Science.gov

Sample records for assessment study background

  1. Assessment study of infrared detector arrays for low-background astronomical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ando, K. J.

    1978-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art of infrared detector arrays employing charge coupled devices (CCD) or charge injection devices (CID) readout are assessed. The applicability, limitations and potentials of such arrays under the low-background astronomical observing conditions of interest for SIRFT (Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility) are determined. The following are reviewed: (1) monolithic extrinsic arrays; (2) monolithic intrinsic arrays; (3) charge injection devices; and (4) hybrid arrays.

  2. Does a Rater's Professional Background Influence Communication Skills Assessment?

    PubMed

    Artemiou, Elpida; Hecker, Kent G; Adams, Cindy L; Coe, Jason B

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing pressure in veterinary education to teach and assess communication skills, with the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) being the most common assessment method. Previous research reveals that raters are a large source of variance in OSCEs. This study focused on examining the effect of raters' professional background as a source of variance when assessing students' communication skills. Twenty-three raters were categorized according to their professional background: clinical sciences (n=11), basic sciences (n=4), clinical communication (n=5), or hospital administrator/clinical skills technicians (n=3). Raters from each professional background were assigned to the same station and assessed the same students during two four-station OSCEs. Students were in year 2 of their pre-clinical program. Repeated-measures ANOVA results showed that OSCE scores awarded by the rater groups differed significantly: (F(matched_station_1) [2,91]=6.97, p=.002), (F(matched_station_2) [3,90]=13.95, p=.001), (F(matched_station_3) [3,90]=8.76, p=.001), and ((Fmatched_station_4) [2,91]=30.60, p=.001). A significant time effect between the two OSCEs was calculated for matched stations 1, 2, and 4, indicating improved student performances. Raters with a clinical communication skills background assigned scores that were significantly lower compared to the other rater groups. Analysis of written feedback provided by the clinical sciences raters showed that they were influenced by the students' clinical knowledge of the case and that they did not rely solely on the communication checklist items. This study shows that it is important to consider rater background both in recruitment and training programs for communication skills' assessment.

  3. Assessment of Prevalence, Beliefs, and Habits of Hookah Smoking Among People with a Medical Background Compared to People with a Non-medical Background: A Cross-sectional Self-administered Questionnaire-based Study

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Ashna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Hookah smoking has seen a reemergence in popularity in the last 30 years, particularly in the young urban population. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of and the attitude and beliefs about hookah smoking of people with a medical background and compare it with people from a non-medical background. Materials and methods: An anonymous questionnaire with ten questions about various aspects of hookah smoking was formulated using Google forms®, which was then circulated via Facebook®, Whatsapp® and emails to the intended participants and all responses were recorded and analyzed. Results: The total number of respondents were 470. The number of respondents with a medical background was 45.31%. The percentage of the respondents with a medical background who smoked a hookah was 28.63%, while the same percentage of the respondents with a non-medical background was 63.42. The perception of hookah being less harmful than a cigarette was not found to be statistically different between the two groups. Respondents with a medical background were more ignorant of the presence or absence of tobacco in the hookah they smoked. The average duration of the hookah smoking habit, the frequency of its use per month, and the average lengths of the hookah smoking session were 3.52 years (95% CI of 3.21 to 3.82), 1.946 (95% CI 1.799 to 2.093), and 58.90 minutes (95% CI of 54.42 to 63.37), respectively. Conclusion: The knowledge about the ill effects of smokeless tobacco should be integrated into the structured teaching curriculum of undergraduate medical and dental courses as they prepare future physicians and dental surgeons for an anti-tobacco campaign.

  4. Assessment of Prevalence, Beliefs, and Habits of Hookah Smoking Among People with a Medical Background Compared to People with a Non-medical Background: A Cross-sectional Self-administered Questionnaire-based Study

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Ashna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Hookah smoking has seen a reemergence in popularity in the last 30 years, particularly in the young urban population. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of and the attitude and beliefs about hookah smoking of people with a medical background and compare it with people from a non-medical background. Materials and methods: An anonymous questionnaire with ten questions about various aspects of hookah smoking was formulated using Google forms®, which was then circulated via Facebook®, Whatsapp® and emails to the intended participants and all responses were recorded and analyzed. Results: The total number of respondents were 470. The number of respondents with a medical background was 45.31%. The percentage of the respondents with a medical background who smoked a hookah was 28.63%, while the same percentage of the respondents with a non-medical background was 63.42. The perception of hookah being less harmful than a cigarette was not found to be statistically different between the two groups. Respondents with a medical background were more ignorant of the presence or absence of tobacco in the hookah they smoked. The average duration of the hookah smoking habit, the frequency of its use per month, and the average lengths of the hookah smoking session were 3.52 years (95% CI of 3.21 to 3.82), 1.946 (95% CI 1.799 to 2.093), and 58.90 minutes (95% CI of 54.42 to 63.37), respectively. Conclusion: The knowledge about the ill effects of smokeless tobacco should be integrated into the structured teaching curriculum of undergraduate medical and dental courses as they prepare future physicians and dental surgeons for an anti-tobacco campaign. PMID:27660734

  5. Assessment of natural background levels in potentially contaminated coastal aquifers.

    PubMed

    Molinari, A; Chidichimo, F; Straface, S; Guadagnini, A

    2014-04-01

    The estimation of natural background levels (NBLs) of dissolved concentrations of target chemical species in subsurface reservoirs relies on a proper assessment of the effects of forcing terms driving flow and transport processes taking place within the system and whose dynamics drive background concentration values. We propose coupling methodologies based on (a) global statistical analyses and (b) numerical modeling of system dynamics to distinguish between the impacts of different types of external forcing components influencing background concentration values. We focus on the joint application of a statistical methodology based on Component Separation and experimental/numerical modeling studies of groundwater flow and transport for the NBL estimation of selected chemical species in potentially contaminated coastal aquifers. We consider a site which is located in Calabria, Italy, and constitutes a typical example of a Mediterranean coastal aquifer which has been subject to intense industrial development. Our study is keyed to the characterization of NBLs of manganese and sulfate and is geared to the proper identification of the importance of a natural external forcing (i.e., seawater intrusion) on NBL assessment. Results from the Component Separation statistical approach are complemented by numerical simulations of the advective-dispersive processes that could influence the distribution of chemical species (i.e., sulfate) within the system. Estimated NBLs for manganese are consistent with the geochemical composition of soil samples. While Component Separation ascribes the largest detected sulfate concentrations to anthropogenic sources, our numerical modeling analysis suggests that they are mainly related to the natural process of seawater intrusion. Our results indicate that the use of statistical methodologies in complex groundwater systems should be assisted by a detailed characterization of the dynamics of natural (and/or induced) processes to distinguish

  6. Assessing background ground water chemistry beneath a new unsewered subdivision

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, J.D.; Bradbury, K.R.; Thomas, C.L.; Bahr, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Previous site-specific studies designed to assess the impacts of unsewered subdivisions on ground water quality have relied on upgradient monitoring wells or very limited background data to characterize conditions prior to development. In this study, an extensive monitoring program was designed to document ground water conditions prior to construction of a rural subdivision in south-central Wisconsin. Previous agricultural land use has impacted ground water quality; concentrations of chloride, nitrate-nitrogen, and atrazine ranged from below the level of detection to 296 mg/L, 36 mg/L, and 0.8 ??g/L, respectively, and were highly variable from well to well and through time. Seasonal variations in recharge, surface topography, aquifer heterogeneities, surficial loading patterns, and well casing depth explain observed variations in ground water chemistry. This variability would not have been detected if background conditions were determined from only a few monitoring wells or inferred from wells located upgradient of the subdivision site. This project demonstrates the importance of characterizing both ground water quality and chemical variability prior to land-use change to detect any changes once homes are constructed. Copyright ?? 2005 National Ground Water Association.

  7. Background studies for particle astrophysics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.

    2005-09-08

    Background radiations typical for the high-sensitivity underground experiments in particle astrophysics are discussed. An emphasis is given to the neutron background coming from spontaneous fission and ({alpha},n) reactions from U and Th traces in rock and detector components, and from cosmic-ray muons. Gammas from radioactivity in various materials are also considered. Special case of a xenon-based large-scale dark matter detector is studied. Several Monte Carlo codes capable of producing, transporting and detecting neutrons are compared with each other and with available experimental data.

  8. FOCUS AREA 4 BACKGROUND PAPER: AQUATIC ECOTOXICITY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In parallel with a growing literature on the presence of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) in effluents and surface waters, recent years have witnessed a steady increase in published studies on the ecotoxicity of APIs to aquatic organisms. Against this background, key issu...

  9. Contextual assessment in science education: Background, issues, and policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klassen, Stephen

    2006-09-01

    Contemporary assessment practices in science education have undergone significant changes in recent decades. The basis for these changes and the resulting new assessment practices are the subject of this two-part paper. Part 1 considers the basis of assessment that, more than 25 years ago, was driven by the assumptions of decomposability and decontextualization of knowledge, resulting in a low-inference testing system, often described as traditional. This assessment model was replaced not on account of direct criticism, but rather on account of a larger revolution - the change from behavioral to cognitive psychology, developments in the philosophy of science, and the rise of constructivism. Most notably, the study of the active cognitive processes of the individual resulted in a major emphasis on context in learning and assessment. These changes gave rise to the development of various contextual assessment methodologies in science education, for example, concept mapping assessment, performance assessment, and portfolio assessment. In Part 2, the literature relating to the assessment methods identified in Part 1 is reviewed, revealing that there is not much research that supports their validity and reliability. However, encouraging new work on selected-response tests is forming the basis for reconsideration of past criticisms of this technique. Despite the major developments in contextual assessment methodologies in science education, two important questions remain unanswered, namely, whether grades can be considered as genuine numeric quantities and whether the individual student is the appropriate unit of assessment in public accountability. Given these issues and the requirement for science assessment to satisfy the goals of the individual, the classroom, and the society, tentative recommendations are put forward addressing these parallel needs in the assessment of science learning.

  10. An Assessment of a Technique for Modeling Lidar Background Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, K. A.; Hunt, W. H.; Vaughan, M. A.; Hair, J. W.; Butler, C. F.; Hostetler, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    A high-fidelity lidar simulation tool has been developed to generate synthetic lidar backscatter data that closely matches the expected performance of various lidars, including the noise characteristics inherent to analog detection and uncertainties related to the measurement environment. This tool supports performance trade studies and scientific investigations for both the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP), which flies aboard Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO), and the NASA Langley Research Center airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL). The simulation tool models the lidar instrument characteristics, the backscatter signals generated from aerosols, clouds, ocean surface and subsurface, and the solar background signals. The background signals are derived from the simulated aerosol and cloud characteristics, the surface type, and solar zenith angle, using a look-up table of upwelling radiance vs scene type. The upwelling radiances were derived from the CALIOP RMS background noise and were correlated with measurements of the particulate intensive and extensive optical properties, including surface scattering for transparent layers. Tests were conducted by tuning the tool for both HSRL and CALIOP instrument settings and the atmospheres were defined using HSRL measurements from underflights of CALIPSO. For similar scenes, the simulated and measured backgrounds were compared. Overall, comparisons showed good agreement, verifying the accuracy of the tool to support studies involving instrument characterization and advanced data analysis techniques.

  11. Computational Assessment of Naturally Occurring Neutron and Photon Background Radiation Produced by Extraterrestrial Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; de Wet, Wouter C.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2015-10-28

    In this study, a computational assessment of the variation in terrestrial neutron and photon background from extraterrestrial sources is presented. The motivation of this assessment is to evaluate the practicality of developing a tool or database to estimate background in real time (or near–real time) during an experimental measurement or to even predict the background for future measurements. The extraterrestrial source focused on during this assessment is naturally occurring galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The MCNP6 transport code was used to perform the computational assessment. However, the GCR source available in MCNP6 was not used. Rather, models developed and maintained by NASA were used to generate the GCR sources. The largest variation in both neutron and photon background spectra was found to be caused by changes in elevation on Earth's surface, which can be as large as an order of magnitude. All other perturbations produced background variations on the order of a factor of 3 or less. The most interesting finding was that ~80% and 50% of terrestrial background neutrons and photons, respectively, are generated by interactions in Earth's surface and other naturally occurring and man-made objects near a detector of particles from extraterrestrial sources and their progeny created in Earth's atmosphere. In conclusion, this assessment shows that it will be difficult to estimate the terrestrial background from extraterrestrial sources without a good understanding of a detector's surroundings. Therefore, estimating or predicting background during a measurement environment like a mobile random search will be difficult.

  12. Basin-Scale Opportunity Assessment Initiative Background Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Saulsbury, Bo; Geerlofs, Simon H.; Cada, Glenn F; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2010-10-01

    As called for in the March 24, 2010, Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Hydropower, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), environmental stakeholders, and the hydropower industry are collaborating to identify opportunities to simultaneously increase electricity generation and improve environmental services in river basins of the United States. New analytical tools provide an improved ability to understand, model, and visualize environmental and hydropower systems. Efficiencies and opportunities that might not be apparent in site-by-site analyses can be revealed through assessments at the river-basin scale. Information from basin-scale assessments could lead to better coordination of existing hydropower projects, or to inform siting decisions (e.g., balancing the removal of some dams with the construction of others), in order to meet renewable energy production and environmental goals. Basin-scale opportunity assessments would inform energy and environmental planning and address the cumulative effects of hydropower development and operations on river basin environmental quality in a way that quantifies energy-environment tradeoffs. Opportunity assessments would create information products, develop scenarios, and identify specific actions that agencies, developers, and stakeholders can take to locate new sustainable hydropower projects, increase the efficiency and environmental performance of existing projects, and restore and protect environmental quality in our nation's river basins. Government agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGO) have done significant work to understand and assess opportunities for both hydropower and environmental protection at the basin scale. Some initiatives have been successful, others less so, and there is a need to better understand the legacy of work on which this current project can build. This background literature review is intended to

  13. Assessing Student Achievement in the States: Background Studies. Studies for the Evaluation of the NAEP Trial State Assessment Commissioned for the National Academy of Education Panel Report on the 1990 Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Education, Stanford, CA.

    This document presents 10 papers concerning the 1990 Trial State Assessment, which was restricted to the eighth-grade public school population in 37 states, the District of Columbia, and 2 U.S. territories. The following are the papers: (1) "A Critique of Sampling in the 1990 Trial State Assessment" (Bruce D. Spencer); (2) "Eligibility/Exclusion…

  14. Acoustic Analyses and Intelligibility Assessments of Timing Patterns among Chinese English Learners with Different Dialect Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsueh Chu

    2015-01-01

    This paper includes two interrelated studies. The first production study investigates the timing patterns of English as spoken by Chinese learners with different dialect backgrounds. The second comprehension study explores native and non-native speakers' assessments of the intelligibility of Chinese-accented English, and examines the effects of…

  15. Measuring Attitude towards RE: Factoring Pupil Experience and Home Faith Background into Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thanissaro, Phra Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have increasingly favoured contextualisation of religious education (RE) to pupils' home faith background in spite of current assessment methods that might hinder this. For a multi-religious, multi-ethnic sample of 369 London school pupils aged from 13 to 15 years, this study found that the participatory, transformative and…

  16. Computational Assessment of Naturally Occurring Neutron and Photon Background Radiation Produced by Extraterrestrial Sources

    DOE PAGES

    Miller, Thomas Martin; de Wet, Wouter C.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2015-10-28

    In this study, a computational assessment of the variation in terrestrial neutron and photon background from extraterrestrial sources is presented. The motivation of this assessment is to evaluate the practicality of developing a tool or database to estimate background in real time (or near–real time) during an experimental measurement or to even predict the background for future measurements. The extraterrestrial source focused on during this assessment is naturally occurring galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The MCNP6 transport code was used to perform the computational assessment. However, the GCR source available in MCNP6 was not used. Rather, models developed and maintained bymore » NASA were used to generate the GCR sources. The largest variation in both neutron and photon background spectra was found to be caused by changes in elevation on Earth's surface, which can be as large as an order of magnitude. All other perturbations produced background variations on the order of a factor of 3 or less. The most interesting finding was that ~80% and 50% of terrestrial background neutrons and photons, respectively, are generated by interactions in Earth's surface and other naturally occurring and man-made objects near a detector of particles from extraterrestrial sources and their progeny created in Earth's atmosphere. In conclusion, this assessment shows that it will be difficult to estimate the terrestrial background from extraterrestrial sources without a good understanding of a detector's surroundings. Therefore, estimating or predicting background during a measurement environment like a mobile random search will be difficult.« less

  17. Assessment of Radiation Background Variation for Moving Detection Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, James Christopher; Rennie, John Alan; Toevs, James Waldo; Wallace, Darrin J.; Abhold, Mark Edward

    2015-07-13

    The introduction points out that radiation backgrounds fluctuate across very short distances: factors include geology, soil composition, altitude, building structures, topography, and other manmade structures; and asphalt and concrete can vary significantly over short distances. Brief descriptions are given of the detection system, experimental setup, and background variation measurements. It is concluded that positive and negative gradients can greatly reduce the detection sensitivity of an MDS: negative gradients create opportunities for false negatives (nondetection), and positive gradients create a potentially unacceptable FAR (above 1%); the location of use for mobile detection is important to understand; spectroscopic systems provide more information for screening out false alarms and may be preferred for mobile use; and mobile monitor testing at LANL accounts for expected variations in the background.

  18. Background and Reflections on the Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, G. A.; Mann, M. K.

    2012-04-01

    Despite the ever-growing body of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature on electricity generation technologies, inconsistent methods and assumptions hamper comparison across studies and pooling of published results. Synthesis of the body of previous research is necessary to generate robust results to assess and compare environmental performance of different energy technologies for the benefit of policy makers, managers, investors, and citizens. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory initiated the LCA Harmonization Project in an effort to rigorously leverage the numerous individual studies to develop collective insights. The goals of this project were to: (1) understand the range of published results of LCAs of electricity generation technologies, (2) reduce the variability in published results that stem from inconsistent methods and assumptions, and (3) clarify the central tendency of published estimates to make the collective results of LCAs available to decision makers in the near term. The LCA Harmonization Project's initial focus was evaluating life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from electricity generation technologies. Six articles from this first phase of the project are presented in a special supplemental issue of the Journal of Industrial Ecology on Meta-Analysis of LCA: coal (Whitaker et al. 2012), concentrating solar power (Burkhardt et al. 2012), crystalline silicon photovoltaics (PVs) (Hsu et al. 2012), thin-film PVs (Kim et al. 2012), nuclear (Warner and Heath 2012), and wind (Dolan and Heath 2012). Harmonization is a meta-analytical approach that addresses inconsistency in methods and assumptions of previously published life cycle impact estimates. It has been applied in a rigorous manner to estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from many categories of electricity generation technologies in articles that appear in this special supplemental supplemental issue, reducing the variability and

  19. Acoustic Analyses and Intelligibility Assessments of Timing Patterns Among Chinese English Learners with Different Dialect Backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsueh Chu

    2015-12-01

    This paper includes two interrelated studies. The first production study investigates the timing patterns of English as spoken by Chinese learners with different dialect backgrounds. The second comprehension study explores native and non-native speakers' assessments of the intelligibility of Chinese-accented English, and examines the effects of the listeners' language backgrounds on their perceptions of Chinese-accented English. The results showed that the Hong Kong (HK) group performed better in unstressed syllable duration compared with the Taiwan (TW) and Beijing (BJ) groups. The results also revealed that all six listener groups achieved at least 78% intelligibility, with the native speaker accent achieving the highest rating, followed by the HK, TW, and BJ accents. A shared first language (L1) background may have little or no impact on intelligibility. The speech properties might prevail over the shared L1 effect. All listeners perceived inappropriate word-stress shift and consonant cluster simplifications to be the most unintelligible features.

  20. Critical Issues in Assessing Teacher Compensation. Backgrounder. No. 2638

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richwine, Jason; Biggs, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    A November 2011 Heritage Foundation report--"Assessing the Compensation of Public-School Teachers"--presented data on teacher salaries and benefits in order to inform debates about teacher compensation reform. The report concluded that public-school teacher compensation is far ahead of what comparable private-sector workers enjoy, and that…

  1. Assessment of Cosmic Background Attenuation at Building 3425 (Underground Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Borgardt, James D.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Panisko, Mark E.

    2009-10-01

    Specifications for the Underground Facility (building 3425) in the Radiation Detection and Nuclear Sciences complex presently under construction at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory mandate a 30 meters water equivalent shielding for cosmic background attenuation at the 30-foot underground depth of the laboratory. A set thickness of a specified fill material was determined; however a smaller thickness of a higher density material was used for the earthen bunker. Questions arose as to whether this altered configuration met the required shielding specifications. A series of measurements were made to address this concern using a 4”x4”x16” NaI(Tl) detector (Scionix Holland, 3.5N-E2-X). Cosmic ray data were taken at the surface, and at several locations within the underground facility in order to obtain an experimental value for the attenuation of the cosmic radiation. This experimental result was compared with the contracted attenuation.

  2. Systematic Assessment of Neutron and Gamma Backgrounds Relevant to Operational Modeling and Detection Technology Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Archer, Daniel E.; Hornback, Donald Eric; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Nicholson, Andrew D.; Patton, Bruce W.; Peplow, Douglas E.; Miller, Thomas Martin; Ayaz-Maierhafer, Birsen

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a two year effort to systematically assess neutron and gamma backgrounds relevant to operational modeling and detection technology implementation. The first year effort focused on reviewing the origins of background sources and their impact on measured rates in operational scenarios of interest. The second year has focused on the assessment of detector and algorithm performance as they pertain to operational requirements against the various background sources and background levels.

  3. Using Music as a Background for Reading: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulliken, Colleen N.; Henk, William A.

    1985-01-01

    Reports on a study during which intermediate level students were exposed to three auditory backgrounds while reading (no music, classical music, and rock music), and their subsequent comprehension performance was measured. Concludes that the auditory background during reading may affect comprehension and that, for most students, rock music should…

  4. Toxicological assessment of kretek cigarettes: Part 1: background, assessment approach, and summary of findings.

    PubMed

    Roemer, E; Dempsey, R; Schorp, M K

    2014-12-01

    This publication introduces a series of six other publications describing the toxicological assessment of kretek cigarettes, i.e., cigarettes characterized primarily by the use of a significant amount of cloves as an ingredient added to the tobacco. This paper presents background information on kretek cigarettes, describes the general approach of the in vitro and in vivo toxicological assessment of mainstream smoke from kretek cigarettes, presents the methodology used, and summarizes the results of the assessment program. In summary, the smoke from kretek cigarettes gives rise to the typical cigarette smoke-related effects known from American-blended cigarettes, does not reveal any novel toxicity, and exhibits an unexpected distinct attenuation of pulmonary inflammation. Based on equal amounts of smoke total particulate matter (TPM), kretek cigarettes deliver less toxicants when compared to American-blended cigarettes; when assessed in vitro, the smoke from kretek cigarettes is less cytotoxic (gas/vapor phase) and less mutagenic (TPM). When assessed in vivo, kretek cigarette smoke shows lower toxicity in the respiratory tract. When based on an equal nicotine basis, several of the toxicity endpoints in kretek cigarettes become equivalent to American-blended cigarettes. The data do not indicate an increased hazard potential of kreteks compared to American-blended cigarettes.

  5. Background Studies for the pn-CCD Detector of CAST

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, A.; Beltran, B.; Cebrian, S.; Gomez, H.; Irastorza, I. G.; Luzon, G.; Morales, J.; Ruz, J.; Villar, J. A.; Hartmann, R.; Kotthaus, R.; Klose, C.; Kuster, M.; Strueder, L.

    2007-03-28

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) experiment searches for axions from the Sun converted into photons with energies up to around 10 keV via the inverse Primakoff effect in the high magnetic field of a superconducting Large Hadron Collider (LHC) prototype magnet. A backside illuminated pn-CCD detector in conjunction with an X-ray mirror optics is one of the three detectors used in CAST to register the expected photon signal. Since this signal is very rare a detailed study of the detector background has been undertaken with the aim to understand and further reduce the background level of the detector. The analysis is based on measured data taken during the data taking period of 2003 and 2004 of CAST and on Monte Carlo simulations of background with different origin. The background study performed for this detector show that the level of background (8.00{+-}0.07)x10-5 counts cm-2 s-1 keV-1 between 1 and 7 keV is dominated by the external gamma background due to natural activities at the experimental site, while radioactive impurities in the detector itself and cosmic neutrons contribute with a smaller fraction.

  6. Background Languages, Learner Motivation and Self-Assessed Progress in Learning Zulu as an Additional Language in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marten, Lutz; Mostert, Carola

    2012-01-01

    The article reports results of a study of beginner-level learners of Zulu in higher education in the UK, focussing on learners' linguistic background, their motivation and reasons for studying Zulu, and their self-assessed progress at the beginning of the second term of teaching. The study shows that participants typically studied Zulu as an…

  7. The Effect of Background Music on Bullying: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Naomi; Dolev, Einat

    2013-01-01

    School bullying is a source of growing concern. A number of intervention programs emphasize the importance of a positive school climate in preventing bullying behavior. The aim of the presented pilot study was to examine whether calming background music, through its effect on arousal and mood, could create a pleasant atmosphere and reduce bullying…

  8. Interrater and Intrarater Reliability of the Tuck Jump Assessment by Health Professionals of Varied Educational Backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Lisa A.; Smith, Craig A.; Olson, Brandon K.; Chimera, Nicole J.; Schmitz, Brian; Warren, Meghan

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The Tuck Jump Assessment (TJA), a clinical plyometric assessment, identifies 10 jumping and landing technique flaws. The study objective was to investigate TJA interrater and intrarater reliability with raters of different educational and clinical backgrounds. Methods. 40 participants were video recorded performing the TJA using published protocol and instructions. Five raters of varied educational and clinical backgrounds scored the TJA. Each score of the 10 technique flaws was summed for the total TJA score. Approximately one month later, 3 raters scored the videos again. Intraclass correlation coefficients determined interrater (5 and 3 raters for first and second session, resp.) and intrarater (3 raters) reliability. Results. Interrater reliability with 5 raters was poor (ICC = 0.47; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.33–0.62). Interrater reliability between 3 raters who completed 2 scoring sessions improved from 0.52 (95% CI 0.35–0.68) for session one to 0.69 (95% CI 0.55–0.81) for session two. Intrarater reliability was poor to moderate, ranging from 0.44 (95% CI 0.22–0.68) to 0.72 (95% CI 0.55–0.84). Conclusion. Published protocol and training of raters were insufficient to allow consistent TJA scoring. There may be a learned effect with the TJA since interrater reliability improved with repetition. TJA instructions and training should be modified and enhanced before clinical implementation. PMID:26464881

  9. Ambient trace element background concentrations in soils and their use in risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Díez, M; Simón, M; Martín, F; Dorronsoro, C; García, I; Van Gestel, C A M

    2009-08-01

    The definition of ambient background concentrations (ABCs) is used in this study to assess the potential environmental risk of trace elements in soils and parent materials from Granada, Spain. Two different layers of soil (0-20 and 20-40 cm) and parent material samples were collected at 93 sites. From cumulative frequency distribution curves, ABCs for As, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn were estimated at 3.5-20, 7-23, 13-25.6, 29-66, 7-20, 15-36, and 5.5-76 mg kg(-1), respectively. Tukey box-plots were used to discriminate different concentration classes and identify potentially contaminated sites. Weakly-weathered soils (Entisols) over carbonate materials showed the lowest background contents, the most developed soils (Alfisols) over metamorphic rocks the highest ones. Outliers were mainly found near a former iron mine where arsenic concentrations were by far exceeding the corresponding regional ABC. These soils were however, not toxic to Escherichia coli and Vibrio fischeri. The prediction of site-specific ABCs together with bioavailability and toxicity assessment is a valuable tool for giving further insight into the risk of trace elements in soils.

  10. Study of Natural Background Radiation around Gurvanbulag Uranium Deposit Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enkhbat, N.; Norov, N.; Bat-Erdene, B.; Khuukhenkhuu, G.; Otgooloi, B.

    2009-03-01

    In this work, we will show the study of natural background radiation level around the Gurvanbulag (GB) uranium deposit area in the eastern part of Mongolia. We collected environmental soil samples from 102 points around GB Uranium deposit. Collected samples were measured by HPGe gamma spectrometer at Nuclear Research Center, National University of Mongolia. The averaged activity concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232, K-40, and Cs-137 were 37.1, 29, 939, and 17.7 Bq/kg, respectively.

  11. ISO Lensing Studies: background galaxies and foreground cluster properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Martinez, Ricardo

    2003-02-01

    A number of ISO programmes, totaling over 100 hours of observation time, made use of the gravitational lensing phenomenon to extend the sensitivity of ISO observations. Substantial results derived from those programmes have been published, or are in the peer review process, addressing the MIR properties of the background lensed galaxy population. These results, which have important implications for galaxy evolution, and which resolve a large fraction of the 15 and 7 μm infrared-background light, will be briefly summarised. But the data has much further potential. Little has been published to date concerning the implications of the ISO lensing data for the foreground clusters themselves, nor addressing the overlap between the observed ISO sources and lensed populations seen at X-Ray and Sub-mm wavelengths. We report briefly on an ongoing programme to systematically reassess the set of ISO observations of lensing galaxy clusters and to describe and compare the IR properties of the clusters themselves. The overlap between ISO source lists and recently published lists of X-Ray and Sub-mm sources in the same fields is under study.

  12. Lifetime Effective Dose Assessment Based on Background Outdoor Gamma Exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Luevano-Gurrola, Sergio; Perez-Tapia, Angelica; Pinedo-Alvarez, Carmelo; Carrillo-Flores, Jorge; Montero-Cabrera, Maria Elena; Renteria-Villalobos, Marusia

    2015-10-01

    Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on a population's health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected in Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Müller counter. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 113 to 310 nGy·h(-1). At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K and to calculate their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Calculated gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 nGy·h(-1). Results indicated that the lifetime effective dose of the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is on average 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of the activity concentrations in soil were 52, 73 and 1097 Bq·kg(-1), for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. From the analysis, the spatial distribution of (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K is to the north, to the north-center and to the south of city, respectively. In conclusion, the natural background gamma dose received by the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to the geological characteristics of the zone. From the radiological point of view, this kind of study allows us to identify the importance of manmade environments, which are often highly variable and difficult to characterize. PMID:26437425

  13. Lifetime Effective Dose Assessment Based on Background Outdoor Gamma Exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Luevano-Gurrola, Sergio; Perez-Tapia, Angelica; Pinedo-Alvarez, Carmelo; Carrillo-Flores, Jorge; Montero-Cabrera, Maria Elena; Renteria-Villalobos, Marusia

    2015-01-01

    Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on a population’s health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected in Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Müller counter. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 113 to 310 nGy·h−1. At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and to calculate their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Calculated gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 nGy·h−1. Results indicated that the lifetime effective dose of the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is on average 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of the activity concentrations in soil were 52, 73 and 1097 Bq·kg−1, for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. From the analysis, the spatial distribution of 232Th, 226Ra and 40K is to the north, to the north-center and to the south of city, respectively. In conclusion, the natural background gamma dose received by the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to the geological characteristics of the zone. From the radiological point of view, this kind of study allows us to identify the importance of manmade environments, which are often highly variable and difficult to characterize. PMID:26437425

  14. Physics validation studies for muon collider detector background simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Aaron Owen; /Northern Illinois U.

    2011-07-01

    Within the broad discipline of physics, the study of the fundamental forces of nature and the most basic constituents of the universe belongs to the field of particle physics. While frequently referred to as 'high-energy physics,' or by the acronym 'HEP,' particle physics is not driven just by the quest for ever-greater energies in particle accelerators. Rather, particle physics is seen as having three distinct areas of focus: the cosmic, intensity, and energy frontiers. These three frontiers all provide different, but complementary, views of the basic building blocks of the universe. Currently, the energy frontier is the realm of hadron colliders like the Tevatron at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) or the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. While the LHC is expected to be adequate for explorations up to 14 TeV for the next decade, the long development lead time for modern colliders necessitates research and development efforts in the present for the next generation of colliders. This paper focuses on one such next-generation machine: a muon collider. Specifically, this paper focuses on Monte Carlo simulations of beam-induced backgrounds vis-a-vis detector region contamination. Initial validation studies of a few muon collider physics background processes using G4beamline have been undertaken and results presented. While these investigations have revealed a number of hurdles to getting G4beamline up to the level of more established simulation suites, such as MARS, the close communication between us, as users, and the G4beamline developer, Tom Roberts, has allowed for rapid implementation of user-desired features. The main example of user-desired feature implementation, as it applies to this project, is Bethe-Heitler muon production. Regarding the neutron interaction issues, we continue to study the specifics of how GEANT4 implements nuclear interactions. The GEANT4 collaboration has been contacted regarding the minor discrepancies in the neutron

  15. Background ventilation studies for TRU-waste retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D.W.; Winberg, M.R.

    1989-10-01

    This report presents results from a series of experiments performed to give engineering background information for a ventilation system that will be used during retrieval of transuranic (TRU) buried waste. The retrieval project is part of the Environmental Restoration Program and will involve a double containment with an inner and outer building. The retrieval of buried wastes within the inner containment building may result in TRU contaminated particulates being suspended in the air. The ventilation system will help remove these contaminated particles. To study the behavior of airborne TRU contaminated particulates in a ventilation flow, a scaled wind tunnel was designed and constructed at INEL. Experiments discussed in this report include: (a) a study of eddy patterns and backflow around a scale-model excavator and dig face, (b) evaluation of innovative filter media as a possible pre-filter to extend the service life of the primary HEPA filters, and (c) a study of deposition of TRU contaminated dust as a function of duct velocity (0--100 fpm). These experiments involved soils contaminated with small amounts of plutonium and americium (500 pCi/g). Results include high speed photographs and video tape of the air pattern experiments and tabulated results and graphs of measured dust mass deposition and radiochemical analysis of samples taken during the pre-filter and downwind deposition experiments. 5 refs., 20 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. The effects of problem content and scientific background on information search and the assessment and valuation of correlations.

    PubMed

    Soffer, Shira; Kareev, Yaakov

    2011-01-01

    The effects of problem contents and one's scientific background on the detection of correlations and the assessment of their strength were studied using a task that required active data search, assessment of the strength of a correlation, and monetary valuation of the correlation's predictive utility. Participants (N = 72) who were trained either in the natural sciences or in the social sciences and humanities explored data sets differing in contents and actual strength of correlation. Data search was consistent across all variables: Participants drew relatively small samples whose relative sizes would favor the detection of a correlation, if one existed. In contrast, the assessment of the correlation strength and the valuation of its predictive utility were strongly related not only to its objective strength, but also to the correspondence between problem contents and one's scientific background: When the two matched, correlations were judged to be stronger and more valuable than when they did not.

  17. Three-Dimensional Quantitative Validation of Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging Background Parenchymal Enhancement Assessments.

    PubMed

    Ha, Richard; Mema, Eralda; Guo, Xiaotao; Mango, Victoria; Desperito, Elise; Ha, Jason; Wynn, Ralph; Zhao, Binsheng

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) and its clinical significance as a biomarker of breast cancer risk has been proposed based on qualitative studies. Previous BPE quantification studies lack appropriate correlation with BPE qualitative assessments. The purpose of this study is to validate our three-dimensional BPE quantification method with standardized BPE qualitative cases. An Institutional Review Board-approved study reviewed 500 consecutive magnetic resonance imaging cases (from January 2013-December 2014) using a strict inclusion criteria and 120 cases that best represented each of the BPE qualitative categories (minimal or mild or moderate or marked) were selected. Blinded to the qualitative data, fibroglandular tissue contours of precontrast and postcontrast images were delineated using an in-house, proprietary segmentation algorithm. Metrics of BPE were calculated including %BPE ([ratio of BPE volume to fibroglandular tissue volume] × 100) at multiple threshold levels to determine the optimal cutoff point for BPE quantification that best correlated with the reference BPE qualitative cases. The highest positive correlation was present at ×1.5 precontrast average signal intensity threshold level (r = 0.84, P < 0.001). At this level, the BPE qualitative assessment of minimal, mild, moderate, and marked correlated with the mean quantitative %BPE of 14.1% (95% CI: 10.9-17.2), 26.1% (95% CI: 22.8-29.3), 45.9% (95% CI: 40.2-51.7), and 74.0% (95% CI: 68.6-79.5), respectively. A one-way analysis of variance with post-hoc analysis showed that at ×1.5 precontrast average signal intensity level, the quantitative %BPE measurements best differentiated the four reference BPE qualitative groups (F [3,117] = 106.8, P < 0.001). Our three-dimensional BPE quantification methodology was validated using the reference BPE qualitative cases and could become an invaluable clinical tool to more accurately assess breast cancer risk and to

  18. Microwave and theoretical studies for Cosmic Background Explorer satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, D. T.

    1983-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, its instruments, and its scientific mission are discussed. The COBE radiometer is considered, and measurement of galactic radio emission with masers is reviewed. Extragalactic radiation and zodiacal dust are mentioned briefly.

  19. Evaluating the Effect of Learning Style and Student Background on Self-Assessment Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaoutinen, Satu

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates a new taxonomy-based self-assessment scale and examines factors that affect assessment accuracy and course performance. The scale is based on Bloom's Revised Taxonomy and is evaluated by comparing students' self-assessment results with course performance in a programming course. Correlation has been used to reveal possible…

  20. Historical Background on the Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    RECHARD, ROBERT P

    1999-10-21

    In 1979, six years after selecting the Delaware Basin as a potential disposal area, Congress authorized the U.S. Department of Energy to build the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico, as a Research and development facility for the safe management storage, and disposal of waste contaminated with transuranic radioisotopes. In 1998, 19 years after authorization and after site selection, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified that the WIPP disposal system complied with its regulations. The EPA's decision was primarily based on the results from a performance. assessment conducted in 1996, which is summarized in this special issue of Reliability Engineering and System Safety. This performance assessment was the culmination of four preliminary performance assessments conducted between 1989 and 1992. This paper provides a historical setting and context for how the performance of the deep geologic repository at the WIPP was analyzed. Also included is background on political forces acting on the project.

  1. Cloud water and aerosol studies in a background marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioda, A.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.; Reyes-Rodriguez, G.; Santos-Figueroa, G.; Morales-de Jesus, R.; Collett, J.; Decesari, S.; de Aquino Neto, F. R.; Klaus, C.; Bezerra, H.

    2007-12-01

    The study of aerosol and cloud water chemical composition is essential to understand cloud processing of different compounds, determining which species are more efficiently removed and which ones stay longer in the atmosphere and, therefore, are more important for aerosol climate forcing. As part of the Rain In Cumulus over the Ocean Experiment (RICO), cloud water and aerosol samples were collected in Puerto Rico. We present concentrations of water-soluble ions, total and dissolved organic carbon (TOC and DOC), total nitrogen (TN), and the speciation of nitrogen compounds (amino acids) for water and aerosol samples collected at East Peak and Cape San Juan, Puerto Rico. Mass and elemental/organic carbon (EC, OC) concentrations were also determined for the aerosol samples. The results show average concentrations of TOC and TN in cloud water of about 1.1 mg/L and for DOC about 0.9 mg/L. The DOC/TOC ratio averaged 0.78, indicating that most of the organic compounds present are dissolved in the cloud water. TOC was composed mainly of organic acids (47 percent) and TN of inorganic species (80 percent). With respect to the aerosol samples, the average mass concentration of fine particles (Dp < 1.7 um) was 2.4 ug/m3. EC was found at low-to-non detectable levels (< 0.5 ng/m3). The concentrations of OC, DOC, TOC, and TN ranged from 30 to 100 ng/m3. The size distributions showed that OC and TN were mainly present in the fine particle fractions (Dp < 1 um). The predominant ions for both cloud and aerosol samples were Cl- and Na+, the primary components of sea salt. However, when air masses arrived from Northwest Africa or from islands upwind of Puerto Rico there was a decrease in Na+ and Cl- concentrations and an increase in SO42-, NH3+ and Ca2+ concentrations, likely reflecting anthropogenic and crustal sources of these species. Overall, the average concentrations of all species are similar to those typically found in background (remote) environments; however, these

  2. Assessing the effects of variables and background selection on the capture of the tick climate niche

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Modelling the environmental niche and spatial distribution of pathogen-transmitting arthropods involves various quality and methodological concerns related to using climate data to capture the environmental niche. This study tested the potential of MODIS remotely sensed and interpolated gridded covariates to estimate the climate niche of the medically important ticks Ixodes ricinus and Hyalomma marginatum. We also assessed model inflation resulting from spatial autocorrelation (SA) and collinearity (CO) of covariates used as time series of data (monthly values of variables), principal components analysis (PCA), and a discrete Fourier transformation. Performance of the models was measured using area under the curve (AUC), autocorrelation by Moran’s I, and collinearity by the variance inflation factor (VIF). Results The covariate spatial resolution slightly affected the final AUC. Consistently, models for H. marginatum performed better than models for I. ricinus, likely because of a species-derived rather than covariate effect because the former occupies a more limited niche. Monthly series of interpolated climate always better captured the climate niche of the ticks, but the SA was around 2 times higher and the maximum VIF between covariates around 30 times higher in interpolated than in MODIS-derived covariates. Interpolated or remotely sensed monthly series of covariates always had higher SA and CO than their transformations by PCA or Fourier. Regarding the effects of background point selection on AUC, we found that selection based on a set of rules for the distance to the core distribution and the heterogeneity of the landscape influenced model outcomes. The best selection relied on a random selection of points as close as possible to the target organism area of distribution, but effects are variable according to the species modelled. Conclusion Testing for effects of SA and CO is necessary before incorporating these covariates into algorithms

  3. Comparative Study of MHD Modeling of the Background Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gressl, C.; Veronig, A. M.; Temmer, M.; Odstrčil, D.; Linker, J. A.; Mikić, Z.; Riley, P.

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge about the background solar wind plays a crucial role in the framework of space-weather forecasting. In-situ measurements of the background solar wind are only available for a few points in the heliosphere where spacecraft are located, therefore we have to rely on heliospheric models to derive the distribution of solar-wind parameters in interplanetary space. We test the performance of different solar-wind models, namely Magnetohydrodynamic Algorithm outside a Sphere/ENLIL (MAS/ENLIL), Wang-Sheeley-Arge/ENLIL (WSA/ENLIL), and MAS/MAS, by comparing model results with in-situ measurements from spacecraft located at 1 AU distance to the Sun (ACE, Wind). To exclude the influence of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), we chose the year 2007 as a time period with low solar activity for our comparison. We found that the general structure of the background solar wind is well reproduced by all models. The best model results were obtained for the parameter solar-wind speed. However, the predicted arrival times of high-speed solar-wind streams have typical uncertainties of the order of about one day. Comparison of model runs with synoptic magnetic maps from different observatories revealed that the choice of the synoptic map significantly affects the model performance.

  4. Excitation rate and background measurements during LIF studies on krypton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehead, C. A.; Cannon, B. D.; Wacker, J. F.

    1993-04-01

    The Krypton Isotope Laser Analysis (KILA) method is being developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to measure Kr-85 concentrations in small air samples. The technique uses high-resolution lasers to excite individual isotopes of krypton specifically to induce Kr-85 to fluorescence for detection by optical means. Production of krypton metastables via two-photon excitation to the 2p(sub 6) state has been shown to be 0.15% efficient in 0.13 mTorr of krypton--sufficiently high to demonstrate overall feasibility of the KILA method. Since this goal was met, focus has been directed toward development of a working vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) fluorescence detection system and toward understanding the VUV background. This report describes the progress made in these two areas. The second step of the KILA process is to optically pump all except the Kr-85 isotopes from the metastable state back to the ground state using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The rate of this process and the VUV background afterward will determine the sensitivity and selectivity of the KILA approach. De-excitation of the metastable population was accomplished via one-photon absorption of a continuous-wave (c-w) laser to the 2p(sub 8) energy level. Non-isotopically selective de-excitation rates as high as 5 x 10(exp 5)/sec have been measured, yielding a signal-to-background ratio of g reater than 10(exp 6). The lifetime of the metastables is 1.2 msec in 200 mTorr of neon--much longer than the time required to de-excite krypton metastables and to detect fluorescence produced by Kr-85. After attaining these high de-excitation rates, a gated VUV detection system was built with a dynamic range large enough to measure a small background following de-excitation of large metastable populations. Future experiments will focus on reducing the background level by another 2-3 orders of magnitude and perfecting the isotopically selective de-excitation technique with known samples.

  5. Excitation rate and background measurements during LIF studies on krypton

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, C.A.; Cannon, B.D.; Wacker, J.F.

    1993-04-01

    The Krypton Isotope Laser Analysis (KILA) method is being developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to measure {sup 85}Kr concentrations in small air samples. The technique uses high-resolution lasers to excite individual isotopes of krypton specifically to induce {sup 85}Kr to fluorescence for detection by optical means. Production of krypton metastables via two-photon excitation to the 2p{sub 6} state has been shown to be 0.15% efficient in 0.13 mTorr of krypton--sufficiently high to demonstrate overall feasibility of the KILA method. Since this goal was met, focus has been directed toward development of a working vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) fluorescence detection system and toward understanding the VUV background. This report describes the progress made in these two areas. The second step of the KILA process is to optically pump all except the {sup 85}Kr isotopes from the metastable state back to the ground state using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The rate of this process and the VUV background afterward will determine the sensitivity and selectivity of the KILA approach. De-excitation of the metastable population was accomplished via one-photon absorption of a continuous-wave (c-w) laser to the 2p{sub 8} energy level. Non-isotopically selective de-excitation rates as high as 5 {times} 10{sup 5} sec{sup {minus}1} have been measured, yielding a signal-to-background ratio of >10{sup 6}. The lifetime of the metastables is 1.2 msec in 200 mTorr of neon--much longer than the time required to de-excite krypton metastables and to detect fluorescence produced by {sup 85}Kr. After attaining these high de-excitation rates, a gated VUV detection system was built with a dynamic range large enough to measure a small background following de-excitation of large metastable populations. Future experiments will focus on reducing the background level by another 2--3 orders of magnitude and perfecting the isotopically selective de-excitation technique with known samples.

  6. Excitation rate and background measurements during LIF studies on krypton

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, C.A.; Cannon, B.D.; Wacker, J.F.

    1993-04-01

    The Krypton Isotope Laser Analysis (KILA) method is being developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to measure [sup 85]Kr concentrations in small air samples. The technique uses high-resolution lasers to excite individual isotopes of krypton specifically to induce [sup 85]Kr to fluorescence for detection by optical means. Production of krypton metastables via two-photon excitation to the 2p[sub 6] state has been shown to be 0.15% efficient in 0.13 mTorr of krypton--sufficiently high to demonstrate overall feasibility of the KILA method. Since this goal was met, focus has been directed toward development of a working vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) fluorescence detection system and toward understanding the VUV background. This report describes the progress made in these two areas. The second step of the KILA process is to optically pump all except the [sup 85]Kr isotopes from the metastable state back to the ground state using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The rate of this process and the VUV background afterward will determine the sensitivity and selectivity of the KILA approach. De-excitation of the metastable population was accomplished via one-photon absorption of a continuous-wave (c-w) laser to the 2p[sub 8] energy level. Non-isotopically selective de-excitation rates as high as 5 [times] 10[sup 5] sec[sup [minus]1] have been measured, yielding a signal-to-background ratio of >10[sup 6]. The lifetime of the metastables is 1.2 msec in 200 mTorr of neon--much longer than the time required to de-excite krypton metastables and to detect fluorescence produced by [sup 85]Kr. After attaining these high de-excitation rates, a gated VUV detection system was built with a dynamic range large enough to measure a small background following de-excitation of large metastable populations. Future experiments will focus on reducing the background level by another 2--3 orders of magnitude and perfecting the isotopically selective de-excitation technique with known samples.

  7. THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND EXPERIMENT (CIBER): A SOUNDING ROCKET PAYLOAD TO STUDY THE NEAR INFRARED EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT

    SciTech Connect

    Zemcov, M.; Bock, J.; Hristov, V.; Levenson, L. R.; Mason, P.; Arai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T.; Battle, J.; Cooray, A.; Keating, B.; Renbarger, T.; Kim, M. G.; Lee, D. H.; Nam, U. W.; Sullivan, I.; Suzuki, K.

    2013-08-15

    The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER) is a suite of four instruments designed to study the near infrared (IR) background light from above the Earth's atmosphere. The instrument package comprises two imaging telescopes designed to characterize spatial anisotropy in the extragalactic IR background caused by cosmological structure during the epoch of reionization, a low resolution spectrometer to measure the absolute spectrum of the extragalactic IR background, and a narrow band spectrometer optimized to measure the absolute brightness of the zodiacal light foreground. In this paper we describe the design and characterization of the CIBER payload. The detailed mechanical, cryogenic, and electrical design of the system are presented, including all system components common to the four instruments. We present the methods and equipment used to characterize the instruments before and after flight, and give a detailed description of CIBER's flight profile and configurations. CIBER is designed to be recoverable and has flown four times, with modifications to the payload having been informed by analysis of the first flight data. All four instruments performed to specifications during the subsequent flights, and the scientific data from these flights are currently being analyzed.

  8. Study of robot landmark recognition with complex background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yuqing; Yang, Jia

    2007-12-01

    It's of great importance for assisting robot in path planning, position navigating and task performing by perceiving and recognising environment characteristic. To solve the problem of monocular-vision-oriented landmark recognition for mobile intelligent robot marching with complex background, a kind of nested region growing algorithm which fused with transcendental color information and based on current maximum convergence center is proposed, allowing invariance localization to changes in position, scale, rotation, jitters and weather conditions. Firstly, a novel experiment threshold based on RGB vision model is used for the first image segmentation, which allowing some objects and partial scenes with similar color to landmarks also are detected with landmarks together. Secondly, with current maximum convergence center on segmented image as each growing seed point, the above region growing algorithm accordingly starts to establish several Regions of Interest (ROI) orderly. According to shape characteristics, a quick and effectual contour analysis based on primitive element is applied in deciding whether current ROI could be reserved or deleted after each region growing, then each ROI is judged initially and positioned. When the position information as feedback is conveyed to the gray image, the whole landmarks are extracted accurately with the second segmentation on the local image that exclusive to landmark area. Finally, landmarks are recognised by Hopfield neural network. Results issued from experiments on a great number of images with both campus and urban district as background show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  9. Evaluating the effect of learning style and student background on self-assessment accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaoutinen, Satu

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluates a new taxonomy-based self-assessment scale and examines factors that affect assessment accuracy and course performance. The scale is based on Bloom's Revised Taxonomy and is evaluated by comparing students' self-assessment results with course performance in a programming course. Correlation has been used to reveal possible connections between student information and both self-assessment and course performance. The results show that students can place their knowledge along the taxonomy-based scale quite well and the scale seems to fit engineering students' learning style. Advanced students assess themselves more accurately than novices. The results also show that reflective students were better in programming than active. The scale used in this study gives a more objective picture of students' knowledge than general scales and with modifications it can be used in other classes than programming.

  10. A Study of Radon Background in the XENON100 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Marc

    2011-04-27

    The XENON100 Dark Matter experiment has recently published first results from an analysis of 11.2 live days of data, setting an upper limit on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon elastic scattering cross section of 3.4x10{sup -44} cm{sup 2} at 55 GeV/c{sup 2} and 90% confidence level. This article focuses on one specific background component of the XENON100 detector by presenting two independent methods of measuring the {sup 222}Rn concentration during operation phase. A first estimate of radon activity is derived for the 11.2 days analysis, proving the feasibility of on-line radon monitoring. Remaining systematic uncertainties are discussed.

  11. Social Studies: Their Nature and Potential. Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wronski, Stanley P.

    The nature of the social studies and their international dimensions are examined. Discussion focuses on the definition of the social studies and the role of knowledge and ways of knowing in the social studies. In contrast to the social sciences, the social studies are designed primarily for instructional purposes. They include the substantive…

  12. Long term assessment of air quality from a background station on the Malaysian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Latif, Mohd Talib; Dominick, Doreena; Ahamad, Fatimah; Khan, Md Firoz; Juneng, Liew; Hamzah, Firdaus Mohamad; Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul Mohd

    2014-06-01

    Rural background stations provide insight into seasonal variations in pollutant concentrations and allow for comparisons to be made with stations closer to anthropogenic emissions. In Malaysia, the designated background station is located in Jerantut, Pahang. A fifteen-year data set focusing on ten major air pollutants and four meteorological variables from this station were analysed. Diurnal, monthly and yearly pollutant concentrations were derived from hourly continuous monitoring data. Statistical methods employed included principal component regression (PCR) and sensitivity analysis. Although only one of the yearly concentrations of the pollutants studied exceeded national and World Health Organisation (WHO) guideline standards, namely PM10, seven of the pollutants (NO, NO2, NOx, O3, PM10, THC and CH4) showed a positive upward trend over the 15-year period. High concentrations of PM10 were recorded during severe haze episodes in this region. Whilst, monthly concentrations of most air pollutants, such as: PM10, O3, NOx, NO2, CO and NmHC were recorded at higher concentrations between June and September, during the southwest monsoon. Such results correspond with the mid-range transport of pollutants from more urbanised and industrial areas. Diurnal patterns, rationed between major air pollutants and sensitivity analysis, indicate the influence of local traffic emissions on air quality at the Jerantut background station. Although the pollutant concentrations have not shown a rapid increase, an alternative background station will need to be assigned within the next decade if development projects in the surrounding area are not halted.

  13. Long term assessment of air quality from a background station on the Malaysian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Latif, Mohd Talib; Dominick, Doreena; Ahamad, Fatimah; Khan, Md Firoz; Juneng, Liew; Hamzah, Firdaus Mohamad; Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul Mohd

    2014-06-01

    Rural background stations provide insight into seasonal variations in pollutant concentrations and allow for comparisons to be made with stations closer to anthropogenic emissions. In Malaysia, the designated background station is located in Jerantut, Pahang. A fifteen-year data set focusing on ten major air pollutants and four meteorological variables from this station were analysed. Diurnal, monthly and yearly pollutant concentrations were derived from hourly continuous monitoring data. Statistical methods employed included principal component regression (PCR) and sensitivity analysis. Although only one of the yearly concentrations of the pollutants studied exceeded national and World Health Organisation (WHO) guideline standards, namely PM10, seven of the pollutants (NO, NO2, NOx, O3, PM10, THC and CH4) showed a positive upward trend over the 15-year period. High concentrations of PM10 were recorded during severe haze episodes in this region. Whilst, monthly concentrations of most air pollutants, such as: PM10, O3, NOx, NO2, CO and NmHC were recorded at higher concentrations between June and September, during the southwest monsoon. Such results correspond with the mid-range transport of pollutants from more urbanised and industrial areas. Diurnal patterns, rationed between major air pollutants and sensitivity analysis, indicate the influence of local traffic emissions on air quality at the Jerantut background station. Although the pollutant concentrations have not shown a rapid increase, an alternative background station will need to be assigned within the next decade if development projects in the surrounding area are not halted. PMID:24662202

  14. The PROMIS® Smoking Assessment Toolkit—Background and Introduction to Supplement

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The PROMIS® Smoking Initiative has developed an assessment toolkit for measuring 6 domains of interest to cigarette smoking research: nicotine dependence, coping expectancies, emotional and sensory expectancies, health expectancies, psychosocial expectancies, and social motivations for smoking. The papers in this supplement describe the methods used to develop these item banks, their psychometric properties, and the preliminary evidence for their validity. This commentary is meant to provide background information for the material in this supplement. Methods: After discussing the use of item response theory in behavioral measurement, I will briefly review the initial developmental steps for the smoking assessment toolkit. Finally, I will describe the contents of this supplement and provide some closing remarks. Results: Psychometric evidence strongly supports the utility of the toolkit of item banks, short forms (SFs), and computer adaptive tests (CATs). The item banks for daily smokers produce scores with reliability estimates above 0.90 for a wide range of each cigarette smoking domain continuum, and SF and CAT administrations also achieve high reliability (generally greater than 0.85) using very few items (4–7 items for most banks). Performance of the banks for nondaily smokers is similar. Preliminary evidence supports the concurrent and the discriminant validity of the bank domains. Conclusions: The new smoking assessment toolkit has attractive measurement features that are likely to benefit smoking research as researchers begin to utilize this resource. Information about the toolkit and access to the assessments is available at the project Web site (http://www.rand.org/health/projects/promis-smoking-initiative.html) and can also be accessed via the PROMIS Assessment Center (www.assessmentcenter.net). PMID:25118225

  15. Historical Background on Assessment the Performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P.

    1999-06-01

    In 1979, six years after selecting the Delaware Basin as a potential disposal area, Congress authorized the US Department of Energy to build the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico, as a research and development facility for the safe management, storage, and disposal of waste contaminated with transuranic radioisotopes. In 1998, 19 years after authorization and 25 years after site selection, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified that the WIPP disposal system complied with its regulations. The EPA's decision was primarily based on the results from a performance assessment conducted in 1996. This performance assessment was the culmination of four preliminary performance assessments conducted between 1989 and 1992. This report provides a historical setting and context for how the performance of the deep geologic repository at the WIPP was analyzed. Also included is background on political forces acting on the project. For example, the federal requirement to provide environmental impact statements and negotiated agreements with the State of New Mexico influenced the type of scientific areas that were investigated and the engineering analysis prior to 1989 for the WIPP.

  16. Muon background studies for shallow depth Double - Chooz near detector

    SciTech Connect

    Gómez, H.

    2015-08-17

    Muon events are one of the main concerns regarding background in neutrino experiments. The placement of experimental set-ups in deep underground facilities reduce considerably their impact on the research of the expected signals. But in the cases where the detector is installed on surface or at shallow depth, muon flux remains high, being necessary their precise identification for further rejection. Total flux, mean energy or angular distributions are some of the parameters that can help to characterize the muons. Empirically, the muon rate can be measured in an experiment by a number of methods. Nevertheless, the capability to determine the muons angular distribution strongly depends on the detector features, while the measurement of the muon energy is quite difficult. Also considering that on-site measurements can not be extrapolated to other sites due to the difference on the overburden and its profile, it is necessary to find an adequate solution to perform the muon characterization. The method described in this work to obtain the main features of the muons reaching the experimental set-up, is based on the muon transport simulation by the MUSIC software, combined with a dedicated sampling algorithm for shallow depth installations based on a modified Gaisser parametrization. This method provides all the required information about the muons for any shallow depth installation if the corresponding overburden profile is implemented. In this work, the method has been applied for the recently commissioned Double - Chooz near detector, which will allow the cross-check between the simulation and the experimental data, as it has been done for the far detector.

  17. Muon background studies for shallow depth Double - Chooz near detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, H.

    2015-08-01

    Muon events are one of the main concerns regarding background in neutrino experiments. The placement of experimental set-ups in deep underground facilities reduce considerably their impact on the research of the expected signals. But in the cases where the detector is installed on surface or at shallow depth, muon flux remains high, being necessary their precise identification for further rejection. Total flux, mean energy or angular distributions are some of the parameters that can help to characterize the muons. Empirically, the muon rate can be measured in an experiment by a number of methods. Nevertheless, the capability to determine the muons angular distribution strongly depends on the detector features, while the measurement of the muon energy is quite difficult. Also considering that on-site measurements can not be extrapolated to other sites due to the difference on the overburden and its profile, it is necessary to find an adequate solution to perform the muon characterization. The method described in this work to obtain the main features of the muons reaching the experimental set-up, is based on the muon transport simulation by the MUSIC software, combined with a dedicated sampling algorithm for shallow depth installations based on a modified Gaisser parametrization. This method provides all the required information about the muons for any shallow depth installation if the corresponding overburden profile is implemented. In this work, the method has been applied for the recently commissioned Double - Chooz near detector, which will allow the cross-check between the simulation and the experimental data, as it has been done for the far detector.

  18. Toddlers - Background & Validation Studies - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Cancer.gov

    This stage of development is characterized by the slowing of the growth velocity and a rapid increase in fine and gross motor skills supporting increases in independence, exploration of the environment, and language skills.

