Science.gov

Sample records for assessment study pts

  1. Mechanism of phosphoryl transfer and protein-protein interaction in the PTS system-an NMR study

    SciTech Connect

    Rajagopal, P.; Klevit, R.E.

    1994-12-01

    HPr and Enzyme IIA{sup Glc} are two of the components of the bacterial PTS (phosphoenolpyruvate: sugar phosphotranferase system) and are involved in the phosphorylation and concomitant translocation of sugars across the membrane. These PTS protein complexes also regulate sugar transport. HPr, phosphorylated at a histidine N1 site by Enzyme I and phosphoenol pyruvate, transfers the phosphoryl group to a histidine N3 position in Enzyme IIA{sup Glc}. HPrs from Gram-positive bacteria undergo regulatory phosphorylation at Ser{sup 46}, whereby phosphorylation of the histidine residue is inhibited. Conversely, histidine phosphorylation inhibits phosphorylation at Ser{sup 46}. HPrs from Gram-negative bacteria possess a serine residue at position 46, but do not undergo regulatory phosphorylation. HPr forms an open-faced sandwich structure with a four-strand S-sheet and 2 to 3 helices lying on top of the sheet. The active-site histidine and Ser{sup 46} occur in conformationally flexible regions. P-His-HPr from the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilus has been investigated by both homonuclear and heteronuclear two-dimensional and three-dimensional NMR experiments using an in-situ enzymatic regeneration system to maintain a constant level of P-His-HPr. The results show that localized conformational changes occur in the vicinity of the active-site histidine and also near Ser{sup 46}. HPr-Enzyme IIA{sup Glc} complexes from both Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli were also studied by a variety of {sup 15}N-edited two-dimensional NMR experiments, which were performed on uniformly {sup 15}N-labeled HPr complexed to unlabeled Enzyme IIA{sup Glc}. The complex is in fast exchange with a molecular weight of about 27 kDa. The focus of our work is to assess the changes undergone by HPr (the smaller of the two components), and so all the experiments were performed with excess Enzyme IIA present in the system.

  2. Cerebral blood flow in patients (PTS) exposed to neurotoxic chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Heuser, G.; Mena, I.; Thomas, C.

    1994-05-01

    Exposure to neurotoxic chemicals as pesticides, glues, solvents, etc. are known to induce neurologic and psychiatric symptomatology. We report on 72 pts, 33 young pts, 8 males, and 26 females, age 55 (7) yrs, 15 of them exposed to pesticides, and 37 to solvents. They were studied with quantitative and qualitative analysis of rCBF performed with 30 mCi of Xe-133 (Xe) by inhalation followed by 30 mCi of Tc-HMPAO given IV. Imaging was performed with a brain dedicated system, and distribution of rCBF was assessed with automatic ROI definition, and HMPAO normalized to maximal pixel activity in the brain. Results of Xe rCBF are expressed as mean and (S.D.) in ml/min/100g, and HMPAO as mean and (S.D.) uptake per ROI and compared with age-matched controls, 10 young and 20 elderly individuals, and also to a group of 36 elderly chronic fatigue pts (CFS), and 26 depression pts. CBF was diminished in young and elderly, 45 (7) and 40 (7) ml/min 100g, p<0.02 for both groups. Thus we conclude that pts exposed to chemicals present with diminished CBF, worse in elderly in the right dorsal frontal and parietal lobes, and in young, in left dorsal frontal and temporal lobes. These findings are significantly different from observations in pts and chronic fatigue and depression.

  3. Endosafe(R)-Portable Test System (PTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maule, Jake; Wainwright, Norm; Burbank, Dan

    2005-01-01

    The Portable Test System (PTS) is a hand-held device for monitoring the presence of potentially hazardous bacteria in the environment. It uses an immunological method derived from the horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) to detect bacterial cell membranes and other molecular components of a cell. Further modifications of the PTS will allow detection of individual hazardous species of bacteria. This study was a follow-up of previous PTS and other immunological tests performed on the KC-135 during 2002-2003 (Maule et al., 2003, J. Gravit. Physiol.) and in the underwater habitat Aquarius during NEEMO 5 (Maule et al., 2005, Appl. Environ. Microbiol in prep.). The experiments described here were part of a final testing phase prior to use of the PTS on the International Space Station (ISS), scheduled for launch on 12A.1 on February 9th 2006. The specific aspects of PTS operation studied were those involving a fluid component: pumping, mixing, incubations and pipetting into the instrument. The PTS uses a stepper motor to move fluid along small channels, which may be affected by reduced gravity.

  4. Polytitanium sulfate (PTS): Coagulation application and Ti species detection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanxia; Phuntsho, Sherub; Gao, Baoyu; Shon, Hokyong

    2017-02-01

    Interest in the development of inorganic polymerized coagulants is growing; however, there are only limited studies on the synthesis of polytitanium coagulants, which are expected to exhibit improved coagulation efficiency with better floc properties. This study presents the synthesis of polytitanium sulfate (PTS) for potential application in water purification, followed by characterization of PTS flocs and titanium species detection. Stable PTS solutions were successfully synthesized and standard jar tests were conducted to evaluate their coagulation efficiency. Electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS) speciation analysis revealed that a variety of mononuclear and polynuclear complexes were formed in PTS solution, indicating the polymeric nature of the synthesized coagulant. Floc characteristics were studied through on-line monitoring of floc size using a laser diffraction particle size analyzer. Results showed that PTS had a comparable or in some cases even higher organic matter and particulate removal efficiency than Ti(SO4)2. The effluent pH after PTS coagulation significantly improved toward desirable values closer to neutral pH. Properties of flocs formed by PTS were significantly improved in terms of floc size, growth rate and structure. This study showed that PTS could be an efficient and promising coagulant for water purification, with the additional benefit that its coagulated sludge can be used to recover valuable TiO2 nanoparticles for various commercial applications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. A multicenter comparison study between the Endosafe PTS rapid-release testing system and traditional methods for detecting endotoxin in cell-therapy products.

    PubMed

    Gee, A P; Sumstad, D; Stanson, J; Watson, P; Proctor, J; Kadidlo, D; Koch, E; Sprague, J; Wood, D; Styers, D; McKenna, D; Gallelli, J; Griffin, D; Read, E J; Parish, B; Lindblad, R

    2008-01-01

    Rapid-release testing reduces the waiting period for administration of time-sensitive cell-therapy products. Current assay systems are labor intensive and time consuming. The Endosafe portable test system (PTS) is a chromogenic Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) portable endotoxin detection system that provides quantitative results in approximately 15 min. To evaluate Endosafe performance with cell-therapy products, side-by-side testing of traditional LAL systems and the Endosafe system was conducted at the Production Assistance for Cellular Therapies (PACT) facilities and the National Institutes of Health's Department of Transfusion Medicine, USA. Charles River Laboratories provided each center with a PTS reader and two commercially prepared lyophilized reference standard endotoxin (RSE) vials. All samples tested with the Endosafe system used 0.05-5.0 endotoxin unit/mL (EU/mL) sensitivity cartridges provided by Charles River. Each vial was reconstituted with LAL water and tested in triplicate using the Endosafe and in-house LAL methods. Subsequently, each center tested the endotoxin content of standard dilutions of cell-therapy products, thus creating paired test results for each sample. Additionally, fabricated endotoxin-positive samples containing varying concentrations of endotoxin were prepared and shipped to all centers to perform blinded testing. Valid paired results, based on each center's LAL method and the Endosafe system criteria, were analyzed. Endotoxin detection between paired results was equivalent in most cases. The Endosafe system provided reliable results with products typically produced in cell-therapy manufacturing facilities, and would be an appropriate test on which to base the release of time-sensitive cell-therapy products.

  6. The DeoR-type transcriptional regulator SugR acts as a repressor for genes encoding the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Gaigalat, Lars; Schlüter, Jan-Philip; Hartmann, Michelle; Mormann, Sascha; Tauch, Andreas; Pühler, Alfred; Kalinowski, Jörn

    2007-01-01

    Background The major uptake system responsible for the transport of fructose, glucose, and sucrose in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 is the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS). The genes encoding PTS components, namely ptsI, ptsH, and ptsF belong to the fructose-PTS gene cluster, whereas ptsG and ptsS are located in two separate regions of the C. glutamicum genome. Due to the localization within and adjacent to the fructose-PTS gene cluster, two genes coding for DeoR-type transcriptional regulators, cg2118 and sugR, are putative candidates involved in the transcriptional regulation of the fructose-PTS cluster genes. Results Four transcripts of the extended fructose-PTS gene cluster that comprise the genes sugR-cg2116, ptsI, cg2118-fruK-ptsF, and ptsH, respectively, were characterized. In addition, it was shown that transcription of the fructose-PTS gene cluster is enhanced during growth on glucose or fructose when compared to acetate. Subsequently, the two genes sugR and cg2118 encoding for DeoR-type regulators were mutated and PTS gene transcription was found to be strongly enhanced in the presence of acetate only in the sugR deletion mutant. The SugR regulon was further characterized by microarray hybridizations using the sugR mutant and its parental strain, revealing that also the PTS genes ptsG and ptsS belong to this regulon. Binding of purified SugR repressor protein to a 21 bp sequence identified the SugR binding site as an AC-rich motif. The two experimentally identified SugR binding sites in the fructose-PTS gene cluster are located within or downstream of the mapped promoters, typical for transcriptional repressors. Effector studies using electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) revealed the fructose PTS-specific metabolite fructose-1-phosphate (F-1-P) as a highly efficient, negative effector of the SugR repressor, acting in the micromolar range. Beside F-1-P, other sugar-phosphates like fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (F-1,6-P

  7. Potential Virulence Role of the Legionella pneumophila ptsP Ortholog

    PubMed Central

    Higa, Futoshi; Edelstein, Paul H.

    2001-01-01

    We previously identified the Legionella pneumophila ptsP (phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase) ortholog gene as a putative virulence factor in a study of signature-tagged mutagenesis using a guinea pig pneumonia model. In this study, we further defined the phenotypic properties of L. pneumophila ptsP and its complete sequence. The L. pneumophila ptsP was 2,295 bases in length. Its deduced amino acid sequence had high similarity with ptsP orthologs of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Azotobacter vinelandii, and Escherichia coli, with nearly identical lengths. Here we show that while the mutant grew well in laboratory media, it was defective in both lung and spleen multiplication in guinea pigs. It grew slowly in guinea pig alveolar macrophages despite good uptake into the cells. Furthermore, there was minimal growth in a human alveolar epithelial cell line (A549). Transcomplementation of the L. pneumophila ptsP mutant almost completely rescued its growth in alveolar macrophages, in A549 cells, and in guinea pig lung and spleen. The L. pneumophila ptsP mutant was capable of evasion of phagosome-lysosome fusion and resided in ribosome-studded phagosomes. Pore formation activity of the mutant was normal. The L. pneumophila ptsP mutant expressed DotA and IcmX in apparently normal amounts, suggesting that the ptsP mutation did not affect dotA and icmX regulation. In addition, the mutant was resistant to serum and neutrophil killing. Taken together, these findings show that L. pneumophila ptsP is required for full in vivo virulence of L. pneumophila, most probably by affecting intracellular growth. PMID:11447151

  8. Growth Inhibition by External Potassium of Escherichia coli Lacking PtsN (EIIANtr) Is Caused by Potassium Limitation Mediated by YcgO

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ravish; Shimada, Tomohiro; Mishra, Vinod K.; Upreti, Suchitra

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The absence of PtsN, the terminal phosphoacceptor of the phosphotransferase system comprising PtsP-PtsO-PtsN, in Escherichia coli confers a potassium-sensitive (Ks) phenotype as the external K+ concentration ([K+]e) is increased above 5 mM. A growth-inhibitory increase in intracellular K+ content, resulting from hyperactivated Trk-mediated K+ uptake, is thought to cause this Ks. We provide evidence that the Ks of the ΔptsN mutant is associated with K+ limitation. Accordingly, the moderate Ks displayed by the ΔptsN mutant was exacerbated in the absence of the Trk and Kup K+ uptake transporters and was associated with reduced cellular K+ content. Conversely, overproduction of multiple K+ uptake proteins suppressed the Ks. Expression of PtsN variants bearing the H73A, H73D, and H73E substitutions of the phosphorylation site histidine of PtsN complemented the Ks. Absence of the predicted inner membrane protein YcgO (also called CvrA) suppressed the Ks, which was correlated with elevated cellular K+ content in the ΔptsN mutant, but the ΔptsN mutation did not alter YcgO levels. Heterologous overexpression of ycgO also led to Ks that was associated with reduced cellular K+ content, exacerbated by the absence of Trk and Kup and alleviated by overproduction of Kup. Our findings are compatible with a model that postulates that Ks in the ΔptsN mutant occurs due to K+ limitation resulting from activation of K+ efflux mediated by YcgO, which may be additionally stimulated by [K+]e, implicating a role for PtsN (possibly its dephosphorylated form) as an inhibitor of YcgO activity. IMPORTANCE This study examines the physiological link between the phosphotransferase system comprising PtsP-PtsO-PtsN and K+ ion metabolism in E. coli. Studies on the physiological defect that renders an E. coli mutant lacking PtsN to be growth inhibited by external K+ indicate that growth impairment results from cellular K+ limitation that is mediated by YcgO, a predicted inner membrane

  9. Prognostic scales ISS-RTS-TRISS, PRISM, APACHE II and PTS in decision support of treatment children with severe mechanical trauma.

    PubMed

    Vasilyeva, I V; Shvirev, S L; Arseniev, S B; Zarubina, T V

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess a possibility and validity of prognostic scales ISS-RTS-TRISS, PRISM, APACHE II and PTS to be used for the automated calculation in decision support when treating children with severe mechanical traumas. The mentioned scales are used in the Hospital Information System (HIS) MEDIALOG. The retrospective study was conducted using clinical and physiological data collected at the admission and during the first 24 hours of hospitalization in 166 patients. Scales PRISM, APACHE II, ISS-RTS-TRISS were used for calculating the severity of injury and for prognosis in death outcomes. Scale PTS was used for evaluating the severity index only. Our research has shown that ISS-RTS-TRISS has excellent discrimination ability, PRISM and APACHE II prognostic scales have acceptable discrimination ability; moreover, they all have significant calibration ability. PTS scale has acceptable discrimination ability. It has been showed that automated calculation scales ISS-RTS-TRISS, PRISM, APACHE II and PTS are useful for assessing outcomes in children with severe mechanical trauma.

  10. A Novel PTS of Streptococcus mutans is Responsible for Transport of Carbohydrates with α-1,3 linkage

    PubMed Central

    Ajdic, Dragana; Chen, Zhiyun

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The most common type of carbohydrate-transport system in Streptococcus mutans is the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS). We previously showed that fourteen PTSs exist in S. mutans UA159 (Ajdic et al., 2002). Several studies have shown that microorganisms growing in biofilms express different genes as compared to their planktonic counterparts. In this study, we showed that one PTS of S. mutans was expressed in sucrose-grown biofilms. Furthermore, the same PTS was also responsible for the transport and metabolism of disaccharide nigerose (3-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucose). Additionally, the results indicate that the studied PTS might be involved in the transport and metabolism of carbohydrates synthesized by glucosyltransferase B (GtfB) and glucosyltransferase C (GtfC) of S. mutans. To our knowledge, this is the first report that shows PTS transport of a disaccharide (and possibly extracellular oligosaccharides) with α-1,3 linkage. PMID:23193985

  11. Next Generation LOCAD-PTS Cartridge Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, H.; Nutter, D.; Weite, E.; Wells, M.; Maule, J.; Damon, M.; Monaco, L.; Steele, A.; Wainwright, N.

    2008-01-01

    Future astrobiology exploration missions will require rapid, point-of-use techniques for surface science experiments and contamination monitoring. The Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development (LOCAD) team is developing operational instruments that advance spaceflight technologies to molecular-based methods. Currently, LOCAD-Portable Test System (PTS) is quantifying levels of the bacterial molecule endotoxin onboard the Internatioal Space Station. Future research and development will focus on more sensitive molecular techniques that expand the number of compounds detected to include beta-glucan from fungal cell walls.

  12. Preservice Teachers' Perceptions about Assessment and Its Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Grace Goc; Woods, Marianne L.

    2008-01-01

    Examining how preservice teachers (PTs) perceive and implement assessment may provide clues as to how we can refocus the way future teachers use assessment. A conceptual framework addressing PT beliefs and how they change was applied in this study to examine PTs' (N = 17) beliefs and understanding of the role of assessment and evaluation on…

  13. Diagnostics for Z-pinch implosion experiments on PTS

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, X. D. Huang, X. B. Zhou, S. T. Zhang, S. Q. Dan, J. K. Li, J. Cai, H. C. Wang, K. L. Ouyang, K. Xu, Q. Duan, S. C. Chen, G. H. Wang, M. Feng, S. P. Yang, L. B. Xie, W. P. Deng, J. J.

    2014-12-15

    The preliminary experiments of wire array implosion were performed on PTS, a 10 MA z-pinch driver with a 70 ns rise time. A set of diagnostics have been developed and fielded on PTS to study pinch physics and implosion dynamics of wire array. Radiated power measurement for soft x-rays was performed by multichannel filtered x-ray diode array, and flat spectral responses x-ray diode detector. Total x-ray yield was measured by a calibrated, unfiltered nickel bolometer which was also used to obtain pinch power. Multiple time-gated pinhole cameras were used to produce spatial-resolved images of x-ray self-emission from plasmas. Two time-integrated pinhole cameras were used respectively with 20-μm Be filter and with multilayer mirrors to record images produced by >1-keV and 277±5 eV self-emission. An optical streak camera was used to produce radial implosion trajectories, and an x-ray streak camera paired with a horizontal slit was used to record a continuous time-history of emission with one-dimensional spatial resolution. A frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (532 nm) was used to produce four frame laser shadowgraph images with 6 ns time interval. We will briefly describe each of these diagnostics and present some typical results from them.

  14. Children's Postdisaster Trajectories of PTS Symptoms: Predicting Chronic Distress.

    PubMed

    La Greca, Annette M; Lai, Betty S; Llabre, Maria M; Silverman, Wendy K; Vernberg, Eric M; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2013-08-01

    There are no studies of the distinct trajectories of children's psychological distress over the first year after a destructive natural disaster and the determinants of these trajectories. We examined these issues using an existing dataset of children exposed to Hurricane Andrew, one of the most devastating natural disasters in US history. At 3-months postdisaster, 568 children (55 % girls; grades 3-5) residing in areas most directly affected by the hurricane completed measures of hurricane exposure and stressors, social support, coping, and general anxiety. Children also reported major life events occurring since the hurricane (at 7-months) and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms at 3-, 7-, and 10-months postdisaster. Latent growth mixture modeling identified three trajectories of PTS reactions: resilient (37 %), recovering (43 %), and chronic distress (20 %). Predictors of the trajectories were examined. Odds ratios indicated that, compared to the resilient trajectory, girls were more likely to be in the recovering and chronically distressed trajectories, as were children reporting higher anxiety and greater use of coping strategies that reflected poor emotion regulation. Compared to the recovering trajectory, children in the chronically distressed trajectory had greater odds of reporting high anxiety, less social support, more intervening life events, and greater use of poor emotion regulation strategies. Hurricane exposure may be less effective in identifying children who develop chronic postdisaster distress than other child (anxiety, coping) and contextual variables (social support, life events). Effective screening after disasters is critical for identifying youth most in need of limited clinical resources.

  15. Fidelity of Implementing an Assessment Translation and Adaptation Framework in a Study of an Emerging International Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chia, Magda Yanira

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the complex process of translation and adaptation of two Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA) performance tasks (PTs), originally developed in English for American students, into the languages and cultures of five participating countries. Focusing on confirming evidence bits (CEBs), disconfirming evidence bits (DEBs), and no…

  16. Williams works with LOCAD-PTS in Destiny lab

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-01

    ISS014-E-18822 (31 March 2007) --- Astronaut Sunita L. Williams, Expedition 14 flight engineer, works with the Lab-on-a-Chip Application Development-Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS) experiment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. LOCAD-PTS is a handheld device for rapid detection of biological and chemical substances onboard the station.

  17. Williams works with LOCAD-PTS in Destiny lab

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-01

    ISS014-E-18811 (31 March 2007) --- Astronaut Sunita L. Williams, Expedition 14 flight engineer, works with the Lab-on-a-Chip Application Development-Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS) experiment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. LOCAD-PTS is a handheld device for rapid detection of biological and chemical substances onboard the station.

  18. Williams works with LOCAD-PTS in Destiny lab

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-01

    ISS014-E-18818 (31 March 2007) --- Astronaut Sunita L. Williams, Expedition 14 flight engineer, works with the Lab-on-a-Chip Application Development-Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS) experiment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. LOCAD-PTS is a handheld device for rapid detection of biological and chemical substances onboard the station.

  19. Interdependence of the peroxisome-targeting receptors in Arabidopsis thaliana: PEX7 facilitates PEX5 accumulation and import of PTS1 cargo into peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Ramón, Naxhiely Martínez; Bartel, Bonnie

    2010-04-01

    Peroxisomes compartmentalize certain metabolic reactions critical to plant and animal development. The import of proteins from the cytosol into the organelle matrix depends on more than a dozen peroxin (PEX) proteins, with PEX5 and PEX7 serving as receptors that shuttle proteins bearing one of two peroxisome-targeting signals (PTSs) into the organelle. PEX5 is the PTS1 receptor; PEX7 is the PTS2 receptor. In plants and mammals, PEX7 depends on PEX5 binding to deliver PTS2 cargo into the peroxisome. In this study, we characterized a pex7 missense mutation, pex7-2, that disrupts both PEX7 cargo binding and PEX7-PEX5 interactions in yeast, as well as PEX7 protein accumulation in plants. We examined localization of peroxisomally targeted green fluorescent protein derivatives in light-grown pex7 mutants and observed not only the expected defects in PTS2 protein import but also defects in PTS1 import. These PTS1 import defects were accompanied by reduced PEX5 accumulation in light-grown pex7 seedlings. Our data suggest that PEX5 and PTS1 import depend on the PTS2 receptor PEX7 in Arabidopsis and that the environment may influence this dependence. These data advance our understanding of the biogenesis of these essential organelles and provide a possible rationale for the retention of the PTS2 pathway in some organisms.

  20. Enhancing human-like collagen accumulation by deleting the major glucose transporter ptsG in recombinant Escherichia coli BL21.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yan'e; Zhang, Tao; Fan, Daidi; Mu, Tingzhen; Xue, Wenjiao; Hui, Junfeng; Ma, Xiaoxuan

    2014-01-01

    Collagen has been proven to be a valuable biomedical material for many medical applications. Human-like collagen (HLC) is a novel important biomedical material with diverse medical applications. In this work, recombinant Escherichia coli BL21 3.7 ∆ptsG was constructed, the characters of ptsG mutant strain were analyzed, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied to investigate the effect of ptsG gene deletion on the transcriptional level of the phosphotransferase system (PTS) genes responsible for glucose transport. The HLC production and cell growth ability were 1.33- and 1.24-fold higher than those of its parent strain in the fermentation medium, respectively, and 1.16- and 1.17-fold in the modified minimal medium individually. The acetate accumulation decreased by 42%-56% compared to its parent strain in the fermentation medium, and 70%-87% in the modified minimal medium. The results of RT-qPCR showed that the transcriptional level of crr, ptsH, ptsI, and blgF in ptsG mutant all decreased dramatically, which inferred a decrease in the glucose uptake rate, but the transcriptional level of FruB and manX increased slightly, which demonstrated the activation of fructose- and mannose-specific transport pathways in the ptsG mutant. This study demonstrates that ptsG deletion is an effective strategy to reduce acetate accumulation and increase biomass and HLC production.

  1. Contribution of peroxisome-specific isoform of Lon protease in sorting PTS1 proteins to peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Omi, Sizue; Nakata, Rie; Okamura-Ikeda, Kazuko; Konishi, Hiroaki; Taniguchi, Hisaaki

    2008-05-01

    Using an organelle proteomics approach, we previously studied the rat peroxisome in order to characterize the proteins participating in its biogenesis. A peroxisome-specific isoform of Lon (pLon) protein was accordingly identified. However, the precise role of pLon in peroxisomes remains to be elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that pLon plays a role in processing and activating a specific regulatory protein belonging to the peroxisome targeting signal (PTS) 1-containing proteins. Proteomic analysis of proteins co-immunoprecipitated with Lon suggested that Lon interacts with PMP70 and several enzymes involved in beta-oxidation, including acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX). The processing of AOX for its activation in peroxisomes was strongly inhibited in cells expressing a dominant negative form of pLon. Furthermore, a catalase possessing a modified PTS1 sequence was misdistributed in this cell line. pLon exhibits little, if any, in vitro AOX processing activity, and does not process PTS2-containing 3-ketoacyl-coenzyme A thiolase (PTL). Therefore, pLon may specifically control, sort and process PTS1 proteins. Based on the relationship between pLon and the beta-oxidation enzymes that regulate peroxisomal morphology, the observation of enlarged peroxisomes in cells expressing recombinant pLon suggests that pLon is a critical factor determining peroxisome morphology.

  2. Structural Insights into Cargo Recognition by the Yeast PTS1 Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Stefanie; Drepper, Friedel; Fischer, Sven; Fodor, Krisztian; Passon, Daniel; Platta, Harald W.; Zenn, Michael; Schliebs, Wolfgang; Girzalsky, Wolfgang; Wilmanns, Matthias; Warscheid, Bettina; Erdmann, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    The peroxisomal matrix protein import is facilitated by cycling import receptors that shuttle between the cytosol and the peroxisomal membrane. The import receptor Pex5p mediates the import of proteins harboring a peroxisomal targeting signal of type I (PTS1). Purified recombinant Pex5p forms a dimeric complex with the PTS1-protein Pcs60p in vitro with a KD of 0.19 μm. To analyze the structural basis for receptor-cargo recognition, the PTS1 and adjacent amino acids of Pcs60p were systematically scanned for Pex5p binding by an in vitro site-directed photo-cross-linking approach. The cross-linked binding regions of the receptor were subsequently identified by high resolution mass spectrometry. Most cross-links were found with TPR6, TPR7, as well as the 7C-loop of Pex5p. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed a bivalent interaction mode for Pex5p and Pcs60p. Interestingly, Pcs60p lacking its C-terminal tripeptide sequence was efficiently cross-linked to the same regions of Pex5p. The KD value of the interaction of truncated Pcs60p and Pex5p was in the range of 7.7 μm. Isothermal titration calorimetry and surface plasmon resonance measurements revealed a monovalent binding mode for the interaction of Pex5p and Pcs60p lacking the PTS1. Our data indicate that Pcs60p contains a second contact site for its receptor Pex5p, beyond the C-terminal tripeptide. The physiological relevance of the ancillary binding region was supported by in vivo import studies. The bivalent binding mode might be explained by a two-step concept as follows: first, cargo recognition and initial tethering by the PTS1-receptor Pex5p; second, lock-in of receptor and cargo. PMID:26359497

  3. Identification of PTS(Fru) as the major fructose uptake system of Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Christine; Bahl, Hubert; Fischer, Ralf-Jörg

    2014-08-01

    As a member of the saccharolytic clostridia, a variety of different carbohydrates like glucose, fructose, or mannose can be used as carbon and energy source by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Thirteen phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems (PTS) have been identified in C. acetobutylicum, which are likely to be responsible for the uptake of hexoses, hexitols, or disaccharides. Here, we focus on three PTS which are expected to be involved in the uptake of fructose, PTS(Fru), PTS(ManI), and PTS(ManII). To analyze their individual functions, each PTS was inactivated via homologous recombination or insertional mutagenesis. Standardized comparative batch fermentations in a synthetic medium with glucose, fructose, or mannose as sole carbon source identified PTS(Fru) as primary uptake system for fructose, whereas growth with fructose was not impaired in PTS(ManI) and slightly altered in PTS(ManII)-deficient strains of C. acetobutylicum. The inactivation of PTS(ManI) resulted in slower growth on mannose whereas the loss of PTS(ManII) revealed no phenotype during growth on mannose. This is the first time that it has been shown that PTS(Fru) and PTS(ManI) of C. acetobutylicum are directly involved in fructose and mannose uptake, respectively. Moreover, comprehensive comparison of the fermentation products revealed that the loss of PTS(Fru) prevents the solvent shift as no butanol and only basic levels of acetone and ethanol could be determined.

  4. Increased glucose utilization and cell growth of Corynebacterium glutamicum by modifying the glucose-specific phosphotransferase system (PTS(Glc)) genes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianzhong; Zhang, Junlan; Liu, Dongdong; Zhang, Weiguo

    2016-12-01

    The phosphoenolpyruvate:glucose phosphotransferase system (PTS(Glc)) is the major pathway of glucose uptake in Corynebacterium glutamicum. This study investigated glucose consumption rate, cell growth, and metabolite changes resulting from modification of PTS(Glc). The classical l-lysine producer C. glutamicum XQ-8 exhibited low glucose consumption, cell growth, and l-lysine production rates, whereas these parameters were significantly increased during cultivating on glucose plus maltose, through inactivation of SugR, or by overexpression of PTS(Glc) genes. XQ-8sugR::cat/pDXW-8-ptsI exhibited the highest increase in glucose consumption, growth rate, and l-lysine production, followed by XQ-8sugR::cat/pDXW-8-ptsG. However, overexpression of ptsH had little effect on the above-mentioned factors. Although co-overexpression of ptsGHI led to the highest glucose consumption, growth rate, and final l-lysine production; the l-lysine production rate was lower than that of XQ-8sugR::cat/pDXW-8-ptsIH. In fed-batch fermentation, XQ-8sugR::cat/pDXW-8-ptsIH had a higher growth rate of 0.54 h(-1) to a dry cell mass of 66 g·L(-1) after 16 h, and had a higher l-lysine production rate of 159.2 g·L(-1) after 36 h. These results indicate that modification of the sugar transport systems improves amino acid production, especially for mutants obtained by repeated physical and (or) chemical mutagenesis. However, modification of these systems needs to be performed on a case-by-case basis.

  5. Radiation characteristics and implosion dynamics of Z-pinch dynamic hohlraums performed on PTS facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xian Bin; Ren, Xiao Dong; Dan, Jia Kun; Wang, Kun Lun; Xu, Qiang; Zhou, Shao Tong; Zhang, Si Qun; Cai, Hong Chun; Li, Jing; Wei, Bing; Ji, Ce; Feng, Shu Ping; Wang, Meng; Xie, Wei Ping; Deng, Jian Jun

    2017-09-01

    The preliminary experimental results of Z-pinch dynamic hohlraums conducted on the Primary Test Stand (PTS) facility are presented herein. Six different types of dynamic hohlraums were used in order to study the influence of load parameters on radiation characteristics and implosion dynamics, including dynamic hohlraums driven by single and nested arrays with different array parameters and different foams. The PTS facility can deliver a current of 6-8 MA in the peak current and 60-70 ns in the 10%-90% rising time to dynamic hohlraum loads. A set of diagnostics monitor the implosion dynamics of plasmas, the evolution of shock waves in the foam and the axial/radial X-ray radiation, giving the key parameters characterizing the features of dynamic hohlraums, such as the trajectory and related velocity of shock waves, radiation temperature, and so on. The experimental results presented here put our future study on Z-pinch dynamic hohlraums on the PTS facility on a firm basis.

  6. PTS1 Peroxisomal Import Pathway Plays Shared and Distinct Roles to PTS2 Pathway in Development and Pathogenicity of Magnaporthe oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiaoyu; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Yanli; Li, Ling; Chai, Rongyao; Mao, Xueqin; Jiang, Hua; Qiu, Haiping; Du, Xinfa; Lin, Fucheng; Sun, Guochang

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisomes participate in various important metabolisms and are required in pathogenicity of fungal plant pathogens. Peroxisomal matrix proteins are imported from cytoplasm into peroxisomes through peroxisomal targeting signal 1 (PTS1) or peroxisomal targeting signal 2 (PTS2) import pathway. PEX5 and PEX7 genes participate in the two pathways respectively. The involvement of PEX7 mediated PTS2 import pathway in fungal pathogenicity has been documented, while that of PTS1 remains unclear. Through null mutant analysis of MoPEX5, the PEX5 homolog in Magnaporthe oryzae, we report the crucial roles of PTS1 pathway in the development and host infection in the rice blast fungus, and compared with those of PTS2. We found that MoPEX5 disruption specifically blocked the PTS1 pathway. Δmopex5 was unable to use lipids as sole carbon source and lost pathogenicity completely. Similar as Δmopex7, Δmopex5 exhibited significant reduction in lipid utilization and mobilization, appressorial turgor genesis and H2O2 resistance. Additionally, Δmopex5 presented some distinct defects which were undetected in Δmopex7 in vegetative growth, conidial morphogenesis, appressorial morphogenesis and melanization. The results indicated that the PTS1 peroxisomal import pathway, in addition to PTS2, is required for fungal development and pathogenicity of the rice blast fungus, and also, as a main peroxisomal import pathway, played a more predominant role than PTS2. PMID:23405169

  7. Regulation of Streptococcus mutans PTS Bio by the transcriptional repressor NigR.

    PubMed

    Vujanac, M; Iyer, V S; Sengupta, M; Ajdic, D

    2015-08-01

    Streptococcus mutans is implicated in human dental caries, and the carbohydrate metabolism of this organism plays an important role in the formation of this disease. Carbohydrate transport and metabolism are essential for the survival of S. mutans in the oral cavity. It is known that a unique phosphoenolpyruvate-sugar phosphotransferase system PTS(B) (io) of S. mutans UA159 is expressed in sucrose-grown biofilms (Mol Oral Microbiol 28: 2013; 114). In this study we analyzed the transcriptional regulation of the operon (O(B) (io) ) encoding the PTS(B) (io) and showed that it was repressed by NigR, a LacI-like transcriptional regulator. Using electro-mobility shift assay, we described two operators to which NigR bound with different affinities. We also identified the transcriptional start site and showed that one of the operators overlaps with the promoter and presumably represses initiation of transcription. Mutational analyses revealed the key nucleotides in the operators required for high-affinity binding of NigR. PTS(B) (io) is expressed in S. mutans biofilms so understanding its regulation may provide improved strategies for caries treatment and prevention.

  8. Structural insight into the PTS sugar transporter EIIC

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Jason G.; Levin, Elena J.; Zhou, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Background The enzyme IIC component (EIIC) of the phosphotransferase system (PTS) is responsible for selectively transporting sugar molecules across the inner bacterial membrane. This is accomplished in parallel with phosphorylation of the sugar, which prevents efflux of the sugar back across the membrane. This process is a key part of an extensive signaling network that allows bacteria to efficiently utilize preferred carbohydrate sources. Scope of review The goal of this review is to examine the current understanding of the structural features of EIIC and how it mediates concentrative, selective sugar transport. The crystal structure of an N,N’-diacetylchitobiose transporter is used as a structural template for the glucose superfamily of PTS transporters. Major conclusions Comparison of protein sequences in context with the known EIIC structure suggests members of the glucose superfamily of PTS transporters may exhibit variations in topology. Despite these differences, a conserved histidine and glutamate appear to have roles shared across the superfamily in sugar binding and phosphorylation. In the proposed transport model, a rigid body motion between two structural domains and movement of an intracellular loop provide the substrate binding site with alternating access, and reveal a surface required for interaction with the phosphotransfer protein required for catalysis. General significance The structural and functional data discussed here give a preliminary understanding of how transport in EIIC is achieved. However, given the great sequence diversity between varying glucose-superfamily PTS transporters and lack of data on conformational changes needed for transport, additional structures of other members and conformations are still required. PMID:24657490

  9. Physical therapists' assessments, analyses and use of behavior change techniques in initial consultations on musculoskeletal pain: direct observations in primary health care.

    PubMed

    Emilson, C; Åsenlöf, P; Pettersson, S; Bergman, S; Sandborgh, M; Martin, C; Demmelmaier, I

    2016-07-27

    Behavioral medicine (BM) treatment is recommended to be implemented for pain management in physical therapy. Its implementation requires physical therapists (PTs), who are skilled at performing functional behavioral analyses based on physical, psychological and behavioral assessments. The purpose of the current study was to explore and describe PTs' assessments, analyses and their use of behavioral change techniques (BCTs) in initial consultations with patients who seek primary health care due to musculoskeletal pain. A descriptive and explorative research design was applied, using data from video recordings of 12 primary health care PTs. A deductive analysis was performed, based on a specific protocol with definitions of PTs' assessment of physical and psychological prognostic factors (red and yellow flags, respectively), analysis of the clinical problem, and use of BCTs. An additional inductive analysis was performed to identify and describe the variation in the PTs' clinical practice. Red and yellow flags were assessed in a majority of the cases. Analyses were mainly based on biomedical assessments and none of the PTs performed functional behavioral analyses. All of the PTs used BCTs, mainly instruction and information, to facilitate physical activity and improved posture. The four most clinically relevant cases were selected to illustrate the variation in the PTs' clinical practice. The results are based on 12 experienced primary health care PTs in Sweden, limiting the generalizability to similar populations and settings. Red and yellow flags were assessed by PTs in the current study, but their interpretation and integration of the findings in analyses and treatment were incomplete, indicating a need of further strategies to implement behavioral medicine in Swedish primary health care physical therapy.

  10. [Effects of panaxatriol saponins (PTS) isolated from panax notoginseng on the action potential and delayed rectifier current (Ix) in sheep cardiac Purkinje fibers].

    PubMed

    Li, X J; Fan, J S; Liu, Y W; Zhang, B H

    1993-01-01

    The electrophysiological effects of PTS in sheep cardiac Purkinje fibers were studied. PTS was shown to increase the duration of action potential (APD30, APD50 and APD90) at the concentrations of 2.5 micrograms/ml and 5.0 micrograms/ml. However, the amplitude of action potential (APA) remained unchanged. The result of using double microelectrode voltage clamp method showed that PTS (1.25-10.0 micrograms/ml) depressed the delayed (outward) rectifier current (Ix) in time- and dose-dependent manners, when the holding potential was held at +20 mV, the command potential was held at +10 mV, 0.2 Hz and the clamping time at 1-1.5 s. It may be concluded that the effect of PTS on APD is mainly related to blocking the delayed rectifier potassium channel.

  11. Family and Individual Factors Associated with Substance Involvement and PTS Symptoms among Adolescents in Greater New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Cynthia L.; La Greca, Annette M.; Alexandersson, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the influence of hurricane impact as well as family and individual risk factors on posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms and substance involvement among clinically referred adolescents affected by Hurricane Katrina. Method: A total of 80 adolescents (87% male; 13-17 years old; mean age = 15.6 years; 38% minorities) and…

  12. Family and Individual Factors Associated with Substance Involvement and PTS Symptoms among Adolescents in Greater New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Cynthia L.; La Greca, Annette M.; Alexandersson, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the influence of hurricane impact as well as family and individual risk factors on posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms and substance involvement among clinically referred adolescents affected by Hurricane Katrina. Method: A total of 80 adolescents (87% male; 13-17 years old; mean age = 15.6 years; 38% minorities) and…

  13. Molecular Recognition of PTS-1 Cargo Proteins by Pex5p: Implications for Protein Mistargeting in Primary Hyperoxaluria

    PubMed Central

    Mesa-Torres, Noel; Tomic, Nenad; Albert, Armando; Salido, Eduardo; Pey, Angel L.

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisomal biogenesis and function critically depends on the import of cytosolic proteins carrying a PTS1 sequence into this organelle upon interaction with the peroxin Pex5p. Recent structural studies have provided important insights into the molecular recognition of cargo proteins by Pex5p. Peroxisomal import is a key feature in the pathogenesis of primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1), where alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) undergoes mitochondrial mistargeting in about a third of patients. Here, we study the molecular recognition of PTS1 cargo proteins by Pex5p using oligopeptides and AGT variants bearing different natural PTS1 sequences, and employing an array of biophysical, computational and cell biology techniques. Changes in affinity for Pex5p (spanning over 3–4 orders of magnitude) reflect different thermodynamic signatures, but overall bury similar amounts of molecular surface. Structure/energetic analyses provide information on the contribution of ancillary regions and the conformational changes induced in Pex5p and the PTS1 cargo upon complex formation. Pex5p stability in vitro is enhanced upon cargo binding according to their binding affinities. Moreover, we provide evidence that the rational modulation of the AGT: Pex5p binding affinity might be useful tools to investigate mistargeting and misfolding in PH1 by pulling the folding equilibria towards the native and peroxisomal import competent state. PMID:25689234

  14. Molecular recognition of PTS-1 cargo proteins by Pex5p: implications for protein mistargeting in primary hyperoxaluria.

    PubMed

    Mesa-Torres, Noel; Tomic, Nenad; Albert, Armando; Salido, Eduardo; Pey, Angel L

    2015-02-13

    Peroxisomal biogenesis and function critically depends on the import of cytosolic proteins carrying a PTS1 sequence into this organelle upon interaction with the peroxin Pex5p. Recent structural studies have provided important insights into the molecular recognition of cargo proteins by Pex5p. Peroxisomal import is a key feature in the pathogenesis of primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1), where alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) undergoes mitochondrial mistargeting in about a third of patients. Here, we study the molecular recognition of PTS1 cargo proteins by Pex5p using oligopeptides and AGT variants bearing different natural PTS1 sequences, and employing an array of biophysical, computational and cell biology techniques. Changes in affinity for Pex5p (spanning over 3-4 orders of magnitude) reflect different thermodynamic signatures, but overall bury similar amounts of molecular surface. Structure/energetic analyses provide information on the contribution of ancillary regions and the conformational changes induced in Pex5p and the PTS1 cargo upon complex formation. Pex5p stability in vitro is enhanced upon cargo binding according to their binding affinities. Moreover, we provide evidence that the rational modulation of the AGT: Pex5p binding affinity might be useful tools to investigate mistargeting and misfolding in PH1 by pulling the folding equilibria towards the native and peroxisomal import competent state.

  15. The phosphotransferase system gene ptsI in the endophytic bacterium Bacillus cereus is required for biofilm formation, colonization, and biocontrol against wheat sharp eyespot.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yu-Bin; Chen, Mai; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Miao; Wang, Ying; Huang, Qiu-bin; Wang, Xue; Wang, Gang

    2014-05-01

    Natural resistance of wheat plants to wheat sharp eyespot is inadequate, and new strategies for controlling the disease are required. Biological control is an alternative and attractive way of reducing the use of chemicals in agriculture. In this study, we investigated the biocontrol properties of endophytic bacterium Bacillus cereus strain 0-9, which was isolated from the root systems of healthy wheat varieties. The phosphotransferase system is a major regulator of carbohydrate metabolism in bacteria. Enzyme I is one of the protein components of this system. Specific disruption and complementation of the enzyme I-coding gene ptsI from B. cereus was achieved through homologous recombination. Disruption of ptsI in B. cereus caused a 70% reduction in biofilm formation, a 30.4% decrease in biocontrol efficacy, and a 1000-fold reduction in colonization. The growth of ΔptsI mutant strain on G-tris synthetic medium containing glucose as the exclusive carbon source was also reduced. Wild-type properties could be restored to the ΔptsI mutant strain by ptsI complementation. These results suggested that ptsI may be one of the key genes involved in biofilm formation, colonization, and biocontrol of B. cereus and that B. cereus wild-type strain 0-9 may be an ideal biocontrol agent for controlling wheat sharp eyespot.

  16. Work ability: concept and assessment from a physiotherapeutic perspective. An interview study.

    PubMed

    Stigmar, K; Ekdahl, C; Grahn, B

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain experiences and perceptions among physiotherapists (PTs) in Sweden regarding the concept of work ability as well as their perspectives of their professional role in work ability assessments. We conducted an in-depth interview study with four male and twelve female physiotherapists working in the field of occupational health care, orthopaedics, primary health care or rehabilitation. Qualitative content analysis was applied to the data. Work ability was perceived as the ability to perform work tasks as requested. Having the potential to adjust at work and to allocate resources, having an attachment to the workplace and time factors were vital. The physiotherapists were striving for a well-defined role within a multiprofessional team, where work ability assessments were performed in a real work environment. The PTs experienced contradictory roles in relation to the patient but believed they could contribute with valuable material for assessments; this professional help was not always requested. It was noted that there was a need for experience and further education to enable PTs to further engage in work ability assessments. It is important to improve collaboration and to further discuss the work ability concept from the viewpoints of different professionals.

