principal Components Analysis and the General Linear Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merz, William R.

    A number of methods have been used to identify potentially biased items within a test. These methods examine one item at a time and do not deal with the complex interrelationships among items or among items and the potentially biasing elements. The use of multivariate procedures to assess whether or not items are biased and to obtain clues about…

  8. Perceptions and attitudes of formative assessments in middle-school science classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauncey, Penny Denyse

    No Child Left Behind mandates utilizing summative assessment to measure schools' effectiveness. The problem is that summative assessment measures students' knowledge without depth of understanding. The goal of public education, however, is to prepare students to think critically at higher levels. The purpose of this study was to examine any difference between formative assessment incorporated in instruction as opposed to the usual, more summative methods in terms of attitudes and academic achievement of middle-school science students. Maslow's theory emphasizes that individuals must have basic needs met before they can advance to higher levels. Formative assessment enables students to master one level at a time. The research questions focused on whether statistically significant differences existed between classrooms using these two types of assessments on academic tests and an attitude survey. Using a quantitative quasi-experimental control-group design, data were obtained from a sample of 430 middle-school science students in 6 classes. One control and 2 experimental classes were assigned to each teacher. Results of the independent t tests revealed academic achievement was significantly greater for groups that utilized formative assessment. No significant difference in attitudes was noted. Recommendations include incorporating formative assessment results with the summative results. Findings from this study could contribute to positive social change by prompting educational stakeholders to examine local and state policies on curriculum as well as funding based on summative scores alone. Use of formative assessment can lead to improved academic success.

  9. Analysis of Nonequivalent Assessments across Different Linguistic Groups Using a Mixed Methods Approach: Understanding the Causes of Differential Item Functioning by Cognitive Interviewing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benítez, Isabel; Padilla, José-Luis

    2014-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) can undermine the validity of cross-lingual comparisons. While a lot of efficient statistics for detecting DIF are available, few general findings have been found to explain DIF results. The objective of the article was to study DIF sources by using a mixed method design. The design involves a quantitative phase…

  10. Using a Theorem by Andersen and the Dichotomous Rasch Model to Assess the Presence of Random Guessing in Multiple Choice Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrich, David; Marais, Ida; Humphry, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Andersen (1995, 2002) proves a theorem relating variances of parameter estimates from samples and subsamples and shows its use as an adjunct to standard statistical analyses. The authors show an application where the theorem is central to the hypothesis tested, namely, whether random guessing to multiple choice items affects their estimates in the…

  11. Q-Matrix Construction: Defining the Link between Constructs and Test Items in Large-Scale Reading and Listening Comprehension Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawaki, Yasuyo; Kim, Hae-Jin; Gentile, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    In cognitive diagnosis a Q-matrix (Tatsuoka, 1983, 1990), which is an incidence matrix that defines the relationships between test items and constructs of interest, has great impact on the nature of performance feedback that can be provided to score users. The purpose of the present study was to identify meaningful skill coding categories that…

  12. Teacher Collective Bargaining in Washington State: Assessing the Internal Validity of Partial Independence Item Response Measures of Contract Restrictiveness. CEDR Working Paper No. 2012 3.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhaber, Dan; Lavery, Lesley; Theobald, Roddy; D'Entremont, Dylan; Fang, Yangru

    2012-01-01

    Recent research (Strunk and Reardon forthcoming) applies Partial Independence Item Response (PIIR) models to teacher bargaining agreements in California to calculate the latent restrictiveness of these contracts. Further research (Strunk and Grissom 2010; Strunk forthcoming) tests the external validity of these estimates. Given that much research…

  13. Interpreting Secondary Students' Performance on a Timed, Multiple-Choice Reading Comprehension Assessment: The Prevalence and Impact of Non-Attempted Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens, Nathan H.; Davis, John L.; Simmons, Leslie E.; Oslund, Eric L.; Simmons, Deborah C.

    2015-01-01

    Standardized measures are often used as an index of students' reading comprehension and scores have important implications, particularly for students who perform below expectations. This study examined secondary-level students' patterns of responding and the prevalence and impact of non-attempted items on a timed, group-administered,…

  14. Meta-Analytic Methodology and Inferences about the Efficacy of Formative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.; Ruiz-Primo, Maria Araceli; Furtak, Erin; Shepard, Lorrie; Yin, Yue

    2012-01-01

    In a recent article published in "EM:IP," Kingston and Nash report on the results of a meta-analysis on the efficacy of formative assessment. They conclude that the average effect of formative assessment on student achievement is about 0.20 SD units. This would seem to dispel the myth that effects between 0.40 and 0.70 can be attributed to…

  15. Evaluation of Item Candidates: The PROMIS Qualitative Item Review

    PubMed Central

    DeWalt, Darren A.; Rothrock, Nan; Yount, Susan; Stone, Arthur A.

    2009-01-01

    One of the PROMIS (Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System) network's primary goals is the development of a comprehensive item bank for patient-reported outcomes of chronic diseases. For its first set of item banks, PROMIS chose to focus on pain, fatigue, emotional distress, physical function, and social function. An essential step for the development of an item pool is the identification, evaluation, and revision of extant questionnaire items for the core item pool. In this work, we also describe the systematic process wherein items are classified for subsequent statistical processing by the PROMIS investigators. Six phases of item development are documented: identification of extant items, item classification and selection, item review and revision, focus group input on domain coverage, cognitive interviews with individual items, and final revision before field testing. Identification of items refers to the systematic search for existing items in currently available scales. Expert item review and revision was conducted by trained professionals who reviewed the wording of each item and revised as appropriate for conventions adopted by the PROMIS network. Focus groups were used to confirm domain definitions and to identify new areas of item development for future PROMIS item banks. Cognitive interviews were used to examine individual items. Items successfully screened through this process were sent to field testing and will be subjected to innovative scale construction procedures. PMID:17443114

  16. Detecting Differential Item Functioning of Polytomous Items for an Ideal Point Response Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wei; Tay, Louis; Drasgow, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    There has been growing use of ideal point models to develop scales measuring important psychological constructs. For meaningful comparisons across groups, it is important to identify items on such scales that exhibit differential item functioning (DIF). In this study, the authors examined several methods for assessing DIF on polytomous items…

  17. Identifying and Managing Local Item Dependence in Context-Dependent Item Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Sally; Sudweeks, Richard R.

    A study was conducted to identify local item dependence (LID) in the context-dependent item sets used in an examination prepared for use in an introductory university physics class and to assess the effects of LID on estimates of the reliability and standard error of measurement. Test scores were obtained for 487 students in the physics class. The…

  18. Vegetable parenting practices scale: Item response modeling analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a vegetable parenting practices scale using multidimensional polytomous item response modeling which enables assessing item fit to latent variables and the distributional characteristics of the items in comparison to the respondents. We al...

  19. 14 CFR Section 17 - Objective Classification-Extraordinary Items

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED... Extraordinary Items. Record here income taxes allocable to items of income included in profit and loss account 96 Extraordinary Items and income tax assessments that do not constitute ordinary adjustments of...

  20. Novelty and Promotional Items

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Small novelty or promotional products, primarily used for outreach and educational purposes, must effectively convey a message, and their purchase will only be allowed if the item will contribute to the accomplishment of the Agency's mission.