  19. Infants - Background & Validation Studies - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Cancer.gov

    The dynamic growth and development experienced in infancy is the most rapid of any age. The progression in feeding skills marks important developmental milestones that support rapid changes in food habits and nutrient intakes.

  20. Lactation - Background & Validation Studies - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Cancer.gov

    The benefits of breastfeeding for both mothers and infants are well established and rates of breastfeeding have been increasing across all socioeconomic and ethnic groups in the US during the last decade.

  1. Equity Assessment Study. Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadale, LaVerna M.; Zhao, Peisheng

    This assessment study is a culminating activity of an eight-year initiative to facilitate gender equity and more equitable campus environments - Mentoring Institutional Equity in New York State Two-Year Colleges. Eighteen two-year colleges participated in the application and implementation of an educational equity model designed to enhance gender…

  2. The Economy, Energy, and the Environment. A Background Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

    This study surveys the existing literature related to various technical aspects of electric power production, with primary emphasis on the supply of the various fuels used in the production of electricity and on the environmental consequences of energy conversion. It was prepared by the Environmental Policy Division, Legislative Reference Service,…

  3. Assessment and application of quantitative schlieren methods: Calibrated color schlieren and background oriented schlieren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsinga, G. E.; van Oudheusden, B. W.; Scarano, F.; Watt, D. W.

    Two quantitative schlieren methods are assessed and compared: calibrated color schlieren (CCS) and background oriented schlieren (BOS). Both methods are capable of measuring the light deflection angle in two spatial directions, and hence the projected density gradient vector field. Spatial integration using the conjugate gradient method returns the projected density field. To assess the performance of CCS and BOS, density measurements of a two-dimensional benchmark flow (a Prandtl-Meyer expansion fan) are compared with the theoretical density field and with the density inferred from PIV velocity measurements. The method's performance is also evaluated a priori from an experiment ray-tracing simulation. The density measurements show good agreement with theory. Moreover, CCS and BOS return comparable results with respect to each other and with respect to the PIV measurements. BOS proves to be very sensitive to displacements of the wind tunnel during the experiment and requires a correction for it, making it necessary to apply extra boundary conditions in the integration procedure. Furthermore, spatial resolution can be a limiting factor for accurate measurements using BOS. CCS suffers from relatively high noise in the density gradient measurement due to camera noise and has a smaller dynamic range when compared to BOS. Finally the application of the two schlieren methods to a separated wake flow is demonstrated. Flow features such as shear layers and expansion and recompression waves are measured with both methods.

  4. Assessing Natural Background Levels of aquifers in the Metropolitan Area of Milan (Lombardy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Caro, Mattia; Crosta, Giovanni; Frattini, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD 2000/60/CE) requires Member States to evaluate the status of groundwater bodies in order to reach a good water quality for human consumption. One of the preliminary steps for defining the status of groundwater bodies consists in the definition and evaluation of the so-called Natural Background Levels (NBL). The NBL or Baseline level can be defined as "the range of concentration of a given element, isotope or chemical compound in solution, derived entirely from natural, geological, biological or atmospheric sources, under conditions not perturbed by anthropogenic activity" (Edmund and Shand, 2009). The qualitative analysis for a large area (ca 4500 Km2) of the Po Plain around the Milan Metropolitan area (Lombardy, Italy) is presented in this study. Despite the aquifers in the Milan metropolitan area are an incredible groundwater resource for a very large population (3.195.629 inhabitants in the metropolitan area, data at November 2014) and a highly industrialized area, a groundwater baseline characterization is still missing. In order to attain the hydro-geochemical characterization a complete geodatabase was built (120.655 chemical samples from 1980 to 2014). This database has been explored by classical and multivariate statistical analyses to provide relationships among the more influential lithological, hydrogeological and hydro-chemical variables. Finally, the NBLs of different chemical species which may be anthropogenic sensitive (Na, Cl, K, NO3, SO4, NH4, As, Fe, Cr, Fe, Mn, Zn) and for multiple aquifer bodies (phreatic, semi-confined and confined aquifer) are evaluated. Two different approaches are applied: the Pre-Selection method (BRIDGE, 2006) and the Component-Separation method. The first one (PS) consists in the exclusion of samples from the available dataset that could indicate human activities then deriving the NBL as the 90th percentile of the remaining data. The second one (CS) consists in the fitting of

  5. Produced water discharges to the Gulf of Mexico: Background information for ecological risk assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Meinhold, A.F.; Holtzman, S.; DePhillips, M.P.

    1996-06-01

    This report reviews ecological risk assessment concepts and methods; describes important biological resources in the Gulf of Mexico of potential concern for produced water impacts; and summarizes data available to estimate exposure and effects of produced water discharges. The emphasis is on data relating to produced water discharges in the central and western Gulf of Mexico, especially in Louisiana. Much of the summarized data and cited literature are relevant to assessments of impacts in other regions. Data describing effects on marine and estuarine fishes, mollusks, crustaceans and benthic invertebrates are emphasized. This review is part of a series of studies of the health and ecological risks from discharges of produced water to the Gulf of Mexico. These assessments will provide input to regulators in the development of guidelines and permits, and to industry in the use of appropriate discharge practices.

  6. US National Climate Assessment (NCA) Scenarios for Assessing Our Climate Future: Issues and Methodological Perspectives Background Whitepaper for Participants

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, Richard H.; Engle, Nathan L.; Hall, John; Jacobs, Kathy; Lempert, Rob; Mearns, L. O.; Melillo, Jerry; Mote, Phil; O'Brien, Sheila; Rosenzweig, C.; Ruane, Alex; Sheppard, Stephen; Vallario, Robert W.; Wiek, Arnim; Wilbanks, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    This whitepaper is intended to provide a starting point for discussion at a workshop for the National Climate Assessment (NCA) that focuses on the use and development of scenarios. The paper will provide background needed by participants in the workshop in order to review options for developing and using scenarios in NCA. The paper briefly defines key terms and establishes a conceptual framework for developing consistent scenarios across different end uses and spatial scales. It reviews uses of scenarios in past U.S. national assessments and identifies potential users of and needs for scenarios for both the report scheduled for release in June 2013 and to support an ongoing distributed assessment process in sectors and regions around the country. Because scenarios prepared for the NCA will need to leverage existing research, the paper takes account of recent scientific advances and activities that could provide needed inputs. Finally, it considers potential approaches for providing methods, data, and other tools for assessment participants. We note that the term 'scenarios' has many meanings. An important goal of the whitepaper (and portions of the workshop agenda) is pedagogical (i.e., to compare different meanings and uses of the term and make assessment participants aware of the need to be explicit about types and uses of scenarios). In climate change research, scenarios have been used to establish bounds for future climate conditions and resulting effects on human and natural systems, given a defined level of greenhouse gas emissions. This quasi-predictive use contrasts with the way decision analysts typically use scenarios (i.e., to consider how robust alternative decisions or strategies may be to variation in key aspects of the future that are uncertain). As will be discussed, in climate change research and assessment, scenarios describe a range of aspects of the future, including major driving forces (both human activities and natural processes), changes in

  7. Background radiation and childhood leukemia: A nationwide register-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Nikkilä, Atte; Erme, Sini; Arvela, Hannu; Holmgren, Olli; Raitanen, Jani; Lohi, Olli; Auvinen, Anssi

    2016-11-01

    High doses of ionizing radiation are an established cause of childhood leukemia. However, substantial uncertainty remains about the effect of low doses of radiation, including background radiation and potential differences between genetic subgroups of leukemia have rarely been explored. We investigated the effect of the background gamma radiation on childhood leukemia using a nationwide register-based case-control study. For each of the 1,093 cases, three age- and gender matched controls were selected (N = 3,279). Conditional logistic regression analyses were adjusted for confounding by Down syndrome, birth weight (large for gestational age), and maternal smoking. Complete residential histories and previously collected survey data of the background gamma radiation in Finland were used to assess the exposure of the study subjects to indoor and outdoor gamma radiation. Overall, background gamma radiation showed a non-significant association with the OR of childhood leukemia (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.97, 1.05 for 10 nSv/h increase in average equivalent dose rate to red bone marrow). In subgroup analyses, age group 2-<7 years displayed a larger effect (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.01, 1.60 for 1 mSv increase in equivalent cumulative dose to red bone marrow). Suggestive difference in OR by genetic subtype was found. Our results provide further support to the notion that low doses of ionizing radiation increase the risk for childhood leukemia, particularly at age 2-<7 years. Our findings suggest a larger effect of radiation on leukemia with high hyperpdiploidy than other subgroups, but this result requires further confirmation.

  8. Background radiation and childhood leukemia: A nationwide register-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Nikkilä, Atte; Erme, Sini; Arvela, Hannu; Holmgren, Olli; Raitanen, Jani; Lohi, Olli; Auvinen, Anssi

    2016-11-01

    High doses of ionizing radiation are an established cause of childhood leukemia. However, substantial uncertainty remains about the effect of low doses of radiation, including background radiation and potential differences between genetic subgroups of leukemia have rarely been explored. We investigated the effect of the background gamma radiation on childhood leukemia using a nationwide register-based case-control study. For each of the 1,093 cases, three age- and gender matched controls were selected (N = 3,279). Conditional logistic regression analyses were adjusted for confounding by Down syndrome, birth weight (large for gestational age), and maternal smoking. Complete residential histories and previously collected survey data of the background gamma radiation in Finland were used to assess the exposure of the study subjects to indoor and outdoor gamma radiation. Overall, background gamma radiation showed a non-significant association with the OR of childhood leukemia (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.97, 1.05 for 10 nSv/h increase in average equivalent dose rate to red bone marrow). In subgroup analyses, age group 2-<7 years displayed a larger effect (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.01, 1.60 for 1 mSv increase in equivalent cumulative dose to red bone marrow). Suggestive difference in OR by genetic subtype was found. Our results provide further support to the notion that low doses of ionizing radiation increase the risk for childhood leukemia, particularly at age 2-<7 years. Our findings suggest a larger effect of radiation on leukemia with high hyperpdiploidy than other subgroups, but this result requires further confirmation. PMID:27405274

  9. Tanzania at the Turn of the Century: Background Papers and Statistics. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This report presents lessons from Tanzania's development experience of the past four decades, with emphasis on the period since the last report (1996), and assesses the imperatives for higher sustained growth and better livelihood for its citizens in the future. The background papers review and assess Tanzania's actual growth and poverty reduction…

  10. US Forest Service and National Park Service Wilderness Aircraft Overflight Study: Sociological background and study plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Robin T.; Hartmann, Lawrence

    1990-01-01

    The background and sociological aspects of the combined U.S. Forest Service and National Park Service Wilderness Aircraft Overflight Study (WACOS) are presented. The WACOS broaches a new area of research by combining aspects of outdoor recreation sociology and aircraft noise response studies. The tasks faced create new challenges and require innovative solutions. Background information on the WACOS is presented with special emphasis on sociological considerations. At the time of this writing, no data have yet been collected, so this paper will present background information, related issues, and plans for data collection. Some recent studies indicate that managers of Forest Service wildernesses and National Park Service areas consider aircraft overflights to be a problem to their users in some areas. Additional relevant background research from outdoor recreation sociology is discussed, followed by presentation of the authors' opinions of the most salient sociological issues faced by this study. The goals and desired end products are identified next, followed by a review of the methods anticipated to be used to obtain these results. Finally, a discussion and conclusion section is provided.

  11. US Forest Service and National Park Service Wilderness Aircraft Overflight Study: Sociological background and study plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Robin T.; Hartmann, Lawrence

    1990-04-01

    The background and sociological aspects of the combined U.S. Forest Service and National Park Service Wilderness Aircraft Overflight Study (WACOS) are presented. The WACOS broaches a new area of research by combining aspects of outdoor recreation sociology and aircraft noise response studies. The tasks faced create new challenges and require innovative solutions. Background information on the WACOS is presented with special emphasis on sociological considerations. At the time of this writing, no data have yet been collected, so this paper will present background information, related issues, and plans for data collection. Some recent studies indicate that managers of Forest Service wildernesses and National Park Service areas consider aircraft overflights to be a problem to their users in some areas. Additional relevant background research from outdoor recreation sociology is discussed, followed by presentation of the authors' opinions of the most salient sociological issues faced by this study. The goals and desired end products are identified next, followed by a review of the methods anticipated to be used to obtain these results. Finally, a discussion and conclusion section is provided.

  12. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report VII, Volume III. Cultural resource assessment socioeconomic background data

    SciTech Connect

    Macfarlane, Heather; Janzen, Donald E.

    1980-11-26

    This report has been prepared in conjunction with an environmental baseline study for a commercial coal conversion facility being conducted by Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. (ASFI) and Airco Energy Company (AECO). This report represents a cultural resource assessment for the proposed plant site and two potential solid waste disposal areas. This assessment presents data collected by Dames and Moore during a recent archaeological reconnaissance of the unsurveyed southeastern portion of the proposed plant site and two potential solid waste disposal areas. Also, results of two previous surveys on the northern and southwestern portion of the plant site for American Smelting and Refining Company (ASARCO) and Kentucky Utilities are included. The Dames and Moore survey of the southeastern portion of the plant site identified one archaeological site, three standing structures and one historic cemetery. In addition 47 archaeological sites and six standing structures are known from two previous surveys of the remainder of the plant site (Cowan 1975 and Turnbow et al 1980). Eleven of the previously recorded archaeological sites were recommended for further assessment to evaluate their potential for inclusion within the Holt Bottoms Archaeological District currently listed on the National Register of Historic Places. None of the archaeological sites or standing structures located within the plant site during the Dames and Moore survey were recommended for further assessment. A total of eight archaeological sites were located during the Dames and Moore survey of the two potential solid waste disposal areas. Of this total only two sites were recommended for further assessment. Also, one previously unknown historic cemetry was located in the southernmost potential waste disposal area.

  13. A comparative study of thorium activity in NORM and high background radiation area.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, S K; Ishikawa, T; Tokonami, S; Sorimachi, A; Kranrod, C; Janik, M; Hosoda, M; Hassan, N M; Chanyotha, S; Parami, V K; Yonehara, H; Ramola, R C

    2010-10-01

    Several industrial processes are known to enrich naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). To assess such processes with respect to their radiological relevance, characteristic parameters describing this enrichment will lead to interesting information useful to UNSCEAR. In case of mineral treatment plants, the high temperatures used in smelting and refining processes lead to high concentrations of (238)U and (232)Th. Also due to thermal power combustion, concentration of U and Th in the fly ash increases manifold. NORM samples were collected from a Thailand mineral treatment plant and Philippine coal-fired thermal power plants for investigation. Some studies are initiated from a high background radiation area near Gopalpur of Orissa state in India. These NORM samples were analysed by gamma-ray spectrometry as well as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The radioactivity in case of Orissa soil samples is found to be mainly contributed from thorium. This study attempts to evaluate levels of thorium activity in NORM samples.

  14. Investigation of background acoustical effect on online surveys: A case study of a farmers' market customer survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xingdi

    Since the middle of 1990s, internet has become a new platform for surveys. Previous studies have discussed the visual design features of internet surveys. However, the application of acoustics as a design characteristic of online surveys has been rarely investigated. The present study aimed to fill that research gap. The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of background sound on respondents' engagement and satisfaction with online surveys. Two forms of background sound were evaluated; audio recorded in studios and audio edited with convolution reverb technique. The author recruited 80 undergraduate students for the experiment. These students were assigned to one of three groups. Each of the three groups was asked to evaluate their engagement and satisfaction with a specific online survey. The content of the online survey was the same. However, the three groups was exposed to the online survey with no background sound, with background sound recorded in studios; and with background sound edited with convolution reverb technique. The results showed no significant difference in engagement and satisfaction in the three groups of online surveys; without background sound, background sound recorded in studios, and background sound edited with convolution reverb technique. The author suggests that background sound does not contribute to online surveys in all the contexts. The industry practitioners should be careful to evaluate the survey context to decide whether the background sound should be added. Particularly, ear-piercing noise or acoustics which may link to respondents' unpleasant experience should be avoided. Moreover, although the results did not support the advantage of the revolution reverb technique in improving respondents' engagement and satisfaction, the author suggests that the potential of the revolution reverb technique in the applications of online surveys can't be totally denied, since it may be useful for some contexts which need further

  15. The Rayleigh ratio measurement for SNO+ liquid scintillator and background studies of the internal ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asahi, Satoko

    As a successor of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, the SNO+ experiment is planned to start data taking in early 2013. Making use of the liquid scintillator, Linear Alkylbenzene (LAB), the SNO+ experiment aims to perform flux measurements of low energy solar neutrinos in one phase, and wait for neutrinoless double beta decay events in another phase where 44 kg of natural Neodymium would be added into LAB. The Rayleigh ratio of LAB was found to be 16.60 +/- 3.14 x 10--6 cm--1 at 546 nm using the relative measurement technique. The wavelength dependency of the Rayleigh scattering was also examined and compared with the theoretical prediction. A setup which is usable to measure the angular dependency of the Rayleigh scattering was built, and an isotropic behaviour of the scattering was tested. The beta and gamma backgrounds, due to the internal calibration ropes situated in the scintillator volume, were studied using the SNO+ Monte Carlo Package. Also, the amount of 210Pb originating from the internal calibration ropes due to the intrinsic contamination of 238U, Rn emanation and plated on the surface prior to the installation were assessed to examine if it is a tolerable level to achieve the target level of 13.4 background events per day.

  16. Background Ionizing Radiation and the Risk of Childhood Cancer: A Census-Based Nationwide Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lupatsch, Judith E.; Zwahlen, Marcel; Röösli, Martin; Niggli, Felix; Grotzer, Michael A.; Rischewski, Johannes; Egger, Matthias; Kuehni, Claudia E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to medium or high doses of ionizing radiation is a known risk factor for cancer in children. The extent to which low-dose radiation from natural sources contributes to the risk of childhood cancer remains unclear. Objectives In a nationwide census-based cohort study, we investigated whether the incidence of childhood cancer was associated with background radiation from terrestrial gamma and cosmic rays. Methods Children < 16 years of age in the Swiss National Censuses in 1990 and 2000 were included. The follow-up period lasted until 2008, and incident cancer cases were identified from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry. A radiation model was used to predict dose rates from terrestrial and cosmic radiation at locations of residence. Cox regression models were used to assess associations between cancer risk and dose rates and cumulative dose since birth. Results Among 2,093,660 children included at census, 1,782 incident cases of cancer were identified including 530 with leukemia, 328 with lymphoma, and 423 with a tumor of the central nervous system (CNS). Hazard ratios for each millisievert increase in cumulative dose of external radiation were 1.03 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.05) for any cancer, 1.04 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.08) for leukemia, 1.01 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.05) for lymphoma, and 1.04 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.08) for CNS tumors. Adjustment for a range of potential confounders had little effect on the results. Conclusions Our study suggests that background radiation may contribute to the risk of cancer in children, including leukemia and CNS tumors. Citation Spycher BD, Lupatsch JE, Zwahlen M, Röösli M, Niggli F, Grotzer MA, Rischewski J, Egger M, Kuehni CE, for the Swiss Pediatric Oncology Group and the Swiss National Cohort. 2015. Background ionizing radiation and the risk of childhood cancer: a census-based nationwide cohort study. Environ Health Perspect 123:622–628; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408548 PMID:25707026

  17. Government public housing health needs assessment: focus on race, ethnicity, and the older adult: background, methods, and demographics.

    PubMed

    Lascher, Steven; Tasir-Rodriguez, Wesley; Moon, Grace; Irizzary, Maria; Baney, Matthew; Kellogg, F Russell

    2013-01-01

    St. Vincent's Catholic Medical Centers of New York initiated a study in 2009 to assess the health needs of residents of New York City (NYC) municipal housing at the Robert Fulton public housing complex in Manhattan. The aim of this project was to provide valid data on perceived health services needs of the residents of a NYC housing project. These data may also be used to support hospital and community collaborative strategic decisions for developing resident-appropriate health and social services and would be valuable for use in formulating policies and programs by other interested nonprofit health and social services organizations and government. We designed a 28-item instrument and pilot tested it with our research team and members of the population under study. The English and Spanish surveys were designed as an in-person surveyor-administered instruments addressing four domains: demographics, access and barriers to health care services, risk behaviors, and perceived health needs. The sampling was an apartment-level stratified random sampling. A 20%, 188 apartment sample was drawn from the population of 944 housing units. Our response rate was 92% (173/188 apartments). Background methods, and demographic results are reported in this article. A second article will report on the needs assessment results.

  18. Government public housing health needs assessment: focus on race, ethnicity, and the older adult: background, methods, and demographics.

    PubMed

    Lascher, Steven; Tasir-Rodriguez, Wesley; Moon, Grace; Irizzary, Maria; Baney, Matthew; Kellogg, F Russell

    2013-01-01

    St. Vincent's Catholic Medical Centers of New York initiated a study in 2009 to assess the health needs of residents of New York City (NYC) municipal housing at the Robert Fulton public housing complex in Manhattan. The aim of this project was to provide valid data on perceived health services needs of the residents of a NYC housing project. These data may also be used to support hospital and community collaborative strategic decisions for developing resident-appropriate health and social services and would be valuable for use in formulating policies and programs by other interested nonprofit health and social services organizations and government. We designed a 28-item instrument and pilot tested it with our research team and members of the population under study. The English and Spanish surveys were designed as an in-person surveyor-administered instruments addressing four domains: demographics, access and barriers to health care services, risk behaviors, and perceived health needs. The sampling was an apartment-level stratified random sampling. A 20%, 188 apartment sample was drawn from the population of 944 housing units. Our response rate was 92% (173/188 apartments). Background methods, and demographic results are reported in this article. A second article will report on the needs assessment results. PMID:23930518

  19. Assessing observational studies of medical treatments

    PubMed Central

    Hartz, Arthur; Bentler, Suzanne; Charlton, Mary; Lanska, Douglas; Butani, Yogita; Soomro, G Mustafa; Benson, Kjell

    2005-01-01

    Background Previous studies have assessed the validity of the observational study design by comparing results of studies using this design to results from randomized controlled trials. The present study examined design features of observational studies that could have influenced these comparisons. Methods To find at least 4 observational studies that evaluated the same treatment, we reviewed meta-analyses comparing observational studies and randomized controlled trials for the assessment of medical treatments. Details critical for interpretation of these studies were abstracted and analyzed qualitatively. Results Individual articles reviewed included 61 observational studies that assessed 10 treatment comparisons evaluated in two studies comparing randomized controlled trials and observational studies. The majority of studies did not report the following information: details of primary and ancillary treatments, outcome definitions, length of follow-up, inclusion/exclusion criteria, patient characteristics relevant to prognosis or treatment response, or assessment of possible confounding. When information was reported, variations in treatment specifics, outcome definition or confounding were identified as possible causes of differences between observational studies and randomized controlled trials, and of heterogeneity in observational studies. Conclusion Reporting of observational studies of medical treatments was often inadequate to compare study designs or allow other meaningful interpretation of results. All observational studies should report details of treatment, outcome assessment, patient characteristics, and confounding assessment. PMID:16137327

  20. Assessment of backgrounds of the ANAIS experiment for dark matter direct detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaré, J.; Cebrián, S.; Cuesta, C.; García, E.; Martínez, M.; Oliván, M. A.; Ortigoza, Y.; Ortiz de Solórzano, A.; Puimedón, J.; Sarsa, M. L.; Villar, J. A.; Villar, P.

    2016-08-01

    A large effort has been carried out to characterize the background of sodium iodide crystals within the Annual modulation with NaI Scintillators (ANAIS) project. In this paper, the background models developed for three 12.5 kg NaI(Tl) scintillators produced by Alpha Spectra Inc. and operated at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory are presented together with an evaluation of the background prospects for the full experiment. Measured spectra from threshold to high energy in different conditions are well described by the models based on quantified activities. At the region of interest, crystal bulk contamination is the dominant background source. Contributions from ^{210}Pb, ^{40}K, ^{22}Na and 3H are the most relevant. Those from ^{40}K and ^{22}Na could be efficiently suppressed thanks to anticoincidence operation in a crystals matrix or inside a liquid scintillator veto (LSV), while that from ^{210}Pb has been reduced by improving crystal production methods and 3H production could be reduced by shielding against cosmic rays during production. Assuming the activities of the last characterized detector, for nine crystals with a total mass of 112.5 kg the expected background rate is 2.5 counts/(keV kg day) in the region from 1 to 4 keV, which could be reduced at 1.4 counts/(keV kg day) by using a LSV.

  1. Academic Achievement, School Quality and Family Background: Study in Seven Latin American Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanguinetty, Jorge A.

    Educational production can be studied by correlating levels of academic achievement with three independent variables: student's family background, student's mental ability, and school quality. To examine family background and school quality, information was gathered from schools in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Paraguay, and Peru.…

  2. Background Interference Procedure: A Means of Assessing Neurologic Dysfunction in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Thomas J.

    1971-01-01

    The Bender Gestalt test incorporating the Background Interference Procedure was administered to three groups of children. The BIP yielded significantly higher scores for the brain damaged group, while the scores of the controls and emotionally disturbed children did not differ. (Author)

  3. Assessing the Role of Business Faculty Values and Background in the Recognition of an Ethical Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Auken, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The author sought to determine whether business faculty values and background can discriminate between a yes or no response to the introduction of an ethically challenged product. The results reveal that two competing views of the enterprise (stakeholder vs. stockholder) along with a faculty member's departmental membership do discriminate in the…

  4. Determination of background concentrations of hydrochemical parameters and water quality assessment in the Akhuryan River Basin (Armenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arpine, Hovhannisyan; Gayane, Shahnazaryan

    2016-08-01

    The determination of background values of hydrochemical parameters, to distinguish between natural concentration and anthropogenically-influenced concentrations, is highly relevant. In presented study, to estimate the background values of hydrochemical parameters in Akhuryan River Basin, log-normal probability functions on the hydrochemical parameters concentrations was applied. The study is carried out on the basis of hydrochemical data of surface water quality monitoring for the period of 2010-2013. This study highlights the usefulness of application of site-specific background concentrations for the evaluation, interpretation of surface water quality and for determination of pollution sources.

  5. Correlation between work concentration level and background music: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Shih, Yi-Nuo; Huang, Rong-Hwa; Chiang, Han-Sun

    2009-01-01

    It is a common phenomenon for office workers {to listen to music} while executing daily routines at their desks. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between work concentration level and background music. This research would first follow examples in previous researches, and then explore the influence of background music on participants' scores on attention tests. We hope to gain a preliminary understanding of the possible influence of background music on people's focus and concentration when doing work. Thirty-two college students were separated into three controlled groups; all were given the attention test. Group [a] listened to background music while being tested for 10 minutes; group [b] had no background music at all; and group [c] listened to the music for 10 minutes prior to the attention test. The test was conducted in a "noise free" environment. The means and error rates for each group were then calculated. The findings showed that, in comparison with "no music at all", those who listened to music prior to testing obtained higher scores in attentiveness (most probably a supplemental effect of the music), whereas those who listened to music during attention test showed extremely high level of variation in attention test scoring. Background music does affect people's job-site behavior. In fact, all three test conditions - no background music at all, background music before the work shift, and background music during work - have affected worker performance on different levels.

  6. [Does a Turkish migration background influence treatment outcome? Results of a prospective inpatient healthcare study].

    PubMed

    Mösko, Mike; Schneider, Jens; Koch, Uwe; Schulz, Holger

    2008-01-01

    Study results indicate a higher psycho-social burden for people with a Turkish migration background who live in Germany. The present study researches, if such a burden difference is detectable at the beginning of an inpatient treatment program for patients with psychological/psychosomatic disorders, if different treatment progressions occur and asks which influence the factor migration background plays in terms of the treatment results. At admission patients with a Turkish migration background (N = 99 vs. N = 753) showed a higher psychopathological burden. There was less treatment success for patients with a Turkish migration background und they didn't reach verifiable improvements in some scales. The regression analysis points out the importance of the factor migration background as an independent negative predictor of a positive treatment result.

  7. Assessment of some experimental and image analysis factors for background-oriented schlieren measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gojani, Ardian B.; Obayashi, Shigeru

    2012-11-01

    Quantitative measurements of fluid flow properties can be achieved by background oriented schlieren. In this paper it is shown that this depends on several factors. Image quality index is used to investigate the influence of the image sensor and the quality of its output. Image evaluation is applied to synthetic images which are treated with a step function, so that they simulate the sharp density jump. The gradual change of the evaluated vector shift revealed the major dependence on the interrogation window, and less so on the background features. BOS applied to shock wave reflection from a wedge in a shock tube gave qualitative results, due to large uncertainties. But, the application to cooling by natural convection gave satisfactory results, comparable to thermocouple data and theory.

  8. Assessment of some experimental and image analysis factors for background-oriented schlieren measurements.

    PubMed

    Gojani, Ardian B; Obayashi, Shigeru

    2012-11-01

    Quantitative measurements of fluid flow properties can be achieved by background-oriented schlieren (BOS). In this paper, it is shown that this depends on several factors. Image-quality index is used to investigate the influence of the image sensor and the quality of its output. Image evaluation is applied to synthetic images, which are treated with a step function, so that they simulate the sharp density jump. The gradual change of the evaluated vector shift revealed the major dependence on the interrogation window, and revealed less of a dependence on background features. BOS applied to shock-wave reflection from a wedge in a shock tube gave qualitative results, due to large uncertainties. But, the application to cooling by natural convection gave satisfactory results, comparable to thermocouple data and theory.

  9. Background levels of key biomarkers of chemical exposure within the UK general population--pilot study.

    PubMed

    Levy, L S; Jones, K; Cocker, J; Assem, F L; Capleton, A C

    2007-05-01

    The use of biomarkers is now an accepted measure of chemical uptake (possibly exposure) in risk assessment. However, information on background exposures and biomarker concentrations of many environmental chemicals in the general UK population is limited. This study aims to determine reference ranges for eleven biomarkers of chemical exposure, measurable in urine, within the general adult UK population. The study will involve 400 volunteers throughout the UK and is currently underway. Described here is a pilot study, carried out during August and September 2005 to test the study methodology. The initial results of the postal survey and urinary concentrations for cadmium (UCd) and mercury (UHg) are reported. A total of 78 individuals were recruited by post from the UK Electoral Register, to take part in the pilot study. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire and provide a urine sample. The overall response rate was 16%, of which 60.3% were female and 39.7% male. Those living in suburban areas accounted for 60% of respondents, current smokers 12.8% and vegetarians 1.3%. Levels of UCd were higher in females compared to males and smoking status influenced levels; smokers displayed higher levels of UCd than individuals who had previously smoked or who had never smoked. The mean, median and range of UHg was 1.12, 0.55 (study shows that postal sampling may be a useful and cost effective method for carrying out biomonitoring studies using urine as the matrix.

  10. Background study of NaI(Tl) crystals for the KIMS-NaI experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, P.; Adhikari, G.; Choi, S.; Ha, C.; Hahn, I. S.; Jeon, EJ; Joo, H. W.; Kang, W. G.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, H. O.; Kim, K. W.; Kim, N. Y.; Kim, S. K.; Kim, Y. D.; Kim, Y. H.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, M. H.; Leonard, D. S.; Li, J.; Oh, S. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Park, H. K.; Park, H. S.; Park, K. S.; So, J. H.; Yoon, Y. S.

    2016-05-01

    The DAMA experiment has reported an annual-modulation signal in an array of low-background NaI(Tl) scintillating crystals that may be caused by WIMP-nucleon interactions. However, to date there has been no direct confirmation of this result that uses the same taget nuclides. The Korea Invisible Mass Search (KIMS) collaboration has been engaged in an extensive R&D program to grow ultra-low background NaI(Tl) crystals for use as a direct test of the DAMA result using same nuclide targets. Six crystals were grown from different powders in order to understand mechanisms of internal background contaminations and to reduce their effects. Studies of internal backgrounds in these crystals were performed with the ultimate goal of reducing internal background contamination levels to 1 dru at 2 keV.

  11. The cosmic infrared background experiment-2 (CIBER-2) for studying the near-infrared extragalactic background light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirahata, Mai; Arai, Toshiaki; Battle, John; Bock, James; Cooray, Asantha; Enokuchi, Akito; Hristov, Viktor; Kanai, Yoshikazu; Kim, Min Gyu; Korngut, Phillip; Lanz, Alicia; Lee, Dae-Hee; Mason, Peter; Matsumoto, Toshio; Matsuura, Shuji; Morford, Tracy; Ohnishi, Yosuke; Park, Won-Kee; Sano, Kei; Takeyama, Norihide; Tsumura, Kohji; Wada, Takehiko; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Zemcov, Michael

    2016-07-01

    We present the current status of the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment-2 (CIBER-2) project, whose goal is to make a rocket-borne measurement of the near-infrared Extragalactic Background Light (EBL), under a collaboration with U.S.A., Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. The EBL is the integrated light of all extragalactic sources of emission back to the early Universe. At near-infrared wavelengths, measurement of the EBL is a promising way to detect the diffuse light from the first collapsed structures at redshift z˜10, which are impossible to detect as individual sources. However, recently, the intra-halo light (IHL) model is advocated as the main contribution to the EBL, and our new result of the EBL fluctuation from CIBER-1 experiment is also supporting this model. In this model, EBL is contributed by accumulated light from stars in the dark halo regions of low- redshift (z<2) galaxies, those were tidally stripped by the interaction of satellite dwarf galaxies. Thus, in order to understand the origin of the EBL, both the spatial fluctuation observations with multiple wavelength bands and the absolute spectroscopic observations for the EBL are highly required. After the successful initial CIBER- 1 experiment, we are now developing a new instrument CIBER-2, which is comprised of a 28.5-cm aluminum telescope and three broad-band, wide-field imaging cameras. The three wide-field (2.3×2.3 degrees) imaging cameras use the 2K×2K HgCdTe HAWAII-2RG arrays, and cover the optical and near-infrared wavelength range of 0.5-0.9 μm, 1.0-1.4 μm and 1.5-2.0 μm, respectively. Combining a large area telescope with the high sensitivity detectors, CIBER-2 will be able to measure the spatial fluctuations in the EBL at much fainter levels than those detected in previous CIBER-1 experiment. Additionally, we will use a linear variable filter installed just above the detectors so that a measurement of the absolute spectrum of the EBL is also possible. In this paper, the scientific

  12. Background Speech Effects on Sentence Processing during Reading: An Eye Movement Study.

    PubMed

    Hyönä, Jukka; Ekholm, Miia

    2016-01-01

    Effects of background speech on reading were examined by playing aloud different types of background speech, while participants read long, syntactically complex and less complex sentences embedded in text. Readers' eye movement patterns were used to study online sentence comprehension. Effects of background speech were primarily seen in rereading time. In Experiment 1, foreign-language background speech did not disrupt sentence processing. Experiment 2 demonstrated robust disruption in reading as a result of semantically and syntactically anomalous scrambled background speech preserving normal sentence-like intonation. Scrambled speech that was constructed from the text to-be read did not disrupt reading more than scrambled speech constructed from a different, semantically unrelated text. Experiment 3 showed that scrambled speech exacerbated the syntactic complexity effect more than coherent background speech, which also interfered with reading. Experiment 4 demonstrated that both semantically and syntactically anomalous speech produced no more disruption in reading than semantically anomalous but syntactically correct background speech. The pattern of results is best explained by a semantic account that stresses the importance of similarity in semantic processing, but not similarity in semantic content, between the reading task and background speech.

  13. Background Speech Effects on Sentence Processing during Reading: An Eye Movement Study

    PubMed Central

    Hyönä, Jukka; Ekholm, Miia

    2016-01-01

    Effects of background speech on reading were examined by playing aloud different types of background speech, while participants read long, syntactically complex and less complex sentences embedded in text. Readers’ eye movement patterns were used to study online sentence comprehension. Effects of background speech were primarily seen in rereading time. In Experiment 1, foreign-language background speech did not disrupt sentence processing. Experiment 2 demonstrated robust disruption in reading as a result of semantically and syntactically anomalous scrambled background speech preserving normal sentence-like intonation. Scrambled speech that was constructed from the text to-be read did not disrupt reading more than scrambled speech constructed from a different, semantically unrelated text. Experiment 3 showed that scrambled speech exacerbated the syntactic complexity effect more than coherent background speech, which also interfered with reading. Experiment 4 demonstrated that both semantically and syntactically anomalous speech produced no more disruption in reading than semantically anomalous but syntactically correct background speech. The pattern of results is best explained by a semantic account that stresses the importance of similarity in semantic processing, but not similarity in semantic content, between the reading task and background speech. PMID:27003410

  14. Background Speech Effects on Sentence Processing during Reading: An Eye Movement Study.

    PubMed

    Hyönä, Jukka; Ekholm, Miia

    2016-01-01

    Effects of background speech on reading were examined by playing aloud different types of background speech, while participants read long, syntactically complex and less complex sentences embedded in text. Readers' eye movement patterns were used to study online sentence comprehension. Effects of background speech were primarily seen in rereading time. In Experiment 1, foreign-language background speech did not disrupt sentence processing. Experiment 2 demonstrated robust disruption in reading as a result of semantically and syntactically anomalous scrambled background speech preserving normal sentence-like intonation. Scrambled speech that was constructed from the text to-be read did not disrupt reading more than scrambled speech constructed from a different, semantically unrelated text. Experiment 3 showed that scrambled speech exacerbated the syntactic complexity effect more than coherent background speech, which also interfered with reading. Experiment 4 demonstrated that both semantically and syntactically anomalous speech produced no more disruption in reading than semantically anomalous but syntactically correct background speech. The pattern of results is best explained by a semantic account that stresses the importance of similarity in semantic processing, but not similarity in semantic content, between the reading task and background speech. PMID:27003410

  15. A Method for Estimating Urban Background Concentrations in Support of Hybrid Air Pollution Modeling for Environmental Health Studies

    PubMed Central

    Arunachalam, Saravanan; Valencia, Alejandro; Akita, Yasuyuki; Serre, Marc L.; Omary, Mohammad; Garcia, Valerie; Isakov, Vlad

    2014-01-01

    Exposure studies rely on detailed characterization of air quality, either from sparsely located routine ambient monitors or from central monitoring sites that may lack spatial representativeness. Alternatively, some studies use models of various complexities to characterize local-scale air quality, but often with poor representation of background concentrations. A hybrid approach that addresses this drawback combines a regional-scale model to provide background concentrations and a local-scale model to assess impacts of local sources. However, this approach may double-count sources in the study regions. To address these limitations, we carefully define the background concentration as the concentration that would be measured if local sources were not present, and to estimate these background concentrations we developed a novel technique that combines space-time ordinary kriging (STOK) of observations with outputs from a detailed chemistry-transport model with local sources zeroed out. We applied this technique to support an exposure study in Detroit, Michigan, for several pollutants (including NOx and PM2.5), and evaluated the estimated hybrid concentrations (calculated by combining the background estimates that addresses this issue of double counting with local-scale dispersion model estimates) using observations. Our results demonstrate the strength of this approach specifically by eliminating the problem of double-counting reported in previous hybrid modeling approaches leading to improved estimates of background concentrations, and further highlight the relative importance of NOx vs. PM2.5 in their relative contributions to total concentrations. While a key limitation of this approach is the requirement for another detailed model simulation to avoid double-counting, STOK improves the overall characterization of background concentrations at very fine spatial scales. PMID:25321872

  16. Littoral assessment of mine burial signatures (LAMBS): buried landmine/background spectral-signature analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenton, Arthur C.; Geci, Duane M.; Ray, Kristofer J.; Thomas, Clayton M.; Salisbury, John W.; Mars, John C.; Crowley, James K.; Witherspoon, Ned H.; Holloway, John H., Jr.

    2004-09-01

    The objective of the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Rapid Overt Reconnaissance (ROR) program and the Airborne Littoral Reconnaissance Technologies (ALRT) project's LAMBS effort is to determine if electro-optical spectral discriminants exist that are useful for the detection of land mines in littoral regions. Statistically significant buried mine overburden and background signature data were collected over a wide spectral range (0.35 to 14 μm) to identify robust spectral features that might serve as discriminants for new airborne sensor concepts. LAMBS has expanded previously collected databases to littoral areas - primarily dry and wet sandy soils - where tidal, surf, and wind conditions can severely modify spectral signatures. At AeroSense 2003, we reported completion of three buried mine collections at an inland bay, Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico beach sites. We now report LAMBS spectral database analyses results using metrics which characterize the detection performance of general types of spectral detection algorithms. These metrics include mean contrast, spectral signal-to-clutter, covariance, information content, and spectral matched filter analyses. Detection performance of the buried land mines was analyzed with regard to burial age, background type, and environmental conditions. These analyses considered features observed due to particle size differences, surface roughness, surface moisture, and compositional differences.

  17. Littoral Assessment of Mine Burial Signatures (LAMBS) buried land mine/background spectral signature analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenton, A.C.; Geci, D.M.; Ray, K.J.; Thomas, C.M.; Salisbury, J.W.; Mars, J.C.; Crowley, J.K.; Witherspoon, N.H.; Holloway, J.H.; Harmon R.S.Broach J.T.Holloway, Jr. J.H.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Rapid Overt Reconnaissance (ROR) program and the Airborne Littoral Reconnaissance Technologies (ALRT) project's LAMBS effort is to determine if electro-optical spectral discriminants exist that are useful for the detection of land mines in littoral regions. Statistically significant buried mine overburden and background signature data were collected over a wide spectral range (0.35 to 14 ??m) to identify robust spectral features that might serve as discriminants for new airborne sensor concepts. LAMBS has expanded previously collected databases to littoral areas - primarily dry and wet sandy soils - where tidal, surf, and wind conditions can severely modify spectral signatures. At AeroSense 2003, we reported completion of three buried mine collections at an inland bay, Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico beach sites.1 We now report LAMBS spectral database analyses results using metrics which characterize the detection performance of general types of spectral detection algorithms. These metrics include mean contrast, spectral signal-to-clutter, covariance, information content, and spectral matched filter analyses. Detection performance of the buried land mines was analyzed with regard to burial age, background type, and environmental conditions. These analyses considered features observed due to particle size differences, surface roughness, surface moisture, and compositional differences.

  18. Heavy metals of Santiago Island (Cape Verde) top soils: Estimated Background Value maps and environmental risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral Pinto, M. M. S.; Ferreira da Silva, E.; Silva, M. M. V. G.; Melo-Gonçalves, P.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present maps of estimates of background values of some harmful metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) in the soils of Santiago Island, Cape Verde, analyse their relationships with the geological cartography, and assess their environmental risks. The geochemical survey (soil sampling at a spatial resolution of 3 sites per 10 km2, sample preparation, geochemical analysis, data treatment, and mapping) was conducted following the guidelines proposed by the International Projects IGCP 259 and IGCP 360. The concentration of the selected elements was determined in the fraction <2 mm. Each sample was digested with aqua regia and analysed by ICP-MS. The Estimated Background Value spatial distributions of the studied metals are found to be strongly linked to the geological cartography. These links are identified by a direct comparison of the geochemical maps with the geological cartography, and confirmed by either simple statistics and a Principal Component Analysis. The metals with higher loadings in the first Principal Component, Ni, Cr, Co, Cu, and V, clearly show the influence of a lithology rich in siderophile elements, typical of basic rocks and of its related minerals. The elements with higher loadings in the second Principal Component, Mn, Zn, Pb, As, Hg, and Cd, are chalcophile elements, except for Mn, but an anthropogenic contamination for these elements cannot be discarded. We propose an index to numerically access the environmental risk of one element, which we denominate by Environmental Risk Index, and a Multi-element Index which is simply the average taken over all elements. The occurrence of values greater than 1 in the maps of the Environmental Risk Index shows where the content of the respective element is above the permissible levels according to the available legislation for agricultural and residential purposes. The same applies to the multi-element risk index maps. High values of these risk indices are found, both for

  19. Linguistic background and test material considerations in assessing sentence identification ability in English- and Spanish-English-speaking adolescents.

    PubMed

    Garstecki, D C; Wilkin, M K

    1976-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of linguistic background differences on sentence identification by groups of English- and Spanish-English-speaking adolescents. Subjects were required to identify recorded meaningful and nonmeaningful (synthetic) sentences presented in a white noise background using a closed message set-response format. The results indicate that linguistic background variables significantly influence sentence identification ability and that these variables are not adequately controlled for by a closed message set. A significant difference in the ability to identify meaningful and nonmeaningful sentences was revealed. Contrary to previous indications, synthetic sentence identification appeared to be contingent upon key work or phrase recognition.

  20. [Background and practical use of the assessment of identity development in adolescence (AIDA)].

    PubMed

    Birkhölzer, Marc; Goth, Kirstin; Schrobildgen, Christian; Schmeck, Klaus; Schlüter-Müller, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    A paradigm shift towards early detection and intervention of personality disorders in adolescence to prevent persistent and chronic suffering is currently taking place. Aside further distinct areas of impaired psychosocial integrity, disturbed identity development is seen as one core component of personality disorders. Thus, the detection of early antecedents of impaired identity development is an important step to allow for early intervention. The self-report questionnaire Assessment of Identity Development in Adolescence (AIDA) is a reliable and valid diagnostic instrument to detect disturbed identity development. This questionnaire allows for global assessment of identity and a differentiation in fundamental subdomains as well and distinguishes between identity diffusion on one side and consolidated and stable identity on the other. In clinical practice, it supports the differentiation between severely disturbed identity as the core component of personality disorders and identity crisis or stable identity development that can be found in other mental disorders.

  1. [Background and practical use of the assessment of identity development in adolescence (AIDA)].

    PubMed

    Birkhölzer, Marc; Goth, Kirstin; Schrobildgen, Christian; Schmeck, Klaus; Schlüter-Müller, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    A paradigm shift towards early detection and intervention of personality disorders in adolescence to prevent persistent and chronic suffering is currently taking place. Aside further distinct areas of impaired psychosocial integrity, disturbed identity development is seen as one core component of personality disorders. Thus, the detection of early antecedents of impaired identity development is an important step to allow for early intervention. The self-report questionnaire Assessment of Identity Development in Adolescence (AIDA) is a reliable and valid diagnostic instrument to detect disturbed identity development. This questionnaire allows for global assessment of identity and a differentiation in fundamental subdomains as well and distinguishes between identity diffusion on one side and consolidated and stable identity on the other. In clinical practice, it supports the differentiation between severely disturbed identity as the core component of personality disorders and identity crisis or stable identity development that can be found in other mental disorders. PMID:26493481

  2. The Alaskan Mineral Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and resources maps of the Chignik and Sutwik Island quadrangles, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Detterman, Robert L.; Case, J.E.; Cox, D.P.; Detra, D.E.; Miller, T.P.; Wilson, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    The Chignik and Sutwik Island quadrangles (1:250,000) are a part of the Alaska Peninsula in southwestern Alaska. This circular and a companion folio of maps represent results of integrated field and laboratory studies by an interdisciplinary team on geology, geophysics, geochemistry, mineral resources, geochronology, and energy resources to provide a modern assessment of the mineral and energy resources of the quadrangles. The maps contain descriptive text, explanatory material, tables and diagrams, and pertinent references. This circular provides the background data for the mineral and energy resource assessment and integrates the component maps. A comprehensive bibliography cites both specific and general references relevant to the geology and resources of the quadrangles.

  3. Case Study of K-12 Public School Superintendents Having Business Background and No Teaching Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, James

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences of superintendents with business backgrounds and who lack teaching experience. There is a shortage of qualified superintendent candidates in K-12 school districts. As a result, some school boards are hiring nontraditional superintendents. This qualitative case study is important because it…

  4. Structured narrative retell instruction for young children from low socioeconomic backgrounds: a preliminary study of feasibility.

    PubMed

    Adlof, Suzanne M; McLeod, Angela N; Leftwich, Brianne

    2014-01-01

    Successful acquisition of literacy depends on adequate development of decoding skills as well as broader, meaning-related knowledge and skills for text comprehension. Children from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds are often challenged in both domains, relative to peers who are not economically disadvantaged. The efficacy of code-focused instructional programs for at-risk preliterate children is well supported, but less evidence is available regarding interventions to improve broader language and comprehension skills. This preliminary study tested the feasibility of a new intervention, "structured narrative retell instruction" (SNRI), and explored its potential to enhance meaning-related knowledge and skills, including vocabulary, listening comprehension, and narrative skills, in pre-literate, low SES children. SNRI used authentic children's books to model comprehension processes, explicitly teach story grammar, and implicitly target microstructural aspects of narratives. Participants included 9 children with a mean age of 60 months, who were randomly assigned to SNRI or to code-focused literacy instruction (CFLI). Each group received 12, 40-min instructional sessions over 6 weeks. Pre- and post-tests were administered to assess vocabulary, listening comprehension, narrative macrostructure and narrative microstructure, as well as alphabet knowledge, phonological awareness, and concepts of print. The feasibility of SNRI was demonstrated by completion of the designed study, moderately high treatment fidelity, and qualitative feedback from interventionists. The SNRI group also made significant gains on 4 of the 7 meaning-related measures (p < 0.10). In comparison, the CFLI group made significant gains on 2 of 7 meaning-related measures. We conclude that SNRI is feasible and shows potential for improving language skills related to comprehension and that further research investigating its efficacy is warranted.

  5. Mentorship and pursuit of academic medicine careers: a mixed methods study of residents from diverse backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mentorship influences career planning, academic productivity, professional satisfaction, and most notably, the pursuit of academic medicine careers. Little is known about the role of mentoring in recruiting Black/African American and Hispanic/Latino residents into academia. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of mentoring on academic medicine career choice among a cohort of racially and ethnically diverse residents. Methods A strategic convenience sample of U.S. residents attending national professional conferences between March and July 2010; residents completed a quantitative survey and a subset participated in focus groups. Results Of the 250 residents, 183 (73%) completed surveys and 48 participated in focus groups. Thirty-eight percent of residents were white, 31% Black/African American, 17% Asian/other, and 14% Hispanic/Latino. Most respondents (93%) reported that mentorship was important for entering academia, and 70% reported having sufficient mentorship to pursue academic careers. Three themes about mentorship emerged from focus groups: (1) qualities of successful mentorship models; (2) perceived benefits of mentorship; and (3) the value of racial/ethnic and gender concordance. Residents preferred mentors they selected rather than ones assigned to them, and expressed concern about faculty using checklists. Black/African American, Hispanic/Latino, and female residents described actively seeking out mentors of the same race/ethnicity and gender, but expressed difficulty finding such mentors. Lack of racial/ethnic concordance was perceived as an obstacle for minority mentees, requiring explanation of the context and nuances of their perspectives and situations to non-minority mentors. Conclusions The majority of residents in this study reported having access to mentors. However, data show that the lack of diverse faculty mentors may impede diverse residents’ satisfaction and benefit from mentorship relationships compared to

  6. Structured narrative retell instruction for young children from low socioeconomic backgrounds: a preliminary study of feasibility.

    PubMed

    Adlof, Suzanne M; McLeod, Angela N; Leftwich, Brianne

    2014-01-01

    Successful acquisition of literacy depends on adequate development of decoding skills as well as broader, meaning-related knowledge and skills for text comprehension. Children from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds are often challenged in both domains, relative to peers who are not economically disadvantaged. The efficacy of code-focused instructional programs for at-risk preliterate children is well supported, but less evidence is available regarding interventions to improve broader language and comprehension skills. This preliminary study tested the feasibility of a new intervention, "structured narrative retell instruction" (SNRI), and explored its potential to enhance meaning-related knowledge and skills, including vocabulary, listening comprehension, and narrative skills, in pre-literate, low SES children. SNRI used authentic children's books to model comprehension processes, explicitly teach story grammar, and implicitly target microstructural aspects of narratives. Participants included 9 children with a mean age of 60 months, who were randomly assigned to SNRI or to code-focused literacy instruction (CFLI). Each group received 12, 40-min instructional sessions over 6 weeks. Pre- and post-tests were administered to assess vocabulary, listening comprehension, narrative macrostructure and narrative microstructure, as well as alphabet knowledge, phonological awareness, and concepts of print. The feasibility of SNRI was demonstrated by completion of the designed study, moderately high treatment fidelity, and qualitative feedback from interventionists. The SNRI group also made significant gains on 4 of the 7 meaning-related measures (p < 0.10). In comparison, the CFLI group made significant gains on 2 of 7 meaning-related measures. We conclude that SNRI is feasible and shows potential for improving language skills related to comprehension and that further research investigating its efficacy is warranted. PMID:24847295

  7. Study of the Residual Background Events in Ground Data from the ASTRO-HSXS Microcalorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Boyce, Kevin R.; Chiao, M. P.; Eckart, M. E.; Kelley, R. L.; Leutenegger, M. A.; Porter, F. S.; Watanabe, T.; Ishisaki, Y.; Yamada, S.; Tsujimoto, M.; Mitsuda, K.; Tashiro, M.

    2015-01-01

    The measured instrumental background of the XRS calorimeter spectrometer of Suzaku had several sources, including primary cosmic rays and secondary particles interacting with the pixels and with the silicon structure of the array. Prior to the launch of Suzaku, several data sets were taken without x-ray illumination to study the characteristics and timing of background signals produced in the array and anti-coincidence detector. Even though the source of the background in the laboratory was different from that in low-earth orbit (muons and environmental gamma-rays on the ground versus Galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) protons and alpha particles in space), the study of correlations and properties of populations of rare events was useful for establishing the preliminary screening parameters needed for selection of good science data. Sea-level muons are singly charged minimum-ionizing particles, like the GCR protons, and thus were good probes of the effectiveness of screening via the signals from the anti-coincidence detector. Here we present the first analysis of the on-ground background of the SXS calorimeter of Astro-H. On XRS, the background prior to screening was completely dominated by coincident events on many pixels resulting from the temperature pulse arising from each large energy deposition (greater than 200 keV) into the silicon frame around the array. The improved heat-sinking of the SXS array compared with XRS eliminated these thermal disturbances, greatly reducing the measured count rate in the absence of illumination. The removal of these events has made it easier to study the nature of the residual background and to look for additional event populations. We compare the SXS residual background to that measured in equivalent ground data for XRS and discuss these preliminary results.

  8. A case-referent study on acute myeloid leukemia, background radiation and exposure to solvents and other agents.

    PubMed

    Flodin, U; Andersson, L; Anjou, C G; Palm, U B; Vikrot, O; Axelson, O

    1981-09-01

    The effect of potential risk factors for acute myeloid leukemia was evaluated in a case-referent study encompassing 42 cases and 244 referents, all deceased. Information on exposure was obtained with questionnaires mailed to the next of kin. Particularly the effect of background radiation was evaluated, as assessed with a gamma radiation index weighing the time spent outdoors and indoors and considering the building material (stone, wood, etc.) in the homes and the workplaces of the subjects. Especially between the ages of 20 and 49 a, to some extent also between 50 and 69 a but not above 70, there seemed to be an effect from background radiation and a trend suggesting an exposure-effect relationship. There was also about a sixfold increase in the rate ratio with regard to solvent exposure, which also seemed to modify the effect of background radiation. Other exposures were associated with relatively modest increases in the rate ratios and/or very small numbers of exposed individuals. It would be worthwhile to undertake further cancer epidemiologic studies of background radiation in which effective study designs are applied and a variety of potential confounders and modifiers of effect are identified and accounted for. PMID:20120581

  9. Incoming Engineering Students' Self-Assessment of Their Mathematical Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guner, Necdet

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a tool to measure levels of mathematical knowledge gained in high school, as perceived by incoming engineering students. The study included 657 engineering students in the 2011-2012 academic year. Factor analysis was used to obtain a scale consisting of 47 items (Cronbach Alpha coefficient, 0.975). The…

  10. A Cohort Study on Long-Term Adverse Effects of Parental Drinking: Background and Study Design

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Ingunn Olea; Bukten, Anne; Storvoll, Elisabet E; Moan, Inger Synnøve; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Handal, Marte; Nordfjærn, Trond; Brunborg, Geir Scott; Rossow, Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    Although many studies have addressed adverse outcomes in children of parents with alcohol abuse/dependence, less is known about the possible long-term effects of more normative patterns of parental alcohol consumption, including drinking at lower risk levels and heavy episodic or binge drinking. The extent of harm from parental drinking may therefore be underestimated. With this research proposal, we describe a project that aims to assess possible long-term adverse effects of parental drinking by combining survey and nationwide registry data. Advantages of a longitudinal general population cohort design include that it allows for detailed information on parental drinking through survey data and identification of possible negative long-term health and social outcomes from exposure to parental drinking 1–19 years after exposure through continuously updated nationwide registers. The rich information available from combining survey and registry data allows us to take into account important confounders, mediators, and moderators. PMID:26688663

  11. A study on the background error covariance for reduced-rank retrospective optimal interpolation with WRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents the investigation of the background error covariance for reduced-rank retrospective optimal interpolation (reduced-rank ROI). Retrospective optimal interpolation (ROI) algorithm which assimilates observations over the analysis window for variance-minimum estimate of an atmospheric state at the initial time of the analysis window is suggested in Song et al. (2009). The assimilation window of ROI is gradually increased. Song and Lim (2011) suggested reduced-rank ROI improved by incorporating eigen-decomposition and covariance inflation. In this study, the background error covariance for reduced-rank ROI algorithm is investigated with Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF). Reduced-rank ROI is applied by incorporating eigen-decomposition of background error covariance from ensemble. The structure of the background error covariance is investigated from each eigenvectors. The data assimilation experiments with reduced-rank ROI are based on Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSE). A regularly dense network, a regularly sparse network, and irregularly realistic network are used for observation networks. It is assumed that all observations are located at the model grid points. Analysis error with reduced-rank ROI decreases significantly. Vertical profiles of background error and analysis error shows overall analysis error reduction.

  12. Natural background groundwater composition in the Azores archipelago (Portugal): a hydrogeochemical study and threshold value determination.

    PubMed

    Cruz, J V; Andrade, C

    2015-07-01

    Groundwater discharges were sampled in selected springs from São Miguel (Furnas and Fogo trachytic central volcanoes) and Santa Maria islands (Azores, Portugal), in order to characterize natural background levels (NBLs) and proceed to the determination of threshold values (TVs). Besides being a key issue in order to fully assess the anthropogenic pressures, NBLs are also instrumental to derive TVs, therefore complying with requirements from the European Union Groundwater Directive. The composition of groundwater corresponds mainly to low mineralized Na-HCO3 to Na-Cl water types, the latter dominant in Santa Maria island, with a decreasing order of Na>Ca>Mg>K and Cl>HCO3>SO4>NO3 for cations and anion respectively. The majority of the samples are slightly acid to slightly alkaline (pH range of 5.45-7.43), and the electrical conductivity range between 180 and 1458 μS/cm. Groundwater composition is controlled by two major drivers, addition of sea salts and dissolution of silicate minerals. Results shown that TVs established along the present study are in general in the lower rank when compared to the range of values proposed by the several EU member states, with the main exception of NO3, reflecting the impact of agriculture activities over water quality in the Azores, and lower than the national ones. The comparison between the estimated NBL and TV with values derived with another dataset from the Azores, usually higher, depicts the effect of a larger and diverse number of groundwater sources over calculations. On the other hand, all samples which show a contribution from volcanic/hydrothermal systems were excluded from the dataset, which explains why the derived NBLs and TVs are lower comparing to other active volcanic areas, which is also a conservative approach on a subject that has regulatory implications. PMID:25813965

  13. Quality Assessment of Internationalised Studies: Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juknyte-Petreikiene, Inga

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews forms of higher education internationalisation at an institutional level. The relevance of theoretical background of internationalised study quality assessment is highlighted and definitions of internationalised studies quality are presented. Existing methods of assessment of higher education internationalisation are criticised…

  14. Persistence in Japanese Language Study and Learners' Cultural/Linguistic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsumoto, Masanori

    2009-01-01

    Motivational characteristics of students learning Japanese as a foreign language at universities in Australia were investigated to find out what affecting factors are closely related to their intentions for continuing/discontinuing their study. The results showed that students' cultural/linguistic backgrounds have a significant impact on their…

  15. Study of terrestrial γ-ray background in presence of variable radioactivity from rain water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, P. K.; Gupta, S. K.; Jain, A.; Mazumdar, I.; Raha, Sibaji

    2016-01-01

    A number of groups have reported significant reduction in the flux of low energy (0.1-3 MeV) γ-rays in observations carried out during the past total solar eclipses. However, the contribution of the radon induced radioactivity to the overall γ-ray background can become substantial, especially during episodes of rain. Depending upon the pattern of the rainfall radon induced γ-ray background may vary significantly on time scales of ˜10 min, making the interpretation of the data in terms of an extraterrestrial effect such as a total solar eclipse rather difficult. A reliable estimate of the low energy terrestrial γ-ray (TGR) background is necessary before attempting to measure the possible contribution of any extraterrestrial phenomenon. The knowledge of the precise energies and branching ratios of radon and other radio-isotope induced γ-rays was exploited to accurately reproduce the TGR background, even in the presence of a large and variable contribution from radon induced radioactivity from fresh rain water. The measurement of the TGR background has paved the way for studying the variation of the soft γ-ray flux during the long duration total solar eclipse that occurred on 22 July 2009 in the middle of the Monsoon season in India.