  17. Family and individual factors associated with substance involvement and PTS symptoms among adolescents in greater New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Cynthia L; La Greca, Annette M; Alexandersson, Anders

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the influence of hurricane impact as well as family and individual risk factors on posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms and substance involvement among clinically referred adolescents affected by Hurricane Katrina. A total of 80 adolescents (87% male; 13-17 years old; mean age = 15.6 years; 38% minorities) and their parents were interviewed at the adolescent's intake into substance abuse treatment, 16 to 46 months postdisaster. Independent measures included hurricane impact variables (initial loss/disruption and perceived life threat); demographic and predisaster variables (family income, gender, predisaster adolescent substance use, predisaster trauma exposure, and parental substance abuse); postdisaster family factors (parental psychopathology, family cohesion, and parental monitoring); and postdisaster adolescent delinquency. Hierarchical multivariate regression analyses showed that adolescent substance involvement was associated with higher family income, lower parental monitoring (adolescent report), and more adolescent delinquency. Adolescent-reported PTS symptoms were associated with greater hurricane-related initial loss/disruption, lower family cohesion (adolescent report), and more adolescent delinquency, whereas parent-reported adolescent PTS symptoms were associated with greater parental psychopathology, lower parental monitoring (adolescent report), and lower family cohesion (parent report). The results suggest that hurricane impact was related only to adolescent-reported PTS. However, certain postdisaster family and individual risk factors (low family cohesion and parental monitoring, more adolescent delinquency) were associated both with adolescent substance involvement and with PTS symptoms. Identification of these factors suggests directions for future research as well as potential target areas for screening and intervention with substance-abusing adolescents after disasters. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. The general PTS component HPr determines the preference for glucose over mannitol

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Mangyu; Park, Young-Ha; Lee, Chang-Ro; Kim, Yeon-Ran; Seok, Yeong-Jae

    2017-01-01

    Preferential sugar utilization is a widespread phenomenon in biological systems. Glucose is usually the most preferred carbon source in various organisms, especially in bacteria where it is taken up via the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS). The currently proposed model for glucose preference over non-PTS sugars in enteric bacteria including E. coli is strictly dependent on the phosphorylation state of the glucose-specific PTS component, enzyme IIAGlc (EIIAGlc). However, the mechanism of the preference among PTS sugars is largely unknown in Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we show that glucose preference over another PTS sugar, mannitol, is absolutely dependent on the general PTS component HPr, but not on EIIAGlc, in E. coli. Dephosphorylated HPr accumulates during the transport of glucose and interacts with the mannitol operon regulator, MtlR, to augment its repressor activity. This interaction blocks the inductive effect of mannitol on the mannitol operon expression and results in the inhibition of mannitol utilization. PMID:28225088

  19. A PTS EII mutant library in Group A Streptococcus identifies a promiscuous man-family PTS transporter influencing SLS-mediated hemolysis.

    PubMed

    Sundar, Ganesh S; Islam, Emrul; Gera, Kanika; Le Breton, Yoann; McIver, Kevin S

    2017-02-01

    The Group A Streptococcus (GAS, Streptococcus pyogenes) is a Gram-positive human pathogen that must adapt to unique host environments in order to survive. Links between sugar metabolism and virulence have been demonstrated in GAS, where mutants in the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) exhibited Streptolysin S (SLS)-mediated hemolysis during exponential growth. This early onset hemolysis correlated with an increased lesion size and severity in a murine soft tissue infection model when compared with parental M1T1 MGAS5005. To identify the PTS components responsible for this phenotype, we insertionally inactivated the 14 annotated PTS EIIC-encoding genes in the GAS MGAS5005 genome and subjected this library to metabolic and hemolysis assays to functionally characterize each EIIC. It was found that a few EIIs had a very limited influence on PTS sugar metabolism, whereas others were fairly promiscuous. The mannose-specific EII locus, encoded by manLMN, was expressed as a mannose-inducible operon that exhibited the most influence on PTS sugar metabolism, including mannose. Importantly, components of the mannose-specific EII also acted to prevent the early onset of SLS-mediated hemolysis. Interestingly, these roles were not identical in two different M1T1 GAS strains, highlighting the possible versatility of the PTS to adapt to strain-specific needs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Williams working on the LOCAD-PTS Experiment in the US Lab during Expedition 15

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-30

    ISS015-E-05640 (30 April 2007) --- Astronaut Sunita L. Williams, Expedition 15 flight engineer, works with the Lab-on-a-Chip Application Development-Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS) experiment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. LOCAD-PTS is a handheld device for rapid detection of biological and chemical substances onboard the station.

  1. Williams works on the LOCAD-PTS Experiment in the US Lab during Expedition 15

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-05-05

    ISS015-E-06777 (5 May 2007) --- Astronaut Sunita L. Williams, Expedition 15 flight engineer, works with the Lab-on-a-Chip Application Development-Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS) experiment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. LOCAD-PTS is a handheld device for rapid detection of biological and chemical substances onboard the station.

  2. Williams working on the LOCAD-PTS Experiment in the US Lab during Expedition 15

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-30

    ISS015-E-05649 (30 April 2007) --- Astronaut Sunita L. Williams, Expedition 15 flight engineer, works with the Lab-on-a-Chip Application Development-Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS) experiment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. LOCAD-PTS is a handheld device for rapid detection of biological and chemical substances onboard the station.

  3. Application of probabilistic fracture mechanics to the PTS issue

    SciTech Connect

    Cheverton, R.D.; Ball, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    As a part of the NRC effort to obtain a resolution to the PWR PTS issue, a probabilistic approach has been applied that includes a probabilistic fracture-mechanics (PFM) analysis. The PFM analysis is performed with OCA-P, a computer code that performs thermal, stress and fracture-mechanics analyses and estimates the conditional probability of vessel failure, P(F/E), using Monte Carlo techniques. The stress intensity factor (K/sub I/) is calculated for two- and three-dimensional surface flaws using superposition techniques and influence coefficients. Importance-sampling techniques are used, as necessary, to limit to a reasonable value the number of vessels actually calculated. Analyses of three PWR plants indicate that (1) the critical initial flaw depth is very small (5 to 15 mm), (2) the benefit of warm prestressing and the role of crack arrest are transient dependent, (3) crack arrest does not occur for the dominant transients, and (4) the single largest uncertainty in the overall probabilistic analysis is the number of surface flaws per vessel. 30 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Diversity of Streptococcus salivarius ptsH Mutants That Can Be Isolated in the Presence of 2-Deoxyglucose and Galactose and Characterization of Two Mutants Synthesizing Reduced Levels of HPr, a Phosphocarrier of the Phosphoenolpyruvate:Sugar Phosphotransferase System

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Suzanne; Brochu, Denis; Vadeboncoeur, Christian

    2001-01-01

    In streptococci, HPr, a phosphocarrier of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase transport system (PTS), undergoes multiple posttranslational chemical modifications resulting in the formation of HPr(His∼P), HPr(Ser-P), and HPr(Ser-P)(His∼P), whose cellular concentrations vary with growth conditions. Distinct physiological functions are associated with specific forms of HPr. We do not know, however, the cellular thresholds below which these forms become unable to fulfill their functions and to what extent modifications in the cellular concentrations of the different forms of HPr modify cellular physiology. In this study, we present a glimpse of the diversity of Streptococcus salivarius ptsH mutants that can be isolated by positive selection on a solid medium containing 2-deoxyglucose and galactose and identify 13 amino acids that are essential for HPr to properly accomplish its physiological functions. We also report the characterization of two S. salivarius mutants that produced approximately two- and threefoldless HPr and enzyme I (EI) respectively. The data indicated that (i) a reduction in the synthesis of HPr due to a mutation in the Shine-Dalgarno sequence of ptsH reduced ptsI expression; (ii) a threefold reduction in EI and HPr cellular levels did not affect PTS transport capacity; (iii) a twofold reduction in HPr synthesis was sufficient to reduce the rate at which cells metabolized PTS sugars, increase generation times on PTS sugars and to a lesser extent on non-PTS sugars, and impede the exclusion of non-PTS sugars by PTS sugars; (iv) a threefold reduction in HPr synthesis caused a strong derepression of the genes coding for α-galactosidase, β-galactosidase, and galactokinase when the cells were grown at the expense of a PTS sugar but did not affect the synthesis of α-galactosidase when cells were grown at the expense of lactose, a noninducing non-PTS sugar; and (v) no correlation was found between the magnitude of enzyme derepression and

  5. The impact of ecological momentary assessment on posttraumatic stress symptom trajectory.

    PubMed

    Dewey, Daniel; McDonald, Molly K; Brown, Wilson J; Boyd, Steven J; Bunnell, Brian E; Schuldberg, David

    2015-12-15

    Ecological momentary assessment includes continuous, real-time gathering of self-report data in a participant's natural environment. The current study evaluated the possible impact of this assessment strategy on severity of posttraumatic stress (PTS) in a sample of participants who reported experiencing a past traumatic event. Participants with clinically elevated PTS symptoms reported symptom severity at three time-points: during an initial screening, following an unmonitored period, and following two weeks of monitoring. During the monitoring period, participants carried an Android device which prompted them to report PTS symptoms and negative emotions six times daily. PTS severity scores were then compared across these three time-points. Results indicated that participating in the ecological momentary assessment protocol was associated with a significant reduction in PTS severity, whereas significant changes were not noted over the unmonitored control condition. The authors conclude that ecological momentary assessment may have therapeutic value even when not combined with formal intervention, and it may be a useful tool for improving the efficiency of a stepped-care approach to treating PTS symptoms. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. PPero, a Computational Model for Plant PTS1 Type Peroxisomal Protein Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Caiji; Jiang, Liwen; Guo, Dianjing

    2017-01-01

    Well-defined motifs often make it easy to investigate protein function and localization. In plants, peroxisomal proteins are guided to peroxisomes mainly by a conserved type 1 (PTS1) or type 2 (PTS2) targeting signal, and the PTS1 motif is commonly used for peroxisome targeting protein prediction. Currently computational prediction of peroxisome targeted PTS1-type proteins are mostly based on the 3 amino acids PTS1 motif and the adjacent sequence which is less than 14 amino acid residue in length. The potential contribution of the adjacent sequences beyond this short region has never been well investigated in plants. In this work, we develop a bi-profile Bayesian SVM method to extract and learn position-based amino acid features for both PTS1 motifs and their extended adjacent sequences in plants. Our proposed model outperformed other implementations with similar applications and achieved the highest accuracy of 93.6% and 92.6% for Arabidosis and other plant species respectively. A large scale analysis for Arabidopsis, Rice, Maize, Potato, Wheat, and Soybean proteome was conducted using the proposed model and a batch of candidate PTS1 proteins were predicted. The DNA segments corresponding to the C-terminal sequences of 9 selected candidates were cloned and transformed into Arabidopsis for experimental validation, and 5 of them demonstrated peroxisome targeting. PMID:28045983

  7. PredPlantPTS1: A Web Server for the Prediction of Plant Peroxisomal Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Reumann, Sigrun; Buchwald, Daniela; Lingner, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Prediction of subcellular protein localization is essential to correctly assign unknown proteins to cell organelle-specific protein networks and to ultimately determine protein function. For metazoa, several computational approaches have been developed in the past decade to predict peroxisomal proteins carrying the peroxisome targeting signal type 1 (PTS1). However, plant-specific PTS1 protein prediction methods have been lacking up to now, and pre-existing methods generally were incapable of correctly predicting low-abundance plant proteins possessing non-canonical PTS1 patterns. Recently, we presented a machine learning approach that is able to predict PTS1 proteins for higher plants (spermatophytes) with high accuracy and which can correctly identify unknown targeting patterns, i.e., novel PTS1 tripeptides and tripeptide residues. Here we describe the first plant-specific web server PredPlantPTS1 for the prediction of plant PTS1 proteins using the above-mentioned underlying models. The server allows the submission of protein sequences from diverse spermatophytes and also performs well for mosses and algae. The easy-to-use web interface provides detailed output in terms of (i) the peroxisomal targeting probability of the given sequence, (ii) information whether a particular non-canonical PTS1 tripeptide has already been experimentally verified, and (iii) the prediction scores for the single C-terminal 14 amino acid residues. The latter allows identification of predicted residues that inhibit peroxisome targeting and which can be optimized using site-directed mutagenesis to raise the peroxisome targeting efficiency. The prediction server will be instrumental in identifying low-abundance and stress-inducible peroxisomal proteins and defining the entire peroxisomal proteome of Arabidopsis and agronomically important crop plants. PredPlantPTS1 is freely accessible at ppp.gobics.de. PMID:22969783

  8. [Study of prognostic factors and prevalence of post-thrombotic syndrome in patients with deep vein thrombosis in Spain].

    PubMed

    Ordi, Josep; Salmerón, Luis; Acosta, Fernando; Camacho, Isabel; Marín, Núria

    2016-01-15

    The prevalence of post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) in Spain is not known accurately at present. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of PTS and the possible prognostic factors related to its development and impact on quality of life. This was an observational, multicenter, cross-sectional and retrospective study of patients who had suffered a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) between March 2010 and March 2011. The Villalta scale was applied as a standardized assessment of PTS at the enrollment visit. According to the score, distribution was: patients with PTS (score>4) and patients without PTS (score ≤4). Subsequently, DVT data and risk factors were collected retrospectively. The quality of life of patients was evaluated. In total 511 patients with DVT were enrolled, of which 7 patients were excluded as they did not meet the inclusion/exclusion criteria. The prevalence of PTS was 53%, with 56.2% having a mild character, 20.6% moderate, and 23.2% severe. The presence of risk factors for DVT including immobilization, hormonal therapy and obesity was significantly higher in patients with PTS than in patients without PTS. There were not significant differences in the location of the DVT. The perception of patients about their health was significantly worse in patients with DVT. The prevalence of PTS in patients with DVT is very high. The presence of risk factors for DVT clearly contributes to a greater predisposition to suffering PTS in an average time of 2 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. ATTENTIONAL BIAS TEMPORAL DYNAMICS PREDICT POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS SYMPTOMS: A PROSPECTIVE-LONGITUDINAL STUDY AMONG SOLDIERS.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Judith; Bernstein, Amit; Zvielli, Ariel; Höfler, Michael; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Schönfeld, Sabine

    2016-07-01

    Attentional bias (AB) to threat is thought to play a key role in the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress symptomatology (PTS). Empirical evidence though is inconsistent. Some studies report associations between AB towards, threat and PTS; other studies report associations between AB away from threat and PTS; yet other studies fail to find any association. We propose that prospective-longitudinal study of AB as a dynamic process, expressed from moment to moment in time, may help to understand these mixed findings and the role of AB in PTS. We tested cross-sectional and prospective-longitudinal associations between AB and PTS among German soldiers from pre- to post-deployment in Afghanistan (n = 144). AB to threat and positive emotion stimuli (angry/happy faces) was measured using the dot-probe task. PTS was assessed by the PTSD Checklist. The number of traumatic experiences was assessed using CIDI-traumatic experience lists for military. We found that AB dynamics (i.e., towards, away, temporal variability) at pre- and post-deployment, with respect to angry and happy faces, predicted higher levels of PTS after deployment as a function of number of intermediate traumatic experiences. Traditional aggregated mean bias scores did not similarly prospectively predict PTS post deployment. Findings indicate that AB to emotionally arousing stimuli may play an important function in the development and maintenance of PTS. We argue that mixed and null findings appear to be due to failure to model the within-subject temporal variability in AB expression. Theoretical, empirical, and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Structural characterization of the PTS IIA and IIB proteins associated with pneumococcal fucose utilization.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Melanie A; Hamilton, Aileen M; Boraston, Alisdair B

    2017-05-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae harbors a significant number of transporters, including phosphotransferase (PTS) systems, allowing the bacterium to utilize a number of different carbohydrates for metabolic and other purposes. The genes encoding for one PTS transport system in particular (EII(fuc) ) are found within a fucose utilization operon in S. pneumoniae TIGR4. Here, we report the three-dimensional structures of IIA(fuc) and IIB(fuc) providing evidence that this PTS system belongs to the EII(man) family. Additionally, the predicted metabolic pathway for this distinctive fucose utilization system suggests that EII(fuc) transports the H-disaccharide blood group antigen, which would represent a novel PTS transporter specificity. Proteins 2017; 85:963-968. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A longitudinal examination of the role of attentional control in the relationship between posttraumatic stress and threat-related attentional bias: An eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Bardeen, Joseph R; Daniel, Thomas A

    2017-09-18

    The purpose of the present study was to use eye-tracking technology to (a) show that attentional control can be used to reduce attentional bias to threat (ABT) among those with higher levels of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, (b) identify the specific attentional control (AC) processes (i.e., inhibition, shifting, working memory updating) that account for this effect, and (c) determine the short- (sympathetic nervous system reactivity) and long-term effects (PTS symptoms) of using attentional control in this manner. At Time 1 (T1), participants (N = 116 trauma exposed) completed self-report measures, an eye-tracking task assessing ABT, and behavioral measures assessing cognitive processes. A subsample (n = 49) completed an online follow-up assessment (T2). AC at T1 moderated the PTS-ABT relationship. Inhibitory ability appears to be driving this effect. Those with higher PTS symptoms and higher AC at T1, who spent less time attending to threat stimuli and had the lowest sympathetic response, had the highest levels of PTS symptoms at T2. Findings suggest that the habitual use of AC (especially inhibition) to shift attention from threat to neutral stimuli may alleviate distress in the short-term for those with higher PTS symptoms, but maintain, and perhaps exacerbate, PTS symptoms over longer periods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Attitudes of physiotherapists and physiotherapy students toward euthanasia: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Cavlak, Ugur; Aslan, Ummuhan Bas; Gurso, Suleyman; Yagci, Nesrin; Yeldan, Ipek

    2007-01-01

    This interventional study was undertaken to assess the impact of physiotherapy education on the knowledge and attitudes of physiotherapists (PTs) and physiotherapy students (PSs) toward euthanasia. The study, which was conducted during the period between 2004 and 2005, included a total of 494 participants (311 PTs; 183 PSs) aged 18 to 52 y from the western and central portions of Turkey, who responded to a self-report questionnaire (response rate, 96.4%) that was based on data from the literature. Results indicated that PTs (48.9%) were more likely to approve of euthanasia than PSs (38.3%) (P<.05). The legalization of euthanasia was favored by 43.7% of PTs, compared with 29.5% of PSs (P<.05). On the other hand, PTs and PSs expressed similar views regarding euthanasia, including reasons for accepting or opposing euthanasia and acceptable conditions for its use (P>.05). Overall results showed that sex and age had no effect on whether euthanasia was accepted (P>.05) religiousness was found to have the greatest effect on attitudes toward euthanasia (P<.05). The findings of the current study suggest that (1) the attitudes of PTs are different from those of PSs, and (2) the Islamic point of view has a negative impact on the attitudes of PTs and PSs toward euthanasia.

  13. [Repression of the enzyme inducible syntheses in Escherichia coli K12 mutant with a deleted ptsH gene].

    PubMed

    Gershanovich, V N; Il'ina, T S; Rusina, O Iu; Iurovitskaia, N V; Bol'shakova, T N

    1977-01-01

    The genome of lambda phage with thermosensitive repressor was integrated into the pts region of the E. coli chromosome. Such a lysogenic culture behaves as a pts mutant at 30 degrees. Heating of cells of this strain leads to the induction of lambda prophage and formation of deletions in the pts region. A mutant with a deletion covering ptsH gene was isolated after prophage induction. The deletion nature of pts mutation was confirmed in genetic and biochemical experiments. It was shown that the deletion is small and does not involve ptsI and lig genes. The isolated deltaptsH mutant possesses all characteristics of pts mutants: pleiotropic impairment of transport and utilization of a number of carbohydrates, repression of the enzyme inducible synthesis and resistance to catabolite repression with glucose. These data (together with earlier ones) allow us to conclude that the phosphorylated form of HPr is involved (in direct of indirect manner/ in activation of DNA transcription.

  14. Evaluation of a portable test system for assessing endotoxin activity in raw milk

    PubMed Central

    SUZUKI, Yohko; SUZUKI, Kazuyuki; SHIMAMORI, Toshio; TSUCHIYA, Masakazu; NIEHAUS, Andrew; LAKRITZ, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare endotoxin activities detected in raw milk samples obtained from cattle by a commercially available portable test system (PTS) and traditional microplate limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL)-based assay, which determined activities using a kinetic turbidimetric (KT) assay. Raw milk samples were obtained from 53 and 12 dairy cattle without and with clinical mastitis, respectively. Comparison between the KT and PTS was performed by the Friedman test. The Pearson product moment correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate associations between any two continuous variables. Linear regression model analysis was also performed to obtain the equation describing the relationship between PTS and KT assay. The endotoxin activities detected in 200- or 400-fold diluted milk samples were similar between PTS and KT assay, whereas a significant difference was observed in 100-fold diluted milk (P<0.001). The results obtained from 200- (r2=0.778, P<0.001) and 400-fold diluted milk samples (r2=0.945, P<0.001) using PTS correlated with those using KT assay. The median milk endotoxin activities in Gram-positive and Gram-negative clinical mastitis cows were 0.655 and 11,523.5 EU/ml, respectively. The results of the present study suggest that PTS as a simple and easy test to assess endotoxin activity in raw milk is efficient, simple and reproducible. PMID:26279135

  15. LOCAD-PTS: Operation of a New System for Microbial Monitoring Aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maule, J.; Wainwright, N.; Steele, A.; Gunter, D.; Flores, G.; Effinger, M.; Danibm N,; Wells, M.; Williams, S.; Morris, H.; Monaco, L.

    2008-01-01

    Microorganisms within the space stations Salyut, Mir and the International Space Station (ISS), have traditionally been monitored with culture-based techniques. These techniques involve growing environmental samples (cabin water, air or surfaces) on agar-type media for several days, followed by visualization of resulting colonies; and return of samples to Earth for ground-based analysis. This approach has provided a wealth of useful data and enhanced our understanding of the microbial ecology within space stations. However, the approach is also limited by the following: i) More than 95% microorganisms in the environment cannot grow on conventional growth media; ii) Significant time lags occur between onboard sampling and colony visualization (3-5 days) and ground-based analysis (as long as several months); iii) Colonies are often difficult to visualize due to condensation within contact slide media plates; and iv) Techniques involve growth of potentially harmful microorganisms, which must then be disposed of safely. This report describes the operation of a new culture-independent technique onboard the ISS for rapid analysis (within minutes) of endotoxin and -1, 3-glucan, found in the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria and fungi, respectively. This technique involves analysis of environmental samples with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay in a handheld device. This handheld device and sampling system is known as the Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS). A poster will be presented that describes a comparative study between LOCAD-PTS analysis and existing culture-based methods onboard the ISS; together with an exploratory survey of surface endotoxin throughout the ISS. It is concluded that while a general correlation between LOCAD-PTS and traditional culture-based methods should not necessarily be expected, a combinatorial approach can be adopted where both sets of data are used together to generate a more complete story of

  16. Early virologic failure and rescue therapy of tenofovir, abacavir, and lamivudine for initial treatment of HIV-1 infection: TONUS study.

    PubMed

    Landman, R; Descamps, D; Peytavin, G; Trylesinski, A; Katlama, C; Girard, P M; Bonnet, B; Yeni, P; Bentata, M; Michelet, C; Benalycherif, A; Brun Vezinet, F; Miller, M D; Flandre, P

    2005-01-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of the triple NRTI combination of abacavir (ABC), lamivudine (3TC), and tenofovir (TDF) in a once-daily regimen. 38 HIV-naive patients (pts) were treated in a prospective open-arm study over 48 weeks (W48). Virological failure was defined as never achieving plasma HIV-1 RNA < 400 copies/mL or rebound of > or = 0.7 log10. 12/36 (33%) pts had virologic failure at W24 and 10 additional pts had HIV RNA > 50 copies/mL at W12 or W24. There was a significant association between baseline viral load (VL) and virologic failure in 0%, 29%, and 64% pts with baseline VL levels < 4, 4-5, and > 5 log10 copies/mL, respectively (p = .014). 76% of pts developed K65R and M184V/I mutations by W24, and 19% developed M184V/I alone. At W4, 86% of pts had adequate plasma Cmin for the 3 drugs. 14 pts with K65R and M184V/I were given a rescue therapy with a successful outcome (< 50 copies/mL; median follow-up 48 weeks). Convergent genetic pathway to resistance, in conjunction with lower antiretroviral potency, may explain the high rate of selection K65R and M184V mutations. These mutations did not appear to have a negative effect on rescue therapy with a variety of regimens.

  17. Post-thrombotic syndrome after central venous catheter removal in childhood cancer survivors: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Polen, E; Weintraub, M; Stoffer, C; Jaffe, D H; Burger, A; Revel-Vilk, S

    2015-02-01

    Although the use of central venous catheters (CVCs) has greatly improved the quality of care of children with cancer, these catheters increase the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and the potential long-term complication of post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS). We aimed to study PTS post-CVC removal using physical, functional and health related quality of life (HRQoL) domains in childhood cancer and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) survivors. We conducted a prospective study in a cohort of childhood cancer and BMT survivors post-CVC use. Participants were evaluated for PTS with the Modified Villalta Score (MVS) and the Manco-Johnson Instrument (MJI). HRQoL was assessed using the PedsQL™ questionnaire. A total of 158 children were enrolled at a median of 41 (4-149) months from CVC removal. Signs and symptoms of PTS were present in 34% (95% confidence interval [CI] 27-43%) (MVS criteria) and 30.5% (95% CI 23.1-37.8%) (MJI criteria). Diagnosis of PTS was associated with history of CVC occlusion, history of CVC-related DVT and the use of ≥2 CVCs. The presence of signs and symptoms of PTS was a predictor for low HRQoL tested by the PedsQL™ Total Scale scores and Physical Health Summary scores. PTS post-CVC removal in pediatric cancer survivors is not a rare event. The association between PTS and the history of CVC occlusion confirms earlier findings, and suggests that CVC occlusion may indicate asymptomatic DVT. PTS is also associated with lower HRQoL scores highlighting the need to study preventive measures, especially for high risk groups. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2015;62:285-290. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Patient's satisfaction after 2-piece inflatable penile prosthesis implantation: An Italian multicentric study.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Giorgio; Franceschelli, Alessandro; Massenio, Paolo; Tuccio, Agostino; Cocci, Andrea; Divenuto, Lucia; Romagnoli, Daniele; Natali, Alessandro; Vitarelli, Antonio; Cormio, Luigi; Colombo, Fulvio

    2016-03-31

    Penile prosthesis implant represents a valuable solution for pts with severe erectile dysfunction (ED), non-responders to medical management. The aim of our study was to evaluate the satisfaction of patients (pts) after 2-pieces inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP). to evaluate safety, reliability and post-operative patient's satisfaction after implantation of two-pieces IPP. This retrospective multicentric analysis concerns a group of 42 patients undergone 2-pieces IPP implantation from November 2005 to November 2013, in four Centers of proven experience. As a first step, a detailed review of all clinical reports was performed. Secondly, every patient was asked to fill the Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS) specifically modified, in order to assess their own satisfaction after surgery and, its impact on patient's quality of sexual life. 42 pts were evaluated (AMS-Ambicor: 28; Coloplast-Excell: 14); mean age, at time of operation: 60,7 years; mean follow up: 27,6 months; etiology of ED: vascular 23,8%, diabetes 19%, La Peyronie D. 7,1%, consequence of radical prostatectomy 31%, consequence of other pelvic surgery 11,9%, spinal trauma 7%. Mean operative time: 117 ± 58 min, mean postoperative hospital stay 3 ± 1,6 days. Post operative short-term complications: 4 pts (9,5%). Post operative long-term complications: 4 pts (9,5%). Long-term functional results (Questionnaire): 71% of pts (30) reported regular use of the prosthesis, at least 1 time/week, the satisfaction was good in 42% of pts (18), quite good in 33,3% (14), quite bad in 2,4% (1), very bad in 7,1% (3), 6 pts (14,4%) didn't answer. 2 pieces IPP appears to be associated with a low complication rate and good satisfaction of pts especially in the elderly. It also assures satisfactory rates of aesthetics and functional results.

  19. AZD3514, an oral selective androgen receptor down-regulator in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer - results of two parallel first-in-human phase I studies.

    PubMed

    Omlin, A; Jones, R J; van der Noll, R; Satoh, T; Niwakawa, M; Smith, S A; Graham, J; Ong, M; Finkelman, R D; Schellens, J H M; Zivi, A; Crespo, M; Riisnaes, R; Nava-Rodrigues, D; Malone, M D; Dive, C; Sloane, R; Moore, D; Alumkal, J J; Dymond, A; Dickinson, P A; Ranson, M; Clack, G; de Bono, J; Elliott, T

    2015-06-01

    AZD3514 is a first-in-class, orally bio-available, androgen-dependent and -independent androgen receptor inhibitor and selective androgen-receptor down-regulator (SARD). In study 1 and 2, castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients (pts) were initially recruited into a once daily (QD) oral schedule (A). In study 1, pharmacokinetic assessments led to twice daily (BID) dosing (schedule B) to increase exposure. Study 2 explored a once daily schedule. In study 1, 49 pts were treated with escalating doses of AZD3514 (A 35 pts, B 14 pts). Starting doses were 100 mg (A) and 1000 mg (B). The AZD3514 formulation was switched from capsules to tablets at 1000 mg QD. 2000 mg BID was considered non-tolerable due to grade (G) 2 toxicities (nausea [N], vomiting [V]). No adverse events (AEs) met the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) definition. Thirteen pts received AZD3514 in study 2, with starting doses of 250 mg QD. The most frequent drug-related AEs were N: G1/2 in 55/70 pts (79 %); G3 in 1 pt (1.4 %); & V: G1/2 in 34/70 pts (49 %) & G3 in 1 pt (1.4 %). PSA declines (≥50 %) were documented in 9/70 patients (13 %). Objective soft tissue responses per RECIST1.1 were observed in 4/24 (17 %) pts in study 1. AZD3514 has moderate anti-tumour activity in pts with advanced CRPC but with significant levels of nausea and vomiting. However, anti-tumour activity as judged by significant PSA declines, objective responses and durable disease stabilisations, provides the rationale for future development of SARD compounds.

  20. Williams works with LOCAD-PTS Experiment Hardware in the US Lab during Expedition 15

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-05-05

    ISS015-E-06773 (5 May 2007) --- Astronaut Sunita L. Williams, Expedition 15 flight engineer, sets up a video camera inside a flame resistant covering to film a chip during Lab-on-a-Chip Application Development-Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS) Swab Operations in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  1. MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE SPORTS INJURIES AND MEDICAL CONDITIONS BY PHYSICAL THERAPISTS: ASSESSMENT VIA CASE SCENARIOS

    PubMed Central

    Karges, Joy Renae; Salsbery, Mitchell A.; Smith, Danna; Stanley, Erica J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Some physical therapists (PTs) provide services at sporting events, but there are limited studies investigating whether PTs are properly prepared to provide such services. The purpose of this study was to assess acute sports injury and medical condition management decision-making skills of PTs. Methods: A Web-based survey presented 17 case scenarios related to acute medical conditions and sport injuries. PTs from the Sports Physical Therapy Section of The American Physical Therapy Association were e-mailed a cover letter/Web link to the survey and invited to participate over a 30-day period. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0. Results: A total of 411 of 5158 PTs who were members of the Sports Physical Therapy Association in 2009 and had valid e-mail addresses completed the survey, of which 389 (7.5%) were appropriate for analysis. Over 75.0% of respondents felt “prepared” or “somewhat prepared” to provide immediate care for 13 out of 16 medical conditions, with seizures, spinal cord injuries, and internal organ injuries having the lowest percentages. Over 75.0% of the respondents made “appropriate” or “overly cautious” decisions for 11 of the 17 acute injury or medical condition cases. Conclusions: Results of the current study indicate that PTs felt more “prepared” and tended to make “appropriate” return to play decisions on the acute sports injury and medical condition case studies more often than coaches who participated in a similar study, regardless of level of importance of the game or whether the athlete was a starter vs. non-starter. However, for PTs who plan on assisting at sporting events, additional preparation/education may be recommended, such as what is taught in an emergency responder course. PMID:21904695

  2. Expression of the agmatine deiminase pathway in Enterococcus faecalis is activated by the AguR regulator and repressed by CcpA and PTS(Man) systems.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Cristian; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Víctor S; Magni, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Although the agmatine deiminase system (AgDI) has been investigated in Enterococcus faecalis, little information is available with respect to its gene regulation. In this study we demonstrate that the presence of exogenous agmatine induces the expression of agu genes in this bacterium. In contrast to the homologous and extensively characterized AgDI system of S. mutants, the aguBDAC operon in E. faecalis is not induced in response to low pH. In spite of this, agmatine catabolism in this bacterium contributes by neutralizing the external medium while enhancing bacterial growth. Our results indicate that carbon catabolic repression (CCR) operates on the AgDI system via a mechanism that involves interaction of CcpA and P-Ser-HPr with a cre site found in an unusual position considering the aguB promoter (55 nt upstream the +1 position). In addition, we found that components of the mannose phosphotransferase (PTS(Man)) system also contributed to CCR in E. faecalis since a complete relief of the PTS-sugars repressive effect was observed only in a PTS(Man) and CcpA double defective strain. Our gene context analysis revealed that aguR is present in oral and gastrointestinal microorganisms. Thus, regulation of the aguBDAC operon in E. faecalis seems to have evolved to obtain energy and resist low pH conditions in order to persist and colonize gastrointestinal niches.

  3. A ptsP deficiency in PGPR Pseudomonas fluorescens SF39a affects bacteriocin production and bacterial fitness in the wheat rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Godino, Agustina; Príncipe, Analía; Fischer, Sonia

    2016-04-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens SF39a is a plant-growth-promoting bacterium isolated from wheat rhizosphere. In this report, we demonstrate that this native strain secretes bacteriocins that inhibit growth of phytopathogenic strains of the genera Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas. An S-type pyocin gene was detected in the genome of strain SF39a and named pys. A non-polar pys::Km mutant was constructed. The bacteriocin production was impaired in this mutant. To identify genes involved in bacteriocin regulation, random transposon mutagenesis was carried out. A miniTn5Km1 mutant, called P. fluorescens SF39a-451, showed strongly reduced bacteriocin production. This phenotype was caused by inactivation of the ptsP gene which encodes a phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase (EI(Ntr)) of the nitrogen-related phosphotransferase system (PTS(Ntr)). In addition, this mutant showed a decrease in biofilm formation and protease production, and an increase in surface motility and pyoverdine production compared with the wild-type strain. Moreover, we investigated the ability of strain SF39a-451 to colonize the wheat rhizosphere under greenhouse conditions. Interestingly, the mutant was less competitive than the wild-type strain in the rhizosphere. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence of both the relevance of the ptsP gene in bacteriocin production and functional characterization of a pyocin S in P. fluorescens. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. LMOf2365_0442 Encoding for a Fructose Specific PTS Permease IIA May Be Required for Virulence in L. monocytogenes Strain F2365.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanhong; Yoo, Brian B; Hwang, Cheng-An; Suo, Yujuan; Sheen, Shiowshuh; Khosravi, Parvaneh; Huang, Lihan

    2017-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that causes listeriosis, which is a major public health concern due to the high fatality rate. LMOf2365_0442, 0443, and 0444 encode for fructose-specific EIIABC components of phosphotransferase transport system (PTS) permease that is responsible for sugar transport. In previous studies, in-frame deletion mutants of a putative fructose-specific PTS permease (LMOf2365_0442, 0443, and 0444) were constructed and analyzed. However, the virulence potential of these deletion mutants has not been studied. In this study, two in vitro methods were used to analyze the virulence potential of these L. monocytogenes deletion mutants. First, invasion assays were used to measure the invasion efficiencies to host cells using the human HT-29 cell line. Second, plaque forming assays were used to measure cell-to-cell spread in host cells. Our results showed that the deletion mutant ΔLMOf2365_0442 had reduced invasion and cell-to-cell spread efficiencies in human cell line compared to the parental strain LMOf2365, indicating that LMOf2365_0442 encoding for a fructose specific PTS permease IIA may be required for virulence in L. monocytogenes strain F2365. In addition, the gene expression levels of 15 virulence and stress-related genes were analyzed in the stationary phase cells of the deletion mutants using RT-PCR assays. Virulence-related gene expression levels were elevated in the deletion mutants ΔLMOf2365_0442-0444 compared to the wild type parental strain LMOf2365, indicating the down-regulation of virulence genes by this PTS permease in L. monocytogenes. Finally, stress-related gene clpC expression levels were also increased in all of the deletion mutants, suggesting the involvement of this PTS permease in stress response. Furthermore, these deletion mutants displayed the same pressure tolerance and the same capacity for biofilm formation compared to the wild-type parental strain LMOf2365. In summary, our findings suggest that the

  5. Synbiotic impact of tagatose on viability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG mediated by the phosphotransferase system (PTS).

    PubMed

    Koh, Ji Hoon; Choi, Seung Hye; Park, Seung Won; Choi, Nag-Jin; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun

    2013-10-01

    Synbiotics, the combination of prebiotics and probiotics, has been shown to produce synergistic effects that promote gastrointestinal well-being of host. Tagatose is a low calorie food ingredient with putative health-promoting benefits. Herein, we investigated its synbiotic impact on the viability of Lactobacillus casei 01 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG and the potential mechanism involved. Tagatose, as a synbiotic substrate, enhanced the growth of L. casei 01 and L. rhamnosus strain GG compared to other prebiotics. Other gut-indigenous such as Clostridium spp. readily utilized fructooligosaccharide (FOS), the most widely used functional prebiotics, but not tagatose. Additionally, tagatose enhanced probiotic functions of L. casei 01 and L. rhamnosus strain GG by reinforcing their attachment on HT-29 intestine epithelial cells and enhancing their cholesterol-lowering activities. Whole transcriptome study and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) test showed that the presence of tagatose in L. rhamnosus strain GG caused induction of a large number of genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism including the phosphotransferase system (PTS). Collectively, these results indicate the tagatose enhanced the growth of L. casei 01 and L. rhamnosus strain GG and their probiotic activities by activating tagatose-associated PTS networks. Importantly, this study highlights the potential application of tagatose and L. casei 01 and/or L. rhamnosus strain GG as a synbiotic partner in functional dairy foods (i.e. yogurt and cheese) and therapeutic dietary supplements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Preliminary investigation on the radiation transfer in dynamic hohlraums on the PTS facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Delong; Ye, Fan; Meng, Shijian; Ning, Jiamin; Qin, Yi; Hu, Qingyuan; Huang, Zhanchang; Yang, Jianlun; Chen, Faxin; Jiang, Shuqing; Ding, Ning; Xu, Rongkun; Xue, Chuang; Zhang, Yang; Sun, Shunkai; Shu, Xiaojian

    2017-09-01

    The radiation transfer in dynamic hohlraums on the PTS facility is preliminarily investigated in this paper. Simulation results show that as the accelerated wire-array plasma impacts onto the foam converter, energy thermalization takes place in a local interaction region near the boundary of the wire-array plasma and the foam converter, and then, high temperature radiation is gradually generated. Its transfer process largely depends on the radiation temperature and the mass density of the converter. When the mass ratio of the wire-array to the converter is near 1.0, the radiation temperature can be increased to about 120 eV with the PTS drive current. In this case, the radiation generated from the interaction region will quickly transfer to the center of the converter. The experimental end-on x-ray images present the overall process of radiation production and transfer of this kind of dynamic hohlraum. As the mass ratio is decreased, the radiation temperature will also be deceased, and the converter will become more opaque to the radiation. In the case of extremely low mass ratios such as lower than 0.3, the peak radiation temperature will be much lower than 100 eV, and the radiation transfers slowly to the interior of the converter and presents large non-uniformity, which is also observed in experiments on the PTS facility.

  7. Does Evidence-Based PTS Treatment Reduce PTS Symptoms and Suicide in Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans Seeking VA Care

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    psychotherapy to be identified and then four study team members annotated a set of 650 notes. We used a bag of words and support vector machine (SVM...performance requires using human-annotated notes (gold standard) to train and test different machine learning algorithms. We completed a...notes from the first round of annotation that all four reviewers agreed were “Not Psychotherapy,” we used a bag of words and support vector machine

  8. Howitzer Technology Assessment Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    AD-A091 782 VEDA INC SOUTHAMPTON PA p~1t HOWITZER TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT STUDY.CU) Fs1/ NOV 80 A J CURRAN , J M MAGINN N000OI8?gC-0925 UNCLASSIFIED...ADIO SCONTRACTOR REPORT ARLCD-CR-SO036 0 HOWITZER TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT STUDY ROGER I. CURRAN - JAMES M. MAGINN VEDA INCORPORATED 1360 INDUSTRIAL...C-0925," 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME ARC ADDRESS VI POGAMEUNTPRJCAS JPROe &. M HaSN. RJETTn Veda Incorporated 1360 Industrial Highway Southampton

  9. [Different significance in normal subjects and in glaucoma patients tested with Optopol PTS-910, in the galucoma program].

    PubMed

    Dascalu, Ana Maria; Cherecheanu, Alina Popa; Stana, Daniela; Serban, Dragoş

    2013-01-01

    to quantify the inter-test variability (dB) for the Optopol PTS automated perimeter, Glaucoma Fast threshold program. A prospective study was performed on 166 glaucomatous patients and a control group of 30 normal subjects, tested by complete ophthalmological exam and automated perimetry (Optopol PTS-910). The visual field was tested weekly for 4 consecutive weeks. The visual field defects were classified according to the Aulhorn-Karmeyer descriptive scale. For the control group, the medium inter-test variability was of 1.57 +/- 0.24 dB, lower next to fixation and increasing towards the 50 degree isopter. The medium inter-test variability increases along with the perimetric stage :1.57 +/- 0.66 dB for pre-perimetric glaucoma, 2.13 + 1.04 dB for non-specific defects group, 3.23 + 1.01 dB for the stage 1, 3.52 + 2.61 dB, for the stage 2, 3.65 + 1.19dB for the stage 3 and 5.82 +/- 1.67dB for the stage 4. For the cases of preperimetric glaucoma and non-specific defects, a similar profile of variability to the normal subjects can be observed. For the stages 2-4, the profile of the areas with maxim inter-test variability moves towards the relative scotoma and the surrounding area. A better description of the inter-test variability and the evolution of this intricate parameter of the retinal light sensitivity is useful for the differential diagnostic between the real change and the "background noise" in early detection of the functional progression in glaucoma.