  16. Background study of absorbed dose in biological experiments at the Modane Underground Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampe, Nathanael; Marin, Pierre; Castor, Jean; Warot, Guillaume; Incerti, S.; Maigne, Lydia; Sarramia, David; Breton, Vincent

    2016-09-01

    Aiming to explore how biological systems respond to ultra-low background environ-ments, we report here our background studies for biological experiments in the Modane Under-ground Laboratory. We find that the minimum radioactive background for biology experiments is limited by the potassium content of the biological sample itself, coming from its nutritive me-dium, which we find in our experimental set-up to be 26 nGy hr-1. Compared to our reference radiation environment in Clermont-Ferrand, biological experiments can be conducted in the Modane laboratory with a radiation background 8.2 times lower than the reference above-ground level. As the radiation background may be further reduced by using different nutritive media, we also provide measurements of the potassium concentration by gamma spectroscopy of yeast extract (63.3±1.2 mg g-1) and tryptone (2.5±0.2 mg g-1) in order to guide media selection in future experiments.

  17. Background Neutron Studies for Coherent Elastic Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering Measurements at the SNS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markoff, Diane; Coherent Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The COHERENT collaboration has proposed to measure coherent, elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CE νNS) cross sections on several nuclear targets using neutrinos produced at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The largest background of concern arises from beam-induced, fast neutrons that can mimic a nuclear recoil signal event in the detector. Multiple technologies of neutron detection have been employed at prospective experiment sites at the SNS. Analysis of these data have produced a consistent picture of the backgrounds expected for a CE νNS measurement. These background studies show that at suitable locations, the fast neutrons of concern arrive mainly in the prompt 1.3 μs window and the neutrons in the delayed window are primarily of lower energies that are relatively easier to shield.

  18. Assessment of occupational exposure to uranium by indirect methods needs information on natural background variations.

    PubMed

    Muikku, M; Heikkinen, T; Puhakainen, M; Rahola, T; Salonen, L

    2007-01-01

    Urine monitoring is the preferred method to determine exposure to soluble compounds of uranium in workplaces. The interpretation of uranium contents in workers bioassay samples requires knowledge on uranium excretion and its dependence on intake by diet. Exceptionally high concentrations of natural uranium in private drinking water sources have been measured in the granite areas of Southern Finland. Consequently, high concentrations of natural uranium have been observed in the urine and hair samples of people using water from their own drilled wells. Natural uranium content in urine and hair samples of family members, who use uranium-rich household water, have been analyzed by using ICP-MS. The uranium concentrations both in urine and hair samples of the study subjects were significantly higher than the world-wide average values. In addition, gammaspectrometric methods have been tested for determining uranium in hair samples. This method can be used only for samples with highly elevated uranium concentrations.

  19. Study of galactic light, extragalactic light, and galactic structure using pioneer 10 observations of background starlight

    SciTech Connect

    Toller, G.N.

    1981-01-01

    An observational and theoretical study of the diffuse astronomical background sky brightness (background starlight) is carried out. The brightness is determined over 95% of the sky using Pioneer 10 photometric measurements in sky regions where the zodiacal light is negligible (heliocentric distances approx. greater than or equal to 3. A.U.). Brightness levels are presented at blue (3950 to 4850 A) and red (5900 to 6800 A) wavelengths. The B-R color index distribution is established over the celestial sphere. Pioneer 10 results are compared with previous star count and ground based photometric studies to separate background starlight into its constituent parts: integrated starlight, diffuse galactic light (DGL), and cosmic light. Significant errors are found in published star count results at low galactic latitudes. The galactic latitude (b'') and longitude (1'') dependences of integrated starlight and the variation of DGL with b'' are determined. An upper limit of 3.9 S/sub 10/(V)/sub G2V/ at the 90% confidence level is deduced for the cosmic light brightness at blue wavelengths near the galactic poles. The integrated light from discrete galaxies adequately explains this component of the background starlight.

  20. How do hospitalised patients with Turkish migration background estimate their language skills and their comprehension of medical information – a prospective cross-sectional study and comparison to native patients in Germany to assess the language barrier and the need for translation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Today more than two million people with Turkish migration background live in Germany making them the largest ethnic minority in the country. Data concerning language skills and the perception of medical information in hospitalised patients with Turkish migration background (T) are scarce. Our study is the first to gather quantitative information on this important subject. Methods T and hospitalised German patients without migration background (G) of our university hospital were prospectively included into a cross-sectional study and completed a questionnaire - each group in the appropriate language (T: Turkish, G: German). Results 121 T and 121 G were included. Groups significantly differed in age (T: 44.9 ± 17.8, G: 56.9 ± 16.7y) and proportion of males (T: 37.2, G: 54.5%) but not regarding the proportion of college graduates (T: 19.3, G: 15.7%). The majority of T was born in Turkey (71%) and is of Turkish nationality (66%). 74% of T speak mainly Turkish at home; however, 73% speak German at work. 74.4% of T self-rated their German linguistic proficiency as “average” or better while 25.6% reported it as “very bad” or “bad”. 10.7% of T need translation in order to pursue everyday activities. T were significantly less satisfied with the physician’s information on disease and estimated to understand significantly less of what the physician told them: 46.3% of T estimated their reception of the physician’s information to be “average” or worse. 43.3% of T had the impression that it would have helped them “much” or “very much” to be aided by an interpreter at the hospital. The information transmitted while giving informed consent to invasive medical procedure was judged to be “mostly” or “completely” sufficient by the majority of T (76%) and G (89.8%). In this setting 37 of 96 T (38.5%) reported being helped by an interpreter – in most cases (64.9%) a family member. Conclusion Although the majority of

  1. OLBERS: An Interplanetary Probe to Study Visible and Infrared Diffuse Backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Désert, F.-X.

    1995-10-01

    The visible extragalactic background (though as yet undetected) is insufficient to explain the abundance of heavy elements in galaxies: either there should be some diffuse extragalactic light in the near infrared (from 1 to 10 μm) and/or in the far infrared (≥100 μm) if dust has reprocessed the star light. We propose a new space mission to be dedicated to the search and mapping of primordial stellar light from the visible to the mid-infrared (20 μm). In this spectrum range, detectors have reached such a sensitivity that the mission should aim at being (source) photon noise limited, and not any longer background photon noise limited. For that purpose, a small passively cooled telescope with large format CCDs and CIDs could be sent beyond the zodiacal dust cloud (which is absent beyond a solar distance of about 3 AU). In that case, the only remaining foregrounds before reaching the extragalactic background, is due to the Milky Way integrated emission from stars and the diffuse galactic light due to scattering and emission by interstellar dust, which are all unavoidable. Maps of the extragalactic light could be obtained at the arcminute resolution with high signal to noise ratio. This mission is the next logical step after IRAS, COBE and ISO for the study of extragalactic IR backgrounds. It has been proposed as a possible medium-sized mission for the post-horizon 2000 ESA program that could be a piggy back of a planetary mission.

  2. Touschek Background and Lifetime Studies for the SuperB Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Boscolo, M.; Biagini, M.; Raimondi, P.; Sullivan, M.; Paoloni, E.; /INFN, Pisa

    2010-08-26

    The novel crab waist collision scheme under test at the DA{Phi}NE Frascati {Phi}-factory finds its natural application to the SuperB project, the asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} flavour factory at very high luminosity with relatively low beam currents and reduced backgrounds. The SuperB accelerator design requires a careful choice of beam parameters to reach a good trade-off between different effects. We present here simulation results for the Touschek backgrounds and lifetime obtained for both the low and high energy rings for different machine designs. A first set of horizontal collimators has been studied to stop Touschek particles. A study of the distributions of the Touschek particle losses at the interaction region into the detectors for further investigations is underway.

  3. Background frequency of Bacillus species at the Canberra Airport: A 12 month study.

    PubMed

    Gahan, Michelle E; Thomas, Rory; Rossi, Rebecca; Nelson, Michelle; Roffey, Paul; Richardson, Michelle M; McNevin, Dennis

    2015-12-01

    Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, is a naturally occurring disease in Australia. Whilst mainly limited to livestock in grazing regions of Victoria and New South Wales, movement of people, stock and vehicles means B. anthracis could be present outside this region. Of particular interest is the "background" prevalence of B. anthracis at transport hubs including airports. The aim of this study was to determine the background frequency of B. anthracis and the commonly used hoax agent Bacillus thuringiensis at the Canberra Airport over a 12 month period. Samples were collected daily for seven days each month from August 2011-July 2012 and analyzed using species specific real-time polymerase chain reaction. Fourteen samples (of a total of 575) were positive for the B. anthracis PL3 genomic marker, 24 for the cya (pXO1) plasmid marker and five for the capB (pXO2) plasmid marker. Whilst five samples were positive for both PL3 and cya, no samples were positive for all three markers hence there is no evidence to suggest the presence of pathogenic B. anthracis strains. B. anthracis targets were detected primarily in February 2012 and B. thuringiensis peaked in October and November 2011 and again in April and May 2012. This study provides a rapid method to screen for, and differentiate, Bacillus species. Armed with this information investigators will be able to discriminate a "threat" from "background" frequencies should the need arise.

  4. X-ray microprobe studies of Hungarian background and urban aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Toeroek, S.; Sandor, S.; Xhoffer, C.; Van Grieken, R.; Jones, K.W.; Sutton, S.R.; Rivers, M.L.

    1991-10-01

    In order to determine the polluting atmospheric sources in urban and background areas source apportionment of the air particulate matter is necessary. Hitherto these studies were mostly based on bulk composition measurements of the aerosol. Source profiles, i.e. the concentrations of several elements for air particulate matter originating from one source, can be deduced from the receptor data using a number of multivariate techniques among which the chemical mass balance. The application is limited by the large number of observations that must be made for each of the variables. Often an elaborated sample preparation is necessary for fractionating the sample into several sub samples, according to the density, particle diameter or other relevant properties. Often this may results in poorly resolved source profiles. The aim of the present work is to find the relative abundance of the particle types originating from two different background monitoring stations in the middle of the Great Hungarian Plain. In urban areas most pollutants originate from traffic and municipal waste incineration. Since heavy metals play an important role in these samples the highly sensitive x-ray microscope (XRM) of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) of the Brookhaven National Laboratory was used. A feasibility study on individual aerosol particles sampled at the above background stations and in the urban area of Budapest is discussed.

  5. The Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and resource maps of the Ugashik, Bristol Bay, and western part of Karluk quadrangles, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Detterman, Robert L.; Case, J.E.; Church, S.E.; Frisken, J.G.; Wilson, F.H.; Yount, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    The Ugashik, Bristol Bay, and western part of Karluk quadrangles (1:250,000) are a part of the Alaska Peninsula in southwestern Alaska. This circular, in conjunction with a companion folio of MF-series maps, two I-series geologic maps, and three bulletins, represents the results of integrated field and laboratory studies on the geology, geophysics, geochemistry, paleontology, geochronology, and mineral resources of the quadrangles. These studies were undertaken to provide a modern assessment of the mineral and energy resources of the quadrangles. Each map contains descriptive text, explanatory material, tables, diagrams, and pertinent references. This circular provides background information for the mineral resource assessment map (MF-1539-1) and integrates the component M F- and I-series maps. A comprehensive bibliography cites both specific and general references relevant to the geology and resources of the quadrangles.

  6. Memory for facial expression is influenced by the background music playing during study

    PubMed Central

    Woloszyn, Michael R.; Ewert, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the emotional quality of study-phase background music on subsequent recall for happy and sad facial expressions was investigated. Undergraduates (N = 48) viewed a series of line drawings depicting a happy or sad child in a variety of environments that were each accompanied by happy or sad music. Although memory for faces was very accurate, emotionally incongruent background music biased subsequent memory for facial expressions, increasing the likelihood that happy faces were recalled as sad when sad music was previously heard, and that sad faces were recalled as happy when happy music was previously heard. Overall, the results indicated that when recalling a scene, the emotional tone is set by an integration of stimulus features from several modalities. PMID:22956988

  7. Memory for facial expression is influenced by the background music playing during study.

    PubMed

    Woloszyn, Michael R; Ewert, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the emotional quality of study-phase background music on subsequent recall for happy and sad facial expressions was investigated. Undergraduates (N = 48) viewed a series of line drawings depicting a happy or sad child in a variety of environments that were each accompanied by happy or sad music. Although memory for faces was very accurate, emotionally incongruent background music biased subsequent memory for facial expressions, increasing the likelihood that happy faces were recalled as sad when sad music was previously heard, and that sad faces were recalled as happy when happy music was previously heard. Overall, the results indicated that when recalling a scene, the emotional tone is set by an integration of stimulus features from several modalities.

  8. The influence of background music on recognition processes of Chinese characters: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baolin; Huang, Yizhou; Wang, Zhongning; Wu, Guangning

    2012-06-19

    In this paper, we employed RSS (rapid stream stimulation) paradigm to study the recognition processes of Chinese characters in background music. Real Chinese characters (upright or rotated) were used as target stimuli, while pseudo-words were used as background stimuli. Subjects were required to detect real characters while listening to Mozart's Sonata K. 448 and in silence. Both behavioral results and ERP results supported that Mozart's music mainly served as a distracter in the recognition processes of real Chinese characters in the experiment. The modulation of Mozart's music on RP (recognition potential) was different across different orientations of Chinese characters; in particular, the modulation of RP elicited by upright Chinese characters was more significant, suggesting that the music factor and orientation factor interact to affect the RP component. In brief, the simultaneous playing of Mozart's music did not improve subjects' performance in the detection of real Chinese characters.

  9. Assessment of background concentrations of organometallic compounds (methylmercury, ethyllead and butyl- and phenyltin) in French aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Cavalheiro, Joana; Sola, Cristina; Baldanza, Julie; Tessier, Emmanuel; Lestremau, François; Botta, Fabrizio; Preud'homme, Hugues; Monperrus, Mathilde; Amouroux, David

    2016-05-01

    environmental protection values in 24 and 38 sampling sites for both water and sediment samples, respectively. Other phenyltins (MPhT and TPhT) did not occur above their LOQ and therefore no background was possible to establish. Throughout this work, which is the first assessment of background concentrations for organometallic compounds at the French national level ever being published, it was possible to conclude that over the last 10-20 years organotin concentrations in French river basins have decreased while MeHg concentration remained stable.

  10. Postpartum Contraception: a Comparative Study of Berlin Women with and without Immigration Background

    PubMed Central

    David, M.; Brenne, S.; Breckenkamp, J.; Razum, O.; Borde, T.

    2015-01-01

    Research Questions: Are there differences in postpartum contraceptive use between women with and without immigration background? Do women more commonly use contraception following a high-risk pregnancy or caesarean section? What role does current breastfeeding play and, amongst immigrants, what is the effect of acculturation level on the frequency of contraceptive use? Study Population and Methods: Data collection was carried out as part of a larger study in three Berlin delivery units using standardised interviews (questionnaires covering e.g. sociodemographics, immigration history/acculturation and use of antenatal care); telephone interviews comprising 6 questions on postpartum contraception, breastfeeding and postpartum complications were conducted on a sample of the study population six months after delivery. Results: 247 women with, and 358 women without a background of immigration were included in the study (total study population n = 605, response rate 81.1 %). 68 % of 1st generation immigrants, 87 % of 2nd/3rd generation women and 73 % of women without immigration background (non-immigrants) used contraception. In the logistical regression analysis 1st generation immigrants were less likely than non-immigrants to be using contraception six months postpartum, and 1st generation immigrants with low acculturation level were significantly less likely to use contraception than 2nd/3rd generation women with low acculturation level. Conclusion: In the extended postpartum period there was no major difference in contraceptive use between immigrants in general and non-immigrants. It remains unclear whether the differing contraceptive behaviour of 1st generation immigrants is the result of less access to information, sociocultural factors or differing contraceptive requirements and further targeted, qualitative study is required. PMID:26500367

  11. A Study on Effect of Water Background on Canopy Spectral of Wetland Aquatic Plant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guang; Tang, Peng; Cai Zhan-qing; Wang, Tian-tian; Xu, Jun-feng

    2015-10-01

    Aquatic vegetation is the core of the wetland ecosystem, and it's also the main factor influencing the wetland ecosystem functions. In recent years, satellite remote sensing technology has been widely used in the investigation, classification and protection fields of wetland vegetation resources. Because of its unique growth environment, aquatic vegetation, the canopy spectrum of aquatic vegetation will be affected by water background elements including air-water interface, plankton in the water, sediment content, transparency, water depth, sediment, and the other optically active ingredients. When the remote sensing technology for wetland aquatic vegetation canopy spectral studies, should be considered the growth environment differences between aquatic and terrestrial vegetation. However, previous studies did not get the attention it deserves. This paper choose a typical water plant (Iris tentorium Maxim) as the research object, simulate the growth environment of wetland aquatic plants, use the feature spectrometer measurements the spectral reflectance of Iris tentorium Maxim vegetation canopy under different water depth gradient background (400-2 400 nm). Experimental results show that there is a significant negative correlation between background water depth and Iris canopy reflectance. Visible light band absolute correlation coefficient is above 0.9, near infrared band absolute correlation coefficient is above 0.8. In visible light and near infrared band, with water depth increases, the Iris canopy reflectance decreases obviously. Finally based on the highest correlation band of visible light and near infrared region (505, 717, 1 075 and 2 383 nm) established the linear equation between background water depth and the canopy reflectance, obtained the related parameters.

  12. ERP investigation of study-test background mismatch during face recognition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Guillaume, Fabrice; Guillem, François; Tiberghien, Guy; Stip, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Old/new effects on event-related potentials (ERP) were explored in 20 patients with schizophrenia and 20 paired comparison subjects during unfamiliar face recognition. Extrinsic perceptual changes - which influence the overall familiarity of an item while retaining face-intrinsic features for use in structural face encoding - were manipulated between the study phase and the test. The question raised here concerns whether these perceptual incongruities would have a different effect on the sense of familiarity and the corresponding behavioral and ERP measures in the two groups. The results showed that schizophrenia patients were more inclined to consider old faces shown against a new background as distractors. This drop in face familiarity was accompanied by the disappearance of ERP old/new effects in this condition, i.e., FN400 and parietal old/new effects. Indeed, while ERP old/new recognition effects were found in both groups when the picture of the face was physically identical to the one presented for study, the ERP correlates of recognition disappeared among patients when the background behind the face was different. This difficulty in disregarding a background change suggests that recognition among patients with schizophrenia is based on a global perceptual matching strategy rather than on the extraction of configural information from the face. The correlations observed between FN400 amplitude, the rejection of faces with a different background, and the reality-distortion scores support the idea that the recognition deficit found in schizophrenia results from early anomalies that are carried over onto the parietal ERP old/new effect. Face-extrinsic perceptual variations provide an opportune situation for gaining insight into the social difficulties that patients encounter throughout their lives.

  13. A Study on Effect of Water Background on Canopy Spectral of Wetland Aquatic Plant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guang; Tang, Peng; Cai Zhan-qing; Wang, Tian-tian; Xu, Jun-feng

    2015-10-01

    Aquatic vegetation is the core of the wetland ecosystem, and it's also the main factor influencing the wetland ecosystem functions. In recent years, satellite remote sensing technology has been widely used in the investigation, classification and protection fields of wetland vegetation resources. Because of its unique growth environment, aquatic vegetation, the canopy spectrum of aquatic vegetation will be affected by water background elements including air-water interface, plankton in the water, sediment content, transparency, water depth, sediment, and the other optically active ingredients. When the remote sensing technology for wetland aquatic vegetation canopy spectral studies, should be considered the growth environment differences between aquatic and terrestrial vegetation. However, previous studies did not get the attention it deserves. This paper choose a typical water plant (Iris tentorium Maxim) as the research object, simulate the growth environment of wetland aquatic plants, use the feature spectrometer measurements the spectral reflectance of Iris tentorium Maxim vegetation canopy under different water depth gradient background (400-2 400 nm). Experimental results show that there is a significant negative correlation between background water depth and Iris canopy reflectance. Visible light band absolute correlation coefficient is above 0.9, near infrared band absolute correlation coefficient is above 0.8. In visible light and near infrared band, with water depth increases, the Iris canopy reflectance decreases obviously. Finally based on the highest correlation band of visible light and near infrared region (505, 717, 1 075 and 2 383 nm) established the linear equation between background water depth and the canopy reflectance, obtained the related parameters. PMID:26904852

  14. US--EC fuel cycle study: Background document to the approach and issues

    SciTech Connect

    Cantor, Robin; Lee, Russell

    1992-11-01

    In February 1991, DOE and the Commission of the European Communities (EC), signed a joint statement regarding the external costs of fuel cycles. This 18-month agreement committed their respective organizations to ``develop a comparative analytical methodology and to develop the best range of estimates of external costs from secondary sources`` for eight fuel cycles and four conservation options. In our study, a fuel cycle is defined as the series of physical and chemical processes and activities that are required to generate electricity from a specific fuel or resource. This foundation phase of the study is primarily limited to developing and demonstrating methods for estimating impacts and their monetized value, what we term ``damages`` or ``benefits,`` leaving aside the extent to which such damages have been internalized. However, Appendix C provides the conceptual framework for evaluating the extent of internalization. This report is a background document to introduce the study approach and to discuss the major conceptual and practical issues entailed by the incremental damage problem. As a background document, the report seeks to communicate an overview of the study and the important methodological choices that were made to conduct the research. In successive sections of the report, the methodological tools used in the study are discussed; the ecological and health impacts are reviewed using the coal fuel cycle as a reference case; and, in the final chapter, the methods for valuing impacts are detailed.

  15. U.S. -- EC fuel cycle study: Background document to the approach and issues

    SciTech Connect

    Cantor, Robin; Russell, Lee; Krupnick, Alan; Smith, Hilary; Schaffhauser, Jr., A.; Barnthouse, Larry; Cada, Glen; Kroodsma, Roger; Turner, Robb; Easterly, Clay; Jones, Troyce; Burtraw, Dallas; Harrington, Winston; Freeman, A. Myrick

    1992-11-01

    In February 1991, DOE and the Commission of the European Communities (EC), signed a joint statement regarding the external costs of fuel cycles. This 18-month agreement committed their respective organizations to develop a comparative analytical methodology and to develop the best range of estimates of external costs from secondary sources'' for eight fuel cycles and four conservation options. In our study, a fuel cycle is defined as the series of physical and chemical processes and activities that are required to generate electricity from a specific fuel or resource. This foundation phase of the study is primarily limited to developing and demonstrating methods for estimating impacts and their monetized value, what we term damages'' or benefits,'' leaving aside the extent to which such damages have been internalized. However, Appendix C provides the conceptual framework for evaluating the extent of internalization. This report is a background document to introduce the study approach and to discuss the major conceptual and practical issues entailed by the incremental damage problem. As a background document, the report seeks to communicate an overview of the study and the important methodological choices that were made to conduct the research. In successive sections of the report, the methodological tools used in the study are discussed; the ecological and health impacts are reviewed using the coal fuel cycle as a reference case; and, in the final chapter, the methods for valuing impacts are detailed.

  16. ForCent Model Development and Testing using the Enriched Background Isotope Study (EBIS) Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Parton, William; Hanson, Paul J; Swanston, Chris; Torn, Margaret S.; Trumbore, Susan E.; Riley, William J.; Kelly, Robin

    2010-01-01

    The ForCent forest ecosystem model was developed by making major revisions to the DayCent model including: (1) adding a humus organic pool, (2) incorporating a detailed root growth model, and (3) including plant phenological growth patterns. Observed plant production and soil respiration data from 1993 to 2000 were used to demonstrate that the ForCent model could accurately simulate ecosystem carbon dynamics for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory deciduous forest. A comparison of ForCent versus observed soil pool 14C signature (? 14C) data from the Enriched Background Isotope Study 14C experiment (1999-2006) shows that the model correctly simulates the temporal dynamics of the 14C label as it moved from the surface litter and roots into the mineral soil organic matter pools. ForCent model validation was performed by comparing the observed Enriched Background Isotope Study experimental data with simulated live and dead root biomass ? 14C data, and with soil respiration ? 14C (mineral soil, humus layer, leaf litter layer, and total soil respiration) data. Results show that the model correctly simulates the impact of the Enriched Background Isotope Study 14C experimental treatments on soil respiration ? 14C values for the different soil organic matter pools. Model results suggest that a two-pool root growth model correctly represents root carbon dynamics and inputs to the soil. The model fitting process and sensitivity analysis exposed uncertainty in our estimates of the fraction of mineral soil in the slow and passive pools, dissolved organic carbon flux out of the litter layer into the mineral soil, and mixing of the humus layer into the mineral soil layer.

  17. ForCent model development and testing using the Enriched Background Isotope Study experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Parton, W.J.; Hanson, P. J.; Swanston, C.; Torn, M.; Trumbore, S. E.; Riley, W.; Kelly, R.

    2010-10-01

    The ForCent forest ecosystem model was developed by making major revisions to the DayCent model including: (1) adding a humus organic pool, (2) incorporating a detailed root growth model, and (3) including plant phenological growth patterns. Observed plant production and soil respiration data from 1993 to 2000 were used to demonstrate that the ForCent model could accurately simulate ecosystem carbon dynamics for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory deciduous forest. A comparison of ForCent versus observed soil pool {sup 14}C signature ({Delta} {sup 14}C) data from the Enriched Background Isotope Study {sup 14}C experiment (1999-2006) shows that the model correctly simulates the temporal dynamics of the {sup 14}C label as it moved from the surface litter and roots into the mineral soil organic matter pools. ForCent model validation was performed by comparing the observed Enriched Background Isotope Study experimental data with simulated live and dead root biomass {Delta} {sup 14}C data, and with soil respiration {Delta} {sup 14}C (mineral soil, humus layer, leaf litter layer, and total soil respiration) data. Results show that the model correctly simulates the impact of the Enriched Background Isotope Study {sup 14}C experimental treatments on soil respiration {Delta} {sup 14}C values for the different soil organic matter pools. Model results suggest that a two-pool root growth model correctly represents root carbon dynamics and inputs to the soil. The model fitting process and sensitivity analysis exposed uncertainty in our estimates of the fraction of mineral soil in the slow and passive pools, dissolved organic carbon flux out of the litter layer into the mineral soil, and mixing of the humus layer into the mineral soil layer.

  18. The Alaskan Mineral Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the Talkeetna Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Bruce L.; Curtin, G.C.; Griscom, Andrew; Nelson, S.W.; Singer, D.A.; Steele, W.C.

    1979-01-01

    The Talkeetna 1? by 3? quadrangle, which consists of about 17,155 km 2 in south-central Alaska, was investigated by integrated field and laboratory studies in the disciplines of geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and Landsat data interpretation for the purpose of assessing its mineral resource potential. Past mineral production has been limited to gold from the Yentna district, but the quadrangle contains potentially significant resources of tin and silver and possibly a few other commodities including chromite and copper. The results of the mineral resource assessment are given in a folio of maps which are accompanied by descriptive texts, diagrams, tables, and pertinent references. This Circular provides background information on these investigations and integrates the component maps. A bibliography cites both specific and general references to the geology and mineral deposits of the quadrangle.

  19. The Alaskan Mineral Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the McCarthy Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacKevett, E.M.; Albert, N.R.D.; Barnes, D.F.; Case, J.E.; Robinson, Keith; Singer, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    The McCarthy 1? by 3? quadrangle, in eastern south-central Alaska, contains potentially significant resources of copper and possibly of a few other commodities. This circular and a companion folio of maps represent results of integrated field and laboratory studies in the disciplines of geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and satellite imagery that are designed to provide a modern mineral resource assessment of the quadrangle. The maps are accompanied by descriptive texts, explanatory material, pertinent references, and by a few auxiliary tables and diagrams. This circular provides background information for the mineral resource assessment and integrates the component maps. It also includes a master list of references (see 'Bibliography') relevant to the geology and mineral deposits of the quadrangle.

  20. Detectable change of lung nodule volume with CT in a phantom study with high and low signal to background contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrielides, Marios A.; Li, Qin; Zeng, Rongping; Gong, Qi; Myers, Kyle; Sahiner, Berkman; Petrick, Nicholas

    2016-03-01

    In previous work we developed a method for predicting the minimum detectable change (MDC) in nodule volume based on volumetric CT measurements. MDC was defined as the minimum increase/decrease in a nodule volume distinguishable from the baseline measurement at a specified level of detection performance, assessed using the area under the ROC curve (AUC). In this work we derived volume estimates of a set of synthetic nodules and calculated the detection performance for distinguishing them from baseline measurements. Eight spherical objects of 100HU radio density ranging in diameter from 5.0mm to 5.75mm and 8.0mm to 8.75mm with 0.25mm increments were placed in an anthropomorphic phantom with either no background (high-contrast task) or gelatin background (low-contrast task). The baseline was defined as 5.0mm for the first set of nodules and 8.0mm for the second set. The phantom was scanned using varying exposures, and reconstructed with slice thickness of 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0mm and two reconstruction kernels (standard and smooth). Volume measurements were derived using a previously developed matched- filter approach. Results showed that nodule size, slice thickness, and nodule-to-background contrast affected detectable change in nodule volume when using our volume estimator and the acquisition settings from our study. We also compared our experimental results to the values estimated by our previously-developed MDC prediction method. We found that experimental data for the 8mm baseline nodules matched very well with our predicted values of MDC. These results support considering the use of this metric when standardizing imaging protocols for lung nodule size change assessment.

  1. Watershed-scale assessment of background concentrations and guidance values for heavy metals in soils from a semiarid and coastal zone of Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Yuri Jacques Agra Bezerra; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; Cantalice, José Ramon Barros; da Silva, Ygor Jacques Agra Bezerra; Cruz, Cinthia Maria Cordeiro Atanázio

    2015-09-01

    Determining heavy metal background concentrations in soils is fundamental in order to support the monitoring of potentially contaminated areas. This is particularly important to areas submitted to high environmental impact where an intensive and local monitoring is required. To this end, the aim of this study was to establish background concentrations and quality reference values (QRVs) for the heavy metals Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, As, and Hg in an environmentally impacted watershed from Brazil. Geochemical associations among Fe, Mn, and trace elements were also assessed to provide an alternative tool for establishing background concentrations. A total of one hundred and four samples comprised twenty-six composite soil samples from areas of native forest or minimal anthropic influence. Samples were digested (USEPA method 3051A), and the metals were determined by ICP-OES, except for As and Hg measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Background concentrations of heavy metals in soils had the following decreasing order: Fe > Mn > Zn > Cr > Pb > Ni > Cu > As > Cd > Hg. These values were usually lower than those observed in the international and national literature. The QRVs for Ipojuca watershed followed the order (mg kg(-1)) Fe (13,020.40) > Mn (91.80) > Zn (30.12) > Cr (15.00) > Pb (13.12) > Cu (3.53) > Ni (3.30) > As (0.51) > Cd (0.08) > Hg (0.04). Significant correlation among Fe, Mn, and heavy metals shows that solubilization by the method 3051A provides a reasonable estimate for predicting background concentrations for Cd, Cr, and Cu as well as Zn, Cr, Cu, and Ni. PMID:26251062

  2. Personal Best (PB) Goal Structure, Individual PB Goals, Engagement, and Achievement: A Study of Chinese- and English-Speaking Background Students in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.; Collie, Rebecca J.; Mok, Magdalena M. C.; McInerney, Dennis M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prior cross-cultural research with students in different national contexts (Australia and China) has shown consistency in the extent to which individual personal best (PB) goals are associated with engagement at school. Aims: This study extends this work to a multicultural context, assessing perceived PB goal structure in school and…

  3. The background-limited infrared-submillimeter spectrograph (BLISS) for SPICA: a design study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, C. M.; Bock, James; Holmes, Warren; Kenyon, M.; Beyer, A.; Werner, M.; Rud, M.; Prouvé, T.; Echternach, P.; Irwin, K.; Cho, S.; Harwit, M.; Stacey, G.; Helou, G.; Armus, L.; Appleton, P.; Smith, J. D.; Gorti, U.; Rieke, G.; Egami, E.; Lester, D.; Glenn, J.; Malkan, M.; Dale, D.

    2010-07-01

    We are developing the Background-Limited Infrared-Submillimeter Spectrograph (BLISS) for SPICA to provide a breakthrough capability for far-IR survey spectroscopy. SPICAs large cold aperture allows mid-IR to submm observations which are limited only by the natural backgrounds, and BLISS is designed to operate near this fundamental limit. BLISS-SPICA is 6 orders of magnitude faster than the spectrometers on Herschel and SOFIA in obtaining full-band spectra. It enables spectroscopy of dust-obscured galaxies at all epochs back to the rst billion years after the Big Bang (redshift 6), and study of all stages of planet formation in circumstellar disks. BLISS covers 35 - 433 microns range in ve or six wavelength bands, and couples two 2 sky positions simultaneously. The instrument is cooled to 50 mK for optimal sensitivity with an on-board refrigerators. The detector package is 4224 silicon-nitride micro-mesh leg-isolated bolometers with superconducting transition-edge-sensed (TES) thermistors, read out with a cryogenic time-domain multiplexer. All technical elements of BLISS have heritage in mature scientic instruments, and many have own. We report on our design study in which we are optimizing performance while accommodating SPICAs constraints, including the stringent cryogenic mass budget. In particular, we present our progress in the optical design and waveguide spectrometer prototyping. A companion paper in Conference 7741 (Beyer et al.) discusses in greater detail the progress in the BLISS TES bolometer development.

  4. Social background, bullying, and physical inactivity: National study of 11- to 15-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, P W; Rayce, S B; Melkevik, O; Due, P; Holstein, B E

    2016-10-01

    More children from lower social backgrounds are physically inactive than those from higher ones. We studied whether bullying was a mediating factor between lower social background and physical inactivity. We also examined the combined effect of low social class and exposure to bullying on physical inactivity. The Danish sample of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study 2006 included 6269 schoolchildren in three age groups: 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds from a random sample of 80 schools. The students answered the internationally standardized HBSC questionnaire. The applied definition leaves 4.0% in the category physically inactive. The sex and age-adjusted OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 2.10 (1.39-3.18) among students with low social class and unclassifiable 3.53 (2.26-5.53). Exposure to bullying was associated with physical inactivity, sex and age-adjusted OR = 2.39 (1.67-3.41). Exposure to bullying did not explain the association between social class and physical inactivity. The association between social class and physical inactivity was more pronounced among participants also exposed to bullying. In conclusion, there was a significantly increased odds ratio for physical inactivity among students from lower social classes and for students exposed to bullying. There was a combined effect of low social class and bullying on physical inactivity.

  5. Social background, bullying, and physical inactivity: National study of 11- to 15-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, P W; Rayce, S B; Melkevik, O; Due, P; Holstein, B E

    2016-10-01

    More children from lower social backgrounds are physically inactive than those from higher ones. We studied whether bullying was a mediating factor between lower social background and physical inactivity. We also examined the combined effect of low social class and exposure to bullying on physical inactivity. The Danish sample of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study 2006 included 6269 schoolchildren in three age groups: 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds from a random sample of 80 schools. The students answered the internationally standardized HBSC questionnaire. The applied definition leaves 4.0% in the category physically inactive. The sex and age-adjusted OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 2.10 (1.39-3.18) among students with low social class and unclassifiable 3.53 (2.26-5.53). Exposure to bullying was associated with physical inactivity, sex and age-adjusted OR = 2.39 (1.67-3.41). Exposure to bullying did not explain the association between social class and physical inactivity. The association between social class and physical inactivity was more pronounced among participants also exposed to bullying. In conclusion, there was a significantly increased odds ratio for physical inactivity among students from lower social classes and for students exposed to bullying. There was a combined effect of low social class and bullying on physical inactivity. PMID:26454139

  6. The International ADHD in Substance Use Disorders Prevalence (IASP) study: background, methods and study population.

    PubMed

    van de Glind, Geurt; Van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; Carpentier, Pieter Jan; Levin, Frances R; Koeter, Maarten W J; Barta, Csaba; Kaye, Sharlene; Skutle, Arvid; Franck, Johan; Konstenius, Maija; Bu, Eli-Torild; Moggi, Franz; Dom, Geert; Demetrovics, Zolt; Fatséas, Mélina; Schillinger, Arild; Kapitány-Fövény, Máté; Verspreet, Sofie; Seitz, Andrea; Johnson, Brian; Faraone, Stephen V; Ramos-Quiroga, J Antoni; Allsop, Steve; Carruthers, Susan; Schoevers, Robert A; van den Brink, Wim

    2013-09-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an increasingly recognized comorbid condition in subjects with substance use disorders (SUDs). This paper describes the methods and study population of the International ADHD in Substance Use Disorders Prevalence (IASP) study. Objectives of the IASP are to determine the prevalence of ADHD in adult treatment seeking patients with SUD in different countries and SUD populations, determine the reliability and validity of the Adult ADHD Self-report Scale V 1.1 (ASRS) as ADHD screening instrument in SUD populations, investigate the comorbidity profile of SUD patients with and without ADHD, compare risk factors and protective factors in SUD patients with and without a comorbid diagnosis of ADHD, and increase our knowledge about the relationship between ADHD and the onset and course of SUD. In this cross-sectional, multi-centre two stage study, subjects were screened for ADHD with the ASRS, diagnosed with the Conner's Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV (CAADID), and evaluated for SUD, major depression, bipolar disorder, anti social personality disorder and borderline personality disorder. Three thousand five hundred and fifty-eight subjects from 10 countries were included. Of these 40.9% screened positive for ADHD. This is the largest international study on this population evaluating ADHD and comorbid disorders. PMID:24022983

  7. A case study exploring science competence and science confidence of middle school girls from marginalized backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Yeni Violeta

    The inclusion of learners from underrepresented background in biology field research experiences has not been widely explored in the literature. Increased access and equity to experiences for groups historically underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has been identified as a priority for many, yet little is known about the components these experiences should have and what types of transformations participants undergo as a result of these experiences. This dissertation explored the systemic creation of an intervention purposely designed to serve middle school girls from underrepresented backgrounds, the implementation of such intervention, and effect on the girls' science competence and science confidence. El Espejo, Spanish for "The Mirror," was an ongoing field ecology research program for middle schools girls founded in 2009 at a local interdisciplinary learning center. Girls from all walks of life had the opportunity to be apprentice researchers and to work with scientists and science educators from the local community. All activities were strategically designed to promote student-led inquiry, career awareness, cultural awareness, and opportunities for research and mentorship for girls from underrepresented backgrounds. An increased understanding of if, how, and why this experience was perceived by the girls to be life changing was of importance to add to the conversations that seek ways to inspire and prepare this generation of students to be the next generation of scientists. The study built on systems theory, and on theories that were embedded in the participants' system: critical race theory, identity theory, and experiential learning theory, grounded in the context of the lived experiences of girls from underrepresented backgrounds. The girls' experiences were captured through journals, observer participant notes, photo-documentation, artifacts (posters, videos) created by the girls, and by using science perception

  8. Review of approaches to the recording of background lesions in toxicologic pathology studies in rats.

    PubMed

    McInnes, E F; Scudamore, C L

    2014-08-17

    Pathological evaluation of lesions caused directly by xenobiotic treatment must always take into account the recognition of background (incidental) findings. Background lesions can be congenital or hereditary, histological variations, changes related to trauma or normal aging and physiologic or hormonal changes. This review focuses on the importance and correct approach to recording of background changes and includes discussion on sources of variability in background changes, the correct use of terminology, the concept of thresholds, historical control data, diagnostic drift, blind reading of slides, scoring and artifacts. The review is illustrated with background lesions in Sprague Dawley and Wistar rats.

  9. MeCP2 Related Studies Benefit from the Use of CD1 as Genetic Background

    PubMed Central

    Cobolli Gigli, Clementina; Scaramuzza, Linda; Gandaglia, Anna; Bellini, Elisa; Gabaglio, Marina; Parolaro, Daniela; Kilstrup-Nielsen, Charlotte; Bedogni, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    MECP2 mutations cause a number of neurological disorders of which Rett syndrome (RTT) represents the most thoroughly analysed condition. Many Mecp2 mouse models have been generated through the years; their validity is demonstrated by the presence of a broad spectrum of phenotypes largely mimicking those manifested by RTT patients. These mouse models, between which the C57BL/6 Mecp2tm1.1Bird strain probably represents the most used, enabled to disclose much of the roles of Mecp2. However, small litters with little viability and poor maternal care hamper the maintenance of the colony, thus limiting research on such animals. For this reason, past studies often used Mecp2 mouse models on mixed genetic backgrounds, thus opening questions on whether modifier genes could be responsible for at least part of the described effects. To verify this possibility, and facilitate the maintenance of the Mecp2 colony, we transferred the Mecp2tm1.1Bird allele on the stronger CD1 background. The CD1 strain is easier to maintain and largely recapitulates the phenotypes already described in Mecp2-null mice. We believe that this mouse model will foster the research on RTT. PMID:27097329

  10. MeCP2 Related Studies Benefit from the Use of CD1 as Genetic Background.

    PubMed

    Cobolli Gigli, Clementina; Scaramuzza, Linda; Gandaglia, Anna; Bellini, Elisa; Gabaglio, Marina; Parolaro, Daniela; Kilstrup-Nielsen, Charlotte; Landsberger, Nicoletta; Bedogni, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    MECP2 mutations cause a number of neurological disorders of which Rett syndrome (RTT) represents the most thoroughly analysed condition. Many Mecp2 mouse models have been generated through the years; their validity is demonstrated by the presence of a broad spectrum of phenotypes largely mimicking those manifested by RTT patients. These mouse models, between which the C57BL/6 Mecp2tm1.1Bird strain probably represents the most used, enabled to disclose much of the roles of Mecp2. However, small litters with little viability and poor maternal care hamper the maintenance of the colony, thus limiting research on such animals. For this reason, past studies often used Mecp2 mouse models on mixed genetic backgrounds, thus opening questions on whether modifier genes could be responsible for at least part of the described effects. To verify this possibility, and facilitate the maintenance of the Mecp2 colony, we transferred the Mecp2tm1.1Bird allele on the stronger CD1 background. The CD1 strain is easier to maintain and largely recapitulates the phenotypes already described in Mecp2-null mice. We believe that this mouse model will foster the research on RTT.

  11. Foregrounding the Background: Cognitive Science as the Study of Embodied Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott Jordan, J.; Bai, Jiuyang; Cialdella, Vincent; Schloesser, Daniel S.

    In contemporary cognitive science, context is implicitly conceptualized as the constellation of background factors against which an object or event is treated as foreground. This approach to context is due to our ontological commitments to realism and its assertion that reality exists, as it does, independently of observers. The present chapter proposes that realism is an insufficient ontological starting point for cognitive science because it leads one to potentially accept the distinction between relative properties (e.g., weight) and intrinsic properties (e.g., mass). Many contemporary physicists and philosophers criticize this view because of its implicit assertion that intrinsic properties exist in a manner that is completely independent of context. Interestingly, alternatives to intrinsic properties often seem very much like the notion of `internal relations' espoused by late 19th- and early 20th century idealist philosophers. Wild Systems theory (Jordan, 2013) is presented as a framework for cognitive science that is consistent with such a thoroughly relational view of reality. Specifically, WST conceptualizes organisms as embodiments of context that are thoroughly, relationally embedded within the contexts they embody. Within WST, context is foregrounded instead of being treated as background, as cognitive science becomes the study of embodied contexts.

  12. A closure study of aerosol optical properties at a regional background mountainous site in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Liang; Yin, Yan; Xiao, Hui; Yu, Xingna; Hao, Jian; Chen, Kui; Liu, Chao

    2016-04-15

    There is a large uncertainty in evaluating the radiative forcing from aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions due to the limited knowledge on aerosol properties. In-situ measurements of aerosol physical and chemical properties were carried out in 2012 at Mt. Huang (the Yellow Mountain), a continental background mountainous site in eastern China. An aerosol optical closure study was performed to verify the model outputs by using the measured aerosol optical properties, in which a spherical Mie model with assumptions of external and core-shell mixtures on the basis of a two-component optical aerosol model and high size-segregated element carbon (EC) ratio was applied. Although the spherical Mie model would underestimate the real scattering with increasing particle diameters, excellent agreement between the calculated and measured values was achieved with correlation coefficients above 0.98. Sensitivity experiments showed that the EC ratio had a negligible effect on the calculated scattering coefficient, but largely influenced the calculated absorption coefficient. The high size-segregated EC ratio averaged over the study period in the closure was enough to reconstruct the aerosol absorption coefficient in the Mie model, indicating EC size resolution was more important than time resolution in retrieving the absorption coefficient in the model. The uncertainties of calculated scattering and absorption coefficients due to the uncertainties of measurements and model assumptions yielded by a Monte Carlo simulation were ±6% and ±14% for external mixture and ±9% and ±31% for core-shell mixture, respectively. This study provided an insight into the inherent relationship between aerosol optical properties and physicochemical characteristics in eastern China, which could supplement the database of aerosol optical properties for background sites in eastern China and provide a method for regions with similar climate.

  13. Dissecting ancestry genomic background in substance dependence genome-wide association studies

    PubMed Central

    Polimanti, Renato; Yang, Can; Zhao, Hongyu; Gelernter, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Aims To understand the role of ancestral genomic background in substance dependence (SD) genome-wide association studies (GWAS), we analyzed population diversity at genetic loci associated with SD traits and evaluated its effect on GWAS outcomes. Materials & methods We investigated 24 genes with variants associated with SD by GWAS; and 82 loci with putative subordinate roles with respect to SD-associated genes. Results We observed high ancestry-related frequency differences in common functional alleles in GWAS relevant genes and their interactive partners. Common functional alleles with high frequency differences demonstrated significant effects on the GWAS outcomes. Conclusion Population differences in SD GWAS outcomes seem not to be influenced by general variation across the genome, but by ancestry-related local haplotype structures at SD-associated loci. PMID:26267224

  14. Study of the muon-induced neutron background with the LVD detector

    SciTech Connect

    Menghetti, H.; Selvi, M.

    2005-09-08

    High energy neutrons, generated as a product of cosmic muon interaction in the rock or in the detector passive material, represent the most dangerous background for a large list of topics like reactor neutrino studies, the search for SN relic neutrinos, solar antineutrinos, etc.Up to now there are few measurements of the muon-produced neutron flux at large depth underground. Moreover it is difficult to reproduce the measured data with Monte Carlo simulation because of the large uncertainties in the neutron production and propagation models.We present here the results of such a measurement with the LVD detector, which is well suited for the detection of neutrons produced by cosmic-ray muons, reporting the neutron flux at various distances from the muon track, for different neutron energies (E > 20 MeV) and as a function of the muon track length in scintillator.

  15. Background-oriented schlieren for the study of large flow fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trolinger, James D.; Buckner, Ben; L'Esperance, Drew

    2015-09-01

    Modern digital recording and processing techniques combined with new lighting methods and relatively old schlieren visualization methods move flow visualization to a new level, enabling a wide range of new applications and a possible revolution in the visualization of very large flow fields. This paper traces the evolution of schlieren imaging from Robert Hooke, who, in 1665, employed candles and lenses, to modern digital background oriented schlieren (BOS) systems, wherein image processing by computer replaces pure optical image processing. New possibilities and potential applications that could benefit from such a capability are examined. Example applications include viewing the flow field around full sized aircraft, large equipment and vehicles, monitoring explosions on bomb ranges, cooling systems, large structures and even buildings. Objectives of studies include aerodynamics, aero optics, heat transfer, and aero thermal measurements. Relevant digital cameras, light sources, and implementation methods are discussed.

  16. 22 CFR 96.53 - Background studies on the child and consents in outgoing cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... performed that includes information about the child's identity, adoptability, background, social environment... necessary consents have been obtained, and the reasons for its determination that the placement is in...

  17. National Children's Study Dietary Assessment Workshop

    Cancer.gov

    The National Children's Study dietary assessment workshop was an opportunity for experts in dietary assessment methodology to gather and discuss the current state of knowledge about methodologies used to assess dietary intake during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.

  18. Assessment of anthropological, physical and functional indices in sportsmen (basketball players) against the background of high physical loading.

    PubMed

    Chakhunashvili, G; Jobava, N; Guchashvili, M; Chakhunashvili, K; Gogilashvili, T; Shvangiradze, M; Pagava, K

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the investigation was the estimation of functional condition of anthropometrical, physical and cardiovascular system of sportsmen-basketball players against the background of high physical loading. 100 basketball players at the age from 12 till 18 years underlay the study. Randomized and open controllable research was carried out during 6 months. The following characteristics have been studied: how many days the sportsman is training in a week, how many hours the sportsman is training per day, his mood after training, over fatigue and overtension, frequency of heartbeat, time of breath holding, the general condition, the height in sitting and standing position; circumference of lumbus, chest, arm and limbs, the pulse, pulse, systolic and diastolic arterial pressure before and after physical loading. According to these factors the following sport indices are calculated: Index of Rufe (physical work capacity), the coefficient of endurance (Kvas formula), Shtange test (breath holding at sighing), Genchi test (breath holding at exhalation), average arterial pressure, systolic and cardiac output of blood circulation (the formula of Lilienstrad and Tsander), the coefficient of blood circulation effectiveness, Ketle index (the ratio of height and weight), Minuvre index (the ratio of body and feet length), Pinie index (power of body-build). Statistically authentic increase of breath and pulse in frequency was observed in sportsmen-basketball players after physical loading. The study of amplitude parameters of cardiac cycle among sportsmen-basketball players before and after physical loading has revealed the ability of rather low adaptation of cardiovascular system to physical loading.

  19. Context Sampling Descriptive Assessment: A Pilot Study of a Further Approach to Functional Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbutt, Nathalie; Furniss, Frederick

    2007-01-01

    Background: The ability of descriptive assessments to differentiate functions of problem behaviours might be increased by systematically sampling natural contexts characterized by different establishing operations. This study evaluated the stability of such characteristics, and variability in challenging behaviour, for three school contexts.…

  20. Monte Carlo simulation for background study of geophysical inspection with cosmic-ray muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Ryuichi; Taketa, Akimichi; Miyamoto, Seigo; Kasahara, Katsuaki

    2016-08-01

    Several attempts have been made to obtain a radiographic image inside volcanoes using cosmic-ray muons (muography). Muography is expected to resolve highly heterogeneous density profiles near the surface of volcanoes. However, several prior works have failed to make clear observations due to contamination by background noise. The background contamination leads to an overestimation of the muon flux and consequently a significant underestimation of the density in the target mountains. To investigate the origin of the background noise, we performed a Monte Carlo simulation. The main components of the background noise in muography are found to be low-energy protons, electrons and muons in case of detectors without particle identification and with energy thresholds below 1 GeV. This result was confirmed by comparisons with actual observations of nuclear emulsions. This result will be useful for detector design in future works, and in addition some previous works of muography should be reviewed from the view point of background contamination.

  1. The Study on the Preferences of Customer Personal Values with Chinese Culture Background in Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi; Zhao, Hong; Yang, Yue

    Customer personal values are the important factors which affect customer behaviors, and they guide and decide the customer's attitudes and behaviors on the products or the services. The paper thinks there are only several important customer personal values to guide customer's decisions, and these values will have -strong cultural differences. This study focuses on discussing the preferences of customer personal values with Chinese culture background when customers consume service and analyzes on the customer preferences of customer personal values with the deep interview method. After interviewing 16 responders with the semi-structured questionnaires, the study finds out some interesting results: (1) Some customers have recognized the existent of customer personal values, even though customer perceived values still have the strong influences on customer behaviors. (2) As they pursue to high quality lives, customers enjoy the lives in easy and pleasure way and care about the safe of the family. Quick response, simple and professional services contribute to enhance the experiences of easy and pleasure lives. (3) Non-rational consumers need the respect from the staff and the companies seriously. In comparison, the rational customers care less about the respect. (4) The sociable requirements have become a common consuming psychology of the customers. More and more customers try to gain the friends by consuming some services. (5) The preferences of customer personal values have a close relationship with the Chinese culture, such as collective values, family conception and "face" culture. The results benefit for service companies improving service brands and service quality.

  2. Immigrant background and orthodontic treatment need. Quantitative and qualitative studies in Swedish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Josefsson, Eva

    2010-01-01

    During the last three decades there has been an increased influx of refugees and immigrants into Scandinavia. The overall aim of this thesis was primarily to improve our knowledge of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need, both normative and self-perceived, in adolescents of varying geographic origin. A further aim was to determine whether any differences with respect to perception of general appearance and psychosocial well-being were related to geographic origin. Papers I and II concerned self perceived and normative orthodontic treatment need. About 500 12-13 year-old subjects, stratified into different groups: A-Sweden, B-Eastern/Southeastern Europe, C-Asia and D-other countries, answered a questionnaire and underwent clinical examination by the author. In paper III the association between the two variables in papers I and II was investigated. Paper IV was a follow up study, at 18-19 years of age, of the relationship between geographic origin and prevalence of malocclusion, self-perceived treatment need, temporomandibular symptoms and psychosocial wellbeing. In Paper V a qualitative study of 19-20-year-old subjects was conducted, to identify the strategies they had adopted to handle the issue of persisting poor dental aesthetics. The main findings were that at 12-13 years of age, immigrant subjects had a lower perceived orthodontic treatment need than subjects of Swedish background. Girls of Swedish background had the highest self-perceived treatment need, whilst girls of non-Swedish background were most concerned that fixed appliance therapy would be painful. In a few of the clinical variables measured at 12-13 years of age, the Swedish group exhibited the greatest space deficiency and irregularity in both the maxillary and mandibular anterior segments and greater overjet, compared to the Eastern/Southeastern European and Asian groups. The clinical implications were negligible. The orthodontic treatment need according to "Index of Orthodontic Treatment

  3. The Background-Limited Infrared Submillimeter Spectrograph (BLISS) for SPICA: A Design Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, Charles; BLISS-SPICA Study Team

    2010-05-01

    The far-IR waveband carries half of the photon energy ever produced in galaxies and quasars, evidence of the major role of dust-obscured processes in bringing about the modern Universe. The bulk of this appears to have occurred in the first half of the Universe's history (z>1). We are developing the Background-Limited Infrared-Submillimeter Spectrograph (BLISS) to capitalize on SPICA's cold telescope and provide a breakthrough far-IR spectroscopy capability. BLISS-SPICA is 6 orders of magnitude faster than the spectrometers on Herschel and SOFIA in obtaining full-band spectra, and will observe dust-obscured galaxies at all epochs back to the first billion years after the Big Bang (redshift 6), BLISS-SPICA thus probes the complete history of dust-obscured star formation and black-hole growth. It will also be extremely powerful for studying ice-giant planet formation in protoplanetary disks, with its sensitivity to very small amounts of gas. BLISS covers the 38-433 micron range in five grating-spectrometer bands, with two simultaneous sky positions. The detector package is 4224 silicon-nitride micro-mesh leg-isolated bolometers with superconducting transition-edge-sensed (TES) thermistors, read out with a cryogenic time-domain multiplexer, all cooled to 50mK for optimal sensitivity. All technical elements of BLISS have heritage in mature scientific instruments, and many have flown. We report on our design study in which we are optimizing performance while accommodating SPICA's constraints, including the stringent cryogenic mass budget. We present the science case for BLISS, as well as our progress in all key technical aspects: 1) opto-mechanical instrument architecture, 2) detector and readout approach, and 3) sub-K cooling approach. We thank the NASA for support of the BLISS study.

  4. Correlating students' educational background, study habits, and resource usage with learning success in medical histology.

    PubMed

    Selvig, Daniel; Holaday, Louisa W; Purkiss, Joel; Hortsch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Histology is a traditional core basic science component of most medical and dental education programs and presents a didactic challenge for many students. Identifying students that are likely to struggle with histology would allow for early intervention to support and encourage their learning success. To identify student characteristics that are associated with learning success in histology, three first-year medical school classes at the University of Michigan (>440 students) were surveyed about their educational background, attitudes toward learning histology, and their use of histology learning strategies and resources. These characteristics were linked with the students' quiz and examination results in histology. Students who reported previous experience in histology or pathology and hold science or biomedical science college degrees usually did well in histology. Learning success in histology was also positively associated with students' perception that histology is important for their professional career. Other positive indicators were in-person participation in teacher-guided learning experiences, specifically lecture and laboratory sessions. In contrast, students who relied on watching histology lectures by video rather than going to lectures in-person performed significantly worse. These characteristics and learning strategies of students who did well in this very visual and challenging study subject should be of help for identifying and advising students early, who might be at risk of failing a histology course or component.

  5. Studying the Effect of the Local Thunderstorm Cells on the Background ULF Magnetic Noise Parameter Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakova, E. N.; Kotik, D. S.; Ryabov, A. V.; Panyutin, A. A.

    2015-04-01

    We study the effect of the masking factor from the local thunderstorm cells on ULF magnetic field spectra with the inhomogeneous electron-density structures existing in the local ionosphere (ionospheric and lower ionospheric Alfvén resonators). Using an original data-processing technique for recording of horizontal magnetic components at the midlatitude reception point Novaya Zhizn', we have examined the contribution of the sources located at different distances from the reception point to the formation of the background noise spectra. The ULF signal processing technique permitted us to reduce the pulse component of magnetic noise in amplitude above a certain threshold and thus rule out the effect of a local thunderstorm activity. Frequency dependences of the azimuthal angle of the principal axis of the magnetic noise polarization ellipse are also analyzed. It is shown that the presence of the lower ionospheric Alfvén resonator leads to a nonmonotonic dependence of the azimuthal angle on the frequency. It was found that the local thunderstorms within 60 -80 km from the reception point completely mask the manifestation of the lower ionospheric Alfvén resonator in the ULF noise polarization parameters. To spot the local thunderstorm cells, we used the data from the meteorological radar facility MRL-4 in Nizhny Novgorod.

  6. Combining natural background levels (NBLs) assessment with indicator kriging analysis to improve groundwater quality data interpretation and management.

    PubMed

    Ducci, Daniela; de Melo, M Teresa Condesso; Preziosi, Elisabetta; Sellerino, Mariangela; Parrone, Daniele; Ribeiro, Luis

    2016-11-01

    The natural background level (NBL) concept is revisited and combined with indicator kriging method to analyze the spatial distribution of groundwater quality within a groundwater body (GWB). The aim is to provide a methodology to easily identify areas with the same probability of exceeding a given threshold (which may be a groundwater quality criteria, standards, or recommended limits for selected properties and constituents). Three case studies with different hydrogeological settings and located in two countries (Portugal and Italy) are used to derive NBL using the preselection method and validate the proposed methodology illustrating its main advantages over conventional statistical water quality analysis. Indicator kriging analysis was used to create probability maps of the three potential groundwater contaminants. The results clearly indicate the areas within a groundwater body that are potentially contaminated because the concentrations exceed the drinking water standards or even the local NBL, and cannot be justified by geogenic origin. The combined methodology developed facilitates the management of groundwater quality because it allows for the spatial interpretation of NBL values. PMID:27371772

  7. Combining natural background levels (NBLs) assessment with indicator kriging analysis to improve groundwater quality data interpretation and management.

    PubMed

    Ducci, Daniela; de Melo, M Teresa Condesso; Preziosi, Elisabetta; Sellerino, Mariangela; Parrone, Daniele; Ribeiro, Luis

    2016-11-01

    The natural background level (NBL) concept is revisited and combined with indicator kriging method to analyze the spatial distribution of groundwater quality within a groundwater body (GWB). The aim is to provide a methodology to easily identify areas with the same probability of exceeding a given threshold (which may be a groundwater quality criteria, standards, or recommended limits for selected properties and constituents). Three case studies with different hydrogeological settings and located in two countries (Portugal and Italy) are used to derive NBL using the preselection method and validate the proposed methodology illustrating its main advantages over conventional statistical water quality analysis. Indicator kriging analysis was used to create probability maps of the three potential groundwater contaminants. The results clearly indicate the areas within a groundwater body that are potentially contaminated because the concentrations exceed the drinking water standards or even the local NBL, and cannot be justified by geogenic origin. The combined methodology developed facilitates the management of groundwater quality because it allows for the spatial interpretation of NBL values.

  8. Experimental study of variations in background radiation and the effect on Nuclear Car Wash sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Church, J; Slaughter, D; Norman, E; Asztalos, S; Biltoft, P

    2007-02-07

    Error rates in a cargo screening system such as the Nuclear Car Wash [1-7] depend on the standard deviation of the background radiation count rate. Because the Nuclear Car Wash is an active interrogation technique, the radiation signal for fissile material must be detected above a background count rate consisting of cosmic, ambient, and neutron-activated radiations. It was suggested previously [1,6] that the Corresponding negative repercussions for the sensitivity of the system were shown. Therefore, to assure the most accurate estimation of the variation, experiments have been performed to quantify components of the actual variance in the background count rate, including variations in generator power, irradiation time, and container contents. The background variance is determined by these experiments to be a factor of 2 smaller than values assumed in previous analyses, resulting in substantially improved projections of system performance for the Nuclear Car Wash.

  9. Attitudes and Perceptions of Patients, Caregivers, and Health Care Providers toward Background Music in Patient Care Areas: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Cruz, Pedro; Nguyen, Linh; Rhondali, Wadih; Hui, David; Palmer, J. Lynn; Sevy, Ingrid; Richardson, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Background music can be used to distract from ordinary sounds and improve wellbeing in patient care areas. Little is known about individuals' attitudes and beliefs about music versus ordinary sound in this setting. Objectives To assess the preferences of patients, caregivers and healthcare providers regarding background music or ordinary sound in outpatient and inpatient care areas, and to explore their attitudes and perceptions towards music in general. Methods All participants were exposed to background music in outpatient or inpatient clinical settings. 99 consecutive patients, 101 caregivers and 65 out of 70 eligible healthcare providers (93%) completed a survey about music attitudes and preferences. The primary outcome was a preference for background music over ordinary sound in patient care areas. Results Preference for background music was high and similar across groups (70 patients (71%), 71 caregivers (71%) and 46 providers (71%), p=0.58). The three groups had very low disapproval for background music in patient care areas (10%, 9% and 12%, respectively; p=0.91). Black ethnicity independently predicted lower preference for background music (OR: 0.47, 95%CI: 0.23, 0.98). Patients, caregivers and providers reported recent use of music for themselves for the purpose of enjoyment (69%, 80% and 86% respectively p=0.02). Age, gender, religion and education level significantly predicted preferences for specific music styles. Conclusion Background music in patient care areas was preferred to ordinary sound by patients, caregivers and providers. Demographics of the population are strong determinants of music style preferences. PMID:22957677

  10. Study of the common genetic background for rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Orozco, Gisela; Eyre, Steve; Hinks, Anne; Bowes, John; Morgan, Ann W; Wilson, Anthony G; Wordsworth, Paul; Steer, Sophia; Hocking, Lynne; Thomson, Wendy; Worthington, Jane; Barton, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence is beginning to emerge that there may be susceptibility loci for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) that are common to both diseases. Objective To investigate single nucleotide polymorphisms that have been reported to be associated with SLE in a UK cohort of patients with RA and controls. Methods 3962 patients with RA and 9275 controls were included in the study. Eleven SNPs mapping to confirmed SLE loci were investigated. These mapped to the TNFSF4, BANK1, TNIP1, PTTG1, UHRF1BP1, ATG5, JAZF1, BLK, KIAA1542, ITGAM and UBE2L3 loci. Genotype frequencies were compared between patients with RA and controls using the trend test. Results The SNPs mapping to the BLK and UBE2L3 loci showed significant evidence for association with RA. Two other SNPs, mapping to ATG5 and KIAA1542, showed nominal evidence for association with RA (p=0.02 and p=0.02, respectively) but these were not significant after applying a Bonferroni correction. Additionally, a significant global enrichment in carriage of SLE alleles in patients with RA compared with controls (p=9.1×10−7) was found. Meta-analysis of this and previous studies confirmed the association of the BLK and UBE2L3 gene with RA at genome-wide significance levels (p<5×10−8). Together, the authors estimate that the SLE and RA overlapping loci, excluding HLA-DRB1 alleles, identified so far explain ∼5.8% of the genetic susceptibility to RA as a whole. Conclusion The findings confirm the association of the BLK and UBE2L3 loci with RA, thus adding to the list of loci showing overlap between RA and SLE. PMID:21068098

  11. Study on camouflage effect of targets with different characteristics under typical background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shaoshu; Jin, Weiqi; Wang, Jihui; Wang, He; Li, Hailan; Guo, Aiyan

    2010-10-01

    With the rapid development of infrared detecting and homing technology, it is important for us to analyze infrared camouflage effect of ground targets to improve the survivability. In the paper, factors such as the effect of atmosphere between detectors and targets, characteristics of targets and background and atmospheric radiance including directly transmitted solar irradiance are taken into account in long-distance detecting. The concept of RARD (relative apparent radiance difference) between targets and background is proposed and the camouflage effect of ground targets can be evaluated precisely. MODTRAN 4.0 is used to analyze the camouflage effect of targets. In MODTRAN, solar zenith angle, common background, emissivity and temperature of targets are selected to calculate RARD under certain atmosphere condition. Simulation results show that RARD is affected by the solar zenith angle significantly in middle infrared wavelength region, but hardly in long-wave infrared region. Under the special background, according to the target temperature, proper coating with unchanged emissivity is selected to camouflage the target all day in long-wave infrared region. However, for the changing background, the stealth coating with variable emissivity should be adopted. In addition, for the same target, it is even more difficult to achieve good camouflage effect at both medium infrared band and long wave infrared band.

  12. [Comparative study on objective-setting public health policy--historical background and path dependence].

    PubMed

    Motohashi, Yutaka; Kaneko, Yosihiro

    2002-05-01

    The historical background and the path dependence of objective-setting public health policy are described in this review. The New Public Health movement appeared in the 1980s and was inspired by the Ottawa Charter on Health Promotion. This movement is based on the idea that public health is mostly promoted by creating a supportive environment for health as well as by individual efforts toward a healthy life style. The first objective-setting public health policy called Healthy People was proposed in USA, 1979, under the influence of The Lalonde Report published in Canada, 1974. Goals and targets were set in order to reduce the mortality of American people. This project led to Healthy People 2000 and Healthy People 2010. In the 1990s, objective-setting public health policies prevailed in Western countries, such as United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and also in Japan. The objective-setting public health policy is the application of the management by objectives in the health policy domain. This policy is especially accepted in Anglo-Saxon countries where public sector reform was conducted on the basis of the New Public Management theory in the 1980s, which is when the WHO Regional Office for Europe started the Healthy Cities project that emphasized a network of project cities. The Health 21 in 1999 is another model of object-setting public health policy. A comparative study of four different objective-setting public health policies (USA, United Kingdom, WHO Regional Office for Europe, and Japan) was conducted regarding the goals and domains of the targets, methods of targeting, and evaluation of the project. The goals were almost identical in the four public health policies, while the domains of the targets were different. These differences were explained by the past experience of public health policy development in each country.

  13. Climate impacts on arctic freshwater ecosystems and fisheries: background, rationale and approach of the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA).

    PubMed

    Wrona, Frederick J; Prowse, Terry D; Reist, James D; Hobbie, John E; Lévesque, Lucie M J; Vincent, Warwick F

    2006-11-01

    Changes in climate and ultraviolet radiation levels in the Arctic will have far-reaching impacts, affecting aquatic species at various trophic levels, the physical and chemical environment that makes up their habitat, and the processes that act on and within freshwater ecosystems. Interactions of climatic variables, such as temperature and precipitation, with freshwater ecosystems are highly complex and can propagate through the ecosystem in ways that are difficult to project. This is partly due to a poor understanding of arctic freshwater systems and their basic interrelationships with climate and other environmental variables, and partly due to a paucity of long-term freshwater monitoring sites and integrated hydro-ecological research programs in the Arctic. The papers in this special issue are an abstraction of the analyses performed by 25 international experts and their associated networks on Arctic freshwater hydrology and related aquatic ecosystems that was initially published by the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) in 2005 as "Chapter 8--Freshwater Ecosystems and Fisheries". The papers provide a broad overview of the general hydrological and ecological features of the various freshwater ecosystems in the Arctic, including descriptions of each ACIA region, followed by a review of historical changes in freshwater systems during the Holocene. This is followed by an assessment of the effects of climate change on broad-scale hydro-ecology; aquatic biota and ecosystem structure and function; and arctic fish and fisheries. Potential synergistic and cumulative effects are also discussed, as are the roles of ultraviolet radiation and contaminants. The nature and complexity of many of the effects are illustrated using case studies from around the circumpolar north, together with a discussion of important threshold responses (i.e., those that produce stepwise and/or nonlinear effects). The issue concludes with summary the key findings, a list of gaps in

  14. Background studies for NaI(Tl) detectors in the ANAIS dark matter project

    SciTech Connect

    Amaré, J.; Borjabad, S.; Cebrián, S.; Cuesta, C.; Fortuño, D.; García, E.; Ginestra, C.; Gómez, H.; Martínez, M.; Oliván, M. A.; Ortigoza, Y.; Solórzano, A. Ortiz de; Pobes, C.; Puimedón, J.; Sarsa, M. L.; Villar, J. A.; Villar, P.

    2013-08-08

    Several large NaI(Tl) detectors, produced by different companies, have been operated in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) in the frame of the ANAIS (Annual modulation with NaI Scintillators) project devoted to the direct detection of dark matter. A complete background model has been developed for a 9.6 kg detector (referred as ANAIS-0 prototype) after a long data taking at LSC. Activities from the natural chains of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th, and {sup 40}K in the NaI(Tl) crystal were evaluated applying different methods: discrimination of alpha particles vs beta/gamma background by Pulse Shape Analysis for quantifying the content of the natural chains and coincidence techniques for {sup 40}K. Radioactive contaminations in the detector and shielding components were also determined by HPGe spectrometry. Monte Carlo simulations using Geant4 package were carried out to evaluate their contribution. At high energies, most of the measured background is nicely reproduced; at low energy some non-explained components are still present, although some plausible background sources have been analyzed. The {sup 40}K content of the NaI(Tl) crystal has been confirmed to be the dominant contributor to the measured background with this detector. In addition, preliminary results of the background characterization, presently underway at the LSC, of two recently produced NaI(Tl) detectors, with 12.5 kg mass each, will be presented: cosmogenic induced activity has been clearly observed and is being quantified, and {sup 40}K activity at a level ten times lower than in ANAIS-0 has been determined.

  15. Application of nonparametric regression methods to study the relationship between NO2 concentrations and local wind direction and speed at background sites.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Aoife; Misstear, Bruce; Broderick, Brian

    2011-02-15

    Background concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) are not constant but vary temporally and spatially. The current paper presents a powerful tool for the quantification of the effects of wind direction and wind speed on background NO(2) concentrations, particularly in cases where monitoring data are limited. In contrast to previous studies which applied similar methods to sites directly affected by local pollution sources, the current study focuses on background sites with the aim of improving methods for predicting background concentrations adopted in air quality modelling studies. The relationship between measured NO(2) concentration in air at three such sites in Ireland and locally measured wind direction has been quantified using nonparametric regression methods. The major aim was to analyse a method for quantifying the effects of local wind direction on background levels of NO(2) in Ireland. The method was expanded to include wind speed as an added predictor variable. A Gaussian kernel function is used in the analysis and circular statistics employed for the wind direction variable. Wind direction and wind speed were both found to have a statistically significant effect on background levels of NO(2) at all three sites. Frequently environmental impact assessments are based on short term baseline monitoring producing a limited dataset. The presented non-parametric regression methods, in contrast to the frequently used methods such as binning of the data, allow concentrations for missing data pairs to be estimated and distinction between spurious and true peaks in concentrations to be made. The methods were found to provide a realistic estimation of long term concentration variation with wind direction and speed, even for cases where the data set is limited. Accurate identification of the actual variation at each location and causative factors could be made, thus supporting the improved definition of background concentrations for use in air quality modelling

  16. Categorization of Upper Gastrointestinal Symptoms Is Useful in Predicting Background Factors and Studying Effects and Usages of Digestive Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Yamamichi, Nobutake; Shimamoto, Takeshi; Sakaguchi, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Yu; Kodashima, Shinya; Nakayama, Chiemi; Minatsuki, Chihiro; Ono, Satoshi; Mochizuki, Satoshi; Matsuda, Rie; Asada-Hirayama, Itsuko; Niimi, Keiko; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Tsuji, Yosuke; Takeuchi, Chihiro; Kakimoto, Hikaru; Goto, Osamu; Mitsushima, Toru; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Background There have been very few reports assessing the relationship between various upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms or evaluating each individual upper GI symptom separately. Methods Based on the answers to Frequency Scale for the Symptoms of GERD from a large-scale population of healthy adults in Japan, a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to categorize the typical 12 upper GI symptoms. The associations between the 12 symptoms and 13 background factors were systematically analyzed among the 18,097 digestive drug-free subjects, 364 proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) users, and 528 histamine H2-receptor antagonist (H2RA) users. Results The derived relationship between the 12 upper GI symptoms suggests the five symptom categories: heartburn (2), dyspepsia (4), acid regurgitation (3), pharyngo-upper esophageal discomfort (2), and fullness while eating (1). Among the digestive drug-free subjects, inadequate sleep, weight gain in adulthood, NSAID use, meals immediately prior to sleep, and frequent skipping of breakfast showed significant positive association with most upper GI symptoms. Compared to the digestive drug-free subjects, significantly associated factors for PPI and H2RA users are respectively different in “4 of 5” and “5 of 5” symptoms in heartburn and acid regurgitation categories, “1 of 2” and “1 of 2” symptoms in pharyngo-upper esophageal discomfort category, and “0 of 5” and “3 of 5” symptoms in dyspepsia and fullness while eating categories. These differences between digestive drug-free subjects and gastric acid suppressant users seem to correlate with our experiences in clinical situations: heartburn and acid regurgitation category symptoms are effectively controlled with PPI and H2RA whereas other category symptoms are not. Conclusions The 12 upper GI symptoms can be classified into five categories, which are statistically associated with various background factors. The differences of associated factors between

  17. The Teaching Profession against the Background of Educationalisation: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooge, Edith Helena; Honingh, Marlies Elisabeth; Langelaan, Berber Nadia

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the teaching profession against the background of educationalisation in the Netherlands in the sense that Dutch schools are increasingly regarded as focal points at which to address and solve social issues. Our research project concentrated on the extent to which teachers, being key figures in the school organisation,…

  18. Experimental and theoretical studies of particle generation afterlaser ablation of copper with background gas at atmosphericpressure

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Sy-Bor; Mao, Xianglei; Greif, Ralph; Russo, Richard E.

    2007-05-31

    Laser ablation has proven to be an effective method for generating nanoparticles; particles are produced in the laser induced vapor plume during the cooling stage. To understand the in-situ condensation process, a series of time resolved light scattering images were recorded and analyzed. Significant changes in the condensation rate and the shape of the condensed aerosol plume were observed in two background gases, helium and argon. The primary particle shape and size distribution were measured using a transmission electron microscope (TEM), a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a differential mobility analyzer (DMA). The gas dynamics simulation included nucleation and coagulation within the vapor plume, heat and mass transfer from the vapor plume to the background gas, and heat transfer to the sample. The experimental data and the calculated evolution of the shape of the vapor plume showed the same trend for the spatial distribution of the condensed particles in both background gases. The simulated particle size distribution also qualitatively agreed with the experimental data. It was determined that the laser energy, the physical properties of the background gas (conductivity, diffusivity and viscosity), and the shape of the ablation system (ablation chamber and the layout of the sample) have strong effects on the condensation process and the subsequent sizes, shapes and degree of aggregation of the particles.

  19. Achievement, Agency, Gender, and Socioeconomic Background as Predictors of Postschool Choices: A Multicontext Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Philip D.; Schoon, Ingrid; Tsai, Yi-Miau; Nagy, Gabriel; Trautwein, Ulrich; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors develop and test a differential effects model of university entry versus major selection using a set of common predictors, including background factors (gender and socioeconomic status), academic achievement, and academic self-concept. The research used data from 2 large longitudinal databases from Germany (N = 5,048)…

  20. Towards a National Child Care Policy. Institute of Family Studies Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Deborah

    This background paper was commissioned to survey the condition of child care in Australia. The first three sections give statistical data on the current patterns of care arrangements and the factors contributing to a demand for expanded and more flexible child care services, i.e., family composition, income, and work arrangements. The next section…

  1. Technical and Symbolic Knowledge in CNC Machining: A Study of Technical Workers of Different Backgrounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Laura M. W.; Beach, King

    Performances of 45 individuals with varying degrees of formal and informal training in machining and programming were compared on tasks designed to tap intellectual changes that may occur with the introduction of computer numerical control (CNC). Participants--30 machinists, 8 machine operators, and 7 engineers--were asked background questions and…

  2. A Case Study Exploring Science Competence and Science Confidence of Middle School Girls from Marginalized Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Yeni Violeta

    2013-01-01

    The inclusion of learners from underrepresented background in biology field research experiences has not been widely explored in the literature. Increased access and equity to experiences for groups historically underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has been identified as a priority for many, yet little is…

  3. A STUDY OF THE MASS BALANCE OF DIOXINS AND FURANS IN LACTATING COWS IN BACKGROUND CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consumption of animal fats account for as much as 95% of the human background exposure to compounds with dioxin-like activity. Although it is generally believed that most domestic meat and dairy animals receive most of their exposure from their feed, there is limited data availa...

  4. National Research Council Dialogue to Assess Progress on NASA's Human Health & Support Systems Capability Roadmap Development: General Background and Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikins, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: General Background and Introduction of Capability Roadmaps. Agency Objective. Strategic Planning Transformation. Advanced Planning Organizational Roles. Public Involvement in Strategic Planning. Strategic Roadmaps and Schedule. Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Progress to Date).

  5. Implementing a Culturally Attuned Functional Behavioural Assessment to Understand and Address Challenging Behaviours Demonstrated by Students from Diverse Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Gerardo; Wong-Lo, Mickie; Short, Maureen; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2014-01-01

    As the US student population continues to become increasingly diverse, educators have encountered difficulties in distinguishing between cultural differences and genuine disability indicators. This concern is clearly evident in assisting students from diverse backgrounds who demonstrate chronic challenging behaviours. Past practices (e.g.…

  6. National Research Council Dialogue to Assess Progress on NASA's Title of CRM Capability Roadmap Development: General Background and Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crooke, Julie A.

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: General Background and Introduction of Capability Roadmaps "Title." Agency Objective. Strategic Planning Transformation. Advanced Planning Organizational Roles. Public Involvement in Strategic Planning. Strategic Roadmaps and Schedule. Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Progress to Date).

  7. Teacher Assessment and Peer Assessment in Practice. Educational Studies 44.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Yuji

    This study examined teacher and peer assessment of English language oral presentation skills in Japanese classrooms. Twelve graduate university students' oral class presentations were assessed by a teacher and four peers. After presentations were rated, teachers calculated the evaluations, and classmates shared their opinions on the top three…

  8. Assessing Vocal Performances Using Analytical Assessment: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gynnild, Vidar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated ways to improve the appraisal of vocal performances within a national academy of music. Since a criterion-based assessment framework had already been adopted, the conceptual foundation of an assessment rubric was used as a guide in an action research project. The group of teachers involved wanted to explore thinking…

  9. Site Study Plan for background environmental radioactivity, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The Background Environmental Radioactivity Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of an initial radiological survey and a radiological sampling program. The field program includes measurement of direct radiation and collection and analysis of background radioactivity samples of air, precipitation, soil, water, milk, pasture grass, food crops, meat, poultry, game, and eggs. The plan describes for each study: the need for the study, the study design, data management and use, schedule of proposed activities, and quality assurance requirements. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project (SRP) Requirements Document. 50 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Laboratory Studies of Lead Removal from Liquid Scintillator in Preparation for KamLAND's Low Background Phase

    SciTech Connect

    Keefer, Gregory

    2011-04-27

    The removal of Radon induced Lead from liquid scintillator was extensively studied in preparation for KamLAND's low background phase. This work presents the results from laboratory experiments performed at the University of Alabama and their implications for KamLAND and future low background experiments using carbon based liquid scintillator. It was observed that distillation was the most effective purification procedure and that one must consider a non-polar and non-ionic component of Lead in order to reach the levels of radio-purity required for these new class of ultra-low background experiments.

  11. Gamma background studies for the XENON experiment using a High Purity Germanium Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angle, Jesse Isaac

    The XENON Dark Matter Experiment, deployed at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory in Italy on March 2006, is a liquid noble gas detector designed to directly detect dark matter. The detector uses a dual-phase (gas/liquid) Xenon target to search for nuclear recoils associated with nucleus-WIMP interactions. Due to the high sensitivity needed in such an experiment, it is vital to not only reduce the background but to also understand the remaining background so as to aid in the understanding of the data as well as to facilitate upgrades beyond the early Research and Development phases. Many of the components of the XENON10 detector have been screened using a High Purity Germanium Detector known as the GATOR detector. Full analysis of the screening data requires Monte Carlo simulations of the GATOR detector and the sample. Results from this screening will be presented. Using the information obtained from the screening operation, Monte Carlo simulations of the XENON10 electron recoil background will be examined and compared to the actual detector data. The success of this simulation to data comparison indicates that we have a good understanding of the XENON10 gamma background and will be able to make more informed decisions regarding the next stage of detector development. This type of analysis has aided in the selection and design of many of the materials and components being incorporated into the new XENON100 detector, the next generation detector which will be capable of improving the limit set by XENON10 by at least an order of magnitude. (Full text of this dissertation may be available via the University of Florida Libraries web site. Please check http:/ /www.uflib.ufl.edu/etd.html)

  12. [Establishment and assessment of QA/QC method for sampling and analysis of atmosphere background CO2].

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-xin; Zhou, Ling-xi; Xia, Ling-jun; Wang, Hong-yang; Fang, Shuang-xi

    2014-12-01

    To strengthen scientific management and sharing of greenhouse gas data obtained from atmospheric background stations in China, it is important to ensure the standardization of quality assurance and quality control method for background CO2 sampling and analysis. Based on the greenhouse gas sampling and observation experience of CMA, using portable sampling observation and WS-CRDS analysis technique as an example, the quality assurance measures for atmospheric CO,sampling and observation in the Waliguan station (Qinghai), the glass bottle quality assurance measures and the systematic quality control method during sample analysis, the correction method during data processing, as well as the data grading quality markers and data fitting interpolation method were systematically introduced. Finally, using this research method, the CO2 sampling and observation data at the atmospheric background stations in 3 typical regions were processed and the concentration variation characteristics were analyzed, indicating that this research method could well catch the influences of the regional and local environmental factors on the observation results, and reflect the characteristics of natural and human activities in an objective and accurate way.

  13. [Contrast effects of background stimulus person on attitude similarity judgement and interpersonal attraction: a study of topic familiarity effect].

    PubMed

    Tajima, T

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a background stimulus person on attitude similarity judgement and interpersonal attraction. Mascaro and Graves (1973) argued that a contrast effect on perception of similarity mediated interpersonal attraction. In the present experiment, it was hypothesized that topic familiarity moderated the effects of a background stimulus person on attitude similarity judgement and interpersonal attraction. One hundred twenty-two (122) female students were randomly assigned to four groups, formed by two levels of topic familiarity and two levels of similarity for the background stimulus person. They saw the attitudes of two stimulus persons together, and were asked to rate perceived similarity and interpersonal attraction. Results showed that in familiar topic condition, contrast effect was not found for attitude similarity judgement, but it was found for interpersonal attraction. The finding suggested that presence of a background stimulus person immediately led to the contrast effect on interpersonal attraction. PMID:11140256

  14. [Contrast effects of background stimulus person on attitude similarity judgement and interpersonal attraction: a study of topic familiarity effect].

    PubMed

    Tajima, T

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a background stimulus person on attitude similarity judgement and interpersonal attraction. Mascaro and Graves (1973) argued that a contrast effect on perception of similarity mediated interpersonal attraction. In the present experiment, it was hypothesized that topic familiarity moderated the effects of a background stimulus person on attitude similarity judgement and interpersonal attraction. One hundred twenty-two (122) female students were randomly assigned to four groups, formed by two levels of topic familiarity and two levels of similarity for the background stimulus person. They saw the attitudes of two stimulus persons together, and were asked to rate perceived similarity and interpersonal attraction. Results showed that in familiar topic condition, contrast effect was not found for attitude similarity judgement, but it was found for interpersonal attraction. The finding suggested that presence of a background stimulus person immediately led to the contrast effect on interpersonal attraction.

  15. Are South African Speech-Language Therapists adequately equipped to assess English Additional Language (EAL) speakers who are from an indigenous linguistic and cultural background? A profile and exploration of the current situation.

    PubMed

    Mdladlo, Thandeka; Flack, Penelope; Joubert, Robin

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of a survey conducted on Speech-Language Therapists (SLTs) regarding current practices in the assessment of English Additional Language (EAL) speakers in South Africa. It forms part of the rationale for a broader (PhD) study that critiques the use of assessment instruments on EAL speakers from an indigenous linguistic and cultural background. This article discusses an aspect of the broader research and presents the background, method, findings, discussion and implications of the survey. The results of this survey highlight the challenges of human and material resources to, and the dominance of English in, the profession in South Africa. The findings contribute to understanding critical factors for acquiring reliable and valid assessment results with diverse populations, particularly the implications from a cultural and linguistic perspective. PMID:27247254

  16. Community Background Reports: Pawnee, Oklahoma. National Study of American Indian Education, Series I, No. 3, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Larry M.

    A third paper of the first series (Community Backgrounds of Education in the Communities Which Have been Studied) contributes to the final report of a National Study of American Indian Education and relates to Pawnee (Pawnee County), Oklahoma. Economic, social, and demographic data are presented for Indian, Negro, and "White" subgroups of the…

  17. Muon-Induced Background Study for Double Beta Decay and Dark Matter Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Dongming; Hime, Andrew; Keller, Christina

    2007-04-01

    Fast neutrons produced by muons traversing a detector are an important background for low energy neutrino experiments and dark matter searches. Muon-induced neutron production rates with heavy elements, such as lead and copper, are not well understood as evidenced by discrepancies between measurements and FLUKA simulations as large as about a factor of 3. Such a large discrepancy must be understood in order to optimize the detector design against muon-induced backgrounds. Muon-induced neutron production can be measured at the 300-foot level at Homestake using a detector system which consists of eight inner NaI detectors and forty outer liquid scintillators, together with the muon tracking detectors above and below the target. The inner and outer detectors in coincidence will be used to measure the neutron energy spectrum. The hit pattern of the outer detector indicates the multiplicity and angular distribution of the neutrons generated by muons. The construction of the entire detector system requires an R&D program to optimize the design in the detection efficiency. This paper will present the simulation results for detector design.

  18. E906 Experiment: Study of Background Rates with a Solid Magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinbule, Obiageli

    2008-10-01

    Fermilab (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory) E906 is an experiment to determine the ratio of d-bar to u-bar quarks in the nucleon sea. The experiment measures the di-muon pairs that are produced via the Drell-Yan process, which is when a quark and anti-quark annihilate, creating a di-lepton pair. With a goal of extending the E866/NuSea measurements to higher Bjorken x, it will help reveal the structure of the proton. The results to be presented focus on using GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations to investigate spectrometer acceptance and background rates if a solid iron magnet is used, as opposed to the original plan of an open magnet filled with hadron absorbers. A solid iron magnet would be relatively low cost, since the coils and iron can be taken from parts of the E866/NuSea detector apparatus. Results of these simulations will be shown to demonstrate that the solid iron magnet will give acceptable results. Results will also be shown on ideas to reduce the background from in-flight pion decays from the liquid hydrogen and deuterium targets.

  19. Environmental Asbestos Assessment Manual Superfund Method for the Determination of Asbestos in Ambient Air Part 2: Technical Background Document

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sampling and analysis method for the determination of asbestos in air is presented in Part 1 of this report, under separate cover. This method is designed specifically to provide results suitable for supporting risk assessments at Superfund sites, although it is applicable t...

  20. Design Studies for a Far Infrared Absolute Spectrometer for the Cosmic Background Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, N. J. E.

    1980-01-01

    Unrelenting symmetry of design is required to assure the thermal balance of a cryogenically cooled, rapid scan interferometer spectrometer to be mounted in vacuum with the Cosmic Background Explorer liquid helium dewar. The instrument receives inputs from Winston cone optical flux collectors, one open to space and a second coupled to a black body reference source. A differential instrument, the spectrometer produces outputs corresponding to the Fourier transform of the spectral radiance difference between the two inputs. The two outputs are sensed by four detectors, two optimized for shorter wavelength response, and two optimized for longer wavelengths. The optical design, detector and signal channel, system sensitivity, mechanics, thermal control and cryogenics, electronics and power systems, command and control, calibration, system test requirements, and the instrument interface are discussed. Recommendations for continued work are indicated for the superconducting reflective horns, the motor bearing and drive, and design detail.

  1. Multi-chroic Dual-Polarization Bolometric Focal Plane for Studies of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, A.; Arnold, K.; Edwards, J.; Engargiola, G.; Ghribi, A.; Holzapfel, W.; Lee, A.; Meng, X.; Myers, M.; O'Brient, R.; Quealy, E.; Rebeiz, G.; Richards, P.

    2012-06-01

    We are developing multi-chroic antenna-coupled Transition Edge Sensor (TES) focal planes for Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarimetry. In each pixel, a dual polarized sinuous antenna collects light over a two-octave frequency band. Each antenna couples to the telescope with a contacting silicon lens. The antenna couples the broadband RF signal to microstrip transmission lines, and then filter banks split the broadband signal into several frequency bands. A TES bolometer detects the power in each band and polarization. We will describe the design of this device and demonstrate its performance with optical data measured using prototype pixels. Our measurements show low ellipticity beams, low cross-polarization, and properly partitioned bands in banks of 2, 3, and 7 filters. Finally, we will describe how we will upgrade the Polarbear CMB experiment using the focal planes of these detectors to increase the experiment's mapping speed and its ability to discriminate between the CMB and polarized foregrounds.

  2. PROSPECT Background Studies and Operation of Li-Loaded Liquid Scintillator Detectors at a Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langford, Thomas; Prospect Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Segmented antineutrino detectors placed near compact research reactors provide an excellent opportunity to probe short-baseline neutrino oscillations and precisely measure the reactor antineutrino spectrum. PROSPECT is a phased experiment that will explore the favored reactor anomaly parameter space at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Lab. Measurements of the reactor correlated and ambient backgrounds will be presented, as well as a discussion of active and passive mitigation plans. A lithium-loaded liquid scintillator test detector is currently in operation at HFIR within a prototype shielding cave. Results from recent operation will be presented along with a discussion of their impact on PROSPECT. on behalf of the PROSPECT collaboration.

  3. Study of the fluctuations in the cosmic X-ray background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, E. L.; Geller, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    The emerging picture indicates that neither the total cosmic X-ray background (CXB) flux nor the fluctuations are completely dominated by any single class of sources. Quasars clearly contribute a substantial fraction of the total flux while galaxy cluster X-ray sources and galactic nuclear activity also make nonnegligible contributions. It appears that from the large angular scale CXB galaxy correlations that no class of relatively low liminosity X-ray sources associated with galaxies can play a major role in supplying the total flux. The origin of the fluctuations looks more complex. It is hard to avoid the conclusion that the NGP-SGP difference and some other features of the CXB map are associated with the local anisotropy in the galactic distribution (the local supercluster). It also appears reasonable to some suppose that at least some large angular structures in the CXB are due to emission from hot galactic halo gs.

  4. [Post-marketing clinical safety assessment of Shenmai injection based on active monitoring and passive monitoring in large data background].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lian-xin; Xie, Yan-ming; Ai, Qing-hua; Song, Nian-bin

    2015-12-01

    This paper adopted a series of related analysis methods to comprehensively analyze post-marketing clinical safety data of Shenmai injection from 4,220 cases of SRS and 32,358 cases of multicenter, prospective, registered hospital centralized monitoring in large data background, calculated ADR incidence rate was 0.93 per 1,000, main symptoms of ADR includes chest pain, chills, skin itching, palpitations, fever, nausea, dizziness, vomiting, flushing, numbness, allergic reaction, cyanosis, rash, low back pain, and "breath", "anaphylactoid reaction" and "flush" were the safety warning signals of Shenmai injection. Primary disease for chronic pulmonary heart disease, thyroid disease, and combined with cerebral vascular disease, prior to the injection and continuous use of alprostadil, cyclic adenosine monophosphate, combined with quinolones, penicillins were suspicious influence factors of ADR of Shenmai injection, these promot the clinical safety. PMID:27245017

  5. Radiological assessment of residences in the Oak Ridge area. Volume 1. Background information for ORNL environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    Tsakeres, F.S.; Shank, K.E.; Chaudhry, M.Y.; Ahmad, S.; DiZillo-Benoit, P.M.; Oakes, T.W.

    1980-10-01

    Measurements of exposure rates using thermoluminescent dosimeters placed within residences in the Oak Ridge/Knoxville area are presented. The objective of this investigation was to determine the radiation component acquired by Oak Ridge National Laboratory employee personnel dosimeter-security badges during residential badge storage and to develop a model to predict the radiation exposure rate in Oak Ridge/Knoxville-area homes. The exposure rates varied according to building material used and geographic location. Exposure rates were higher in the fall and lower in the spring; stone residences had a higher average dose equivalent rate than residences made of wood. An average yearly exposure rate was determined to be 78 millirems per year for the Oak Ridge-area homes. This value can be compared to the natural background radiation dose equivalent rate in the United States of 80 to 200 millirems per year.

  6. Case Studies in Assessment for Transition Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trainor, Audrey A.; Patton, James R.; Clark, Gary M.

    2005-01-01

    This book presents a group of case studies to show how to assess students to develop a clear statement of transition service needs and then use that information for goals and objectives in their IEP or ITP (individual transition plan). The case studies format will help you see in a concrete way how assessment procedures relate to young people with…

  7. Collaborative Assessment: Middle School Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkison, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing a participant observer research model, a case study of the efficacy of a collaborative assessment methodology within a middle school social studies class was conducted. A review of existing research revealed that students' perceptions of assessment, evaluation, and accountability influence their intrinsic motivation to learn. A…

  8. Background Oriented Schlieren Applied to Study Shock Spacing in a Screeching Circular Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clem, Michelle M.; Zaman, Khairul B. M. Q.; Fagan, Amy F.

    2012-01-01

    Background oriented schlieren (BOS) is a recent development of the schlieren and shadowgraph methods. The BOS technique has the ability to provide visualizations of the density gradient in both the axial and radial directions. The resultant magnitude of the density gradients allows for comparison with shadowgraph images. This paper first compares data obtained by the BOS and shadowgraph techniques at identical conditions in a free jet. The patterns and spacing of the shock trains obtained by the two techniques are found to be consistent with one another. This provides confidence in the shock spacing measurement by the BOS technique. Due to its simpler setup, BOS is then applied to investigate the shock spacing associated with the screech phenomenon, especially during stage jumps. Screech frequencies from a 37.6 mm convergent nozzle, as a function of jet Mach number (M(sub j)), are shown to exhibit various stages. As many as eight stages are identified with the present nozzle over the range 1.0 < M(sub j) <1.7. BOS images are acquired at various screech conditions and the shock spacing is examined as a function of M(sub j).

  9. Accidental phosgene gas exposure: A review with background study of 10 cases

    PubMed Central

    Vaish, Arvind Kumar; Consul, Shuchi; Agrawal, Avinash; Chaudhary, Shyam Chand; Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Singh, Mohit Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Here, authors present a review on clinical presentation and management of exposure of phosgene gas after reviewing the literature by searching with keywords phosgene exposure on Google, Cochrane, Embase and PubMed with a background of experience gained from 10 patients who were admitted to our institute after an accidental phosgene exposure in February 2011 nearby a city in India. Phosgene is a highly toxic gas, occupational workers may have accidental exposure. The gas can also be generated inadvertently during fire involving plastics and other chemicals and solvents containing chlorine, which is of concern to emergency responders. Phosgene inhalation may cause initially symptoms of respiratory tract irritation, patients feel fine thereafter, and then die of choking a day later because of build up of fluid in the lungs (delayed onset non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema). Phosgene exposure is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Patients with a history of exposure should be admitted to the hospital for a minimum of 24 h for observation because of the potential for delayed onset respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:24339660

  10. Mathematical study on the guidance of the tibiofemoral joint as theoretical background for total knee replacements.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, Christoph; Gezzi, Riccardo; Frosch, Karl-Heinz; Wachowski, Martin Michael; Kubein-Meesenburg, Dietmar; Dörner, Jochen; Fanghänel, Jochen; Nägerl, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The mathematical approach presented allows main features of kinematics and force transfer in the loaded natural tibiofemoral joint (TFJ) or in loaded knee endoprostheses with asymmetric condyles to be deduced from the spatial curvature morphology of the articulating surfaces. The mathematical considerations provide the theoretical background for the development of total knee replacements (TKR) which closely reproduce biomechanical features of the natural TFJ. The model demonstrates that in flexion/extension such kinematic features as centrodes or slip ratios can be implemented in distinct curvature designs of the contact trajectories in such a way that they conform to the kinematics of the natural TFJ in close approximation. Especially the natural roll back in the stance phase during gait can be reproduced. Any external compressive force system, applied to the TFJ or the TKR, produces two joint reaction forces which--when applying screw theory--represent a force wrench. It consists of a force featuring a distinct spatial location of its line and a torque parallel to it. The dependence of the geometrical configuration of the force wrench on flexion angle, lateral/medial distribution of the joint forces, and design of the slopes of the tuberculum intercondylare is calculated. The mathematical considerations give strong hints about TKR design and show how main biomechanical features of the natural TFJ can be reproduced.

  11. A Study of External Galaxies Detected by the {ital COBE} Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Odenwald, S.; Newmark, J.; Smoot, G.

    1998-06-01

    A comparison of the {ital COBE} Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) all-sky survey with the locations of known galaxies in the {ital IRAS} Catalog of Extragalactic Objects and the Center for Astrophysics Catalog of Galaxies led to the detection of as many as 57 galaxies. In this paper, we present the photometric data for these galaxies and an analysis of the seven galaxies that were detected at {lambda} {gt} 100 {mu}m. Estimates of the ratio of the mass of the cold dust (CD) component detected at {ital T}{sub {ital d}} = 20{endash}30 K to a very cold dust (VCD) component with {ital T}{sub {ital d}} {approx} 10{endash}15 K suggest that between 2{percent}{endash}100{percent} of the cirrus-like CD mass can also exist in many of these galaxies as VCD. In one galaxy, M33, the DIRBE photometry at 240 {mu}m suggests as much as 26 times as much VCD may be present as compared to the cirrus-like component. Further submillimeter measurements of this galaxy are required to verify such a large population of VCD. We also present 10 galaxies that were detected in the sky region not previously surveyed by {ital IRAS} and that can be used to construct a flux-limited all-sky catalog of galaxies brighter than 1000 Jy with a modest completeness limit of about 65{percent}. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1998.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  12. Multi-Chroic Dual-Polarization Bolometric Detectors for Studies of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, A.; Arnold, K.; Edwards, J.; Engargiola, G.; Holzapfel, W.; Keating, B.; Lee, A. T.; Meng, X. F.; Myers, M. J.; O'Brient, R.; Quealy, E.; Rebeiz, G.; Richards, P. L.; Rosen, D.; Siritanasak, P.

    2014-09-01

    We are developing multi-chroic antenna-coupled Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometer detectors for Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarimetry. Multi-chroic detectors increase focal plane area efficiency, and thus the mapping speed per focal plane area, and provide greater discrimination against polarized galactic foregrounds with no increase in weight or cryogenic cost. In each pixel, a silicon lens-coupled dual-polarized sinuous antenna collects photons over a two-octave frequency band. The antenna couples the broadband millimeter wave signal into microstrip transmission lines, and on-chip filter banks split the broadband signal into multiple frequency bands. Separate TES bolometers detect the power in each frequency band and linear polarization state. We will describe the design and performance of these devices and present optical data taken. Our measurements of dual-polarization pixels in multiple frequency bands show beams with percent-level ellipticity, and percent-level cross-polarization leakage. We will also describe the development of large arrays of these multi-chroic pixels. Finally, we will describe kilo-pixel arrays of these detectors planned for the future CMB experiments that will achieve unprecedented mapping speed.

  13. PERCEPTION AND CEREBRAL PALSY, STUDIES IN FIGURE-BACKGROUND RELATIONSHIP. SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATION MONOGRAPH SERIES 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CRUICKSHANK, WILLIAM M.; AND OTHERS

    A STUDY OF PERCEPTION USED A SAMPLE OF 325 CEREBRAL PALSIED CHILDREN (211 WERE SPASTIC, 114 WERE ATHETOID) AND 110 NORMAL CHILDREN. ALL CHILDREN WERE BETWEEN SIX AND 16 YEARS OF AGE AND OF NORMAL INTELLIGENCE. TO INVESTIGATE PERCEPTUAL DISTURBANCES, SIX TESTS WERE ADMINISTERED--THE TACTUAL MOTOR TEST, THE SYRACUSE VISUAL FIGURE BACKGROUND TEST…

  14. A Case Study of the Experiences of Instructors and Students in a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) with Different Cultural Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Keol; Kim, Mi Hwa

    2015-01-01

    The use of virtual learning environments (VLEs) has become more common and educators recognized the potential of VLEs as educational environments. The learning community in VLEs can be a mixture of people from all over the world with different cultural backgrounds. However, despite many studies about the use of virtual environments for learning,…

  15. Community Background Reports: Papago Reservation, Sells, Arizona. National Study of American Indian Education, Series I, No. 17, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackett, Robert; Chilcott, John H.

    Number 17 in Series I of the final report of the National Study of American Indian Education describes the small community of Sells, Arizona, in terms of (1) location and climate, (2) sociocultural background, (3) transportation problems, (4) housing problems, (5) governmental influence, (6) recreation, (7) educational opportunities, and (8)…

  16. Self-Concept and Native Language Background: A Study of Measurement Invariance and Cross-Group Comparisons in Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niehaus, Kate; Adelson, Jill L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the measurement and interpretation of self-concept among the growing population of children who are English Language Learners (ELLs). More specifically, a 3-group analysis was conducted comparing native English-speaking children, Spanish-speaking ELLs, and ELLs from Asian language backgrounds. Data were drawn from the Early…

  17. Methods and background characteristics of the TOHNN study: a population-based study of oral health conditions in northern Norway

    PubMed Central

    Holde, Gro Eirin; Oscarson, Nils; Tillberg, Anders; Marstrander, Peter; Jönsson, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the Tromstannen – Oral Health in Northern Norway (TOHNN) study was to investigate oral health and dental-related diseases in an adult population. This article provides an overview of the background of the study and a description of the sample characteristics and methods employed in data collection. Study design Cross-sectional population-based study including a questionnaire and clinical dental examination. Methods A randomly selected sample of 2,909 individuals (20–79 years old) drawn from the population register was invited to participate in the study. The data were collected between October 2013 and November 2014 in Troms County in northern Norway. The questionnaire focused on oral health-related behaviours and attitudes, oral health-related quality of life, sense of coherence, dental anxiety and symptoms from the temporomandibular joint. The dental examinations, including radiographs, were conducted by 11 dental teams in 5 dental offices. The examination comprised of registration of dental caries, full mouth periodontal status, temporomandibular disorders, mucosal lesions and height and weight. The participants were grouped by age (20–34, 35–49, 50–64 and 65–79) and ethnicity (Norwegian, Sámi, other European and other world). Results From the original sample of 2,909 individuals, 1,986 (68.3%) people participated, of whom 1,019 (51.3%) were women. The highest attendance rate was among women 20–34 years old (80.3%) and the lowest in the oldest age group of women (55.4%). There was no difference in response rate between rural and urban areas. There was a positive correlation between population size and household gross income (p < 0.001) and education level (p < 0.001). The majority of Sámi resided in smaller municipalities. In larger cities, most participants used private dental health care services, whereas, in rural areas, most participants used the public dental health care service. Conclusion The TOHNN study has the

  18. The Alaskan mineral resource assessment program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the Nabesna Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richter, Donald H.; Albert, N.R.D.; Barnes, D.F.; Griscom, Andrew; Marsh, S.P.; Singer, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    The Nabesna quadrangle in south-central Alaska is the first of the l:250,000-scale Alaskan quadrangles to be investigated by an interdisciplinary research team in order to furnish a mineral resource assessment of the State. The assessment of the 17,600-km 2 16,800-mi21 quadrangle is based on field and laboratory investigations of the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and satellite imagery. The results of the investigations are published as a folio of maps, diagrams, and accompanying discussions. This report provides background information on the investigations and integrates the published components of the resource assessment. A comprehensive bibliography cites both specific and general references to the geology and mineral deposits of the Nabesna quadrangle.

  19. Hotspots and social background of urban traffic crashes: A case study in Cluj-Napoca (Romania).

    PubMed

    Benedek, József; Ciobanu, Silviu Marian; Man, Titus Cristian

    2016-02-01

    Mobility practices have changed dramatically in Romanian towns over the last 25 years, following the collapse of socialist mobility restrictions. Urban areas like Cluj-Napoca are facing both increasing immigration and car mobility, and therefore increasing levels of road traffic crashes. The analysis of traffic crashes is one of the most important elements for improving the road safety policy. This paper is divided in two parts. In the first one, the authors focus on identifying the traffic crash hotspots along the street network, while in the second part they discuss the social background of road traffic crash occurrence. The first step in analyzing traffic crashes is to determine crash hotspots. A four-year record (2010-2013) provided by the Traffic Department of the General Inspectorate of Romanian Police (GIRPTD) was used. As a method of hotspot determination, the Kernel Density Estimation tool was employed, in the frame of the spatial analysis along network (SANET). The outcome was the hotspot map of traffic crashes in Cluj-Napoca. The results have revealed 4 categories of street segments: not-dangerous, low-dangerous, medium-dangerous and high-dangerous. Based on this classification, at least 4 dangerous areas were identified, located at the city entrances-exits (in the West, North-West and East) and the city center (the most dangerous zone). The second part of the paper focuses on social groups involved in car crashes. The following are considered: age, gender and blood alcohol concentration of the person (driver or pedestrian) found guilty for every individual crash. PMID:26680130

  20. How do patients with a Turkish background evaluate their medical care in Germany? An observational study in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Katja; Bungartz, Jessica; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Steinhaeuser, Jost

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients’ evaluation of medical care is an essential dimension of quality of care and an important aspect of the feedback cycle for health care providers. The aim of this study was to document how patients with a Turkish background evaluate primary care in Germany and determine which aspects of care are associated with language abilities. Methods The study was based on an observational design. Patients with a Turkish background from German primary care practices completed the EUROPEP (European Project on Patient Evaluation of General Practice Care) questionnaire consisting of 23 items. Seventeen primary care practices were involved with either German (n=8) or Turkish (n=9) general practitioners (GPs). Results A convenience sample of 472 patients with a Turkish background from 17 practices participated in the study (response rate 39.9%). Practices with a German GP had a lower response rate (19.6%) than those with a Turkish GP (57.5%). Items evaluated the highest were “keeping data confidential” (73.4%) and “quick services for urgent health problems” (69.9%). Subgroup analysis showed lower evaluation scores from patients with good or excellent German language abilities. Patients who consulted a Turkish GP had higher evaluation scores. Conclusion The evaluation from patients with a Turkish background living in Germany with either Turkish or German GPs showed lower scores than patients in other studies in Europe using EUROPEP. However, our results had higher evaluation scores than those of Turkish patients evaluating GPs in Turkey. Therefore, different explanation models for these findings should be explored in future studies. PMID:26604710

  1. Diet and growth in infancy: relationship to socioeconomic background and to health and development in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    PubMed

    Emmett, Pauline M; Jones, Louise R

    2014-08-01

    To assess the relationship between diet and growth in infancy and socioeconomic background, all publications from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) covering breastfeeding, diet and growth in infancy, and the associations of these factors with socioeconomic background and later health and developmental outcomes were reviewed. Diet was assessed by parent-completed food records and parent-completed food frequency questionnaires covering infant feeding practices. Infancy growth was monitored through routine screening and by standardized measurements. Indicators of socioeconomic background were obtained by parent-completed questionnaires. Childhood outcomes were measured by standardized procedures. Rapid early weight gain was associated with later obesity. Longer breastfeeding duration was associated with lower body fat, but not lower body mass index, and with higher IQ in mid-childhood. Breastfed infants were better at regulating their energy intake than bottle-fed infants. In bottle-fed infants, energy intake at 4 months was associated with greater weight gain up to 5 years of age. Feeding cow's milk as a main drink in infancy was associated with anemia and high salt intake. Maternal education was a strong determinant of dietary differences: low education was associated with never breastfeeding and not following feeding guidelines. ALSPAC has provided unique insights into the relationship between diet and growth in infancy and later developmental outcomes.

  2. Using Portfolio Assessment To Study Classroom Assessment Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John O.; Bachor, Dan; Baer, Markus

    This study focused on one task that is characteristic of teacher responsibilities and activities in the school: the evaluation of student achievement. It involved 127 preservice elementary school teachers who assessed the performance of 3 simulated students on 6 language arts tasks. Information collected included the marks assigned to students on…

  3. High-impedance NbSi TES sensors for studying the cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nones, C.; Marnieros, S.; Benoit, A.; Bergé, L.; Bideaud, A.; Camus, P.; Dumoulin, L.; Monfardini, A.; Rigaut, O.

    2012-12-01

    Precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) are crucial in cosmology because any proposed model of the universe must account for the features of this radiation. The CMB has a thermal blackbody spectrum at a temperature of 2.725 K, i.e. the spectrum peaks in the microwave range frequency of 160.2 GHz, corresponding to a 1.9-mm wavelength. Of all CMB measurements that the scientific community has not yet been able to perform, the CMB B-mode polarization is probably the most challenging from the instrumental point of view. The signature of primordial gravitational waves, which give rise to a B-type polarization, is one of the goals in cosmology today and amongst the first objectives in the field. For this purpose, high-performance low-temperature bolometric cameras, made of thousands of pixels, are currently being developed by many groups, which will improve the sensitivity to B-mode CMB polarization by one or two orders of magnitude compared to the Planck satellite HFI detectors. We present here a new bolometer structure that is able to increase the pixel sensitivities and to simplify the fabrication procedure. This innovative device replaces delicate membrane-based structures and eliminates the mediation of phonons: the incoming energy is directly captured and measured in the electron bath of an appropriate sensor and the thermal decoupling is achieved via the intrinsic electron-phonon decoupling of the sensor at very low temperature. Reported results come from a 204-pixel array of NbxSi1-x transition edge sensors with a meander structure fabricated on a 2-inch silicon wafer using electron-beam co-evaporation and a cleanroom lithography process. To validate the application of this device to CMB measurements, we have performed an optical calibration of our sample in the focal plane of a dilution cryostat test bench. We have demonstrated a light absorption close to 20% and an optical noise equivalent power of about 7×10-16 W/√Hz, which is highly

  4. Alcohol consumption and binge drinking in adolescents: comparison of different migration backgrounds and rural vs. urban residence - a representative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Binge drinking is a constant problem behavior in adolescents across Europe. Epidemiological investigations have been reported. However, epidemiological data on alcohol consumption of adolescents with different migration backgrounds are rare. Furthermore representative data on rural-urban comparison concerning alcohol consumption and binge drinking are lacking. The aims of the study are the investigation of alcohol consumption patterns with respect to a) urban-rural differences and b) differences according to migration background. Methods In the years 2007/2008, a representative written survey of N = 44,610 students in the 9th. grade of different school types in Germany was carried out (net sample). The return rate of questionnaires was 88% regarding all students whose teachers respectively school directors had agreed to participate in the study. Weighting factors were specified and used to make up for regional and school-type specific differences in return rates. 27.4% of the adolescents surveyed have a migration background, whereby the Turkish culture is the largest group followed by adolescents who emigrated from former Soviet Union states. The sample includes seven large cities (over 500,000 inhabitants) (12.2%), independent smaller cities ("urban districts") (19.0%) and rural areas ("rural districts") (68.8%). Results Life-time prevalence for alcohol consumption differs significantly between rural (93.7%) and urban areas (86.6% large cities; 89.1% smaller cities) with a higher prevalence in rural areas. The same accounts for 12-month prevalence for alcohol consumption. 57.3% of the rural, re-spectively 45.9% of the urban adolescents engaged in binge drinking in the 4 weeks prior to the survey. Students with migration background of the former Soviet Union showed mainly drinking behavior similar to that of German adolescents. Adolescents with Turkish roots had engaged in binge drinking in the last four weeks less frequently than adolescents of German

  5. Exploring Anti-Semitism in the Classroom: A Case Study among Norwegian Adolescents from Minority Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This study explores high school students' views of Jews in one minority-dominated school in Oslo, Norway. Employing a qualitative approach, semistructured interview guides and classroom-based discussions teased out attitudes toward Jews drawing on questions from a nationwide research conducted by The Center for Studies of the Holocaust and…

  6. In Search of Permeable Boundaries: A Case Study of Teacher Background, Student Resistance, and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mthethwa-Sommers, S.

    2012-01-01

    This article draws from an action research case study undertaken by an African-born faculty member who speaks English with a foreign accent. The study employed co-teaching as an intervention method to (a) test the hypothesis that co-teaching with an instructor born in the United States from the dominant racial and linguistic group might reduce…

  7. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, remote sensing, and mineral resource maps of the Wallace 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, Montana and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, Jack Edward; Leach, David L.; Kleinkopf, M. Dean; Long, Carl L.; Rowan, Larry C.; Marvin, Richard F.

    1986-01-01

    The Wallace 1? x 2 quadrangle in Montana and Idaho was studied by an interdisciplinary research team that included geologists, geochemists, and geophysicists, as well as specialists in isotopic dating and remote sensing. The basic data resulting from these studies, as well as the final metallic mineral resource assessments, are published as a folio of maps, figures, tables, and accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the studies and lists the published components of the resource appraisal. An extensive bibliography lists both specific and general references that apply to this geoscience study of the quadrangle.

  8. Assessing the efficacy of candidate mosquito repellents against the background of an attractive source that mimics a human host.

    PubMed

    Menger, D J; Van Loon, J J A; Takken, W

    2014-12-01

    Mosquito repellents are used around the globe to protect against nuisance biting and disease-transmitting mosquitoes. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the development of repellents as tools to control the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. We present a new bioassay for the accurate assessment of candidate repellent compounds, using a synthetic odour that mimics the odour blend released by human skin. Using DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide) and PMD (p-menthane-3,8-diol) as reference compounds, nine candidate repellents were tested, of which five showed significant repellency to the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae). These included: 2-nonanone; 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one; linalool; δ-decalactone, and δ-undecalactone. The lactones were also tested on the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae), against which they showed similar degrees of repellency. We conclude that the lactones are highly promising repellents, particularly because these compounds are pleasant-smelling, natural products that are also present in human food sources. PMID:24797537

  9. Are Qualitative Assessments of Background Parenchymal Enhancement, Amount of Fibroglandular Tissue on MR Images, and Mammographic Density Associated with Breast Cancer Risk?

    PubMed Central

    Dontchos, Brian N.; Partridge, Savannah C.; Korde, Larissa A.; Lam, Diana L.; Scheel, John R.; Peacock, Sue; Lehman, Constance D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether qualitative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging assessments of background parenchymal enhancement (BPE), amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT), and mammographic density are associated with risk of developing breast cancer in women who are at high risk. Materials and Methods In this institutional review board–approved HIPAA-compliant retrospective study, all screening breast MR images obtained from January 2006 to December 2011 in women aged 18 years or older and at high risk for but without a history of breast cancer were identified. Women in whom breast cancer was diagnosed after index MR imaging comprised the cancer cohort, and one-to-one matching (age and BRCA status) of each woman with breast cancer to a control subject was performed by using MR images obtained in women who did not develop breast cancer with follow-up time maximized. Amount of BPE, BPE pattern (peripheral vs central), amount of FGT at MR imaging, and mammographic density were assessed on index images. Imaging features were compared between cancer and control cohorts by using conditional logistic regression. Results Twenty-three women at high risk (mean age, 47 years ± 10 [standard deviation]; six women had BRCA mutations) with no history of breast cancer underwent screening breast MR imaging; in these women, a diagnosis of breast cancer (invasive, n = 12; in situ, n = 11) was made during the follow-up interval. Women with mild, moderate, or marked BPE were nine times more likely to receive a diagnosis of breast cancer during the follow-up interval than were those with minimal BPE (P = .007; odds ratio = 9.0; 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 71.0). BPE pattern, MR imaging amount of FGT, and mammographic density were not significantly different between the cohorts (P = .5, P = .5, and P = .4, respectively). Conclusion Greater BPE was associated with a higher probability of developing breast cancer in women at high risk for cancer and warrants further study. © RSNA

  10. Assessment, Autonomy, and Elementary Social Studies Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitchett, Paul G.; Heafner, Tina L.; Lambert, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background/context: In an era of accountability and standardization, elementary social studies is consistently losing its curricular foothold to English/language arts, math, and science instruction. Purpose: This article examines the relationship between elementary teachers' perceptions of instructional autonomy, teaching context, state…

  11. Background and introduction to the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Parasuicide.

    PubMed

    Bille-Brahe, U; Schmidtke, A; Kerkhof, A J; De Leo, D; Lönnqvist, J; Platt, S; Sampaio Faria, J

    1995-01-01

    In most European countries, suicidal behavior is a major public health problem and a considerable drain on resources at both the primary and secondary health care levels. Unfortunately, due to cross-cultural differences both in medical treatment of nonfatal suicidal behavior and in research methodologies, it has proved almost impossible to make valid comparisons between countries. It is therefore imperative that international studies based on the same definitions and methodologies be facilitated if we want to extend our knowledge of suicidal behavior and be able to make suggestions for intervention and prevention. The WHO Regional Office for Europe decided to support a collaborative multicenter study, designed to provide a reliable epidemiological picture of parasuicide in Europe. This article provides an introduction to the study. PMID:7587294

  12. United States citizens studying medicine abroad. Their backgrounds and test performance.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D G; Swanson, A G; Jolly, P; Teich, J; Asper, S P

    1986-12-11

    To acquire information about the characteristics of U.S. citizens who had recently studied medicine abroad, the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG) and the Association of American Medical Colleges merged independently collected data on a study group of 10,460 U.S. citizens who attended 359 medical schools in 75 foreign countries and who took their first ECFMG examination between 1978 and 1982. The study group was markedly heterogeneous: 21 percent were not U.S. citizens at birth, 32 percent did not have English as a native language, and 12 percent had two or more years of undergraduate college education in Puerto Rico. Sixty-seven percent resided in New York, New Jersey, California, Florida, or Puerto Rico, and 74 percent studied medicine in Mexico or the Caribbean. Forty-six percent passed the ECFMG examination on their first attempt, and 22 percent passed a subsequent examination. Only 45 percent had applied to a U.S. medical school, and 65 percent had taken the Medical College Admission Test. The means of the college grade-point averages, known for 39 percent of the study group, and of the scores on the admission test, known for 65 percent, were lower than those of both accepted and unaccepted applicants to U.S. medical schools in the 1976 and 1978 entering classes. The finding that 55 percent of the study group did not apply to a U.S. medical school does not support the widely held belief that most, if not all, U.S. citizens who attend foreign medical schools do so only after several unsuccessful attempts to gain admission to a U.S. school.