  10. Equity Assessment Study. Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadale, LaVerna M.; Zhao, Peisheng

    This assessment study is a culminating activity of an eight-year initiative to facilitate gender equity and more equitable campus environments - Mentoring Institutional Equity in New York State Two-Year Colleges. Eighteen two-year colleges participated in the application and implementation of an educational equity model designed to enhance gender…

  11. Inactivation of the PTS as a Strategy to Engineer the Production of Aromatic Metabolites in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Susy Beatriz; Moreno, Fabián; Bolívar, Francisco; Gosset, Guillermo; Escalante, Adelfo

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory and industrial cultures of Escherichia coli employ media containing glucose which is mainly transported and phosphorylated by the phosphotransferase system (PTS). In these strains, 50% of the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), which results from the catabolism of transported glucose, is used as a phosphate donor for its phosphorylation and translocation by the PTS. This characteristic of the PTS limits the production of industrial biocommodities that have PEP as a precursor. Furthermore, when E. coli is exposed to carbohydrate mixtures, the PTS prevents expression of catabolic and non-PTS transport genes by carbon catabolite repression and inducer exclusion. In this contribution, we discuss the main strategies developed to overcome these potentially limiting effects in production strains. These strategies include adaptive laboratory evolution selection of PTS(-) Glc(+) mutants, followed by the generation of strains that recover their ability to grow with glucose as a carbon source while allowing the simultaneous consumption of more than one carbon source. We discuss the benefits of using alternative glucose transport systems and describe the application of these strategies to E. coli strains with specific genetic modifications in target pathways. These efforts have resulted in significant improvements in the production of diverse biocommodities, including aromatic metabolites, biofuels and organic acids. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. External Beam Radiotherapy Plus 24-Hour Continuous Infusion of Gemcitabine in Unresectable Pancreatic Carcinoma: Long-Term Results of a Phase II Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mattiucci, Gian C.; Morganti, Alessio G.; Valentini, Vincenzo; Ippolito, Edy; Alfieri, Sergio; Antinori, Armando; Crucitti, Antonio; D'Agostino, Giuseppe R.; Di Lullo, Liberato; Luzi, Stefano; Mantini, Giovanna; Smaniotto, Daniela; Doglietto, Gian B.; Cellini, Numa

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of gemcitabine-based chemoradiation (CT-RT) in treating patients (pts) affected by locally advanced pancreatic cancers (LAPC). Methods and Materials: Weekly gemcitabine (100 mg/m{sup 2}) was given as a 24-hour infusion during the course of three-dimensional radiotherapy (50.4 Gy to the tumor, 39.6 Gy to the nodes). After CT-RT, pts received five cycles of sequential chemotherapy with gemcitabine (1000 mg/m{sup 2}; 1, 8, q21). Response rate was assessed according to World Health Organization criteria 6 weeks after the end of CT-RT. Local control (LC), time to progression (TTP), metastases-free survival (MFS), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed by the Kaplan Meier method. Results: Forty pts (male/female 22/18; median age 62 years, range, 36-76) were treated from 2000 to 2005. The majority had T4 tumour (n = 34, 85%), six pts (15%) had T3 tumour. Sixteen pts (40%) were node positive at diagnosis. Grade 3-4 acute toxicity was observed in 21 pts (52.5%). Thirty pts (75%) completed the treatment schedule. A clinical response was achieved in 12 pts (30%). With a median follow-up of 76 months (range, 32-98), 2-year LC was 39.6% (median, 12 months), 2-year TTP was 18.4% (median, 10 months), and 2-year MFS was 29.7% (median, 10 months). Two-year OS (25%; median, 15.5 months) compared with our previous study on 5-fluorouracil-based CT-RT (2.8%) was significantly improved (p <0.001). Conclusions: Gemcitabine CT-RT seems correlated with improved outcomes. Healthier patients who are likely to complete the treatment schedule may benefit most from this therapy.

  13. Can the Dyskinesia Impairment Scale be used by inexperienced raters? A reliability study.

    PubMed

    Monbaliu, Elegast; Ortibus, Els; Prinzie, Peter; Dan, Bernard; De Cat, Josse; De Cock, Paul; Feys, Hilde

    2013-05-01

    The Dyskinesia Impairment Scale (DIS) is a new scale for measuring dystonia and choreoathetosis in dyskinetic Cerebral Palsy (CP). Previously, reliability of this scale has only been assessed for raters highly experienced in discriminating between dystonia and choreoathetosis. The aims of this study are to examine the reliability of the DIS used by inexperienced raters, new to discriminating between dystonia and choreoathetosis and to determine the effect of clinical expertise on reliability. Twenty-five patients (17 males; 8 females; age range 5-22 years; mean age = 13 years 6 months; SD = 5 years 4 months) with dyskinetic CP were filmed with the DIS standard video protocol. Two junior physiotherapists (PTs) and three senior PTs, all of whom were new to discriminating between dystonia and choreoathetosis, were trained in scoring the DIS. Afterward, they independently scored all patients from the video recordings using the DIS. Reliability was assessed by (1) Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC), (2) Standard Error of Measurement (SEM) and Minimal Detectable Difference (MDD) and (3) Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency. Interrater reliability for the total DIS, and for the dystonia and choreoathetosis subscales was good for the junior PTs and moderately high to excellent for the senior PTs. SEM and MDD values for the total DIS were 6% and 15% respectively for the junior PTs and 4% and 12% respectively for the senior PTs. Cronbach's alpha ranged between 0.87 and 0.95 for the junior PTs and between 0.76 and 0.93 for the senior PTs. Reliability of the DIS scores for the inexperienced junior and senior PTs was sufficient in comparison with scores from the experienced raters in the previous study, indicating that the DIS can be used by inexperienced PTs new to discriminating between dystonia and choreoathetosis, and also that its reliability is not dependent on clinical expertise. However, based on the measurement errors and questionnaire data, familiarity

  14. Performance assessment of a pupil tracking system for adaptive optics retinal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Betul; Harms, Fabrice; Lamory, Barbara

    2008-09-01

    Adaptive Optics (AO) is particularly suitable for correction of aberrations that change over time - a necessity for high resolution imaging of the retina. The rapidly changing aberrations originating from eye movements require wavefront sensors (WFS) with high repetition rates. Our approach is enhancing aberration correction by integrating a Pupil Tracking System (PTS) into the AO loop of the retinal imaging system. In this study we assessed the performance of the PTS developed for this purpose. Tests have demonstrated that the device achieves an accuracy of <15 μm in a +/-2 mm range of eye movements with a standard deviation <10 μm. PTS can tolerate +/-5 mm defocus with an increase of 4 μm in mean standard deviation. In vivo measurements done with temporarily paralyzed pupils have resulted in a precision of approximately 13 μm.

  15. Primary experimental results of wire-array Z-pinches on PTS

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, X. B. Zhou, S. T. Ren, X. D. Dan, J. K. Wang, K. L. Zhang, S. Q. Li, J. Xu, Q. Cai, H. C. Duan, S. C. Ouyang, K. Chen, G. H. Ji, C. Wang, M. Feng, S. P. Yang, L. B. Xie, W. P. Deng, J. J.

    2014-12-15

    The Primary Test Stand (PTS) developed at the China Academy of Engineering Physics is a multiterawatt pulsed power driver, which can deliver a ∼10 MA, 70 ns rise-time (10%-90%) current to a short circuit load and has important applications in Z-pinch driven inertial confinement fusion and high energy density physics. In this paper, primary results of tungsten wire-array Z-pinch experiments on PTS are presented. The load geometries investigated include 15-mm-tall cylindrical single and nested arrays with diameter ranging from 14.4-26.4 mm, and consisting of 132∼276 tungsten wires with 5∼10 μm in diameter. Multiple diagnostics were fielded to determine the characteristics of x-ray radiations and to obtain self-emitting images of imploding plasmas. X-ray power up to 80 TW with ∼3 ns FWMH is achieved by using nested wire arrays. The total x-ray energy exceeds 500 kJ and the peak radiation temperature is about 150 eV. Typical velocity of imploding plasmas goes around 3∼5×10{sup 7} cm/s and the radial convergence ratio is between 10 and 20.

  16. Variable length adjacent partitioning for PTS based PAPR reduction of OFDM signal

    SciTech Connect

    Ibraheem, Zeyid T.; Rahman, Md. Mijanur; Yaakob, S. N.; Razalli, Mohammad Shahrazel; Kadhim, Rasim A.

    2015-05-15

    Peak-to-Average power ratio (PAPR) is a major drawback in OFDM communication. It leads the power amplifier into nonlinear region operation resulting into loss of data integrity. As such, there is a strong motivation to find techniques to reduce PAPR. Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS) is an attractive scheme for this purpose. Judicious partitioning the OFDM data frame into disjoint subsets is a pivotal component of any PTS scheme. Out of the existing partitioning techniques, adjacent partitioning is characterized by an attractive trade-off between cost and performance. With an aim of determining effects of length variability of adjacent partitions, we performed an investigation into the performances of a variable length adjacent partitioning (VL-AP) and fixed length adjacent partitioning in comparison with other partitioning schemes such as pseudorandom partitioning. Simulation results with different modulation and partitioning scenarios showed that fixed length adjacent partition had better performance compared to variable length adjacent partitioning. As expected, simulation results showed a slightly better performance of pseudorandom partitioning technique compared to fixed and variable adjacent partitioning schemes. However, as the pseudorandom technique incurs high computational complexities, adjacent partitioning schemes were still seen as favorable candidates for PAPR reduction.

  17. Role of ptsP, orfT, and sss Recombinase Genes in Root Colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens Q8r1-96▿

    PubMed Central

    Mavrodi, Olga V.; Mavrodi, Dmitri V.; Weller, David M.; Thomashow, Linda S.

    2006-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens Q8r1-96 produces 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG), a polyketide antibiotic that suppresses a wide variety of soilborne fungal pathogens, including Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, which causes take-all disease of wheat. Strain Q8r1-96 is representative of the D-genotype of 2,4-DAPG producers, which are exceptional because of their ability to aggressively colonize and maintain large populations on the roots of host plants, including wheat, pea, and sugar beet. In this study, three genes, an sss recombinase gene, ptsP, and orfT, which are important in the interaction of Pseudomonas spp. with various hosts, were investigated to determine their contributions to the unusual colonization properties of strain Q8r1-96. The sss recombinase and ptsP genes influence global processes, including phenotypic plasticity and organic nitrogen utilization, respectively. The orfT gene contributes to the pathogenicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in plants and animals and is conserved among saprophytic rhizosphere pseudomonads, but its function is unknown. Clones containing these genes were identified in a Q8r1-96 genomic library, sequenced, and used to construct gene replacement mutants of Q8r1-96. Mutants were characterized to determine their 2,4-DAPG production, motility, fluorescence, colony morphology, exoprotease and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) production, carbon and nitrogen utilization, and ability to colonize the rhizosphere of wheat grown in natural soil. The ptsP mutant was impaired in wheat root colonization, whereas mutants with mutations in the sss recombinase gene and orfT were not. However, all three mutants were less competitive than wild-type P. fluorescens Q8r1-96 in the wheat rhizosphere when they were introduced into the soil by paired inoculation with the parental strain. PMID:16936061

  18. SIMBOSPROST: Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis in prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy: A multicentre, cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Samper Ots, Pilar Ma; Muñoz García, Julia Luisa; Ríos Kavadoy, Yesika; Couselo Paniagua, Ma Luz; Villafranca Iturre, Elena; Rodríguez Liñán, Milagrosa; Pérez Casas, Ana María; Soria, Rodrigo Muelas; Martínez, Blanca Ludeña; Torrecilla, José López; Giner, Manuel Casaña; Laborda, Almudena Zapatero; García-Salazar, Ma Magdalena Márquez

    2015-01-01

    Aim To assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and osteoporosis in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) treated with radical radiotherapy (RT) with or without androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Background Worldwide, the prevalence of MetS is estimated to range from 20% to 25% of the adult population. However, prevalence rates are much higher in PCa patients (pts) who undergo ADT. Materials and methods Multicentre cross-sectional study of 270 pts in Spain with PCa. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on the duration of ADT (6, 12–18, ≥24 months) and compared to a control group without ADT. MetS was defined according to NCEP ATP III criteria. Osteoporosis was assessed by DEXA. Results A total of 270 pts, treated from November 2011 to October 2012, were included. Of these, 122 pts (47%) fulfilled the criteria for MetS. The median age of this group was significantly higher (71.3 vs. 69.38 years, p = 0.028). MetS prevalence was 50% in the control group. In pts who received ADT, prevalence was 44.8% after 6 months of ADT, 45.3% after 12–18 months, and 50% after ≥24 months (pns). Most pts (168/270; 62%) underwent DEXA. Of those tested, 78 (46.4%) had osteopenia and only 11 (6.5%) had osteoporosis. Conclusions The prevalence of MetS in pts with PCa treated with radical RT was higher (47%) than in the general population. However, there were no significant differences in the duration of ADT administration. The prevalence of osteoporosis was low. These findings suggest that the prevalence of MetS in PCa patients may be higher than previously reported. PMID:26549995

  19. Cloning and Molecular Analysis of a Mannitol Operon of Phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent Phosphotransferase (PTS) type From Vibrio cholerae O395

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanath; Smith, Kenneth P.; Floyd, Jody L.; Varela, Manuel F.

    2010-01-01

    A putative mannitol operon of the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase (PTS) type was cloned from Vibrio cholerae O395 and its activity studied in Escherichia coli. The 3.9 kb operon comprising of three genes is organized as mtlADR. Based on the sequence analysis, these were identified as genes encoding a putative mannitol-specific enzyme IICBA (EIIMtl) component (MtlA), a mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (MtlD) and a mannitol operon repressor (MtlR). The transport of [3H]mannitol by the cloned mannitol operon in E. coli was 13.8±1.4 nmol/min/mg protein. The insertional inactivation of EIIMtl abolished mannitol and sorbitol transport in V. cholerae O395. Comparison of the mannitol utilization apparatus of V. cholerae with those of Gram-negative and Gram positive bacteria suggests highly conserved nature of the system. MtlA and MtlD exhibit 75% similarity with corresponding sequences of E. coli mannitol operon genes, while MtlR has 63% similarity with MtlR of E. coli. The cloning of V. cholerae mannitol utilization system in an E. coli background will help in elucidating the functional properties of this operon. PMID:21184218

  20. Reducing PAPR of optical OFDM system based on PTS and companding joint algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yangjing; Li, Ping; Lei, Dongming; Chen, Ailin; Wang, Jinpeng; Zou, Nianyu

    2015-10-01

    Optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system combines the advantages of both wireless OFDM and optical fiber technology, thus has high spectral efficiency and can effectively resist polarization mode dispersion and chromatic dispersion in fiber link. However, high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) is one of the important shortcomings of optical OFDM system, which requires not only amplifiers with a greater dynamic range, but also leads to serious fiber nonlinear effect. So how to reduce PAPR of optical OFDM system is a crucial issue. This work, aiming to reduce PAPR and improving system BER, analyzes suppression technology of PAPR based on optical OFDM system. Firstly, to improve BER, we utilize Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS) algorithm which introduces phase factors b(v) multiplying IFFT converted signals and searches a b(v) which will make PAPR minimum. But this method needs much calculation. Then we exploit companding which can compress amplitude of big OFDM signals and expand small signals. Secondly, simulating the two algorithms respectively and finding two algorithms can suppress PAPR, but the effect has room for improvement. Therefore, an implementation of PTS and companding joint algorithm is proposed, then simulating this method and adding it into optical OFDM system. A system was set up, fiber length setting as 10km, utilizing a MZM modulator and a distributed feedback laser, taking 4QAM and 512points IFFT. The results show that, joint algorithm can reduce PAPR from about 12dB to 8dB, improving the problem of high PAPR, constellation convergence, enhances optical OFDM system transmission performance.

  1. PTS regulation domain-containing transcriptional activator CelR and sigma factor σ(54) control cellobiose utilization in Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    PubMed

    Nie, Xiaoqun; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Lei; Gu, Yang; Yang, Sheng; Jiang, Weihong; Yang, Chen

    2016-04-01

    The phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) regulation domain (PRD)-containing enhancer binding proteins (EBPs) are an important class of σ(54) -interacting transcriptional activators. Although PRD-containing EBPs are present in many Firmicutes, most of their regulatory functions remain unclear. In this study, the transcriptional regulons of about 50 PRD-containing EBPs in diverse Firmicutes species are reconstructed by using a comparative genomic approach, which contain the genes associated with utilization of β-glucosides, fructose/levan, mannose/glucose, pentitols, and glucosamine/fructosamine. We then present experimental evidence that the cel operon involved in cellobiose utilization is directly regulated by CelR and σ(54) (SigL) in Clostridium acetobutylicum. The predicted three CelR-binding sites and σ(54) promoter elements upstream of the cel operon are verified by in vitro binding assays. We show that CelR has an ATPase activity, which is strongly stimulated by the presence of DNA containing the CelR-binding sites. Moreover, mutations in any one of the three CelR-binding sites significantly decreased the cel promoter activity probably due to the need for all three DNA sites for maximal ATPase activity of CelR. It is suggested that CelR is regulated by PTS-mediated phosphorylation at His-551 and His-829, which exerts a positive effect and an inhibitory effect, respectively, on the CelR activity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. New PAPR Reduction in OFDM System Using Hybrid of PTS-APPR Methods with Coded Side Information Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradabpet, Chusit; Yoshizawa, Shingo; Miyanaga, Yoshikazu; Dejhan, Kobchai

    In this paper, we propose a new PAPR reduction by using the hybrid of a partial transmit sequences (PTS) and an adaptive peak power reduction (APPR) methods with coded side information (SI) technique. These methods are used in an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system. The OFDM employs orthogonal sub-carriers for data modulation. These sub-carriers unexpectedly present a large Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) in some cases. In order to reduce PAPR, the sequence of input data is rearranged by PTS. The APPR method is also used to controls the peak level of modulation signals by an adaptive algorithm. A proposed reduction method consists of these two methods and realizes both advantages at the same time. In order to make the optimum condition on PTS for PAPR reduction, a quite large calculation cost must be demanded and thus it is impossible to obtain the optimum PTS. In the proposed method, by using the pseudo-optimum condition with a coded SI technique, the total calculation cost becomes drastically reduced. In simulation results, the proposed method shows the improvement on PAPR and also reveals the high performance on bit error rate (BER) of an OFDM system.

  3. Penicillium chrysogenum Pex5p mediates differential sorting of PTS1 proteins to microbodies of the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Kiel, Jan A K W; van den Berg, Marco; Bovenberg, Roel A L; van der Klei, Ida J; Veenhuis, Marten

    2004-07-01

    We have isolated the Penicillium chrysogenum pex5 gene encoding the receptor for microbody matrix proteins containing a type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS1). Pc-pex5 contains 2 introns and encodes a protein of approximately 75 kDa. P. chrysogenum pex5 disruptants appear to be highly unstable, show poor growth, and are unable to sporulate asexually. Furthermore, pex5 cells mislocalize a fluorescent PTS1 reporter protein to the cytosol. Pc-pex5 was expressed in a PEX5 null mutant of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha. Detailed analysis demonstrated that the PTS1 proteins dihydroxyacetone synthase and catalase were almost fully imported into microbodies. Surprisingly, alcohol oxidase, which also depends on Pex5p for import into microbodies, remained mainly in the cytosol. Thus, P. chrysogenum Pex5p has a different specificity of cargo recognition than its H. polymorpha counterpart. This was also suggested by the observation that Pc-Pex5p sorted a reporter protein fused to various functional PTS1 signals with different efficiencies.

  4. Audit and Assessment Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Craig

    2016-03-22

    Project to assess 46 low-income multifamily residences owned and managed by THRHA in up to 14 southeast Alaska communities. The Objective of project was to identify efficiency measures to reduce energy costs by 30% for low-income multifamily housing by; 1. Decreasing energy demand by increasing multifamily housing energy efficiency; 2. Reducing household energy consumption through energy conservation education and installation of energy upgrades; and 3. Projecting energy savings based on fossil fuel reduction to environmentally and economically benefit Tribal southeast communities

  5. Life-cycle case study comparison of permeable reactive barrier versus pump-and-treat remediation.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Monica R; Olson, Terese M

    2009-12-15

    A permeable reactive barrier (PRB) is a passive remediation technology, which over decades of use, may reduce lifetime environmental impacts when compared with a conventional pump-and-treat system (PTS). Greater material production requirements to install PRBs may offset the expected reductions in operational phase impacts and the trade-offs can be investigated in a life-cycle assessment (LCA). The life-cycle environmental impacts of a zerovalent iron (ZVI) containing PRB with a funnel and gate configuration and a PTS were compared in a case study. Potential impacts of the model PRB are driven by the ZVI reactive medium and the energy usage during construction, while for the PTS they are driven by the operational energy demand. Medium longevity governed the magnitude of the potential PRB impacts and the extent to which it was optimal relative to the PTS. Even at conservatively low estimates of longevity, the PRB offers significant environmental advantages in impact categories of human health and ozone depletion. The minimum ZVI longevity for PRB benefit over the PTS system in all impact categories was 10 years. Suggested PRB design innovations to reduce environmental impacts include the development of alternative reactive media and construction methods.

  6. Assessing the quality of study reports on spa therapy based on randomized controlled trials by the spa therapy checklist (SPAC).

    PubMed

    Kamioka, Hiroharu; Tsutani, Kiichiro; Maeda, Masaharu; Hayasaka, Shinya; Okuizum, Hiroyasu; Goto, Yasuaki; Okada, Shinpei; Kitayuguchi, Jun; Abe, Takafumi

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of study reports on spa therapy based on randomized controlled trials by the spa therapy and balneotherapy checklist (SPAC), and to show the relationship between SPAC score and the characteristics of publication. We searched the following databases from 1990 up to September 30, 2013: MEDLINE via PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, Ichushi Web, Global Health Library, the Western Pacific Region Index Medicus, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. We used the SPAC to assess the quality of reports on spa therapy and balneotherapy trials (SPAC) that was developed using the Delphi consensus method. Fifty-one studies met all inclusion criteria. Forty studies (78%) were about "Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective)". The total SPAC score (full-mark; 19 pts) was 10.8 ± 2.3 pts (mean ± SD). The items for which a description was lacking (very poor; <50%) in many studies were as follows: "locations of spa facility where the data were collected"; "pH"; "scale of bathtub"; "presence of other facility and exposure than bathing (sauna, steam bath, etc.)"; "qualification and experience of care provider"; "Instructions about daily life" and "adherence". We clarified that there was no relationship between the publish period, languages, and the impact factor (IF) for the SPAC score. In order to prevent flawed description, SPAC could provide indispensable information for researchers who are going to design a research protocol according to each disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis and Physicochemical Characterization of D-Tagatose-1-phosphate: The Substrate of the Tagatose-1-Phosphate Kinase TagK in the PTS-mediated D-Tagatose Catabolic Pathway of Bacillus licheniformis

    PubMed Central

    Van der Heiden, Edwige; Delmarcelle, Michaël; Simon, Patricia; Counson, Melody; Galleni, Moreno; Freedberg, Darón I.; Thompson, John; Joris, Bernard; Battistel, Marcos D.

    2015-01-01

    We report the first enzymatic synthesis of D-tagatose-1-phosphate (Tag-1P) by the multi-component PEP-dependent:tag-PTS present in tagatose-grown cells of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Physicochemical characterization by 31P and 1H NMR spectroscopy reveals that, in solution, this derivative is primarily in the pyranose form. Tag-1P was used to characterize the putative tagatose-1-phosphate kinase (TagK) of the Bacillus licheniformis PTS-mediated D-Tagatose catabolic Pathway (Bli-TagP). For this purpose, a soluble protein fusion was obtained with the 6 His-tagged trigger factor (TFHis6) of Escherichia coli. The active fusion enzyme was named TagK-TFHis6. Tag-1P and D-fructose-1-phosphate (Fru-1P) are substrates for the TagK-TFHis6 enzyme, whereas the isomeric derivatives D-tagatose-6-phosphate (Tag-6P) and D-fructose-6-phosphate (Fru-6P) are inhibitors. Studies of catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) reveal that the enzyme specificity is markedly in favor of Tag-1P as substrate. Importantly, we show in vivo that the transfer of the phosphate moiety from PEP to the B. licheniformis tagatose-specific enzyme II (EIITag) in E.coli is inefficient. The capability of the PTS general cytoplasmic components of B. subtilis, HPr and EI, to restore the phosphate transfer is demonstrated. PMID:26159072

  8. A new member of ferrous sulfates, FeSO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O with PtS topology showing spin-canted long-range antiferromagnetic ordering

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Long; Liu, Wei Cao, Lixin; Su, Ge; Gao, Rongjie; Yang, Hongzhan

    2015-11-15

    A sanderite ferrous sulfate FeSO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O has been synthesized by the hydro/solvothermal method. Its crystal structure (Pccn, a=6.3160 Å, b=7.7550 Å, c=8.9880 Å, V=440.2 Å{sup 3}, Z=4) can be regarded as the condensation of alternately corner-shared FeO{sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} octahedra and SO{sub 4} tetrahedra with a similar topology of PtS. By structural comparison with the known hydrated ferrous sulfates, the structural relation among them has been noted and discussed in detail. A variable temperature magnetic study shows a spin-canted long-range antiferromagnetic ordering in the low temperature regime, which might result from a possible phase transition during the cooling from the high temperature. - Graphical abstract: As a new number of ferrous sulfates, sanderite FeSO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O has been synthesized under hydro/solvothermal conditions, which exhibits a similar topology of PtS. - Highlights: • Sanderite ferrous sulfate has been synthesized. • The topology of its structure is similar to that of PtS. • A structural relation between these hydrated ferrous sulfates is discovered.

  9. In vitro import of peroxisome-targeting signal type 2 (PTS2) receptor Pex7p into peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Non; Hosoi, Ken-ichiro; Mukai, Satoru; Fujiki, Yukio

    2009-05-01

    Pex7p, the peroxisome-targeting signal type 2 (PTS2) receptor, transports PTS2 proteins to peroxisomes from the cytosol. We here established a cell-free Pex7p translocation system. In assays using post-nuclear supernatant fractions each from wild-type CHO-K1 and pex7 ZPG207 cells, 35S-labeled Pex7p was imported into peroxisomes. 35S-Pex7p import was also evident using rat liver peroxisomes. 35S-Pex7p was not imported into peroxisomal remnants from a pex5 ZPG231 defective in PTS2 import and pex2 Z65. When the import of 35S-Pex5pL was inhibited with an excess amount of recombinant Pex5pS, 35S-Pex7p import was concomitantly abrogated, suggesting that Pex5pL was a transporter for Pex7p, unlike a yeast cochaperone, Pex18p. 35S-Pex7p as well as 35S-Pex5p was imported in an ATP-independent manner, whilst the import of PTS1 and PTS2 cargo-proteins was ATP-dependent. Thereby, ATP-independent import of Pex7p implicated that Pex5p export requiring ATP hydrolysis is not a limiting step for its cargo recruitment to peroxisomes. PTS1 protein import was indeed insensitive to N-ethylmaleimide, whereas Pex5p export was N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive. Taken together, the cargo-protein translocation through peroxisomal membrane more likely involves another ATP-requiring step in addition to the Pex5p export. Moreover, upon concurrent import into peroxisomes, 35S-Pex5pL and 35S-Pex7p were detected at mutually distinct ratios in the immunoprecipitates each of the import machinery peroxins including Pex14p, Pex13p, and Pex2p, hence suggesting that Pex7p as well as Pex5p translocated from the initial docking complex to RING complex on peroxisomes.

  10. Study of skin vasomotion in type 1 diabetic patients and of its possible relationship with clinical and laboratory variables.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Marco; Matteucci, Elena; Pesce, Margherita; Consani, Cristina; Galetta, Fabio; Giampietro, Ottavio; Santoro, Gino

    2013-01-01

    Vascular oscillation (vasomotion) occurs in the microcirculation and is thought to be a significant contributor to tissue perfusion. Our aim was to assess skin vasomotion (SV) of type 1 diabetic patients (T1D-pts) and its relationship with clinical or laboratory variables of the studied T1D-pts. Forearm endothelial-, sympathetic- and myogenic-dependent SV were assessed basally and after 3 min of forearm ischemia in 40 T1D-pts and 50 healthy controls, by spectral analysis of laser-Doppler (LD) signal at the frequency ranges of 0.009-0.02 Hz, 0.021-0.06 Hz and 0.061-0.2 Hz, respectively. Post-ischemic per cent increase (PI%-increase) in power spectral density (PSD) of skin endothelial- and sympathetic-dependent VS was significantly reduced in T1D-pts compared to controls (p < 0.0005, p < 0.0001, respectively). Linear regression analysis showed a significant positive relationship between PI%-increase of endothelial-dependent SV and heart rate variation during laying-standing test (R = 0.65, p = 0.00001), and a negative relationship between PI%-increase in PSD of skin LD signal 0.009-1.6 Hz spectrum and glycated haemoglobin serum levels (R = 0.44, p = 0.0036) in T1D-pts. These results are consistent with reduced skin endothelial- and sympathetic-dependent stimulated SV and with relationships between some clinical or laboratory variables and SV parameters in the T1D-pts studied.

  11. Characterization of injection wells in a fractured reservoir using PTS logs, Steamboat Hills Geothermal Field, Nevada, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Goranson, Colin; Combs, Jim

    1995-01-26

    The Steamboat Hills Geothermal Field in northwestern Nevada, about 15 km south of Reno, is a shallow (150m to 825m) moderate temperature (155 C to 168 C) liquid-dominated geothermal reservoir situated in highly-fractured granodiorite. Three injection wells were drilled and completed in granodiorite to dispose of spent geothermal fluids from the Steamboat II and III power plants (a 30 MW air-cooled binary-type facility). Injection wells were targeted to depths below 300m to inject spent fluids below producing fractures. First, quasi-static downhole pressure-temperature-spinner (PTS) logs were obtained. Then, the three wells were injection-tested using fluids between 80 C and 106 C at rates from 70 kg/s to 200 kg/s. PTS logs were run both up and down the wells during these injection tests. These PTS surveys have delineated the subsurface fracture zones which will accept fluid. The relative injectivity of the wells was also established. Shut-in interzonal flow within the wells was identified and characterized.

  12. Developing Assessment through Lesson Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischman, Davida; Wasserman, Kelli

    2017-01-01

    Lesson study cultivates teachers' capacity for formative assessment by placing student thinking front and center throughout. Lesson study is a form of professional development in which a team of teachers determines a mathematical focus, collaboratively studies student thinking about the topic, designs a lesson about this content, implements the…

  13. Pex13p is an SH3 protein of the peroxisome membrane and a docking factor for the predominantly cytoplasmic PTs1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Gould, S J; Kalish, J E; Morrell, J C; Bjorkman, J; Urquhart, A J; Crane, D I

    1996-10-01

    Import of newly synthesized PTS1 proteins into the peroxisome requires the PTS1 receptor (Pex5p), a predominantly cytoplasmic protein that cycles between the cytoplasm and peroxisome. We have identified Pex13p, a novel integral peroxisomal membrane from both yeast and humans that binds the PTS1 receptor via a cytoplasmically oriented SH3 domain. Although only a small amount of Pex5p is bound to peroxisomes at steady state (< 5%), loss of Pex13p further reduces the amount of peroxisome-associated Pex5p by approximately 40-fold. Furthermore, loss of Pex13p eliminates import of peroxisomal matrix proteins that contain either the type-1 or type-2 peroxisomal targeting signal but does not affect targeting and insertion of integral peroxisomal membrane proteins. We conclude that Pex13p functions as a docking factor for the predominantly cytoplasmic PTS1 receptor.

  14. Industrial heat pump assessment study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappell, R. N.; Priebe, S. J.; Wilfert, G. L.

    1989-03-01

    This report summarizes preliminary studies that assess the potential of industrial heat pumps for reduction of process heating requirements in industries receiving power from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). This project was initiated at the request of BPA to determine the potential of industrial heat pumps in BPA's service area. Working from known heat pump principles and from a list of BPA's industrial customers, the authors estimated the fuel savings potential for six industries. Findings indicate that the pulp and paper industry would yield the greatest fuel savings and increased electrical consumption. Assessments presented in this report represent a cooperative effort between The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and Battelle-Northwest Laboratories.

  15. Clinical usefulness of the Staffelstein-Score in the functional assessment in knee arthroplasty patients.

    PubMed

    Słupik, Anna; Kowalski, Marcin; Białoszewski, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the authors' own modification of the Staffelstein-Score against the HSS Knee Score in the assessment of early results of knee arthroplasty. A total of 67 patients qualified for knee arthroplasty (average age 68.5 years) were examined. 62 patients underwent a surgical procedure. A control group comprised 74 healthy patients (average age 67.5 years). Muscle strength and knee range of motion were measured and HSS Knee Score (HSS) and modified Staffelstein-Score (MSS) assessments were performed. The experimental group was assessed at baseline (Test 1) and at 8 (Test 2) and 100 (Test 3) days postoperatively. The control group was examined once. The Staffelstein-Scores on successive examinations were 67, 59 and 100 pts in the experimental group and 119 pts in the control group. Statistically significant differences were noted between the results within the experimental group and between the groups. The respective HSS Knee Score results were 46, 44 and 73 pts in the experimental group and 96 pts in the control group. Statistically significant differences were observed as regards the results, except the baseline assessment vs. Test 2. 1. The sensitivity of the HSS Knee Score is insufficient if tests are carried out at short intervals. It does not provide a balanced assessment of the functional capability and clinical performance of the joint. 2. The modified Staffelstein-Score has a high sensitivity to clinical changes, even those occurring a few days following an arthroplasty procedure. 3. The MSS is also useful as a balanced assessment of pain, joint functional capability and clinical examination results.

  16. Portfolio assessment: practice teachers' early experience.

    PubMed

    Spence, William; El-Ansari, Walid

    2004-07-01

    Experience was recognised to be a vital source of learning as long ago as 1762 [Emile, Everyman, London, 1993] and reflection on practice experience may be one way forward in addressing nursing's anxieties concerning the practice theory gap. However, despite the acceptance that subjectivity in the process seems inevitable and potentially important, little is understood of the practitioner's experience of practice assessment. Two questionnaires sought the views of specialist community nursing practitioner (SCNP) programme (United Kingdom Central Council for Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting (UKCC) 2001) practice teachers (PTs) on the introduction of the portfolio approach to practice assessment. These were distributed to 62 and 76 PTs and the response rates were 32% and 50%, respectively. Responses of those PTs from the three specialisms participating in the piloting of the portfolio approach were compared with those using an existing approach. An action research method was adopted which attempted to use established theory to explain the challenges presented by the introduction of this approach and ultimately to raise the PT group's awareness of assessment issues. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected and the findings support the use of the portfolio approach to practice assessment. The PT experience of portfolio use was found to be a largely positive one. PTs reported the utility of the portfolio in prompting student self-evaluation of learning. Concerns were expressed by PTs around the quality of portfolio evidence although many felt that it had promoted students' reflection on practice. Inter-PT reliability in practice assessment was identified as a topic for PT continuing professional development. Many sources of evidence, including patient feedback, were used by PTs in their assessment of students although PTs using the portfolio approach used less first-hand experience of students' practice in their assessments of competence, relying more

  17. Development of CAPTSure(TM) - a new index for the assessment of pediatric postthrombotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Avila, M L; Brandão, L R; Williams, S; Montoya, M I; Stinson, J; Kiss, A; Feldman, B M

    2016-12-01

    Essentials We developed a discriminative and evaluative index for pediatric postthrombotic syndrome (PTS). A Delphi-survey was used for item reduction and multi-criteria decision analysis for item weighting. The new index assesses limb PTS based on the relative severity of each sign and symptom. Higher scores related to higher odds of parental dissatisfaction with their child's condition.

  18. Regulation of PTS gene expression by the homologous transcriptional regulators, Mlc and NagC, in Escherichia coli (or how two similar repressors can behave differently).

    PubMed

    Plumbridge, J

    2001-07-01

    NagC and Mlc are paralogous transcriptional repressors in E.coli. Unexpectedly they possess almost identical amino acid sequences in their helix-turn-helix (H-T-H), DNA binding motif and they bind to very similar consensus operator targets. Binding to each others sites can be demonstrated in vitro but no cross regulation can be detected in vivo with physiological amounts of the two proteins. Although both proteins are involved in regulating the expression of PTS genes, the characteristics of their repression and induction are very different. NagC is a dual-function, activator-repressor which co-ordinates the metabolism of the amino sugars, N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and glucosamine, by repressing the divergent nagE-BA operons and by activating the glmUS operon. Repression (and activation) by NagC requires that NagC binds simultaneously to two operators, thus forming a DNA loop. This chelation effect allows use of lower affinity sites which would not individually bind the repressor. The specific inducer for NagC is GlcNAc-6-P, the product of GlcNAc transport by the PTS and a key compound in amino sugar metabolism. Mlc represses several genes implicated in the uptake of glucose; ptsG, ptsHI and manXYZ, and malT, the activator of the mal regulon. Glucose behaves like the inducer but growth on glucose only produces an overall increase in expression for ptsG and ptsHI. All Mlc repressed genes are also controlled by cAMP/CAP, so that glucose affects their transcription in two opposing ways: increasing expression by acting as the inducer for Mlc but decreasing expression by lowering the cAMP/CAP concentration. The Mlc protein is not directly responsive to glucose per se but to the activity status of the PTS. Displacement of Mlc from its binding sites occurs during growth on glucose and other PTS sugars and involves sequestration of the repressor to membranes by binding to dephosphorylated PtsG.

  19. Spatial-temporal epidemiology of human Salmonella Enteritidis infections with major phage types (PTs 1, 4, 5b, 8, 13, and 13a) in Ontario, Canada, 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Varga, Csaba; Pearl, David L; McEwen, Scott A; Sargeant, Jan M; Pollari, Frank; Guerin, Michele T

    2015-12-17

    In Ontario and Canada, the incidence of human Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) infections have increased steadily during the last decade. Our study evaluated the spatial and temporal epidemiology of the major phage types (PTs) of S. Enteritidis infections to aid public health practitioners design effective prevention and control programs. Data on S. Enteritidis infections between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2009 were obtained from Ontario's disease surveillance system. Salmonella Enteritidis infections with major phage types were classified by their annual health region-level incidence rates (IRs), monthly IRs, clinical symptoms, and exposure settings. A scan statistic was employed to detect retrospective phage type-specific spatial, temporal, and space-time clusters of S. Enteritidis infections. Space-time cluster cases' exposure settings were evaluated to identify common exposures. 1,336 cases were available for analysis. The six most frequently reported S. Enteritidis PTs were 8 (n = 398), 13a (n = 218), 13 (n = 198), 1 (n = 132), 5b (n = 83), and 4 (n = 76). Reported rates of S. Enteritidis infections with major phage types varied by health region and month. International travel and unknown exposure settings were the most frequently reported settings for PT 5b, 4, and 1 cases, whereas unknown exposure setting, private home, food premise, and international travel were the most frequently reported settings for PT 8, 13, and 13a cases. Diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fever were the most commonly reported clinical symptoms. A number of phage type-specific spatial, temporal, and space-time clusters were identified. Space-time clusters of PTs 1, 4, and 5b occurred mainly during the winter and spring months in the North West, North East, Eastern, Central East, and Central West regions. Space-time clusters of PTs 13 and 13a occurred at different times of the year in the Toronto region. Space-time clusters of PT 8

  20. National Children's Study Dietary Assessment Workshop

    Cancer.gov

    The National Children's Study dietary assessment workshop was an opportunity for experts in dietary assessment methodology to gather and discuss the current state of knowledge about methodologies used to assess dietary intake during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.

  1. A manual therapy intervention improves symptoms in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Maddali Bongi, Susanna; Signorini, Massimo; Bassetti, Massimo; Del Rosso, Angela; Orlandi, Martina; De Scisciolo, Giuseppe

    2013-05-01

    In carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), manual therapy interventions (MTI) reduce tissue adhesion and increase wrist mobility. We evaluated the efficacy of a MTI in relieving CTS signs and symptoms. Twenty-two CTS patients (pts) (41 hands) were treated with a MTI, consisting in 6 treatments (2/week for 3 weeks) of soft tissues of wrist and hands and of carpal bones. Pts were assessed for hand sensitivity, paresthesia, hand strength, hand and forearm pain, night awakening; Phalen test, thenar eminence hypotrophy and Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ) Symptom Severity Scale (SSS) and Functional Status Scale (FSS). Median nerve was studied by sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) and distal motor latency (DML). CTS was scored as minimal, mild, medium, severe and extreme. We considered as control group the same pts assessed before treatment: at baseline (T0a) and after 12 weeks (T0b). Pts were evaluated at the end of treatment (T1) and after 24-week (T2) follow-up. At T0b, versus T0a, forearm pain and Phalen test positivity were increased and hand strength reduced (p < 0.05). BCTQ-SSS and BCTQ-FSS scores improved at T1 versus T0b (p < 0.05) with the amelioration maintained at T2. At T1, the number of pts with paresthesia, night awakening, hypoesthesia, Phalen test, hand strength reduction and hand sensitivity was reduced with the lacking of symptoms maintained at T2 (p < 0.05). No changes in SNCV, DML and CTS scoring were shown. MTI improved CTS signs and symptoms, with benefits maintained at follow-up. Thus, it may be valid as a conservative therapy.

  2. A programme of studies including assessment of diagnostic accuracy of school hearing screening tests and a cost-effectiveness model of school entry hearing screening programmes.

    PubMed

    Fortnum, Heather; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Hyde, Chris; Taylor, Rod S; Ozolins, Mara; Errington, Sam; Zhelev, Zhivko; Pritchard, Clive; Benton, Claire; Moody, Joanne; Cocking, Laura; Watson, Julian; Roberts, Sarah

    2016-05-01

    age difference 0.47 years, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.70 years; p < 0.001). Parental responses revealed that the consequences to the family of the referral process are minor. A SES programme is unlikely to be cost-effective and, using base-case assumptions, is dominated by a no screening strategy. A SES programme could be cost-effective if there are fewer referrals associated with SES programmes or if referrals occur more quickly with SES programmes. A SES programme using the PTS or HC screener is unlikely to be effective in increasing the identified number of cases with hearing impairment and lowering the average age at identification and is therefore unlikely to represent good value for money. This finding is, however, critically dependent on the results of the observational study comparing Nottingham and Cambridge, which has limitations. The following are suggested: systematic reviews of the accuracy of devices used to measure hearing at school entry; characterisation and measurement of the cost-effectiveness of different approaches to the ad-hoc referral system; examination of programme specificity as opposed to test specificity; further observational comparative studies of different programmes; and opportunistic trials of withdrawal of SES programmes. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN61668996. This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 20, No. 36. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.

  3. Assessing Vocal Performances Using Analytical Assessment: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gynnild, Vidar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated ways to improve the appraisal of vocal performances within a national academy of music. Since a criterion-based assessment framework had already been adopted, the conceptual foundation of an assessment rubric was used as a guide in an action research project. The group of teachers involved wanted to explore thinking…

  4. Orchard Sports Injury Classification System 10.1 Plus: An End-User Study.

    PubMed

    Crossway, Ashley K; Games, Kenneth E; Eberman, Lindsey E; Fleming, Neil

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the level of ease of use and effectiveness of the Orchard Sport Injury Classification System (OSICS) 10.1 Plus for recording injuries and interventions. Three hundred and forty-two (males=148, females=192, no response=2; age=30.9±9.5y; experience=9.1±10.5y) athletic trainers (ATs) in the United States completed the survey. Participants were primarily employed in the secondary school (n=135) or collegiate setting (n=171). Participants entered system includes the OSICS 10.1 to catalog injuries and Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes to document interventions. Participants completed an 18-item end-user evaluation to assess the ease of use and effectiveness of the OSICS 10.1 Plus (5-point Likert scale). Participants indicated that the OSICS 10.1 Plus is overall easy to use (4.1±0.7pts), easy to enter an injury (4.1±0.8pts), and easy to enter the associated interventions (3.9±0.8pts). Respondents were neutral about whether the OSICS 10.1 Plus matched their current injury (3.5±1.0pts) or intervention (3.5±0.9pts) records. A majority of participants indicated that they could find the injury (281/342, 82.2%) and interventions (225/342, 65.8%) of interest. A majority of respondents (205/342, 60.0%) indicated they would consider using OSICS 10.1 Plus for injury surveillance in clinical practice. The OSICS 10.1 Plus could serve as an effective and useful mechanism for injury surveillance with minor modifications; however, we, as professionals in sports healthcare, need to improve regular medical documentation first so that we are better able to conduct injury surveillance among our patients.