  13. Geochemical background/baseline values in top soils of Campania region: assessment of the toxic elements threat to ecosystem and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vivo, B.; Lima, A.; Albanese, S.; Bove, M.; Cicchella, D.; Civitillo, D.; Cosenza, A.; Grezzi, G.

    2009-04-01

    In the late years an intense geochemical prospecting activity on the whole territory of Campania region (Southern Italy) has been carried aiming at the definition of the geochemical backgrounds/baselines at both regional and local scale. At the end of 2003 the first edition of an atlas containing 200 maps showing the distribution patterns of 40 chemical elements on the whole regional territory was published (De Vivo et al., 2003, 2006a; Albanese et al., 2007a). The atlas provided a base knowledge of environmental status of the region and allowed to individuate some critical areas to be further investigated by topsoils sampling follow up activity; the topsoils are considered as the best media in order to examine closely the sources and the distribution patterns of harmful elements at a local scale. The topsoils sampling was mainly focused on anthropized areas (at urban and metropolitan scale), industrial settlments, brownfields and intensely cultivated zones, aimed at: • showing the distribution of concentration values and to determine baseline values (or backgrounds, depending on local conditions) of each analyzed element (38) in the top soils; • assessing harmful elements pollution levels and their geographic distribution; • providing reliable analytical data for assessment of toxic element pollution threat to ecosystem and human health; • creating a sound basis for policy makers and legislators who need to address the public concerns regarding environmental pollution. Five atlases (De Vivo et al., 2006b; Albanese et al., 2007b; Lima et al., 2007; Fedele et al., 2007 Cicchella et al., 2009) were produced reporting soil geochemical maps compiled using 1620 samples collected both in the metropolitan and provincial area of Napoli and in the cities of Avellino, Benevento, Caserta and Salerno. Further studies were also carried out taking into account Pb isotopes (Cicchella et al., 2008a), PGE's (Cicchella et al., 2003; 2008b) and bioavailability of harmful

  14. The Influence of Cultural Background on Parental Perceptions of Adolescent Gambling Behaviour: A Canadian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Colin A.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Meerkamper, Eric; Cutajar, Jo

    2012-01-01

    Considerable research has begun to address youth gambling issues from a bio-psycho-social perspective. The current Canadian national study adds to this body of knowledge by examining the cultural influences impacting parent's attitudes, behaviors and perceptions of youth gambling. A total of 3,279 parents with a child between the ages of 13 and 18…

  15. Population study in the high natural background radiation area in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Nair, M K; Nambi, K S; Amma, N S; Gangadharan, P; Jayalekshmi, P; Jayadevan, S; Cherian, V; Reghuram, K N

    1999-12-01

    A comprehensive survey of the population exposed to high-level natural radiation is presented. The population living in Karunagappally taluk in Kerala, India, presents a unique opportunity for studies on the health effects of chronic exposure to low-level radiation. The environmental radiation emanates largely from the thorium deposited mostly along coastal areas. In certain locations on the coast, it is as high as 70 mGy/year and on average is 7.5 times the level seen in interior areas. Using portable scintillometers, radiation levels in more than 66,306 houses were measured; outside levels were also measured in the same house compound. Of the total population of 400,000, 100,000 lived in areas with high natural radiation. Information on lifestyle, socio-demographic features, occupation, housing, residence history, and tobacco and alcohol use was obtained by house-to-house visits and enumeration of every resident individual. A population cancer registry system has been established to obtain cancer incidence rates. In this preliminary analysis, there is no evidence that cancer occurrence is consistently higher because of the levels of external gamma-radiation exposure in the area. Further dosimetry-level studies are needed along with biological studies. Studies of soil, thoron-in-breath, and the radon-thoron levels in houses are ongoing, and further case-control analyses are continuing.

  16. Input Processing: A Study of "Ab Initio" Learners with Multilingual Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, ZhaoHong; Peverly, Stephen T.

    2007-01-01

    Research on input processing in the acquisition of a non-primary language has rested largely on the assumption that learners use a meaning-based approach as the "default" when processing input (VanPatten, 1996). The study reported here poses a challenge to this assumption: findings show that participants who were absolute beginners used a…

  17. A Force Concept Correlation Study with Instructional Methods, Anxiety, Perceptions of Difficulty and Student Background Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grim, Nancy C.

    This paper reports on a study that used Hestenes' Force Concept Inventory (FCI) to describe Newtonian force concepts and misconception belief systems held by preservice teachers in physical science and physics students attending an urban university in Chicago, Illinois. Results indicate that constructivist instruction in force concepts was of…

  18. Albanian: A Survey of Albanian Language and Literature. Area Background Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This survey of Albanian language and literature is a synopsis of linguistic studies and literary achievements in Albania. The first chapter discusses the origin of the Albanian language. The next chapters deal with the Greek, Latin, Slavic, and Turkish influences on the Albanian language. The influence of Albanian on other Balkan languages and the…

  19. The Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany geologic and mineral-resource maps of the Cordova and Middleton Island quadrangles, southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winkler, Gary R.; Plafker, George; Goldfarb, R.J.; Case, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    report summarizes recent results of integrated geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Cordova and Middleton Island 1?x3 ? quadrangles of coastal southern Alaska. Published open-file reports and maps accompanied by descriptive and interpretative texts, tables, diagrams, and pertinent references provide background information for a mineral-resource assessment of the two quadrangles. Mines in the Cordova and Middleton Island quadrangles produced copper and byproduct gold and silver in the first three decades of the 20th century. The quadrangles may contain potentially significant undiscovered resources of precious and base metals (gold, silver, copper, zinc, and lead) in veins and massive sulfide deposits hosted by Cretaceous and Paleogene sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Resources of manganese also may be present in the Paleogene rocks; uranium resources may be present in Eocene granitic rocks; and placer gold may be present in beach sands near the mouth of the Copper River, in alluvial sands within the canyons of the Copper River, and in smaller alluvial deposits underlain by rocks of the Valdez Group. Significant coal resources are present in the Bering River area, but difficult access and structural complexities have discouraged development. Investigation of numerous oil and gas seeps near Katalla in the eastern part of the area led to the discovery of a small, shallow field from which oil was produced between 1902 and 1933. The field has been inactive since, and subsequent exploration and drilling onshore near Katalla in the 1960's and offshore near Middleton Island on the outer continental shelf in the 1970's and 1980's was not successful.

  20. Sensitivity of the distribution of mutational fitness effects to environment, genetic background, and adaptedness: a case study with Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wang, Alethea D; Sharp, Nathaniel P; Agrawal, Aneil F

    2014-03-01

    Heterogeneity in the fitness effects of individual mutations has been found across different environmental and genetic contexts. Going beyond effects on individual mutations, how is the distribution of selective effects, f(s), altered by changes in genetic and environmental context? In this study, we examined changes in the major features of f(s) by estimating viability selection on 36 individual mutations in Drosophila melanogaster across two different environments in two different genetic backgrounds that were either adapted or nonadapted to the two test environments. Both environment and genetic background affected selection on individual mutations. However, the overall distribution f(s) appeared robust to changes in genetic background but both the mean, E(s), and the variance, V(s) were dependent on the environment. Between these two properties, V(s) was more sensitive to environmental change. Contrary to predictions of fitness landscape theory, the match between genetic background and assay environment (i.e., adaptedness) had little effect on f(s).

  1. Study of interfaces in an Axisymmetric Supersonic Jet using Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echeverría, Carlos; Porta, David; Aguayo, Alejandro; Cardoso, Hiroki; Stern, Catalina

    2014-11-01

    We have used several techniques to study a small axisymmetric supersonic jet: Rayleigh scattering, Schlieren Toepler and PIV. Each technique gives different kind of information. In this paper, a BOS set-up is used to study the structure of the shock pattern. A shadowgraph of a dot matrix is obtained with and without a flow. The displacement field of the dots is related to changes in the index of refraction, which can be related, through the Gladstone-Dale equation, to changes in density. Previous results with this technique were not conclusive because of the relative size of the dots compared to the diameter of the nozzle. Measurements have been taken for three different exit speeds. We acknowledge support from UNAM through DGAPA PAPIIT IN117712 and the Graduate Program in Mechanical Engineering.

  2. Assessing the Academic Benefit of Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cisneros-Donahue, Teresa; Krentler, Kathleen A.; Reinig, Bruce; Sabol, Karey

    2012-01-01

    Study abroad is a growing phenomenon in higher education. Although such growth is typically lauded, efforts to measure the impact of international experiences on student learning have been limited. This study assesses the academic benefit of a study abroad program, offered by a U.S. university, with measures of self-reported learning. Study abroad…

  3. The Alaskan mineral resource assessment program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the Ambler River Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayfield, Charles F.; Tailleur, I.L.; Albert, N.R.; Ellersieck, Inyo; Grybeck, Donald; Hackett, S.W.

    1983-01-01

    The Ambler River quadrangle, consisting of 14,290 km2 (5,520 mi2) in northwest Alaska, was investigated by an interdisciplinary research team for the purpose of assessing the mineral resource potential of the quadrangle. This report provides background information for a folio of maps on the geology, reconnaissance geochemistry, aeromagnetics, Landsat imagery, and mineral resource evaluation of the quadrangle. A summary of the geologic history, radiometric dates, and fossil localities and a comprehensive bibliography are also included. The quadrangle contains jade reserves, now being mined, and potentially significant resources of copper, zinc, lead, and silver.

  4. The Alaskan Mineral Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the Tanacross Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, Helen Laura; Albert, N.R.D.; Barnes, D.F.; Curtin, G.C.; Griscom, Andrew; Singer, D.A.; Smith, James G.

    1976-01-01

    The Tanacross quadrangle, consisting of 17,400 km 2 (6,700 mi 2) in east-central Alaska, was investigated by an interdisciplinary research team for the purpose of assessing the mineral resource potential of the quadrangle. This report provides the background information for a folio of maps on the geology, geophysics, reconnaissance geochemistry, Landsat imagery, and mineral resource evaluation of the quadrangle. Revisions to the previously published geologic map of the Tanacross quadrangle, 18 new potassium-argon ages, and a comprehensive bibliography are also included.

  5. Analytical and Numerical Studies of the Complex Interaction of a Fast Ion Beam Pulse with a Background Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Igor D. Kaganovich; Edward A. Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson

    2003-11-25

    Plasma neutralization of an intense ion beam pulse is of interest for many applications, including plasma lenses, heavy ion fusion, high energy physics, etc. Comprehensive analytical, numerical, and experimental studies are underway to investigate the complex interaction of a fast ion beam with a background plasma. The positively charged ion beam attracts plasma electrons, and as a result the plasma electrons have a tendency to neutralize the beam charge and current. A suite of particle-in-cell codes has been developed to study the propagation of an ion beam pulse through the background plasma. For quasi-steady-state propagation of the ion beam pulse, an analytical theory has been developed using the assumption of long charge bunches and conservation of generalized vorticity. The analytical results agree well with the results of the numerical simulations. The visualization of the data obtained in the numerical simulations shows complex collective phenomena during beam entry into and ex it from the plasma.

  6. The rural allied health workforce study (RAHWS): background, rationale and questionnaire development.

    PubMed

    Keane, Sheila; Smith, Tony N; Lincoln, Michelle; Wagner, Scott R; Lowe, Shelagh E

    2008-01-01

    The allied health professions form approximately 18% of the health workforce in Australia and are well placed to contribute to future multidisciplinary models of health care. There are many reports describing the health workforce in Australia for the medical and nursing professions but there is very little information available about the nature of the allied health workforce. Recent studies have highlighted the need for more current and detailed information about the rural allied health workforce to inform future workforce planning. National health policy reform requires that new healthcare models take into account future workforce requirements, the distribution and work contexts of existing practitioners, training needs, workforce roles and scope of practice. The absence of accurate data profiling the existing rural allied health workforce makes this impossible. The Rural Allied Health Workforce Study (RAHWS) aims to use a cross-sectional survey instrument with high validity to provide a large scale but detailed profile of the allied health workforce in regional, rural and remote Australia. The RAHWS survey instrument used in this study is the result of a comprehensive consultation with clinicians, academics and managers. The RAHWS survey instrument has been designed to provide uniform data across a wide range of healthcare settings. Good concurrent and face validity have been demonstrated and its design allows for data analysis using a wide range of variables. Cross-correlation of responses can answer a number of research questions in relation to rural recruitment and retention, professional education and service delivery models. This valid and feasible instrument will be used to explore the rural allied health workforce by implementing the RAHWS survey in rural regions on a state-by-state basis in Australia during 2009 and 2010. PMID:19182857

  7. Lessons of kuru research: background to recent studies with some personal reflections

    PubMed Central

    Collinge, John

    2008-01-01

    The widespread exposure of the UK population to bovine spongiform encephalopathy prions, and the potential consequences for public health, led to a renewed interest in kuru, the principal example of epidemic human prion disease. Kuru research in Papua New Guinea was expanded to study the range of incubation periods possible in human prion infection, to investigate maternal and other possible natural routes of transmission, to characterize genetic susceptibility and resistance factors and to gain insights into the peripheral pathogenesis of orally acquired prion disease in humans. Although now essentially over, the kuru epidemic continues to provide important lessons. PMID:18849283

  8. Assessing Civic Competency and Engagement in Higher Education: Research Background, Frameworks, and Directions for Next-Generation Assessment. Research Report. ETS RR-15-34

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torney-Purta, Judith; Cabrera, Julio C.; Roohr, Katrina Crotts; Liu, Ou Lydia; Rios, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Civic learning is increasingly recognized as important by the higher education and workforce communities. The development of high-quality assessments that can be used to evaluate students' civic learning during the college years has become a priority. This paper presents a comprehensive review of existing frameworks, definitions, and assessments…

  9. The Study of the Role of the Background Languages in Third Language Acquisition. the State of the Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Ylva; Bardel, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to give an up-to-date picture of study of the role of the background languages (the first language, L1, and the second language, L2) in third language (L3) acquisition, mainly in the two areas of vocabulary and syntax. These seem to be the two linguistic levels on which there has so far been most research concerning…

  10. Functional abdominal pain in childhood: Background studies and recent research trends

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Rona L; van Tilburg, Miranda AL

    2012-01-01

    The present review summarizes many of the major research trends investigated in the past five years regarding pediatric functional abdominal pain, and also summarizes the primary related findings from the authors’ research program. Specific areas discussed based on work within the authors’ group include familial illness patterns, genetics, traits, and mechanisms or processes related to abdominal pain. Topics covered from research published in the past five years include prevalence and cost, longitudinal follow-up, overlap with other disorders, etiology and mechanisms behind functional abdominal pain and treatment studies. It is hoped that findings from this work in abdominal pain will be interpreted as a framework for understanding the processes by which other pain phenomena and, more broadly, reactions to any physical state, can be developed and maintained in children. The present article concludes with recommendations for clinical practice and research. PMID:23248815

  11. Acoustic studies for alpha background rejection in dark matter bubble chamber detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bou-Cabo, M.; Felis, I.; Ardid, M.; Collaboration: COUPP Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    COUPP (Chicagoland Observatory for Underground Particle Physics) is an experiment with bubble chambers able to detect dark matter directly either with Spin-Dependent or with Spin-Independent interactions. The target material is a superheated liquid (usually CF3I) that can be bubble nucleated due to nuclear recoils produced by elastic collisions of dark matter particles. The bubble growth inside the chamber is accompanied with an acoustic signature. The acoustic technique has been successfully used to have a good alpha discrimination (about 99%). In this paper, we present different studies and results related with the characterization of the acoustic properties of the detector and the different phenomena involved in the acoustic measurements of the bubble growth, such as sound generation, sound transmission and optimization of piezoelectric transducers.

  12. Three-area epidemiological study of geographic differences in stroke mortality. I. Background and methods.

    PubMed

    Nefzger, M D; Kuller, L H; Lilienfeld, A M; Diamond, E L; Miller, G D; Stolley, P D; Tonascia, S

    1977-01-01

    An epidemiological study was conducted to determine the geographical variations in stroke mortality among three U.S. areas. They were Savannah, Georgia (high stroke rates), Hagerstown, Maryland (intermediate stroke rates) and Pueblo, Colorado (low stroke rates). In each area samples were drawn of the population in the 35--54 age group. The subjects were interviewed and examined to obtain the information required on medical conditions and/or living habits which would characterize each area. A brief medical and family history, as well as demographic and personal data, were obtained by interview. The medical examination included blood pressure, ECG, blood and urine chemistry, height and weight. In all three cities the response rate in the final sample selected was 90% (2,375 individuals) interviewed and 74% (1.939 individuals) examined.

  13. The Associations Between the Religious Background, Social Supports, and Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders in Taiwan: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kuan-Han; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Chou, Nai-Kuan; Huang, Sheng-Jean; Wu, Chau-Chung; Chen, Yen-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated important implications related to religiosity and a do-not-resuscitate (DNR) decision. However, the association between patients' religious background and DNR decisions is vague. In particular, the association between the religious background of Buddhism/Daoism and DNR decisions has never been examined. The objective of this study was to examine the association between patients' religious background and their DNR decisions, with a particular focus on Buddhism/Daoism.The medical records of the patients who were admitted to the 3 surgical intensive care units (SICU) in a university-affiliated medical center located at Northern Taiwan from June 1, 2011 to December 31, 2013 were retrospectively collected. We compared the clinical/demographic variables of DNR patients with those of non-DNR patients using the Student t test or χ test depending on the scale of the variables. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to examine the association between the religious backgrounds and DNR decisions.A sample of 1909 patients was collected: 122 patients had a DNR order; and 1787 patients did not have a DNR order. Old age (P = 0.02), unemployment (P = 0.02), admission diagnosis of "nonoperative, cardiac failure/insufficiency" (P = 0.03), and severe acute illness at SICU admission (P < 0.01) were significantly associated with signing of DNR orders. Patients' religious background of Buddhism/Daoism (P = 0.04), married marital status (P = 0.02), and admission diagnosis of "postoperative, major surgery" (P = 0.02) were less likely to have a DNR order written during their SICU stay. Furthermore, patients with poor social support, as indicated by marital and working status, were more likely to consent to a DNR order during SICU stay.This study showed that the religious background of Buddhism/Daoism was significantly associated with a lower likelihood of consenting to a DNR, and poor social support was significantly

  14. Assessment of technical strengths and information flow of energy conservation research in Japan. Volume 2. Background document

    SciTech Connect

    Hane, G.J.; Lewis, P.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Rubinger, B.; Willis, A.

    1985-06-01

    Purpose of this study is to explore the status of R and D in Japan and the ability of US researchers to keep abreast of Japanese technical advances. US researchers familiar with R and D activities in Japan were interviewed in ten fields that are relevant to the more efficient use of energy: amorphous metals, biotechnology, ceramics, combustion, electrochemical energy storage, heat engines, heat transfer, high-temperature sensors, thermal and chemical energy storage, and tribology. The researchers were questioned about their perceptions of the strengths of R and D in Japan, comparative aspects of US work, and the quality of available information sources describing R and D in Japan. Of the ten related fields, the researchers expressed a strong perception that significant R and D is under way in amorphous metals, biotechnology, and ceramics, and that the US competitive position in these technologies will be significantly challenged. Researchers also identified alternative emphases in Japanese R and D programs in these areas that provide Japan with stronger technical capabilities. For example, in biotechnology, researchers noted the significant Japanese emphasis on industrial-scale bioprocess engineering, which contrasts with a more meager effort in the US. In tribology, researchers also noted the strength of the chemical tribology research in Japan and commented on the effective mix of chemical and mechanical tribology research. This approach contrasts with the emphasis on mechanical tribology in the US.

  15. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Among Hispanics/Latinos of Diverse Background: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Heiss, Gerardo; Snyder, Michelle L.; Teng, Yanping; Schneiderman, Neil; Llabre, Maria M.; Cowie, Catherine; Carnethon, Mercedes; Kaplan, Robert; Giachello, Aida; Gallo, Linda; Loehr, Laura; Avilés-Santa, Larissa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Approximately one-third of the adult U.S. population has the metabolic syndrome. Its prevalence is the highest among Hispanic adults, but variation by Hispanic/Latino background is unknown. Our objective was to quantify the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among men and women 18–74 years of age of diverse Hispanic/Latino background. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Two-stage area probability sample of households in four U.S. locales, yielding 16,319 adults (52% women) who self-identified as Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Central American, or South American. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute 2009 Joint Scientific Statement. The main outcome measures were age-standardized prevalence of the metabolic syndrome per the harmonized American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute definition and its component abnormalities. RESULTS The metabolic syndrome was present in 36% of women and 34% of men. Differences in the age-standardized prevalence were seen by age, sex, and Hispanic/Latino background. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among those 18–44, 45–64, and 65–74 years of age was 23%, 50%, and 62%, respectively, among women; and 25%, 43%, and 55%, respectively, among men. Among women, the metabolic syndrome prevalence ranged from 27% in South Americans to 41% in Puerto Ricans. Among men, prevalences ranged from 27% in South Americans to 35% in Cubans. In those with the metabolic syndrome, abdominal obesity was present in 96% of the women compared with 73% of the men; more men (73%) than women (62%) had hyperglycemia. CONCLUSIONS The burden of cardiometabolic abnormalities is high in Hispanic/Latinos but varies by age, sex, and Hispanic/Latino background. Hispanics/Latinos are thus at increased, but modifiable, predicted lifetime risk of diabetes and its cardiovascular sequelae. PMID:25061141

  16. Genome-wide association study of serum minerals levels in children of different ethnic background.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiao; Li, Jin; Guo, Yiran; Wei, Zhi; Mentch, Frank D; Hou, Cuiping; Zhao, Yan; Qiu, Haijun; Kim, Cecilia; Sleiman, Patrick M A; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2015-01-01

    Calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chloride and phosphorus are the major dietary minerals involved in various biological functions and are commonly measured in the blood serum. Sufficient mineral intake is especially important for children due to their rapid growth. Currently, the genetic mechanisms influencing serum mineral levels are poorly understood, especially for children. We carried out a genome-wide association (GWA) study on 5,602 European-American children and 4,706 African-American children who had mineral measures available in their electronic medical records (EMR). While no locus met the criteria for genome-wide significant association, our results demonstrated a nominal association of total serum calcium levels with a missense variant in the calcium -sensing receptor (CASR) gene on 3q13 (rs1801725, P = 1.96 × 10(-3)) in the African-American pediatric cohort, a locus previously reported in Caucasians. We also confirmed the association result in our pediatric European-American cohort (P = 1.38 × 10(-4)). We further replicated two other loci associated with serum calcium levels in the European-American cohort (rs780094, GCKR, P = 4.26 × 10(-3); rs10491003, GATA3, P = 0.02). In addition, we replicated a previously reported locus on 1q21, demonstrating association of serum magnesium levels with MUC1 (rs4072037, P = 2.04 × 10(-6)). Moreover, in an extended gene-based association analysis we uncovered evidence for association of calcium levels with the previously reported gene locus DGKD in both European-American children and African-American children. Taken together, our results support a role for CASR and DGKD mediated calcium regulation in both African-American and European-American children, and corroborate the association of calcium levels with GCKR and GATA3, and the association of magnesium levels with MUC1 in the European-American children.

  17. 14C-Based source assessment of soot aerosols in Stockholm and the Swedish EMEP-Aspvreten regional background site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, August; Sheesley, Rebecca J.; Kruså, Martin; Johansson, Christer; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2011-01-01

    Combustion-derived soot or black carbon (BC) in the atmosphere has a strong influence on both climate and human health. In order to propose effective mitigation strategies for BC emissions it is of importance to investigate geographical distributions and seasonal variations of BC emission sources. Here, a radiocarbon methodology is used to distinguish between fossil fuel and biomass burning sources of soot carbon (SC). SC is isolated for subsequent off-line 14C quantification with the chemothermal oxidation method at 375 °C (CTO-375 method), which reflects a recalcitrant portion of the BC continuum known to minimize inadvertent inclusion of any non-pyrogenic organic matter. Monitored wind directions largely excluded impact from the Stockholm metropolitan region at the EMEP-Aspvreten rural station 70 km to the south-west. Nevertheless, the Stockholm city and the rural stations yielded similar relative source contributions with fraction biomass ( fbiomass) for fall and winter periods in the range of one-third to half. Large temporal variations in 14C-based source apportionment was noted for both the 6 week fall and the 4 month winter observations. The fbiomass appeared to be related to the SC concentration suggesting that periods of elevated BC levels may be caused by increased wood fuel combustion. These results for the largest metropolitan area in Scandinavia combine with other recent 14C-based studies of combustion-derived aerosol fractions to suggest that biofuel combustion is contributing a large portion of the BC load to the northern European atmosphere.

  18. Importance of background rates of disease in assessment of vaccine safety during mass immunisation with pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Black, Steven; Eskola, Juhani; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Halsey, Neal; Macdonald, Noni; Law, Barbara; Miller, Elizabeth; Andrews, Nick; Stowe, Julia; Salmon, Daniel; Vannice, Kirsten; Izurieta, Hector S; Akhtar, Aysha; Gold, Mike; Oselka, Gabriel; Zuber, Patrick; Pfeifer, Dina; Vellozzi, Claudia

    2009-12-19

    Because of the advent of a new influenza A H1N1 strain, many countries have begun mass immunisation programmes. Awareness of the background rates of possible adverse events will be a crucial part of assessment of possible vaccine safety concerns and will help to separate legitimate safety concerns from events that are temporally associated with but not caused by vaccination. We identified background rates of selected medical events for several countries. Rates of disease events varied by age, sex, method of ascertainment, and geography. Highly visible health conditions, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, spontaneous abortion, or even death, will occur in coincident temporal association with novel influenza vaccination. On the basis of the reviewed data, if a cohort of 10 million individuals was vaccinated in the UK, 21.5 cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome and 5.75 cases of sudden death would be expected to occur within 6 weeks of vaccination as coincident background cases. In female vaccinees in the USA, 86.3 cases of optic neuritis per 10 million population would be expected within 6 weeks of vaccination. 397 per 1 million vaccinated pregnant women would be predicted to have a spontaneous abortion within 1 day of vaccination.

  19. Are conventional statistical techniques exhaustive for defining metal background concentrations in harbour sediments? A case study: The Coastal Area of Bari (Southeast Italy).

    PubMed

    Mali, Matilda; Dell'Anna, Maria Michela; Mastrorilli, Piero; Damiani, Leonardo; Ungaro, Nicola; Belviso, Claudia; Fiore, Saverio

    2015-11-01

    Sediment contamination by metals poses significant risks to coastal ecosystems and is considered to be problematic for dredging operations. The determination of the background values of metal and metalloid distribution based on site-specific variability is fundamental in assessing pollution levels in harbour sediments. The novelty of the present work consists of addressing the scope and limitation of analysing port sediments through the use of conventional statistical techniques (such as: linear regression analysis, construction of cumulative frequency curves and the iterative 2σ technique), that are commonly employed for assessing Regional Geochemical Background (RGB) values in coastal sediments. This study ascertained that although the tout court use of such techniques in determining the RGB values in harbour sediments seems appropriate (the chemical-physical parameters of port sediments fit well with statistical equations), it should nevertheless be avoided because it may be misleading and can mask key aspects of the study area that can only be revealed by further investigations, such as mineralogical and multivariate statistical analyses.

  20. Dietary education must fit into everyday life: a qualitative study of people with a Pakistani background and type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hempler, Nana F; Nicic, Sara; Ewers, Bettina; Willaing, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Background The high prevalence of diabetes among South Asian populations in European countries partially derives from unhealthy changes in dietary patterns. Limited studies address perspectives of South Asian populations with respect to utility of diabetes education in everyday life. This study explores perspectives on dietary diabetes education and healthy food choices of people living in Denmark who have a Pakistani background and type 2 diabetes. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted between October 2012 and December 2013 with 12 participants with type 2 diabetes who had received dietary diabetes education. Data analysis was systematic and was based on grounded theory principles. Results Participants described the process of integrating and utilizing dietary education in everyday life as challenging. Perceived barriers of the integration and utilization included a lack of a connection between the content of the education and life conditions, a lack of support from their social networks for dietary change, difficulty integrating the education into everyday life, and failure to include the participants’ taste preferences in the educational setting. Conclusion Dietary education that is sensitive to the attitudes, wishes, and preferences of the participants and that aims at establishing a connection to the everyday life of the participants might facilitate successful changes in dietary practices among people with a Pakistani background and type 2 diabetes. The findings suggest that more focus should be placed on collaborative processes in the dietary educational setting in order to achieve appropriate education and to improve communication between this population and health care professionals. PMID:25750523

  1. Assessing Biofuel Crop Invasiveness: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Buddenhagen, Christopher Evan; Chimera, Charles; Clifford, Patti

    2009-01-01

    Background There is widespread interest in biofuel crops as a solution to the world's energy needs, particularly in light of concerns over greenhouse-gas emissions. Despite reservations about their adverse environmental impacts, no attempt has been made to quantify actual, relative or potential invasiveness of terrestrial biofuel crops at an appropriate regional or international scale, and their planting continues to be largely unregulated. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a widely accepted weed risk assessment system, we analyzed a comprehensive list of regionally suitable biofuel crops to show that seventy percent have a high risk of becoming invasive versus one-quarter of non-biofuel plant species and are two to four times more likely to establish wild populations locally or be invasive in Hawaii or in other locations with a similar climate. Conclusions/Significance Because of climatic and ecological similarities, predictions of biofuel crop invasiveness in Hawaii are applicable to other vulnerable island and subtropical ecosystems worldwide. We demonstrate the utility of an accessible and scientifically proven risk assessment protocol that allows users to predict if introduced species will become invasive in their region of interest. Other evidence supports the contention that propagule pressure created by extensive plantings will exacerbate invasions, a scenario expected with large-scale biofuel crop cultivation. Proactive measures, such as risk assessments, should be employed to predict invasion risks, which could then be mitigated via implementation of appropriate planting policies and adoption of the “polluter-pays” principle. PMID:19384412

  2. Identifying Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Using Background Parenchymal Enhancement Heterogeneity on Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI: A Pilot Radiomics Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jeff; Kato, Fumi; Oyama-Manabe, Noriko; Li, Ruijiang; Cui, Yi; Tha, Khin Khin; Yamashita, Hiroko; Kudo, Kohsuke; Shirato, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the added discriminative value of detailed quantitative characterization of background parenchymal enhancement in addition to the tumor itself on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI at 3.0 Tesla in identifying “triple-negative" breast cancers. Materials and Methods In this Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective study, DCE-MRI of 84 women presenting 88 invasive carcinomas were evaluated by a radiologist and analyzed using quantitative computer-aided techniques. Each tumor and its surrounding parenchyma were segmented semi-automatically in 3-D. A total of 85 imaging features were extracted from the two regions, including morphologic, densitometric, and statistical texture measures of enhancement. A small subset of optimal features was selected using an efficient sequential forward floating search algorithm. To distinguish triple-negative cancers from other subtypes, we built predictive models based on support vector machines. Their classification performance was assessed with the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) using cross-validation. Results Imaging features based on the tumor region achieved an AUC of 0.782 in differentiating triple-negative cancers from others, in line with the current state of the art. When background parenchymal enhancement features were included, the AUC increased significantly to 0.878 (p<0.01). Similar improvements were seen in nearly all subtype classification tasks undertaken. Notably, amongst the most discriminating features for predicting triple-negative cancers were textures of background parenchymal enhancement. Conclusions Considering the tumor as well as its surrounding parenchyma on DCE-MRI for radiomic image phenotyping provides useful information for identifying triple-negative breast cancers. Heterogeneity of background parenchymal enhancement, characterized by quantitative texture features on DCE-MRI, adds value to such differentiation models as they are strongly

  3. Expression of Drosophila mushroom body mutations in alternative genetic backgrounds: a case study of the mushroom body miniature gene (mbm).

    PubMed Central

    de Belle, J S; Heisenberg, M

    1996-01-01

    Mutations in 12 genes regulating Drosophila melanogaster mushroom body (MB) development were each studied in two genetic backgrounds. In all cases, brain structure was qualitatively or quantitatively different after replacement of the "original" genetic background with that of the Canton Special wild-type strain. The mushroom body miniature gene (mbm) was investigated in detail. mbm supports the maintenance of MB Kenyon cell fibers in third instar larvae and their regrowth during metamorphosis. Adult mbm1 mutant females are lacking many or most Kenyon cell fibers and are impaired in MB-mediated associative odor learning. We show here that structural defects in mbm1 are apparent only in combination with an X-linked, dosage-dependent modifier (or modifiers). In the Canton Special genetic background, the mbm1 anatomical phenotype is suppressed, and MBs develop to a normal size. However, the olfactory learning phenotype is not fully restored, suggesting that submicroscopic defects persist in the MBs. Mutant mbm1 flies with full-sized MBs have normal retention but show a specific acquisition deficit that cannot be attributed to reductions in odor avoidance, shock reactivity, or locomotor behavior. We propose that polymorphic gene interactions (in addition to ontogenetic factors) determine MB size and, concomitantly, the ability to recognize and learn odors. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8790424

  4. Long-term study on the impact of new particle formation on CCN in an urban background location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dameto de Espana, María del Carmen; Wonaschuetz, Anna; Demattio, Anselm; Steiner, Gerhard; Hitzenberger, Regina

    2015-04-01

    New Particles Formation (NPF) events and Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) have been investigated intensively over the last years. Measurements have been performed at many different locations. Several studies suggest that NPF significantly enhance atmospheric CCN concentrations. Only few studies, however, linked nucleation measurements directly to increases in measured CCN concentrations. Most of these studies were performed in remote or background locations. There is a lack of continuous long-term measurements of CCN concentrations in the urban background. In order to provide more information about NPF acting as a source of CCN, a long term study was started in June 2014 in the urban background of Vienna and is planned to continue for the foreseeable future. The measurements are performed at the aerosol laboratory located on the rooftop (35m above ground) of the Physics building of the University of Vienna, located in central Vienna. Concentrations as well as seasonal characteristics of CCN concentrations and NPF events will be investigated. A CCNC (Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter) designed at the University of Vienna operating on the principle of a static thermal diffusion chamber (Giebl et al., 2002), is used to measure CCN concentrations and activation ratios for low supersaturations (0,5%). NPF events are determined with a Vienna-type DMPS (Differential Mobility Particle Sizer, Winkelmayr et al., 1991) and classified using the criteria of Dal Maso et al., (2005). NPF events cannot always be identified completely clearly because of local pollution plumes. Traffic emissions could additionally increase the concentration of organic particles during a NPF event. A Multi Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP) measuring black carbon concentration is therefore used to monitor the contribution of traffic emissions to the aerosol at the station.

  5. Exposure Assessment in Cohort Studies of Childhood Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Arrandale, Victoria H.; Brauer, Michael; Brook, Jeffrey R.; Brunekreef, Bert; Gold, Diane R.; London, Stephanie J.; Miller, J. David; Özkaynak, Halûk; Ries, Nola M.; Sears, Malcolm R.; Silverman, Frances S.; Takaro, Tim K.

    2011-01-01

    Background The environment is suspected to play an important role in the development of childhood asthma. Cohort studies are a powerful observational design for studying exposure–response relationships, but their power depends in part upon the accuracy of the exposure assessment. Objective The purpose of this paper is to summarize and discuss issues that make accurate exposure assessment a challenge and to suggest strategies for improving exposure assessment in longitudinal cohort studies of childhood asthma and allergies. Data synthesis Exposures of interest need to be prioritized, because a single study cannot measure all potentially relevant exposures. Hypotheses need to be based on proposed mechanisms, critical time windows for effects, prior knowledge of physical, physiologic, and immunologic development, as well as genetic pathways potentially influenced by the exposures. Modifiable exposures are most important from the public health perspective. Given the interest in evaluating gene–environment interactions, large cohort sizes are required, and planning for data pooling across independent studies is critical. Collection of additional samples, possibly through subject participation, will permit secondary analyses. Models combining air quality, environmental, and dose data provide exposure estimates across large cohorts but can still be improved. Conclusions Exposure is best characterized through a combination of information sources. Improving exposure assessment is critical for reducing measurement error and increasing power, which increase confidence in characterization of children at risk, leading to improved health outcomes. PMID:21081299

  6. Special Education Faculty Needs Assessment Study Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, D.D.; Tyler, N.; Montrosse, B.E.; Young, C.; Robb, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the highlights of the Special Education Faculty Needs Assessment Study (SEFNA). Actions taken after the release of The 2001 Faculty Shortage Study demonstrate that supply-and-demand imbalances can be improved. The projected shortage of special education faculty will directly and negatively affect students with disabilities and…

  7. Alabama Allied Health Needs Assessment Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Libby V.

    This study assessed the supply of and demand for allied health professionals in Alabama, focusing on the relationship between supply and demand in various workplace settings in the context of Alabama's demographics, current educational programs, and projected changes in health care. The health care professions included in the study were all fields…

  8. Voyager backgrounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Voyager spacecraft and experiments are described. The spacecraft description includes the structure and configuration, communications systems, power supplies, computer command subsystems, and the science platform. The experiments discussed are investigations of cosmic rays, low-energy charged particles, magnetic fields, and plasma waves, along with studies in radio astronomy photopolarimetry. The tracking and data acquisition procedures for the missions are presented.

  9. [Characteristics and adaptation of seasonal drought in southern China under the background of climate change. V. Seasonal drought characteristics division and assessment in southern China].

    PubMed

    Huang, Wan-Hua; Sui, Yue; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Shu-Wei; Li, Mao-Song

    2013-10-01

    Zoning seasonal drought based on the study of drought characteristics can provide theoretical basis for formulating drought mitigation plans and improving disaster reduction technologies in different arid zones under global climate change. Based on the National standard of meteorological drought indices and agricultural drought indices and the 1959-2008 meteorological data from 268 meteorological stations in southern China, this paper analyzed the climatic background and distribution characteristics of seasonal drought in southern China, and made a three-level division of seasonal drought in this region by the methods of combining comprehensive factors and main factors, stepwise screening indices, comprehensive disaster analysis, and clustering analysis. The first-level division was with the annual aridity index and seasonal aridity index as the main indices and with the precipitation during entire year and main crop growing season as the auxiliary indices, dividing the southern China into four primary zones, including semi-arid zone, sub-humid zone, humid zone, and super-humid zone. On this basis, the four primary zones were subdivided into nine second-level zones, including one semi-arid area-temperate-cold semi-arid hilly area in Sichuan-Yunnan Plateau, three sub-humid areas of warm sub-humid area in the north of the Yangtze River, warm-tropical sub-humid area in South China, and temperate-cold sub-humid plateau area in Southwest China, three humid areas of temperate-tropical humid area in the Yangtze River Basin, warm-tropical humid area in South China, and warm humid hilly area in Southwest China, and two super-humid areas of warm-tropical super-humid area in South China and temperate-cold super-humid hilly area in the south of the Yangtze River and Southwest China. According to the frequency and intensity of multiple drought indices, the second-level zones were further divided into 29 third-level zones. The distribution of each seasonal drought zone was

  10. Disruptive camouflage tricks the human eye: a study of detection times of two near-similar targets in natural backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selj, Gorm K.

    2015-10-01

    Our understanding of camouflage, in military as well as in evolutionary perspectives, has been developing over the last 100 years. In that period of time several underlying principles have emerged. It has turned out in the recent decade that background pattern matching alone may not be sufficient to conceal targets because of the ubiquitous and revealing information contained by the edges of a target. In this paper we have studied one concealment strategy, the so-called disruptive coloration, further as it predicts that high contrast patches placed at the target's outline will impede detection, by creating false target edges when exposed to the observer. Such disruptive coloration is contra-intuitive as it may impede detection in spite of the fact that the patches themselves may be poorly concealed. In military environments the "disruptive approach" within camouflage has been textbook material for decades. Still, very little has been reported, supporting this idea, especially when it comes to the concealment of human targets in natural sceneries. We report here experimental evidence from a field study, containing detection data from 12 unique natural scenes (5 testing the disruptive effect, 7 as reference tests), with both human targets and human observers, showing that disruptively colored camouflage patches along a human's outline (its head) may increase detection time significantly as when compared to a similar (human) target concealed only with background matching. Hence, our results support the idea that disruptive coloration may impede detection and similarly that the best concealment is achieved when disruptive coloration is added to a target that matches the background (reasonably) well. This study raises important question to the current understanding of human vision and concealment as well as to any approach to describe the human visual system mathematically.

  11. Effects of ambient background gases on YBCO plume propagation under film growth conditions: Spectroscopic, ion probe, and fast photographic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Geohegan, D.B.

    1991-09-01

    The formation, composition, and propagation of KrF laser-produced plasmas from Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} have been studied with emphasis on topics relevant to film growth by pulsed-laser deposition. Spatially and temporally resolved, high-resolution optical absorption and emission spectroscopy, fast ion probes, and fast photography (obtained with a gated, image-intensified CCD array detector (ICCD)) are employed to investigate both emitting and non-emitting species in the laser plume as well as the overall shape and propagation of the laser plasma in background gases of oxygen and xenon. Transient optical absorption spectroscopy is applied to study the composition of the plume of ejected material from the dense layer near the target surface to distances of several centimeters. Optical absorption persists long after the decay of plasma fluorescence, indicating a slower component to plume transport. The absorption of YO formed by YBCO ablation in vacuum and by-yttrium ablation in oxygen is presented. Fast electric ion probes are utilized to measure velocities and total collected charge of the positive ions in the expanding YBCO laser plasma from near-threshold, vacuum conditions into the high fluence, background gas conditions utilized for thin-film growth. The exponential attenuation of the positive ion flux transmitted through 50--300 mTorr background oxygen is measured and used to define an attenuation coefficient. The showing of the laser plasma and formation of shock structures due to gas collisions is studied by ion probe measurements and fast ICCD photography. A comparison between shock wave propagation and drag models is presented to describe the arrival time and shape of the ion probe current waveform with distance. 11 refs, 11 figs.

  12. High background rates of positive tuberculosis-specific interferon-γ release assays in a low prevalence region of UK: a surveillance study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Background rates of latent tuberculosis infection in low prevalence regions of Britain are unknown. These would be valuable data for interpreting positive IGRA results, and guiding cost-benefit analyses. The management of a large outbreak of tuberculosis occurring in a rural district hospital provided an opportunity to determine the background rates and epidemiology of IGRA-positivity amongst unselected hospital patients in a low-prevalence region of U.K. Methods As part of a public health surveillance project we identified 445 individuals exposed to the index cases for clinical assessment and testing by a TB-specific interferon-γ release assay (IGRA): T-Spot.TB. Uniquely, an additional comparator group of 191 age-matched individuals without specific recent exposure, but with a similar age distribution and demographic, were recruited from the same wards where exposure had previously occurred, to undergo assessment by questionnaire and IGRA. Results Rates of IGRA positivity were 8.7% (95%CI, 4.2-13, n=149) amongst unexposed patients, 9.5%(3.0-22, n=21) amongst unexposed staff, 22%(14–29, n=130) amongst exposed patients, 11%(6.1-16, n=142) amongst exposed staff. Amongst the individuals without history of recent exposure to the outbreak, IGRA-positivity was associated with prior TB treatment (OR11, P.04) and corticosteroid use (OR5.9, P.02). Background age-specific prevalences of IGRA-positivity amongst unexposed individuals were: age <40 0%(N/A), age 40–59 15%(12–29), age 60–79 7.0%(1.1-13), age≥80 10%(5.9-19). Conclusions Background rates of IGRA-positivity remain high amongst unselected white-Caucasian hospital inpatients in U.K. These data will aid interpretation of future outbreak studies. As rates peak in the 5th and 6th decade, given an ageing population and increasing iatrogenic immunosuppression, reactivation of LTBI may be a persistent hazard in this population for several decades to come. PMID:23216965

  13. Sounding-rocket experiment to study the diffuse soft X-ray background using a Si(Li) detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delvaille, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    Soft X-ray background in the energy range 0.4 to 10 keV was studied. A payload was developed which uses a wide angle, windowless, cooled, Si(Li) semiconductor detector system. With a resolution of less than 150 eV between 0.3 and 2.0 keV, the system is sensitive to an emission equivalent width of about 10 eV. Carbon and oxygen line emission were detected from the vicinity of the North Galactic Pole and the North Polar Spur.

  14. A trans-disciplinary study on the health risks of cryptosporidiosis from dairy systems in Dagoretti, Nairobi, Kenya: study background and farming system characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kang'ethe, Erastus K; Kimani, Violet N; McDermott, Brigid; Grace, Delia; Lang'at, Alfred K; Kiragu, Monica W; Karanja, Nancy; Njehu, Alice N; Randolph, Thomas; Mbugua, Gabriel; Irungu, Tabitha W; Ombutu, Peninnah

    2012-09-01

    This paper characterises the dairy farming system in Dagoretti, Nairobi. Characterisation was part of a broader ecohealth project to estimate the prevalence and risk of cryptosporidiosis and develop risk mitigation strategies. In the project a trans-disciplinary team addressed epidemiological, socioeconomic, environmental and policy aspects of cryptosporidiosis, an emerging zoonosis. This paper also provides background and describes sampling methods for the wider project. Three hundred dairy households were probabilistically sampled from a sampling frame of all dairy households in five of the six locations of Dagoretti, one of the eight districts of Nairobi Province. Randomly selected households identified 100 non-dairy-keeping households who also took part in the study. A household questionnaire was developed, pre-tested and administered in the dry and wet seasons of 2006. An additional study on livelihood and economic benefits of dairying took place with 100 dairy farmers randomly selected from the 300 farms (as well as 40 non-dairy neighbours as a control group), and a risk-targeted survey of environmental contamination with Cryptosporidium was conducted with 20 farmers randomly selected from the 29 farmers in the wider survey who were considered at high risk because of farming system. We found that around 1 in 80 urban households kept dairy cattle with an average of three cattle per household. Cross-breeds of exotic and local cattle predominate. Heads of dairy-keeping households were significantly less educated than the heads of non-dairy neighbours, had lived in Dagoretti for significantly longer and had significantly larger households. There was a high turnover of 10 % of the cattle population in the 3-month period of the study. Cattle were zero grazed, but productivity parameters were sub-optimal as were hygiene and husbandry practices. In conclusion, dairy keeping is a minor activity in urban Nairobi but important to households involved and their community

  15. Case study examples using self-assessment.

    PubMed

    Garstecki, D; Hutton, C L; Nerbonne, M A; Newman, C W; Smoski, W J

    1990-10-01

    The following case studies demonstrate the application of self-assessment techniques. The selection of procedures reported here is not meant to imply necessarily that these procedures are more or less effective or more widely used than other available self-assessment tests, but rather to illustrate the various purposes for which self-assessment tools may be employed. Case 1 illustrates the contribution of data obtained from the Hearing Performance Inventory (Giolas, Owens, Lamb, & Shubert, 1979) in the management and counseling of a severely hearing impaired adult. Case 2 involves the use of the Hearing Problem Inventory developed by Hutton in Atlanta (HPI-A, Hutton, 1987). Application of the Self-Assessment of Communication (SAC) and Significant Other Assessment of Communication (SOAC) (Schow and Nerbonne, 1982) is shown in Case 3, whereas Case 4 demonstrates the usefulness of the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE, Ventry and Weinstein, 1982). Both the SAC/SOAC and HHIE batteries involve problem cases associated with hearing aid fitting and assessment of benefit. The final illustration (Case 5) is a report on the Children's Auditory Processing Performance Scale (CHAPPS), a new questionnaire developed by Smoski, Brunt, and Tannahill/ISHA (1987) for assessing parent's judgment of children's listening abilities (Appendix). The versatility of self-assessment applications across a broad assortment of impairment levels, age groups, and clinical settings is demonstrated in these cases. Hopefully the reader will see more clearly the application and value of these and other non-audiometric techniques and will be motivated to increase the use of self-assessment tools in the individual work setting. PMID:2269415

  16. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Project; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Reno 1 by 2 degree Quadrangle, Nevada and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, David A.; Stewart, John H.; Hendricks, J.D.; Rowan, L.C.; Plouff, Donald

    1992-01-01

    The Reno 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle in west-central Nevada was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The assessment is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, reports, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The selected bibliography lists references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Reno 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle.

  17. ACHESS – The Australian study of child health in same-sex families: background research, design and methodology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There are an increasing number of children in Australia growing up with same-sex attracted parents. Although children from same-sex parent families do in general perform well on many psychosocial measures recent research is beginning to consider some small but significant differences when these children are compared with children from other family backgrounds. In particular studies suggest that there is an association between the stigma that same-sex parent families experience and child wellbeing. Research to date lacks a holistic view with the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of children not yet addressed. In addition, most studies have focused only on families with lesbian parents and have studied only small numbers of children. Methods/design The Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families (ACHESS) is a national study that aims to determine the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of Australian children under the age 18 years with at least one parent who self identifies as being same-sex attracted. There will be a particular focus on the impact that stigma and discrimination has on these families. Parent and child surveys will be used to collect data and will be available both online and in paper form. Measures have been chosen whenever possible that have sound conceptual underpinnings, robust psychometric properties and Australian normative data, and include the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Discussion ACHESS aims to be the largest study of its kind and will for the first time produce a detailed quantitative analysis of Australian children with same-sex attracted parents. By inviting participants to take part in further research it will also establish a valuable cohort of children, and their families, to launch future waves of research that will help us better understand the health and wellbeing of children

  18. Perceptions and employment intentions among aged care nurses and nursing assistants from diverse cultural backgrounds: A qualitative interview study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fengsong; Tilse, Cheryl; Wilson, Jill; Tuckett, Anthony; Newcombe, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The residential aged care industry faces shortages and high turnover rates of direct care workers. This situation is further complicated by the increasing cultural diversity of residents and staff. To retain direct care workers, it is crucial to explore their perceptions of the rewards and difficulties of care work, and their employment intentions in multicultural environments. A qualitative descriptive study was used to understand perceptions of the rewards and difficulties of residential aged care work for core direct care workers (i.e. nurses and nursing assistants), how these were related to their intentions to stay or leave, and how these varied between nurses and nursing assistants, and between locally and overseas born workers. Individual interviews were conducted between June and September 2013 with 16 direct care workers in an Australian residential aged care facility with a specific focus on people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. It was found that direct care workers' employment intentions were related to their perceptions and management of the rewards and difficulties of care work. Their experiences of care work, the employment characteristics, and the organizational resources that fitted their personality, ability, expectations, and essential needs were viewed as rewards. Evaluating their jobs as meaningful was a shared perception for direct care workers who intended to stay. Individual workers' perceptions of the rewarding aspects of care work served to counterbalance the challenges of care work, and promoted their intentions to stay. Perceptions and employment intentions varied by occupational groups and by cultural backgrounds. Overseas born direct care workers are valuable resources in residential aged care facility rather than a limitation, but they do require organizational support, such as cultural awareness of the management, English language support, a sense of family, and appropriate job responsibility. The findings

  19. Further studies on the latitudinal and temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants in Norwegian and U.K. background air.

    PubMed

    Jaward, Foday M; Meijer, Sandra N; Steinnes, Eiliv; Thomas, Gareth O; Jones, Kevin C

    2004-05-01

    Data are presented for PBDEs, PCBs, and selected organochlorine compounds, measured at background locations by passive air samplers (semipermeable membrane devices, SPMDs) along a latitudinal transect from the south of the U.K. to the north of Norway during 2000-2002. This work is part of an ongoing air sampling campaign in which PCB data were previously obtained in 1994-1996 and 1998-2000. Comparisons of the masses of chemicals sequestered by the SPMDs during these different time intervals are used to investigate spatial and temporal trends. The study yielded examples of compounds that increase, decrease, or remain uniform with latitude, suggestive of differences in the relative importance of deposition versus atmospheric reaction in controlling their long-range atmospheric transport potential. The main constituents of the penta-BDE product were detected at amounts equivalent to 2.0 (range 1.1-2.5) and 1.1 (0.8-1.6) pg m(-3) for the U.K. and Norway background sites, respectively. Fractionation of PBDEs was observed, because the amounts of lighter BDEs decreased with latitude, while the heavier molecular weight congeners were quite uniformly distributed. In contrast, the sequestered amounts of the lighter PCBs were uniformly distributed with latitude, with heavier PCBs decreasing. Sequestered amounts of hexachlorobenzene increased with latitude. Preliminary PCB atmospheric clearance rates were derived using the 1994-1996, 1998-2000, and 2000-2002 data. They averaged ca. 3.5 years for all congeners/locations. No systematic differences in congeners or locations were noted, supporting the hypothesis that the underlying trends in European background air are still controlled by primary, rather than secondary, sources.

  20. Perceptions and employment intentions among aged care nurses and nursing assistants from diverse cultural backgrounds: A qualitative interview study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fengsong; Tilse, Cheryl; Wilson, Jill; Tuckett, Anthony; Newcombe, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The residential aged care industry faces shortages and high turnover rates of direct care workers. This situation is further complicated by the increasing cultural diversity of residents and staff. To retain direct care workers, it is crucial to explore their perceptions of the rewards and difficulties of care work, and their employment intentions in multicultural environments. A qualitative descriptive study was used to understand perceptions of the rewards and difficulties of residential aged care work for core direct care workers (i.e. nurses and nursing assistants), how these were related to their intentions to stay or leave, and how these varied between nurses and nursing assistants, and between locally and overseas born workers. Individual interviews were conducted between June and September 2013 with 16 direct care workers in an Australian residential aged care facility with a specific focus on people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. It was found that direct care workers' employment intentions were related to their perceptions and management of the rewards and difficulties of care work. Their experiences of care work, the employment characteristics, and the organizational resources that fitted their personality, ability, expectations, and essential needs were viewed as rewards. Evaluating their jobs as meaningful was a shared perception for direct care workers who intended to stay. Individual workers' perceptions of the rewarding aspects of care work served to counterbalance the challenges of care work, and promoted their intentions to stay. Perceptions and employment intentions varied by occupational groups and by cultural backgrounds. Overseas born direct care workers are valuable resources in residential aged care facility rather than a limitation, but they do require organizational support, such as cultural awareness of the management, English language support, a sense of family, and appropriate job responsibility. The findings

  1. Needs Assessment Project: FY83 Reverification Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shively, Joe E.

    As part of a continuing assessment of educational needs in a seven-state region, researchers conducted a reverification study to check the validity of educational needs first identified in fiscal year (FY) 1980. The seven states are Alabama, Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. The original FY80 Needs Assessment…

  2. Needs Assessment Project: FY 82 Verification Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shively, Joe E.; O'Donnell, Phyllis

    As part of a continuing assessment of educational needs in a seven-state region, researchers conducted a verification study to check the validity of educational needs first identified in fiscal year (FY) 1980. The seven states comprise Alabama, Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. This report describes assessment…

  3. Response Bias in Needs Assessment Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calsyn, Robert J.; Klinkenberg, W. Dean

    1995-01-01

    Agencies conducting needs assessments in which respondents are asked about their awareness of the agency must be alert to a bias that inflates awareness (agency awareness acquiescence). A study with 157 college students demonstrated such awareness bias, which was related to the impression management component of social desirability. (SLD)

  4. Assessing Learning with Logo: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Jane; Ryba, Ken

    1986-01-01

    This study used the Model for Assessing Learning with Logo (Nolan and Ryba) to examine effects of Logo programming on junior high school students' thinking skills. The model addresses both student acquisition of Logo-related thinking skills and the extent to which they transfer skills to noncomputer problem solving tasks. (MBR)

  5. The Effect of Farm Family Background on the Value Orientations of Urban Residents: A Study of Cultural Lag

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grasmick, Harold G.; Grasmick, Mary K.

    1978-01-01

    Tested was the hypothesis that among current urban residents those with farm family backgrounds will score lower on a scale of individual modernity than those with urban family backgrounds. Results indicate a significant effect of farm family background on modernity, even with controls for other theoretically significant variables. (AUTHOR/EDE)

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Man: A Course of Study. Volume I: Summary, Background and Design. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, H. Russell, Jr.; Peskowitz, Nancy

    This document, the first volume of the summative evaluation of "Man: A Course of Study" (MACOS), focuses on motivation and achievement of students using the MACOS curriculum. The major purpose of the two-year study was to compare MACOS as it was taught in 57 fifth and sixth grade classes in 15 school districts with other social studies curricula…

  7. Assessment of the living and total biomass of microbial communities in the background chestnut soil and in the paleosols under burial mounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomutova, T. E.; Kashirskaya, N. N.; Demkin, V. A.

    2011-12-01

    The contents of phospholipids and carbon of the total microbial biomass were determined in the modern chestnut soil and in the paleosols buried under mounds of the Bronze and Early Iron Ages (5000-1800 years ago) in the dry steppe of the Lower Volga River basin. Judging from data on the ratio between the contents of phospholipids and organic carbon in the microbial cells, the carbon content of the living microbial biomass was calculated and compared with the total microbial biomass and total organic carbon in the studied soils. In the background chestnut soil, the content of phospholipids in the A1, B1, and B2 horizons amounted to 452, 205, and 189 nmol/g, respectively; in the paleosols, it was 28-130% of the present-day level. The maximum content was measured in the paleosols buried 5000 and 2000 years ago, in the periods with an increased humidity of the climate. In the background chestnut soil, the total microbial biomass was estimated at 5680 (the A1 horizon), 3380 (B1), and 4250 (B2) μg C/g; in the paleosols, it was by 2.5-7.0 times lower. In the upper horizons of the background soil, the portion of the living microbial biomass in the total biomass was much less than that in the paleosols under the burial mounds; it varied within 8.5-15.3% and 15-81%, respectively. The portion of living microbial biomass in the total organic carbon content of the background chestnut soil was about 4-8%. In the paleosols buried in the Early Iron Age (2000 and 1800 years ago), this value did not exceed 3-8%; in the paleosols of the Bronze Age (5000-4000 years ago), it reached 40% of the total organic carbon.

  8. The cosmic microwave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Recent limits on spectral distortions and angular anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background are reviewed. The various backgrounds are described, and the theoretical implications are assessed. Constraints on inflationary cosmology dominated by cold dark matter (CDM) and on open cosmological models dominated by baryonic dark matter (BDM), with, respectively, primordial random phase scale-invariant curvature fluctuations or non-gaussian isocurvature fluctuations are described. More exotic theories are addressed, and I conclude with the 'bottom line': what theorists expect experimentalists to be measuring within the next two to three years without having to abandon their most cherished theories.

  9. Childhood obesity prevention in rural settings: background, rationale, and study design of ‘4-Health,’ a parent-only intervention

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity in rural communities is a serious but understudied problem. The current experiment aims to assess a wide range of obesity risk factors among rural youth and to offer an 8-month intervention program for parents to reduce obesity risk in their preteen child. Methods/Design A two-group, repeated measures design is used to assess the effectiveness of the 4-Health intervention program. Assessments include anthropometric measures, child self-evaluations, parent self-evaluations, and parent evaluations of child. County Extension agents from 21 rural Montana counties recruit approximately 150 parent–child dyads and counties are semi-randomly assigned to the active intervention group (4-Health Educational Program) or a “best-practices” (Healthy Living Information) control group. Discussion This study will shed light on the effectiveness of this parent-only intervention strategy in reducing obesity risk factors among rural preteens. The 4-Health program is designed to provide information and skills development for busy rural parents that will increase healthy lifestyles of their preteen children and improve the parents’ ability to intervene effectively in the lives of their families during this critical developmental period. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01510587 PMID:22471650

  10. Establishing geochemical background levels of selected trace elements in areas having geochemical anomalies: The case study of the Orbetello lagoon (Tuscany, Italy).