  5. Orchard Sports Injury Classification System 10.1 Plus: An End-User Study

    PubMed Central

    CROSSWAY, ASHLEY K.; GAMES, KENNETH E.; EBERMAN, LINDSEY E.; FLEMING, NEIL

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the level of ease of use and effectiveness of the Orchard Sport Injury Classification System (OSICS) 10.1 Plus for recording injuries and interventions. Three hundred and forty-two (males=148, females=192, no response=2; age=30.9±9.5y; experience=9.1±10.5y) athletic trainers (ATs) in the United States completed the survey. Participants were primarily employed in the secondary school (n=135) or collegiate setting (n=171). Participants entered system includes the OSICS 10.1 to catalog injuries and Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes to document interventions. Participants completed an 18-item end-user evaluation to assess the ease of use and effectiveness of the OSICS 10.1 Plus (5-point Likert scale). Participants indicated that the OSICS 10.1 Plus is overall easy to use (4.1±0.7pts), easy to enter an injury (4.1±0.8pts), and easy to enter the associated interventions (3.9±0.8pts). Respondents were neutral about whether the OSICS 10.1 Plus matched their current injury (3.5±1.0pts) or intervention (3.5±0.9pts) records. A majority of participants indicated that they could find the injury (281/342, 82.2%) and interventions (225/342, 65.8%) of interest. A majority of respondents (205/342, 60.0%) indicated they would consider using OSICS 10.1 Plus for injury surveillance in clinical practice. The OSICS 10.1 Plus could serve as an effective and useful mechanism for injury surveillance with minor modifications; however, we, as professionals in sports healthcare, need to improve regular medical documentation first so that we are better able to conduct injury surveillance among our patients. PMID:28344740

  6. Ingestion of foreign bodies among prisoners: a ten years retrospective study at University Hospital of Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    VOLPI, A.; LAFORGIA, R.; LOZITO, C.; PANEBIANCO, A.; PUNZO, C.; IALONGO, P.; CARBOTTA, G.; SEDERINO, M.G.; MINAFRA, M.; PATERNO, A.; PALASCIANO, N.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction We studied 21 episodes of ingestion of foreign bodies (IFO) among 15 prisoners. Patients and Methods Rectrospective research in pts admitted to emergency from June 2005 to May 2105. Ingestion, management and pts outcome were analyzed. Prisoners with previous esophagogastroduodenal disease were excluded. Results All pts were males and ingestions were intentional. Esophagogastroduoduenoscopy (EGDS) was performed in 10pts (8 cases with successful removal, 1 case we did not find anything e 1 of unsuccessful EGDS, that required emergency surgey. 9 pts rejected EGDS: in 2 pts were not necessary. Among the 9 pts that rejected EGDS, 5 discharged voluntary. No mortality neither morbidity. Only 1 pt required surgery. The IFO were 34 (23 sharp, 6 flat, 5 indefined). We did not observe any food bolus impaction. Multiple ingestion was found in 11 pts. Recurrent episodes were found in 4 pts. Discussion Almost all episodes can be treated conservatively with observation and endoscopy but the management of this pts has a financial impact on healthcare cost and on security costs. Prevention strategies are important to predict patient group at high risk for recurrent IFO. PMID:28691672

  7. Evaluation of the impact of tumor HPV status on outcome in patients with locally advanced unresectable head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) receiving cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil with or without docetaxel: a subset analysis of EORTC 24971 study.

    PubMed

    Psyrri, A; Fortpied, C; Koutsodontis, G; Avgeris, M; Kroupis, C; Goutas, N; Menis, J; Herman, L; Giurgea, L; Remenár, É; Degardin, M; Pateras, I S; Langendijk, J A; van Herpen, C M L; Awada, A; Germà-Lluch, J R; Kienzer, H R; Licitra, L; Vermorken, J B

    2017-09-01

    EORTC 24971 was a phase III trial demonstrating superiority of induction regimen TPF (docetaxel, cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil) over PF (cisplatin/5-fluorouracil), in terms of progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in locoregionally advanced unresectable head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. We conducted a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data aiming to evaluate whether only HPV(-) patients (pts) benefit from adding docetaxel to PF, in which case deintensifying induction treatment in HPV(+) pts could be considered. Pretherapy tumor biopsies (blocks or slides) were assessed for high-risk HPV by p16 immunohistochemistry, PCR and quantitative PCR. HPV-DNA+ and/or p16+ tumors were subjected to in situ hybridization (ISH) and HPV E6 oncogene expression qRT-PCR analysis. Primary and secondary objectives were to evaluate the value of HPV/p16 status as predictive factor of treatment benefit in terms of PFS and OS. The predictive effect was analyzed based on the model used in the primary analysis of the study with the addition of a treatment by marker interaction term and tested at two-sided 5% significance level. Of 358, 119 pts had available tumor samples and 58 of them had oropharyngeal cancer. Median follow-up was 8.7 years. Sixteen of 119 (14%) evaluable samples were p16+ and 20 of 79 (25%) evaluable tumors were HPV-DNA+. 13 of 40 pts (33%) assessed with HPV-DNA ISH and 12 of 28 pts (43%) assessed for HPV E6 mRNA were positive. The preplanned analysis showed no statistical evidence of predictive value of HPV/p16 status for PFS (P = 0.287) or OS (P = 0.118). The incidence of HPV positivity was low in the subset of EORTC 24971 pts analyzed. In this analysis only powered to detect a large treatment by marker interaction, there was no statistical evidence that treatment effect found overall was different in magnitude in HPV(+) or HPV(-) pts. These results do not justify selection of TPF versus PF according to HPV status.

  8. Children's Postdisaster Trajectories of PTS Symptoms: Predicting Chronic Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Greca, Annette M.; Lai, Betty S.; Llabre, Maria M.; Silverman, Wendy K.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There are no studies of the distinct trajectories of children's psychological distress over the first year after a destructive natural disaster and the determinants of these trajectories. Objective: We examined these issues using an existing dataset of children exposed to Hurricane Andrew, one of the most devastating natural…

  9. Children's Postdisaster Trajectories of PTS Symptoms: Predicting Chronic Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Greca, Annette M.; Lai, Betty S.; Llabre, Maria M.; Silverman, Wendy K.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There are no studies of the distinct trajectories of children's psychological distress over the first year after a destructive natural disaster and the determinants of these trajectories. Objective: We examined these issues using an existing dataset of children exposed to Hurricane Andrew, one of the most devastating natural…

  10. Assessing observational studies of medical treatments

    PubMed Central

    Hartz, Arthur; Bentler, Suzanne; Charlton, Mary; Lanska, Douglas; Butani, Yogita; Soomro, G Mustafa; Benson, Kjell

    2005-01-01

    Background Previous studies have assessed the validity of the observational study design by comparing results of studies using this design to results from randomized controlled trials. The present study examined design features of observational studies that could have influenced these comparisons. Methods To find at least 4 observational studies that evaluated the same treatment, we reviewed meta-analyses comparing observational studies and randomized controlled trials for the assessment of medical treatments. Details critical for interpretation of these studies were abstracted and analyzed qualitatively. Results Individual articles reviewed included 61 observational studies that assessed 10 treatment comparisons evaluated in two studies comparing randomized controlled trials and observational studies. The majority of studies did not report the following information: details of primary and ancillary treatments, outcome definitions, length of follow-up, inclusion/exclusion criteria, patient characteristics relevant to prognosis or treatment response, or assessment of possible confounding. When information was reported, variations in treatment specifics, outcome definition or confounding were identified as possible causes of differences between observational studies and randomized controlled trials, and of heterogeneity in observational studies. Conclusion Reporting of observational studies of medical treatments was often inadequate to compare study designs or allow other meaningful interpretation of results. All observational studies should report details of treatment, outcome assessment, patient characteristics, and confounding assessment. PMID:16137327

  11. Spatiotemporal distribution and risk assessment of organotins in the surface water of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun-Min; Wu, Lei; Chen, You-Peng; Zhou, Bin; Guo, Jin-Song; Zhang, Ke; Ouyang, Wen-Juan

    2017-03-01

    The water quality security of the Three Gorges Reservoir during different operating periods has been a subject of recent concern. This study is the first to report the spatiotemporal variability of organotins (OTs) in surface water under dynamic water level conditions in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR). TGRR surface water was collected during three monitoring campaigns to analyze butyltins (BTs) and phenyltins (PTs) using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system. Our results showed that TGRR surface water was polluted by BTs and PTs, with mono-OTs being the dominant species. A wide range of BTs and PTs concentrations was observed across the study area, but tributyltin (TBT) displayed extensive spatial distribution, and the highest concentrations consistently occurred in the downstream region of the TGRR study area, with a maximum of 393.35 ng Sn/L in Zigui (S27). The total OTs contamination level decreased over time. The diphenyltin concentration exhibited significant seasonal variation, while other OTs showed seasonal changes only during two monitoring campaigns, with the exception of dibutyltin. An ecological risk assessment indicated that both TBT and triphenyltin posed risks to aquatic organisms in TGRR surface water. We urgently recommend continuous monitoring and further measures to prevent and control OTs pollution in the TGRR.

  12. Assessment and Quality Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Tom V.

    2003-01-01

    Those anonymous individuals who develop high-stakes tests by which educational quality is measured exercise great influence in defining educational quality. In this article, the author examines the impact of high-stakes testing on the welfare of the children and the quality of social studies instruction. He presents the benefits and drawbacks of…

  13. Collaborative Assessment: Middle School Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkison, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing a participant observer research model, a case study of the efficacy of a collaborative assessment methodology within a middle school social studies class was conducted. A review of existing research revealed that students' perceptions of assessment, evaluation, and accountability influence their intrinsic motivation to learn. A…

  14. Synthesis, characterization, and development of structurally homogeneous polythiophenes (PTs) and polythienylene vinylenes (PTVs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loewe, Robert Scott

    Research in the McCullough laboratory focuses on the design, synthesis, and subsequent evaluation of conjugated polymer systems. The bulk of our research is concerned with the electrical, optical and sensing properties of polythiophene systems and their derivatives. Polythiophenes are perhaps the most versatile class of conducting polymers because of their ease of derivitization at the three and/or four positions of the ring and their good environmental stability. We rely on self-assembly strategies as seen in biological systems to create novel polymer architectures that display intriguing properties. A clear illustration of this can be seen with poly(3-alkylthiophenes) (P3ATs). A 3-substituted thiophene monomer, being asymmetric, can polymerize in a regiorandom fashion. PATs that are joined together in only one way, specifically in a head-to-tail fashion, exhibit a marked increase in their electronic and photonic properties when compared to regiorandom analogues. Recently, a new, highly useful synthetic method to generate fully regioregular, head-to-tail coupled poly-3alkylthiophenes has been discovered. This method is a modification from the existing McCullough synthetic method but is a great deal simpler and less expensive. A new analytical tool to study polythiophene systems has recently been added to our arsenal, namely MALDI TOF MS. We now have the ability to determine actual polymer molecular weights rather than relative polymer molecular weights using GPC. Secondly, we have the ability to deduce and monitor the end-group structures found on all of the polymer chains. This allows us to perform end-group derivatizations and monitor their successes. Chapter 4 describes the synthesis of 3-functionalized thiophene monomers and their resultant polymerizations. Chapter 5 describes the synthesis of a polythiophene bearing a carboxylic acid functional group at the 3-position. These types of polymers have been found to be water-soluble after treatment with base

  15. Maltose Uptake by the Novel ABC Transport System MusEFGK2I Causes Increased Expression of ptsG in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Henrich, Alexander; Kuhlmann, Nora; Eck, Alexander W.; Krämer, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-positive Corynebacterium glutamicum efficiently metabolizes maltose by a pathway involving maltodextrin and glucose formation by 4-α-glucanotransferase, glucose phosphorylation by glucose kinases, and maltodextrin degradation via maltodextrin phosphorylase and α-phosphoglucomutase. However, maltose uptake in C. glutamicum has not been investigated. Interestingly, the presence of maltose in the medium causes increased expression of ptsG in C. glutamicum by an unknown mechanism, although the ptsG-encoded glucose-specific EII permease of the phosphotransferase system itself is not required for maltose utilization. We identified the maltose uptake system as an ABC transporter encoded by musK (cg2708; ATPase subunit), musE (cg2705; substrate binding protein), musF (cg2704; permease), and musG (cg2703; permease) by combination of data obtained from characterization of maltose uptake and reanalyses of transcriptome data. Deletion of the mus gene cluster in C. glutamicum Δmus abolished maltose uptake and utilization. Northern blotting and reverse transcription-PCR experiments revealed that musK and musE are transcribed monocistronically, whereas musF and musG are part of an operon together with cg2701 (musI), which encodes a membrane protein of unknown function with no homologies to characterized proteins. Characterization of growth and [14C]maltose uptake in the musI insertion strain C. glutamicum IMcg2701 showed that musI encodes a novel essential component of the maltose ABC transporter of C. glutamicum. Finally, ptsG expression during cultivation on different carbon sources was analyzed in the maltose uptake-deficient strain C. glutamicum Δmus. Indeed, maltose uptake by the novel ABC transport system MusEFGK2I is required for the positive effect of maltose on ptsG expression in C. glutamicum. PMID:23543710

  16. Maltose uptake by the novel ABC transport system MusEFGK2I causes increased expression of ptsG in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Henrich, Alexander; Kuhlmann, Nora; Eck, Alexander W; Krämer, Reinhard; Seibold, Gerd M

    2013-06-01

    The Gram-positive Corynebacterium glutamicum efficiently metabolizes maltose by a pathway involving maltodextrin and glucose formation by 4-α-glucanotransferase, glucose phosphorylation by glucose kinases, and maltodextrin degradation via maltodextrin phosphorylase and α-phosphoglucomutase. However, maltose uptake in C. glutamicum has not been investigated. Interestingly, the presence of maltose in the medium causes increased expression of ptsG in C. glutamicum by an unknown mechanism, although the ptsG-encoded glucose-specific EII permease of the phosphotransferase system itself is not required for maltose utilization. We identified the maltose uptake system as an ABC transporter encoded by musK (cg2708; ATPase subunit), musE (cg2705; substrate binding protein), musF (cg2704; permease), and musG (cg2703; permease) by combination of data obtained from characterization of maltose uptake and reanalyses of transcriptome data. Deletion of the mus gene cluster in C. glutamicum Δmus abolished maltose uptake and utilization. Northern blotting and reverse transcription-PCR experiments revealed that musK and musE are transcribed monocistronically, whereas musF and musG are part of an operon together with cg2701 (musI), which encodes a membrane protein of unknown function with no homologies to characterized proteins. Characterization of growth and [(14)C]maltose uptake in the musI insertion strain C. glutamicum IMcg2701 showed that musI encodes a novel essential component of the maltose ABC transporter of C. glutamicum. Finally, ptsG expression during cultivation on different carbon sources was analyzed in the maltose uptake-deficient strain C. glutamicum Δmus. Indeed, maltose uptake by the novel ABC transport system MusEFGK2I is required for the positive effect of maltose on ptsG expression in C. glutamicum.

  17. Long-term screening for sleep apnoea in paced patients: preliminary assessment of a novel patient management flowchart by using automatic pacemaker indexes and sleep lab polygraphy.

    PubMed

    Aimé, Ezio; Rovida, Marina; Contardi, Danilo; Ricci, Cristian; Gaeta, Maddalena; Innocenti, Ester; Cabral Tantchou-Tchoumi, Jacques

    2014-10-01

    The primary aim of this pilot study was to prospectively assess a flowchart to screen and diagnose paced patients (pts) affected by sleep apnoeas, by crosschecking indexes derived from pacemakers (minute ventilation sensor on-board) with Sleep-Lab Polygraphy (PG) outcomes. Secondarily, "smoothed" long-term pacemaker indexes (all the information between two consecutive follow-up visits) have been retrospectively compared vs. standard short-term pacemaker indexes (last 24h) at each follow-up (FU) visit, to test their correlation and diagnostic concordance. Data from long-term FU of 61 paced pts were collected. At each visit, the standard short-term apnoea+hypopnoea (PM_AHI) index was retrieved from the pacemaker memory. Patients showing PM_AHI ≥ 30 at least once during FU were proposed to undergo a PG for diagnostic confirmation. Smoothed pacemaker (PM_SAHI) indexes were calculated by averaging the overall number of apnoeas/hypopnoeas over the period between two FU visits, and retrospectively compared with standard PM_AHI. Data were available from 609 consecutive visits (overall 4.64 ± 1.78 years FU). PM_AHI indexes were positive during FU in 40/61 pts (65.6%); 26/40 pts (65%) accepted to undergo a PG recording; Sleep-Lab confirmed positivity in 22/26 pts (84.6% positive predictive value for PM_AHI). A strong correlation (r=0.73) and a high level of concordance were found between smoothed and standard indexes (multivariate analysis, Cohen's-k and Z-score tests). Pacemaker-derived indexes may help in screening paced pts potentially affected by sleep apnoeas. Long-term "smoothed" apnoea indexes could improve the accuracy of pacemaker screening capability, even though this hypothesis must be prospectively confirmed by larger studies. Copyright © 2014 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Age specific and individual psychological factors of post--traumatic stress (PTS) development of children with after-effects of physical damages indicating medical rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Пятакова, Галина В; Лебедева, Екатерина И; Потявина, Валерия В; Церфус, Диана Н

    children and teenagers having received hard physical damages face a difficult life situation which includes events accompanied by feeling of intensive fear and helplessness. Every child's individual psychological features play an important role in coping with negative psychological after-effects of his/her physical trauma. learning PTS manifestations among children and teenagers with hard physical damages indicating medical rehabilitation. patients of the traumatological department of children's surgery clinic took part in the research: 31 preadolescent children and their parents, 45 teengaers and their parents. Physical damages were received by children clinic's patients in accidents and out of negligence. A survey containing clinical and historical method elements, medical documents; semi-structured interviews for identification of signs of children's post-traumatic stress, a survey for parents for identification of children's traumatic experience, colour matrices and J. Raven black-and-white matrices, S. Rosenzweig frustration tolerance methods (children's and adult version) were used as certain research methods. it was shown that intellectual productivity showings and stable ways of emotional reaction can act as individual psychological factos of PTS development. Age specifics of embeddedness of intellectual features and stable ways of emotional reaction to PTS symptoms development among children and teenagers with hard physical damages. the received results can be used as a base for developing specific approaches for psychological support of children and teenagers having the experience of physical damage and difficult medical rehabilitation.

  19. The usefulness of contrast during exercise echocardiography for the assessment of systolic pulmonary pressure

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Luis R; Loureiro, Maria J; Miranda, Rita; Almeida, Sofia; Almeida, Ana R; Cordeiro, Ana; Cotrim, Carlos; Carrageta, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Background The systolic pulmonary artery pressure (PAPs) can be accurately estimated, non-invasively, using continuous-wave Doppler (CWD) ultrasound measurement of the peak velocity of a tricuspid regurgitant (TR) jet. However, it is often difficult to obtain adequate tricuspid regurgitation signals for measurement of PAPs, what could lead to its underestimation. Therefore, utilization of air-blood-saline contrast has been implemented for the improvement of Doppler signal in several clinical contexts. It is now recommended in the evaluation of patients with pulmonary hypertension. Physical activity is severely restricted in patients with PAH, being exertional dypnea the most typical symptom. Exercise stress echo-Doppler imaging allows assessment of the response to exercise. It is an excellent screening test for patients with suspected PAH. Our purpose was to evaluate the value and accuracy of agitated saline with blood contrast echocardiography, in the improvement of the Doppler signal, to quantify PAPs during treadmill exercise-echocardiography. Purpose To evaluate the value of contrast echocardiography, using agitated saline with blood, in the improvement of the Doppler signal used to quantify the pulmonary artery systolic pressure during exercise. Methods From a total of 41 patients (pts), we studied 38 pts (93%), 35 women, aged 54 ± 12 years-old. 27 with the diagnosis of systemic sclerosis, 10 with history of pulmonary embolism and one patient with a suspected idiopathic PAH, who were referred to the Unity of Heart Failure and Pulmonary Hypertension for screening of PAH. According to the Unity protocol, a transthoracic echocardiogram was made, in left decubitus (LD), with evaluation of right ventricle-right atria gradient (RV/RAg). A peripheral venous access was obtained, with a 3-way stopcock and the patients were placed in orthostatism (O), with a new evaluation of RV/RAg. Exercise echocardiography (EE) was begun, with evaluation of RV/RAg at peak exercise

  20. Phyllodes tumor: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 30 cases.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Nicole Nicosia; Mohan, Deepak; Brufsky, Adam; Lin, Yan; Kapali, Malathy; Dabbs, David J

    2006-10-01

    Phyllodes tumors (PTs) of the breast are biphasic neoplasms composed of epithelium and a spindle-cell stroma. Currently, PTs are classified as benign, borderline, or malignant based on histopathologic features. However, histologic classification does not always predict outcome. Objective.-To determine the prognostic value of a variety of clinicopathologic features and immunoreactivities in PTs. Sixteen benign, 8 borderline, and 6 malignant PTs with follow-up were examined for reactivity across a panel of immunohistochemical stains, including c-Kit, endothelin 1, p16, p21, p53, and Ki-67. Clinicopathologic features, including stromal cellularity, mitotic rate, and margin status, were also assessed. Tumor variables were compared among tumor subgroups and between tumors that did and did not recur. Of the 30 PTs, 4 recurred (1 benign, 2 borderline, 1 malignant). One patient with a malignant tumor died of metastatic disease 34 months after initial diagnosis. The overall positive rate of c-Kit immunoreactivity was 13% in benign, 63% in borderline, and 67% in malignant PTs. Endothelin 1 epithelial cytoplasmic staining was seen in 100% of benign, 50% of borderline, and 17% of malignant PTs. Additionally, p16, p21, p53, and Ki-67 were differentially expressed among benign, borderline, and malignant tumors. Positive surgical resection margins was the only variable that significantly predicted recurrent disease (P = .02). Stromal c-Kit positivity and epithelial endothelin 1 negativity are more often associated with malignant PTs; however, only positive margin status is significantly associated with tumor behavior.

  1. Assessment of the effect of vasodilators on the distribution of cardiac output by whole-body Thallium imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Juni, J.E.; Wallis, J.; Diltz, E.; Nicholas, J.; Lahti, D.; Pitt, B.

    1985-05-01

    Vasodilator therapy (tx) of congestive heart failure (CHF) has been shown to be effective in increasing cardiac output (CO) and lowering vascular resistance. Unfortunately, these hemodynamic effects are not usually accompanied by improved peripheral circulation of exercise capacity. To assess the effect of a new vasodilator, Cl-914, on the redistribution of CO to the peripheral circulation, the authors performed testing whole-body thallium scanning (WB-Th) on 6 patients (pts) with severe CHF. Immediately following i.v. injection of 1.5 mCi Th-201, WB scanning was performed from anterior and posterior views. Regions of interest were defined for the peripheral (P) muscles (legs and arms), central torso (C), and splanchnic bed (S). The geometric mean of activity in these regions was calculated from both views. Each pt was studied before tx and again, after 1 week on tx. Invasive measurements revealed that all pts had significant improvements in resting cardiac output (mean increase 49%) and vascular resistance (mean decrease 30%). Unlike other vasodilators, all CI-914 pts had a significant improvement in treadmill exercise capacity (mean increase 54%). WB-Th revealed a significant shift in CO to the peripheral circulation with P:C increased 33.2% (rho= .001) and P:S increased 29% (rho=.01). Vasoactive drugs may significantly alter the relative distribution of cardiac output. WB-Th scanning provides a simple quantitative means of following such changes.

  2. Assessment of critical thinking: a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sheila A

    2014-11-01

    Nurse educators are responsible for preparing nurses who critically analyze patient information and provide meaningful interventions in today's complex health care system. By using the Delphi research method, this study, utilized the specialized and experiential knowledge of Certified Nurse Educators. This original Delphi research study asked Certified Nurse Educators how to assess the critical-thinking ability of nursing students in the clinical setting. The results showed that nurse educators need time, during the clinical experience, to accurately assess each individual nursing student. This study demonstrated the need for extended student clinical time, and a variety of clinical learning assessment tools.

  3. Assessing the Academic Benefit of Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cisneros-Donahue, Teresa; Krentler, Kathleen A.; Reinig, Bruce; Sabol, Karey

    2012-01-01

    Study abroad is a growing phenomenon in higher education. Although such growth is typically lauded, efforts to measure the impact of international experiences on student learning have been limited. This study assesses the academic benefit of a study abroad program, offered by a U.S. university, with measures of self-reported learning. Study abroad…

  4. Peroxisomal plant nitric oxide synthase (NOS) protein is imported by peroxisomal targeting signal type 2 (PTS2) in a process that depends on the cytosolic receptor PEX7 and calmodulin.

    PubMed

    Corpas, Francisco J; Barroso, Juan B

    2014-06-05

    Nitric oxide (NO) production in plant peroxisomes by l-arginine-dependent NO synthase activity has been proven. The PEX5 and PEX7 PTS receptors, which recognize PTS1- and PTS2-containing proteins, are localized in the cytosol. Using AtPex5p and AtPex7p knockdown in Arabidopsis by RNA interference (RNAi) designated as pex5i and pex7i, we found that the l-arginine-dependent protein responsible for NO generation in peroxisomes appears to be imported through an N-terminal PTS2. Pharmacological analyzes using a calcium channel blocker and calmodulin (CaM) antagonist show that the import of the peroxisomal NOS protein also depends on calcium and calmodulin.

  5. Travel Efficiency Assessment Method: Three Case Studies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This slide presentation summarizes three case studies EPA conducted in partnership with Boston, Kansas City, and Tucson, to assess the potential benefits of employing travel efficiency strategies in these areas.

  6. Posterior tibial slope influences static anterior tibial translation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a minimum 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Hong, Lei; Feng, Hua; Wang, Qianqian; Zhang, Jin; Song, Guanyang; Chen, Xingzuo; Zhuo, Hongwu

    2014-04-01

    Posterior tibial slope (PTS) has recently been identified as a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries because of an associated increase in anterior tibial translation (ATT) and ACL loading. However, few studies concerning the correlation between PTS and postoperative ATT have been published. To analyze the relationship between PTS and postoperative ATT in ACL reconstruction (ACLR). Case control study; Level of evidence, 3. Included in this retrospective study were 40 consecutive patients who underwent ACLR (28 male, 12 female; median age, 22 years; range, 14-44 years) from October 2010 to June 2011. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on medial and lateral PTS values as measured on MRI. Demographic data and results of the manual maximum side-to-side difference with a KT-1000 arthrometer at 30° of knee flexion before ACLR and at final follow-up were collected; results were divided into ATT ≤2 mm, 2 mm < ATT < 5 mm, and ATT ≥5 mm. First, the distribution of ATT in the 3 groups was compared, and then correlation analysis and logistic regression were conducted to determine the correlation between PTS and ATT. Finally, the thresholds of medial and lateral PTS were calculated. Results of the ATT measurements were collected at a mean of 27.5 months (range, 24.0-37.0 months) after ACLR. The group with a PTS ≥5° had significantly more cases of ATT ≥5 mm than the group with a PTS <3° (medial PTS: P = .005; lateral PTS: P = .016). There were statistically significant correlations with ATT for both medial (r = 0.43, P = .005) and lateral (r = 0.36, P = .02) PTS. Medial or lateral PTS resulted in the increased probability of ATT ≥5 mm, with an odds ratio of 1.76 (P = .011) and 1.68 (P = .008), respectively. The threshold of an increased risk of ATT ≥5 mm was a medial PTS >5.6° (P = .003) or a lateral PTS >3.8° (P = .002). There was a significant correlation between PTS and postoperative anterior knee static stability in this study

  7. Alabama Allied Health Needs Assessment Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Libby V.

    This study assessed the supply of and demand for allied health professionals in Alabama, focusing on the relationship between supply and demand in various workplace settings in the context of Alabama's demographics, current educational programs, and projected changes in health care. The health care professions included in the study were all fields…

  8. Special Education Faculty Needs Assessment Study Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, D.D.; Tyler, N.; Montrosse, B.E.; Young, C.; Robb, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the highlights of the Special Education Faculty Needs Assessment Study (SEFNA). Actions taken after the release of The 2001 Faculty Shortage Study demonstrate that supply-and-demand imbalances can be improved. The projected shortage of special education faculty will directly and negatively affect students with disabilities and…

  9. Temperature-Dependent Expression of phzM and Its Regulatory Genes lasI and ptsP in Rhizosphere Isolate Pseudomonas sp. Strain M18▿

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiaofang; Xu, Yuquan; Zhang, Hongyan; Li, Yaqian; Huang, Xianqing; Ren, Bin; Zhang, Xuehong

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain M18, an effective biological control agent isolated from the melon rhizosphere, has a genetic background similar to that of the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. However, the predominant phenazine produced by strain M18 is phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) rather than pyocyanin (PYO); the quantitative ratio of PCA to PYO is 105 to 1 at 28°C in strain M18, while the ratio is 1 to 2 at 37°C in strain PAO1. We first provided evidence that the differential production of the two phenazines in strains M18 and PAO1 is related to the temperature-dependent and strain-specific expression patterns of phzM, a gene involved in the conversion of PCA to PYO. Transcriptional levels of phzM were measured by quantitative real-time PCR, and the activities of both transcriptional and translational phzM′-′lacZ fusions were determined in strains M18 and PAO1, respectively. Using lasI::Gm and ptsP::Gm inactivation M18 mutants, we further show that expression of the phzM gene is positively regulated by the quorum-sensing protein LasI and negatively regulated by the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase protein PtsP. Surprisingly, the lasI and ptsP regulatory genes were also expressed in a temperature-dependent and strain-specific manner. The differential production of the phenazines PCA and PYO by strains M18 and PAO1 may be a consequence of selective pressure imposed on P. aeruginosa PAO1 and its relative M18 in the two different niches over a long evolutionary process. PMID:19717631

  10. Quantitative stress-redistribution planar T1-201 scintigraphy: Assessment of the extent of hypoperfused myocardium by relationship to angiographic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Bassir, R.; Maddahi, J.; Garcia, E.; Van Train, K.; Bughi, S.; Becerra, A.; Weiss, T.; Brown, D.; Shaw, C.; Berman, D.

    1984-01-01

    The size of hypoperfused myocardium (HM) in coronary artery (CA) disease (D) potentially provides a prognostic index that may not be accurately assess by conventional angiographic classification. The authors studied 62 consecutive patients (pts) with planar stress-redistribution T1-201 scintigraphy (T1-201) and coronary arteriography who did not have prior myocardial infarction and achieved 85% predicted maximum heart rate on exercise. Of 62 pts, 42 had CAD (>50% stenosis). For T1-201 quantification of the size of HM, maximum count circumferential profiles of initial distribution and % washout were obtained and compared to previously established normal limits. The area enclosed between the normal limits and the abnormal portion of the pt's profiles represented a quantitative T1-201 jeopardy score (JS). Despite increasing T1-201 JS from 1 to 3 vessel (V) and left-main (LM) D, significant overlap between the different angiographic groups was observed; of 45 pts with mild JS (<300), 14 (31%) had 3VD and/or LMD. The angiographic extent of CAD was also analyzed using a method (CLASS) proposed by Gensini et al based on the CA territory, location and severity of stenosis, and collateral circulation. T1-201 JS correlated significantly with CLASS (r=.78, p<.01). Of the 45 pts with mild JS, only 5 (11%) had severe CLASS score. Thus, the size of the hypoperfused myocardium by quantitative stress- and redistribution T1-201 correlates better with a more complex angiographic estimate of myocardium at risk than conventional 1, 2, and 3 vessel disease classification.

  11. Case study examples using self-assessment.

    PubMed

    Garstecki, D; Hutton, C L; Nerbonne, M A; Newman, C W; Smoski, W J

    1990-10-01

    The following case studies demonstrate the application of self-assessment techniques. The selection of procedures reported here is not meant to imply necessarily that these procedures are more or less effective or more widely used than other available self-assessment tests, but rather to illustrate the various purposes for which self-assessment tools may be employed. Case 1 illustrates the contribution of data obtained from the Hearing Performance Inventory (Giolas, Owens, Lamb, & Shubert, 1979) in the management and counseling of a severely hearing impaired adult. Case 2 involves the use of the Hearing Problem Inventory developed by Hutton in Atlanta (HPI-A, Hutton, 1987). Application of the Self-Assessment of Communication (SAC) and Significant Other Assessment of Communication (SOAC) (Schow and Nerbonne, 1982) is shown in Case 3, whereas Case 4 demonstrates the usefulness of the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE, Ventry and Weinstein, 1982). Both the SAC/SOAC and HHIE batteries involve problem cases associated with hearing aid fitting and assessment of benefit. The final illustration (Case 5) is a report on the Children's Auditory Processing Performance Scale (CHAPPS), a new questionnaire developed by Smoski, Brunt, and Tannahill/ISHA (1987) for assessing parent's judgment of children's listening abilities (Appendix). The versatility of self-assessment applications across a broad assortment of impairment levels, age groups, and clinical settings is demonstrated in these cases. Hopefully the reader will see more clearly the application and value of these and other non-audiometric techniques and will be motivated to increase the use of self-assessment tools in the individual work setting.

  12. Impact of new traumatic or stressful life events on pre-existing PTSD in traumatized refugees: results of a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Schock, Katrin; Böttche, Maria; Rosner, Rita; Wenk-Ansohn, Mechthild; Knaevelsrud, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Background A significant proportion of trauma survivors experience an additional critical life event in the aftermath. These renewed experiences of traumatic and stressful life events may lead to an increase in trauma-related mental health symptoms. Method In a longitudinal study, the effects of renewed experiences of a trauma or stressful life event were examined. For this purpose, refugees seeking asylum in Germany were assessed for posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS), Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS), anxiety, and depression (Hopkins Symptom Checklist [HSCL-25]) before treatment start as well as after 6 and 12 months during treatment (N=46). Stressful life events and traumatic events were recorded monthly. If a new event happened, PDS and HSCL were additionally assessed directly afterwards. Mann–Whitney U-tests were performed to calculate the differences between the group that experienced an additional critical event (stressful vs. trauma) during treatment (n=23) and the group that did not (n=23), as well as differences within the critical event group between the stressful life event group (n=13) and the trauma group (n=10). Results Refugees improved significantly during the 12-month period of our study, but remained severely distressed. In a comparison of refugees with a new stressful life event or trauma, significant increases in PTS, anxiety, and depressive symptoms were found directly after the experience, compared to the group without a renewed event during the 12 months of treatment. With regard to the different critical life events (stressful vs. trauma), no significant differences were found regarding overall PTS, anxiety, and depression symptoms. Only avoidance symptoms increased significantly in the group experiencing a stressful life event. Conclusion Although all clinicians should be aware of possible PTS symptom reactivation, especially those working with refugees and asylum seekers, who often experience new critical life events, should

  13. Value of case studies in disaster assessment?

    PubMed

    Grynszpan, Delphine; Murray, Virginia; Llosa, Silvia

    2011-06-01

    Case studies can be useful in assessing and learning lessons from emergency situations. In this paper, different uses for disaster case studies, are explored with identification of potential pitfalls that should be avoided. In addition, ways to improve the rigor and significance of case studies are suggested. Case studies can be used as examples or as a research tool. If conducted properly, they can provide robust and compelling results. It is argued that sharing a common guide to conducting and writing case studies among all disaster risk reduction professionals could improve the quality of case study reports and thereby strengthen their value in advancing the prevention, preparedness, and management of disasters and emergencies.

  14. Review of Environmental Assessment Case Studies Blending Elements of Risk Assessment and Life Cycle Assessment.

    PubMed

    Harder, Robin; Holmquist, Hanna; Molander, Sverker; Svanström, Magdalena; Peters, Gregory M

    2015-11-17

    Risk assessment (RA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) are two analytical tools used to support decision making in environmental management. This study reviewed 30 environmental assessment case studies that claimed an integration, combination, hybridization, or complementary use of RA and LCA. The focus of the analysis was on how the respective case studies evaluated emissions of chemical pollutants and pathogens. The analysis revealed three clusters of similar case studies. Yet, there seemed to be little consensus as to what should be referred to as RA and LCA, and when to speak of combination, integration, hybridization, or complementary use of RA and LCA. This paper provides clear recommendations toward a more stringent and consistent use of terminology. Blending elements of RA and LCA offers multifaceted opportunities to adapt a given environmental assessment case study to a specific decision making context, but also requires awareness of several implications and potential pitfalls, of which six are discussed in this paper. To facilitate a better understanding and more transparent communication of the nature of a given case study, this paper proposes a "design space" (i.e., identification framework) for environmental assessment case studies blending elements of RA and LCA. Thinking in terms of a common design space, we postulate, can increase clarity and transparency when communicating the design and results of a given assessment together with its potential strengths and weaknesses.

  15. Postpartum depression: identifying associations with bipolarity and personality traits. Preliminary results from a cross-sectional study in Poland.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Dominika; Jaeschke, Rafał; Siwek, Marcin; Mączka, Grzegorz; Topór-Mądry, Roman; Rybakowski, Janusz

    2014-01-30

    The goals of this study have been to determine the prevalence of the bipolar spectrum features in the population of women with postpartum depression (PPD) symptoms, as well as to analyze the personality differences between putative 'unipolar' and 'bipolar' PPD subjects. The sample enrolled into the cross-sectional study consisted of 344 women at 6-12 weeks postpartum. The authors used the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; cut-off score: 13 pts.) for the assessment of the PPD symptoms, the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ; cut-off scores: 7 or 8 pts.) for diagnosing the bipolar features, and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) for the assessment of personality traits. The EPDS-positive subjects were more likely to score positively on the MDQ, as compared to the EPDS-negative ones. The EPDS-positive subjects who also scored ≥8 pts. on the MDQ were characterized by higher index of neuroticism, as compared to those who scored positively on the EPDS only. The results suggest that the presence of PPD symptoms is related to significantly higher scores of bipolarity and neuroticism. The more robust trait of neuroticism might be a marker of the 'bipolar' PPD, as compared to the 'unipolar' form of the disorder.

  16. Screening for Cognitive Impairment as a Part of Falls Risk Assessment in Physical Therapist Practice.

    PubMed

    Blackwood, Jennifer; Martin, Alison

    Older adults with impaired cognition are more than twice as likely to fall as their age-matched cognitively intact peers. Physical therapists play a key role in falls screening and prevention efforts; however, it is unknown how often or in what capacity cognitive screenings are performed within falls risk assessments. The purpose of this study was to describe the cognitive screening practice patterns of physical therapists (PTs) as a part of falls risk assessments. An electronic survey was sent to a random selection of 500 licensed PTs from 1 state. Factors associated with cognitive screening practices and respondents' demographic information were gathered. Group comparisons between those who screened and did not screen cognition were completed. Our response rate was 42.8% (n = 214). Only 32.7% (n = 70) of respondents reported screening cognition as a part of falls risk assessments. When performed, orientation was most commonly screened (80.0%, n = 56) followed by a dementia screen using the Mini-Mental State Examination (64.3%, n = 45). Significant differences between groups on cognitive screening practices were found on the basis of work setting, practice time spent with older adults, and practice time spent examining falls risk. Screening for mild deficits in cognitive function is limited within physical therapy practice, which likely influences the detection of early cognitive declines associated with functional limitations. Considering the number of older adults at risk for falling and the likelihood of undiagnosed cognitive impairment, PTs should screen for cognitive deficits as a part of falls risk assessments.

  17. Training Needs Assessment: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, George R. "Dick"

    1984-01-01

    Presents a case study and findings of a training needs assessment which was conducted to determine the training implications of implementing an integral system of quality assurance at the Fridley, Minnesota, plant of Onan Corporation, a manufacturer of electric generator sets and switch gear. (MBR)

  18. Core Curriculum Assessment Program: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Peter M.; Weimer, Don

    This paper reviews the development of a curriculum assessment plan by the Business and Management Division of Cardinal Stritch College in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and reports the results of a study to determine the effectiveness of the plan. The division, which delivers accelerated instruction in evening courses, used the comprehensive outcomes…

  19. Heavy Ion Fusion Systems Assessment study

    SciTech Connect

    Dudziak, D.J.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1986-07-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Systems Assessment (HIFSA) study was conducted with the specific objective of evaluating the prospects of using induction linac drivers to generate economical electrical power from inertial confinement fusion. The study used algorithmic models of representative components of a fusion system to identify favored areas in the multidimensional parameter space. The resulting cost-of-electricity (COE) projections are comparable to those from other (magnetic) fusion scenarios, at a plant size of 100 MWe.

  20. Variability of study cast assessment among orthodontists.

    PubMed

    Pair, J W; Luke, L; White, S; Atchinson, K; Englehart, R; Brennan, R

    2001-12-01

    This study examined the accuracy and reliability with standardized definitions among 30 orthodontists in assessing different aspects of malocclusion from the study casts of 10 patients. Previous studies have indicated a lack of consistency among orthodontists in describing malocclusions. The diagnostic subcategories measured in this study included maxillary and mandibular crowding, overbite, overjet, and a modified molar, premolar, and canine Angle classification. Intraclass correlations indicated that the reliability of all parameters was good (intraclass correlation > 0.80), with overbite being the most reliable (0.98) and maxillary crowding and canine classification somewhat less reliable (0.89 and 0.87, respectively). Among Angle classifications, molar classification was the highest (0.95), followed by premolar (0.92) and canine (0.87). This study also measured the accuracy of the orthodontists' measurements compared with established true values (validity). T tests indicated that mandibular arch crowding and overbite were not statistically different from the true values. Overjet and molar classification were assessed very close to the true values. Although premolar and canine classifications were statistically different from the true values, they were within a one-eighth cusp of the true value (a clinically insignificant difference). The orthodontists consistently overestimated the amount of maxillary arch crowding or spacing. The results suggest that high reliability and reasonable accuracy can be expected for assessing study casts when using standardized definitions for the diagnostic subcategories.

  1. DNA sequences of the cysK regions of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli and linkage of the cysK regions to ptsH.

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, C R; Monroe, R S; Ward, K A; Kredich, N M

    1988-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences of the cysK regions of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli have been determined. A total of 3,812 and 2,595 nucleotides were sequenced from S. typhimurium and E. coli, respectively. Open reading frames of 323 codons were found in both species and were identified as those of cysK by comparison of deduced amino acid sequences with amino- and carboxyl-terminal amino acid analyses of the S. typhimurium cysK gene product O-acetylserine (thiol)-lyase A. The two cysK DNA sequences were 85% identical, and the deduced amino acid sequences were 96% identical. The major transcription initiation sites for cysK were found to be virtually identical in the two organisms, by using primer extension and S1 nuclease protection techniques. The -35 region corresponding to the major transcription start site was TTCCCC in S. typhimurium and TTCCGC in E. coli. The deviation of these sequences from the consensus sequence TTGACA may reflect the fact that cysK is subject to positive control and requires the cysB regulatory protein for expression. Sequences downstream of cysK were found to include ptsH and a portion of ptsI, thus establishing the exact relationship of cysK with these two genes. A 290-codon open reading frame, which may represent the cysZ gene, was identified upstream of cysK. Images PMID:3290198

  2. Seaside, Oregon, Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Varner, J.

    2006-12-01

    The results of a pilot study to assess the risk from tsunamis for the Seaside-Gearhart, Oregon region will be presented. To determine the risk from tsunamis, it is first necessary to establish the hazard or probability that a tsunami of a particular magnitude will occur within a certain period of time. Tsunami inundation maps that provide 100-year and 500-year probabilistic tsunami wave height contours for the Seaside-Gearhart, Oregon, region were developed as part of an interagency Tsunami Pilot Study(1). These maps provided the probability of the tsunami hazard. The next step in determining risk is to determine the vulnerability or degree of loss resulting from the occurrence of tsunamis due to exposure and fragility. The tsunami vulnerability assessment methodology used in this study was developed by M. Papathoma and others(2). This model incorporates multiple factors (e.g. parameters related to the natural and built environments and socio-demographics) that contribute to tsunami vulnerability. Data provided with FEMA's HAZUS loss estimation software and Clatsop County, Oregon, tax assessment data were used as input to the model. The results, presented within a geographic information system, reveal the percentage of buildings in need of reinforcement and the population density in different inundation depth zones. These results can be used for tsunami mitigation, local planning, and for determining post-tsunami disaster response by emergency services. (1)Tsunami Pilot Study Working Group, Seaside, Oregon Tsunami Pilot Study--Modernization of FEMA Flood Hazard Maps, Joint NOAA/USGS/FEMA Special Report, U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2006, Final Draft. (2)Papathoma, M., D. Dominey-Howes, D.,Y. Zong, D. Smith, Assessing Tsunami Vulnerability, an example from Herakleio, Crete, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 3, 2003, p. 377-389.

  3. Hegemonic Masculinity in Sport Education: Case Studies of Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers with Teaching Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, YuChun; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research had indicated that pre-service teachers (PTs) with coaching orientations reinforced sexism and masculine bias while employing the sport education (SE) model. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether or not and the degree to which SE delivered by PTs with teaching orientations served to combat or reinforce sexism…

  4. Hegemonic Masculinity in Sport Education: Case Studies of Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers with Teaching Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, YuChun; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research had indicated that pre-service teachers (PTs) with coaching orientations reinforced sexism and masculine bias while employing the sport education (SE) model. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether or not and the degree to which SE delivered by PTs with teaching orientations served to combat or reinforce sexism…

  5. Phase II study of nimotuzumab, a humanized monoclonal anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody, in patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Strumberg, Dirk; Schultheis, Beate; Scheulen, M E; Hilger, R A; Krauss, J; Marschner, N; Lordick, F; Bach, F; Reuter, D; Edler, L; Mross, K

    2012-06-01

    Nimotuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the EGFR. Based on phase I data, the recommended dose has been established at 200 mg weekly. This study was aimed at evaluating the safety and efficacy of nimotuzumab monotherapy in patients (pts) with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer. Pts who failed first line standard chemotherapy for advanced disease and had at least one measurable lesion were eligible for the study. Nimotuzumab was given intravenously at 200 mg once weekly for 6 weeks (wks). Follow up by CT scan was performed after 8 weeks. Pts continued receiving treatment 3-weekly until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity occurred. Endpoints included tumor response (RECIST), progression-free survival (PFS), and safety. A total of 56 pts were enrolled for treatment (ECOG status of 1 [n = 41] or 0 [n = 15]), the majority (47 pts) had metastatic disease. Nearly half of the pts [n = 26] received ≥2 regimens. Pts evaluable for response: n = 36; CR: 0; PR: 0; SD: 6 pts. Median PFS for pts with SD was 19.2 weeks, for all pts 6.7 weeks (95% CI: 6.43-7.14 weeks). PFS after 1 year was 10.3% with a median overall survival of 18.1 weeks. Treatment-related adverse events were generally mild including rash grade 1 in 5 pts. After a single dose of 200 mg, the t(1/2) was calculated to 45 h. These data confirm that nimotuzumab is safe and very well tolerated. To improve efficacy, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial with Gem has been initiated.

  6. Engine system assessment study using Martian propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelaccio, Dennis; Jacobs, Mark; Scheil, Christine; Collins, John

    1992-01-01

    A top-level feasibility study was conducted that identified and characterized promising chemical propulsion system designs which use two or more of the following propellant combinations: LOX/H2, LOX/CH4, and LOX/CO. The engine systems examined emphasized the usage of common subsystem/component hardware where possible. In support of this study, numerous mission scenarios were characterized that used various combinations of Earth, lunar, and Mars propellants to establish engine system requirements to assess the promising engine system design concept examined, and to determine overall exploration leverage of such systems compared to state-of-the-art cryogenic (LOX/H2) propulsion systems. Initially in the study, critical propulsion system technologies were assessed. Candidate expander and gas generator cycle LOX/H2/CO, LOX/H2/CH4, and LOX/CO/CH4 engine system designs were parametrically evaluated. From this evaluation baseline, tripropellant Mars Transfer Vehicle (MTV) LOX cooled and bipropellant Lunar Excursion Vehicle (LEV) and Mars Excursion Vehicle (MEV) engine systems were identified. Representative tankage designs for a MTV were also investigated. Re-evaluation of the missions using the baseline engine design showed that in general the slightly lower performance, smaller, lower weight gas generator cycle-based engines required less overall mission Mars and in situ propellant production (ISPP) infrastructure support compared to the larger, heavier, higher performing expander cycle engine systems.

  7. Engine system assessment study using Martian propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelaccio, Dennis; Jacobs, Mark; Scheil, Christine; Collins, John

    1992-06-01

    A top-level feasibility study was conducted that identified and characterized promising chemical propulsion system designs which use two or more of the following propellant combinations: LOX/H2, LOX/CH4, and LOX/CO. The engine systems examined emphasized the usage of common subsystem/component hardware where possible. In support of this study, numerous mission scenarios were characterized that used various combinations of Earth, lunar, and Mars propellants to establish engine system requirements to assess the promising engine system design concept examined, and to determine overall exploration leverage of such systems compared to state-of-the-art cryogenic (LOX/H2) propulsion systems. Initially in the study, critical propulsion system technologies were assessed. Candidate expander and gas generator cycle LOX/H2/CO, LOX/H2/CH4, and LOX/CO/CH4 engine system designs were parametrically evaluated. From this evaluation baseline, tripropellant Mars Transfer Vehicle (MTV) LOX cooled and bipropellant Lunar Excursion Vehicle (LEV) and Mars Excursion Vehicle (MEV) engine systems were identified. Representative tankage designs for a MTV were also investigated. Re-evaluation of the missions using the baseline engine design showed that in general the slightly lower performance, smaller, lower weight gas generator cycle-based engines required less overall mission Mars and in situ propellant production (ISPP) infrastructure support compared to the larger, heavier, higher performing expander cycle engine systems.

  8. Fisheries resource identification and assessment studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    Program coordination activities were shifted from the Space Oceanography Program of NAVOCEANO to the National Environmental Satellite Service as part of NOAA in October 1970. Program activities in remote sensing continued in the development of low-light-level image intensifiers, spectrometers, aerial photography, and lasers for the location, identification, and quantification of living marine resources at or near the sea surface. Other studies included the development of a biologically controlled impoundment for remote sensor investigations and limited activities in fish oil film research. In addition to these remote sensing studies, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) program at the Mississippi Test Facility is participating in space oceanography studies related to fisheries and in the ERTS-A and Skylab experiments. Aspects of the NMFS program related to fisheries resource identification and assessment during the period 1970 and 1971 are discussed.

  9. A Study of Assessments Designed for Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delepine, Sidney G., III

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study is to compare a new assessment tool, the SkillsUSA Connect Assessment with the NOCTI assessment to determine which test results in more students achieving success. A quantitative study, designed to compare test scores of students taking the NOCTI assessment and new assessments from SkillsUSA, called the…

  10. A Study of Assessments Designed for Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delepine, Sidney G., III

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study is to compare a new assessment tool, the SkillsUSA Connect Assessment with the NOCTI assessment to determine which test results in more students achieving success. A quantitative study, designed to compare test scores of students taking the NOCTI assessment and new assessments from SkillsUSA, called the…

  11. The Trehalose Phosphotransferase System (PTS) in E. coli W Can Transport Low Levels of Sucrose that Are Sufficient to Facilitate Induction of the csc Sucrose Catabolism Operon

    PubMed Central

    Steen, Jennifer A.; Bohlke, Nina; Vickers, Claudia E.; Nielsen, Lars K.

    2014-01-01

    Plasticity in substrate acceptance is a well-characterised phenomenon for disaccharide transporters. Sucrose, a non-reducing disaccharide, is usually metabolised via either the permease-mediated chromosomally-encoded sucrose catabolism (csc) regulon or the sucrose phosphotransferase system (PTS). E. coli W is a fast-growing strain which efficiently utilises sucrose at concentrations above 1% via the csc regulon. To examine if sucrose could be metabolised via other routes, a library of transposon mutants was generated and screened on 0.2% sucrose. One mutant identified from this library had an insertion in the repressor for the regulon controlling catabolism of the disaccharide trehalose (treR). A series of mutants was constructed to elucidate the mechanism of sucrose utilization in the treR insertion strain. Analysis of these mutants provided evidence that deletion of TreR enables uptake of sucrose via TreB, an enzyme II protein required for PTS-mediated uptake of trehalose. Once inside the cell, this sucrose is not processed by the TreC hydrolase, nor is it sufficient for growth of the strain. QRT-PCR analysis showed that levels of cscA (invertase) transcript increased in the WΔtreR mutant relative to the wild-type strain when grown under low sucrose conditions. This result suggests that the intracellular sucrose provided by TreB can facilitate de-repression of the csc regulon, leading to increased gene expression, sucrose uptake and sucrose utilization in the treR mutant. PMID:24586369

  12. Using Fisher information to assess stability in the performance of public transportation systems.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nasir; Derrible, Sybil; Cabezas, Heriberto

    2017-04-01

    Public transportation systems (PTS) are large and complex systems that consist of many modes operated by different agencies to service entire regions. Assessing their performance can therefore be difficult. In this work, we use concepts of Fisher information (FI) to analyse the stability in the performance of PTS in the 372 US urbanized areas (UZA) reported by the National Transit Database. The key advantage of FI is its ability to handle multiple variables simultaneously to provide information about overall trends of a system. It can therefore detect whether a system is stable or heading towards instability, and whether any regime shifts have occurred or are approaching. A regime shift is a fundamental change in the dynamics of the system, e.g. major and lasting change in service. Here, we first provide a brief background on FI and then compute and analyse FI for all US PTS using monthly data from 2002 to 2016; datasets include unlinked passenger trips (i.e. demand) and vehicle revenue miles (i.e. supply). We detect eight different patterns from the results. We find that most PTS are seeking stability, although some PTS have gone through regime shifts. We also observe that several PTS have consistently decreasing FI results, which is a cause for concern. FI results with detailed explanations are provided for eight major UZA.

  13. Using Fisher information to assess stability in the performance of public transportation systems

    PubMed Central

    Derrible, Sybil; Cabezas, Heriberto

    2017-01-01

    Public transportation systems (PTS) are large and complex systems that consist of many modes operated by different agencies to service entire regions. Assessing their performance can therefore be difficult. In this work, we use concepts of Fisher information (FI) to analyse the stability in the performance of PTS in the 372 US urbanized areas (UZA) reported by the National Transit Database. The key advantage of FI is its ability to handle multiple variables simultaneously to provide information about overall trends of a system. It can therefore detect whether a system is stable or heading towards instability, and whether any regime shifts have occurred or are approaching. A regime shift is a fundamental change in the dynamics of the system, e.g. major and lasting change in service. Here, we first provide a brief background on FI and then compute and analyse FI for all US PTS using monthly data from 2002 to 2016; datasets include unlinked passenger trips (i.e. demand) and vehicle revenue miles (i.e. supply). We detect eight different patterns from the results. We find that most PTS are seeking stability, although some PTS have gone through regime shifts. We also observe that several PTS have consistently decreasing FI results, which is a cause for concern. FI results with detailed explanations are provided for eight major UZA. PMID:28484612

  14. The Healthy Communities Study Nutrition Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Wakimoto, Patricia; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Thompson, Frances E.; Loria, Catherine M.; Wilson, Dawn K.; Kao, Janice; Crawford, Patricia B.; Webb, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    Multifaceted community interventions directed at improving food environments are emerging, but their impact on dietary change and obesity prevalence has not been documented adequately. The Healthy Communities Study (HCS) is seeking to identify characteristics and combinations of programs and policies that are associated with children’s diets and obesity-related outcomes in various types of communities across the U.S. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used in 2013–2015 in the HCS to assess dietary intake, school nutrition environments, and other nutrition-related behaviors. The conceptual framework of the HCS is based on the socioecological model and behaviors shown in previous studies to be related to obesity in children-guided selection of domains. Nine domains were identified as essential measures of nutrition in the HCS: (1) intake of selected foods and beverages; (2) food patterns and behaviors; (3) social support; (4) home environment; (5) school environment; (6) community environment; (7) breastfeeding history; (8) household food insecurity; and (9) dieting behaviors and body image. Children’s dietary intake was assessed using a dietary screener and up to two automated 24-hour recalls. Dietary-related behaviors were assessed by a survey administered to the parent, child, or both, depending on child age. School nutrition measures were obtained from a combination of school staff surveys and researcher observations. Information from these measures is expected to contribute to a better understanding of “what is working” to improve the dietary behaviors that are likely to prevent obesity and improve health in children. PMID:26384936

  15. Silent myocardial ischemia: Assessment by exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy and coronary arteriography

    SciTech Connect

    Reisman, S.; Berman, D.S.; Maddahi, J.; Swan, H.J.C.

    1985-05-01

    To determine the relationship between the presence or absence of exertional angina during treadmill testing (TT) and the extent and severity of exercise-induced ischemia (EII), the authors studied 96 consecutive patients (pts) with EII by Bruce protocol exercise (Ex) Tl-201 scintigraphy (greater than or equal to1 reversible segment (rev seg)). All pts underwent coronary angiography. Three-view Tl scintigrams were divided into 15 segs, and Tl uptake was graded visually in each seg using a 4 point score. Tl severity score (SS) was determined at Ex Tl imaging (ESS) and redistribution imaging (RSS). Severity of EII=ischemic severity score (ISS) derived as ESS-RSS. Extent of EII=number rev segs. Exertional angina was present in 48 pts (Gp I) and absent in 48 pts (Gp II).

  16. Integrated Operations Architecture Technology Assessment Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    As part of NASA's Integrated Operations Architecture (IOA) Baseline, NASA will consolidate all communications operations. including ground-based, near-earth, and deep-space communications, into a single integrated network. This network will make maximum use of commercial equipment, services and standards. It will be an Internet Protocol (IP) based network. This study supports technology development planning for the IOA. The technical problems that may arise when LEO mission spacecraft interoperate with commercial satellite services were investigated. Commercial technology and services that could support the IOA were surveyed, and gaps in the capability of existing technology and techniques were identified. Recommendations were made on which gaps should be closed by means of NASA research and development funding. Several findings emerged from the interoperability assessment: in the NASA mission set, there is a preponderance of small. inexpensive, low data rate science missions; proposed commercial satellite communications services could potentially provide TDRSS-like data relay functions; and. IP and related protocols, such as TCP, require augmentation to operate in the mobile networking environment required by the space-to-ground portion of the IOA. Five case studies were performed in the technology assessment. Each case represented a realistic implementation of the near-earth portion of the IOA. The cases included the use of frequencies at L-band, Ka-band and the optical spectrum. The cases also represented both space relay architectures and direct-to-ground architectures. Some of the main recommendations resulting from the case studies are: select an architecture for the LEO/MEO communications network; pursue the development of a Ka-band space-qualified transmitter (and possibly a receiver), and a low-cost Ka-band ground terminal for a direct-to-ground network, pursue the development of an Inmarsat (L-band) space-qualified transceiver to implement a global, low

  17. Academic Advising Assessment Practices: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Keith L.

    2012-01-01

    In academic courses, assessment is used to evaluate the effect of teaching on student learning. Academic advising has been viewed as a form of teaching (Crookston, 1972); therefore, it is necessary to assess the effect of academic advising on student learning. The best practices of assessment of academic achievement involve the following three…

  18. Academic Advising Assessment Practices: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Keith L.

    2012-01-01

    In academic courses, assessment is used to evaluate the effect of teaching on student learning. Academic advising has been viewed as a form of teaching (Crookston, 1972); therefore, it is necessary to assess the effect of academic advising on student learning. The best practices of assessment of academic achievement involve the following three…

  19. Preliminary assessment of the effects of biaxial loading on reactor pressure vessel structural-integrity-assessment technology

    SciTech Connect

    Pennell, W.E.; Bass, B.R.; Bryson, J.W.; Dickson, T.L.; McAfee, W.J.; Merkle, J.G.

    1996-04-01

    Effects of biaxial loading on shallow-flaw fracture toughness were studied to determine potential impact on structural integrity assessment of a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) under pressurized thermal shock (PTS) transient loading and pressure-temperature (PT) loading produced by reactor heatup and cooldown transients. Biaxial shallow-flaw fracture-toughness tests results were also used to determine the parameter controlling fracture in the transition temperature range, and to develop a related dual-parameter fracture-toughness correlation. Shallow-flaw and biaxial loading effects were found to reduce the conditional probability of crack initiation by a factor of nine when the shallow-flaw fracture-toughness K{sub Jc} data set, with biaxial-loading effects adjustments, was substituted in place of ASME Code K{sub Ic} data set in PTS analyses. Biaxial loading was found to reduce the shallow-flaw fracture toughness of RPV steel such that the lower-bound curve was located between ASME K{sub Ic} and K{sub IR} curves. This is relevant to future development of P-T curve analysis procedures. Fracture in shallow-flaw biaxial samples tested in the lower transition temperature range was shown to be strain controlled. A strain-based dual-parameter fracture-toughness correlation was developed and shown to be capable of predicting the effect of crack-tip constraint on fracture toughness for strain-controlled fracture.

  20. An Exploratory Study: Assessment of Modeled Dioxin ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, An Exploratory Study: Assessment of Modeled Dioxin Exposure in Ceramic Art Studios. This report investigates the potential dioxin exposure to artists/hobbyists who use ball clay to make pottery and related products. Dermal, inhalation, and ingestion exposures to clay were measured at the ceramics art department of Ohio State University in Columbus, OH. The exposure estimates were based on measured levels of clay in the studio air, deposited on surrogate food samples and on the skin of the artists. The purpose of this report is to describe an exploratory investigation of potential dioxin exposures to artists/hobbyists who use ball clay to make pottery and related products.

  1. An Exploratory Study: Assessment of Modeled Dioxin ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, An Exploratory Study: Assessment of Modeled Dioxin Exposure in Ceramic Art Studios. This report investigates the potential dioxin exposure to artists/hobbyists who use ball clay to make pottery and related products. Dermal, inhalation, and ingestion exposures to clay were measured at the ceramics art department of Ohio State University in Columbus, OH. The exposure estimates were based on measured levels of clay in the studio air, deposited on surrogate food samples and on the skin of the artists. The purpose of this report is to describe an exploratory investigation of potential dioxin exposures to artists/hobbyists who use ball clay to make pottery and related products.

  2. An Exploratory Study: Assessment of Modeled Dioxin ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has released an external review draft entitled, An Exploratory Study: Assessment of Modeled Dioxin Exposure in Ceramic Art Studios(External Review Draft). The public comment period and the external peer-review workshop are separate processes that provide opportunities for all interested parties to comment on the document. In addition to consideration by EPA, all public comments submitted in accordance with this notice will also be forwarded to EPA’s contractor for the external peer-review panel prior to the workshop. EPA has realeased this draft document solely for the purpose of pre-dissemination peer review under applicable information quality guidelines. This document has not been formally disseminated by EPA. It does not represent and should not be construed to represent any Agency policy or determination. The purpose of this report is to describe an exploratory investigation of potential dioxin exposures to artists/hobbyists who use ball clay to make pottery and related products.

  3. Assessment of HICO data for Coastal Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. B.; Chauhan, P.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal waters, in particular, are the regions of high productivity and biodiversity. Detailed investigations of the variability within them can aid in understanding many biogeochemical processes. With the advent of hyperspectral remote sensing having large number of closely spaced channels and highly improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the coastal applications are expected to increase and improve. In India, very less work is done in the field of coastal studies, let alone using hyperspectral remote sensing. HICO, onboard ISS, is the most recent addition to this family of instruments. So, a pilot study was conducted to assess HICO data for coastal studies especially in deriving the shallow water bathymetry estimates. The methodology for deriving bathymetry estimates is based on the different responses of shallow-water reflectance on depth and substrate type because with decreasing water depth in case 2 waters, the spectral contributions arriving from pure water reduce while from other OCAs increase. This variability is typically higher in the wavelength range 480 to 610 nm. Using this wavelength range, bathymetric estimates were made at pixel level. Bathymetry estimates were found to vary from 1 m to >12 m. Spectral variability is clearly observed in the continuum removed spectral plots from waters of different depths and is reported in this paper.

  4. Improving study design for antidepressant effectiveness assessment.

    PubMed

    Naudet, Florian; Millet, Bruno; Reymann, Jean Michel; Falissard, Bruno

    2013-09-01

    Antidepressants effectiveness in major depressive disorder (MDD) is still questioned because the extrapolation of randomized controlled trial (RCT) results to "real life" settings is problematic. The application of the RCT paradigm in a disorder of this type, where global care plays a central role, raises questions regarding the internal and external validity of this type of study. Outcome measurement, attrition rates, the ability of the double-blind design to control for expectations, placebo response, the representativeness of trial participants and publication bias are major methodological pitfalls. This review discusses these issues. It is illustrated using original data and proposes some alternatives for assessing antidepressant effectiveness via different approaches. Some are easy to implement, such as ecological measures, qualitative approaches, improvement of analytical strategy and improvement of blinding procedures. Some are sophisticated, involving temporary deception to deal with the confounding effect of expectations, and they raise ethical issues. Others resort to external validity, this being the case in observational studies. But all are necessary to explore antidepressant effectiveness.

  5. System Losses and Assessment Trade Study

    SciTech Connect

    David Shropshire; Steve Piet; Nick Soelberg; Robert Cherry; Roger Henry; David Meikrantz; Greg Teske; Eric Shaber; Candido Pereira

    2009-09-01

    This Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) study has developed new analysis methods to examine old and new technology options toward the goal of improving fuel cycle systems. We have integrated participants and information from AFCI Systems Analysis, Transmutation Fuels, Separations, and Waste Form Campaigns in the Systems Losses and Assessment Trade Study. The initial objectives of this study were to 1) increase understanding of system interdependencies and thereby identify system trade-offs that may yield important insights, 2) define impacts of separations product purity on fuel manufacture and transmutation reactivity, 3) define impacts from transuranic (TRU) losses to waste, 4) identify the interrelationships involved in fuels and separations technology performance, and 5) identify system configuration adjustments with the greatest potential for influencing system losses. While bounding and analyzing this initial problem, we also identified significantly higher-level programmatic drivers with broad implications to the current fuel cycle research charter and the general issue of a DOE complex wide need for a comprehensive and integrated nuclear material management as addressed by the new DOE Order 410.2 titled “Management of Nuclear Materials”. The initial modeling effort developed in this study for a much smaller subset of material (i.e., commercial fuel) and a selected transmutation scheme (i.e., fast reactor recycling) is a necessary first step towards examining a broader set of nuclear material management options, dispositioning strategies and integrated waste management options including potential areas of research leverage. The primary outcome from this initial study has been an enhanced integration among Campaigns and associated insights and analysis methods. Opportunities for improved understanding between the groups abound. The above lanthanide-actinide example highlights the importance of evaluating options via integration across the Campaigns

  6. Minnesota Educational Assessment: A Comprehensive Planning Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyecha, John N.

    The proposed program represents a vehicle whereby Minnesota can conduct a comprehensive assessment of the State's educational progress. It can provide a means of periodically monitoring achievement in the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains. The program is modeled after the National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP), an ongoing…

  7. Undergraduate study in psychology: Curriculum and assessment.

    PubMed

    Norcross, John C; Hailstorks, Robin; Aiken, Leona S; Pfund, Rory A; Stamm, Karen E; Christidis, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    The undergraduate curriculum in psychology profoundly reflects and shapes the discipline. Yet, reliable information on the undergraduate psychology curriculum has been difficult to acquire due to insufficient research carried out on unrepresentative program samples with disparate methods. In 2014, APA launched the first systematic effort in a decade to gather national data on the psychology major and program outcomes. We surveyed a stratified random sample of department chairs/coordinators of accredited colleges and universities in the United States that offer undergraduate courses and programs in psychology. A total of 439 undergraduate psychology programs (45.2%) completed the survey. This article summarizes, for both associate and baccalaureate programs, the results of the Undergraduate Study in Psychology. Current practices concerning the introductory course, the courses offered, core requirements, the psychology minor, and tracks/concentrations are presented. The frequency of formal program reviews and program-level assessment methods are also addressed. By extending prior research on the undergraduate curriculum, we chronicle longitudinal changes in the psychology major over the past 20 years.

  8. [Multicenter study of pain assessment in hospitals].

    PubMed

    Vallano, A; Payrulet, P; Malouf, J; Baños, J E

    2007-03-01

    To evaluate the recording of pain intensity in hospital charts. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 15 hospitals in a sample of admitted patients with pain. Clinical data, including pain intensity, were gathered from the hospital records. Multiple analysis of variance was used to identify factors related to the intensity of pain recorded in the patients' charts. A total of 1038 patients with a mean (SD) age of 56.1 (18.9) years were included. Pain intensity was noted in the charts of 47.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 44.9%-50.9%) of the patients. Pain intensity had been noted for 68.9% (95% CI, 61.4%-76.4%) of the patients with cancer, 43% (95% CI, 38.2%-47.8%) of postoperative patients, 38.2% (95% CI, 35%-41.4%) of trauma patients, and 26.6% (95% CI, 16.9%-36.3%) of postpartum women. There was great interhospital variability. Factors associated with the recording of pain intensity in medical charts were hospital characteristics (large hospitals, teaching hospitals, hospitals and internal medicine and surgical specialities) and type of patient (cancer and trauma cases and patients reporting pain to the staff). There is inadequate written recording of intensity of pain in hospitals, even though there is considerable interhospital variation. Pain intensity assessment and recording is an indicator of quality of health care and should become a routine practice in hospital health care.

  9. Attitudes and diagnostic practice in low back pain: A qualitative study amongst Greek and British physiotherapists

    PubMed Central

    Billis, Evdokia; McCarthy, Christopher J; Gliatis, John; Matzaroglou, Charalampos; Oldham, Jacqueline A

    2016-01-01

    AIM To explore current diagnostic practice and attitudes of Greek and United Kingdom physiotherapists (PTs) on assessing low back pain (LBP) patients. METHODS Three focus groups were undertaken, followed by a structured questionnaire-type survey comprising 23 health professionals and a random stratified sample of 150 PTs, respectively. Twenty-nine themes relating to LBP diagnostic practice emerged. These were then given to 30 British PTs assessing their level of agreement with their Greek counterparts. Analysis was performed by percentage agreements and χ2 tests. RESULTS The survey was divided into three subsections; PTs’ attitudes on LBP assessment, patients’ attitudes and diagnostic/healthcare issues, each constituting 14, 7 and 8 statements, respectively. Over half of the statements fell within the 30%-80% agreement between Greece and United Kingdom whereas, 5 statements reported low (< 10%) and 8 statements demonstrated high (> 90%) PT percentage agreement. Similarities across British and Greek PTs were detected in history taking methods and in the way PTs feel patients perceive physiotherapy practice whereas, re-assessment was undertaken less frequently in Greece. Diagnosis according to 91% of the Greek PTs is considered a “privilege” which is exclusive for doctors in Greece (only 17% British PTs agreed) and is accompanied with a great overuse of medical investigations. Forty percent of Greek PTs (compared to 0% of British) consider themselves as “executers”, being unable to interfere with treatment plan, possibly implying lack of autonomy. CONCLUSION Although similarities on history taking methods and on patients’ attitudes were detected across both groups, gross differences were found in re-assessment procedures and diagnostic issues between Greek and British physiotherapists, highlighting differences in service delivery and professional autonomy. PMID:27672569

  10. Information Technology Assessment Study: Full Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    A team was formed to assess NASA Office of Space Science (OSS) information technology research and development activities. These activities were reviewed for their relevance to OSS missions, for their potential for using products better supplied by industry or other government agencies, and for recommending an information technology (IT) infusion strategy for appropriate products for OSS missions. Assessment scope and methodology are presented. IT needs and interests for future OSS missions and current NASA IT research and development (R&D) are discussed. Non-NASA participants provide overviews of some of their IT R&D programs. Implementation and infusion issues and the findings and recommendations of the assessment team are presented.

  11. Information Technology Assessment Study: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    A team was formed to assess NASA Office of Space Science (OSS) information technology research and development activities. These activities were reviewed for their relevance to OSS missions, for their potential for using products better supplied by industry or other government agencies, and for recommending an IT infusion strategy for appropriate products for OSS missions. Assessment scope and methodology and the findings and recommendations of OSS IT users and providers are presented.

  12. Methodological Quandaries in Studying Process and Outcomes in Peer Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, Keith J.

    2010-01-01

    Peer assessment is very various in its implementation. Six studies of peer assessment are reviewed, four of them in higher education. A literature review is followed by five empirical studies. Strengths and weaknesses of each study are considered and issues are raised. Variables in peer assessment needing further exploration are extricated--in…

  13. Methodological Quandaries in Studying Process and Outcomes in Peer Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, Keith J.

    2010-01-01

    Peer assessment is very various in its implementation. Six studies of peer assessment are reviewed, four of them in higher education. A literature review is followed by five empirical studies. Strengths and weaknesses of each study are considered and issues are raised. Variables in peer assessment needing further exploration are extricated--in…

  14. Incidence and risk factors of posttraumatic seizures following traumatic brain injury: A Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems Study.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Anne C; Wagner, Amy K; Fabio, Anthony; Pugh, Mary Jo; Walker, William C; Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Zafonte, Ross D; Brown, Allen W; Hammond, Flora M; Bushnik, Tamara; Johnson-Greene, Douglas; Shea, Timothy; Krellman, Jason W; Rosenthal, Joseph A; Dreer, Laura E

    2016-12-01

    Determine incidence of posttraumatic seizure (PTS) following traumatic brain injury (TBI) among individuals with moderate-to-severe TBI requiring rehabilitation and surviving at least 5 years. Using the prospective TBI Model Systems National Database, we calculated PTS incidence during acute hospitalization, and at years 1, 2, and 5 postinjury in a continuously followed cohort enrolled from 1989 to 2000 (n = 795). Incidence rates were stratified by risk factors, and adjusted relative risk (RR) was calculated. Late PTS associations with immediate (<24 h), early (24 h-7 day), or late seizures (>7 day) versus no seizure prior to discharge from acute hospitalization was also examined. PTS incidence during acute hospitalization was highest immediately (<24 h) post-TBI (8.9%). New onset PTS incidence was greatest between discharge from inpatient rehabilitation and year 1 (9.2%). Late PTS cumulative incidence from injury to year 1 was 11.9%, and reached 20.5% by year 5. Immediate/early PTS RR (2.04) was increased for those undergoing surgical evacuation procedures. Late PTS RR was significantly greater for individuals who self-identified as a race other than black/white (year 1 RR = 2.22), and for black individuals (year 5 RR = 3.02) versus white individuals. Late PTS was greater for individuals with subarachnoid hemorrhage (year 1 RR = 2.06) and individuals age 23-32 (year 5 RR = 2.43) and 33-44 (year 5 RR = 3.02). Late PTS RR years 1 and 5 was significantly higher for those undergoing surgical evacuation procedures (RR: 3.05 and 2.72, respectively). In this prospective, longitudinal, observational study, PTS incidence was similar to that in studies published previously. Individuals with immediate/late seizures during acute hospitalization have increased late PTS risk. Race, intracranial pathologies, and neurosurgical procedures also influenced PTS RR. Further studies are needed to examine the impact of seizure prophylaxis in high-risk subgroups and to delineate

  15. Carbon Catabolite Repression and the Related Genes of ccpA, ptsH and hprK in Thermoanaerobacterium aotearoense

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Muzi; Lu, Yanping; Wang, Jufang; Li, Shuang; Wang, Xiaoning

    2015-01-01

    The strictly anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium, Thermoanaerobacterium aotearoense SCUT27, is capable of producing ethanol, hydrogen and lactic acid by directly fermenting glucan, xylan and various lignocellulosically derived sugars. By using non-metabolizable and metabolizable sugars as substrates, we found that cellobiose, galactose, arabinose and starch utilization was strongly inhibited by the existence of 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG). However, the xylose and mannose consumptions were not markedly affected by 2-DG at the concentration of one-tenth of the metabolizable sugar. Accordingly, T. aotearoense SCUT27 could consume xylose and mannose in the presence of glucose. The carbon catabolite repression (CCR) related genes, ccpA, ptsH and hprK were confirmed to exist in T. aotearoense SCUT27 through gene cloning and protein characterization. The highly purified Histidine-containing Protein (HPr) could be specifically phosphorylated at Serine 46 by HPr kinase/phosphatase (HPrK/P) with no need to add fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) or glucose-6-phosphate (Glc-6-P) in the reaction mixture. The specific protein-interaction of catabolite control protein A (CcpA) and phosphorylated HPr was proved via affinity chromatography in the absence of formaldehyde. The equilibrium binding constant (KD) of CcpA and HPrSerP was determined as 2.22 ± 0.36 nM by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis, indicating the high affinity between these two proteins. PMID:26540271

  16. A case study by life cycle assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuyun

    2017-05-01

    This article aims to assess the potential environmental impact of an electrical grinder during its life cycle. The Life Cycle Inventory Analysis was conducted based on the Simplified Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) Drivers that calculated from the Valuation of Social Cost and Simplified Life Cycle Assessment Model (VSSM). The detailed results for LCI can be found under Appendix II. The Life Cycle Impact Assessment was performed based on Eco-indicator 99 method. The analysis results indicated that the major contributor to the environmental impact as it accounts for over 60% overall SLCA output. In which, 60% of the emission resulted from the logistic required for the maintenance activities. This was measured by conducting the hotspot analysis. After performing sensitivity analysis, it is evidenced that changing fuel type results in significant decrease environmental footprint. The environmental benefit can also be seen from the negative output values of the recycling activities. By conducting Life Cycle Assessment analysis, the potential environmental impact of the electrical grinder was investigated.

  17. Human Health Risk Assessment: A case study application of principles in dose response assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This case study application workshop will build on fundamental concepts and techniques in risk assessment presented and archived at previous TRAC meeting workshops. Practical examples from publicly available, peer reviewed risk assessments will be used as teaching aids. Course ...

  18. Bidirectional Relationships between Trauma Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress: A Longitudinal Study of Detroit Residents

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Sarah R.; Walsh, Kate; Uddin, Monica; Galea, Sandro; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has documented bidirectional relationships between trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress (PTS), such that individuals who are exposed to more traumatic events are at increased risk of developing PTS, and more severe PTS is associated with more subsequent trauma exposure. However, the empirical literature is limited by a lack of longitudinal studies that include continuous measures of PTS, differentiate between assaultive (e.g., sexual assault, being help up or mugged) and non-assaultive (e.g., serious illness, natural disaster) trauma, and focus on urban contexts. The purpose of this study was to fill these gaps through testing three-wave cross-lagged panel models of exposure to assaultive and non-assaultive traumatic events and PTS among a large sample of urban-dwelling adults (N = 1360; 84.4% non-Hispanic Black). In the model including assaultive trauma, more Wave 2 assaultive events were associated with significantly higher Wave 3 PTS. In contrast, in the model including non-assaultive trauma, higher Wave 1 and Wave 2 PTS were associated with more non-assaultive events at Waves 2 and 3, respectively. Taken together, the findings suggest a cycle of adversity wherein urban residents who have experienced assaultive trauma are at risk of more severe PTS, which in turn increases risk for exposure to non-assaultive trauma. This cycle could be tested directly in future studies through models including both types of events. Additional research on the mechanisms that underlie the pathways between PTS and traumatic events could also have implications for policy and practice. PMID:24886002

  19. Assessing Moderator Variables: Two Computer Simulation Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Craig A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A strategy is proposed for conceptualizing moderating relationships based on their type (strictly correlational and classically correlational) and form, whether continuous, noncontinuous, logistic, or quantum. Results of computer simulations comparing three statistical approaches for assessing moderator variables are presented, and advantages of…

  20. The Comprehensive Social Studies Assessment Project (CSSAP) Professional Development Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City.

    The purpose of this professional development manual is to provide materials and activities for developing and using assessments in social studies. The manual came about through the efforts of the 25 state consortium Comprehensive Social Studies Assessment Project (CSSAP) to make the alignment of assessments, curricula, and instructional programs…

  1. Student Perceptions of Peer Assessment: An Interdisciplinary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planas Lladó, Anna; Soley, Lídia Feliu; Fraguell Sansbelló, Rosa Maria; Pujolras, Gerard Arbat; Planella, Joan Pujol; Roura-Pascual, Núria; Suñol Martínez, Joan Josep; Moreno, Lino Montoro

    2014-01-01

    Peer assessment provides students with multiple benefits during their learning process. The aim of our study is to examine students' perception of peer assessment. Questionnaires were administered before and after the peer-assessment process to 416 students studying 11 different subjects in four different fields taught at the University of Girona.…

  2. The Present Absence: Assessment in Social Studies Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrez, Cheryl A.; Claunch-Lebsack, Elizabeth Ann

    2014-01-01

    In this article, first the authors describe the aims of and a definition of social studies education and classroom assessment. Second, the authors provide an overview of issues related to classroom assessment followed by trends in social studies classrooms and assessment. Then the authors address essential systems and best practices related to…

  3. Dual label single photon emission tomography: A new method to assess redistribution in regional coronary blood flow after nitroglycerin

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, P.; Houle, S.; Kimball, B.; Burns, R.J.; Gilday, D.; Weisel, R.D.; Warbick-Cerone, A.; Johnston, L.; McLaughlin, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have developed a new method to quantitate changes in coronary blood flow (CBF) by single photon emission tomography (SPECT) of dual-labelled intracoronary human albumin microspheres (HAM) before and after an intervention. After initial validation in pigs, the authors studied 20 pts in the cath lab with 10 pts receiving saline to serve as controls, and 10 pts receiving nitroglycerin (NTG). Thermodilution coronary sinus flow (CSF) measurements were made at rest and after each intervention. After pacing to mild angina, serial injections of Tc-99m HAM, 40 ..mu..g of NTG or saline, and In-111 HAM were made in the left main coronary artery. After routine coronary arteriography, the pt underwent dual-peak SPECT with the image slices reconstructed along the longitudinal axis of the heart. Quantitative circumferential profiles were made for each slice by plotting the average count per pixel in each 18/sup 0/ segment of the left ventricle. After correction for absolute coronary blood flow, the difference between the pre- and post-NTG profile was obtained, and a significant change took place if it exceeded 2 S.D. from control. The segments were classified into normal, mildly, moderately or severely comprised territories according to upstream coronary anatomy. Results are presented. The authors conclude: (1) SPECT of intracoronary HAM combined with CSF measurement represents a powerful tool in assessing changes in regional CBF after an intervention; (2) By this method, NTG gave preferential redistribution of CBF to the mild and moderately ischemic zones of the heart.

  4. CD34, CD117, and Ki-67 expression in phyllodes tumor of the breast: an immunohistochemical study of 33 cases.

    PubMed

    Noronha, Yvonne; Raza, Anwar; Hutchins, Brian; Chase, Donald; Garberoglio, Carlos; Chu, Peiguo; Weiss, Lawrence; Wang, Jun

    2011-04-01

    Phyllodes tumors (PTs) of the breast are biphasic lesions, comprising an epithelial component set within a neoplastic spindle-celled stroma. These tumors have been classified as benign, borderline, and malignant based on a combination of histological criteria, including stromal cellularity, nuclear pleomorphism, mitotic rate, stromal overgrowth, and margin appearance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of CD34, CD117 (c-kit), and Ki-67 in PT of the breast and attempt to correlate the staining pattern with tumor grade by morphology. Immunohistochemical expression of CD117, CD34, and Ki-67 was studied on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival tissue material from 33 cases of PT. Histologically, there were 21 benign, 6 borderline, and 6 malignant (high-grade) tumors. All 6 histologically malignant PTs were positive for CD117 (100%), but only 1 marked with CD34 (16.7%). Borderline PTs frequently coexpressed CD34 and CD117 (66.7%). The benign PTs, on the other hand, most commonly (52.4%) showed a CD34(+)/CD117(-) immunoprofile with 33.3% cases coexpressing the markers: that is, CD34(+)/CD117(+). Although most benign PTs (80.6%) showed a Ki-67 of <2%, a few cases showed slightly higher proliferation indices. This study indicates that CD34 and CD117 are differentially expressed in benign and malignant PTs. These markers, therefore, in combination, may be used as an adjunct to morphology in the subclassification of PTs.

  5. Assessing Biofuel Crop Invasiveness: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Buddenhagen, Christopher Evan; Chimera, Charles; Clifford, Patti

    2009-01-01

    Background There is widespread interest in biofuel crops as a solution to the world's energy needs, particularly in light of concerns over greenhouse-gas emissions. Despite reservations about their adverse environmental impacts, no attempt has been made to quantify actual, relative or potential invasiveness of terrestrial biofuel crops at an appropriate regional or international scale, and their planting continues to be largely unregulated. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a widely accepted weed risk assessment system, we analyzed a comprehensive list of regionally suitable biofuel crops to show that seventy percent have a high risk of becoming invasive versus one-quarter of non-biofuel plant species and are two to four times more likely to establish wild populations locally or be invasive in Hawaii or in other locations with a similar climate. Conclusions/Significance Because of climatic and ecological similarities, predictions of biofuel crop invasiveness in Hawaii are applicable to other vulnerable island and subtropical ecosystems worldwide. We demonstrate the utility of an accessible and scientifically proven risk assessment protocol that allows users to predict if introduced species will become invasive in their region of interest. Other evidence supports the contention that propagule pressure created by extensive plantings will exacerbate invasions, a scenario expected with large-scale biofuel crop cultivation. Proactive measures, such as risk assessments, should be employed to predict invasion risks, which could then be mitigated via implementation of appropriate planting policies and adoption of the “polluter-pays” principle. PMID:19384412

  6. AIAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conference, Hilton Head Island, SC, Aug. 10-12, 1992, Technical Papers. Pts. 1-2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Consideration is given to aircraft dynamics and aerodynamics in atmospheric disturbances, vehicle trajectory optimization, projectile and missile flight dynamics, high alpha prediction codes for flow phenomenon, aircraft handling qualities, high alpha CFD and control, aircraft agility, unsteady flow phenomenon, parameter estimation, hypersonic technology, CFD for store separation, aeroassist technology, and unsteady and high alpha numerical studies. Particular attention is given to optimal recovery from microburst wind shear, optimal trajectories for an unmanned air-vehicle in the horizontal plane, numerical simulation of missile flow fields, pulsating spanwise blowing on a fighter aircraft, pilot control identification using minimum model error estimation, Navier-Stokes computations for oscillating control surfaces, aircraft agility maneuvers, fin motion after projectile exit from gun tube, the vortical structure in the wake during dynamic stall, nonlinear aerodynamic parameter estimation, missile and spacecraft coning instabilities, 3D Euler solutions on wing-pylon-store configuration with unstructured tetrahedral meshes, and a simulation model for tail rotor failure.

  7. Validation of the Villalta scale in assessing post-thrombotic syndrome using clinical, duplex, and hemodynamic comparators.

    PubMed

    Lattimer, Christopher R; Kalodiki, Evi; Azzam, Mustapha; Geroulakos, George

    2014-01-01

    The Villalta scale (VS) was developed by Prandoni and introduced as an abstract in 1994 as a disease-specific assessment questionnaire to diagnose and classify the severity of post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS). While validation using quality-of-life assessments and reproducibility have been reported as good, limited data exist as how the VS compares against generalized assessment tests in defining the severity of PTS. The aim of this study was to compare the VS against the Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS), the C of the CEAP classification, the Venous Segmental Disease Score (VSDS), and the Venous Filling Index (VFI) of air plethysmography. Baseline data generated from a recent single-center prospective clinical trial comparing graduated elastic compression stocking performance on 40 legs in 34 patients with PTS were analyzed. Ancillary data from this study were used to assess the measurement properties of the VS. All the legs had PTS defined as persisting leg symptoms/signs at least 6 months after a deep vein thrombosis with evidence of deep venous obstruction and/or deep venous reflux on duplex ultrasound. Unadjusted VS scores were used so patients with ulceration with a VS <15 were not automatically upgraded to a score of 15. The number of legs by the C part of the CEAP classification was: C0 = 2, C2 = 1, C3 = 3, C4a = 12, C4b = 7, C5 = 12, and C6 = 3. The median (interquartile range) of age, VS, VCSS, VSDS, and VFI were 62 years (52-73 years), 10 (5-14), 8 (5-10), 5 (4-6.5), and 4.9 (2.8-7.9) mL/s, respectively. The VS had a highly significant and moderate-to-good correlation (Spearman) with the VCSS (r = .609; P < .0005) and the C of CEAP (r = .556, P < .0005). When the VFI was used as a hemodynamic benchmark, the VS correlation outperformed the other assessment tests (r = .499; P = .001). However, the VCSS correlation with the VFI was also significant (r = .480; P = .002). Surprisingly, the VSDS did not correlate with any

  8. Understanding Classroom Assessment in Dilemmatic Spaces: Case Studies of Singaporean Music Teachers' Conceptions of Classroom Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Wei Shin

    2014-01-01

    With the articulation of new "Holistic and Balanced Assessment" initiatives in Singaporean schools, a new standard of conceptualising and enacting classroom assessment is expected of Singaporean teachers. This paper draws on findings from a study of the diversity of classroom assessment "concourse", representing the variations…

  9. Assessment Leaders' Perspectives of Institutional Cultures of Assessment: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Matthew; Henderson, Susan; Bustamante, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Institutional cultures of assessment are praised as beneficial to student learning. Yet, extant studies have not explored the theoretical foundations and pragmatic approaches to shaping cultures of assessment. The researchers used the Delphi method to explore 10 higher education assessment leaders' attitudes and theoretical perspectives regarding…

  10. Understanding Classroom Assessment in Dilemmatic Spaces: Case Studies of Singaporean Music Teachers' Conceptions of Classroom Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Wei Shin

    2014-01-01

    With the articulation of new "Holistic and Balanced Assessment" initiatives in Singaporean schools, a new standard of conceptualising and enacting classroom assessment is expected of Singaporean teachers. This paper draws on findings from a study of the diversity of classroom assessment "concourse", representing the variations…

  11. Assessment Leaders' Perspectives of Institutional Cultures of Assessment: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Matthew; Henderson, Susan; Bustamante, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Institutional cultures of assessment are praised as beneficial to student learning. Yet, extant studies have not explored the theoretical foundations and pragmatic approaches to shaping cultures of assessment. The researchers used the Delphi method to explore 10 higher education assessment leaders' attitudes and theoretical perspectives regarding…

  12. Characterization of a chromosomally encoded, non-PTS metabolic pathway for sucrose utilization in Escherichia coli EC3132.