    PubMed

    Romano, Elena; Bergamin, Luisa; Croudace, Ian W; Ausili, Antonella; Maggi, Chiara; Gabellini, Massimo

    2015-07-01

    The determination of background concentration values (BGVs) in areas, characterised by the presence of natural geochemical anomalies and anthropogenic impact, appears essential for a correct pollution assessment. For this purpose, it is necessary to establish a reliable method for determination of local BGVs. The case of the Orbetello lagoon, a geologically complex area characterized by Tertiary volcanism, is illustrated. The vertical concentration profiles of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn were studied in four sediment cores. Local BGVs were determined considering exclusively samples not affected by anthropogenic influence, recognized by means of multivariate statistics and radiochronological dating ((137)Cs and (210)Pb). Results showed BGVs well-comparable with mean crustal or shale values for most of the considered elements except for Hg (0.87 mg/kg d.w.) and As (16.87 mg/kg d.w.), due to mineralization present in the catchment basin draining into the lagoon.

  11. Assessment of indoor radiation dose received by the residents of natural high background radiation areas of coastal villages of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deva Jayanthi, D.; Maniyan, C. G.; Perumal, S.

    2011-07-01

    Radiation exposure and effective dose received through two routes of exposure, viz. external and internal, via inhalation, by residents of 10 villages belonging to Natural High Background Radiation Areas (NHBRA) of coastal regions of Kanyakumari District and Tamil Nadu in India were studied. While the indoor gamma radiation levels were monitored using Thermo Luminescent Dosimeters (TLDs), the indoor radon and thoron gas concentrations were measured using twin chamber dosimeters employing Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs, LR-115-II). The average total annual effective dose was estimated and found to be varying from 2.59 to 8.76 mSv.

  12. Geochemical background/baseline values in top soils of Campania region: assessment of the toxic elements threat to ecosystem and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vivo, B.; Lima, A.; Albanese, S.; Bove, M.; Cicchella, D.; Civitillo, D.; Cosenza, A.; Grezzi, G.

    2009-04-01

    In the late years an intense geochemical prospecting activity on the whole territory of Campania region (Southern Italy) has been carried aiming at the definition of the geochemical backgrounds/baselines at both regional and local scale. At the end of 2003 the first edition of an atlas containing 200 maps showing the distribution patterns of 40 chemical elements on the whole regional territory was published (De Vivo et al., 2003, 2006a; Albanese et al., 2007a). The atlas provided a base knowledge of environmental status of the region and allowed to individuate some critical areas to be further investigated by topsoils sampling follow up activity; the topsoils are considered as the best media in order to examine closely the sources and the distribution patterns of harmful elements at a local scale. The topsoils sampling was mainly focused on anthropized areas (at urban and metropolitan scale), industrial settlments, brownfields and intensely cultivated zones, aimed at: • showing the distribution of concentration values and to determine baseline values (or backgrounds, depending on local conditions) of each analyzed element (38) in the top soils; • assessing harmful elements pollution levels and their geographic distribution; • providing reliable analytical data for assessment of toxic element pollution threat to ecosystem and human health; • creating a sound basis for policy makers and legislators who need to address the public concerns regarding environmental pollution. Five atlases (De Vivo et al., 2006b; Albanese et al., 2007b; Lima et al., 2007; Fedele et al., 2007 Cicchella et al., 2009) were produced reporting soil geochemical maps compiled using 1620 samples collected both in the metropolitan and provincial area of Napoli and in the cities of Avellino, Benevento, Caserta and Salerno. Further studies were also carried out taking into account Pb isotopes (Cicchella et al., 2008a), PGE's (Cicchella et al., 2003; 2008b) and bioavailability of harmful

  13. Study of Anomalous Cosmic Rays at the Termination Shock and in the Heliosheath with a MHD plasma background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senanayake, U. K.; Florinski, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    Despite significant developments in the past 7 years, Voyagers' Anomalous cosmic ray (ACR) observations at the termination shock and in the heliosheath are still not fully understood. Spectra at the termination shock appeared modulated at low energies in both Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 data. Subsequently, these spectra began to unfold in the heliosheath. In our previous work, we derived the plasma flow analytically and computed the magnetic field semi-analytically. This model has a number of limitations. It is time-independent and uses a flat current sheet, which is a highly idealized scenario. In reality, the tilt angle is not zero even at the solar minimum; it also varies with the solar cycle. In order to match Voyager observations more closely, in this study, we will use a magnetohydrodynamic plasma background with realistic time-dependent boundary conditions. A stochastic transport model is used for the Helium ACRs. The simulation results will be compared with Voyager observations.

  14. Seaside, Oregon, Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Varner, J.

    2006-12-01

    The results of a pilot study to assess the risk from tsunamis for the Seaside-Gearhart, Oregon region will be presented. To determine the risk from tsunamis, it is first necessary to establish the hazard or probability that a tsunami of a particular magnitude will occur within a certain period of time. Tsunami inundation maps that provide 100-year and 500-year probabilistic tsunami wave height contours for the Seaside-Gearhart, Oregon, region were developed as part of an interagency Tsunami Pilot Study(1). These maps provided the probability of the tsunami hazard. The next step in determining risk is to determine the vulnerability or degree of loss resulting from the occurrence of tsunamis due to exposure and fragility. The tsunami vulnerability assessment methodology used in this study was developed by M. Papathoma and others(2). This model incorporates multiple factors (e.g. parameters related to the natural and built environments and socio-demographics) that contribute to tsunami vulnerability. Data provided with FEMA's HAZUS loss estimation software and Clatsop County, Oregon, tax assessment data were used as input to the model. The results, presented within a geographic information system, reveal the percentage of buildings in need of reinforcement and the population density in different inundation depth zones. These results can be used for tsunami mitigation, local planning, and for determining post-tsunami disaster response by emergency services. (1)Tsunami Pilot Study Working Group, Seaside, Oregon Tsunami Pilot Study--Modernization of FEMA Flood Hazard Maps, Joint NOAA/USGS/FEMA Special Report, U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2006, Final Draft. (2)Papathoma, M., D. Dominey-Howes, D.,Y. Zong, D. Smith, Assessing Tsunami Vulnerability, an example from Herakleio, Crete, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 3, 2003, p. 377-389.

  15. Study of the Kroll-process to produce ultra-pure Ti for the low background experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Mozhevitina, Elena; Chepurnov, Alexander; Chub, Alexander; Avetissov, Igor; Glebovsky, Vadim; Nisi, Stefano; Di Vacri, Maria Laura; Suvorov, Yury

    2015-08-17

    To construct G2 & G3 low background experiments for direct Dark Matter search, a lot of ultra-pure construction materials will be needed. Our study of various Ti samples shows that the levels of contaminations of commercially available industrial Ti can varies from 0.2 to 100 mBq/kg for U/Th. It means that the metal Ti is such a promising material for future experiments if the way of production in bulk quantities with very low level of contaminations (below ∼1 mBq/kg of {sup 238}U /{sup 232}Th) would be developed. Our study of the industrial Kroll-process is focused on the possible sources of U and Th and their migration during the multistage Kroll process. To understand migration of U and Th during the Kroll process the set of other impurities available due to precise ICP-MS analysis have been studied. Preliminary results confirm that the Kroll process could be used for the ultra pure Ti sponge production while the following stages of the metal Ti production of from the Ti sponge with necessary mechanical properties need to be additionally studied.

  16. Steatohepatitic variant of hepatocellular carcinoma in the absence of metabolic syndrome or background steatosis: a clinical, pathological, and genetic study.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Matthew M; Liu, Yajuan; Torbenson, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Association between the steatohepatitic hepatocellular carcinoma (SH-HCC) and metabolic syndrome has been suggested. Most SH-HCC morphology appears to result from a typical HCC that retains the ability to respond to the metabolic syndrome and develops features of steatohepatitis. We aim to ask if this is true for all SH-HCC cases, or does the SH-HCC morphology in some cases reflect genetic changes inherent to the HCC itself, as opposed to wide tissue response in liver to the metabolic syndrome. Twelve SH-HCC cases occurring in individuals without metabolic syndrome were identified and examined pathologically. Genomic microarray analysis was performed in a subset. The SH-HCC in all cases showed diffuse moderate to marked fatty change, abundant balloon cells often containing Mallory-Denk bodies, and pericellular fibrosis. The background livers showed no significant fatty change in any cases. The background livers showed cirrhosis in seven cases and had no fibrosis in five cases. The underlying liver diseases were hepatitis C (n = 4) and no known (n = 8). The clinical and pathological characteristics of these cases did not differ significantly from the cases with the classical HCC morphology. Loss of 9q12-q31.1 was observed in a subset of cases, a finding that has not been previously reported in HCC. Our results indicate HCC can also develop steatohepatitic morphology outside the setting of fatty liver disease or metabolic syndrome. This SH-HCC is more likely to result from genetic changes to shared genes or metabolic pathways within the tumor and is an ideal subtype for future genetic studies. In this regard, potential genetic alterations include loss of 9q12-q31.1.

  17. Adrenal Gland Background Findings in CD-1 (Crl:CD-1(ICR)BR) Mice from 104-week Carcinogenicity Studies.

    PubMed

    Petterino, Claudio; Naylor, Stuart; Mukaratirwa, Sydney; Bradley, Alys

    2015-08-01

    The authors performed a retrospective study to determine the incidences of spontaneous findings in the adrenal glands of control CD-1 mice. Data were collected from 2,163 mice from control dose groups in 104-week carcinogenicity studies carried out between 2000 and 2010. Adrenal gland nonproliferative lesions were more common in males than in females. In males, the most common nonproliferative lesions were cortical hypertrophy, cortical atrophy, pigment deposition/pigmentation, cysts, and extramedullary hematopoiesis. In females, the most common nonproliferative lesions were pigment deposition/pigmentation, extramedullary hematopoiesis, and cortical atrophy. Proliferative lesions were more common in females than in males. In both sexes, the most common proliferative lesions were subcapsular cell hyperplasia, focal cortical hyperplasia, and subcapsular cell tumor. Pheochromocytomas were uncommon in both sexes, with a slightly higher incidence in females, and the benign type was more frequent than the malignant type. Lymphoma was the most common metastatic tumor in both males and females, followed by histiocytic sarcoma and erythroid/myeloid leukemia. To the best knowledge of the authors, there are no recent reports on spontaneous pathological findings in the adrenal glands of CD-1 mice, and these results will facilitate the interpretation of background findings in carcinogenicity studies.

  18. Performance modeling and assessment of infrared-sensors applicable for TALOS project UGV as a function of target/background and environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbe, Stephane; Krapez, Jean-Claude; Louvet, Yolande

    2012-06-01

    TALOS (Transportable and Autonomous Land bOrder Surveillance system - www.talos-border.eu) is an international research project co-funded from EU 7th Framework Program funds in Security priority. The main objective of TALOS project is to develop and field test the innovative concept of a mobile, autonomous system for protecting European land borders. Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) are major components of TALOS project. The UGVs will be equipped with long range radar for detection of moving vehicle and people, as well as long focal length EO/IR sensors allowing the operator to recognize and identify the detected objects of interest. Furthermore medium focal length IR sensors are used to allow the operator to drive the UGV. Those sensors must fulfill mission requirements for extremely various environmental conditions (backgrounds, topographic characteristics, climatic conditions, weather conditions) existing from Finland in the North and Bulgaria / Turkey in the South of Europe. An infrared sensor performance model was developed at ONERA in order to evaluate target detection, recognition and identification range for several simulations cases representative of the whole environmental variability domain. Results analysis allows assessing the operability domain of the infrared sensors. This paper presents the infrared sensor performance evaluation methodology and the synthesis of a large number of simulation results applied to two infrared sensors of interest: a medium / long range cooled MWIR sensor for observation and a short / medium uncooled LWIR sensor for navigation.

  19. Study the epidemiological profile of taxi drivers in the background of occupational environment, stress and personality characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Bawa, Mukesh Suresh; Srivastav, Manissha

    2013-01-01

    Background: Work hazards have been a major cause of concern in driving industry especially in taxi drivers. This study integrates the various factors that influence physical and emotional well-being of taxi drivers into the theoretical model that shows that the work environment, stress and personality characteristics directly influence taxi drivers’ health. Objective: The aim of the following study is to study the relative and combined influence of work environment, personality characteristics and stress on the health of taxi drivers. Meterials and Methods: The present study is cross-sectional (descriptive) study taxi drivers in Mumbai. They are selected using multistage random sampling method. Calculated sample size is 508. Data produced after the survey is analyzed using IBM SPSS 16.0 software. Results: Nearly 65% of taxi drivers belonged to middle-age group of 21-40 years of age. Majority (59%) of taxi drivers belonged to the lower upper socio-economic class. 70% of taxi drivers worked for more than 8 h daily. 63% gave the history of one or more addictions. 52% taxi drivers had type B1 personality, only 6% had stress prone and aggressive type A1 personality. Traffic congestion (67.1%) was reported as the leading stressor followed by narrow bottle neck roads (43%), too many speed breakers (41%), rude gestures and behavior by other drivers (42%) and bad weather (36%). Nearly 86% taxi drivers had one or more symptoms of morbidities. Gastrointestinal symptoms predominated followed by musculoskeletal symptoms and depression. Conclusion: Socio-demographic attributes, work environment, stress and personality significantly influence physical and psychological morbidities in taxi drivers. PMID:24872669

  20. Theoretical assessment of optical resolution enhancement and background fluorescence reduction by three-dimensional nonlinear structured illumination microscopy using stimulated emission depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dake, Fumihiro

    2016-08-01

    Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy (SIM) enlarges frequency cutoff laterally and axially by a factor of two, compared with conventional microscopy. However, its optical resolution is still fundamentally limited. It is necessary to introduce nonlinearity to enlarge frequency cutoff further. We propose three-dimensional nonlinear structured illumination microscopy based on stimulated emission depletion (STED) effect, which has a structured excitation pattern and a structured STED pattern, and both three-dimensional illumination patterns have the same lateral pitch and orientation. Theoretical analysis showed that nonlinearity induced by STED effect, which causes harmonics and contributes to enlarging frequency cutoff, depends on the phase difference between two structured illuminations and that the phase difference of π is the most efficient to increase nonlinearity. We also found that undesirable background fluorescence, which degenerates the contrast of structured pattern and limits the ability of SIM, can be reduced by our method. These results revealed that optical resolution improvement and background fluorescence reduction would be compatible. The feasibility study showed that our method will be realized with commercially available laser, having 3.5 times larger frequency cutoff compared with conventional microscopy.

  1. Investigating the Impact of Early Institutional Deprivation on Development: Background and Research Strategy of the English and Romanian Adoptees (ERA) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.; Castle, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This monograph is concerned with the mid adolescent follow-up of a group of adoptees from Romania and from within the United Kingdom who were first assessed at the age of 4 years (or 6 years in the case of the oldest children). After describing the structure of this monograph, this chapter provides the background as it applied at the time that the…

  2. [Genetic background in common forms of obesity - from studies on identical twins to candidate genes of obesity].

    PubMed

    Bendlová, Běla; Lukášová, Petra; Vaňková, Markéta; Vejražková, Daniela; Bradnová, Olga; Včelák, Josef; Stanická, Soňa; Zamrazilová, Hana; Aldhoon-Hainerová, Irena; Dušátková, Lenka; Kunešová, Marie; Hainer, Vojtěch

    2014-01-01

    Common obesity is a result of interaction between genes and environmental/lifestyle factors, with heritability estimates 40-70%. Not only the susceptibility to obesity but also the success of weight management depends on the genetic background of each individual. This paper summarizes the up-to-date knowledge on genetic causes of common obesities. Introduction of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) led to an identification of a total of 32 variants associated with obesity/BMI and 14 with body fat distribution. Further, a great progress in revealing the mechanisms regulating the energy balance was also noted. However, the proportion of explained variance for BMI is still low, suggesting other mechanisms such as gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, rare gene variants, copy number variants polymorphisms, or epigenetic modifications and microRNAs regulating gene transcription. In summary, we present results of our studies on obesity risk variants in Czech adults, children and adolescents including those evaluating the influence of selected gene variants on the outcomes of weight management. PMID:25199545

  3. [Genetic background in common forms of obesity - from studies on identical twins to candidate genes of obesity].

    PubMed

    Bendlová, Běla; Lukášová, Petra; Vaňková, Markéta; Vejražková, Daniela; Bradnová, Olga; Včelák, Josef; Stanická, Soňa; Zamrazilová, Hana; Aldhoon-Hainerová, Irena; Dušátková, Lenka; Kunešová, Marie; Hainer, Vojtěch

    2014-01-01

    Common obesity is a result of interaction between genes and environmental/lifestyle factors, with heritability estimates 40-70%. Not only the susceptibility to obesity but also the success of weight management depends on the genetic background of each individual. This paper summarizes the up-to-date knowledge on genetic causes of common obesities. Introduction of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) led to an identification of a total of 32 variants associated with obesity/BMI and 14 with body fat distribution. Further, a great progress in revealing the mechanisms regulating the energy balance was also noted. However, the proportion of explained variance for BMI is still low, suggesting other mechanisms such as gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, rare gene variants, copy number variants polymorphisms, or epigenetic modifications and microRNAs regulating gene transcription. In summary, we present results of our studies on obesity risk variants in Czech adults, children and adolescents including those evaluating the influence of selected gene variants on the outcomes of weight management.

  4. A Study of Assessments Designed for Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delepine, Sidney G., III

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study is to compare a new assessment tool, the SkillsUSA Connect Assessment with the NOCTI assessment to determine which test results in more students achieving success. A quantitative study, designed to compare test scores of students taking the NOCTI assessment and new assessments from SkillsUSA, called the…

  5. The assessment of cytotoxic T cell and natural killer cells activity in residents of high and ordinary background radiation areas of Ramsar-Iran.

    PubMed

    Borzoueisileh, Sajad; Monfared, Ali Shabestani; Abediankenari, Saeid; Mostafazadeh, Amrollah

    2013-01-01

    The effective radiation dose of human from natural sources is about 2.4 mSv/y and the dose limit for radiation workers is 20 mSv/y. Ramsar, a city in Iran, has been the subject of concern in the last forty years for a high level of radiation measured in some spots as high as 260 mSv/y. Carcinogenesis is one of the most studied effects of radiation especially in high doses. Recent studies showed that the high level of natural radiation received by inhabitants of this area, paradoxically don't have significant health effect. Natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T cells are the most important cells in tumor immune surveillance and CD107a is a widely expressed intracellular protein located in the lysosomal/endosomal membrane. CD107a transiently located on the cell membrane can be used as a marker of CD8 + T cell degranulation following stimulation. It is also expressed, to a lower extent, on activated NK cells. In this study, 60 healthy people were selected randomly and their consent obtained and confounding factors such as sex, age, life-styles was matched then the count of activated NK and CD8 + cells was compared in high and normal background radiation areas inhabitants of Ramsar. After filling the questionnaire and measurement of background radiation, blood samples of 30 healthy people from each region were analyzed immediately by means of flowcytometry. The leukocytes and their subsets were not significantly different between two groups and the count of active cells was higher in control group. The result shows that the changes in immune system occur due to radiation and maybe it is as a result of higher radiosensitivity of activated cells. PMID:23531635

  6. Characteristics of aerosols and mass closure study at two WMO GAW regional background stations in eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Peng; Zhang, Renjian; Huan, Ning; Zhou, Xiuji; Zhang, Yangmei; Zhou, Huaigang; Zhang, Leiming

    2012-12-01

    In the summer and winter of 2004 and 2005, size-segregated atmospheric aerosols were sampled with modified Andersen KA200 Multi-stage impactor at two regional background stations in the eastern China, the Shangdianzi station (SDZ) in the suburb of Beijing and the Lin'An station (LA) in the Yangtze river delta region, both are WMO Global Atmospheric Watch station, which represent the regional background of air pollutions of the two rapid developing economical zone of China, the Yangtze River Delta region (YRD) and Beijing-Tianjin region. The aerosol mass size distributions, ionic compositions, organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), and elemental components were analyzed. The mass concentrations for TSP (total suspend particle), PM11 (aerodynamic diameter less than 11 μm), and PM2.1 (aerodynamic diameter less than 2.1 μm) at both sites showed obviously different between the winter and summer, with higher mass concentrations measured in the winter time. All seasonal mean mass concentrations of PM2.1 accounted for over 50% of PM11 at both sites. The aerosol mass closure study indicated that the total mass concentration reconstructed from the aerosol chemical composition agreed well with the measured gravimetric mass at the two stations. The fine aerosol particles at the two stations were composed mainly of sulfate and organic matter. In the summer, more than half of the PM2.1 mass was sulfate, suggesting a dominant contribution of secondary aerosol to the fine particles in these two regions. In the winter, the contribution of nitrate to the fine particles increased significantly due to the lower volatile losses under the cold weather. The proportions of soil type components in the PM2.1 showed similar magnitude in the winter and summer at Lin'An station but significant seasonal differences with higher fractions in the winter at Shangdianzi station. On average EC accounted for about 2%-6% of the fine particle mass (PM2.1) at both sites with proportionally lower EC

  7. Background level care.

    PubMed

    Pitts, N B

    2009-01-01

    The framework enabled by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System to allow appropriate, patient-centred caries management includes a frequently encountered scenario in which a comprehensive assessment of the teeth and the patient reveals no lesions in need of active preventive or operative care. The issue addressed here is: what background care is appropriate for patients attending a dental practice for routine caries care who, at present, appear to have no active or progressing caries lesions? It is proposed that, in addition to the use of criteria for lesion extent, treatment planning systems should also express the results of lesion assessments in terms of background level care (BLC), preventive treatment options and operative treatment options. The specific treatment options recommended for specific lesions and patients will depend upon a variety of other factors, including lesion activity, monitoring lesion behaviour over time and a range of other prognostic factors. Over recent decades, there has been comparatively little focus on appropriate BLC in a general practice setting. There are a range of issues around the need to support caries prevention and health maintenance from a behavioural and patient-focussed perspective. Even if a patient is deemed to be at low risk of future caries at a particular examination, there is a need for maintenance care. Intrinsic issues which need to be managed for both patients and their caries lesions in this patient group are: (1) the possibility of a change in caries risk status and (2) the impact of incorrect lesion assessments/diagnoses.

  8. Cumulative impact assessment: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, J.S.; Bain, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) indirectly addressed cumulative impacts. Attempts to include cumulative impacts in environmental impact assessments, however, did not began until the early 1980's. One such effort began when The Federal Energy and Regulatory Commission (FERC) received over 1200 applications for hydroelectric projects in the Pacific Northwest. Federal and State Agencies, Indian tribes and environmental groups realized the potential cumulative effect such development could have on fish and wildfire resources. In response, the FERC developed the Cluster Impact Assessment Procedure (CIAP). The CIAP consisted of public scoping meetings; interactive workshops designed to identify projects with potential for cumulative effects, important resources, available data; and preparation of a NEPA document (EA or EIS). The procedure was modifies to assess the cumulative impacts of fifteen hydroelectric projects in the Salmon River Basin, Idaho. The methodology achieved its basic objective of evaluating the impact of hydroelectric development on fish and wildfire resources. In addition, the use of evaluative techniques to determine project interactions and degrees of impact hindered acceptance of the conclusions. Notwithstanding these problems, the studies provided a basis for decision-makers to incorporate the potential effects of cumulative impacts into the decision-making process. 22 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Initial Report for the Aquifer Background Study: Summary of Uranium and Plutonium Data from INEEL Groundwater Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Roback; Don L. Koeppen

    2003-06-01

    As part of the “Aquifer Background Study,” Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) under contract with the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has undertaken a study to determine uranium and plutonium abundances and isotopic composition in groundwater samples collected at the INEEL. To date, four samples have been analyzed for uranium and plutonium and an additional nine samples have been analyzed for uranium. It is expected that several more samples will be analyzed for this study. This report summarizes the results from this initial set of samples. Of the 13 samples analyzed for uranium, four samples have 238U/235U ratios that differ from the natural value of 137.88. These four samples and two additional samples also contain 236U at 3-sigma level above detection limits. The presence of 236U and the non-natural 238U/235U ratios unequivocally indicate the presence of anthropic uranium in four of the samples. A small component of anthropic uranium is also present in two additional samples with positive 236U detection but natural 238U/235U isotope ratios. Two of the samples with anthropic uranium, as well as two samples with no detectable anthropic uranium were analyzed for plutonium. No plutonium was detected in these four samples at detection limits of approximately 5E7 239Pu atoms for three of the samples and approximately 1E8 239Pu atoms for the forth sample. These detection limits correspond to (239+240)Pu activity ratios (assuming a 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio of 0.18) of 0.002 and 0.004 pCi/L respectively.

  10. Violence against the adolescents of Kolkata: A study in relation to the socio-economic background and mental health.

    PubMed

    Deb, Sibnath; Ray, Mrinalkanti; Bhattacharyya, Banhishikha; Sun, Jiandong

    2016-02-01

    This study attempts to understand the nature of violence suffered by the adolescents of Kolkata (erstwhile Calcutta) and to identify its relation with their socio-economic background and mental health variables such as anxiety, adjustment, and self-concept. It is a cross-sectional study covering a total of 370 adolescents (182 boys and 188 girls) from six higher secondary schools in Kolkata. The data was gathered by way of a semi-structured questionnaire and three standard psychological tests. Findings revealed that 52.4%, 25.1%, and 12.7% adolescents suffered psychological, physical, and sexual violence in the last year. Older adolescents (aged 17-18 years) suffered more psychological violence than the younger ones (15-16 years) (p<0.05). Sixty nine (18.6%) adolescent students stood witness to violence between adult members in the family. More than three-fifth (61.9%) adolescents experienced at least one type of violence, while one-third (32.7%) experienced physical or sexual violence or both. Whatever its nature is, violence leaves a scar on the mental health of the victims. Those who have been through regular psychological violence reported high anxiety, emotional adjustment problem, and low self-concept. Sexual abuse left a damaging effect on self-concept (p<0.05), while psychological violence or the witnessing of violence prompted high anxiety scores (p<0.05), poor emotional adjustment (p<0.05), and low self-concept (p<0.05). This study stresses the need to provide individual counselling services to the maltreated adolescents of Kolkata so that their psychological traumas can heal and that they can move on in life with new hopes and dreams. PMID:26957328

  11. The teaching/learning preferences of student nurses in the Republic of Ireland; background issues and a study.

    PubMed

    Cowman, S

    1995-04-01

    Teaching and learning in all forms of education is being increasingly reviewed in a climate of educational accountability. The literature generally displays a certain irrationality about nurse education; on the one hand teachers are espousing student-centred ideologies while on the other hand, students are expressing preferences for teacher-structured approaches. The research on nurse education generally concludes that the roles of teacher and student operate around a mechanistic view of man with the teacher being viewed as the front of all knowledge and the students the passive recipients of that which was given. This paper reports on related background issues, and a study of the teaching/learning preferences of student nurses from general, psychiatric, sick children's and mental handicap nursing. Whilst students reflected preferences for more teacher-structured strategies, significant differences were identified between the preferences of the four groups of student nurses. It is concluded that any insistence on a doctrinaire approach to teaching and learning would be unnecessarily restrictive to the whole process of nurse education. Nurse tutors therefore need to reflect on what they do, particularly that which influences the relationship between the students and what they learn. It is then the responsibility of nurse tutors to act on what they have learned about that relationship and their part in it. PMID:7790153

  12. Environmental and school influences on physical activity in South Asian children from low socio-economic backgrounds: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Eyre, Emma Lisa Jane; Duncan, Michael J; Birch, Samantha L; Cox, Val

    2015-09-01

    South Asian (SA) children are less active but have enhanced metabolic risk factors. Physical activity (PA) is a modifiable risk factor for metabolic disease. Evidence suggests that environmental factors and socio-economic status influence PA behaviour. The purpose of this study was to understand PA environments, barriers and facilitators of PA in deprived environments for children from SA backgrounds. Focus groups were conducted with 5 groups of children aged 7-9 years (n = 33; male = 16, female = 17; SA = 17, White = 8 and Black = 8) from two schools in deprived wards of Coventry, England. Thematic analysis was used to identify key themes and subthemes across all transcripts. From the results, emergent themes included school and home environment, outdoor activity, equipment, weather, parental constraints and safety. Ethnic differences were apparent for sources of beliefs and knowledge and religious practice as constraints for PA. The findings suggest that school provides a good foundation for PA attitude, knowledge and behaviour, especially for SA children. To increase PA, multi-component interventions are needed, which focus on changing the home environment (i.e. junk food and media time), encouraging outdoors activity, changing perceptions of safety and weather conditions, which provide parental constraints for children. Interventions also need to be considerate to religious practices that might constrain time.

  13. Engine system assessment study using Martian propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelaccio, Dennis; Jacobs, Mark; Scheil, Christine; Collins, John

    1992-01-01

    A top-level feasibility study was conducted that identified and characterized promising chemical propulsion system designs which use two or more of the following propellant combinations: LOX/H2, LOX/CH4, and LOX/CO. The engine systems examined emphasized the usage of common subsystem/component hardware where possible. In support of this study, numerous mission scenarios were characterized that used various combinations of Earth, lunar, and Mars propellants to establish engine system requirements to assess the promising engine system design concept examined, and to determine overall exploration leverage of such systems compared to state-of-the-art cryogenic (LOX/H2) propulsion systems. Initially in the study, critical propulsion system technologies were assessed. Candidate expander and gas generator cycle LOX/H2/CO, LOX/H2/CH4, and LOX/CO/CH4 engine system designs were parametrically evaluated. From this evaluation baseline, tripropellant Mars Transfer Vehicle (MTV) LOX cooled and bipropellant Lunar Excursion Vehicle (LEV) and Mars Excursion Vehicle (MEV) engine systems were identified. Representative tankage designs for a MTV were also investigated. Re-evaluation of the missions using the baseline engine design showed that in general the slightly lower performance, smaller, lower weight gas generator cycle-based engines required less overall mission Mars and in situ propellant production (ISPP) infrastructure support compared to the larger, heavier, higher performing expander cycle engine systems.

  14. Engine system assessment study using Martian propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelaccio, Dennis; Jacobs, Mark; Scheil, Christine; Collins, John

    1992-06-01

    A top-level feasibility study was conducted that identified and characterized promising chemical propulsion system designs which use two or more of the following propellant combinations: LOX/H2, LOX/CH4, and LOX/CO. The engine systems examined emphasized the usage of common subsystem/component hardware where possible. In support of this study, numerous mission scenarios were characterized that used various combinations of Earth, lunar, and Mars propellants to establish engine system requirements to assess the promising engine system design concept examined, and to determine overall exploration leverage of such systems compared to state-of-the-art cryogenic (LOX/H2) propulsion systems. Initially in the study, critical propulsion system technologies were assessed. Candidate expander and gas generator cycle LOX/H2/CO, LOX/H2/CH4, and LOX/CO/CH4 engine system designs were parametrically evaluated. From this evaluation baseline, tripropellant Mars Transfer Vehicle (MTV) LOX cooled and bipropellant Lunar Excursion Vehicle (LEV) and Mars Excursion Vehicle (MEV) engine systems were identified. Representative tankage designs for a MTV were also investigated. Re-evaluation of the missions using the baseline engine design showed that in general the slightly lower performance, smaller, lower weight gas generator cycle-based engines required less overall mission Mars and in situ propellant production (ISPP) infrastructure support compared to the larger, heavier, higher performing expander cycle engine systems.

  15. Fisheries resource identification and assessment studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    Program coordination activities were shifted from the Space Oceanography Program of NAVOCEANO to the National Environmental Satellite Service as part of NOAA in October 1970. Program activities in remote sensing continued in the development of low-light-level image intensifiers, spectrometers, aerial photography, and lasers for the location, identification, and quantification of living marine resources at or near the sea surface. Other studies included the development of a biologically controlled impoundment for remote sensor investigations and limited activities in fish oil film research. In addition to these remote sensing studies, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) program at the Mississippi Test Facility is participating in space oceanography studies related to fisheries and in the ERTS-A and Skylab experiments. Aspects of the NMFS program related to fisheries resource identification and assessment during the period 1970 and 1971 are discussed.

  16. Estimation of contingency of parameters of human EEG and background infrasonic vibrations of pressure revealed in monitoring studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnik, A. G.; Pobachenko, S. V.; Solov'yov, A. V.

    2013-12-01

    The contingency of variations in parameters of the background infrasonic waves and changes in parameters of human EEG during different time intervals has been revealed with the use of synchronized monitoring. The results suggest that the variations of the background infrasound could be considered an external pacemaker (synchronizing factor). It has been established that there is a significant contingency of changes in a sufficiently wide range of infra- and ultradian periodicities; for different ranges the positive and negative correlations alternate.

  17. The Healthy Communities Study Nutrition Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Wakimoto, Patricia; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Thompson, Frances E.; Loria, Catherine M.; Wilson, Dawn K.; Kao, Janice; Crawford, Patricia B.; Webb, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    Multifaceted community interventions directed at improving food environments are emerging, but their impact on dietary change and obesity prevalence has not been documented adequately. The Healthy Communities Study (HCS) is seeking to identify characteristics and combinations of programs and policies that are associated with children’s diets and obesity-related outcomes in various types of communities across the U.S. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used in 2013–2015 in the HCS to assess dietary intake, school nutrition environments, and other nutrition-related behaviors. The conceptual framework of the HCS is based on the socioecological model and behaviors shown in previous studies to be related to obesity in children-guided selection of domains. Nine domains were identified as essential measures of nutrition in the HCS: (1) intake of selected foods and beverages; (2) food patterns and behaviors; (3) social support; (4) home environment; (5) school environment; (6) community environment; (7) breastfeeding history; (8) household food insecurity; and (9) dieting behaviors and body image. Children’s dietary intake was assessed using a dietary screener and up to two automated 24-hour recalls. Dietary-related behaviors were assessed by a survey administered to the parent, child, or both, depending on child age. School nutrition measures were obtained from a combination of school staff surveys and researcher observations. Information from these measures is expected to contribute to a better understanding of “what is working” to improve the dietary behaviors that are likely to prevent obesity and improve health in children. PMID:26384936

  18. Long-term comparative study of columnar and surface mass concentration aerosol properties in a background environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennouna, Y. S.; Cachorro, V. E.; Mateos, D.; Burgos, M. A.; Toledano, C.; Torres, B.; de Frutos, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between columnar and surface aerosol properties is not a straightforward problem. The Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Ångström exponent (AE), and ground-level Particulate Matter (PMX, x = 10 or 2.5 μm) data have been studied from a climatological point of view. Despite the different meanings of AOD and PMx both are key and complementary quantities that quantify aerosol load in the atmosphere and many studies intend to find specific relationships between them. Related parameters such as AE and PM ratio (PR = PM2.5/PM10), giving information about the predominant particle size, are included in this study on the relationships between columnar and surface aerosol parameters. This study is based on long measurement records (2003-2014) obtained at two nearby background sites from the AERONET and EMEP networks in the north-central area of Spain. The climatological annual cycle of PMx shows two maxima along the year (one in late-winter/early-spring and another in summer), but this cycle is not followed by the AOD which shows only a summer maximum and a nearly bell shape. However, the annual means of both data sets show strong correlation (R = 0.89) and similar decreasing trends of 40% (PM10) and 38% (AOD) for the 12-year record. PM10 and AOD daily data are moderately correlated (R = 0.58), whereas correlation increases for monthly (R = 0.74) and yearly (R = 0.89) means. Scatter plots of AE vs. AOD and PR vs. PM10 have been used to characterize aerosols over the region. The PR vs. AE scatterplot of daily data shows no correlation due to the prevalence of intermediate-sized particles. As day-to-day correlation is low (especially for high turbidity events), a binned analysis was also carried out to establish consistent relationships between columnar and surface quantities, which is considered to be an appropriate approach for environmental and climate studies. In this way the link between surface concentrations and columnar remote sensing data is shown to

  19. Depression, anxiety, antidepressant use, and cardiovascular disease among Hispanic men and women of different national backgrounds: results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL)

    PubMed Central

    Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Arredondo, EM; Cai, JianWen; Castenada, Sheila; Choca, James P; Gallo, Linda; Jung, Molly; LaVange, Lisa M; Lee-Rey, Elizabeth T; Mosley, Thomas; Penedo, Frank J; Santistaban, DA; Zee, PC

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Describe prevalence and relationships to cardiovascular morbidity of depression, anxiety and medication use among Hispanic/Latinos of different ethnic backgrounds. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 15,864 men and women ages 18–74 in the population-based Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed with shortened Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale and Spielberger Trait Anxiety Scale. Results Prevalence of high depressive symptoms ranged from low of 22.3% (95%CI: 20.4–24.3) to high of 38.0% (95%CI: 35.2–41.0) among those of Mexican or Puerto Rican background respectively. Adjusted odds ratios for depression rose monotonically with number of CVD risk factors from 1.46 (95%CI: 1.18, 1.75) for those with no risk factors to 4.36 (95%CI: 2.47, 7.70) for those with 5 risk factors. Antidepressant medication was used by 5% with striking differences between those with and without history of CVD (15.4% and 4.6% respectively) and between insured (8.2%) and uninsured (1.8%). Conclusions Among US Hispanics/Latinos, high depression and anxiety symptoms varied nearly twofold by Hispanic background and sex, history of CVD and increasing number of CVD risk factors. Antidepressant medication use was lower than in the general population, suggesting under treatment especially among those who had no health insurance. PMID:25439033

  20. 2010 Data Standards Manual Student Background Characteristics. For Use by Schools and School Systems Test Administration Authorities and Assessment Contractors. Fifth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council for Education, Early Childhood Development and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The process of collecting student background information from parents using nationally agreed definitions of student background characteristics began in 2005. The original edition of this manual, titled "Data Implementation Manual for Enrolments for the 2005 and 2006 School Years," was prepared to assist schools and systems in modifying enrolment…

  1. Combined study of evaporation from liquid surface by background oriented schlieren, infrared thermal imaging and numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinnichenko, N. A.; Uvarov, A. V.; Plaksina, Yu. Yu.

    2013-04-01

    Temperature fields in evaporating liquids are measured by simultaneous use of Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) technique for the side view and IR thermal imaging for the surface distribution. Good agreement between the two methods is obtained with typical measurement error less than 0.1 K. Two configurations of surface layer are observed: thermocapillary convection state with moving liquid surface and small thermal cells, associated with Marangoni convection, and "cool skin" with negligible velocity at the surface, larger cells and dramatic increase of velocity within 0.1 mm layer beneath the surface. These configurations are shown to be formed in various liquids (water with various degrees of purification, ethanol, butanol, decane, kerosene, glycerine) depending rather on initial conditions and ambient parameters than on the liquid. Water, which has been considered as the liquid without observable Marangoni convection, actually can exhibit both kinds of behavior during the same experimental run. Evaporation is also studied by means of numerical simulations. Separate problemsin air and liquid are considered, with thermal imaging data of surface temperature making the separation possible. It is shown that evaporation rate can be predicted by numerical simulation of the air side with appropriate boundary conditions. Comparison is made with known empirical correlations for Sherwood-Rayleigh relationship. Numerical simulations of water-side problem reveal the issue of velocity boundary conditions at the free surface, determining the structure of surface layer. Flow field similar to observed in the experiments is obtained with special boundary conditions of third kind, presenting a combination of no-slip and surface tension boundary conditions.

  2. Integrated Operations Architecture Technology Assessment Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    As part of NASA's Integrated Operations Architecture (IOA) Baseline, NASA will consolidate all communications operations. including ground-based, near-earth, and deep-space communications, into a single integrated network. This network will make maximum use of commercial equipment, services and standards. It will be an Internet Protocol (IP) based network. This study supports technology development planning for the IOA. The technical problems that may arise when LEO mission spacecraft interoperate with commercial satellite services were investigated. Commercial technology and services that could support the IOA were surveyed, and gaps in the capability of existing technology and techniques were identified. Recommendations were made on which gaps should be closed by means of NASA research and development funding. Several findings emerged from the interoperability assessment: in the NASA mission set, there is a preponderance of small. inexpensive, low data rate science missions; proposed commercial satellite communications services could potentially provide TDRSS-like data relay functions; and. IP and related protocols, such as TCP, require augmentation to operate in the mobile networking environment required by the space-to-ground portion of the IOA. Five case studies were performed in the technology assessment. Each case represented a realistic implementation of the near-earth portion of the IOA. The cases included the use of frequencies at L-band, Ka-band and the optical spectrum. The cases also represented both space relay architectures and direct-to-ground architectures. Some of the main recommendations resulting from the case studies are: select an architecture for the LEO/MEO communications network; pursue the development of a Ka-band space-qualified transmitter (and possibly a receiver), and a low-cost Ka-band ground terminal for a direct-to-ground network, pursue the development of an Inmarsat (L-band) space-qualified transceiver to implement a global, low

  3. Internal Film Receiver systems assessment study

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.V.

    1988-03-01

    This report documents SERI's Internal Film Receiver (IFR) design study and system assessment effort; and it compares the performance and economic potential of this system to conventional salt-in-tube receivers and to systems with the direct absorption receiver (DAR). SPECO, Inc., under contract to SERI, performed the receiver configuration work and their final report is included as Appendix A. The IFR is similar to the DAR in that both use films flowing over nearly vertical plates to absorb the solar energy. However, in the IFR the radiation strikes the outside of the absorber plate and the working fluid flows down the inside. The results of the system-level assessment indicate that the IFR concept has the potential to deliver levelized energy costs (LEC) on the order of 5%--7% lower than the salt-in-tube receiver. Although the potential economic benefits of the IFR are not as great as those for the DAR, which shows more than a 15% improvement in LEC over the salt-in-tube receiver system, this may be offset by the lower technical risks with the IFR. 3 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the Silver City 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, New Mexico and Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richter, Donald H.; Houser, B.B.; Watts, K.C.; Klein, D.P.; Sharp, W.N.; Drewes, Harald; Hedlund, D.C.; Raines, G.L.; Hassemer, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Silver City 1 ? x 2 ? quadrangle, consisting of about 20,650 km2 in southwestern New Mexico and southeastern Arizona, has been investigated by a multidisciplinary research team for the purpose of assessing its mineral resource potential. The results of this investigation are in a folio of 21 maps that contain detailed information on the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, mineral deposits, and potential mineral resources of the quadrangle. This Circular provides background information on the various studies and integrates the component maps. It contains an extensive selected bibliography pertinent to the geology and mineral deposits of the quadrangle. The quadrangle has produced more than $3.5 billion in mineral products since about 1850 and contains significant resources of gold, silver, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, iron, manganese-iron, zeolite minerals, and possibly tin and tungsten.

  5. Academic Advising Assessment Practices: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Keith L.

    2012-01-01

    In academic courses, assessment is used to evaluate the effect of teaching on student learning. Academic advising has been viewed as a form of teaching (Crookston, 1972); therefore, it is necessary to assess the effect of academic advising on student learning. The best practices of assessment of academic achievement involve the following three…

  6. Using Calibrated Exemplars in the Teacher-Assessment of Writing: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heldsinger, Sandra A.; Humphry, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Many in education argue for the importance of incorporating teacher judgements in the assessment and reporting of student performance. Advocates of such an approach are cognisant, though, that obtaining a satisfactory level of consistency in teacher judgements poses a challenge. Purpose: This study investigates the extent to which the…

  7. Social Studies Objectives, Second Assessment. National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO. National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    Major social studies objectives delineated in this booklet provide a framework for the measurement of student achievement in the social studies. The booklet is arranged in four chapters. The first chapter describes the development of social studies objectives; the other chapters respectively list the social studies objectives for the specific age…

  8. University Transition Challenges for First Year Domestic CALD Students from Refugee Backgrounds: A Case Study from an Australian Regional University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Eric; Harmsworth, Sarah; Rajaeian, Mohammad Mehdi; Parkes, Geoffrey; Bishop, Sue; AlMansouri, Bassim; Lawrence, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) is used broadly and inclusively to describe communities with diverse language, ethnic background, nationality, dress, traditions, food, societal structures, art and religion characteristics. Domestic CALD people are either refugees or voluntary migrants and have obtained permanent residency or…

  9. National Research Council Dialogue to Assess Progress on NASA's Systems Engineering Cost/Risk Analysis Capability Roadmap Development: General Background and Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regenie, Victoria

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: General Background and Introduction of Capability. Roadmaps for Systems Engineering Cost/Risk Analysis. Agency Objectives. Strategic Planning Transformation. Review Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Review Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Progress to Date).

  10. Michigan Educational Assessment Program: Social Studies, Grade 7. Test Number 65, Student Assessment Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Board of Education, Lansing.

    The Michigan Educational Assessment Program presents an untimed, 100-question Social Studies Test (Form 65) for grade 7 students to assess social studies skills. This document contains the test booklet only. (PN)

  11. Michigan Educational Assessment Program: Social Studies, Grade 10. Test Number 95, Student Assessment Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Board of Education, Lansing.

    The Michigan Educational Assessment Program presents an untimed, 100-question Social Studies Test (Form 95) for grade 10 students to assess social studies skills. This document contains the test booklet only. (PN)

  12. Michigan Educational Assessment Program: Social Studies, Grade 4. Test Number 35, Student Assessment Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Board of Education, Lansing.

    The Michigan Educational Assessment Program presents an untimed, 70-question Social Studies Test (Form 35) for grade 4 students to assess social studies skills. This document contains the test booklet only. (PN)

  13. Trace metal variability, background levels and pollution status assessment in line with the water framework and Marine Strategy Framework EU Directives in the waters of a heavily impacted Mediterranean Gulf.

    PubMed

    Paraskevopoulou, V; Zeri, C; Kaberi, H; Chalkiadaki, O; Krasakopoulou, E; Dassenakis, M; Scoullos, M

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this work is to assess trace metal pollution status (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) in the waters of Saronikos Gulf, Greece, in line with the WFD and MSFD European Directives, based on data collected over a decade (2000-2010). Dissolved metal background levels are estimated for the first time for Greek marine waters and the upper limits are: Cd: 0.574 nmol L(-1); Cu: 8.26 nmol L(-1); Ni: 7.94 nmol L(-1); Pb: 2.60 nmol L(-1); Zn: 115 nmol L(-1). The variability of dissolved and particulate metals reflected the presence of several point sources and revealed the importance of natural mechanisms acting as non-point sources. The status of Saronikos Gulf is classified as 'High' for most metals studied. An exception to this is the enclosed Elefsis Bay where Cu, Ni and Zn concentrations are found above background. Our work will assist the implementation of WFD and MSFD directives in Greece.

  14. Changes in background aerosol composition in Finland during polluted and clean periods studied by TEM/EDX individual particle analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, J. V.; Saarikoski, S.; Tervahattu, H.; Mäkelä, T.; Hillamo, R.; Vehkamäki, H.; Sogacheva, L.; Kulmala, M.

    2006-11-01

    Aerosol samples were collected at a rural background site in southern Finland in May 2004 during pollution episode (PM1~16 µg m-3, backward air mass trajectories from south-east), intermediate period (PM1~5 µg m-3, backtrajectories from north-east) and clean period (PM1~2 µg m-3, backtrajectories from north-west/north). The elemental composition, morphology and mixing state of individual aerosol particles in three size fractions were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalyses. The TEM/EDX results were complemented with the size-segregated bulk chemical measurements of selected ions and organic and elemental carbon. Many of the particles in PM0.2-1 and PM1-3.3 size fractions were strongly internally mixed with S, C and/or N. The major particle types in PM0.2-1 samples were 1) soot and 2) (ammonium)sulphates and their mixtures with variable amounts of C, K, soot and/or other inclusions. Number proportions of those two particle groups in PM0.2-1 samples were 0-12% and 83-97%, respectively. During the pollution episode, the proportion of Ca-rich particles was very high (26-48%) in the PM1-3.3 and PM3.3-11 samples, while the PM0.2-1 and PM1-3.3 samples contained elevated proportions of silicates (22-33%), metal oxides/hydroxides (1-9%) and tar balls (1-4%). These aerosols originated mainly from polluted areas of Eastern Europe, and some open biomass burning smoke was also brought by long-range transport. During the clean period, when air masses arrived from the Arctic Ocean, PM1-3.3 samples contained mainly sea salt particles (67-89%) with a variable rate of Cl substitution (mainly by NO3-). During the intermediate period, the PM1-3.3 sample contained porous (sponge-like) Na-rich particles (35%) with abundant S, K and O. They might originate from the burning of wood pulp wastes of paper industry. The proportion of biological particles and C-rich fragments (probably also biological origin) were highest

  15. Oppositional defiant- and conduct disorder-like problems: neurodevelopmental predictors and genetic background in boys and girls, in a nationwide twin study.

    PubMed

    Kerekes, Nóra; Lundström, Sebastian; Chang, Zheng; Tajnia, Armin; Jern, Patrick; Lichtenstein, Paul; Nilsson, Thomas; Anckarsäter, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Background. Previous research has supported gender-specific aetiological factors in oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). The aims of this study were to identify gender-specific associations between the behavioural problems-ODD/CD-like problems-and the neurodevelopmental disorders-attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-and to investigate underlying genetic effects. Methods. 17,220 twins aged 9 or 12 were screened using the Autism-Tics, AD/HD and other Comorbidities inventory. The main covariates of ODD- and CD-like problems were investigated, and the relative importance of unique versus shared hereditary and environmental effects was estimated using twin model fitting. Results. Social interaction problems (one of the ASD subdomains) was the strongest neurodevelopmental covariate of the behavioural problems in both genders, while ADHD-related hyperactivity/impulsiveness in boys and inattention in girls stood out as important covariates of CD-like problems. Genetic effects accounted for 50%-62% of the variance in behavioural problems, except in CD-like problems in girls (26%). Genetic and environmental effects linked to ADHD and ASD also influenced ODD-like problems in both genders and, to a lesser extent, CD-like problems in boys, but not in girls. Conclusions. The gender-specific patterns should be considered in the assessment and treatment, especially of CD.

  16. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, remote sensing, and mineral resources maps of the Butte 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, James E.; Trautwein, C.M.; Wallace, C.A.; Lee, G.K.; Rowan, L.C.; Hanna, W.F.

    1993-01-01

    The Butte 1?x2 ? quadrangle in west-central Montana was investigated as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP). These investigations included geologic mapping, geochemical surveys, gravity and aeromagnetic surveys, examinations of mineral deposits, and specialized geochronologic and remote-sensing studies. The data collected during these studies were compiled, combined with available published and unpublished data, analyzed, and used in a mineral-resource assessment of the quadrangle. The results, including data, interpretations, and mineral-resource assessments for nine types of mineral deposits, are published separately as a folio of maps. These maps are accompanied by figures, tables, and explanatory text. This circular provides background information on the Butte quadrangle, summarizes the studies and published maps, and lists a selected bibliography of references pertinent to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral resources of the quadrangle. The Butte quadrangle, which includes the world-famous Butte mining district, has a long history of mineral production. Many mining districts within the quadrangle have produced large quantities of many commodities; the most important in dollar value of production were copper, gold, silver, lead, zinc, manganese, molybdenum, and phosphate. At present, mines at several locations produce copper, molybdenum, gold, silver, lead, zinc, and phosphate. Exploration, mainly for gold, has indicated the presence of other mineral deposits that may be exploited in the future. The results of the investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey indicate that many areas of the quadrangle are highly favorable for the occurrence of additional undiscovered resources of gold, silver, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, and other metals in several deposit types.

  17. Students' Assessment Preferences, Perceptions of Assessment and Their Relationships to Study Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Watering, Gerard; Gijbels, David; Dochy, Filip; van der Rijt, Janine

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to gain more insight into students' actual preferences and perceptions of assessment, into the effects of these on their performances when different assessment formats are used, and into the different cognitive process levels assessed. Data were obtained from two sources. The first was the scores on the assessment of…

  18. System Losses and Assessment Trade Study

    SciTech Connect

    David Shropshire; Steve Piet; Nick Soelberg; Robert Cherry; Roger Henry; David Meikrantz; Greg Teske; Eric Shaber; Candido Pereira

    2009-09-01

    This Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) study has developed new analysis methods to examine old and new technology options toward the goal of improving fuel cycle systems. We have integrated participants and information from AFCI Systems Analysis, Transmutation Fuels, Separations, and Waste Form Campaigns in the Systems Losses and Assessment Trade Study. The initial objectives of this study were to 1) increase understanding of system interdependencies and thereby identify system trade-offs that may yield important insights, 2) define impacts of separations product purity on fuel manufacture and transmutation reactivity, 3) define impacts from transuranic (TRU) losses to waste, 4) identify the interrelationships involved in fuels and separations technology performance, and 5) identify system configuration adjustments with the greatest potential for influencing system losses. While bounding and analyzing this initial problem, we also identified significantly higher-level programmatic drivers with broad implications to the current fuel cycle research charter and the general issue of a DOE complex wide need for a comprehensive and integrated nuclear material management as addressed by the new DOE Order 410.2 titled “Management of Nuclear Materials”. The initial modeling effort developed in this study for a much smaller subset of material (i.e., commercial fuel) and a selected transmutation scheme (i.e., fast reactor recycling) is a necessary first step towards examining a broader set of nuclear material management options, dispositioning strategies and integrated waste management options including potential areas of research leverage. The primary outcome from this initial study has been an enhanced integration among Campaigns and associated insights and analysis methods. Opportunities for improved understanding between the groups abound. The above lanthanide-actinide example highlights the importance of evaluating options via integration across the Campaigns

  19. Methodological Quandaries in Studying Process and Outcomes in Peer Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, Keith J.

    2010-01-01

    Peer assessment is very various in its implementation. Six studies of peer assessment are reviewed, four of them in higher education. A literature review is followed by five empirical studies. Strengths and weaknesses of each study are considered and issues are raised. Variables in peer assessment needing further exploration are extricated--in…

  20. 36 CFR 254.23 - Studies, assessments, and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Studies, assessments, and... AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS National Forest Townsites § 254.23 Studies, assessments, and approval... necessary studies and assessments to— (1) Determine if the applicant has made a satisfactory showing...

  1. 36 CFR 254.23 - Studies, assessments, and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Studies, assessments, and... AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS National Forest Townsites § 254.23 Studies, assessments, and approval... necessary studies and assessments to— (1) Determine if the applicant has made a satisfactory showing...

  2. A Case Study of Systemic Aspects of Assessment Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Rogers P.; Knudsen, Jennifer; Greeno, James G.

    1996-01-01

    Findings from a study of diverse assessment practices in a fifth-grade classroom were used to develop a framework for describing assessment system practices. The framework is used to compare different assessment activities, and new criteria for designing systemically valid assessments to support and extend classroom practices are proposed. (SLD)

  3. An Assessment of Different Educational Background of Students Performance in Engineering Mathematics and on the Class of Award Obtained at the Higher National Diploma (HND) Level at Cape Coast Polytechnic, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asirifi, Michael Kwabena; Mensah, Kweku Abeeku; Amoako, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research article is to find out an assessment of different educational background of students performance in engineering mathematics and on the class of award obtained at the Higher National Diploma (HND) level at Cape Coast Polytechnic. A descriptive survey was conducted on students of the Electricals/Electronics Department…

  4. Undergraduate study in psychology: Curriculum and assessment.

    PubMed

    Norcross, John C; Hailstorks, Robin; Aiken, Leona S; Pfund, Rory A; Stamm, Karen E; Christidis, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    The undergraduate curriculum in psychology profoundly reflects and shapes the discipline. Yet, reliable information on the undergraduate psychology curriculum has been difficult to acquire due to insufficient research carried out on unrepresentative program samples with disparate methods. In 2014, APA launched the first systematic effort in a decade to gather national data on the psychology major and program outcomes. We surveyed a stratified random sample of department chairs/coordinators of accredited colleges and universities in the United States that offer undergraduate courses and programs in psychology. A total of 439 undergraduate psychology programs (45.2%) completed the survey. This article summarizes, for both associate and baccalaureate programs, the results of the Undergraduate Study in Psychology. Current practices concerning the introductory course, the courses offered, core requirements, the psychology minor, and tracks/concentrations are presented. The frequency of formal program reviews and program-level assessment methods are also addressed. By extending prior research on the undergraduate curriculum, we chronicle longitudinal changes in the psychology major over the past 20 years.

  5. Undergraduate study in psychology: Curriculum and assessment.

    PubMed

    Norcross, John C; Hailstorks, Robin; Aiken, Leona S; Pfund, Rory A; Stamm, Karen E; Christidis, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    The undergraduate curriculum in psychology profoundly reflects and shapes the discipline. Yet, reliable information on the undergraduate psychology curriculum has been difficult to acquire due to insufficient research carried out on unrepresentative program samples with disparate methods. In 2014, APA launched the first systematic effort in a decade to gather national data on the psychology major and program outcomes. We surveyed a stratified random sample of department chairs/coordinators of accredited colleges and universities in the United States that offer undergraduate courses and programs in psychology. A total of 439 undergraduate psychology programs (45.2%) completed the survey. This article summarizes, for both associate and baccalaureate programs, the results of the Undergraduate Study in Psychology. Current practices concerning the introductory course, the courses offered, core requirements, the psychology minor, and tracks/concentrations are presented. The frequency of formal program reviews and program-level assessment methods are also addressed. By extending prior research on the undergraduate curriculum, we chronicle longitudinal changes in the psychology major over the past 20 years. PMID:26866985

  6. Information Technology Assessment Study: Full Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    A team was formed to assess NASA Office of Space Science (OSS) information technology research and development activities. These activities were reviewed for their relevance to OSS missions, for their potential for using products better supplied by industry or other government agencies, and for recommending an information technology (IT) infusion strategy for appropriate products for OSS missions. Assessment scope and methodology are presented. IT needs and interests for future OSS missions and current NASA IT research and development (R&D) are discussed. Non-NASA participants provide overviews of some of their IT R&D programs. Implementation and infusion issues and the findings and recommendations of the assessment team are presented.

  7. EVIDENCE OF FEED CONTAMINATION DUE TO SAMPLE HANDLING AND PREPARATION DURING A MASS BALANCE STUDY OF DIOXINS IN LACTATING COWS IN BACKGROUND CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1997, the United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a mass balance study of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs) and dibenzofurans (CDFs) in lactating cows in background conditions. The field portion of the study occurred at the US Department of A...

  8. See what I mean? An ERP study of the effect of background knowledge on novel object processing

    PubMed Central

    Gratton, Caterina; evans, Karen M.; FederMeier, Kara d.

    2009-01-01

    Two event-related potential (ERP) experiments were used to examine the representation of object feature information and background knowledge in semantic memory. Participants were trained on novel object categories with three features and were tested with new exemplars that were complete or were missing one to two features that were essential or nonessential to object function. In both a category membership judgment task (Experiment 1) and a parts detection task (Experiment 2), the N400, a functionally specific measure of semantic access, was graded with feature number but was insensitive to knowledge-based feature importance. A separable ERP effect related to knowledge was seen in Experiment 1 as an enhanced frontocentral negativity (beginning ∼300 msec) to exemplars missing a nonessential versus an essential feature, but this effect did not manifest when background knowledge was less task relevant (Experiment 2). Thus, similarity- and knowledge-based effects are separable, and the locus of knowledge effects varies with task demands but does not seem to arise from facilitated semantic access. PMID:19246343

  9. A study of galactic light, extragalactic light, and galactic structure using Pioneer 10 observations of background starlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toller, G. N.

    The diffuse astronomical background sky brightness (background starlight) was determined over 95 percent of the sky using Pioneer 10 photometric measurements in sky regions where the zodiacal light is negligible. Brightness levels are presented at blue (3950-4850A) and red (5900-6800A) wavelengths. The B-R color index distribution is established over the celestial sphere. A computer model of our galaxy was constructed which computes the emitted and observed brightness from any volume element. The relation between DGL, direct starlight, and extinction along the line of sight is established. A small influence of galactic spiral structure on surface brightness levels exists at 1 = 2 deg (Sagittarius arm), 1 = 69 deg (Orion arm), and 1 = 288 deg (Carina arm). A correlation between brightness features and interstellar extinction is established. Analysis of the distribution of brightness peaks and dips and the location of the brightness symmetry plane establishes the Sun's elevation above the galactic plane as 12.2 + or - 2.1 pc.