    PubMed

    Bockmann, J; Heuel, H; Lengeler, J W

    1992-10-01

    A wild-type isolate, EC3132, of Escherichia coli, that is able to grow on sucrose was isolated and its csc genes (mnemonic for chromosomally coded sucrose genes) transferred to strains of E. coli K12. EC3132 and all sucrose-positive exconjugants and transductants invariably showed a D-serine deaminase (Dsd)-negative phenotype. The csc locus maps adjacent to dsdA, the structural gene for the D-serine deaminase, and contains an inducible regulon, controlled by a sucrose-specific repressor CscR, together with structural genes for a sucrose hydrolase (invertase) CscA, for a D-fructokinase CscK, and for a transport system CscB. Based on DNA sequencing studies, this last codes for a hydrophobic protein of 415 amino acids. CscB is closely related to the beta-galactoside transport system LacY (31.2% identical residues) and a raffinose transport system RafB (32.3% identical residues) of the enteric bacteria, both of the proton symport type. A two-dimensional model common to the three transport proteins, which is based on the integrated consensus sequence, will be discussed.

  13. The Assessment of Study Skill Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Alan; Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    This study evaluated the acquisition of study skills in high-risk college freshmen enrolled in a developmental course, "Introduction to University Studies." The construction of the 30-item multiple choice instrument was described. The test reflected the objectives of the course, covering traditional study skill topics such as…

  14. System Study: Technology Assessment and Prioritizing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this NASA funded project is to assess and prioritize advanced technologies required to achieve the goals for an "Intelligent Propulsion System" through collaboration among GEAE, NASA, and Georgia Tech. Key GEAE deliverables are parametric response surface equations (RSE's) relating technology features to system benefits (sfc, weight, fuel burn, design range, acoustics, emission, etc...) and listings of Technology Impact Matrix (TIM) with benefits, debits, and approximate readiness status. TIM has been completed for GEAE and NASA proposed technologies. The combined GEAE and NASA TIM input requirement is shown in Table.1. In the course of building the RSE's and TIM, significant parametric technology modeling and RSE accuracy improvements were accomplished. GEAE has also done preliminary ranking of the technologies using Georgia Tech/GEAE USA developed technology evaluation tools. System level impact was performed by combining beneficial technologies with minimum conflict among various system figures of merits to assess their overall benefits to the system. The shortfalls and issues with modeling the proposed technologies are identified, and recommendations for future work are also proposed.

  15. Surveying Assessment in Experiential Learning: A Single Campus Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Thomas; Wilson, Jay; Purton, Kendra

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the methods of experiential assessment in use at a Canadian university and the extent to which they are used. Exploring experiential assessment will allow identification of commonly used methods and facilitate the development of best practices of assessment in the context of experiential learning (EL) at…

  16. Authenticity in Assessment: Reflecting Undergraduate Study and Professional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Stuart

    2004-01-01

    The literature suggests that assessment is a powerful tool for influencing student study habits. It is also recognized that there is a tension between traditional forms of assessment and newer forms of assessment that offer a more authentic representation of practice, but are more complex and expensive to administer. The international trend in…

  17. Making Room for Formative Assessment Processes: A Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEntarffer, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative instrumental multiple case study (Stake, 2005) explored how teachers made room for formative assessment processes in their classrooms, and how thinking about assessment changed during those formative assessment experiences. Data were gathered from six teachers over three months and included teacher interviews, student interviews,…

  18. [Should sinus rhythm be restored in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation? Preliminary results from the Polish "Hot Cafe" study].

    PubMed

    Opolski, G; Torbicki, A; Kosior, D; Stolarz, P; Dawidowska, R; Zawadzka, M; Szulc, M; Kołodziej, P; Stopiński, M; Janion, M; Achremczyk, P; Lewandowski, Z

    1999-05-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia occurring in clinical practice. It is the most frequent cause of hospitalization in cardiac rhythm disturbance. Despite comprehensive progress in the research into electrophysiological mechanisms leading to this loss of normal rhythm and new procedures dealing with it, the main problem being the conversion to and maintaining the normal sinus rhythm (SR) has not been solved. The polish study "Hot Cafe" is trying to evaluate the advantages and risks of the two procedures widely used in clinical practice in patients (pts) with chronic AF, i.e. conversion and maintaining SR vs leaving pts with the arrhythmia. Pts with non-valvular chronic AF fulfilling the criteria for including them into the sample are randomly assigned to two procedures: conversion to SR by means of direct current cardioversion and maintaining it or leaving pts with AF. Pts left with AF are treated by rate control and antithrombotic treatment. The project is of prospective kind and it will be carried out by many medical institutions. It is planned to include 200 pts. The observation period will last at least 12 months. Preliminary results after inclusion of the first 121 pts are shown.

  19. Space reactor assessment and validation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedeon, Stephen; Morey, Dennis

    1987-01-01

    The present difficulties experienced by the United States in launching payloads into space has suggested a number of problems which are associated with the handling of hazardous materials in spacecraft. The question has arisen as to the safety of launching highly radioactive material such as plutonium-238, related to the possibility of its dispersion into the atmosphere during a launch vehicle explosion. An alternative is the use of a small nuclear reactor which is not started until it is in space and contains little or no radioactivity at launch. A first order assessment of six small reactor concepts with power levels up to 100 MWe was performed. Both the nuclear feasibility of these concepts to operate at their rated power levels between 7 and 10 years and the capability of these concepts to remain subcritical both before and during launch and also in the case of water immersion during a potential launch failure or abort were investigated.

  20. Space reactor assessment and validation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedeon, Stephen; Morey, Dennis

    The present difficulties experienced by the United States in launching payloads into space has suggested a number of problems which are associated with the handling of hazardous materials in spacecraft. The question has arisen as to the safety of launching highly radioactive material such as plutonium-238, related to the possibility of its dispersion into the atmosphere during a launch vehicle explosion. An alternative is the use of a small nuclear reactor which is not started until it is in space and contains little or no radioactivity at launch. A first order assessment of six small reactor concepts with power levels up to 100 MWe was performed. Both the nuclear feasibility of these concepts to operate at their rated power levels between 7 and 10 years and the capability of these concepts to remain subcritical both before and during launch and also in the case of water immersion during a potential launch failure or abort were investigated.

  1. Space reactor assessment and validation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedeon, Stephen; Morey, Dennis

    1987-01-01

    The present difficulties experienced by the United States in launching payloads into space has suggested a number of problems which are associated with the handling of hazardous materials in spacecraft. The question has arisen as to the safety of launching highly radioactive material such as plutonium-238, related to the possibility of its dispersion into the atmosphere during a launch vehicle explosion. An alternative is the use of a small nuclear reactor which is not started until it is in space and contains little or no radioactivity at launch. A first order assessment of six small reactor concepts with power levels up to 100 MWe was performed. Both the nuclear feasibility of these concepts to operate at their rated power levels between 7 and 10 years and the capability of these concepts to remain subcritical both before and during launch and also in the case of water immersion during a potential launch failure or abort were investigated.

  2. National Assessment of Values and Attitudes for Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver, James P.

    Three key terms--social studies, values, and attitudes--are discussed in relation to a national assessment in social studies. Definitions of these terms will affect decisions about what and how to assess. Two major approaches define social studies as: (1) social sciences simplified and adapted for pedagogical purposes; or (2) that portion of the…

  3. Assessment for Equity: Learning How to Use Evidence to Scaffold Learning and Improve Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Mary F.; Ell, Fiona; Grudnoff, Lexie; Haigh, Mavis; Cochran-Smith, Marilyn; Chang, Wen-Chia; Ludlow, Larry

    2017-01-01

    This article examines evidence regarding the assessment learning of preservice teachers (PTs) in a new Master of Teaching designed to prepare teachers to address the less than equitable outcomes of certain groups of students in New Zealand. The assessment curriculum was integrated across all of the courses and the in-school experiences as one of…

  4. Holistic Assessment and the Study Abroad Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    While many educators who work closely with study abroad programs could conjure up a litany of testimonials about the dramatic impact of study abroad, it is often difficult to move beyond vaguely descriptive accounts to reliable data showing how this experience influenced a student's growth in intercultural sensitivity and awareness. King and…

  5. Outcomes Assessment Handbook: How To Develop a Practical Outcomes Assessment Program for a Home Study School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, Robert J.

    This handbook is designed to provide school decision makers with a global view of how assessment programs for home study schools are developed. Outcomes assessment (OA) is a required element for recognition by the National Home Study Council Accrediting Committee and hence for member schools. This handbook is designed to enable program developers…

  6. Grounding Assessment in Authentic Pedagogy: A Case Study of General Education Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to understand how instructors of general education courses, seeking to improve student learning, integrate assessment into their pedagogy. These assessment approaches, embedded within rich pedagogical understandings and experiences, reside at the core of the teaching and learning process. The study explored how…

  7. Walworth County Employer Needs Assessment Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoehr, Keith W.; Banerdt, Jack

    In 1982, a study was conducted to obtain information from businesses, industries, and agencies in Walworth County that would assist Gateway Technical Institute (GTI) in providing programs and services to meet employers' manpower needs. Surveys were administered to 133 businesses and industries, requesting information on the firms' characteristics,…

  8. Assessment, Autonomy, and Elementary Social Studies Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitchett, Paul G.; Heafner, Tina L.; Lambert, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background/context: In an era of accountability and standardization, elementary social studies is consistently losing its curricular foothold to English/language arts, math, and science instruction. Purpose: This article examines the relationship between elementary teachers' perceptions of instructional autonomy, teaching context, state testing…

  9. Canadian Journal of Native Studies: An Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Richard T.

    1987-01-01

    Describes and critically analyzes volume of "Canadian Journal of Native Studies" (v4 n2 1984). Sketches journal's history and critiques three articles. Article topics include history (Indian treaties and Indian policy administration); resource development impacts (reserve land flooding, native health, and fishing); and native education…

  10. Assessment, Autonomy, and Elementary Social Studies Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitchett, Paul G.; Heafner, Tina L.; Lambert, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background/context: In an era of accountability and standardization, elementary social studies is consistently losing its curricular foothold to English/language arts, math, and science instruction. Purpose: This article examines the relationship between elementary teachers' perceptions of instructional autonomy, teaching context, state testing…

  11. 36 CFR 254.23 - Studies, assessments, and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Studies, assessments, and approval. 254.23 Section 254.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS National Forest Townsites § 254.23 Studies, assessments, and approval...

  12. 36 CFR 254.23 - Studies, assessments, and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Studies, assessments, and approval. 254.23 Section 254.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS National Forest Townsites § 254.23 Studies, assessments, and approval...

  13. 36 CFR 254.23 - Studies, assessments, and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Studies, assessments, and approval. 254.23 Section 254.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS National Forest Townsites § 254.23 Studies, assessments, and approval...

  14. 36 CFR 254.23 - Studies, assessments, and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Studies, assessments, and approval. 254.23 Section 254.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS National Forest Townsites § 254.23 Studies, assessments, and approval...

  15. 36 CFR 254.23 - Studies, assessments, and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Studies, assessments, and approval. 254.23 Section 254.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS National Forest Townsites § 254.23 Studies, assessments, and approval...

  16. Quality Assessment of Internationalised Studies: Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juknyte-Petreikiene, Inga

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews forms of higher education internationalisation at an institutional level. The relevance of theoretical background of internationalised study quality assessment is highlighted and definitions of internationalised studies quality are presented. Existing methods of assessment of higher education internationalisation are criticised…

  17. System Study: Technology Assessment and Prioritizing Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    For the Intelligent Engine System (Propulsion 21) study, each technology was evaluated to determine the impact to fuel burn, acoustics, and NOx emissions. The optimum combination of technologies and their overall benefits to the system were also evaluated, resulting in noise improvement potential of 1.89 EPNdB cumulative margin,-1.34 percent fuel burn, and 50 percent NOx reduction from the 2015 UEET-QAT baseline. All the technology evaluations, except T18-20D, were based on newengines, where the engine was resized to obtain the maximum system benefit while maintaining the same cycle parameters as the 2015 UEET-QAT baseline. The impact of turbine clearance control on deteriorated engines, T18-20D, was also evaluated. Recommendations for future system study work include, but were not limited to, validation of a university-developed engine deterioration model and customer value analysis as figures of merit beside fuel burn, emissions, and acoustics.

  18. Engine system assessment study using Martian propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelaccio, D.; Jacobs, M.; Collins, J.; Scheil, C.; Meyer, M.

    1992-07-01

    A feasibility study was performed that identified and characterized promising chemical propulsion system designs that utilize two or more of the propellant combinations: LOX/H2, LOX/CH4 and LOX/CO. The engine systems examined focused on the usage of common subsystem/component hardware where feasible. From the evaluation baseline employed, tripropellant MTV LOX cooled and bipropellant LEV and MEV engine systems are identified.

  19. Wound assessment tools and nurses' needs: an evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Greatrex-White, Sheila; Moxey, Helen

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain how well different wound assessment tools meet the needs of nurses in carrying out general wound assessment and whether current tools are fit for purpose. The methodology employed was evaluation research. In order to conduct the evaluation, a literature review was undertaken to identify the criteria of an optimal wound assessment tool which would meet nurses' needs. Several freely available wound assessment tools were selected based on predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria and an audit tool was developed to evaluate the selected tools based on how well they met the criteria of the optimal wound assessment tool. The results provide a measure of how well the selected wound assessment tools meet the criteria of the optimal wound assessment tool. No tool was identified which fulfilled all the criteria, but two (the Applied Wound Management tool and the National Wound Assessment Form) met the most criteria of the optimal tool and were therefore considered to best meet nurses' needs in wound assessment. The study provides a mechanism for the appraisal of wound assessment tools using a set of optimal criteria which could aid practitioners in their search for the best wound assessment tool. © 2013 The Authors. International Wound Journal published by Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Ecological risk assessments for watersheds: Lessons learned from case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Marcy, S.K.M.

    1994-12-31

    The USEPA Office of Water and Risk Assessment Forum are co-sponsoring the development of watershed level ecological risk assessments in Big Darby Creek, OH, Clinch River, VA, Middle Platte River Wetlands, NE, Snake River, ID, and Waquoit Bay Estuary, MA. The case studies are testing the Agency`s Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment at a watershed scale for multiple stressors. During case study development much has been learned about how to apply and modify the principles in the Framework to landscape scale risk assessments. Insights include how to select appropriate assessment endpoints to drive the risk assessment, how to effectively increase involvement by risk management teams, and provide decision opportunities for managers throughout development. The case studies demonstrate diverse ways to conduct watershed risk assessments, and illustrate the importance of multiple risk hypotheses in conceptual models addressing the combined and relative risk of chemical, physical and biological stressors. Issues the case studies highlight include the need for a process to determine when watershed risk assessments are appropriate and at what level of complexity they should be performed, how to increase the use of the ecological risk assessments in management decision-making and how to determine the best risk reduction strategy. An update on the watershed case studies will be provided and the insights and issues stated above, discussed.

  1. The role of inflammation in post-thrombotic syndrome after pregnancy-related deep vein thrombosis: A population-based, cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wik, Hilde Skuterud; Jacobsen, Anne Flem; Mowinckel, Marie-Christine; Sandset, Per Morten

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies suggest that inflammation may play a role in the pathophysiology of post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS). The aims of the present study were to evaluate markers of inflammation as possible predictors for PTS after pregnancy-related deep vein thrombosis (DVT). We included 182 women with a pregnancy-related DVT during 1990-2003 and 314 controls. All women answered a questionnaire and donated a blood sample in 2006. PTS was diagnosed when a self-reported Villalta score was above 4. The following predictors of PTS were included: high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB, and the two adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1. High values were defined as above median value among controls. We found that 41% of cases were diagnosed with PTS 3-16years after index pregnancy. In univariate analyses, high values of hsCRP, IL-6, and IL-10 were significantly associated with PTS with ORs 2.3 (95% CI; 1.2-4.2, p=0.008), 1.9 (1.0-3.5, p=0.04), and 10.8 (1.3-89.8, p=0.01), respectively. Only hsCRP, which has previously been found to be independently associated with PTS, was independently associated with PTS in a multivariate logistic regression model, when adjusting for proximal DVT occurring postpartum, age above 33years, and smoking (adjusted OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.2-4.8, p=0.01). We conclude that hsCRP was associated with PTS 3-16years after pregnancy-related DVT.

  2. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Quapp, W.J.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-07-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. The SDS results are published in eight volumes. Volume 1 contains an executive summary. The SDS summary and analysis of results are presented in Volume 2. Volumes 3 through 7 contain detailed descriptions of twelve system and four subsystem concepts. Volume 8 contains the appendixes. 23 refs., 23 figs., 16 tabs.

  3. Preliminary systems design study assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-10-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. The SDS results are published in eight volumes. Volume I contains an executive summary. The SDS summary and analysis of results are presented in Volume II. Volumes III through VII contain descriptions of twelve system and four subsystem concepts. Volume VIII contains the appendixes.

  4. Risk Assessment Stability: A Revalidation Study of the Arizona Risk/Needs Assessment Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwalbe, Craig S.

    2009-01-01

    The actuarial method is the gold standard for risk assessment in child welfare, juvenile justice, and criminal justice. It produces risk classifications that are highly predictive and that may be robust to sampling error. This article reports a revalidation study of the Arizona Risk/Needs Assessment instrument, an actuarial instrument for juvenile…

  5. Risk Assessment Stability: A Revalidation Study of the Arizona Risk/Needs Assessment Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwalbe, Craig S.

    2009-01-01

    The actuarial method is the gold standard for risk assessment in child welfare, juvenile justice, and criminal justice. It produces risk classifications that are highly predictive and that may be robust to sampling error. This article reports a revalidation study of the Arizona Risk/Needs Assessment instrument, an actuarial instrument for juvenile…

  6. Supporting nanomaterial risk assessment by case studies of nano-titanium dioxide using comprehensive environmental assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Here we describe a comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA) approach for two case studies of nano-titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) in real world applications: water treatment and sunscreen. CEA combines a product life cycle framework with the risk assessment paradigm.

  7. Supporting nanomaterial risk assessment by case studies of nano-titanium dioxide using comprehensive environmental assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Here we describe a comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA) approach for two case studies of nano-titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) in real world applications: water treatment and sunscreen. CEA combines a product life cycle framework with the risk assessment paradigm.

  8. Landscape preference assessment of Louisiana river landscapes: a methodological study

    Treesearch

    Michael S. Lee

    1979-01-01

    The study pertains to the development of an assessment system for the analysis of visual preference attributed to Louisiana river landscapes. The assessment system was utilized in the evaluation of 20 Louisiana river scenes. Individuals were tested for their free choice preference for the same scenes. A statistical analysis was conducted to examine the relationship...

  9. Three Reflections on Assessing Safety Training Needs: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleezer, Catherine M.; Kelsey, Kathleen D.; Wood, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    Needs assessment plays an important role in training and human performance improvement efforts, but the literature contains little research on this topic. This study extended previous research on the Performance Analysis for Training (PAT) model of needs assessment by examining its implementation to determine environmental and occupational health…

  10. Three Reflections on Assessing Safety Training Needs: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleezer, Catherine M.; Kelsey, Kathleen D.; Wood, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    Needs assessment plays an important role in training and human performance improvement efforts, but the literature contains little research on this topic. This study extended previous research on the Performance Analysis for Training (PAT) model of needs assessment by examining its implementation to determine environmental and occupational health…

  11. Higher Education Quality Assessment in China: An Impact Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shuiyun

    2015-01-01

    This research analyses an external higher education quality assessment scheme in China, namely, the Quality Assessment of Undergraduate Education (QAUE) scheme. Case studies were conducted in three Chinese universities with different statuses. Analysis shows that the evaluated institutions responded to the external requirements of the QAUE…

  12. Higher Education Quality Assessment in China: An Impact Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shuiyun

    2015-01-01

    This research analyses an external higher education quality assessment scheme in China, namely, the Quality Assessment of Undergraduate Education (QAUE) scheme. Case studies were conducted in three Chinese universities with different statuses. Analysis shows that the evaluated institutions responded to the external requirements of the QAUE…

  13. A Randomized Controlled Study of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress in Street Children in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Shein-Szydlo, Janet; Sukhodolsky, Denis G; Kon, David Szydlo; Tejeda, Miguel Marin; Ramirez, Esteli; Ruchkin, Vladislav

    2016-10-01

    The study aimed to evaluate cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for posttraumatic stress (PTS), depression, anxiety, and anger in street children by a randomized controlled trial of CBT versus a waitlist control. It was conducted in 8 residential facilities for street children in Mexico City, with assessments at baseline, posttreatment, and 3 months later. Children who reported at least moderate posttraumatic stress, and fulfilled the study requirement were enrolled in the study (N = 100, 12-18 years old, 36 boys). There were 51 children randomized to CBT and 49 to the waitlist condition. Randomization was stratified by gender. CBT consisted of 12 individual 1-hour sessions administered weekly by 2 trained, master's-level clinicians. Outcome measures included self-reports of PTS, depression, anxiety, and anger; global improvement was assessed by the independent evaluator. Compared to participants in the waitlist condition participants in CBT showed a significant reduction in all symptoms, with effects sizes of 1.73 to 1.75. At follow up there was attrition (n = 36), and no change from posttreatment scores. The study did find statistically significant improvement in symptoms in the CBT group compared to the waitlist condition; symptoms remained stable at 3 months. The study found that CBT for trauma in a sample of street children provided a reduction of a broad range of mental health symptoms. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  14. AN APPROACH TO METHODS DEVELOPMENT FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure assessment studies require methods that are rapid, cost-effective and have a high sample through-put. The development of analytical methods for exposure studies should be based on specific information for individual studies. Human exposure studies suggest that di...

  15. AN APPROACH TO METHODS DEVELOPMENT FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure assessment studies require methods that are rapid, cost-effective and have a high sample through-put. The development of analytical methods for exposure studies should be based on specific information for individual studies. Human exposure studies suggest that di...

  16. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS FROM THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY (TACS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools. The four-week study was performed in October and November, 2003. The study involved repeated daily...

  17. PRELIMINARY EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS FROM THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools. The four-week study was performed in October and November, 2003. The study involved repeated daily...

  18. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS FROM THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY (TACS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools. The four-week study was performed in October and November, 2003. The study involved repeated daily...

  19. PRELIMINARY EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS FROM THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools. The four-week study was performed in October and November, 2003. The study involved repeated daily...

  20. ALVEOLAR BREATH SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS IN HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alveolar breath sampling and analysis can be extremely useful in exposure assessment studies involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Over recent years scientists from the EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory have developed and refined an alveolar breath collection ...

  1. Webinar Presentation: Assessing Neurodevelopment in Parallel Animal and Human Studies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation, Assessing Neurodevelopment in Parallel Animal and Human Studies, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Neurodevelopment held on Sept. 9, 2015.

  2. Webinar Presentation: The MATCH Study (Metals Assessment Targeting Community Health)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation, The MATCH Study (Metals Assessment Targeting Community Health), was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Historical Perspectives and Research Updates from Previously Funded Children's Centers held on 11/18/15.

  3. Overview of the Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation Study

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) study was conducted over a five-year period from 1994-1998, to characterize determinants of indoor air quality (IAQ) and occupant perceptions in representative public and commercial office buildings.

  4. ALVEOLAR BREATH SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS IN HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alveolar breath sampling and analysis can be extremely useful in exposure assessment studies involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Over recent years scientists from the EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory have developed and refined an alveolar breath collection ...

  5. Video assessment of rearfoot movements during walking: a reliability study.

    PubMed

    Keenan, A M; Bach, T M

    1996-07-01

    Rearfoot motion, particularly rearfoot pronation, has been associated with many foot and leg pathologies. The assessment of abnormal rearfoot pronation frequently involves the use of video assessment in both clinical and research settings, but the reliability of this assessment has not been addressed. In this study, 14 participants were videotaped during walking. Five clinicians individually viewed the recordings on two separate occasions and assessed whether the participant's rearfoot motion was abnormal. University Gait Analysis Laboratory. Patients from the university's podiatry clinic were assessed for rearfoot motion by five experienced clinicians. Because this was a reliability study, no intervention was undertaken. Clinicians were asked to assess the videotape of the patients walking and indicate on a 3-point scale if they considered the person to be abnormally pronating. Retest and intertester results were compared. The results indicated that there was poor intertester agreement (kappa = .19). Retest agreement, while slightly higher, varied from poor to fair (kappa = -.12 to kappa = 59). Although video recordings have been thought to enhance reliability of assessment of rearfoot motion, the results indicated that the exclusive use of video recordings in the assessment of motion of the rearfoot was not reliable.

  6. Pooled exposure assessment for matched case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Saha-Chaudhuri, Paramita; Umbach, David M; Weinberg, Clarice R

    2011-09-01

    Exposure assessment using biologic specimens is important for epidemiology but may become impracticable if assays are expensive, specimen volumes are marginally adequate, or analyte levels fall below the limit of detection. Pooled exposure assessment can provide an effective remedy for these problems in unmatched case-control studies. We extend pooled exposure strategies to handle specimens collected in a matched case-control study. We show that if a logistic model applies to individuals, then a logistic model also applies to an analysis using pooled exposures. Consequently, the individual-level odds ratio can be estimated while conserving both cost and specimen. We discuss appropriate pooling strategies for a single exposure, with adjustment for multiple, possibly continuous, covariates (confounders) and assessment of effect modification by a categorical variable. We assess the performance of the approach via simulations and conclude that pooled strategies can markedly improve efficiency for matched as well as unmatched case-control studies.

  7. Assessing the first wave of epidemiological studies of nanomaterial workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing; Tsai, Candace S. J.; Pelclova, Daniela; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Schulte, Paul A.

    2015-10-01

    The results of early animal studies of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and air pollution epidemiology suggest that it is important to assess the health of ENM workers. Initial epidemiological studies of workers' exposure to ENMs (<100 nm) are reviewed and characterized for their study designs, findings, and limitations. Of the 15 studies, 11 were cross-sectional, 4 were longitudinal (1 was both cross-sectional and longitudinal in design), and 1 was a descriptive pilot study. Generally, the studies used biologic markers as the dependent variables. All 11 cross-sectional studies showed a positive relationship between various biomarkers and ENM exposures. Three of the four longitudinal studies showed a negative relationship; the fourth showed positive findings after a 1-year follow-up. Each study considered exposure to ENMs as the independent variable. Exposure was assessed by mass concentration in 10 studies and by particle count in six studies. Six of them assessed both mass and particle concentrations. Some of the studies had limited exposure data because of inadequate exposure assessment. Generally, exposure levels were not very high in comparison to those in human inhalation chamber studies, but there were some exceptions. Most studies involved a small sample size, from 2 to 258 exposed workers. These studies represent the first wave of epidemiological studies of ENM workers. They are limited by small numbers of participants, inconsistent (and in some cases inadequate) exposure assessments, generally low exposures, and short intervals between exposure and effect. Still, these studies are a foundation for future work; they provide insight into where ENM workers are experiencing potentially adverse effects that might be related to ENM exposures.

  8. Assessing the first wave of epidemiological studies of nanomaterial workers

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Candace S. J.; Pelclova, Daniela; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Schulte, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    The results of early animal studies of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and air pollution epidemiology suggest that it is important to assess the health of ENM workers. Initial epidemiological studies of workers’ exposure to ENMs (<100 nm) are reviewed and characterized for their study designs, findings, and limitations. Of the 15 studies, 11 were cross-sectional, 4 were longitudinal (1 was both cross-sectional and longitudinal in design), and 1 was a descriptive pilot study. Generally, the studies used biologic markers as the dependent variables. All 11 cross-sectional studies showed a positive relationship between various biomarkers and ENM exposures. Three of the four longitudinal studies showed a negative relationship; the fourth showed positive findings after a 1-year follow-up. Each study considered exposure to ENMs as the independent variable. Exposure was assessed by mass concentration in 10 studies and by particle count in six studies. Six of them assessed both mass and particle concentrations. Some of the studies had limited exposure data because of inadequate exposure assessment. Generally, exposure levels were not very high in comparison to those in human inhalation chamber studies, but there were some exceptions. Most studies involved a small sample size, from 2 to 258 exposed workers. These studies represent the first wave of epidemiological studies of ENM workers. They are limited by small numbers of participants, inconsistent (and in some cases inadequate) exposure assessments, generally low exposures, and short intervals between exposure and effect. Still, these studies are a foundation for future work; they provide insight into where ENM workers are experiencing potentially adverse effects that might be related to ENM exposures. PMID:26635494

  9. Evaluation of the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Study Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckendahl, Chad W.; Davis, Susan L.; Plake, Barbara S.; Sireci, Stephen G.; Hambleton, Ronald K.; Zenisky, April L.; Wells, Craig S.

    2009-01-01

    The "Evaluation of the National Assessment of Educational Progress: Study Reports" describes the special studies that comprised the design of the evaluation. In the Final Report, the authors presented a practical discussion of the evaluation studies to its primary, intended audience, namely policymakers. On this accompanying CD, readers…

  10. An immunohistochemical study of metaplastic spindle cell carcinoma, phyllodes tumor and fibromatosis of the breast.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Barbara; Lee, Andrew H S; Pinder, Sarah E; Bell, Jane A; Ellis, Ian O

    2003-10-01

    The diagnosis of metaplastic (sarcomatoid) carcinoma (MSC) of breast often requires immunohistochemistry with a cytokeratin (CK) panel to distinguish them from phyllodes tumors (PT), primary sarcomas, and fibromatoses. CK staining may be heterogeneous in metaplastic carcinomas. The aim of the study was to investigate the theory that MSCs show evidence of myoepithelial differentiation and to evaluate immunohistochemical markers that may be helpful in distinguishing MSCs from PT and fibromatosis. We reviewed histology and performed immunohistochemistry for AE1/AE3, 34betaE12, CK5 and CK14, Cam5.2, CK7 and CK19, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) (B55), smooth muscle actin (SMA), S100, desmin, vimentin, CD31, CD34, and bcl-2 on paraffin-embedded tissue from 18 MSCs, 26 PTs, and 8 fibromatoses. We assessed staining by using a semiquantitative method. Sarcomatous areas in MSCs were positive for 34betaE12 in 11 cases; for SMA in 10; for CK5 in 7; for CK14 in 6; for Cam5.2, AE1/AE3, and S100 in 5; and for CK7 and CK19 in 3. No CK expression was seen in stromal areas in PT or in fibromatoses. CD34 and bcl-2 were more frequently expressed in spindle cell areas in PTs (18 and 12 of 26, respectively) than in MSCs (0 and 2 of 18, respectively). MSCs show strong evidence of myoepithelial differentiation. CD34 and, to a lesser extent, bcl-2 positivity in PTs may be helpful in differentiating these two lesions from MSCs, particularly in small biopsies, because CK staining in MSCs may be heterogeneous. In our hands, 34betaE12 was the CK most frequently expressed in sarcomatoid areas in MSCs.

  11. Benefit-cost assessment programs: Costa Rica case study

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, A.L. ); Trocki, L.K. )

    1991-01-01

    An assessment of mineral potential, in terms of types and numbers of deposits, approximate location and associated tonnage and grades, is a valuable input to a nation's economic planning and mineral policy development. This study provides a methodology for applying benefit-cost analysis to mineral resource assessment programs, both to determine the cost effectiveness of resource assessments and to ascertain future benefits to the nation. In a case study of Costa Rica, the benefit-cost ratio of a resource assessment program was computed to be a minimum of 4:1 ($10.6 million to $2.5 million), not including the economic benefits accuring from the creation of 800 mining sector and 1,200 support services jobs. The benefit-cost ratio would be considerably higher if presently proposed revisions of mineral policy were implemented and benefits could be defined for Costa Rica.

  12. Mississippi River Hydrodynamic and Delta Management Study (MRHDM) - Geomorphic Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    system. Consequently, trends that are not sustained for more than a few years cannot be interpreted as evidence of either morphological evolution or...Feasibility Study. The overall objectives of the geomorphic assessment were to utilize all available data to document the historical trends in hydrology...Geomorphic reaches were defined, and the morphologic trends during different time periods were evaluated. The geomorphic assessment highlighted the

  13. A physiotherapy triage assessment service for people with low back disorders: evaluation of short-term outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bath, Brenna; Pahwa, Punam

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the short-term effects of physiotherapy triage assessments on self-reported pain, functioning, and general well-being and quality of life in people with low back-related disorders. Methods: Participants with low back–related complaints were recruited from those referred to a spinal triage assessment program delivered by physiotherapists (PTs). Before undergoing the triage assessment, the participants completed a battery of questionnaires covering a range of sociodemographic, clinical, and psychosocial features. The study used the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS), the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and the Medical Outcomes Survey 36-item short-form version 2 (SF-36v2) to assess self-reported pain, function, and quality of life. Baseline measures and variables were analyzed using a descriptive analysis method (ie, proportions, means, medians). Paired samples t-tests or Wilcoxon matched-pair signed-rank tests were used to analyze the overall group differences between the pretest and posttest outcome measures where appropriate. Results: A total of 108 out of 115 (93.9%) participants completed the posttest survey. The Physical Component Summary of the SF36v2 was the only measure that demonstrated significant improvement (P < 0.001). Conclusion: A spinal triage assessment program delivered by PTs can be viewed as a complex intervention that may have the potential to affect a wide range of patient-related outcomes. Further research is needed to examine the long-term outcomes and explore potential mechanisms of improvement using a biopsychosocial framework. PMID:22915980

  14. The San Diego State University Liberal Studies Assessment Portfolio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeder, Phoebe

    The Liberal Studies Assessment Portfolio program was instituted at San Diego State University in July 1992 in response to California's requirement that prospective elementary school teachers demonstrate subject matter competency. Since many liberal studies majors transfer to San Diego State University at the beginning of their junior year, most of…

  15. International Computer and Information Literacy Study: Assessment Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraillon, Julian; Schulz, Wolfram; Ainley, John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the International Computer and Information Literacy Study 2013 (ICILS 2013) is to investigate, in a range of countries, the ways in which young people are developing "computer and information literacy" (CIL) to support their capacity to participate in the digital age. To achieve this aim, the study will assess student…

  16. An Empirical Study of a Solo Performance Assessment Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesized model of solo music performance assessment. Specifically, this study investigates the influence of technique and musical expression on perceptions of overall performance quality. The Aural Musical Performance Quality (AMPQ) measure was created to measure overall performance quality, technique,…

  17. A Study of Prior Learning Assessment in Degree Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Jean Marie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of prior learning assessment (PLA) in postsecondary degree completion for adult community college students at Mountwest Community and Technical College (MCTC). The study group consisted of 339 MCTC graduates, who applied PLA credits toward degree completion between the academic year 2006 and 2011.…

  18. International Civic and Citizenship Education Study: Assessment Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Wolfram; Fraillon, Julian; Ainley, John; Losito, Bruno; Kerr, David

    2008-01-01

    This document outlines the framework and assessment design for the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) sponsored by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). Over the past 50 years, IEA has conducted comparative research studies focusing on educational policies, practices, and…

  19. A Study of Prior Learning Assessment in Degree Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Jean Marie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of prior learning assessment (PLA) in postsecondary degree completion for adult community college students at Mountwest Community and Technical College (MCTC). The study group consisted of 339 MCTC graduates, who applied PLA credits toward degree completion between the academic year 2006 and 2011.…

  20. An Empirical Study of a Solo Performance Assessment Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesized model of solo music performance assessment. Specifically, this study investigates the influence of technique and musical expression on perceptions of overall performance quality. The Aural Musical Performance Quality (AMPQ) measure was created to measure overall performance quality, technique,…

  1. Enhancing the Cognitive Complexity in Social Studies Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stobaugh, Rebecca; Tassell, Janet Lynne; Day, Martha M.; Blankenship, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    Social studies teachers are charged with the task of developing students' understandings as students engage in critical examination of social studies issues and topics. Teachers often use test items from textbooks or instructional resources, or create their own classroom assessments with no specific pedagogical foundation. All too often, these…

  2. Technical Letter Report Development of Flaw Size Distribution Tables Including Effects of Flaw Depth Sizing Errors for Draft 10CFR 50.61a (Alternate PTS Rule) JCN-N6398, Task 4

    SciTech Connect

    Simonen, Fredric A.; Gosselin, Stephen R.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2013-04-22

    This document describes a new method to determine whether the flaws in a particular reactor pressure vessel are consistent with the assumptions regarding the number and sizes of flaws used in the analyses that formed the technical justification basis for the new voluntary alternative Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) rule (Draft 10 CFR 50.61a). The new methodology addresses concerns regarding prior methodology because ASME Code Section XI examinations do not detect all fabrication flaws, they have higher detection performance for some flaw types, and there are flaw sizing errors always present (e.g., significant oversizing of small flaws and systematic under sizing of larger flaws). The new methodology allows direct comparison of ASME Code Section XI examination results with values in the PTS draft rule Tables 2 and 3 in order to determine if the number and sizes of flaws detected by an ASME Code Section XI examination are consistent with those assumed in the probabilistic fracture mechanics calculations performed in support of the development of 10 CFR 50.61a.

  3. A Longitudinal Study of the Bidirectional Relationship Between Social Support and Posttraumatic Stress Following a Natural Disaster.

    PubMed

    Platt, Jonathan M; Lowe, Sarah R; Galea, Sandro; Norris, Fran H; Koenen, Karestan C

    2016-06-01

    There is ample evidence that social support is protective against posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms through social causation processes. It is also likely that PTS is associated with decreased social support through social selection processes. Few studies, however, have examined the longitudinal and bidirectional associations between social support and PTS in a postdisaster context, and whether such associations vary by type of support (e.g., emotional, informational, or tangible). We examined these relationships using Galveston Bay Recovery Study data. Participants (N = 658) were interviewed 2-6 months (W1), 5-9 months (W2), and 14-19 months (W3) after Hurricane Ike in 2008. Longitudinal relationships between each support type and PTS were examined in cross-lagged models. W1 emotional support was negatively associated with W2 PTS (Estimate = -.13, p = .007), consistent with social causation. W1 PTS was negatively associated with W2 emotional support (Estimate = -.14, p = .019), consistent with social selection. In contrast, pathways were nonsignificant at subsequent waves and for informational and tangible support. Results suggested that postdisaster social causation and selection were limited to emotional support and diminish over time. Based on these findings, postdisaster services should emphasize restoring supportive social connections to minimize the psychiatric consequences of disaster, especially among those with prior evidence of distress. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  4. Teaching and assessing procedural skills: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Graduating Internal Medicine residents must possess sufficient skills to perform a variety of medical procedures. Little is known about resident experiences of acquiring procedural skills proficiency, of practicing these techniques, or of being assessed on their proficiency. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively investigate resident 1) experiences of the acquisition of procedural skills and 2) perceptions of procedural skills assessment methods available to them. Methods Focus groups were conducted in the weeks following an assessment of procedural skills incorporated into an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Using fundamental qualitative description, emergent themes were identified and analyzed. Results Residents perceived procedural skills assessment on the OSCE as a useful formative tool for direct observation and immediate feedback. This positive reaction was regularly expressed in conjunction with a frustration with available assessment systems. Participants reported that proficiency was acquired through resident directed learning with no formal mechanism to ensure acquisition or maintenance of skills. Conclusions The acquisition and assessment of procedural skills in Internal Medicine programs should move toward a more structured system of teaching, deliberate practice and objective assessment. We propose that directed, self-guided learning might meet these needs. PMID:23672617

  5. Assessment of changes in formations of non-forest woody vegetation in southern Denmark based on airborne LiDAR.

    PubMed

    Angelidis, Ioannis; Levin, Gregor; Díaz-Varela, Ramón Alberto; Malinowski, Radek

    2017-09-01

    LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) is a remote sensing technology that uses light in the form of pulses to measure the range between a sensor and the Earth's surface. Recent increase in availability of airborne LiDAR scanning (ALS) data providing national coverage with high point densities has opened a wide range of possibilities for monitoring landscape elements and their changes at broad geographical extent. We assessed the dynamics of the spatial extent of non-forest woody vegetation (NFW) in a study area of approx. 2500 km(2) in southern Jutland, Denmark, based on two acquisitions of ALS data for 2006 and 2014 in combination with other spatial data. Our results show a net-increase (4.8%) in the total area of NFW. Furthermore, this net change comprises of both areas with a decrease and areas with an increase of NFW. An accuracy assessment based on visual interpretation of aerial photos indicates high accuracy (>95%) in the delineation of NFW without changes during the study period. For NFW that changed between 2006 and 2014, accuracies were lower (90 and 82% in removed and new features, respectively), which is probably due to lower point densities of the 2006 ALS data (0.5 pts./m(2)) compared to the 2014 data (4-5 pts./m(2)). We conclude that ALS data, if combined with other spatial data, in principle are highly suitable for detailed assessment of changes in landscape features, such as formations of NFW at broad geographical extent. However, in change assessment based on multi-temporal ALS data with different point densities errors occur, particularly when examining small or narrow NFW objects.

  6. Peer assessment in problem-based learning: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Papinczak, Tracey; Young, Louise; Groves, Michele

    2007-05-01

    Peer assessment provides a powerful avenue for students to receive feedback on their learning. Although student perceptions of peer assessment have been studied extensively in higher education, little qualitative research has been undertaken with medical students in problem-based learning (PBL) curricula. A qualitative study of students' attitudes to, and perceptions of, peer assessment was undertaken within the framework of a larger study of metacognition with first-year medical students at the University of Queensland. A highly structured format for provision of feedback was utilised in the study design. Many recommendations from the higher education literature on optimal implementation of peer-assessment procedures were put into practice. Results indicated the existence of six main themes: (1) increased responsibility for others, (2) improved learning, (3) lack of relevancy, (4) challenges, (5) discomfort, and (6) effects on the PBL process. Five of these themes have previously been described in the literature. However, the final theme represents a unique, although not unexpected, finding. Students expressed serious concerns about the negative impact of peer assessment on the cooperative, non-judgmental atmosphere of PBL tutorial groups. The practical implications of these findings are considered.

  7. [Development of rheumatoid arthritis functional handicap assessment questionnaire: preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Guermazi, M; Poiraudeau, S; Lefevre-Colau, M M; Revel, M

    2003-06-01

    To construct a handicap assessment questionnaire for rheumatoid arthritis and to determine if the concept of "participation" can replace the one of "handicap". Selection of daily life domains and items was based on the International Classification of Impairment Disability and Handicap "ICIDH" and on some others handicap epidemiological studies. The questionnaire was tested among rheumatoid arthritis patients. The relation between handicap and participation was investigated. Statistics analysis was performed with Systat.9 program. Spearman's correlation coefficient between 2 quantitative variables was examined. Six among the 7 "ICIDH" domains were included in the questionnaire. Each of them was explored with many items. Forty-six items were included; each item was explored in 4 chapters:participation assessment with VAS (Visual Analogical Scale) before rheumatoid arthritis and during the study; difficulties: need of help, environment accessibility, patient's satisfaction, feeling of devalorization; patient's propositions;handicap assessment with VAS; other questions were added in some particular items. Thirty patients were included in the study (23 women), the average age was 51 years. Five patients didn't understand the meaning of "Handicap".This study allows us to eliminate 2 items, to add 2 others and to ameliorate 1 of them. Correlation between handicap and participation was moderate to bad. This questionnaire allows to explore rheumatoid arthritis handicap. Each domain of the daily life can be assessed separately. The main difficulties are the length and the impossibility to be self-administered. Handicap and participation probably assess different concepts or are differently understood by patients.