  10. See what I mean? An ERP study of the effect of background knowledge on novel object processing.

    PubMed

    Gratton, Caterina; Evans, Karen M; Federmeier, Kara D

    2009-04-01

    Two event-related potential (ERP) experiments were used to examine the representation of object feature information and background knowledge in semantic memory. Participants were trained on novel object categories with three features and were tested with new exemplars that were complete or were missing one to two features that were essential or nonessential to object function. In both a category membership judgment task (Experiment 1) and a parts detection task (Experiment 2), the N400, a functionally specific measure of semantic access, was graded with feature number but was insensitive to knowledge-based feature importance. A separable ERP effect related to knowledge was seen in Experiment 1 as an enhanced frontocentral negativity (beginning approximately 300 msec) to exemplars missing a nonessential versus an essential feature, but this effect did not manifest when background knowledge was less task relevant (Experiment 2). Thus, similarity- and knowledge-based effects are separable, and the locus of knowledge effects varies with task demands but does not seem to arise from facilitated semantic access.

  11. SSRI enhances sensitivity to background outcomes and modulates response rates: A randomized double blind study of instrumental action and depression.

    PubMed

    Msetfi, Rachel M; Kumar, Poornima; Harmer, Catherine J; Murphy, Robin A

    2016-05-01

    Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have immediate effects on synaptic levels of serotonin but their therapeutic effects are often delayed. This delay has been suggested to reflect time required for new learning and therefore that SSRIs might be having effects on the learning process. We examined the effects of elevating serotonin levels, through short-term SSRI administration (escitalopram), on learning about perceptions of instrumental control. A randomised double blind procedure was used to allocate healthy people, categorised as mildly depressed (high BDI⩾10: n=76) or not depressed (low BDI⩽5: n=78) to either a drug (escitalopram, 10mg/7days) or placebo control group. Following treatment, participants were trained with a simple task that involved learning the effectiveness of an instrumental action (key press) and the background context at eliciting an outcome (auditory cue) where there was no programmed contingency. The effects of the drug were (i) to moderate response rates and (ii) to enhance sensitivity to the background or context rate of occurrence of the outcome. These findings suggest that serotonin modulates learning about the long-term rate of outcomes, which supports perception of instrumental control, and that this may provide a clue to the mechanism for supporting the development of the therapeutic effects of the drug. PMID:26976091

  12. National Research Council Dialogue to Assess Progesss on NASA's Human Exploration Systems and Mobility Capability Roadmap Development: General Background and Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inman, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    General Background and Introduction of Capability Roadmaps: Agency Objective. Strategic Planning Transformation. Advanced Planning Organizational Roles. Public Involvement in Strategic Planning. Strategic Roadmaps and Schedule. Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Technology and Capability Readiness Levels. Relationships Between Roadmaps. Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Team Progress to Date).

  13. A review of background dioxin concentrations in urban/suburban and rural soils across the United States: implications for site assessments and the establishment of soil cleanup levels.

    PubMed

    Urban, Jonathan D; Wikoff, Daniele S; Bunch, Alea T G; Harris, Mark A; Haws, Laurie C

    2014-01-01

    Over the last several decades, dioxin releases have decreased >90%, leading to a corresponding decrease in human body burdens. In addition, the weight-of-evidence indicates that soil exposures have little impact on human body burdens of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs), with dietary sources being the greatest contributor. In spite of this, USEPA recently proposed substantially lower preliminary remediation goals (PRGs) for soil based on their new oral reference dose (RfD) for dioxin. As such, it is important to understand how these lower soil PRGs compare to background concentrations in urban/suburban and rural soils. The objective of this evaluation was to conduct a comprehensive review of available data concerning background levels of DLCs in U.S. soils. There was substantial variability in how the soil dioxin data were presented (e.g., raw vs. summary data, congener vs. toxic equivalency [TEQ] concentration, number of DLC congeners reported, etc.). In cases where TEQ estimates were based on outdated TEFs and congener-specific data was provided, TEQ concentrations were recalculated using the current WHO2006 TEFs. The data available for rural soils were generally more robust than for urban/suburban soils. Not surprisingly, background levels of DLCs in urban/suburban soils were higher and more variable than in rural soils: 0.1-186 vs. 0.1-22.9 ng/kg TEQ, respectively. In several cases, incomplete soil DLC data were available (e.g., DL-PCBs not included) and, as such, calculated TEQ concentrations likely underestimate actual background levels. Though the current data are somewhat limited, these findings indicate that background DLC concentrations in urban/suburban soils may exceed the USEPA's updated PRGs based on the oral RfD, and are expected to substantially exceed future PRGs to be developed based on the forthcoming dioxin cancer slope factor. This demonstrates a need to characterize anthropogenic background DLCs in non-rural areas across the US to avoid

  14. Information Technology Assessment Study: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    A team was formed to assess NASA Office of Space Science (OSS) information technology research and development activities. These activities were reviewed for their relevance to OSS missions, for their potential for using products better supplied by industry or other government agencies, and for recommending an IT infusion strategy for appropriate products for OSS missions. Assessment scope and methodology and the findings and recommendations of OSS IT users and providers are presented.

  15. The Present Absence: Assessment in Social Studies Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrez, Cheryl A.; Claunch-Lebsack, Elizabeth Ann

    2014-01-01

    In this article, first the authors describe the aims of and a definition of social studies education and classroom assessment. Second, the authors provide an overview of issues related to classroom assessment followed by trends in social studies classrooms and assessment. Then the authors address essential systems and best practices related to…

  16. Student Perceptions of Peer Assessment: An Interdisciplinary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planas Lladó, Anna; Soley, Lídia Feliu; Fraguell Sansbelló, Rosa Maria; Pujolras, Gerard Arbat; Planella, Joan Pujol; Roura-Pascual, Núria; Suñol Martínez, Joan Josep; Moreno, Lino Montoro

    2014-01-01

    Peer assessment provides students with multiple benefits during their learning process. The aim of our study is to examine students' perception of peer assessment. Questionnaires were administered before and after the peer-assessment process to 416 students studying 11 different subjects in four different fields taught at the University of…

  17. Assessing Consumer Health Vocabulary Familiarity: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Keselman, Alla; Tse, Tony; Crowell, Jon; Browne, Allen; Ngo, Long

    2007-01-01

    Background Accurate assessment of the difficulty of consumer health texts is a prerequisite for improving readability. General purpose readability formulas based primarily on word length are not well suited for the health domain, where short technical terms may be unfamiliar to consumers. To address this need, we previously developed a regression model for predicting “average familiarity” with consumer health vocabulary (CHV) terms. Objective The primary goal was to evaluate the ability of the CHV term familiarity model to predict (1) surface-level familiarity of health-related terms and (2) understanding of the underlying meaning (concept familiarity) among actual consumers. Secondary goals involved exploring the effect of demographic factors (eg, health literacy) on surface-level and concept-level familiarity and describing the relationship between the two levels of familiarity. Methods Survey instruments for assessing surface-level familiarity (45 items) and concept-level familiarity (15 items) were developed. All participants also completed a demographic survey and a standardized health literacy assessment, S-TOFHLA. Results Based on surveys completed by 52 consumers, linear regression suggests that predicted CHV term familiarity is a statistically significantly predictor (P < .001) of participants’ surface-level and concept-level familiarity performance. Health literacy was a statistically significant predictor of surface-level familiarity scores (P < .001); its effect on concept-level familiarity scores warrants further investigation (P = 0.06). Educational level was not a significant predictor of either type of familiarity. Participant scores indicated that conceptualization lagged behind recognition, especially for terms predicted as “likely to be familiar” (P = .006). Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that the CHV term familiarity model is predictive of consumer recognition and understanding of terms in the health domain. Potential uses

  18. Assessing landscape health: a case study from northeastern Italy.

    PubMed

    Bertollo, P

    2001-03-01

    This article investigates the concept of biophysical landscape health for what are termed "highly governed landscapes." It proposes a definition of landscape health along with a preliminary diagnostic model and methods. The idea of landscape health derives from the emerging integrative science of ecosystem health, which seeks to diagnose ecosystem condition as humans diagnose human health. Highly governed landscapes, such as the reclaimed areas of coastal northeastern Italy, are landscapes that have been subject to even greater degrees of human manipulation than normal cultural landscapes. These highly altered landscapes are not easily served by existing environmental paradigms and concepts of health are seen to have numerous advantages. This paper condenses a broader investigation of landscape health into three main sections. A brief review of the literature is followed by a case study, which details two different phases of landscape transformation in the Lower Piave area of northeastern Italy. A definition and general parameters of biophysical landscape health are then presented after this background stage. Some key parameters of biophysical health include absence of distress and risk factors, sustainability, biodiversity, resilience, and balance. For certain parameters, a preliminary landscape health diagnostic framework is presented that includes potential diagnostic methods and thresholds based on findings from this case study. At the paper's conclusion, a summary diagnostic model is presented, which suggests a process needed to implement landscape health assessment into practice. PMID:11148762

  19. Assessing function in patients undergoing joint replacement: a study protocol for a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Joint replacement is an effective intervention for people with advanced arthritis, although there is an important minority of patients who do not improve post-operatively. There is a need for robust evidence on outcomes after surgery, but there are a number of measures that assess function after joint replacement, many of which lack any clear theoretical basis. The World Health Organisation has introduced the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), which divides function into three separate domains: Impairment, activity limitations and participation restrictions. The aim of this study is to compare the properties and responsiveness of a selection of commonly used outcome tools that assess function, examine how well they relate to the ICF concepts, and to explore the changes in the measures over time. Methods/design Two hundred and sixty three patients listed for lower limb joint replacement at an elective orthopaedic centre have been recruited into this study. Participants attend the hospital for a research appointment prior to surgery and then at 3-months and 1-year after surgery. At each assessment time, function is assessed using a range of measures. Self-report function is assessed using the WOMAC, Aberdeen Impairment, Activity Limitation and Participation Restriction Measure, SF-12 and Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile 2. Clinician-administered measures of function include the American Knee Society Score for knee patients and the Harris Hip Score for hip patients. Performance tests include the timed 20-metre walk, timed get up and go, sit-to-stand-to-sit, step tests and single stance balance test. During the performance tests, participants wear an inertial sensor and data from motion analysis are collected. Statistical analysis will include exploring the relationship between measures describing the same ICF concepts, assessing responsiveness, and studying changes in measures over time. Discussion There are a

  20. Assessing the English Major: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNew, Janet; Malone, Cindy

    1994-01-01

    Considers how departments of English can evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum and teaching throughout the entire program. Outlines the way that the joint English department at the College of St. Benedict and St. John's University developed a full-scale assessment program for the undergraduate major. (HB)

  1. Assessing Moderator Variables: Two Computer Simulation Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Craig A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A strategy is proposed for conceptualizing moderating relationships based on their type (strictly correlational and classically correlational) and form, whether continuous, noncontinuous, logistic, or quantum. Results of computer simulations comparing three statistical approaches for assessing moderator variables are presented, and advantages of…

  2. Needs Assessment Project: Factor Analytic Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shively, Joe E.; Holcomb, Zelda J.

    Data collected by the Appalachia Educational Laboratory (AEL) in its 1980 Needs Assessment Project was reduced to eight marker variables for use in subsequent individual state factor analyses. These variables concern (1) high need family situations; (2) effective career education/guidance; (3) increased school capacity for working with families;…

  3. Assessment Leaders' Perspectives of Institutional Cultures of Assessment: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Matthew; Henderson, Susan; Bustamante, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Institutional cultures of assessment are praised as beneficial to student learning. Yet, extant studies have not explored the theoretical foundations and pragmatic approaches to shaping cultures of assessment. The researchers used the Delphi method to explore 10 higher education assessment leaders' attitudes and theoretical perspectives regarding…

  4. [Hydrochemical Characteristics and Influencing Factors in Different Geological Background: A Case Study in Darongjiang and Lingqu Basin, Guangxi, China].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ping-an; Yu, Shi; Mo, Fu-zhen; He, Shi-yi; Lu, Ju-fang; Yuan, Ya-qiong

    2016-01-15

    The observation and sampling were carried out in May 2013 to April 2014 in a hydrological year for two river basins with different geological background in upstream of Li river basin. The seasonal variations of river water chemistry and its main influencing factors were discussed in this paper. The results showed that the hydrochemistry types of both Darongjiang basin with 9% of carbonates and Lingqu basin with nearly 50% of carbonates in area belonged to Ca-HCO3 type. Ca2+ and HCO3- were the main cations and anions. The main ion concentrations were higher in winter and lower in summer, affected by the change of the flow. Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3- were mainly sourced from the weathering of carbonates by carbonic acid. The weathering of carbonates by sulfuric acid and the weathering of silicate rocks also had contribution to the river water chemistry. In addition, comparing to the Lingqu basin, the contribution of the weathering of carbonates was much more than the percent of carbonates area, because the carbonate rocks were eroded by the allogenic water. On the other hand, K+, Na+, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2-) were mainly affected by the atmospheric precipitation and human activities. Comparing to the Darongjiang Basin, the effects of human activities on the changes of K+, Na+, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2-) were more significant in Lingqu Basin.

  5. Background and Data Configuration Process of a Nationwide Population-Based Study Using the Korean National Health Insurance System

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sun Ok; Jung, Chang Hee; Song, Young Duk; Park, Cheol-Young; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Cha, Bong Soo; Park, Joong-Yeol; Lee, Ki-Up

    2014-01-01

    Background The National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) recently signed an agreement to provide limited open access to the databases within the Korean Diabetes Association for the benefit of Korean subjects with diabetes. Here, we present the history, structure, contents, and way to use data procurement in the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) system for the benefit of Korean researchers. Methods The NHIS in Korea is a single-payer program and is mandatory for all residents in Korea. The three main healthcare programs of the NHI, Medical Aid, and long-term care insurance (LTCI) provide 100% coverage for the Korean population. The NHIS in Korea has adopted a fee-for-service system to pay health providers. Researchers can obtain health information from the four databases of the insured that contain data on health insurance claims, health check-ups and LTCI. Results Metabolic disease as chronic disease is increasing with aging society. NHIS data is based on mandatory, serial population data, so, this might show the time course of disease and predict some disease progress, and also be used in primary and secondary prevention of disease after data mining. Conclusion The NHIS database represents the entire Korean population and can be used as a population-based database. The integrated information technology of the NHIS database makes it a world-leading population-based epidemiology and disease research platform. PMID:25349827

  6. [Hydrochemical Characteristics and Influencing Factors in Different Geological Background: A Case Study in Darongjiang and Lingqu Basin, Guangxi, China].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ping-an; Yu, Shi; Mo, Fu-zhen; He, Shi-yi; Lu, Ju-fang; Yuan, Ya-qiong

    2016-01-15

    The observation and sampling were carried out in May 2013 to April 2014 in a hydrological year for two river basins with different geological background in upstream of Li river basin. The seasonal variations of river water chemistry and its main influencing factors were discussed in this paper. The results showed that the hydrochemistry types of both Darongjiang basin with 9% of carbonates and Lingqu basin with nearly 50% of carbonates in area belonged to Ca-HCO3 type. Ca2+ and HCO3- were the main cations and anions. The main ion concentrations were higher in winter and lower in summer, affected by the change of the flow. Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3- were mainly sourced from the weathering of carbonates by carbonic acid. The weathering of carbonates by sulfuric acid and the weathering of silicate rocks also had contribution to the river water chemistry. In addition, comparing to the Lingqu basin, the contribution of the weathering of carbonates was much more than the percent of carbonates area, because the carbonate rocks were eroded by the allogenic water. On the other hand, K+, Na+, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2-) were mainly affected by the atmospheric precipitation and human activities. Comparing to the Darongjiang Basin, the effects of human activities on the changes of K+, Na+, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2-) were more significant in Lingqu Basin. PMID:27078949

  7. Appropriating Scientific Vocabulary in Chemistry Laboratories: A Multiple Case Study of Four Community College Students with Diverse Ethno-Linguistic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cink, Ruth B.; Song, Youngjin

    2016-01-01

    This multiple case study investigated how college students with diverse ethno-linguistic backgrounds used chemistry vocabulary as a way to look at their discursive identities and cultural border crossings during first semester general chemistry laboratories. The data were collected in two major forms: video-taped laboratory observations and…

  8. A Quasi-Experimental Study into the Relations between Families' Social and Cultural Background and Children's Creche Experience and Global Cognitive Competence in Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Kaspar

    2012-01-01

    This study analysed the role of both sociocultural background and exposure to a creche on children's development of cognitive competence in Switzerland. Data were derived from a survey on children's cognitive proficiency after enrolment to primary school. Correlations and multiple linear regressions indicate that creche experience was not related…

  9. An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Mindfulness on Perceived Levels of Stress among School-Children from Lower Socioeconomic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Elizabeth; Lawler, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds are at increased risk of experiencing stress and associated social-emotional difficulties and behavioural problems, which can undermine academic performance and lead to school drop-out. Previous studies investigating the effects of mindfulness have evidenced positive outcomes among children pertaining…

  10. DETECTORS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS: Study on spatial resolution of micromegas as a neutron detector under condition of high neutron flux and γ ray background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wen-Xin; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Ji-Jin; Hu, Bi-Tao

    2009-02-01

    In this paper Micromegas has been designed to detect neutrons. The simulation of the spatial resolution of Micromegas as neutron detector is carried out by GEANT4 toolkit. The neutron track reconstruction method based on the time coincidence technology is employed in the present work. The influence of the flux of incident 14 MeV neutron and high gamma background on the spatial resolution is carefully studied. Our results show that the spatial resolution of the detector is sensitive to the neutron flux, but insensitive to the intensity of γ background if the neutron track reconstruction method proposed by our group is used. The γ insensitivity makes it possible for us to use the Micromegas detector under condition which has high γ-rays background.

  11. A Method for Estimating Urban Background Concentrations in Support of Hybrid Air Pollution Modeling for Environmental Health Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure studies rely on detailed characterization of air quality, either from sparsely located routine ambient monitors or from central monitoring sites that may lack spatial representativeness. Alternatively, some studies use models of various complexities to characterize local...

  12. A study of four-year HCFC-22 and HCFC-142b in-situ measurements at the Shangdianzi regional background station in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Bo; Vollmer, Martin K.; Xia, Lingjun; Zhou, Lingxi; Simmonds, Peter G.; Stordal, Frode; Maione, Michela; Reimann, Stefan; O'Doherty, Simon

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric HCFC-22 (CHClF2) and HCFC-142b (CH3CClF2) in-situ measurements have been recorded by an automated gas chromatograph-electron capture detectors (GC-ECDs) system and a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Medusa-GC/MS) system at the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) regional background station Shangdianzi (SDZ), China. The mixing ratios of the two HCFCs at SDZ show frequent events with elevated concentrations due to polluted air from urban or industrialized areas. The mean background mixing ratios for HCFC-22 and HCFC-142b were 205.3 ppt (parts per trillion, 10-12, molar) and 20.7 ppt, respectively, for the study period (March 2007-February 2011). The yearly background mixing ratios for the two HCFCs at SDZ are similar to those measured at Trinidad Head and Mace Head located in the Northern Hemisphere (NH), but larger than Cape Grim and Cape Matatula (located in the Southern Hemisphere) due to inter-hemispheric differences caused by predominantly NH emissions. During the study period, background mixing ratios exhibited positive growth rates of 8.7 ppt yr-1 for HCFC-22 and 0.95 ppt yr-1 for HCFC-142b. HCFC's seasonality exhibits a summer/autumn maximum and a winter minimum. 4-year averaged background seasonal amplitudes (maximum-minimum) are 6.0 ppt for HCFC-22 and 0.9 ppt for HCFC-142b. The seasonal fluctuations (maximum-minimum) in polluted events are 105.4 ppt for HCFC-22 and 29.1 ppt for HCFC-142b, which are much stronger than the fluctuations under background conditions. However, both HCFC-22 and HCFC-142b show summer minima in 2008, which is most likely due to emission control regulations when the Olympic Games were held in Beijing.

  13. Surveying Assessment in Experiential Learning: A Single Campus Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Thomas; Wilson, Jay; Purton, Kendra

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the methods of experiential assessment in use at a Canadian university and the extent to which they are used. Exploring experiential assessment will allow identification of commonly used methods and facilitate the development of best practices of assessment in the context of experiential learning (EL) at…

  14. Diffuse Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli

    2002-01-01

    The diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB) consists of the cumulative radiant energy released in the processes of structure formation that have occurred since the decoupling of matter and radiation following the Big Bang. In this lecture I will review the observational data that provided the first detections and limits on the CIB, and the theoretical studies explaining the origin of this background. Finally, I will also discuss the relevance of this background to the universe as seen in high energy gamma-rays.

  15. Background for Community-Level Work on School Readiness: A Review of Definitions, Assessments, and Investment Strategies. Final Report to the Knight Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslow, Martha; Calkins, Julia; Halle, Tamara; Zaff, Jonathan; Margie, Nancy Geyelin

    Noting that many communities in the United States have set the ambitious goal of enhancing school readiness, this report is intended to help communities invest wisely in school readiness initiatives. Part 1 of the report summarizes recommendations from the National Education Goals Panel (NEGP) for defining and assessing school readiness. The core…

  16. Assessing the language skills of children from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds: the expressive vocabulary performance of Singaporean English-Mandarin bilingual pre-schoolers.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Wei Qin; Brebner, Chris; McCormack, Paul

    2012-06-01

    Standardized language assessments such as the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals Pre-school 2 United Kingdom (CELF Preschool 2 UK) are often used in speech-language pathology clinics to determine if a child is at risk of language difficulties. Many of these assessments are designed and standardized for use with monolingual Standard English-speaking children. It is thus recommended that these assessments should only be used with the populations they were designed for; if not test bias might result. However, such tests are still selected and used in the clinics of many multicultural and multilinguistic communities (e.g., Singapore). This research aimed to explore the performance of 79 Singaporean English-Mandarin pre-school children on the Expressive Vocabulary (EV) sub-test of the CELF Preschool 2 UK and to determine if their performance on the EV sub-test accurately reflected their language abilities by comparing their performance on a local screening language assessment tool, the Singapore English Action Picture Test (SEAPT). Results showed that local children performed poorly as compared to their UK counterparts. Two plausible reasons for the findings are: (1) the sub-test elicited only a single measure in English which ignored the language abilities of these bilingual children in their second language; and (2) the presence of culturally and linguistically biased test items.

  17. Present Practices and Background to Teaching and Learning at the Royal University of Bhutan (RUB): A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyamtso, Deki; Maxwell, T. W.

    2012-01-01

    In Bhutan relatively few studies at the higher education level have been done and fewer still reported in international journals. This pilot study highlights the present practices and culture of teaching and learning at one of the teacher education colleges of the Royal University of Bhutan (RUB). It looks broadly across the issues of…

  18. Written reflection and drawing as assessment: A case study of a Navajo elementary science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Madeline

    The purpose of the study was to assess if science learning could be determined by using written reflection and drawings in a science classroom of 5 th-grade Navajo students. The significance of this study was the understanding of the culture, assessments and learning of Navajo students. I studied a classroom on the Navajo reservation wherein 26 members of the class took part in science instruction complemented by using writing and drawing which were used as their assessments. The perceptions of the 8 students who were interviewed represent the case. In the study I profiled the 8 participants. Their culture, language, and views on assessment and learning were documented by their words. Their responses described their learning experiences. Assessments were seen as frustrating and limiting expression of what was known and damaging when not contributed to learning. Students explained that drawing enabled them to remember along with provoking vocabulary development. Student cultural knowledge was documented as valuable background experience contributing to learning within the classroom. Students viewed science as needing to be useful in their culture. Finally, they were also very candid that their teachers must first get to know them for meaningful learning to begin. Learning for students was reinforced through writing and drawing the lesson's activities. Further concept development was assisted utilizing metacognition and creative problem solving techniques of elaboration and fluency applied to the writing and drawings. Based on the findings of this study, recommendations were made for use of holistic means of assessing Navajo children in science where preferred learning styles along with cultural background need to be included in assessment protocols. Using new and better assessment techniques can directly impact how students document their learning as well as reveal how they acquire new knowledge.

  19. Finding the most appropriate mouse model of juvenile CLN3 (Batten) disease for therapeutic studies: the importance of genetic background and gender.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Attila D; Pearce, David A

    2015-04-01

    Mutations in the CLN3 gene cause a fatal neurodegenerative disorder: juvenile CLN3 disease, also known as juvenile Batten disease. The two most commonly utilized mouse models of juvenile CLN3 disease are Cln3-knockout (Cln3(-/-)) and Cln3(Δex7/8)-knock-in mice, the latter mimicking the most frequent disease-causing human mutation. To determine which mouse model has the most pronounced neurological phenotypes that can be used as outcome measures for therapeutic studies, we compared the exploratory activity, motor function and depressive-like behavior of 1-, 3- and 6-month-old Cln3(-/-) and Cln3(Δex7/8)-knock-in mice on two different genetic backgrounds (129S6/SvEv and C57BL/6J). Although, in many cases, the behavior of Cln3(-/-) and Cln3(Δex7/8) mice was similar, we found genetic-background-, gender- and age-dependent differences between the two mouse models. We also observed large differences in the behavior of the 129S6/SvEv and C57BL/6J wild-type strains, which highlights the strong influence that genetic background can have on phenotype. Based on our results, Cln3(-/-) male mice on the 129S6/SvEv genetic background are the most appropriate candidates for therapeutic studies. They exhibit motor deficits at 1 and 6 months of age in the vertical pole test, and they were the only mice to show impaired motor coordination in the rotarod test at both 3 and 6 months. Cln3(-/-) males on the C57BL/6J background and Cln3(Δex7/8) males on the 129S6/SvEv background also provide good outcome measures for therapeutic interventions. Cln3(-/-) (C57BL/6J) males had serious difficulties in climbing down (at 1 and 6 months) and turning downward on (at 1, 3 and 6 months) the vertical pole, whereas Cln3(Δex7/8) (129S6/SvEv) males climbed down the vertical pole drastically slower than wild-type males at 3 and 6 months of age. Our study demonstrates the importance of testing mouse models on different genetic backgrounds and comparing males and females in order to find the most

  20. Finding the most appropriate mouse model of juvenile CLN3 (Batten) disease for therapeutic studies: the importance of genetic background and gender

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, Attila D.; Pearce, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the CLN3 gene cause a fatal neurodegenerative disorder: juvenile CLN3 disease, also known as juvenile Batten disease. The two most commonly utilized mouse models of juvenile CLN3 disease are Cln3-knockout (Cln3−/−) and Cln3Δex7/8-knock-in mice, the latter mimicking the most frequent disease-causing human mutation. To determine which mouse model has the most pronounced neurological phenotypes that can be used as outcome measures for therapeutic studies, we compared the exploratory activity, motor function and depressive-like behavior of 1-, 3- and 6-month-old Cln3−/− and Cln3Δex7/8-knock-in mice on two different genetic backgrounds (129S6/SvEv and C57BL/6J). Although, in many cases, the behavior of Cln3−/− and Cln3Δex7/8 mice was similar, we found genetic-background-, gender- and age-dependent differences between the two mouse models. We also observed large differences in the behavior of the 129S6/SvEv and C57BL/6J wild-type strains, which highlights the strong influence that genetic background can have on phenotype. Based on our results, Cln3−/− male mice on the 129S6/SvEv genetic background are the most appropriate candidates for therapeutic studies. They exhibit motor deficits at 1 and 6 months of age in the vertical pole test, and they were the only mice to show impaired motor coordination in the rotarod test at both 3 and 6 months. Cln3−/− males on the C57BL/6J background and Cln3Δex7/8 males on the 129S6/SvEv background also provide good outcome measures for therapeutic interventions. Cln3−/− (C57BL/6J) males had serious difficulties in climbing down (at 1 and 6 months) and turning downward on (at 1, 3 and 6 months) the vertical pole, whereas Cln3Δex7/8 (129S6/SvEv) males climbed down the vertical pole drastically slower than wild-type males at 3 and 6 months of age. Our study demonstrates the importance of testing mouse models on different genetic backgrounds and comparing males and females in order to find the most

  1. The Background of Proposed Legislation to Study Public Lending Right in the United States: Issues in Policy, Law and Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, Dennis

    1986-01-01

    Discusses policy, law, and administrative issues that must be resolved by a national commission to study public lending right, which was proposed in a 1985 bill. Examples from the United Kingdom and other countries are used. (EM)

  2. System Study: Technology Assessment and Prioritizing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this NASA funded project is to assess and prioritize advanced technologies required to achieve the goals for an "Intelligent Propulsion System" through collaboration among GEAE, NASA, and Georgia Tech. Key GEAE deliverables are parametric response surface equations (RSE's) relating technology features to system benefits (sfc, weight, fuel burn, design range, acoustics, emission, etc...) and listings of Technology Impact Matrix (TIM) with benefits, debits, and approximate readiness status. TIM has been completed for GEAE and NASA proposed technologies. The combined GEAE and NASA TIM input requirement is shown in Table.1. In the course of building the RSE's and TIM, significant parametric technology modeling and RSE accuracy improvements were accomplished. GEAE has also done preliminary ranking of the technologies using Georgia Tech/GEAE USA developed technology evaluation tools. System level impact was performed by combining beneficial technologies with minimum conflict among various system figures of merits to assess their overall benefits to the system. The shortfalls and issues with modeling the proposed technologies are identified, and recommendations for future work are also proposed.

  3. The Alaskan Mineral Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the Circle quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, Helen Laura; Menzie, W.D.; Cady, J.W.; Simpson, S.L.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Wilson, F.H.; Tripp, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    The geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and Landsat imagery of the Circle quadrangle were investigated by an interdisciplinary research team for the purpose of assessing the mineral potential of the area. The quadrangle covers approximately 15,765 km2 in east-central Alaska; most of it is included in the mountainous Yukon-Tanana Upland physiographic division, but the northernmost part is in the low-lying Yukon Flats section. The Circle mining district, in the east-central part of the quadrangle, has been a major producing area of placer gold since its discovery in 1893. For descriptive purposes, the Circle quadrangle is divided into three areas: the northwest Circle quadrangle, the area north of the Tintina fault zone, and the area south of the Tintina fault zone. The Tintina fault zone extends northwesterly through the northern part of the quadrangle. The northwest Circle quadrangle contains mostly folded and faulted, slightly metamorphosed sedimentary rocks that are intruded by Tertiary granitic plutons. In the northern part of the area north of the Tintina fault zone (Little Crazy Mountains and northern east Crazy Mountains), the rocks consist primarily of the gabbro and basalt of the Circle Volcanics and minor associated chert, graywacke, and limestone. Elsewhere in this area (south of the Circle Volcanics and in the western Crazy Mountains), the rocks are mostly slightly metamorphosed Paleozoic sedimentary rocks that have been folded and faulted. Rocks in the largest part of the quadrangle, the area south of the Tintina fault zone, consist largely of pelitic rocks that are regionally metamorphosed to greenschist and amphibolite facies. Felsic plutons, mostly Tertiary in age, occur throughout the area. The metamorphic rocks are separated from sedimentary rocks on the northwest by thrust faulting. The aeromagnetic and gravity data show clear differences between the areas north and south of the Tintina fault zone. The metamorphic terrane to the south has low

  4. The Model U.N. Program: Teaching Unreality. A United Nations Assessment Project Study. The Heritage Foundation Backgrounder No. 282.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulick, Thomas G.; Merkle, Melanie L.

    An evaluation of the instructional materials used by high school and college students who participated in the Model United Nations Program showed that the program is uncritical of the United Nations (U.N.) and biased against the United States and the West in general. These materials are strongly promoted by many prominent educational professional…

  5. Outcomes Assessment Handbook: How To Develop a Practical Outcomes Assessment Program for a Home Study School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, Robert J.

    This handbook is designed to provide school decision makers with a global view of how assessment programs for home study schools are developed. Outcomes assessment (OA) is a required element for recognition by the National Home Study Council Accrediting Committee and hence for member schools. This handbook is designed to enable program developers…

  6. An approach to assessment of endocrine disruption in the National Children's Study.

    PubMed Central

    Longnecker, Matthew P; Bellinger, David C; Crews, David; Eskenazi, Brenda; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Woodruff, Tracey J; Susser, Ezra S

    2003-01-01

    In this article we consider the importance of assessing endocrine disruption in a large new cohort that has been proposed, the National Children's Study (NCS). We briefly review evidence that endocrine disruption is a potentially important hypothesis for human studies and weigh the need to assess endocrine disruption in the NCS. We note the salient features of earlier, similar cohort studies that serve as reference points for the design of the NCS. Finally, we discuss features of the NCS that would allow or enhance assessment of endocrine disruption, even if endocrine disruption were not a primary hypothesis motivating the study. At this time, the evidence supporting endocrine disruption in humans with background-level exposures is not strong. Thus, a compelling rationale for the NCS will probably need to be based on core hypotheses that focus on other issues. Nonetheless, if properly designed, the NCS could serve as an excellent resource for investigating future hypotheses regarding endocrine disruption. PMID:14527852

  7. Student Background, School Climate, School Disorder, and Student Achievement: An Empirical Study of New York City's Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Greg; Weikart, Lynne A.

    2008-01-01

    This study develops and tests a school disorder and student achievement model based upon the school climate framework. The model was fitted to 212 New York City middle schools using the Structural Equations Modeling Analysis method. The analysis shows that the model fits the data well based upon test statistics and goodness of fit indices. The…

  8. Keynote Address and Background Papers. National Assembly on Foreign Language and International Studies (Racine, Wisconsin, October 30-November 1, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Colleges, Washington, DC.

    The conference papers presented here discuss the need for and means of implementing changes in educational design and emphasis that will recognize the need for Americans to incorporate foreign language and international studies into their education. In addition to the opening address by Richard Berendzen, the following papers are included: (1)…

  9. Case Studies of Success: Supporting Academic Success for Students with High Potential from Ethnic Minority and Economically Disadvantaged Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Carol Ann; Jarvis, Jane M.

    2014-01-01

    The underrepresentation of ethnic minority and economically disadvantaged students in gifted education must be understood in terms of broader school contexts and practices. This qualitative study investigated how teachers and schools contributed to the academic success of minority students of high potential from economically disadvantaged…

  10. Learning Process in Terms of Styles and Strategies: Theoretical Background and Pilot Study. Research Bulletin. No. 54.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leino, Anna-Liisa

    A pilot study was conducted to determine effective methods for testing students' learning processes. The theoretical framework within which learning processes were investigated is based on the B-P-E paradigm. This states that "Behavior (B) is a function of the Person (P) and the Environment (E)". After reviewing research done in related areas, the…

  11. Music Preferences and Family Language Background: A Computer-Supported Study of Children's Listening Behavior in the Context of Migration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakai, Winfried

    2011-01-01

    Turkish migrants are the largest national group in Germany. Nevertheless, neither in music psychology research nor in intercultural research can empirical data on the music preferences of Turkish-German primary schoolchildren in the migrational context be found. This study thus examined the music preference responses of children with Turkish…

  12. Space reactor assessment and validation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedeon, Stephen; Morey, Dennis

    1987-01-01

    The present difficulties experienced by the United States in launching payloads into space has suggested a number of problems which are associated with the handling of hazardous materials in spacecraft. The question has arisen as to the safety of launching highly radioactive material such as plutonium-238, related to the possibility of its dispersion into the atmosphere during a launch vehicle explosion. An alternative is the use of a small nuclear reactor which is not started until it is in space and contains little or no radioactivity at launch. A first order assessment of six small reactor concepts with power levels up to 100 MWe was performed. Both the nuclear feasibility of these concepts to operate at their rated power levels between 7 and 10 years and the capability of these concepts to remain subcritical both before and during launch and also in the case of water immersion during a potential launch failure or abort were investigated.

  13. Pulsed Photonuclear Assessment (PPA) Technology Enhancement Study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-04-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) along with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Idaho State University’s Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC) has designed and tested a nominal 10-MeV prototype Pulsed Photonuclear Assessment (PPA) inspection system to detect shielded nuclear material. This report highlights two specific areas that will provide further PPA technology enhancements, namely, an optimal gamma-ray detection system and the off axis radiation detection sensitivity. Detection of low-atomic number (Z) shielded nuclear material had been initially addressed by the inclusion of dedicated Geiger-Müller (GM) detectors co-located above each of the Photonuclear Neutron Detectors (PNDs). Several different radiation detectors were investigated to assess if this type of gamma-ray detector was optimal. The LND 719 GM detector was shown to have the best photon sensitivity and demonstrated an optimal ability to detect low-Z shielded nuclear material. Beyond the technical performance of this detector, its low cost and availability makes it a logical choice for a field-deployable system. In terms of off-axis detection sensitivity, simulation and benchmarking experiments have indicated that the PPA inspection system can successfully detect nuclear material (within 120 seconds) in various shielding configurations even when it is located at a distance of as much as 30 cm off the interrogating beam axis (the exact sensitivity to off-axis interrogations will be largely dependent on the actual shielding material). As a general rule, high-Z shielding will allow detection at larger off-axis distances than low-Z materials.

  14. Building Background Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

  15. National Research Council Dialogue to Assess Progress on NASA's Transformational Spaceport and Range Technologies Capability Roadmap Development: General Background and Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelly, Darin M.

    2005-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the National Research Council's diaglog to assess progress on NASA's transformational spaceport and range technologies capability roadmap development is presented. The topics include: 1) Agency Goals and Objectives; 2) Strategic Planning Transformation; 3) Advanced Planning Organizational Roles; 4) Public Involvement in Strategic Planning; 5) Strategic Roadmaps; 6) Strategic Roadmaps Schedule; 7) Capability Roadmaps; 8) Capability Charter; 9) Process for Team Selection; 10) Capability Roadmap Development Schedule Overview; 11) Purpose of NRC Review; 12) Technology Readiness Levels; 13) Capability Readiness Levels; 14) Crosswalk Matrix Trans Spaceport & Range; 15) Example linkage to other roadmaps; 16) Capability Readiness Levels Defined; and 17) Crosswalk Matrix Ratings Work In-progress.

  16. Assessing Medication Effects in the MTA Study Using Neuropsychological Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Jeffery N.; Conners, C. Keith; Hervey, Aaron S.; Tonev, Simon T.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Abikoff, Howard B.; Elliott, Glen; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Hechtman, Lily; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Hoza, Betsy; Jensen, Peter S.; March, John S.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Pelham, William E.; Severe, Joanne B.; Swanson, James M.; Wells, Karen; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    Background: While studies have increasingly investigated deficits in reaction time (RT) and RT variability in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), few studies have examined the effects of stimulant medication on these important neuropsychological outcome measures. Methods: 316 children who participated in the Multimodal…

  17. Measuring Student Performance: Assessment in the Social Studies. Theme Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, Henry, Ed.; Pyne, John, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    The four articles in this theme issue provide an overview of assessment in the social studies and the rationale behind the movement for a more authentic assessment of learning outcomes. In the first article, "Thinking as an Unnatural Act," William T. Daly offers a clear rationale for social studies teachers to re-examine the methods of assessing…

  18. 36 CFR 254.23 - Studies, assessments, and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Studies, assessments, and approval. 254.23 Section 254.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS National Forest Townsites § 254.23 Studies, assessments, and...

  19. 36 CFR 254.23 - Studies, assessments, and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Studies, assessments, and approval. 254.23 Section 254.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS National Forest Townsites § 254.23 Studies, assessments, and...

  20. 36 CFR 254.23 - Studies, assessments, and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Studies, assessments, and approval. 254.23 Section 254.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS National Forest Townsites § 254.23 Studies, assessments, and...

  1. Regulation of nucleic acid and protein synthesis: a background study related to the biological effects of radiation. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, P.

    1984-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas in defining the varied roles of diadenosine 5', 5'''-P/sup 1/, P/sup 4/-tetraphosphate (Ap/sub 4/A) in metabolic events within the living cell: (1) Ap/sub 4/A association with a subunit of DNA polymerase ..cap alpha..; (2) studies on the unusual ordered structure of Ap/sub 4/A and of related bisnucleoside oligophosphates; (3) the utilization of technetium labeled Ap/sub 4/A as a radionuclide diagnostic reagent; and (4) the role of Ap/sub 4/A in the blood clotting mechanism. (ACR)

  2. A FACS Based Case Study on Two HbE-β Thalassaemia Members of a Family, Having Similar Mutational Background.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Tridip; Halder, Suchismita; Chakravarty, Amit; Chakravarty, Sudipa; Chakrabarti, Abhijit

    2016-01-01

    In this report we have tried to explain the reasons behind the difference in the pattern of transfusion requirement between two members of a family with similar β-globin mutation. The father and younger son both are HbE-β, but the father never had transfusion, whereas the younger son takes transfusion monthly. Mother and the elder son are HbEE without any history of transfusion. β-globin mutations of all family members were determined by ARMS-PCR. These were reconfirmed by direct sequencing of β-globin gene. Father and younger son were found to be Cod 26 (G-A)/IVS 1-5 (G-C), whereas mother and elder son were found to be Cod 26 (G-A)/Cod 26 (G-A). XmnI sequencing also revealed that all members of the family were CC. Then, flow cytometry study of red blood cells (RBCs) was performed to measure the oxidative stress of the RBCs. This study was also done on the light and dense fractions of the RBC population of the father and younger son. It was seen that the younger son suffers severe oxidative stress, which can be explained by his higher transfusion requirement. From our work, we have established the importance of taking oxidative stress of RBCs into consideration to explain the clinical manifestation and progression of haemoglobin related diseases like thalassaemia. PMID:27195173

  3. A FACS Based Case Study on Two HbE-β Thalassaemia Members of a Family, Having Similar Mutational Background

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Tridip; Halder, Suchismita; Chakravarty, Amit; Chakravarty, Sudipa; Chakrabarti, Abhijit

    2016-01-01

    In this report we have tried to explain the reasons behind the difference in the pattern of transfusion requirement between two members of a family with similar β-globin mutation. The father and younger son both are HbE-β, but the father never had transfusion, whereas the younger son takes transfusion monthly. Mother and the elder son are HbEE without any history of transfusion. β-globin mutations of all family members were determined by ARMS-PCR. These were reconfirmed by direct sequencing of β-globin gene. Father and younger son were found to be Cod 26 (G-A)/IVS 1-5 (G-C), whereas mother and elder son were found to be Cod 26 (G-A)/Cod 26 (G-A). XmnI sequencing also revealed that all members of the family were CC. Then, flow cytometry study of red blood cells (RBCs) was performed to measure the oxidative stress of the RBCs. This study was also done on the light and dense fractions of the RBC population of the father and younger son. It was seen that the younger son suffers severe oxidative stress, which can be explained by his higher transfusion requirement. From our work, we have established the importance of taking oxidative stress of RBCs into consideration to explain the clinical manifestation and progression of haemoglobin related diseases like thalassaemia. PMID:27195173

  4. Evolutionary aspects of non-cell-autonomous regulation in vascular plants: structural background and models to study

    PubMed Central

    Evkaikina, Anastasiia I.; Romanova, Marina A.; Voitsekhovskaja, Olga V.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) serve for the exchange of information in form of miRNA, proteins, and mRNA between adjacent cells in the course of plant development. This fundamental role of PD is well established in angiosperms but has not yet been traced back to the evolutionary ancient plant taxa where functional studies lag behind studies of PD structure and ontogenetic origin. There is convincing evidence that the ability to form secondary (post-cytokinesis) PD, which can connect any adjacent cells, contrary to primary PD which form during cytokinesis and link only cells of the same lineage, appeared in the evolution of higher plants at least twice: in seed plants and in some representatives of the Lycopodiophyta. The (in)ability to form secondary PD is manifested in the symplasmic organization of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) which in most taxa of seedless vascular plants differs dramatically from that in seed plants. Lycopodiophyta appear to be suitable models to analyze the transport of developmental regulators via PD in SAMs with symplasmic organization both different from, as well as analogous to, that in angiosperms, and to understand the evolutionary aspects of the role of this transport in the morphogenesis of vascular plant taxa. PMID:24575105

  5. Interdisciplinary study of atmospheric processes and constituents of the mid-Atlantic coastal region. Attachment 4: Data set for background investigation of atmospheric constituents for Nansemond River site. [a proposed oil refinery site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kindle, E. C.; Bandy, E. C.; Copeland, G.; Blais, R.; Levy, G.; Sonenshine, D.; Adams, D.; Maier, G.

    1975-01-01

    Background data was provided for the assessment of the environmental impact of a proposed oil refinery location. Climatic background, particulate data, digitized portrayal of site molecular and meteorological data, graphical portrayal of molecular data, hourly meteorological data, and streamflow charts and radiosonde data are given

  6. Wound assessment tools and nurses' needs: an evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Greatrex-White, Sheila; Moxey, Helen

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain how well different wound assessment tools meet the needs of nurses in carrying out general wound assessment and whether current tools are fit for purpose. The methodology employed was evaluation research. In order to conduct the evaluation, a literature review was undertaken to identify the criteria of an optimal wound assessment tool which would meet nurses' needs. Several freely available wound assessment tools were selected based on predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria and an audit tool was developed to evaluate the selected tools based on how well they met the criteria of the optimal wound assessment tool. The results provide a measure of how well the selected wound assessment tools meet the criteria of the optimal wound assessment tool. No tool was identified which fulfilled all the criteria, but two (the Applied Wound Management tool and the National Wound Assessment Form) met the most criteria of the optimal tool and were therefore considered to best meet nurses' needs in wound assessment. The study provides a mechanism for the appraisal of wound assessment tools using a set of optimal criteria which could aid practitioners in their search for the best wound assessment tool.

  7. Electroweak Corrections to pp→μ^{+}μ^{-}e^{+}e^{-}+X at the LHC: A Higgs Boson Background Study.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, B; Denner, A; Dittmaier, S; Hofer, L; Jäger, B

    2016-04-22

    The first complete calculation of the next-to-leading-order electroweak corrections to four-lepton production at the LHC is presented, where all off-shell effects of intermediate Z bosons and photons are taken into account. Focusing on the mixed final state μ^{+}μ^{-}e^{+}e^{-}, we study differential cross sections that are particularly interesting for Higgs boson analyses. The electroweak corrections are divided into photonic and purely weak corrections. The former exhibit patterns familiar from similar W- or Z-boson production processes with very large radiative tails near resonances and kinematical shoulders. The weak corrections are of the generic size of 5% and show interesting variations, in particular, a sign change between the regions of resonant Z-pair production and the Higgs signal.

  8. Electroweak Corrections to pp→μ^{+}μ^{-}e^{+}e^{-}+X at the LHC: A Higgs Boson Background Study.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, B; Denner, A; Dittmaier, S; Hofer, L; Jäger, B

    2016-04-22

    The first complete calculation of the next-to-leading-order electroweak corrections to four-lepton production at the LHC is presented, where all off-shell effects of intermediate Z bosons and photons are taken into account. Focusing on the mixed final state μ^{+}μ^{-}e^{+}e^{-}, we study differential cross sections that are particularly interesting for Higgs boson analyses. The electroweak corrections are divided into photonic and purely weak corrections. The former exhibit patterns familiar from similar W- or Z-boson production processes with very large radiative tails near resonances and kinematical shoulders. The weak corrections are of the generic size of 5% and show interesting variations, in particular, a sign change between the regions of resonant Z-pair production and the Higgs signal. PMID:27152792

  9. Electroweak Corrections to p p →μ+μ-e+e-+X at the LHC: A Higgs Boson Background Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedermann, B.; Denner, A.; Dittmaier, S.; Hofer, L.; Jäger, B.

    2016-04-01

    The first complete calculation of the next-to-leading-order electroweak corrections to four-lepton production at the LHC is presented, where all off-shell effects of intermediate Z bosons and photons are taken into account. Focusing on the mixed final state μ+μ-e+e-, we study differential cross sections that are particularly interesting for Higgs boson analyses. The electroweak corrections are divided into photonic and purely weak corrections. The former exhibit patterns familiar from similar W - or Z -boson production processes with very large radiative tails near resonances and kinematical shoulders. The weak corrections are of the generic size of 5% and show interesting variations, in particular, a sign change between the regions of resonant Z -pair production and the Higgs signal.

  10. E-assessment of prior learning: a pilot study of interactive assessment of staff with no formal education who are working in Swedish elderly care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The current paper presents a pilot study of interactive assessment using information and communication technology (ICT) to evaluate the knowledge, skills and abilities of staff with no formal education who are working in Swedish elderly care. Methods Theoretical and practical assessment methods were developed and used with simulated patients and computer-based tests to identify strengths and areas for personal development among staff with no formal education. Results Of the 157 staff with no formal education, 87 began the practical and/or theoretical assessments, and 63 completed both assessments. Several of the staff passed the practical assessments, except the morning hygiene assessment, where several failed. Other areas for staff development, i.e. where several failed (>50%), were the theoretical assessment of the learning objectives: Health, Oral care, Ergonomics, hygiene, esthetic, environmental, Rehabilitation, Assistive technology, Basic healthcare and Laws and organization. None of the staff passed all assessments. Number of years working in elderly care and staff age were not statistically significantly related to the total score of grades on the various learning objectives. Conclusion The interactive assessments were useful in assessing staff members’ practical and theoretical knowledge, skills, and abilities and in identifying areas in need of development. It is important that personnel who lack formal qualifications be clearly identified and given a chance to develop their competence through training, both theoretical and practical. The interactive e-assessment approach analyzed in the present pilot study could serve as a starting point. PMID:24742168

  11. Long-length, long-lived flow-shear stabilized Z-pinches: Background and Experimental plans for scaling studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, B. A.; Shumlak, U.; Golingo, R. P.; Claveau, E. L.; McLean, H. S.; Schmidt, A. E.

    2015-11-01

    The ZaP experiment produces long-lived sheared-flow-stabilized Z-pinch plasmas up to 126 cm in length for several flow-through times, and up to thousands of Alfvén times. Experimental measurements of the magnetic structure along the full length of the plasma column show an axially uniform Z-pinch plasma during the observed quiescent period. Interferometry, fast-framing images, and Rogowskii coils corroborate the existence of a pinched plasma during this quiescent period of time. Detailed two-dimensional non-linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) calculations have been performed showing the formation and assembly of long-length, long-lived Z-pinches. Experimentally-observed plasma lifetimes and velocity-shear profiles are shown to be consistent with calculations of viscous-damping timescales based on the measured plasma parameters. A newly-funded ARPA-E ALPHA project, the Fusion Z-pinch Experiment ``FuZE'' is being constructed at the University of Washington, in collaboration with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. FuZE will study scaling and stability of the successful ZaP experiment to higher pinch currents. The FuZE experimental design, goals, and plans, based on ZaP experimental results, will be presented.

  12. A Case Study Perspective on Working with ProUCL and a State Environmental Agency in Determining Background Threshold Values.

    PubMed

    Daniel, David L

    2015-10-15

    ProUCL is a software package made available by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to provide environmental scientists with better tools with which to conduct statistical analyses. ProUCL has been in production for over ten years and is in its fifth major version. In time, it has included more sophisticated and appropriate analysis tools. However, there is still substantial criticism of it among statisticians for its various omissions and even its philosophical approach. Due to limited resources, some state agencies have set ProUCL as a standard by which all state-mandated environmental analyses are compared, despite the EPA's more open acceptance of other software products and methodologies. As such, it can be difficult for state-supervised sites to convince the state to allow the use of more appropriate methodologies or different software. In the current case study, several such instances arose and substantial resources were invested to demonstrate the appropriateness of alternative methodologies, sometimes without acquiring acceptance by the state despite sound statistical demonstration. In particular, efforts were made to address: inappropriate outlier detection, upper tolerance limit (UTL) calculations based on gamma distributions when non-detects were present, and inappropriate use of nonparametric UTL formulas.

  13. A study of relationship between background characteristics, media exposure and acceptance of family planning in rural Maharashtra.

    PubMed

    Apte, J M

    1988-10-01

    On the basis of data taken from a National Study on the Subject of Reach and Effectiveness of Mass Media in the family welfare program (1980, this paper analyzes the interplay of variables at different levels and their effect on the acceptance of family planning. The level of education is related to exposure to media as well as the use of family planning methods, and negatively related to the degree of apprehension. The higher the level of exposure to media, the greater the acceptance of family planning. However, the relationship between the level of media exposure and degree of apprehension does not show a conclusive trend. The number of living sons is found to be very closely associated with the acceptance of family planning. It is clear that any communication effort which does not attack the problems of sex preference or apprehension will not yield desirable results in terms of acceptance. It is also clear that the proverbial gap between awareness and practice can be better filled by an appropriate use of inter-personal channels.

  14. Space station contamination study: Assessment of contaminant spectral brightness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torr, D. G.

    1988-01-01

    The assessment of spectral brightness resulting from the ambient-contaminant interaction requires a knowledge of the details of cross sections and excitation mechanisms. The approach adopted was to utilize the spectral brightness measurements made on Spacelab 1 and on the S3-4 spacecraft to identify source mechanisms, key cross sections and hence, the abundance of contaminant species. These inferred abundances were then used to update the composition comprising the total column concentrations predicted by the Science and Engineering Associates' configuration contamination model for the Space Station and to scale the irradiances to four altitudes: 300, 350, 400, and 463 km. The concentration irradiances are compared with zodiacal natural background levels. The results demonstrate that emissive contamination is significantly more severe than anticipated. It is shown that spectral emissions can become competitive with the zodiacal background up to altitudes as high as 400 km for the vacuum ultraviolet and visible emissions.

  15. Studies on geological background and source of fluorine in drinking water in the North China Plate fluorosis areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luo, K.; Feng, F.; Li, H.; Chou, C.-L.; Feng, Z.; Yunshe, D.

    2008-01-01

    Endemic fluorosis in northern China is usually produced by high fluorine (F) content in drinking water. Thirty-one samples of drinking waters, mainly well waters and nearly 200 samples of rocks, loess, and coal were analyzed for F content using the combustion hydrolysis-fluoride-ion selective electrode (ISE) method. The geologic cross sections of two well-known fluorosis basins were studied. The solubility of F in different rock types collected from fluorosis areas was determined. Results showed that areas of endemic fluorosis in northern China are located in coal-bearing basins which are comprised of three stratagraphic portions. The lowest portion is Precambrian granitic rocks or Cambrian-Ordovician carbonates. The middle portion consists of Permo-Carboniferous or Jurassic coal-bearing sequences. The upper portion is 0-400 m Pleistocene loess. Flourine content in the Precambrian granite-gneiss contained (a) 1090-1460 ppm, in the Cambrian-Ordovician limestone and dolomite, (b) 52-133 ppm, in black shales and coal gob of Permo-Carboniferous coal-bearing strata, (c) 200-700 ppm, and (d) Pleistocene loess 454-542 ppm. The solubility of F in black shales of coal-bearing sequences was higher than in Precambrian granitic rocks, and both were more soluble than loess. F solubility from Precambrian granitic rocks was moderate, but Precambrian granitic rocks have high F content and thus contribute an appreciable amount of ion to the shallow groundwater (well water). Varying F content in shallow groundwater is controlled by geological conditions. The sources of F in the shallow groundwater from fluorosis areas in northern China are mainly derived from black shales of coal-bearing sequences and Precambrian granitic basement in the basins of northern China. ?? 2008 Taylor & Francis.

  16. Prospective Administrators Studying Communities: Instruction and Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Donald B.; Huang, C. David

    Although individuals preparing for careers in educational administration have recognized the importance of the community for schools and school districts, they have often lacked a complex understanding of "community." This paper describes a community-study research project that was developed and implemented in a graduate educational administration…

  17. Needs Assessment Project. FY 81 Revalidation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shively, Joe E.

    Initiated in 1981 to provide an update and to reaffirm the status of educational needs of a seven-state region, a revalidation study by Appalachia Educational Laboratory was conducted. Results indicated some variations from the needs expressed at state conferences in 1980, but the revalidation showed that the importance of educational needs had…

  18. Needs Assessment Project. FY84 Confirmation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shively, Joe E.

    A needs sensing confirmation study was conducted to identify the Appalachia Educational Laboratory's (AEL) long term research and development program needs and provide guidelines for its seven member states' activities. The AEL Board of Directors, individuals serving in similar positions as the Board members, and a sample of non-public school…

  19. Walworth County Employer Needs Assessment Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoehr, Keith W.; Banerdt, Jack

    In 1982, a study was conducted to obtain information from businesses, industries, and agencies in Walworth County that would assist Gateway Technical Institute (GTI) in providing programs and services to meet employers' manpower needs. Surveys were administered to 133 businesses and industries, requesting information on the firms' characteristics,…

  20. Canadian Journal of Native Studies: An Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Richard T.

    1987-01-01

    Describes and critically analyzes volume of "Canadian Journal of Native Studies" (v4 n2 1984). Sketches journal's history and critiques three articles. Article topics include history (Indian treaties and Indian policy administration); resource development impacts (reserve land flooding, native health, and fishing); and native education (case…

  1. Pulse shape discrimination studies with a Broad-Energy Germanium detector for signal identification and background suppression in the GERDA double beta decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budjáš, Dušan; Barnabé Heider, Marik; Chkvorets, Oleg; Khanbekov, Nikita; Schönert, Stefan

    2009-10-01

    First studies of event discrimination with a Broad-Energy Germanium (BEGe) detector are presented. A novel pulse shape method, exploiting the characteristic electrical field distribution inside BEGe detectors, allows to identify efficiently single-site events and to reject multi-site events. The first are typical for neutrinoless double beta decays (0νββ) and the latter for backgrounds from gamma-ray interactions. The obtained survival probabilities of backgrounds at energies close to Qββ(76Ge) = 2039 keV are (0.93 ± 0.08)% for events from 60Co, (21 ± 3)% from 226Ra and (40 ± 2)% from 228Th. This background suppression is achieved with (89 ± 1)% acceptance of 228Th double escape events, which are dominated by single site interactions. Approximately equal acceptance is expected for 0νββ-decay events. Collimated beam and Compton coincidence measurements demonstrate that the discrimination is largely independent of the interaction location inside the crystal and validate the pulse-shape cut in the energy range of Qββ. The application of BEGe detectors in the GERDA and the Majorana double beta decay experiments is under study.

  2. From Cleanup to Stewardship. A companion report to Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure and background information to support the scoping process required for the 1998 PEIS Settlement Study

    SciTech Connect

    1999-10-01

    Long-term stewardship is expected to be needed at more than 100 DOE sites after DOE's Environmental Management program completes disposal, stabilization, and restoration operations to address waste and contamination resulting from nuclear research and nuclear weapons production conducted over the past 50 years. From Cleanup to stewardship provides background information on the Department of Energy (DOE) long-term stewardship obligations and activities. This document begins to examine the transition from cleanup to long-term stewardship, and it fulfills the Secretary's commitment to the President in the 1999 Performance Agreement to provide a companion report to the Department's Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure report. It also provides background information to support the scoping process required for a study on long-term stewardship required by a 1998 Settlement Agreement.

  3. Risk Assessment Stability: A Revalidation Study of the Arizona Risk/Needs Assessment Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwalbe, Craig S.

    2009-01-01

    The actuarial method is the gold standard for risk assessment in child welfare, juvenile justice, and criminal justice. It produces risk classifications that are highly predictive and that may be robust to sampling error. This article reports a revalidation study of the Arizona Risk/Needs Assessment instrument, an actuarial instrument for juvenile…

  4. Current Assessment Practices: A Report from the Virginia Assessment Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Adult Educators Research Network, Dayton.

    The report details the activities of the Virginia Assessment Study Group in documenting the utility of various approaches to assessing adult education programs and instruction within the state. A group of diverse practitioners convened during 1997 to establish project objectives and research questions and to report on their work. The reports of…

  5. Supporting nanomaterial risk assessment by case studies of nano-titanium dioxide using comprehensive environmental assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Here we describe a comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA) approach for two case studies of nano-titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) in real world applications: water treatment and sunscreen. CEA combines a product life cycle framework with the risk assessment paradigm.