  8. An action research study of secondary science assessment praxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Thomas Gerald

    This practical participatory action research study illuminates the assessment praxes of four Ontario secondary level science teachers at one school using a facilitative approach. Participants were joined by a thematic concern, that is, a commitment to inform and improve assessment. Hence, two distinct sets of research questions emerged. The first involves the nature of assessment as we asked, what was the current state of assessment practice in secondary science? What were participants' initial understandings of assessment and actual practices at the onset of this research? To what extent did these initial understandings and actual practices change due to the illumination of assessment praxes through action research involvement? What was their level of awareness of current Ontario government pronouncements and in what ways did they implement this knowledge? The second theme, concerning the nature of action research, was realised by asking what did participants learn about action research? What other learning and professional gains were realised during this study? And, what did I learn about action research and assessment through my involvement in this study? Data were collected via supportive discussion groups, individual interviews, classroom visitations, journals and documentation. This professional development experience facilitated 'interactive professionalism' as teachers worked in a small group and interacted frequently in the course of planning, testing new ideas, attempting to solve different problems, and assess the effectiveness of those ideas. In addition, this action research effort was strategic and systematic, to attain a high degree of specific interactions, (personal interviews, group meetings, classroom observations, evidence collection). This series of deliberate and planned intentions helped participants solve assessment dilemmas. We developed an awareness and understanding of the need for more preservice and inservice assessment training

  9. Postoperative chemoradiation for resected gastric cancer - is the Macdonald Regimen Tolerable? a retrospective multi-institutional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Postoperative chemoradiation as per Intergroup-0116 trial ("Macdonald regimen") is considered standard for completely resected high risk gastric cancer. However, many concerns remain with regards to the toxicity of this regimen. To evaluate the safety and tolerability of this regimen in a routine clinical practice setting, we analyzed our experience with its use. As we did not expect a different toxic profile in patients (pts) with positive margins (R1 resection), these were studied together with pts after complete resection (R0). Patients and Methods Postoperative chemoradiation therapy was given according to the original Intergroup-0116 regimen. Overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Comparison of OS and DFS between R0 and R1 pts was done using the log-rank test. Results Between 6/2000 and 12/2007, 166 pts after R0 (129 pts) or R1 (37 pts) resection of locally advanced gastric adenocarcinoma received postoperative chemoradiation; 61% were male and the median age was 63 years (range, 23-86); 78% had T ≥ 3 tumors and 81% had N+ disease; 87% of the pts completed radiotherapy and 54% completed the entire chemoradiation plan; 46.4% had grade ≥ 3 toxicity and 32% were hospitalized at least once for toxicity. Three pts (1.8%) died of toxicity: diarrhea (1), neutropenic sepsis (1) and neutropenic sepsis complicated by small bowel gangrene (1). The most common hematological toxicity was neutropenia, grade ≥ 3 in 30% of pts and complicated by fever in 15%. The most common non-hematological toxicities were nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. With a median follow-up of 51 months (range, 2-100), 62% of the R0 patients remain alive and 61% are free of disease. Median DFS and OS for R0 were not reached. R0 pts had a significantly higher 3-year DFS (60% vs. 29%, p = 0.001) and OS (61% vs. 33%, p = 0.01) compared with R1 pts. Conclusions In our experience, postoperative chemoradiation as per

  10. Assessing the relevance of ecotoxicological studies for regulatory decision making.

    PubMed

    Rudén, Christina; Adams, Julie; Ågerstrand, Marlene; Brock, Theo Cm; Poulsen, Veronique; Schlekat, Christian E; Wheeler, James R; Henry, Tala R

    2016-09-07

    Regulatory policies in many parts of the world recognize either the utility of or the mandate that all available studies be considered in environmental or ecological hazard and risk assessment (ERA) of chemicals, including studies from the peer-reviewed literature. Consequently, a vast array of different studies and data types need to be considered. The first steps in the evaluation process involve determining whether the study is relevant to the ERA and sufficiently reliable. Relevance evaluation is typically performed using existing guidance but involves application of "expert judgment" by risk assessors. In the present paper, we review published guidance for relevance evaluation and, on the basis of the practical experience within the group of authors, we identify additional aspects and further develop already proposed aspects that should be considered when conducting a relevance assessment for ecotoxicological studies. From a regulatory point of view, the overarching key aspect of relevance concerns the ability to directly or indirectly use the study in ERA with the purpose of addressing specific protection goals and ultimately regulatory decision making. Because ERA schemes are based on the appropriate linking of exposure and effect estimates, important features of ecotoxicological studies relate to exposure relevance and biological relevance. Exposure relevance addresses the representativeness of the test substance, environmental exposure media, and exposure regime. Biological relevance deals with the environmental significance of the test organism and the endpoints selected, the ecological realism of the test conditions simulated in the study, as well as a mechanistic link of treatment-related effects for endpoints to the protection goal identified in the ERA. In addition, uncertainties associated with relevance should be considered in the assessment. A systematic and transparent assessment of relevance is needed for regulatory decision making. The relevance

  11. Assessing validity of observational intervention studies - the Benchmarking Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Malmivaara, Antti

    2016-09-01

    Benchmarking Controlled Trial (BCT) is a concept which covers all observational studies aiming to assess impact of interventions or health care system features to patients and populations. To create and pilot test a checklist for appraising methodological validity of a BCT. The checklist was created by extracting the most essential elements from the comprehensive set of criteria in the previous paper on BCTs. Also checklists and scientific papers on observational studies and respective systematic reviews were utilized. Ten BCTs published in the Lancet and in the New England Journal of Medicine were used to assess feasibility of the created checklist. The appraised studies seem to have several methodological limitations, some of which could be avoided in planning, conducting and reporting phases of the studies. The checklist can be used for planning, conducting, reporting, reviewing, and critical reading of observational intervention studies. However, the piloted checklist should be validated in further studies. Key messages Benchmarking Controlled Trial (BCT) is a concept which covers all observational studies aiming to assess impact of interventions or health care system features to patients and populations. This paper presents a checklist for appraising methodological validity of BCTs and pilot-tests the checklist with ten BCTs published in leading medical journals. The appraised studies seem to have several methodological limitations, some of which could be avoided in planning, conducting and reporting phases of the studies. The checklist can be used for planning, conducting, reporting, reviewing, and critical reading of observational intervention studies.

  12. Development of a Probabilistic Assessment Methodology for Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Storage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burruss, Robert A.; Brennan, Sean T.; Freeman, P.A.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Becker, Mark F.; Herkelrath, William N.; Kharaka, Yousif K.; Neuzil, Christopher E.; Swanson, Sharon M.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Nelson, Philip H.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a probabilistic assessment methodology developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for evaluation of the resource potential for storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the subsurface of the United States as authorized by the Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110-140, 2007). The methodology is based on USGS assessment methodologies for oil and gas resources created and refined over the last 30 years. The resource that is evaluated is the volume of pore space in the subsurface in the depth range of 3,000 to 13,000 feet that can be described within a geologically defined storage assessment unit consisting of a storage formation and an enclosing seal formation. Storage assessment units are divided into physical traps (PTs), which in most cases are oil and gas reservoirs, and the surrounding saline formation (SF), which encompasses the remainder of the storage formation. The storage resource is determined separately for these two types of storage. Monte Carlo simulation methods are used to calculate a distribution of the potential storage size for individual PTs and the SF. To estimate the aggregate storage resource of all PTs, a second Monte Carlo simulation step is used to sample the size and number of PTs. The probability of successful storage for individual PTs or the entire SF, defined in this methodology by the likelihood that the amount of CO2 stored will be greater than a prescribed minimum, is based on an estimate of the probability of containment using present-day geologic knowledge. The report concludes with a brief discussion of needed research data that could be used to refine assessment methodologies for CO2 sequestration.

  13. Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems Braille Reading Assessment: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posey, Virginia K.; Henderson, Barbara W.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This exploratory study determined whether transcribing selected test items on an adult life and work skills reading test into braille could maintain the same approximate scale-score range and maintain fitness within the item response theory model as used by the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (CASAS) for developing…

  14. Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems Braille Reading Assessment: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posey, Virginia K.; Henderson, Barbara W.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This exploratory study determined whether transcribing selected test items on an adult life and work skills reading test into braille could maintain the same approximate scale-score range and maintain fitness within the item response theory model as used by the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (CASAS) for developing…

  15. Assessing Middle and High School Social Studies & English: Differentiating Formative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterman, Sheryn Spencer

    2010-01-01

    For middle and high school teachers of social studies and English, this book is filled with examples of instructional strategies that address students' readiness levels, interests, and learning preferences. It shows teachers how to formatively assess their students by addressing differentiated learning targets. Included are detailed examples of…

  16. Context Sampling Descriptive Assessment: A Pilot Study of a Further Approach to Functional Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbutt, Nathalie; Furniss, Frederick

    2007-01-01

    Background: The ability of descriptive assessments to differentiate functions of problem behaviours might be increased by systematically sampling natural contexts characterized by different establishing operations. This study evaluated the stability of such characteristics, and variability in challenging behaviour, for three school contexts.…

  17. Assessment of Student Performance. Volume II: Case Studies. Studies of Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khattri, Nidhi; And Others

    The emphasis on using performance assessments to support systematic state-, district-, or school-wide purposes is a recent development in the assessment-reform movement. This document presents data from a 3-year case study that was designed to elucidate the status of assessment reform in United States education systems and offer recommendations…

  18. Contribution of recurrent venous thrombosis and inherited thrombophilia to the pathogenesis of postthrombotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kreidy, Raghid

    2015-01-01

    Postthrombotic syndrome (PTS) is a common complication of deep vein thrombosis. This study aims to assess the role of recurrent venous thrombosis and inherited thrombophilia in the pathogenesis of PTS. A series of 206 patients diagnosed with lower extremity venous thrombosis were retrospectively reviewed. The PTS was observed in 30.58% of the patients. Recurrent venous thrombosis was identified in 3.4% of the patients without PTS and in 33.3% of patients with PTS (P < .001). Inherited thrombophilia alone or in association with recurrent venous thrombosis was more commonly detected when PTS was moderate to severe (P = .04 and <.001) or severe (P < .001). Recurrent venous thrombosis increases the incidence of PTS significantly. The severity of PTS raises when an underlying thrombophilia is present either alone or in association with recurrent venous thrombosis.

  19. Alcohol assessment using wireless handheld computers: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Jay M; Usdan, Stuart; Mays, Darren; Arriola, Kimberly Jacob; Martin, Ryan J; Cremeens, Jennifer; McGill, Tia; Weitzel, Jessica Aungst

    2007-12-01

    The present study sought to test the feasibility of measuring quantity and frequency of self-reported alcohol consumption among college students using the Handheld Assisted Network Diary (HAND) by comparing results to a retrospective Timeline Followback (TLFB). A total of 40 undergraduate college students completed a HAND assessment during the two-week study period and completed a TLFB at follow-up. The HAND recorded similar levels of alcohol consumption compared to the TLFB. There were no significant differences in overall alcohol consumption, drinks per drinking day, or heavy drinking days between the two methods of assessment. Handheld computers may represent a useful tool for assessing daily alcohol use among college students.

  20. Assessment of gait after bilateral hip replacement. Case study.

    PubMed

    Winiarski, Sławomir; Aleksandrowicz, Krzysztof; Jarząb, Sławomir; Pozowski, Andrzej; Rutkowska-Kucharska, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is one of the most effective methods of treatment of severe hip osteoarthritis (HOA). In many cases pathological gait patterns persist despite properly conducted surgery and disturb the normal wear of the artificial joint surfaces. The aim of the study was to conduct functional and biomechanical assessment of gait in a patient after bilateral THA due to severe degenerative changes in the hip. The assessment focused on the gait parameters which significantly deviate from a normal gait pattern at various stages of treatment. Physiotherapeutic assessment of the patient included measurements of the range of motion in lower limb joints, the Timed Up and Go test, and pain assessment. Biomechanical assessment involved measurements of spatiotemporal gait parameters and the dynamic range of motion using BTS Smart-E motion analysis system. Although clinical examinations after both the first and second procedure suggested recovery of the patient's physical function, biomechanical assessment of her gait after the second procedure indicated the presence of deviations from a normal gait pattern. Secondary to a limited range of internal/external hip rotation, extension, and abduction, corresponding indices were still in the pathological range.

  1. [Social support assessment in Brazilian studies: conceptual aspects and measures].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Tonantzin Ribeiro; Pawlowski, Josiane; Bandeira, Denise Ruschel; Piccinini, Cesar Augusto

    2011-03-01

    This study investigated the different ways of evaluating the social support in Brazilian studies. A surveying of scientific Brazilian publications from 1987 to 2007 was done in the Indexpsi, Pepsic, SciELO and Lilacs databases according to keywords social support and social network. Fifty-five studies included some type of assessing social support in Brazilian samples. The results indicated a rise in the number of studies about social support assessment in the last years using interviews to investigate received and perceived support, predominantly. However, the construction was applied without theoretical basis and was associated with many other concepts, sometimes without an appropriate articulation. Besides, there were evidences of lacking reliable, valid and standardized instruments to Brazilian population by considering the instruments currently used and revised by this study.

  2. Assessing the methodological quality of nonrandomized intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Saunders, L Duncan; Soomro, G Mustafa; Buckingham, Jeanette; Jamtvedt, Gro; Raina, Parminder

    2003-03-01

    In many areas of health care, randomized controlled trials (the best evidence regarding the effectiveness of health care interventions) are lacking and decision-makers have to rely on evidence from nonrandomized studies (NRS). We conducted a Medline search to identify English-language articles describing instruments for assessing the quality of NRS of health care interventions. These instruments varied greatly in scope, in the number and types of items and in developmental rigor. Items commonly included were those related to specification of study questions, allocation method, comparability of groups, and blinding of outcome assessment. We do not support the development of a generic scale to evaluate the methodological quality of nonrandomized intervention studies. Instead, further study should be directed to investigate the degree to which, and the circumstances under which, different methodological characteristics are associated with bias. This information will assist researchers in identifying a priori which methodological characteristics need careful evaluation in particular studies.

  3. Combining life cycle assessment and qualitative risk assessment: the case study of alumina nanofluid production.

    PubMed

    Barberio, Grazia; Scalbi, Simona; Buttol, Patrizia; Masoni, Paolo; Righi, Serena

    2014-10-15

    In this paper the authors propose a framework for combining life cycle assessment (LCA) and Risk Assessment (RA) to support the sustainability assessment of emerging technologies. This proposal includes four steps of analysis: technological system definition; data collection; risk evaluation and impacts quantification; results interpretation. This scheme has been applied to a case study of nanofluid alumina production in two different pilot lines, "single-stage" and "two-stage". The study has been developed in the NanoHex project (enhanced nano-fluid heat exchange). Goals of the study were analyzing the hotspots and highlighting possible trade-off between the results of LCA, which identifies the processes having the best environmental performance, and the results of RA, which identifies the scenarios having the highest risk for workers. Indeed, due to lack of data about exposure limits, exposure-dose relationships and toxicity of alumina nanopowders (NPs) and nanofluids (NF), the workplace exposure has been evaluated by means of qualitative risk assessment, using Stoffenmanager Nano. Though having different aims, LCA and RA have a complementary role in the description of impacts of products/substances/technologies. Their combined use can overcome limits of each of them and allows a wider vision of the problems to better support the decision making process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Regional issue identification and assessment: study methodology. First annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The overall assessment methodologies and models utilized for the first project under the Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program are described. Detailed descriptions are given of the methodologies used by lead laboratories for the quantification of the impacts of an energy scenario on one or more media (e.g., air, water, land, human and ecology), and by all laboratories to assess the regional impacts on all media. The research and assessments reflected in this document were performed by the following national laboratories: Argonne National Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report contains five chapters. Chapter 1 briefly describes the overall study methodology and introduces the technical participants. Chapter 2 is a summary of the energy policy scenario selected for the RIIA I study and Chapter 3 describes how this scenario was translated into a county-level siting pattern of energy development. The fourth chapter is a detailed description of the individual methodologies used to quantify the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the scenario while Chapter 5 describes how these impacts were translated into comprehensive regional assessments for each Federal Region.

  5. Assessing Student Learning in the Major Field of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkwein, J. Fredericks

    2010-01-01

    Assessing student attainment in the major field of study is increasingly important to employers and accrediting bodies alike. Construction and manufacturing firms do not like engineers who design faulty bridges and airplanes. Marketing firms want to hire students who understand the difference between a niche market and a global market. School…

  6. Vocabulary Assessment with Varying Levels of Context: A Replication Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Brenna

    2014-01-01

    This replication study investigates how the level of context in vocabulary assessment affects the scores on tests of American idioms. Using Uçkun's methodology of 3 tests with 3 levels of context, 85 participants varying in level from high-beginner to advanced took an online test consisting of 30 questions, 10 questions for each level of context.…

  7. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) in Studies of Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiffman, Saul

    2009-01-01

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is particularly suitable for studying substance use, because use is episodic and thought to be related to mood and context. This article reviews EMA methods in substance use research, focusing on tobacco and alcohol use and relapse, where EMA has been most applied. Common EMA designs combine event-based…

  8. Local Assessment System Implementation Study (2003-2004): Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This document includes the results of Maine's 2003-2004 study examining actions taken by 18 school districts in response to the challenges of developing a Local Assessment System (LAS) using the principles and criteria set forth in the "LAS Guide" distributed to school districts in June, 2003. The report is organized into three parts:…

  9. Using machine learning to assess covariate balance in matching studies.

    PubMed

    Linden, Ariel; Yarnold, Paul R

    2016-12-01

    In order to assess the effectiveness of matching approaches in observational studies, investigators typically present summary statistics for each observed pre-intervention covariate, with the objective of showing that matching reduces the difference in means (or proportions) between groups to as close to zero as possible. In this paper, we introduce a new approach to distinguish between study groups based on their distributions of the covariates using a machine-learning algorithm called optimal discriminant analysis (ODA). Assessing covariate balance using ODA as compared with the conventional method has several key advantages: the ability to ascertain how individuals self-select based on optimal (maximum-accuracy) cut-points on the covariates; the application to any variable metric and number of groups; its insensitivity to skewed data or outliers; and the use of accuracy measures that can be widely applied to all analyses. Moreover, ODA accepts analytic weights, thereby extending the assessment of covariate balance to any study design where weights are used for covariate adjustment. By comparing the two approaches using empirical data, we are able to demonstrate that using measures of classification accuracy as balance diagnostics produces highly consistent results to those obtained via the conventional approach (in our matched-pairs example, ODA revealed a weak statistically significant relationship not detected by the conventional approach). Thus, investigators should consider ODA as a robust complement, or perhaps alternative, to the conventional approach for assessing covariate balance in matching studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Assessing the Flipped Classroom in Operations Management: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prashar, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    The author delved into the results of a flipped classroom pilot conducted for an operations management course module. It assessed students' perception of a flipped learning environment after making them experience it in real time. The classroom environment was construed using a case research approach and students' perceptions were studied using…

  11. A Study of Sustainable Assessment Theory in Higher Education Tutorials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Robert J.; Skinner, William F.; Schwabrow, Lynsey A.

    2013-01-01

    A study of sustainable assessment theory in nine tutorial courses at four colleges demonstrated that three long-term learning outcomes improved: Independence, Intellectual Maturity and Creativity. Eight of 10 traits associated with these outcomes were validated through internal reliability, faculty and student rubrics, and faculty case studies…

  12. A Longitudinal Study Assessing the Microsoft Office Skills Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Donald A.; McGinnis, Denise; Slauson, Gayla Jo; Snyder, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    This paper explains a four-year longitudinal study of the assessment process for a Microsoft Office skills course. It examines whether there is an increase in students' knowledge based on responses to pre- and post-surveys that asked students to evaluate how well they can do particular tasks. Classical classroom teaching methods were used in the…

  13. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) in Studies of Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiffman, Saul

    2009-01-01

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is particularly suitable for studying substance use, because use is episodic and thought to be related to mood and context. This article reviews EMA methods in substance use research, focusing on tobacco and alcohol use and relapse, where EMA has been most applied. Common EMA designs combine event-based…

  14. The Strategic Approach to Studying, and the Value of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In this paper I seek to reflexively theorise the following pedagogical problem: why do so many students adopt a strategic approach to studying and value assessment for the grade awarded rather than as a learning opportunity? Firstly, I differentiate my sociological perspective from the phenomenographic perspective, and argue that the strategic…

  15. Literary Study, Measurement, and the Sublime: Disciplinary Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiland, Donna, Ed.; Rosenthal, Laura J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This collection of essays, "Literary Study, Measurement, and the Sublime: Disciplinary Assessment," edited by Donna Heiland and Laura J. Rosenthal, represents an important new venture in the Foundation's communication program. The book is the product of many authors, including the editors, both of whom have written essays for it. But it…

  16. Assessing Student Learning in the Major Field of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkwein, J. Fredericks

    2010-01-01

    Assessing student attainment in the major field of study is increasingly important to employers and accrediting bodies alike. Construction and manufacturing firms do not like engineers who design faulty bridges and airplanes. Marketing firms want to hire students who understand the difference between a niche market and a global market. School…

  17. Interoceptive Assessment and Exposure in Panic Disorder: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Norman B.; Trakowski, Jack

    2004-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) protocols for panic disorder (PD) typically include some form of interoceptive exposure (IE)--repeated exposure to internal sensations. Despite the widespread clinical use of IE, there is a notable absence of empirical reports about the nature of interoceptive assessments and IE. The present study was designed…

  18. PROSPECTIVE PREGNANCY STUDY DESIGNS FOR ASSESSING REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prospective Pregnancy Study Designs for Assessing Reproductive and Developmental Toxicants
    Germaine M. Buck,1 Courtney D. Johnson,1 Joseph Stanford,2 Anne Sweeney,3 Laura Schieve,4 John Rockett,5 Sherry G. Selevan,6 Steve Schrader 7

    Abstract
    The origin of successfu...

  19. Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation Study Summarized Data - HVAC Characteristics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In the Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) Study Information on the characteristics of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system(s) in the entire BASE building including types of ventilation, equipment configurations, and operation and maintenance issues was acquired by examining the building plans, conducting a building walk-through, and speaking with the building owner, manager, and/or operator.

  20. Study on self hearing assessment using speech sounds.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Junil; Kim, Dongwook; Ku, Yunseo; Lee, Kyungwon; Lee, Junghak

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we proposed new self assessment of hearing loss in mobile phones and realized a function of compensation for hearing impaired person. The results of experiments on mobile phone showed that the proposed hearing test is sufficient to check hearing loss and the compensation based on the result of the proposed hearing test can improve speech intelligibility of hearing impaired persons.

  1. Interoceptive Assessment and Exposure in Panic Disorder: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Norman B.; Trakowski, Jack

    2004-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) protocols for panic disorder (PD) typically include some form of interoceptive exposure (IE)--repeated exposure to internal sensations. Despite the widespread clinical use of IE, there is a notable absence of empirical reports about the nature of interoceptive assessments and IE. The present study was designed…

  2. The Active Assessment of Educability: A Case Study. Brief Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulicny, Gary R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The case study examines the implicit uneducability diagnosis for an individual who had not shown progress in over two years of training in eating skills. Following programing by a special training team, the S made variable but substantial progress. Results suggest that negative educability assessment based on performance in standard educational…

  3. Approaches to Assessment in CLIL Classrooms: Two Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dwyer, Fergus; de Boer, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This article presents two case studies that show how learner involvement and collaboration in assessment are valid pedagogic tools to encourage learner reflection and engagement, particularly where a very traditional approach to language learning is the norm. The authors, who teach in universities in Japan, discuss different but related approaches…

  4. Planning Intervention Using Dynamic Assessments: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasson, Natalie; Dodd, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic assessments (DA) of language have been shown to be a useful addition to the battery of tests used to diagnose language impairments in children, and to evaluate their skills. The current article explores the value of the information gained from a DA in planning intervention for a child with language impairment. A single case study was used…

  5. PROSPECTIVE PREGNANCY STUDY DESIGNS FOR ASSESSING REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prospective Pregnancy Study Designs for Assessing Reproductive and Developmental Toxicants
    Germaine M. Buck,1 Courtney D. Johnson,1 Joseph Stanford,2 Anne Sweeney,3 Laura Schieve,4 John Rockett,5 Sherry G. Selevan,6 Steve Schrader 7

    Abstract
    The origin of successfu...

  6. Assessing Meritorious Teacher Performance: A Differential Validity Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellett, Chad D; Capie, William

    The Teacher Assessment and Development System (TADS) - Meritorious Teacher Program (MTP) FORM instrument is used in the Dade County Public Schools, Miami, Florida, to evaluate teachers. Its validity for decisions concerning merit pay for master teachers was examined in this study. Specifically, its ability to discriminate between high performing…

  7. The School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study: Summary of Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burghardt, John; Devaney, Barbara

    This publication, which is based on the School Nutrition Dietary Assessment study, describes the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (SBP), presents findings on the nutrients and foods provided in school meals, and describes the dietary intakes of the nation's students on a typical school day. Data were derived…

  8. A Validation Study of the Student Oral Proficiency Assessment (SOPA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Lynn E.; Kenyon, Dorry M.; Rhodes, Nancy C.

    This study validated the Student Oral Proficiency Assessment (SOPA), an oral proficiency instrument designed for students in elementary foreign language programs. Elementary students who were tested with the SOPA were also administered other instruments designed to measure proficiency. These instruments included the Stanford Foreign Language Oral…

  9. Simulations: A Case Study of City & Guilds' Newest Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Andrew; Dearing, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a case study of City & Guilds' development of simulation-based assessments for its ICT user qualification. These simulations are authentic scenario-based replicas of word processing and spreadsheet software, which present a series of tasks that the test-taker completes as if they were using…

  10. A Validation Study of Early Adolescents' Pubertal Self-Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Katharine E.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Nichols, Jeanne F.; Irvin, Veronica L.; Keating, Kristen; Simon, Gayle M.; Gehrman, Christine; Jones, Kenneth Lee

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether self-assessed puberty is sufficiently reliable and valid to substitute for physician examination when feasibility of physician examination is low (e.g., behavioral research). Adolescents (convenience sample N = 178 endocrinology patients and N = 125 from educational trial; mean age 12.7 and 11.3 years,…

  11. Assessing the Flipped Classroom in Operations Management: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prashar, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    The author delved into the results of a flipped classroom pilot conducted for an operations management course module. It assessed students' perception of a flipped learning environment after making them experience it in real time. The classroom environment was construed using a case research approach and students' perceptions were studied using…

  12. Planning Intervention Using Dynamic Assessments: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasson, Natalie; Dodd, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic assessments (DA) of language have been shown to be a useful addition to the battery of tests used to diagnose language impairments in children, and to evaluate their skills. The current article explores the value of the information gained from a DA in planning intervention for a child with language impairment. A single case study was used…

  13. Asymmetrical motor behaviour as a window to early leg preference: a longitudinal study in infants 7-12 months of age.

    PubMed

    Atun-Einy, Osnat

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored leg preference in infancy during half-kneel pulling-to-stand (PTS) and asymmetrical four-point kneeling, which is part of the typical motor repertoire of infants. The special characteristics of the half-kneel PTS as a discrete task, performed in a bilateral context provide the opportunity to explore leg preference during an asymmetrical behaviour. Twenty-seven infants were observed in their homes, every 3 weeks between the ages of 7-12 months. Leg preference was determined by the "lead-out" limb used as the infants pulled to stand from the half-kneeling position (half-kneel PTS). As a complementary measure, the leading leg during asymmetrical four-point kneeling and crawling ("asymmetrical four-point patterns") was used in the 10 infants who developed these patterns. The infants studied showed a general preference for using a leading leg during half-kneel PTS, which was mostly consistent over the study period. A strong correlation was found between leg preferences during half-kneel PTS and asymmetrical four-point patterns. The findings documented functional asymmetry in infant lower limbs during half-kneel PTS and asymmetrical four-point patterns, highlighting the importance of the tasks used to define leg preference.

  14. Development Impact Assessment (DIA) Case Study. South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Sadie; Nawaz, Kathleen; Sandor, Debra

    2015-05-19

    This case study reviews South Africa’s experience in considering the impacts of climate change action on development goals, focusing on the South African energy sector and development impact assessments (DIAs) that have and could be used to influence energy policy or inform the selection of energy activities. It includes a review of assessments—conducted by government ministries, technical partners, and academic institutes and non-governmental organizations (NGOs)—that consider employment, health, and water implications of possible energy sector actions, as well as multi-criteria impact assessments.

  15. Instruments for the assessment of social anxiety disorder: Validation studies.

    PubMed

    Osório, Flávia de Lima; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Loureiro, Sonia Regina

    2012-10-22

    Great progress has been observed in the literature over the last decade regarding the validation of instruments for the assessment of Social Anxiety Disorder in the Brazilian context. Particularly outstanding in this respect is the production of a group of Brazilian investigators regarding the psychometric study of the following instruments: Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Social Phobia Inventory, Brief Social Phobia Scale, Disability Profile, Liebowitz Self-Rated Disability Scale, Social Phobia Safety Behaviors Scale and Self-Statements During Public Speaking Scale, which have proved to be appropriate and valid for use in the adult Brazilian population, representing resources for the assessment of social anxiety in clinical and experimental situations.

  16. Instruments for the assessment of social anxiety disorder: Validation studies

    PubMed Central

    Osório, Flávia de Lima; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Loureiro, Sonia Regina

    2012-01-01

    Great progress has been observed in the literature over the last decade regarding the validation of instruments for the assessment of Social Anxiety Disorder in the Brazilian context. Particularly outstanding in this respect is the production of a group of Brazilian investigators regarding the psychometric study of the following instruments: Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Social Phobia Inventory, Brief Social Phobia Scale, Disability Profile, Liebowitz Self-Rated Disability Scale, Social Phobia Safety Behaviors Scale and Self-Statements During Public Speaking Scale, which have proved to be appropriate and valid for use in the adult Brazilian population, representing resources for the assessment of social anxiety in clinical and experimental situations. PMID:24175172

  17. Subjective global assessment for nutritional assessment of hospitalized patients requiring haemodialysis: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Sheau Kang; Loh, Yet Hua; Choong, Hui Lin; Suhail, Sufi M

    2016-11-01

    Evidence has validated that the nutritional status of hospitalized patients on haemodialysis could be compromised because of admission-related and hospital-associated morbidities on the background of their kidney disease. However, nutritional status is not assessed and monitored routinely during the hospitalization period. The aim of the present study was to assess the nutritional status of hospitalized patients requiring haemodialysis with the subjective global assessment (SGA) tool during the hospitalization period. This is a prospective cohort study conducted in an acute tertiary general hospital. Patients aged 21-75 years old, admitted for various illnesses and requiring haemodialysis between November 2011 and May 2012 were enrolled into this study. A trained dietician assessed patients' nutritional status with the SGA tool, which included historical data on weight change, dietary intake, gastrointestinal symptoms, functional capacity, comorbidities and physical examination on subcutaneous fat loss, muscle wasting and presence of oedema and/or ascites. Patients were categorized under three groups: SGA-A (well-nourished), SGA-B (moderately malnourished) and SGA-C (severely malnourished). Eighty patients (mean ± SD age = 59 ± 10 years; 76% Chinese ethnicity) were assessed. Mean ± SD body mass index (BMI) was 25.1 ± 6.1 kg/m(2) . SGA categories were 48% SGA-A, 46% SGA-B, and 6% SGA-C. Mean energy and protein intake (P < 0.001), length of hospitalization stay (P = 0.03) and BMI (P = 0.001) were significantly different across the three categories of nutritional status. More than half of the hospitalized patients requiring haemodialysis were malnourished. It is important to incorporate SGA in the care of hospitalized haemodialysis patients for early detection of malnutrition and for medical nutrition therapy to optimise patients' nutritional status for better outcomes. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  18. [Assessment of surgical competence. A Mexican pilot study].

    PubMed

    Anaya-Prado, Roberto; Ortega-León, Luis Humberto; Ramirez-Solis, Mauro Eduardo; Vázquez-García, José Arturo; Medina-Portillo, Juan Bernardo; Ayala-López, Ernesto Alonso

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of technical dexterity is currently the weakest issue in surgical evaluation. It is imperative to develop an objective exam that allows us to correct training deficiencies and abilities and to objectively feedback education programs and hospitals. The purpose of this study was to perform a correlation between theoretical knowledge and surgical skills. We performed a national pilot study in in surgeons certifying by the Mexican Board of Surgery in 2010. This was a two-stage study: written exam (stage I) and oral exam (viva voce) to all surgeons approving the written exam (stage II). In stage II we utilized an objective structured assessment of technical skills (OSATS) whose results were correlated with those of the written and oral exams. The assessment involved seven skill stations and a global rating scale to indicate correctly performed or not and a fail/pass exam, respectively. Sixty-two surgeons approved the written exam in two places. We found no statistical difference among skills in open surgery (bowel anastomosis, liver and vascular suture), laparoscopic surgery (grape pilling, cutting a circle and intracorporeal knot tying) and instrument identification. There was a statistically significant difference (p <0.001) when median values were compared between laparoscopic surgery vs. open surgery and the identification of surgical instruments. There was a correlation between theoretical knowledge and surgical skills. When applying an OSATS, we found a positive correlation between theoretical knowledge and surgical skills. This assessment proves to to be valid and reliable for the evaluation of surgical dexterity.

  19. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) in studies of substance use.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Saul

    2009-12-01

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is particularly suitable for studying substance use, because use is episodic and thought to be related to mood and context. This article reviews EMA methods in substance use research, focusing on tobacco and alcohol use and relapse, where EMA has been most applied. Common EMA designs combine event-based reports of substance use with time-based assessments. Approaches to data organization and analysis have been very diverse, particularly regarding their treatment of time. Compliance with signaled assessments is often high. Compliance with recording of substance use appears good but is harder to validate. Treatment applications of EMA are emerging. EMA captures substance use patterns not measured by questionnaires or retrospective data and holds promise for substance use research.

  20. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) in Studies of Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Shiffman, Saul

    2010-01-01

    Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) is particularly suitable for studying substance use, because use is episodic and thought to be related to mood and context. This paper reviews EMA methods in substance use research, focusing on tobacco and alcohol use and relapse, where EMA has most been applied. Common EMA designs combine event-based reports of substance use with time-based assessments. Approaches to data organization and analysis have been very diverse, particularly regarding their treatment of time. Compliance with signaled assessments is often high. Compliance with recording of substance use appears good, but is harder to validate. Treatment applications of EMA are emerging. EMA captures substance use patterns not measured by questionnaires or retrospective data, and hold promise for substance use research. PMID:19947783

  1. [Study on the risk assessment method of regional groundwater pollution].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Yu, Yun-Jiang; Wang, Zong-Qing; Li, Ding-Long; Sun, Hong-Wei

    2013-02-01

    Based on the boundary elements of system risk assessment, the regional groundwater pollution risk assessment index system was preliminarily established, which included: regional groundwater specific vulnerability assessment, the regional pollution sources characteristics assessment and the health risk assessment of regional featured pollutants. The three sub-evaluation systems were coupled with the multi-index comprehensive method, the risk was characterized with the Spatial Analysis of ArcMap, and a new method to evaluate regional groundwater pollution risk that suitable for different parts of natural conditions, different types of pollution was established. Take Changzhou as an example, the risk of shallow groundwater pollution was studied with the new method, and found that the vulnerability index of groundwater in Changzhou is high and distributes unevenly; The distribution of pollution sources is concentrated and has a great impact on groundwater pollution risks; Influenced by the pollutants and pollution sources, the values of health risks are high in the urban area of Changzhou. The pollution risk of shallow groundwater is high and distributes unevenly, and distributes in the north of the line of Anjia-Xuejia-Zhenglu, the center of the city and the southeast, where the human activities are more intense and the pollution sources are intensive.

  2. Methods of synthesizing qualitative research studies for health technology assessment.

    PubMed

    Ring, Nicola; Jepson, Ruth; Ritchie, Karen

    2011-10-01

    Synthesizing qualitative research is an important means of ensuring the needs, preferences, and experiences of patients are taken into account by service providers and policy makers, but the range of methods available can appear confusing. This study presents the methods for synthesizing qualitative research most used in health research to-date and, specifically those with a potential role in health technology assessment. To identify reviews conducted using the eight main methods for synthesizing qualitative studies, nine electronic databases were searched using key terms including meta-ethnography and synthesis. A summary table groups the identified reviews by their use of the eight methods, highlighting the methods used most generally and specifically in relation to health technology assessment topics. Although there is debate about how best to identify and quality appraise qualitative research for synthesis, 107 reviews were identified using one of the eight main methods. Four methods (meta-ethnography, meta-study, meta-summary, and thematic synthesis) have been most widely used and have a role within health technology assessment. Meta-ethnography is the leading method for synthesizing qualitative health research. Thematic synthesis is also useful for integrating qualitative and quantitative findings. Four other methods (critical interpretive synthesis, grounded theory synthesis, meta-interpretation, and cross-case analysis) have been under-used in health research and their potential in health technology assessments is currently under-developed. Synthesizing individual qualitative studies has becoming increasingly common in recent years. Although this is still an emerging research discipline such an approach is one means of promoting the patient-centeredness of health technology assessments.

  3. Self-assessment and students’ study strategies in a community of clinical practice: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kadri, Hanan M.; Al-Moamary, Mohamed S.; Al-Takroni, Habib; Roberts, Chris; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-assessment is recognized as a necessary skill for lifelong learning. It is widely reported to offer numerous advantages to the learner. The research evaluated the impact of students’ and supervisors’ self-assessment and feedback training on students’ perceptions and practices of self-assessment. Moreover, it evaluated the effect of self-assessment process on students’ study strategies within a community of clinical practice. Methods We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study from May 2008 to December 2009. We held 37 semi-structured individual interviews with three different cohorts of undergraduate medical students until we reached data saturation. The cohorts were exposed to different contexts while experiencing their clinical years’ assessment program. In the interviews, students’ perceptions and interpretations of ‘self-assessment practice’ and ‘supervisor-provided feedback’ within different contexts and the resulting study strategies were explored. Results The analysis of interview data with the three cohorts of students yielded three major themes: strategic practice of self-assessment, self-assessment and study strategies, and feedback and study strategies. It appears that self-assessment is not appropriate within a summative context, and its implementation requires cultural preparation. Despite education and orientation on the two major components of the self-assessment process, feedback was more effective in enhancing deeper study strategies. Conclusion This research suggests that the theoretical advantages linked to the self-assessment process are a result of its feedback component rather than the practice of self-assessment isolated from feedback. Further research exploring the effects of different contextual and personal factors on students’ self-assessment is needed. PMID:22355241

  4. Self-assessment and students' study strategies in a community of clinical practice: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Al-Kadri, Hanan M; Al-Moamary, Mohamed S; Al-Takroni, Habib; Roberts, Chris; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2012-01-01

    Self-assessment is recognized as a necessary skill for lifelong learning. It is widely reported to offer numerous advantages to the learner. The research evaluated the impact of students' and supervisors' self-assessment and feedback training on students' perceptions and practices of self-assessment. Moreover, it evaluated the effect of self-assessment process on students' study strategies within a community of clinical practice. We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study from May 2008 to December 2009. We held 37 semi-structured individual interviews with three different cohorts of undergraduate medical students until we reached data saturation. The cohorts were exposed to different contexts while experiencing their clinical years' assessment program. In the interviews, students' perceptions and interpretations of 'self-assessment practice' and 'supervisor-provided feedback' within different contexts and the resulting study strategies were explored. The analysis of interview data with the three cohorts of students yielded three major themes: strategic practice of self-assessment, self-assessment and study strategies, and feedback and study strategies. It appears that self-assessment is not appropriate within a summative context, and its implementation requires cultural preparation. Despite education and orientation on the two major components of the self-assessment process, feedback was more effective in enhancing deeper study strategies. This research suggests that the theoretical advantages linked to the self-assessment process are a result of its feedback component rather than the practice of self-assessment isolated from feedback. Further research exploring the effects of different contextual and personal factors on students' self-assessment is needed.

  5. Assessing ant seed predation in threatened plants: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, María José; Escudero, Adrián; Iriondo, José María

    2005-11-01

    Erodium paularense is a threatened plant species that is subject to seed predation by the granivorous ant Messor capitatus. In this paper we assessed the intensity and pattern of ant seed predation and looked for possible adaptive strategies at the seed and plant levels to cope with this predation. Seed predation was estimated in 1997 and 1998 at the population level by comparing total seed production and ant consumption, assessed by counting seed hulls in refuse piles. According to this method, ant seed predation ranged between 18% and 28%. A more detailed and direct assessment conducted in 1997 raised this estimate to 43%. In this assessment spatial and temporal patterns of seed predation by ants were studied by mapping all nest entrances in the studied area and marking the mature fruits of 109 reproductive plants with a specific colour code throughout the seed dispersal period. Intact fruit coats were later recovered from the refuse piles, and their mother plants and time of dispersal were identified. Seeds dispersed at the end of the dispersal period had a greater probability of escaping from ant seed predation. Similarly, in plants with late dispersal a greater percentage of seeds escaped from ant predation. Optimum dispersal time coincided with the maximum activity of granivorous ants because, at this time, ants focused their harvest on other plant species of the community. It was also observed that within-individual seed dispersal asynchrony minimised seed predation. From a conservation perspective, results show that the granivorous ant-plant interaction cannot be assessed in isolation and that the intensity of its effects basically depends on the seed dispersal pattern of the other members of the plant community. Furthermore, this threat must be assessed by considering the overall situation of the target population. Thus, in E. paularense, the strong limitation of safe-sites for seedling establishment reduces the importance of seed predation.

  6. A phase II study of fenretinide in patients with hormone refractory prostate cancer: a trial of the Cancer Therapeutics Research Group.

    PubMed

    Moore, M M; Stockler, M; Lim, R; Mok, T S K; Millward, M; Boyer, M J

    2010-10-01

    Fenretinide is a synthetic retinoid with activity in prostate cancer and other cell lines. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of fenretinide in chemotherapy-naïve men with hormone refractory prostate cancer. Eligibility criteria included hormone refractory prostate cancer with a rising PSA at least 6 weeks after peripheral anti-androgen withdrawal, ECOG performance status (PS) 0-1, and no prior chemotherapy. Fenretinide was administered orally at 900 mg m(-2) twice daily for 7 of every 21 days. PSA was measured before each cycle. The primary endpoint was a > or =50% reduction in PSA maintained for at least 3 weeks; secondary endpoints included duration of PSA response, time to treatment failure (TTF: treatment stopped for progression or toxicity) and adverse events (AE). Twenty seven pts were recruited from 7 centres over 27 months. Median age was 74 (range 49-86), median baseline PSA was 129 (range 19-1,000), and 70% had a PS of 0. The median number of cycles received was 2 (range 0-11) and 20 pts completed at least 1 cycle. One pt (4%) achieved a 50% reduction in PSA lasting 39 days and 15 pts (56%) had not progressed within 6 weeks of starting fenretinide. The median TTF was 54 days (IQR 19-73): 22 (81%) failed with tumour progression, 3 (11%) failed with toxicity and 2 (7%) never commenced the drug. Grade 3 rash occurred in 1 patient, all other AE were grade 1 or 2. The most common AE were nausea (40%), hot flushes (36%), constipation (32%) and nyctalopia (32%). High-dose fenretinide had limited anti-tumour activity in patients with advanced hormone refractory prostate cancer: further evaluation in this setting is not warranted.

  7. A soft-tissue preserving method for evaluating the impact of posterior tibial slope on kinematics during cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty: A validation study.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yifei; Angibaud, Laurent D; Jenny, Jean-Yves; Hamad, Cyril; Jung, Amaury; Cross, Michael B

    2016-12-01

    The reconstructed posterior tibial slope (PTS) plays a significant role in restoring knee kinematics in cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty. However, conventional methods for the investigation of PTS can be limited by sample size or prone to errors due to damages to the bone and/or soft tissues. The purpose of this study was to validate a novel method for the evaluation of the effects of PTS on knee kinematics. Seven computer-assisted cruciate-retaining TKAs were performed by two surgeons on healthy cadaveric knees. The implanted tibial baseplates allowed precise and easy modification of the PTS in situ. Knee kinematics were evaluated during passive full range of motion test. The evaluation was performed three times at each of the five PTSs in the order of 10°, seven degrees, four degrees, one degree, and back to ten degrees. The variability of the repeated measurements, inter-surgeon variation of the data, and test reproducibility were investigated. The test method was shown to be highly repeatable (low root-mean-squared errors) and has low sensitivity to surgeon variability (ANOVA). No statistical difference was found in the knee kinematics between the first and last measurements at 10° PTS (paired t-test). The results suggested that the developed method can be used to investigate the impact of PTS on knee kinematics without disrupting the soft-tissue environment of the knee. The use of the novel tibial baseplate allowed for adjusting the PTS without re-cutting the tibia and removing the components. The method may be applied to improve the future investigation of PTS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental impact assessment as a complement of life cycle assessment. Case study: Upgrading of biogas.