  6. Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining at Kraft Pulp and Paper Mills in the United States, Part A: Background and Assumptions

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, E. D.; Consonni, S.; Katofsky, R. E.; Iisa, K.; Frederick, W. J., Jr.

    2008-11-01

    Commercialization of black liquor and biomass gasification technologies is anticipated in the 2010-2015 time frame, and synthesis gas from gasifiers can be converted into liquid fuels using catalytic synthesis technologies that are already commercially established in the gas-to-liquids or coal-to-liquids industries. This set of two papers describes key results from a major assessment of the prospective energy, environmental, and financial performance of commercial gasification-based biorefineries integrated with kraft pulp and paper mills [1]. Seven detailed biorefinery designs were developed for a reference mill in the southeastern United States, together with the associated mass/energy balances, air emissions estimates, and capital investment requirements. The biorefineries provide chemical recovery services and co-produce process steam for the mill, some electricity, and one of three liquid fuels: a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic crude oil (which could be refined to vehicle fuels at an existing petroleum refinery), dimethyl ether (a diesel engine fuel or propane substitute), or an ethanol-rich mixed-alcohol product. This paper describes the key assumptions that underlie the biorefinery designs. Part B will present analytical results.

  7. Calculating Impacts of Energy Standards on Energy Demand in U.S. Buildings under Uncertainty with an Integrated Assessment Model: Technical Background Data

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Daly, Don S.; Hathaway, John E.; Lansing, Carina S.; Liu, Ying; McJeon, Haewon C.; Moss, Richard H.; Patel, Pralit L.; Peterson, Marty J.; Rice, Jennie S.; Zhou, Yuyu

    2014-12-06

    This report presents data and assumptions employed in an application of PNNL’s Global Change Assessment Model with a newly-developed Monte Carlo analysis capability. The model is used to analyze the impacts of more aggressive U.S. residential and commercial building-energy codes and equipment standards on energy consumption and energy service costs at the state level, explicitly recognizing uncertainty in technology effectiveness and cost, socioeconomics, presence or absence of carbon prices, and climate impacts on energy demand. The report provides a summary of how residential and commercial buildings are modeled, together with assumptions made for the distributions of state–level population, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per worker, efficiency and cost of residential and commercial energy equipment by end use, and efficiency and cost of residential and commercial building shells. The cost and performance of equipment and of building shells are reported separately for current building and equipment efficiency standards and for more aggressive standards. The report also details assumptions concerning future improvements brought about by projected trends in technology.

  8. System Study: Technology Assessment and Prioritizing Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    For the Intelligent Engine System (Propulsion 21) study, each technology was evaluated to determine the impact to fuel burn, acoustics, and NOx emissions. The optimum combination of technologies and their overall benefits to the system were also evaluated, resulting in noise improvement potential of 1.89 EPNdB cumulative margin,-1.34 percent fuel burn, and 50 percent NOx reduction from the 2015 UEET-QAT baseline. All the technology evaluations, except T18-20D, were based on newengines, where the engine was resized to obtain the maximum system benefit while maintaining the same cycle parameters as the 2015 UEET-QAT baseline. The impact of turbine clearance control on deteriorated engines, T18-20D, was also evaluated. Recommendations for future system study work include, but were not limited to, validation of a university-developed engine deterioration model and customer value analysis as figures of merit beside fuel burn, emissions, and acoustics.

  9. Engine system assessment study using Martian propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelaccio, D.; Jacobs, M.; Collins, J.; Scheil, C.; Meyer, M.

    1992-07-01

    A feasibility study was performed that identified and characterized promising chemical propulsion system designs that utilize two or more of the propellant combinations: LOX/H2, LOX/CH4 and LOX/CO. The engine systems examined focused on the usage of common subsystem/component hardware where feasible. From the evaluation baseline employed, tripropellant MTV LOX cooled and bipropellant LEV and MEV engine systems are identified.

  10. Peak shifted properties of the "low background NaI(Tl) detectors": An experimental study of response function behavior in different temperature and acquisition time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei Moghaddam, Y.; Rafat Motavalli, L.; Miri Hakimabadi, H.

    2016-09-01

    Due to the necessity of using low background NaI detector in sensitive and accurate measurements, study on the response function variations in different conditions is very important. These types of detectors have different responses in various measurement conditions, including time, temperature and high voltage. In this study, the response function of 76 B 76 LB NaI (SCIONIX) in different conditions is discussed. According to the channel shifting in these detectors and its direct effect on degrading the resolution, the most convenient measurement condition for these detectors, is proposed. Finally, it is recommended that before long-time measurements a "waiting time" is needed to avoid the channel shifting effects.

  11. EOS imaging versus current radiography: A health technology assessment study

    PubMed Central

    Mahboub-Ahari, Alireza; Hajebrahimi, Sakineh; Yusefi, Mahmoud; Velayati, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Background: EOS is a 2D/3D muscle skeletal diagnostic imaging system. The device has been developed to produce a high quality 2D, full body radiographs in standing, sitting and squatting positions. Three dimensional images can be reconstructed via sterEOS software. This Health Technology Assessment study aimed to investigate efficacy, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of new emerged EOS imaging system in comparison with conventional x-ray radiographic techniques. Methods: All cost and outcome data were assessed from Iran's Ministry of Health Perspective. Data for clinical effectiveness was extracted using a rigorous systematic review. As clinical outcomes the rate of x-ray emission and related quality of life were compared with Computed Radiography (CR) and Digital Radiography (DR). Standard costing method was conducted to find related direct medical costs. In order to examine robustness of the calculated Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratios (ICERs) we used two-way sensitivity analysis. GDP Per capita of Islamic Republic of Iran (2012) adopted as cost-effectiveness threshold. Results: Review of related literature highlighted the lack of rigorous evidence for clinical outcomes. Ultra low dose EOS imaging device is known as a safe intervention because of FDA, CE and CSA certificates. The rate of emitted X-ray was 2 to 18 fold lower for EOS compared to the conventional techniques (p<0.001). The Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio for EOS relative to CR calculated $50706 in baseline analysis (the first scenario) and $50714, $9446 respectively for the second and third scenarios. Considering the value of neither $42146 as upper limit, nor the first neither the second scenario could pass the cost-effectiveness threshold for Iran. Conclusion: EOS imaging technique might not be considered as a cost-effective intervention in routine practice of health system, especially within in-patient wards. Scenario analysis shows that, only in an optimum condition such as lower

  12. The Cosmic Background Explorer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulkis, Samuel; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Outlines the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission to measure celestial radiation. Describes the instruments used and experiments involving differential microwave radiometers, and a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer. (YP)

  13. Logistics background study: underground mining

    SciTech Connect

    Hanslovan, J. J.; Visovsky, R. G.

    1982-02-01

    Logistical functions that are normally associated with US underground coal mining are investigated and analyzed. These functions imply all activities and services that support the producing sections of the mine. The report provides a better understanding of how these functions impact coal production in terms of time, cost, and safety. Major underground logistics activities are analyzed and include: transportation and personnel, supplies and equipment; transportation of coal and rock; electrical distribution and communications systems; water handling; hydraulics; and ventilation systems. Recommended areas for future research are identified and prioritized.

  14. Higher Education Quality Assessment in China: An Impact Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shuiyun

    2015-01-01

    This research analyses an external higher education quality assessment scheme in China, namely, the Quality Assessment of Undergraduate Education (QAUE) scheme. Case studies were conducted in three Chinese universities with different statuses. Analysis shows that the evaluated institutions responded to the external requirements of the QAUE…

  15. Three Reflections on Assessing Safety Training Needs: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleezer, Catherine M.; Kelsey, Kathleen D.; Wood, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    Needs assessment plays an important role in training and human performance improvement efforts, but the literature contains little research on this topic. This study extended previous research on the Performance Analysis for Training (PAT) model of needs assessment by examining its implementation to determine environmental and occupational health…

  16. Social Studies Assessment in Wisconsin Public Schools. A Position Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehlage, Gary G.; And Others

    The Public Law enacted in 1971 requires that fundamental subject matter areas taught in Wisconsin's public schools be assessed. It is proposed in this paper that assessment of the State's social studies programs needs to focus its attention on the school environment, which educators can and should control, change, and improve, rather than…

  17. Perceptions of Assessment in Elementary Physical Education: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Alisa R.; Griffin, Linda L.; France, Thaddeus

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was twofold: (a) to examine a teacher's perceptions of attempting to implement assessments aligned with the NASPE standards and (b) to examine students' perceptions of assessment in physical education. Participants were 46 4th grade students and their physical education teacher. Data were collected through a Likert-scale…

  18. Unmasking Cleckley's psychopath: assessing historical case studies.

    PubMed

    DeShong, Hilary L; Helle, Ashley C; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N

    2016-05-01

    The current study investigated original case descriptions of psychopathy (Cleckley, 1941) in relation to current conceptualizations and general personality traits. Attorneys, forensic psychologists and clinical faculty members completed ratings of psychopathy and personality after reading vignettes based on Cleckley's descriptions of a psychopath. The results suggest that professionals' ratings are consistent with current conceptualizations of psychopathy. Furthermore, the five-factor model (FFM) personality traits of the vignettes aligned with the current literature on the FFM and psychopathy (i.e. low neuroticism, conscientiousness and agreeableness). The results further supported that a general trait model, like the FFM, may be well suited to describe the underlying personality traits of psychopathy. Gender differences were also examined. PMID:26931520

  19. Preliminary systems design study assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-10-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. The SDS results are published in eight volumes. Volume I contains an executive summary. The SDS summary and analysis of results are presented in Volume II. Volumes III through VII contain descriptions of twelve system and four subsystem concepts. Volume VIII contains the appendixes.

  20. [Observation study on aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing using the ground-based and satellite remote sensing at background station during the regional pollution episodes].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Xia, Xiang-Ao; Che, Hui-Zheng; Tang, Jie; Tang, Yi-Xi; Meng, Wei; Dong, Fan

    2014-07-01

    The significant effect of anthropogenic pollutants transportation on the physical and optical properties of regional background atmospheric aerosol was studied by using ground-based and satellite remote sensing data obtained at the atmospheric background station (Shangdianzi, Beijing) of North China during October 1 to 15 in 2011. The aerosol mass concentration and reactive gases concentration increased obviously during periods of October 4-5, October 7-9, and October 11-12. Comparing with the background period of October 1-3, volume concentration increased by a factor of 3-6 for reactive gases such as NO(x), and CO, and a factor of 10-20 for SO2. Mass concentration of PM2.5 was about 200 microg x m(-3) on October 9. During haze period, the AOD at 500 nm varied between 0.60 to 1.00. The single scattering albedo (SSA) was lower than 0.88. And the black carbon concentration increased 4-8 times, which suggested the aerosol absorption was very strong during this pollution episode. The absorption of aerosol particles could cause 100-400 W x m(-2) increase of atmospheric radiation. The surface radiation decreased by about 100-300 W x m(-2) due to the aerosol scattering and absorption. This could cause higher stability of atmosphere, which will significantly affect the cloud and precipitation, and thus the regional weather and climate.

  1. The Alaskan Mineral Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the Big Delta Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, Helen Laura; Albert, N.R.D.; Griscom, Andrew; Hessin, T.D.; Menzie, W.D.; Turner, D.L.; Wilson, F.H.

    1979-01-01

    The geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and Landsat imagery of the Big Delta quadrangle, 16,335 km 2 in the Yukon-Tanana Upland of east-central Alaska, were investigated, and maps and reports were prepared by an interdisciplinary research team for the purpose of assessing the mineral potential. The quadrangle is dominantly a complex terrane of greenschist- to amphibolitefacies metamorphic rocks that have been intruded by Mesozoic and Tertiary dioritic to granitic rocks and are overlain by Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Serpentinized peridotite and associated greenstone, graywacke, and chert crop out in some places. The quadrangle is bisected by the northeastward-trending Shaw Creek fault, which, on the basis of aeromagnetic interpretation and geologic data, is postulated to have left-lateral offset of as much as 48 km. On the northwest side of the Shaw Creek fault, metamorphic rock units have a northwesterly regional trend, and the oldest rocks could be Precambrian in age. Gneiss and schist in the southwestern part of the quadrangle are derived from both igneous and sedimentary protoliths, some of which may be as old as Precambrian. Other rock units, which include calcareous schist and thin-layered marble, black quartzite, semischist, and cataclastic rocks, are considered to be of probable Paleozoic age, although no fossils have yet been found in these rocks. Radiolarians and conodonts in chert associated with greenstone and ultramafic rocks indicate that the chert is of Permian age. Potassium-argon ages on igneous rocks of the Big Delta quadrangle fall into two groups: those with biotite, muscovite, hornblende, and sanidine ages between 50 to 69 m.y.; and those with biotite, hornblende, and sanidine ages between 88 to 105 m.y. The younger of these two groups appears to indicate the time of a plutonic event marked by intrusion of mostly small, isolated plutons, including hypabyssal stocks, and the eruption of silicic volcanic rocks. Most of the plutons are

  2. PRELIMINARY EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS FROM THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools. The four-week study was performed in October and November, 2003. The study involved repeated daily...

  3. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS FROM THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY (TACS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools. The four-week study was performed in October and November, 2003. The study involved repeated daily...

  4. AN APPROACH TO METHODS DEVELOPMENT FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure assessment studies require methods that are rapid, cost-effective and have a high sample through-put. The development of analytical methods for exposure studies should be based on specific information for individual studies. Human exposure studies suggest that di...

  5. Correlators in nontrivial backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Mello Koch, Robert de; Ives, Norman; Stephanou, Michael

    2009-01-15

    Operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with an R-charge of O(N{sup 2}) are dual to backgrounds which are asymtotically AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}. In this article we develop efficient techniques that allow the computation of correlation functions in these backgrounds. We find that (i) contractions between fields in the string words and fields in the operator creating the background are the field theory accounting of the new geometry, (ii) correlation functions of probes in these backgrounds are given by the free field theory contractions but with rescaled propagators and (iii) in these backgrounds there are no open string excitations with their special end point interactions; we have only closed string excitations.

  6. Technical change to the work plan for the remedial investigation of the Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi: Sampling and analysis plan background soil and groundwater study

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The Salmon Site, formerly known as the Tatum Dome Test Site, is located in south-central Mississippi, southwest of the city of Hattiesburg, in Lamar County. Between 1964 and 1970, two nuclear and two non-nuclear gas explosions were conducted deep underground in the Tatum Salt Dome beneath the site. The tests were performed as part of the former US Atomic Energy Commission`s Vela Uniform Program which was conducted to improve the United States` capability to detect underground nuclear explosions. This document details technical changes to the existing work plan for the remedial investigation of the Salmon Site. A previously conducted Remedial Investigation for the Salmon Site involved the preparation of ecological and human health risk assessments. These risk assessments, which are incorporated into the Remedial Investigation Report, identified several constituents of potential concern (COPC) that could potentially have a negative impact on ecological and human health. These COPC are the primary risk drivers for the Salmon Site; they include arsenic and naturally occurring, gamma-emitting radionuclides. If it can be demonstrated that similar concentrations of these COPCs occur naturally in surrounding areas, they can be removed from consideration in the risk assessments. The purpose of this sampling effort is to collect enough data to prove that the COPCs are naturally occurring and are not a result of the explosives testing activities conducted at the site. This will be accomplished by collecting enough soil samples to have a statistically valid population that can be used to produce defensible comparisons that prove the concentrations identified on site are the same as the background concentrations in surrounding areas.

  7. ALVEOLAR BREATH SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS IN HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alveolar breath sampling and analysis can be extremely useful in exposure assessment studies involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Over recent years scientists from the EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory have developed and refined an alveolar breath collection ...

  8. A study of the effect of flight density and background noise on V/STOL acceptability. [effective perceived noise level as measure of annoyance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sternfeld, H., Jr.; Hinterkeuser, E. G.; Hackman, R. B.; Davis, J.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted in which test subjects evaluated the sounds of a helicopter, a turbofan STOL and a turbojet airplane while engaged in work and leisure activities. Exposure to a high repetitive density of the aircraft sounds did not make the individual sounds more annoying but did create an unacceptable environment. The application of a time duration term to db(A) resulted in a measure which compared favorably with EPNL as a predictor of annoyance. Temporal variations in background noise level had no significant effect on the rated annoyance.

  9. Low background counting at the LBNL low background facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Smith, A. R.; Chan, Y. D.; Hurley, D. L.; Wang, B. S.

    2013-08-08

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to end-users in two unique facilities: locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory space; and a satellite underground station (600 m.w.e) in Oroville, CA. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic and anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via neutron activation analysis for specific applications. A general overview of the facilities, services, and capabilities will be discussed. Recent activities will also be presented, including the recent installation of a 3π muon veto at the surface facility, cosmogenic activation studies of TeO{sub 2} for CUORE, and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout.

  10. A feasibility study on assessing public health impacts of cumulative air pollution reduction activities in a small geographic area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background and Objective: The rnain objective ofthis study was to examine the feasibility ofconducting a local (e.g., city level) assessment ofthe public health impacts ofcumulative air pollution reduction activities (a.k.a. accountability) from the federal, state, local and vo...

  11. Background environmental pollution of the Eurasian continent.

    PubMed

    Rovinsky, F Y; Afanasjev, M I; Burtseva, L V; Yegorov, V I

    1982-12-01

    (1) The interest to studying pollution of environmental media on the background level has grown in the recent years. There arose a necessity to establish a specialized observational system for conducting observations of changes in the state of the environment, and of ecological consequences of pollution as well as to produce assessments of the current and predicted states. The realized program of background monitoring and first results of integrated background measurements have already been published. The paper presented illustrates time-and-space features of the background pollution of natural environmental media according to data from various background stations. (2) Long-term systematic measurements at the 'Borovoe' station (Kazakh SSR) commenced in 1976 have been supplemented with the results of the background pollution studies carried out in Berezinskyi, Caucasian, Central-Chernozem, Sary-Chelek, and Repetek Biosphere Reserves and in locations of the background stations in Hungary and Czechoslovakia. The data from the Hungarian and Czechoslovak stations were obtained during joint expeditions. Details are given in the relevant publications. (3) Ozone. Ozone measurements show the diurnal variation with the day-time maxima from 35 up to 160 μg m(-3). The correlation between day-time and nocturnal concentrations is a good indicator of the anthropogenic effect. (4) Sulphur dioxide and sulphates. The annual variation of sulphur dioxide characterised by winter maximum and summer minimum indicates the direct dependence on the amount of fuel burnt in the given region. Mean values of the sulphur dioxide content in the surface layer of the atmosphere correlates with the extent of the region urbanization and varies within 0.2-12.5 μg m(-3). The value of sulphur dioxide and sulphates correlation in the atmosphere is rather stable and varies within 0.18-0.37 μg m(-3). (5) Heavy metals. The annual cycle of the atmospheric content of lead, cadmium and arsenic is well

  12. Assessing the first wave of epidemiological studies of nanomaterial workers

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Candace S. J.; Pelclova, Daniela; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Schulte, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    The results of early animal studies of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and air pollution epidemiology suggest that it is important to assess the health of ENM workers. Initial epidemiological studies of workers’ exposure to ENMs (<100 nm) are reviewed and characterized for their study designs, findings, and limitations. Of the 15 studies, 11 were cross-sectional, 4 were longitudinal (1 was both cross-sectional and longitudinal in design), and 1 was a descriptive pilot study. Generally, the studies used biologic markers as the dependent variables. All 11 cross-sectional studies showed a positive relationship between various biomarkers and ENM exposures. Three of the four longitudinal studies showed a negative relationship; the fourth showed positive findings after a 1-year follow-up. Each study considered exposure to ENMs as the independent variable. Exposure was assessed by mass concentration in 10 studies and by particle count in six studies. Six of them assessed both mass and particle concentrations. Some of the studies had limited exposure data because of inadequate exposure assessment. Generally, exposure levels were not very high in comparison to those in human inhalation chamber studies, but there were some exceptions. Most studies involved a small sample size, from 2 to 258 exposed workers. These studies represent the first wave of epidemiological studies of ENM workers. They are limited by small numbers of participants, inconsistent (and in some cases inadequate) exposure assessments, generally low exposures, and short intervals between exposure and effect. Still, these studies are a foundation for future work; they provide insight into where ENM workers are experiencing potentially adverse effects that might be related to ENM exposures. PMID:26635494

  13. Evaluation of the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Study Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckendahl, Chad W.; Davis, Susan L.; Plake, Barbara S.; Sireci, Stephen G.; Hambleton, Ronald K.; Zenisky, April L.; Wells, Craig S.

    2009-01-01

    The "Evaluation of the National Assessment of Educational Progress: Study Reports" describes the special studies that comprised the design of the evaluation. In the Final Report, the authors presented a practical discussion of the evaluation studies to its primary, intended audience, namely policymakers. On this accompanying CD, readers will find…

  14. Genetical background of intelligence.

    PubMed

    Junkiert-Czarnecka, Anna; Haus, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Intelligence as an ability to reason, think abstractly and adapt effectively to the environment is a subject of research in the field of psychology, neurobiology, and in the last twenty years genetics as well. Genetical testing of twins carried out from XX century indicated heritebility of intelligence, therefore confirmed an influence of genetic factor on cognitive processes. Studies on genetic background of intelligence focus on dopaminergic (DRD2, DRD4, COMT, SLC6A3, DAT1, CCKAR) and adrenergic system (ADRB2, CHRM2) genes as well as, neutrofins (BDNF) and oxidative stress genes (LTF, PRNP). Positive effect of investigated gene polymorphism was indicated by variation c.957C>T DRD2 gene (if in polymorphic site is thymine), polymorphism c.472G>A COMT gene (presence of adenine) and also gene ADRB2 c.46A->G (guanine), CHRM2 (thymine in place c.1890A>T) and BDNF (guanine in place c.472G>A) Obtained results indicate that intelligence is a feature dependent not only on genetic but also an environmental factor. PMID:27333929

  15. The cosmic background explorer

    SciTech Connect

    Gulkis, G. ); Lubin, P.M. ); Meyer, S.S. ); Silverberg, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Late last year the National Aeronautics and Space Administration launched its first satellite dedicated to the study of phenomena related to the origins of the universe. The satellite, called the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), carries three complementary detectors that will make fundamental measurements of the celestial radiation. Part of that radiation is believed to have originated in processes that occurred at the very dawn of the universe. By measuring the remnant radiation at wavelengths from one micrometer to one centimeter across the entire sky, scientists hope to be able to solve many mysteries regarding the origin and evolution of the early universe. Unfortunately, these radiative relics of the early universe are weak and veiled by local astrophysical and terrestrial sources of radiation. The wavelengths of the various cosmic components may also overlap, thereby making the understanding of the diffuse celestial radiation a challenge. Nevertheless, the COBE instruments, with their full-sky coverage, high sensitivity to a wide range of wavelengths and freedom from interference from the earth's atmosphere, will constitute for astrophysicists an observatory of unprecedented sensitivity and scope. The interesting cosmic signals will then be separated from one another and from noncosmic radiation sources by a comprehensive analysis of the data.

  16. Biological aerosol background characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blatny, Janet; Fountain, Augustus W., III

    2011-05-01

    To provide useful information during military operations, or as part of other security situations, a biological aerosol detector has to respond within seconds or minutes to an attack by virulent biological agents, and with low false alarms. Within this time frame, measuring virulence of a known microorganism is extremely difficult, especially if the microorganism is of unknown antigenic or nucleic acid properties. Measuring "live" characteristics of an organism directly is not generally an option, yet only viable organisms are potentially infectious. Fluorescence based instruments have been designed to optically determine if aerosol particles have viability characteristics. Still, such commercially available biological aerosol detection equipment needs to be improved for their use in military and civil applications. Air has an endogenous population of microorganisms that may interfere with alarm software technologies. To design robust algorithms, a comprehensive knowledge of the airborne biological background content is essential. For this reason, there is a need to study ambient live bacterial populations in as many locations as possible. Doing so will permit collection of data to define diverse biological characteristics that in turn can be used to fine tune alarm algorithms. To avoid false alarms, improving software technologies for biological detectors is a crucial feature requiring considerations of various parameters that can be applied to suppress alarm triggers. This NATO Task Group will aim for developing reference methods for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to improve alarm algorithms for biological detection. Additionally, they will focus on developing reference standard methodology for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to reduce false alarm rates.

  17. The GLAST Background Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ormes, J.F.; Atwood, W.; Burnett, T.; Grove, E.; Longo, F.; McEnery, J.; Mizuno, T.; Ritz, S.; /NASA, Goddard

    2007-10-17

    In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

  18. Adolescents Background - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Cancer.gov

    Within any 24-hour period in the life of a teenager, eating may be a positive or a negative experience. It may involve a quick snack or a grazing process. Eating for teens may be a group decision, an interaction, or an independent endeavor.

  19. National Climate Assessment Indicators: Background, Development, & Examples

    SciTech Connect

    Janetos, Anthony C.; Chen, Robert; Arndt, Deke; Kenney, Melissa A.; Abbasi, Daniel; Armstrong, Tom; Bartuska, Ann; Blair, Maria; Buizer, Jim; Dietz, Tom; Easterling, Dave; Kaye, Jack; Kolian, Michael; McGeehin, Michael; O'Connor, Robert; Pulwarty, Roger; Running, Steve; Schmalensee, Dick; Webb, Robert; Weltzin, Jake; Baptista, Sandra; Enquist, Carolyn A.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Chen, Robert; Arndt, Deke; Hatfield, Jerry; Hayes, Mark L.; Jones, K. Burce; McNutt, Chad; Meier, Wayne R.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Svoboda, Mark

    2012-02-28

    Indicators are usually thought of as measurements or calculations that represent important features of the status, trend, or performance of a system of interest (e.g. the economy, agriculture, air quality). They are often used for the most practical of reasons – one cannot measure everything important about systems of interest, so there is a practical need to identify major features that can be reported periodically and used to guide both research and decisions (NRC 2000).

  20. NSEP (National Security/Emergency Preparedness) fiber-optics system study, background report: nuclear effects on fiber-optic transmission systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, J.A.

    1987-11-01

    The National Communications System (NCS) is responsible for defining reasonable enhancements that could be applied to commercial common carrier (or carriers'- carrier) fiber-optic systems that will be leased or owned by government agencies and which may be used for National Security/Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) purposes. This report provides background excerpted from many references used in the development of a multitier specification that identifies five levels of enhancement. (The multitier specification is presented in a separate report.) The report describes the nuclear environment for surface and in-atmosphere bursts outside of the blast region, where buildings and personnel would be expected to survive. In the environment, the vulnerability of optical fiber waveguides to fallout radiation is a primary concern. An assessment of fiber darkening, based on a review of unclassified literature, is presented. For exo-atmospheric nuclear bursts, the fiber optic system is exposed to High Altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) radiation. Unclassified levels of these nuclear effects have been obtained from published literature. The characteristics of future generations of optical-fiber systems, as described in current literature, are outlined.

  1. Implementation of a design of experiments to study the influence of the background electrolyte on separation and detection in non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Posch, Tjorben Nils; Müller, Alexander; Schulz, Wolfgang; Pütz, Michael; Huhn, Carolin

    2012-02-01

    Non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) background electrolytes are most often composed of a mixture of methanol and acetonitrile (ACN) with soluble ammonium salts added as electrolyte. In this study on NACE-MS, we used a mixture of glacial acetic acid and ACN giving rise to an acidic background electrolyte (BGE) with a very low dielectric constant. Impressive changes in selectivity and resolution were observed for structurally closely related indole alkaloids including diastereomers upon addition of ammonium formate as electrolyte and upon variation of the solvent ratio. In order to obtain best separation and MS detection conditions and to reveal the influence of the parameters of the BGE on separation and detection and vice versa of the MS parameters on separation, an optimization strategy was employed using a design of experiments in a central composite design with response surface methodology. It was proven that at high electroosmotic flow conditions capillary electrophoretic separations and thus optimization can be realized without interference from the coupling to an MS system. Several significantly interacting parameters were revealed, which are not accessible with classical univariate optimization approaches. With this optimization, alkaloid mixtures from a plant extract of Mitragyna speciosa, containing a large number of diastereomeric compounds were successfully separated. PMID:22451051

  2. Work and disability at the age of 30 years. A sociomedical study of a birth-cohort from Bergen. V. Social background and recruitment to the school system.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, D; Kinge, F O

    1979-01-01

    The basis of the present study is a cohort of 1570 persons, all live births in 1940 of mothers then residing in Bergen. This birth-control was followed up in the compulsory school system at the age of 14 years. Information from the "parsons' lists" (birth registers) was gathered concerning the parents' social background, while facts about the students' recruitment to the compulsory school system in Bergen were obtained from the local files of the various schools and the files of The National Services for the Mentally Retarded. For the purpose of collecting more detailed information, a sample was taken from the birthcohort. This sample was formed on the basis of a stratification of the cohort according to type of school attended at 14 years of age. By supplementing the group comprising persons attending Special Schools for the Educable Mentally Retarded and the group including persons cared for by the National Services for the Mentally Retarded, a total sample of 262 persons was reached. It is found that recruitment to the school system varies considerably with socio-economic background. Children of higher officials were highly over-represented in Junior High School, while children of workers were noticeably under-represented at this type of school. Children of workers were over-represented in Continuation School, Elementary School classes for slow learners and Special Schools for the educable mentally retarded. However, a proportionally very similar representation of the social groups in the services for the mentally retarded was found.

  3. Experimental study of the atmospheric neutrino backgrounds for p{yields}e{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} searches in water Cherenkov detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Mine, S.; Casper, D.; Kropp, W.; Smy, M.; Sobel, H.; Vagins, M.; Alcaraz, J. L.; Andringa, S.; Espinal, X.; Fernandez, E.; Jover, G.; Nova, F.; Rodriguez, A.; Sanchez, F.; Aoki, S.; Asakura, K.; Hara, T.; Moriguchi, Y.; Sekiguchi, M.; Suzuki, A.

    2008-02-01

    The atmospheric neutrino background for proton decay via p{yields}e{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} in ring imaging water Cherenkov detectors is studied with an artificial accelerator neutrino beam for the first time. In total, 3.14x10{sup 5} neutrino events corresponding to about 10 megaton-years of atmospheric neutrino interactions were collected by a 1000 ton water Cherenkov detector (KT). The KT charged-current single {pi}{sup 0} production data are well reproduced by simulation programs of neutrino and secondary hadronic interactions used in the Super-Kamiokande (SK) proton decay search. The obtained p{yields}e{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} background rate by the KT data for SK from the atmospheric neutrinos whose energies are below 3 GeV is 1.63{sub -0.33}{sup +0.42}(stat){sub -0.51}{sup +0.45}(syst)(megaton-year){sup -1}. This result is also relevant to possible future, megaton-scale water Cherenkov detectors.

  4. Enhancing the Cognitive Complexity in Social Studies Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stobaugh, Rebecca; Tassell, Janet Lynne; Day, Martha M.; Blankenship, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    Social studies teachers are charged with the task of developing students' understandings as students engage in critical examination of social studies issues and topics. Teachers often use test items from textbooks or instructional resources, or create their own classroom assessments with no specific pedagogical foundation. All too often, these…

  5. An Empirical Study of a Solo Performance Assessment Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesized model of solo music performance assessment. Specifically, this study investigates the influence of technique and musical expression on perceptions of overall performance quality. The Aural Musical Performance Quality (AMPQ) measure was created to measure overall performance quality, technique,…

  6. International Civic and Citizenship Education Study: Assessment Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Wolfram; Fraillon, Julian; Ainley, John; Losito, Bruno; Kerr, David

    2008-01-01

    This document outlines the framework and assessment design for the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) sponsored by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). Over the past 50 years, IEA has conducted comparative research studies focusing on educational policies, practices, and…

  7. A Study of Prior Learning Assessment in Degree Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Jean Marie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of prior learning assessment (PLA) in postsecondary degree completion for adult community college students at Mountwest Community and Technical College (MCTC). The study group consisted of 339 MCTC graduates, who applied PLA credits toward degree completion between the academic year 2006 and 2011.…

  8. International Computer and Information Literacy Study: Assessment Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraillon, Julian; Schulz, Wolfram; Ainley, John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the International Computer and Information Literacy Study 2013 (ICILS 2013) is to investigate, in a range of countries, the ways in which young people are developing "computer and information literacy" (CIL) to support their capacity to participate in the digital age. To achieve this aim, the study will assess student…

  9. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  10. The Behavior Assessment Battery: A Preliminary Study of Non-Stuttering Pakistani Grade-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanryckeghem, Martine; Mukati, Samad A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: In recent years, the importance of a multimodal approach to the assessment of the person who stutters (PWS) has become increasingly recognized. The Behavior Assessment Battery (BAB), which is a normed test procedure developed by G. Brutten, makes it possible to assess the multidimensional facets of this disorder. The emotional and…

  11. Pre-training assessment tool (JPAT)--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chow, J; Bennett, L

    2001-01-01

    A tool for assessing the suitability of candidates for home dialysis (Jo-Pre-training Assessment Tool--JPAT) was developed. JPAT acts as a screening instrument to identify suitable candidates for the home dialysis programme, and therefore increases a patient's chance of learning to manage the programme. JPAT is in the form of an interview questionnaire consisting of 38 assessment items in six domains: physical stability, nutritional status, communication, ability to maintain self-care, psychological suitability and social support. A pilot study was conducted (n = 20, 1996-1997) using a descriptive study design, with subjects randomly selected from an existing dialysis programme. Pearson correlation and 2-tailed tests were employed to explore the relationship between the assessment outcome (i.e. the initial JPAT scores) and the follow up data (i.e. data collected within the seven days following the initial JPAT assessment). Many of the variables attained statistical significance (p < 0.05). The inter-rater reliability was calculated at an average Kappa value of 0.909. Overall, results suggest that JPAT is sufficiently reliable to be used as a tool for assessing patients who suffer from ESRD. PMID:12603073

  12. Pre-training assessment tool (JPAT)--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chow, J; Bennett, L

    2001-01-01

    A tool for assessing the suitability of candidates for home dialysis (Jo-Pre-training Assessment Tool--JPAT) was developed. JPAT acts as a screening instrument to identify suitable candidates for the home dialysis programme, and therefore increases a patient's chance of learning to manage the programme. JPAT is in the form of an interview questionnaire consisting of 38 assessment items in six domains: physical stability, nutritional status, communication, ability to maintain self-care, psychological suitability and social support. A pilot study was conducted (n = 20, 1996-1997) using a descriptive study design, with subjects randomly selected from an existing dialysis programme. Pearson correlation and 2-tailed tests were employed to explore the relationship between the assessment outcome (i.e. the initial JPAT scores) and the follow up data (i.e. data collected within the seven days following the initial JPAT assessment). Many of the variables attained statistical significance (p < 0.05). The inter-rater reliability was calculated at an average Kappa value of 0.909. Overall, results suggest that JPAT is sufficiently reliable to be used as a tool for assessing patients who suffer from ESRD.

  13. An action research study of secondary science assessment praxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Thomas Gerald

    This practical participatory action research study illuminates the assessment praxes of four Ontario secondary level science teachers at one school using a facilitative approach. Participants were joined by a thematic concern, that is, a commitment to inform and improve assessment. Hence, two distinct sets of research questions emerged. The first involves the nature of assessment as we asked, what was the current state of assessment practice in secondary science? What were participants' initial understandings of assessment and actual practices at the onset of this research? To what extent did these initial understandings and actual practices change due to the illumination of assessment praxes through action research involvement? What was their level of awareness of current Ontario government pronouncements and in what ways did they implement this knowledge? The second theme, concerning the nature of action research, was realised by asking what did participants learn about action research? What other learning and professional gains were realised during this study? And, what did I learn about action research and assessment through my involvement in this study? Data were collected via supportive discussion groups, individual interviews, classroom visitations, journals and documentation. This professional development experience facilitated 'interactive professionalism' as teachers worked in a small group and interacted frequently in the course of planning, testing new ideas, attempting to solve different problems, and assess the effectiveness of those ideas. In addition, this action research effort was strategic and systematic, to attain a high degree of specific interactions, (personal interviews, group meetings, classroom observations, evidence collection). This series of deliberate and planned intentions helped participants solve assessment dilemmas. We developed an awareness and understanding of the need for more preservice and inservice assessment training

  14. Study of the Transverse Energy Sum Triggers and Leptonic Background Reduction in Searches for Supersymmetry in Fully Hadronic Multijet Events at the ATLAS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Ricardo Manuel Ramos dos Santos

    Two studies searching for new physics have been conducted using high-activity events in 20 fb-1 of pp collision data at √s = 8TeV collected with the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider during 2012. The first study analyzed data collected by the large transverse-energy sum triggers. Approximately 9800 events were collected with transverse-energy above 1600 GeV without jets with pT > 100 GeV. Detailed properties of these events are studied and compared with those of minimum-bias events. Large pileup from multiple interactions in bunch crossings, rather than new physics, was found to be the most likely interpretation of these events. The second study searched for new phenomena in events with large jet multiplicities in their final states. The results were interpreted in the context of supersymmetric models. This was an enhancement of a previous analysis, but uses more data and also considers b-jets and large-radius jets. The focus here is on the study of leptonic backgrounds and optimization of electron veto criteria. No statistically significant deviations from Standard Model predictions were found. Exclusion limits at 95% confidence-level drawn on supersymmetric particles masses for simplified gluino-squark models and mSUGRA/CMSSM m0 and m1/2 parameters substantially extended those from previous results.

  15. LiteBIRD: lite satellite for the study of B-mode polarization and inflation from cosmic microwave background radiation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishino, H.; Akiba, Y.; Arnold, K.; Barron, D.; Borrill, J.; Chendra, R.; Chinone, Y.; Cho, S.; Cukierman, A.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M.; Dominjon, A.; Dotani, T.; Elleflot, T.; Errard, J.; Fujino, T.; Fuke, H.; Funaki, T.; Goeckner-Wald, N.; Halverson, N.; Harvey, P.; Hasebe, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hattori, M.; Hazumi, M.; Hidehira, N.; Hill, C.; Hilton, G.; Holzapfel, W.; Hori, Y.; Hubmayr, J.; Ichiki, K.; Imada, H.; Inatani, J.; Inoue, M.; Inoue, Y.; Irie, F.; Irwin, K.; Ishitsuka, H.; Jeong, O.; Kanai, H.; Karatsu, K.; Kashima, S.; Katayama, N.; Kawano, I.; Kawasaki, T.; Keating, B.; Kernasovskiy, S.; Keskitalo, R.; Kibayashi, A.; Kida, Y.; Kimura, N.; Kimura, K.; Kisner, T.; Kohri, K.; Komatsu, E.; Komatsu, K.; Kuo, C.-L.; Kuromiya, S.; Kusaka, A.; Lee, A.; Li, D.; Linder, E.; Maki, M.; Matsuhara, H.; Matsumura, T.; Matsuoka, S.; Matsuura, S.; Mima, S.; Minami, Y.; Mitsuda, K.; Nagai, M.; Nagasaki, T.; Nagata, R.; Nakajima, M.; Nakamura, S.; Namikawa, T.; Naruse, M.; Nishibori, T.; Nishijo, K.; Nishino, H.; Noda, A.; Noguchi, T.; Ogawa, H.; Ogburn, W.; Oguri, S.; Ohta, I.; Okada, N.; Okamoto, A.; Okamura, T.; Otani, C.; Pisano, G.; Rebeiz, G.; Richards, P.; Sakai, S.; Sakurai, Y.; Sato, Y.; Sato, N.; Segawa, Y.; Sekiguchi, S.; Sekimoto, Y.; Sekine, M.; Seljak, U.; Sherwin, B.; Shimizu, T.; Shinozaki, K.; Shu, S.; Stompor, R.; Sugai, H.; Sugita, H.; Suzuki, J.; Suzuki, T.; Suzuki, A.; Tajima, O.; Takada, S.; Takakura, S.; Takano, K.; Takatori, S.; Takei, Y.; Tanabe, D.; Tomaru, T.; Tomita, N.; Turin, P.; Uozumi, S.; Utsunomiya, S.; Uzawa, Y.; Wada, T.; Watanabe, H.; Westbrook, B.; Whitehorn, N.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, R.; Yamasaki, N.; Yamashita, T.; Yoshida, T.; Yoshida, M.; Yotsumoto, K.

    2016-07-01

    LiteBIRD is a next generation satellite aiming for the detection of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) B-mode polarization imprinted by the primordial gravitational waves generated in the era of the inflationary universe. The science goal of LiteBIRD is to measure the tensor-to-scaler ratio r with a precision of δr < 10-3♢, offering us a crucial test of the major large-single-field slow-roll inflation models. LiteBIRD is planned to conduct an all sky survey at the sun-earth second Lagrange point (L2) with an angular resolution of about 0.5 degrees to cover the multipole moment range of 2 <= l <= 200. We use focal plane detector arrays consisting of 2276 superconducting detectors to measure the frequency range from 40 to 400 GHz with the sensitivity of 3.2 μK·arcmin. including the ongoing studies.

  16. Assessment of fluctuating decision-making capacity in individuals with communication barriers: a case study.

    PubMed

    Pachet, Arlin; Allan, Lauren; Erskine, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    A current need exists for research to assist clinicians in the capacity evaluation process, especially in relation to assessment of clients with complex issues such as fluctuating capacity and communication barriers. The aim of this article is to promote knowledge and consideration of these issues through an examination of neuropsychological, ethical, and medical-legal factors associated with the assessment of capacity in an individual with both fluctuating capacity and communication impairments. The discussion includes a narrative case study of a complex individual case seen by the Regional Capacity Assessment Team (RCAT) for an assessment of decision-making capacity related to personal and financial matters. Relevant background information about this client, behavioral observations, neuropsychological test results, and the process and outcome of the RCAT targeted capacity interview are presented. Based on previous literature and the case study, a series of recommendations are provided to guide the clinician through the capacity evaluation process with individuals with complex issues. Common pitfalls, nuances, and dilemmas involved in capacity assessment are addressed.

  17. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Smith, A. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.

    2015-08-17

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  18. Nonthermal cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mu-Chun; Ratz, Michael; Trautner, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    We point out that, for Dirac neutrinos, in addition to the standard thermal cosmic neutrino background (C ν B ), there could also exist a nonthermal neutrino background with comparable number density. As the right-handed components are essentially decoupled from the thermal bath of standard model particles, relic neutrinos with a nonthermal distribution may exist until today. The relic density of the nonthermal (nt) background can be constrained by the usual observational bounds on the effective number of massless degrees of freedom Neff and can be as large as nν nt≲0.5 nγ. In particular, Neff can be larger than 3.046 in the absence of any exotic states. Nonthermal relic neutrinos constitute an irreducible contribution to the detection of the C ν B and, hence, may be discovered by future experiments such as PTOLEMY. We also present a scenario of chaotic inflation in which a nonthermal background can naturally be generated by inflationary preheating. The nonthermal relic neutrinos, thus, may constitute a novel window into the very early Universe.

  19. School Law: Background Checks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splitt, David A.

    1988-01-01

    In an Oklahoma case, the district court ruled that the school district had failed to investigate the background of a teacher convicted of a second sexual abuse charge. School districts should examine personnel polices and practices, and the school lawyer should review state laws, regulations, and court cases. (MLF)

  20. Foregrounding the Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    Argues that when introductory activities to the classics begin with background information, it can upstage or confine the life of the story, and shows little faith in the students as readers or in the literature itself. Suggests sometimes letting the literature begin, and then helping students make sense of it. Discusses examples from "To Kill a…

  1. China: Background Notes Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reams, Joanne Reppert

    Concise background information on the People's Republic of China is provided. The publication begins with a profile of the country, outlining the people, geography, economy, and membership in international organizations. The bulk of the document then discusses in more detail China's people, geography, history, government, education, economy, and…

  2. Thermal background noise limitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulkis, S.

    1982-01-01

    Modern detection systems are increasingly limited in sensitivity by the background thermal photons which enter the receiving system. Expressions for the fluctuations of detected thermal radiation are derived. Incoherent and heterodyne detection processes are considered. References to the subject of photon detection statistics are given.

  3. Exposure assessment in industry specific retrospective occupational epidemiology studies.

    PubMed Central

    Seixas, N S; Checkoway, H

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative estimation of exposure for occupational epidemiology studies has received increasing attention in recent years and, as a result, a body of methodological literature has begun to take form. This paper reviews the generic issues in the methodology of exposure assessment, particularly methods for quantitative retrospective assessment studies. A simple framework, termed an exposure data matrix (EDM), for defining and analysing exposure data is proposed and discussed in terms of the definition of matrix dimensions and scales. Several methods for estimation, interpolation, and extrapolation, ranging from subjective ratings to quantitative statistical modelling are presented and discussed. The various approaches to exposure assessment based on the EDM concept are illustrated with studies of lung disease among coal miners and other dust and chemically induced chronic occupational diseases. The advantages of validated statistical models are emphasised. The importance of analysis and control of errors in exposure assessments, and integration of the exposure assessment and exposure-response processes, especially for emerging occupational health issues, is emphasised. PMID:7489051

  4. Improvement of agricultural life cycle assessment studies through spatial differentiation and new impact categories: case study on greenhouse tomato production.

    PubMed

    Antón, Assumpció; Torrellas, Marta; Núñez, Montserrat; Sevigné, Eva; Amores, Maria José; Muñoz, Pere; Montero, Juan I

    2014-08-19

    This paper presents the inclusion of new, relevant impact categories for agriculture life cycle assessments. We performed a specific case study with a focus on the applicability of spatially explicit characterization factors. The main goals were to provide a detailed evaluation of these new impact category methods, compare the results with commonly used methods (ReCiPe and USEtox) and demonstrate how these new methods can help improve environmental assessment in agriculture. As an overall conclusion, the newly developed impact categories helped fill the most important gaps related to land use, water consumption, pesticide toxicity, and nontoxic emissions linked to fertilizer use. We also found that including biodiversity damage due to land use and the effect of water consumption on wetlands represented a scientific advance toward more realistic environmental assessment of agricultural practices. Likewise, the dynamic crop model for assessing human toxicity from pesticide residue in food can lead to better practice in pesticide application. In further life cycle assessment (LCA) method developments, common end point units and normalization units should be agreed upon to make it possible to compare different impacts and methods. In addition, the application of site-specific characterization factors allowed us to be more accurate regarding inventory data and to identify precisely where background flows acquire high relevance. PMID:25032800

  5. Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems Braille Reading Assessment: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posey, Virginia K.; Henderson, Barbara W.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This exploratory study determined whether transcribing selected test items on an adult life and work skills reading test into braille could maintain the same approximate scale-score range and maintain fitness within the item response theory model as used by the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (CASAS) for developing…

  6. Teaching, Learning, and Assessment Together: Reflective Assessments for Middle and High School English and Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Arthur K.; Evans, Laurynn

    2010-01-01

    This book offers easy-to-use classroom strategies for middle and high school English and Social Studies classrooms. They demonstrate how teaching, learning, and assessment are inseparable and seamless. Each strategy will engage your students in activity and reflection, consuming little class time, costing nothing, and uniting the three dimensions…

  7. Adherence to Warfarin Assessed by Electronic Pill Caps, Clinician Assessment, and Patient Reports: Results from the IN-RANGE Study

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Catherine S.; Chen, Zhen; Price, Maureen; Gross, Robert; Metlay, Joshua P.; Christie, Jason D.; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Newcomb, Craig W.; Samaha, Frederick F.

    2007-01-01

    Background Patient adherence to warfarin may influence anticoagulation control; yet, adherence among warfarin users has not been rigorously studied. Objective Our goal was to quantify warfarin adherence over time and to compare electronic medication event monitoring systems (MEMS) cap measurements with both self-report and clinician assessment of patient adherence. Design We performed a prospective cohort study of warfarin users at 3 Pennsylvania-based anticoagulation clinics and assessed pill-taking behaviors using MEMS caps, patient reports, and clinician assessments. Results Among 145 participants, the mean percent of days of nonadherence by MEMS was 21.8% (standard deviation±21.1%). Participants were about 6 times more likely to take too few pills than to take extra pills (18.8 vs. 3.3%). Adherence changed over time, initially worsening over the first 6 months of monitoring, which was followed by improvement beyond 6 months. Although clinicians were statistically better than chance at correctly labeling a participant’s adherence (odds ratio = 2.05, p = 0.015), their estimates often did not correlate with MEMS-cap data; clinicians judged participants to be “adherent” at 82.8% of visits that were categorized as moderately nonadherent using MEMS-cap data (≥20% nonadherence days). Similarly, at visits when participants were moderately nonadherent by MEMS, they self-reported perfect adherence 77.9% of the time. Conclusions These results suggest that patients may benefit from adherence counseling even when they claim to be taking their warfarin or the clinician feels they are doing so, particularly several months into their course of therapy. PMID:17587092

  8. Landscape ecological risk assessment study in arid land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Lu; Amut, Aniwaer; Shi, Qingdong; Wang, Gary Z.

    2007-09-01

    The ecosystem risk assessment is an essential decision making system for predicting the reconstruction and recovery of a damaged ecosystem after intensive mankind activities. The sustainability of environment and resources of the lake ecosystem in arid districts have been paid close attention to by international communities as well as numerous experts and scholars. The ecological risk assessment offered a scientific foundation for making the decision and execution of ecological risk management. Bosten Lake, the largest inland freshwater lake in China, is the main water source of the industrial and agricultural production as well as the local residence in Yanqi basin, Kuara city and Yuri County in the southern Xinjiang. Bosten Lake also provides a direct water source for emergency transportation in the Lower Reaches of Tarim River. However, with the intensive utilizations of water and soil resources, the environmental condition in the Bosten Lake has become more and more serious. In this study, the theory and method of landscape ecological risk assessment has been practiced using 3S technologies combined with the frontier theory of landscape ecology. Defining the mainly risk resource including flood, drought, water pollution and rich nutrition of water has been evaluated based on the ecosystem risk assessment system. The main process includes five stages: regional natural resources analysis, risk receptor selection, risk sources evaluation, exposure and hazard analysis, and integrated risk assessment. Based on the risk assessment results, the environmental risk management countermeasure has been determined.

  9. [Social support assessment in Brazilian studies: conceptual aspects and measures].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Tonantzin Ribeiro; Pawlowski, Josiane; Bandeira, Denise Ruschel; Piccinini, Cesar Augusto

    2011-03-01

    This study investigated the different ways of evaluating the social support in Brazilian studies. A surveying of scientific Brazilian publications from 1987 to 2007 was done in the Indexpsi, Pepsic, SciELO and Lilacs databases according to keywords social support and social network. Fifty-five studies included some type of assessing social support in Brazilian samples. The results indicated a rise in the number of studies about social support assessment in the last years using interviews to investigate received and perceived support, predominantly. However, the construction was applied without theoretical basis and was associated with many other concepts, sometimes without an appropriate articulation. Besides, there were evidences of lacking reliable, valid and standardized instruments to Brazilian population by considering the instruments currently used and revised by this study.

  10. LiteBIRD: a small satellite for the study of B-mode polarization and inflation from cosmic background radiation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazumi, M.; Borrill, J.; Chinone, Y.; Dobbs, M. A.; Fuke, H.; Ghribi, A.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hattori, M.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Inoue, Y.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Ishino, H.; Karatsu, K.; Katayama, N.; Kawano, I.; Kibayashi, A.; Kibe, Y.; Kimura, N.; Koga, K.; Komatsu, E.; Lee, A. T.; Matsuhara, H.; Matsumura, T.; Mima, S.; Mitsuda, K.; Morii, H.; Murayama, S.; Nagai, M.; Nagata, R.; Nakamura, S.; Natsume, K.; Nishino, H.; Noda, A.; Noguchi, T.; Ohta, I.; Otani, C.; Richards, P. L.; Sakai, S.; Sato, N.; Sato, Y.; Sekimoto, Y.; Shimizu, A.; Shinozaki, K.; Sugita, H.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, T.; Tajima, O.; Takada, S.; Takagi, Y.; Takei, Y.; Tomaru, T.; Uzawa, Y.; Watanabe, H.; Yamasaki, N.; Yoshida, M.; Yoshida, T.; Yotsumoto, K.

    2012-09-01

    LiteBIRD [Lite (Light) satellite for the studies of B-mode polarization and Inflation from cosmic background Radiation Detection] is a small satellite to map the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation over the full sky at large angular scales with unprecedented precision. Cosmological inflation, which is the leading hypothesis to resolve the problems in the Big Bang theory, predicts that primordial gravitational waves were created during the inflationary era. Measurements of polarization of the CMB radiation are known as the best probe to detect the primordial gravitational waves. The LiteBIRD working group is authorized by the Japanese Steering Committee for Space Science (SCSS) and is supported by JAXA. It has more than 50 members from Japan, USA and Canada. The scientific objective of LiteBIRD is to test all the representative inflation models that satisfy single-field slow-roll conditions and lie in the large-field regime. To this end, the requirement on the precision of the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, at LiteBIRD is equal to or less than 0.001. Our baseline design adopts an array of multi-chroic superconducting polarimeters that are read out with high multiplexing factors in the frequency domain for a compact focal plane. The required sensitivity of 1.8μKarcmin is achieved with 2000 TES bolometers at 100mK. The cryogenic system is based on the Stirling/JT technology developed for SPICA, and the continuous ADR system shares the design with future X-ray satellites.

  11. Technical Appendices to the National Day Care Study: Background Materials. Final Report of the National Day Care Study. Volume IV-A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruopp, Richard; And Others

    This final report of the National Day Care Study (NDCS), Volume IV-A, contains three papers that help to set a context for interpreting overall study results. "Research Issues in Day Care, A Focused Review of the Literature" focuses on effects of group care and regulatable characteristics of the day care environment. The second paper, "Case…

  12. A retrospective study examining the socioeconomic backgrounds of women undergoing bilateral breast augmentation at a private independent hospital in the United kingdom.

    PubMed

    Wong, Matthew; Moledina, Jamil; Park, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Cosmetic breast augmentation is becoming increasingly popular and acceptable to women in the United Kingdom. This study examined the socioeconomic backgrounds of women undergoing breast augmentation who live in North Warwickshire in the Midlands. The case notes of 98 consecutive breast augmentations performed at a private independent hospital were retrospectively reviewed. The average age of the patient was 34 years (range, 17-53 years). They were requesting, on the average, an increase of 2 bra cup sizes (range, 1-3 cup sizes). The preoperative bra cup size was A/B (range, AA-C), and the postoperative bra cup size was C/D (range, B-E). The average size of the implant used was 270 ml (range, 160-410 ml). The average implant size used currently is considerably larger than that reported in studies 30 years ago. What women perceive as a "natural-appearing" breast has changed over time. The findings show that women from all across the socioeconomic spectrum are undergoing breast augmentation. In particular, the authors found that the largest proportion (34%) of their patients have come from social class IIIn. This is particularly interesting in that this social class is not overrepresented in North Warwickshire. The findings of this study may have implications for cosmetic surgery providers and may document the change in the attitudes of the authors' society toward cosmetic breast augmentation. PMID:17700979

  13. Regional issue identification and assessment: study methodology. First annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The overall assessment methodologies and models utilized for the first project under the Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program are described. Detailed descriptions are given of the methodologies used by lead laboratories for the quantification of the impacts of an energy scenario on one or more media (e.g., air, water, land, human and ecology), and by all laboratories to assess the regional impacts on all media. The research and assessments reflected in this document were performed by the following national laboratories: Argonne National Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report contains five chapters. Chapter 1 briefly describes the overall study methodology and introduces the technical participants. Chapter 2 is a summary of the energy policy scenario selected for the RIIA I study and Chapter 3 describes how this scenario was translated into a county-level siting pattern of energy development. The fourth chapter is a detailed description of the individual methodologies used to quantify the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the scenario while Chapter 5 describes how these impacts were translated into comprehensive regional assessments for each Federal Region.

  14. Multi-family psycho-education group for assertive community treatment clients and families of culturally diverse background: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chow, Wendy; Law, Samuel; Andermann, Lisa; Yang, Jian; Leszcz, Molyn; Wong, Jiahui; Sadavoy, Joel

    2010-08-01

    This study evaluates the incorporation of Multi-Family Psycho-education Group (MFPG) to an Assertive Community Treatment Team developed to serve culturally diverse clients who suffers from severe mental illness. Participants included Chinese and Tamil clients and their family members. Family members' well-being, perceived burden, and acceptance of clients were assessed before and after the intervention. Focus group interviews with clinicians were conducted to qualitatively examine MFPG. Family members' acceptance increased after MFPG. Regular attendance was associated with reduction in perceived family burden. Culturally competent delivery of MFPG enhanced family members' understanding of mental illness and reduced stress levels and negative feelings towards clients. PMID:20414724

  15. Combining life cycle assessment and qualitative risk assessment: the case study of alumina nanofluid production.

    PubMed

    Barberio, Grazia; Scalbi, Simona; Buttol, Patrizia; Masoni, Paolo; Righi, Serena

    2014-10-15

    In this paper the authors propose a framework for combining life cycle assessment (LCA) and Risk Assessment (RA) to support the sustainability assessment of emerging technologies. This proposal includes four steps of analysis: technological system definition; data collection; risk evaluation and impacts quantification; results interpretation. This scheme has been applied to a case study of nanofluid alumina production in two different pilot lines, "single-stage" and "two-stage". The study has been developed in the NanoHex project (enhanced nano-fluid heat exchange). Goals of the study were analyzing the hotspots and highlighting possible trade-off between the results of LCA, which identifies the processes having the best environmental performance, and the results of RA, which identifies the scenarios having the highest risk for workers. Indeed, due to lack of data about exposure limits, exposure-dose relationships and toxicity of alumina nanopowders (NPs) and nanofluids (NF), the workplace exposure has been evaluated by means of qualitative risk assessment, using Stoffenmanager Nano. Though having different aims, LCA and RA have a complementary role in the description of impacts of products/substances/technologies. Their combined use can overcome limits of each of them and allows a wider vision of the problems to better support the decision making process.

  16. Assessing Student Learning in the Major Field of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkwein, J. Fredericks

    2010-01-01

    Assessing student attainment in the major field of study is increasingly important to employers and accrediting bodies alike. Construction and manufacturing firms do not like engineers who design faulty bridges and airplanes. Marketing firms want to hire students who understand the difference between a niche market and a global market. School…

  17. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) in Studies of Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiffman, Saul

    2009-01-01

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is particularly suitable for studying substance use, because use is episodic and thought to be related to mood and context. This article reviews EMA methods in substance use research, focusing on tobacco and alcohol use and relapse, where EMA has been most applied. Common EMA designs combine event-based…

  18. A Validation Study of the Youth Development Assessment Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabatelli, Ronald M.; Anderson, Stephen A.; Kosutic, Iva; Sanderson, Jessica; Rubinfeld, Stacey

    2009-01-01

    This article details the development of the Youth Development Assessment Device (YDAD), an instrument designed to measure a youth's experiences within youth development programs. A total of 1,074 adolescents, between 12 and 18 years of age, participated in the study. Exploratory factor analysis yielded three factors: Supportive Environment,…

  19. Gainesville Junior College Community Impact Study/Needs Assessment Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Barbara; And Others

    Procedures, methodology, and findings are reported for a six-part study undertaken by Gainesville Junior College (GJC) to: assess the economic impact of the college on its service area; determine community attitudes concerning the degree to which GJC has met stated goals and objectives; and identify needed services and programs that GJC has yet to…

  20. A Study of Sustainable Assessment Theory in Higher Education Tutorials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Robert J.; Skinner, William F.; Schwabrow, Lynsey A.

    2013-01-01

    A study of sustainable assessment theory in nine tutorial courses at four colleges demonstrated that three long-term learning outcomes improved: Independence, Intellectual Maturity and Creativity. Eight of 10 traits associated with these outcomes were validated through internal reliability, faculty and student rubrics, and faculty case studies…