    PubMed

    Morero, Betzabet; Rodriguez, María B; Campanella, Enrique A

    2015-08-01

    This work presents a comparison between an environmental impact assessment (EIA) and a life cycle assessment (LCA) using a case study: upgrading of biogas. The upgrading of biogas is studied using three solvents: water, physical solvent and amine. The EIA follows the requirements of the legislation of Santa Fe Province (Argentina), and the LCA follows ISO 14040. The LCA results showed that water produces a minor impact in most of the considered categories whereas the high impact in the process with amines is the result of its high energy consumptions. The positive results obtained in the EIA (mainly associated with the cultural and socioeconomic components) make the project feasible and all the negative impacts can be mitigated by preventive and remedial measures. From the strengths and weaknesses of each tool, it is inferred that the EIA is a procedure that can complement the LCA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Open market customer: Volume 2 -- Case study assessments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kotowski, J.; Wikler, G.; Milward, R.; Gudger, K.

    1998-06-01

    This second volume of the Open Market Customer (OMC) contains the case study assessments that illustrate the discussions in Volume 1 and the supporting framework. There are two types of assessments in this volume: actual case studies and prototype case studies. The first, the actual case studies are full OMC assessments of four different types of existing large commercial/industrial facilities. They are, in order of their appearance in this volume: Logan International Airport, Boston, MA--Airport; Washington University, St. Louis, MO--Four-Year University; Cook County Hospital, Chicago, IL--Hospital; and Sierra Pine Ltd., Rocklin, CA--Wood Products Manufacturing. The second type of assessments are the prototype case studies. They were performed on four different types of facilities falling under two market segments. These facilities` models were developed using assumed characteristics, such as floor areas and energy sources. They are, in order of appearance in this volume: Retail Building--small commercial; Sit-Down Restaurant--small commercial; Primary School--small commercial; and Planned Residential Community--residential. For each facility, the characteristics or assumptions are described in detail. Using these characteristics or assumptions a framework for each energy type used on-site was developed. Each framework describes the annual consumption of that energy type as well as the infrastructure supporting it. For example, a facility`s electricity framework shows the estimated annual electricity consumption and expenditures within each of the nine functional areas at that facility. Further, the framework shows the estimated capital associated with each functional area, such as substations, electric distribution lines, and motors. Appendices at the end of this volume contain the frameworks for each case study.

  10. Situated argumentation, learning and science education: A case study of prospective teachers' experiences in an innovative science course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munford, Danusa

    Various authors had called attention to the significance of argumentation to science education. Nevertheless, argumentation practices had been considerably rare in science classrooms. Moreover, little is know about how people engage in argumentation as science learners to construct knowledge about the natural world and about science. This study was conducted in a science education course for prospective teachers (PTs) at a university in the Northeast United States. The course was composed of three instructional units, focusing on evolution, light and climate change. In each unity, PTs were confronted with questions, and, working in pairs, they built evidence-based arguments. Various types of technology tools were used to support PTs' in that process. The study addresses the experiences of four prospective teachers, adopting a case study research design informed by grounded theory and phenomenology theoretical frameworks. The research questions were: (1) What is the nature of the arguments that PTs' construct? (2) How PTs's understandings about argumentation develop throughout the course? (3) What accounts for PTs' understandings about argument construction? The primary sources of data for the study were (1) electronic artifacts constructed by PTs and (2) interviews with participants conducted after each unit. The structure of their arguments was analyzed to determine the extent to which PTs explored multiple explanations, provided relevant evidence to support their conclusions, explained how evidence and conclusions were related, and recognized limitations in explanations. The results of the study suggest that there are some common trends in the development of understandings about scientific arguments. Initially, learners acknowledged the role of evidence in scientific arguments, and tended to provide evidence to support their claims. However, PTs tended not to explain how these pieces of evidence would be related to their conclusions, and saw little value in

  11. Effective absorption modeling in relative bioavailability study risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Rose, John P

    2012-12-01

    Absorption modeling is an excellent strategic fit to perform a risk assessment for relative bioavailability (RBA) studies as it provides direct input into the question that is at the core of the RBA decision, namely, how does the absorption of the test drug product compare to the reference and is it likely to be different enough to justify an RBA study. The main limitation to absorption modeling in risk assessment is the inherent uncertainty associated with modeling. The extent to which the absorption modeling is integrated into the risk assessment should depend on the level of confidence in the modeling. It is difficult, however, to quantify the level of confidence on a case by case basis. The effective application of absorption modeling for RBA risk assessment therefore requires a general understanding of when modeling is expected to be reliable and also how to build reliability directly into the modeling. This paper describes a framework for effective modeling in RBA risk assessment that is based on four fundamental building blocks: (1) relate severity of drug product change and API properties to reliability of modeling, (2) use critical model variables to express the critical differences in the drug products, (3) generate a fraction-absorbed response surface expressed in terms of the critical model variables to evaluate the relative performance of the drug products, and (4) tie the first three building blocks together by following good model building practices that assure the highest quality model is built. The building blocks are demonstrated by a simple but common example of a change in solid state from free base to HCl salt.

  12. DESIGNING STUDIES AND COLLECTING DATA USEFUL FOR CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    DESIGNING STUDIES AND COLLECTING DATA USEFUL FOR CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT. J E Simmons1, C Gennings2, M Casey2, M J Plewa3, E D Wagner3, W H Carter, Jr.2, A McDonald1,Y M Sey1, L K Teuschler3 1NHEERL, ORD, U.S. EPA, RTP NC, USA; 2VCU, Richmond, VA, USA;3Univ. Illinois, Urba...

  13. DESIGNING STUDIES AND COLLECTING DATA USEFUL FOR CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    DESIGNING STUDIES AND COLLECTING DATA USEFUL FOR CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT. J E Simmons1, C Gennings2, M Casey2, M J Plewa3, E D Wagner3, W H Carter, Jr.2, A McDonald1,Y M Sey1, L K Teuschler3 1NHEERL, ORD, U.S. EPA, RTP NC, USA; 2VCU, Richmond, VA, USA;3Univ. Illinois, Urba...

  14. Skin condition assessment: a comparative study of techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindra, Ravindar M.; Wong, Joretta K.; Andrew, Jeremy J.; Xiao, Peng; Zhang, Bufa; Imhof, Robert E.

    1996-05-01

    We report the results of a study aimed at comparing Opto-Thermal Transient Emission Radiometry (OTTER) with established techniques of assessing skin condition, namely evaporimetry (TEWL), skin dielectric constant measurement, ATR-FTIR and clinical assessment. Comparisons were made during a week-long study of the effects of intensive washing on the volar forearms of 14 subjects. The study also provided a comparison of skin condition after washing with two different cleansers, a mild isethionate betaine cleansing bar and a soap bar. The subject-averaged results from OTTER and TEWL were found to correlate with the clinical assessments, namely that intensive washing with the soap bar produces greater skin damage than with the isethionate betaine bar. Skin dielectric constant measurements were found to be sensitive to changes of skin condition other than hydration, as evidenced by a daily oscillation that dominate the results. The ATR-FTIR measurements proved difficult to evaluate, because of interfering calcium deposits from the soap bar. On the practical side, OTTER and skin dielectric constant measurements were found to be quicker and more convenient to use than TEWL and ATR-FTIR.

  15. Risk assessing study for Bio-CCS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, A.; Sakamoto, Y.; Kano, Y.; Higashino, H.; Suzumura, M.; Tosha, T.; Nakao, S.; Komai, T.

    2013-12-01

    We have started a new R&D project titled 'Energy resources creation by geo-microbes and CCS'. It is new concept of a technology which cultivate methanogenic geo-microbes in reservoirs of geological CCS conditions to produce methane gas effectively and safely. As one of feasibility studies, we are evaluating risks around its new Bio-CCS technology. Our consideration involves risk scenarios about Bio-CCS in geological strata, marine environment, surface facilities, ambient air and injection sites. To cover risk scenarios in these areas, we are carrying out a sub-project with five sub-themes. Four sub-themes out of five are researches for identifying risk scenarios: A) Underground strata and injection well, B) Ambient air, C) Surface facilities and D) Seabed. We are developing risk assessment tool,named GERAS-CO2GS (Geo-environmental Risk Assessment System,CO2 Geological Storage Risk Assessment System. We are going to combine identified risk scenarios into GERAS-CO2GS accordingly. It is expected that new GERAS-CO2GS will contribute to risk assessment and management for not only Bio-CCS but also individual injection sites, and facilitate under standing of risks among legislators and concerned peoples around injection site.

  16. Assessing study skills among university students: an Iranian survey.

    PubMed

    Didarloo, Alireza; Khalkhali, Hamid Reza

    2014-05-05

    Numerous studies have revealed that study skills have a constructive role on the academic performance of students, in addition to educational quality, student' intelligence, and their affective characteristics. This study aims to examine study skills and the factors influencing them among the health sciences students of Urmia University of Medical Sciences in Iran. This was a cross-sectional study carried out from May to November 2013. A total of 340 Urmia health sciences students were selected using a simple sampling method. Data were collected using the Study Skills Assessment Questionnaire of Counseling Center of Houston University and analyzed with descriptive and analytical statistics. The mean and standard deviation of the students' study skills were 172.5±23.2, out of a total score of 240. Around 1.2% of the study skills were weak; 86.8%, moderate; and 12%, good. Among the study skills, the scores of time management, and memory and concentration were better than the others. Also, there was a significant positive correlation between study skills scores and the students' family housing status and academic level (P<0.05). Although the majority of the participants had moderate study skills, these were not sufficient and far from good. Improving and promoting the study skills of university students require the designing and implementing of education programs for study strategies. Therefore, decision makers and planners in the educational areas of universities should consider the topic described above.

  17. A test-bed modeling study for wave resource assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Neary, V. S.; Wang, T.; Gunawan, B.; Dallman, A.

    2016-02-01

    Hindcasts from phase-averaged wave models are commonly used to estimate standard statistics used in wave energy resource assessments. However, the research community and wave energy converter industry is lacking a well-documented and consistent modeling approach for conducting these resource assessments at different phases of WEC project development, and at different spatial scales, e.g., from small-scale pilot study to large-scale commercial deployment. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate current wave model codes, as well as limitations and knowledge gaps for predicting sea states, in order to establish best wave modeling practices, and to identify future research needs to improve wave prediction for resource assessment. This paper presents the first phase of an on-going modeling study to address these concerns. The modeling study is being conducted at a test-bed site off the Central Oregon Coast using two of the most widely-used third-generation wave models - WaveWatchIII and SWAN. A nested-grid modeling approach, with domain dimension ranging from global to regional scales, was used to provide wave spectral boundary condition to a local scale model domain, which has a spatial dimension around 60km by 60km and a grid resolution of 250m - 300m. Model results simulated by WaveWatchIII and SWAN in a structured-grid framework are compared to NOAA wave buoy data for the six wave parameters, including omnidirectional wave power, significant wave height, energy period, spectral width, direction of maximum directionally resolved wave power, and directionality coefficient. Model performance and computational efficiency are evaluated, and the best practices for wave resource assessments are discussed, based on a set of standard error statistics and model run times.

  18. IMP3 Is Strongly Expressed in Malignant Phyllodes Tumors of the Breast: An Immunohistochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Bellezza, Guido; Prosperi, Enrico; Del Sordo, Rachele; Colella, Renato; Rulli, Antonio; Sidoni, Angelo

    2016-02-01

    Phyllodes tumors (PTs) of the breast are rare biphasic neoplasms and are classified as benign, borderline, or malignant. Many biological markers have been studied to discriminate between different grades of PTs. IMP3 is a member of the insulin-like growth factor II mRNA binding protein (IMP) family and is expressed in developing tissues during embryogenesis, whereas in adult tissues it is found only at low or undetectable levels. IMP3 is considered a marker of biological aggressiveness in many cancers, including breast and lung. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of IMP3 in a series of PTs and to determine its association with histological grade and clinical outcome. We reviewed retrospectively 62 cases of PTs including their recurrences and 20 cases of fibroadenoma. PTs have been classified as benign in 40 cases, borderline in 13 cases, and malignant in 9 cases. There were significant differences in IMP3 expression: in malignant PTs IMP3 expression was higher (56% of cases) than in borderline (15%) and benign cases (5%), (P = .001). Fibroadenoma showed no expression for IMP3. IMP3 expression was different in cases with recurrence than cases without recurrence. Furthermore, 3 of the recurrences had a higher histological grade with a positive IMP3 expression compared with the primary tumor. This is the first study evaluating the IMP3 immunohistochemical expression in PTs. Its expression correlates with histological grade and could be used in the differential diagnosis of fibroepithelial tumors and in predicting a more aggressive behavior. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Long-term follow-up of the AML97 study for patients aged 60 years and above with acute myeloid leukaemia: a study of the East German Haematology and Oncology Study Group (OSHO).

    PubMed

    Kahl, C; Krahl, R; Becker, C; Al-Ali, H K; Sayer, H G; Schulze, A; Herold, M; Hänel, M; Scholl, S; Hochhaus, A; Uharek, L; Maschmeyer, G; Haehling, D; Junghanß, C; Peter, N; Kämpfe, D; Kettner, E; Heinicke, T; Fischer, T; Kreibich, U; Wolf, H-H; Niederwieser, D

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of patients (pts) with acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML) above 60 years remains a challenge. We report long-term follow-up of the AML97 study, where pts were registered at diagnosis and received treatment dependent on their comorbidities: dose-intense cytarabine (AraC) and anthracycline in the curative arm, and low-dose chemotherapy in the palliative arm or best supportive care. A total of 618 pts were enrolled in this protocol (curative 471, palliative 115 and supportive 32). In the curative arm, complete remission (CR) was obtained in 66.8 % of pts and the estimated probability of being alive at 2 years was 0.30 (±0.02 SE). In multivariate analysis, gender (p = 0.005), performance status (p = 0.04) and cytogenetics (p = 0.002) were significant factors for CR. With a median follow-up of 10 (range 0.1-11.8) years, the estimated probability of being event-free after 2 and 5 years according to cytogenetics was 0.48 ± 0.11 and 0.48 ± 0.11 for favourable, 0.20 ± 0.03 and 0.09 ± 0.03 for normal, 0.18 ± 0.06 and 0.10 ± 0.05 for other standard risk and 0.10 ± 0.03 and 0.05 ± 0.02 for unfavourable karyotypes, respectively. The median survival time for pts treated with palliative chemotherapy was 54 and 11 days with best supportive care only. In conclusion, treatment of older AML pts with dose-intense AraC is feasible in the majority of pts and induces high rates of CR. Nevertheless, except for favourable karyotype, OS and event-free survival remain low. These results need to be viewed in relation to the new modalities including stem cell transplantation following non-myeloablative conditioning, epigenetic and molecular therapies.

  20. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment: the Seaside, Oregon Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, F. I.; Geist, E. L.; Synolakis, C.; Titov, V. V.

    2004-12-01

    A pilot study of Seaside, Oregon is underway, to develop methodologies for probabilistic tsunami hazard assessments that can be incorporated into Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) developed by FEMA's National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). Current NFIP guidelines for tsunami hazard assessment rely on the science, technology and methodologies developed in the 1970s; although generally regarded as groundbreaking and state-of-the-art for its time, this approach is now superseded by modern methods that reflect substantial advances in tsunami research achieved in the last two decades. In particular, post-1990 technical advances include: improvements in tsunami source specification; improved tsunami inundation models; better computational grids by virtue of improved bathymetric and topographic databases; a larger database of long-term paleoseismic and paleotsunami records and short-term, historical earthquake and tsunami records that can be exploited to develop improved probabilistic methodologies; better understanding of earthquake recurrence and probability models. The NOAA-led U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP), in partnership with FEMA, USGS, NSF and Emergency Management and Geotechnical agencies of the five Pacific States, incorporates these advances into site-specific tsunami hazard assessments for coastal communities in Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon and Washington. NTHMP hazard assessment efforts currently focus on developing deterministic, "credible worst-case" scenarios that provide valuable guidance for hazard mitigation and emergency management. The NFIP focus, on the other hand, is on actuarial needs that require probabilistic hazard assessments such as those that characterize 100- and 500-year flooding events. There are clearly overlaps in NFIP and NTHMP objectives. NTHMP worst-case scenario assessments that include an estimated probability of occurrence could benefit the NFIP; NFIP probabilistic assessments of 100- and 500-yr

  1. Exposure Assessment in the National Children’s Study: Introduction

    PubMed Central

    Needham, Larry L.; Özkaynak, Halûk; Whyatt, Robin M.; Barr, Dana B.; Wang, Richard Y.; Naeher, Luke; Akland, Gerry; Bahadori, Tina; Bradman, Asa; Fortmann, Roy; Liu, L-J. Sally; Morandi, Maria; O’Rourke, Mary Kay; Thomas, Kent; Quackenboss, James; Ryan, P. Barry; Zartarian, Valerie

    2005-01-01

    The science of exposure assessment is relatively new and evolving rapidly with the advancement of sophisticated methods for specific measurements at the picogram per gram level or lower in a variety of environmental and biologic matrices. Without this measurement capability, environmental health studies rely on questionnaires or other indirect means as the primary method to assess individual exposures. Although we use indirect methods, they are seldom used as stand-alone tools. Analyses of environmental and biologic samples have allowed us to get more precise data on exposure pathways, from sources to concentrations, to routes, to exposure, to doses. They also often allow a better estimation of the absorbed dose and its relation to potential adverse health outcomes in individuals and in populations. Here, we make note of various environmental agents and how best to assess exposure to them in the National Children’s Study—a longitudinal epidemiologic study of children’s health. Criteria for the analytical method of choice are discussed with particular emphasis on the need for long-term quality control and quality assurance measures. PMID:16079082

  2. Upstream oversight assessment for agrifood nanotechnology: a case studies approach.

    PubMed

    Kuzma, Jennifer; Romanchek, James; Kokotovich, Adam

    2008-08-01

    Although nanotechnology is broadly receiving attention in public and academic circles, oversight issues associated with applications for agriculture and food remain largely unexplored. Agrifood nanotechnology is at a critical stage in which informed analysis can help shape funding priorities, risk assessment, and oversight activities. This analysis is designed to help society and policymakers anticipate and prepare for challenges posed by complicated, convergent applications of agrifood nanotechnology. The goal is to identify data, risk assessment, regulatory policy, and engagement needs for overseeing these products so they can be addressed prior to market entry. Our approach, termed upstream oversight assessment (UOA), has potential as a key element of anticipatory governance. It relies on distinct case studies of proposed applications of agrifood nanotechnology to highlight areas that need study and attention. As a tool for preparation, UOA anticipates the types and features of emerging applications; their endpoints of use in society; the extent to which users, workers, ecosystems, or consumers will be exposed; the nature of the material and its safety; whether and where the technologies might fit into current regulatory system(s); the strengths and weaknesses of the system(s) in light of these novel applications; and the possible social concerns related to oversight for them.

  3. Improving Academic Program Assessment: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Megan; Grays, Makayla P.; Fulcher, Keston H.; Jurich, Daniel P.

    2013-01-01

    Starting with the premise that better assessment leads to more informed decisions about student learning, we investigated the factors that lead to assessment improvement. We used "meta-assessment" (i.e., evaluating the assessment process) to identify academic programs in which the assessment process had improved over a two-year period.…

  4. Improving Academic Program Assessment: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Megan; Grays, Makayla P.; Fulcher, Keston H.; Jurich, Daniel P.

    2013-01-01

    Starting with the premise that better assessment leads to more informed decisions about student learning, we investigated the factors that lead to assessment improvement. We used "meta-assessment" (i.e., evaluating the assessment process) to identify academic programs in which the assessment process had improved over a two-year period.…

  5. Using a CAS Self-Study to Teach Assessment Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke, Brian

    2017-01-01

    There are likely as many approaches to teaching assessment as there are people teaching assessment. Graduate courses on assessment can be structured with a singular focus, such as learning outcomes assessment, or along a competencies-based framework. Such frameworks include the Assessment Skills and Knowledge (ASK) Standards developed by College…

  6. Market assessment and technical feasibility study of PFBC ash use

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.E.; Bland, A.E.; Brown, T.H.; Georgiou, D.N.; Wheeldon, J.

    1994-10-01

    The overall objectives of this study are to determine the market potential and the technical feasibility of using PFBC ash in high volume ash use applications. The information will be of direct use to the utility industry in assessing the economics of PFBC power generation in light of ash disposal avoidance through ash marketing. In addition, the research is expected to result in the generation of generic data on the use of PFBC ash that could lead to novel processing options and procedures. The specific objectives of the proposed research and demonstration effort are: Define resent and future market potential of PFBC ash for a range of applications (Phase I); assess the technical feasibility of PFBC ash use in construction, civil engineering and agricultural applications (Phase II); and demonstrate the most promising of the market and ash use options in full-scale field demonstrations (Phase III).

  7. Computerized assessment of pain drawing area: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Wenngren, Anna; Stålnacke, Britt-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To investigate if pain area in patients with chronic pain could be measured by a computerized assessment on previously marked pain drawings on paper figures and to analyze the further application of the method. Methods: Seventy-two patients (54 women and 18 men) who were admitted to Umeå University Hospital during 2003 for assessment of chronic pain answered a set of questionnaires (pain intensity on the visual analog scale [VAS], disability on the Disability Rating Index [DRI], life satisfaction on the LiSat-11) and filled in pain drawings on paper figures of the human body. The pain drawings were later analyzed by using computerized assessment. Results: Women marked a greater pain area than men, but the difference was not significant (p =0.433). No significant difference was shown for the previous seven days between men and women on the VAS (p =0.914), DRI (p =0.493), or LiSat-11 (p =0.124). A statistically significant correlation was found between pain area and VAS for the previous seven days (r =0.250; p =0.046). Pain area was statistically significantly correlated to the DRI (r =0.336; p =0.014) and close to negatively correlated to the LiSat-11 (r =0.687; p =0.057). Conclusion: This pilot study shows that pain drawing area could be measured by a computerized assessment of pain drawings. The method points to the possibility of relating pain area with other instruments. In the present study, an association between the patients’ pain drawing area and pain intensity and between pain area and level of activity was shown. PMID:19721724

  8. Assessing analytical comparability of biosimilars: GCSF as a case study.

    PubMed

    Nupur, Neh; Singh, Sumit Kumar; Narula, Gunjan; Rathore, Anurag S

    2016-10-01

    The biosimilar industry is witnessing an unprecedented growth with the newer therapeutics increasing in complexity over time. A key step towards development of a biosimilar is to establish analytical comparability with the innovator product, which would otherwise affect the safety/efficacy profile of the product. Choosing appropriate analytical tools that can fulfil this objective by qualitatively and/or quantitatively assessing the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the product is highly critical for establishing equivalence. These CQAs cover the primary and higher order structures of the product, product related variants and impurities, as well as process related impurities, and host cell related impurities. In the present work, we use such an analytical platform for assessing comparability of five approved Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (GCSF) biosimilars (Emgrast, Lupifil, Colstim, Neukine and Grafeel) to the innovator product, Neupogen(®). The comparability studies involve assessing structural homogeneity, identity, secondary structure, and product related modifications. Physicochemical analytical tools include peptide mapping with mass determination, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, reverse phase chromatography (RPC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) have been used in this exercise. Bioactivity assessment include comparison of relative potency through in vitro cell proliferation assays. The results from extensive analytical examination offer robust evidence of structural and biological similarity of the products under consideration with the pertinent innovator product. For the most part, the biosimilar drugs were found to be comparable to the innovator drug anomaly that was identified was that three of the biosimilars had a typical variant which was reported as an oxidized species in the literature. But, upon further investigation using RPC-FLD and ESI-MS we found that this is likely a conformational variant of the biotherapeutic been

  9. Study on Assessment of Renal Function in Chronic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Das, Nupur; Paria, Baishakhi; Sarkar, Sujoy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Renal dysfunction is common in chronic liver disease. The cause of this renal dysfunction is either multi-organ involvement in acute conditions or secondary to advanced liver disease. Objectives: The study was undertaken to assess the renal function in chronic liver diseases and find out the association of alteration of renal function with gradation of liver disease. (assessed by child-pugh criteria) and to find out the association of alteration of renal function among the cases of chronic liver disease of different aetiology. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, observational study was undertaken in Department of General Medicine, Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital, Kolkata during March 2012 to July 2013 with 50 admitted patients of chronic liver disease after considering the exclusion criteria. The patients were interviewed with a pre-designed and pre-tested schedule, examined clinically, followed by some laboratory investigations relevant to diagnose the aetiology of chronic liver disease, and to assess the severity of liver and renal dysfunction. Data was analysed by standard statistical method. Results: Eighty six percent of the patients were male and the mean age of study population was 43.58 y, 68% patients suffered from alcoholic liver disease, followed by 14% patients had chronic Hepatitis-B, 10% patients developed acute kidney injury, 20% had hepato renal syndrome and 14% had IgA deposition. The distribution of serum urea and creatinine across the categories of Child Pugh classification tested by Mann-Whitney test and the distribution was statistically significant. Conclusion: The present study has found significant association between severity of liver dysfunction and certain parameters of renal dysfunction. PMID:25954647

  10. Final Technical Report: Renewable Energy Feasibility Study and Resources Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Rivero, Mariah

    2016-02-28

    In March 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded White Pine County, Nevada, a grant to assess the feasibility of renewable resource-related economic development activities in the area. The grant project included a public outreach and training component and was to include a demonstration project; however, the demonstration project was not completed due to lack of identification of an entity willing to locate a project in White Pine County. White Pine County completed the assessment of renewable resources and a feasibility study on the potential for a renewable energy-focused economic sector within the County. The feasibility study concluded "all resources studied were present and in sufficient quantity and quality to warrant consideration for development" and there were varying degrees of potential economic impact based on the resource type and project size. The feasibility study and its components were to be used as tools to attract potential developers and other business ventures to the local market. White Pine County also marketed the County’s resources to the renewable energy business community in an effort to develop contracts for demonstration projects. The County also worked to develop partnerships with local educational institutions, including the White Pine County School District, conducted outreach and training for the local community.

  11. Assessment of optimum aquatic microcosm design for pollution impact studies

    SciTech Connect

    Harte, J.; Levy, D.; Rees, J.; Saegebarth, E.

    1981-08-01

    A series of experiments was carried out to evaluate optimum design and operating conditions for pelagic lake microcosms and to explore a possible use of such systems for toxicological testing. Criteria selected for microcosm optimization were realism and replicability of identically initiated microcosms. In the assessment studies, a number of different pelagic microcosm configurations were studied, including the size of the microcosm containers, the method of algal surface-growth prevention, and the degree of water mixing and aeration. In addition, the microcosm-lake comparisons were carried out in various seasons of the years to determine the influence of natural seasonal factors on the chemical and biological differences between the lakes and microcosms. In all but the smallest microcosms, surface-growth prevention removed size dependence. Chemical nutrients tracked well except during periods when nutrient inputs to the lake from the surrounding watershed were high. Good tracking of phytoplankton succession patterns was observed only when the physical conditions of the lake matched well with those in the laboratory system. In the decomposition studies, additions of dead organic matter to the lake microcosms were made, and the subsequent response of mineralization activity was measured. Highly replicable and interesting short-term behavior was seen, implying that protocols can be developed for microcosm testing of effects of toxicants on mineralization rates. On the basis of the microcosm assessment and decomposition studies, it was concluded that appropriate applications of pelagic microcosms are limited, and those applications that are most appropriate are delineated.

  12. Assessing Assessment Quality: Criteria for Quality Assurance in Design of (Peer) Assessment for Learning--A Review of Research Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillema, Harm; Leenknecht, Martijn; Segers, Mien

    2011-01-01

    The interest in "assessment for learning" (AfL) has resulted in a search for new modes of assessment that are better aligned to students' learning how to learn. However, with the introduction of new assessment tools, also questions arose with respect to the quality of its measurement. On the one hand, the appropriateness of traditional,…

  13. Assessing Assessment Quality: Criteria for Quality Assurance in Design of (Peer) Assessment for Learning--A Review of Research Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillema, Harm; Leenknecht, Martijn; Segers, Mien

    2011-01-01

    The interest in "assessment for learning" (AfL) has resulted in a search for new modes of assessment that are better aligned to students' learning how to learn. However, with the introduction of new assessment tools, also questions arose with respect to the quality of its measurement. On the one hand, the appropriateness of traditional,…

  14. Functional assessment of repetitive strain injuries: two case studies.

    PubMed

    Ping, C L; Keung, S C; Yee, P L

    1996-01-01

    More patients with repetitive strain injuries (RSIs) are being seen in occupational therapy clinics in Hong Kong. To reduce the incidence of work-related RSIs, it is necessary to identify problem jobs and/or specific tasks that are associated with an increased risk of these disorders. Physical assessment, videotaping, ergonomic evaluations, and analyses of workstation designs are used for this purpose. In Hong Kong, however, these methods cannot be implemented at the jobsite without the approval of the employer. This restriction constitutes a major problem in planning the rehabilitation of workers who have RSIs. A self-assessment method using the Work Evaluation Systems Technology (WEST) Tool Sort and the LLUMC Activity Sort was adopted as part of the evaluation of clients with RSIs. The questionnaires were translated into Chinese and reviewed and revised for content validity by ten occupational therapists. Two case studies are presented to illustrate the occupational therapy intervention program based on this self-report instrument. The questionnaires were found to be efficient and useful in assessing the client's abilities at work and in explaining to the client the relationship of his or her working conditions to the RSIs.

  15. Environmental assessments in the US: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Doesburg, J.M.

    1992-05-01

    The 1990`s is the decade of international environmental activism. The concerns and issues that are the basis of this activism are now extremely important to business. Numerous environmental issue will affect business decisions, and a keen awareness of the implications of those issues may make the difference financial success or ruin. Environmental assessments have become the tool to help business cope with an important environmental concern. This talk is focused on environmental assessments as they are practiced in the United States. Environmental activism has been a factor in business decisions since the passage of the Clean Air Act in 1963. This paper will discuss the current standards of practice in the US, the needs for assessments at industrial facilities, and a case study from a US industrial facility. More than 750,000 commercial real estate transactions take place in the US each year. Each of these transactions has a potential liability for the buyer and lender as a result of environmental impairment caused by hazardous materials located in buildings on sites, in the soil, or in the groundwater. Persons who knowingly or unknowingly acquire environmentally impaired property or who lend the money to purchase that property are liable for the cost of cleanup.

  16. Environmental assessments in the US: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Doesburg, J.M.

    1992-05-01

    The 1990's is the decade of international environmental activism. The concerns and issues that are the basis of this activism are now extremely important to business. Numerous environmental issue will affect business decisions, and a keen awareness of the implications of those issues may make the difference financial success or ruin. Environmental assessments have become the tool to help business cope with an important environmental concern. This talk is focused on environmental assessments as they are practiced in the United States. Environmental activism has been a factor in business decisions since the passage of the Clean Air Act in 1963. This paper will discuss the current standards of practice in the US, the needs for assessments at industrial facilities, and a case study from a US industrial facility. More than 750,000 commercial real estate transactions take place in the US each year. Each of these transactions has a potential liability for the buyer and lender as a result of environmental impairment caused by hazardous materials located in buildings on sites, in the soil, or in the groundwater. Persons who knowingly or unknowingly acquire environmentally impaired property or who lend the money to purchase that property are liable for the cost of cleanup.

  17. Consensus statement on assessment of waterpipe smoking in epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Maziak, Wasim; Ben Taleb, Ziyad; Jawad, Mohammed; Afifi, Rima; Nakkash, Rima; Akl, Elie A; Ward, Kenneth D; Salloum, Ramzi G; Barnett, Tracey E; Primack, Brian A; Sherman, Scott; Cobb, Caroline O; Sutfin, Erin L; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2016-05-10

    Numerous epidemiological accounts suggest that waterpipe smoking (aka hookah, shisha, narghile) has become a global phenomenon, especially among youth. The alarming spread of waterpipe and accumulating evidence of its addictive and harmful effects represent a new threat in the global fight to limit tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. In response to waterpipe's alarming trends, major public health and tobacco control organisations have started or are considering systematic collection of data about waterpipe smoking to monitor its trends and assess its harmful effects in different societies. Such plans require coordination and agreement on epidemiological measurement tools that reflect the uniqueness of this tobacco use method, and at the same time allow comparison of waterpipe trends across time and place, and with other tobacco use methods. We started a decade ago our work to develop standardised measures and definitions for the assessment of waterpipe smoking in epidemiological studies. In this communication, we try to expand and update these assessment tools in light of our increased knowledge and understanding of waterpipe use patterns, its context and marketing, as well as the need for evidence-guided policies and regulations to curb its spread. We have assembled for this purpose a group of leading waterpipe researchers worldwide, and worked through an iterative process to develop the suggested instruments and definitions based on what we know currently about the waterpipe epidemic. While the suggested measures are by no means comprehensive, we hope that they can provide the building blocks for standard and comparable surveillance of waterpipe smoking globally.

  18. Pain assessment in animal models: do we need further studies?

    PubMed Central

    Gigliuto, Carmelo; De Gregori, Manuela; Malafoglia, Valentina; Raffaeli, William; Compagnone, Christian; Visai, Livia; Petrini, Paola; Avanzini, Maria Antonietta; Muscoli, Carolina; Viganò, Jacopo; Calabrese, Francesco; Dominioni, Tommaso; Allegri, Massimo; Cobianchi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, animal models have become important tools in understanding and treating pain, and in predicting analgesic efficacy. Although rodent models retain a dominant role in the study of pain mechanisms, large animal models may predict human biology and pharmacology in certain pain conditions more accurately. Taking into consideration the anatomical and physiological characteristics common to man and pigs (median body size, digestive apparatus, number, size, distribution and communication of vessels in dermal skin, epidermal–dermal junctions, the immunoreactivity of peptide nerve fibers, distribution of nociceptive and non-nociceptive fiber classes, and changes in axonal excitability), swines seem to provide the most suitable animal model for pain assessment. Locomotor function, clinical signs, and measurements (respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, electromyography), behavior (bright/quiet, alert, responsive, depressed, unresponsive), plasma concentration of substance P and cortisol, vocalization, lameness, and axon reflex vasodilatation by laser Doppler imaging have been used to assess pain, but none of these evaluations have proved entirely satisfactory. It is necessary to identify new methods for evaluating pain in large animals (particularly pigs), because of their similarities to humans. This could lead to improved assessment of pain and improved analgesic treatment for both humans and laboratory animals. PMID:24855386

  19. Pain assessment in animal models: do we need further studies?

    PubMed

    Gigliuto, Carmelo; De Gregori, Manuela; Malafoglia, Valentina; Raffaeli, William; Compagnone, Christian; Visai, Livia; Petrini, Paola; Avanzini, Maria Antonietta; Muscoli, Carolina; Viganò, Jacopo; Calabrese, Francesco; Dominioni, Tommaso; Allegri, Massimo; Cobianchi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, animal models have become important tools in understanding and treating pain, and in predicting analgesic efficacy. Although rodent models retain a dominant role in the study of pain mechanisms, large animal models may predict human biology and pharmacology in certain pain conditions more accurately. Taking into consideration the anatomical and physiological characteristics common to man and pigs (median body size, digestive apparatus, number, size, distribution and communication of vessels in dermal skin, epidermal-dermal junctions, the immunoreactivity of peptide nerve fibers, distribution of nociceptive and non-nociceptive fiber classes, and changes in axonal excitability), swines seem to provide the most suitable animal model for pain assessment. Locomotor function, clinical signs, and measurements (respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, electromyography), behavior (bright/quiet, alert, responsive, depressed, unresponsive), plasma concentration of substance P and cortisol, vocalization, lameness, and axon reflex vasodilatation by laser Doppler imaging have been used to assess pain, but none of these evaluations have proved entirely satisfactory. It is necessary to identify new methods for evaluating pain in large animals (particularly pigs), because of their similarities to humans. This could lead to improved assessment of pain and improved analgesic treatment for both humans and laboratory animals.

  20. Daily living pain assessment in children with autism: Exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Dubois, A; Michelon, C; Rattaz, C; Zabalia, M; Baghdadli, A

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to broaden knowledge about pain expression and assessment in daily life situations in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The goals are to provide a description of the responses of the GED-DI, the French version of the NCCPC, and to test the internal structure validity of this scale. Thirty five children with ASD were included in this study (mean age=58months; mean developmental age=32months). The French version of the NCCPC was filled in by parents. Descriptive analysis of responses shows that children with ASD express pain through varied and common behaviours, related to different expressive markers (vocal, facial, activity, etc.). Behaviours more specific to the symptomology and disturbances of ASD are also displayed. A four-factor solution (negative emotional reaction, idiosyncratic expression, hyper-vigilance reaction, pain expression) emerges from an exploratory factor analysis that explains 54.4% of the total variance. Correlation coefficients show good psychometric qualities in terms of internal consistency, factorial validity and discriminant validity. This study provides new data about pain expression in daily life situations and shows that the French version of NCCPC adjusted to ASD children is relevant to assess pain in daily life situations.

  1. Assessing interpersonal aspects of schizoid personality disorder: preliminary validation studies.

    PubMed

    Kosson, David S; Blackburn, Ronald; Byrnes, Katherine A; Park, Sohee; Logan, Caroline; Donnelly, John P

    2008-03-01

    In 2 studies, we examined the reliability and validity of an interpersonal measure of schizoid personality disorder (SZPD) based on nonverbal behaviors and interpersonal interactions occurring during interviews. A total of 556 male jail inmates in the United States participated in Study 1; 175 mentally disordered offenders in maximum security hospitals in the United Kingdom participated in Study 2. Across both samples, scores on the Interpersonal Measure of Schizoid Personality Disorder (IM-SZ) exhibited adequate reliability and patterns of correlations with other measures consistent with expectations. The scale displayed patterns of relatively specific correlations with interview and self-report measures of SZPD. In addition, the IM-SZ correlated in an expected manner with features of psychopathy and antisocial personality and with independent ratings of interpersonal behavior. We address implications for assessment of personality disorder.

  2. Assessing outcomes of a study abroad course for nursing students.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Linda J; Garcia, Alexandra A

    2012-01-01

    There is little debate about the importance of preparing nursing graduates to provide culturally sensitive care to an increasingly diverse society. However, it is difficult for nurse educators to fit learning experiences that help students develop cultural competence into already full programs and create mechanisms to evaluate the results. This article describes a study to assess the impact of a study abroad program on developing cultural competence, including cultural awareness, sensitivity, knowledge, and skills. Results from the Cultural Awareness Survey, reflective journals, and interviews illustrate how the study abroad experience influenced the development of components of cultural competence and might influence clinical practice. Results suggest effective teaching strategies to assist students in becoming culturally competent are experiential in nature and include role modeling, reflective activities, and group discussion.

  3. A Design-Based Trial of Lesson Study for Assessment Purposes: Evaluating a New Classroom Based Dynamic Assessment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwich, Brahm; Ylonen, Annamari

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about a design-based research project which evaluated the novel use of Lesson Study for assessment (LSfA) purposes. It starts by explaining the principles and design of LSfA procedures based on a Lesson Study model and dynamic assessment principles. It outlines the training and support provided to six Lesson Study teams in three…

  4. A Design-Based Trial of Lesson Study for Assessment Purposes: Evaluating a New Classroom Based Dynamic Assessment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwich, Brahm; Ylonen, Annamari

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about a design-based research project which evaluated the novel use of Lesson Study for assessment (LSfA) purposes. It starts by explaining the principles and design of LSfA procedures based on a Lesson Study model and dynamic assessment principles. It outlines the training and support provided to six Lesson Study teams in three…

  5. Healthcare outcomes assessed with observational study designs compared with those assessed in randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Anglemyer, Andrew; Horvath, Hacsi T; Bero, Lisa

    2014-04-29

    Researchers and organizations often use evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the efficacy of a treatment or intervention under ideal conditions. Studies of observational designs are often used to measure the effectiveness of an intervention in 'real world' scenarios. Numerous study designs and modifications of existing designs, including both randomized and observational, are used for comparative effectiveness research in an attempt to give an unbiased estimate of whether one treatment is more effective or safer than another for a particular population.A systematic analysis of study design features, risk of bias, parameter interpretation, and effect size for all types of randomized and non-experimental observational studies is needed to identify specific differences in design types and potential biases. This review summarizes the results of methodological reviews that compare the outcomes of observational studies with randomized trials addressing the same question, as well as methodological reviews that compare the outcomes of different types of observational studies. To assess the impact of study design (including RCTs versus observational study designs) on the effect measures estimated.To explore methodological variables that might explain any differences identified.To identify gaps in the existing research comparing study designs. We searched seven electronic databases, from January 1990 to December 2013.Along with MeSH terms and relevant keywords, we used the sensitivity-specificity balanced version of a validated strategy to identify reviews in PubMed, augmented with one term ("review" in article titles) so that it better targeted narrative reviews. No language restrictions were applied. We examined systematic reviews that were designed as methodological reviews to compare quantitative effect size estimates measuring efficacy or effectiveness of interventions tested in trials with those tested in observational studies

  6. Comparative Assessment of Sagittal Skeletal Discrepancy: A Cephalometric Study

    PubMed Central

    N., Dilip Kumar; Prasad, Mandav; Shamnur, Naveen; G., Arun Kumar; K.R., Sridhar; B.R., Gopal Krishna; Gupta, Neeraj

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Evaluating the sagittal apical base relationship during orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning is an important step. This study was aimed at comparison of Beta angle, ANB angle and Wit’s appraisal for assessment of sagittal skeletal discrepancy. Materials and Methods Eighty six young adults (43 female and 43 male) were selected from the patient’s reporting to Department of Orthodontics, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere, India. Family lineage was studied to know the nativity of Davangere. The standardized pre-treatment lateral cephalogram of the chosen sample was traced. The sample was divided into three skeletal pattern groups: Class I, Class II and Class III, based on the ANB angle and profile, Beta angle was assessed in each group. Statistical Analysis The data was subjected to statistical analysis student’s t-test, ANOVA test and correlation and regression analysis, using the software namely SPSS Software version 13. Microsoft word and Excel were used to generate graphs and tables. Results In the local Davangere population, Class I skeletal pattern group exhibited Beta angle between 26°–34°, Beta angle less than 27° was found in Class II skeletal pattern, and Beta angle greater than 32° was seen Class III skeletal pattern. The coefficient of variation of Beta angle in all the three groups was significantly homogenous compared to ANB angle and Wits appraisal. The correlation and regression analysis of the total sample indicated a highly significant correlation between Beta angle and ANB angle (p<.001), and between Beta angle and Wits appraisal (p<.01). Conclusion Beta angle can be used to classify subjects into different skeletal patterns. The Correlation and regression analysis for the total sample suggests a highly significant relation between Beta angle and ANB angle and, between Beta angle and Wits appraisal. It can be more reliably used to assess sagittal jaw discrepancies than ANB angle and Wits appraisal

  7. Comparative assessment of sagittal skeletal discrepancy: a cephalometric study.

    PubMed

    Aparna, P; Kumar, Dilip N; Prasad, Mandav; Shamnur, Naveen; G, Arun Kumar; K R, Sridhar; B R, Gopal Krishna; Gupta, Neeraj

    2015-04-01

    Evaluating the sagittal apical base relationship during orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning is an important step. This study was aimed at comparison of Beta angle, ANB angle and Wit's appraisal for assessment of sagittal skeletal discrepancy. Eighty six young adults (43 female and 43 male) were selected from the patient's reporting to Department of Orthodontics, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere, India. Family lineage was studied to know the nativity of Davangere. The standardized pre-treatment lateral cephalogram of the chosen sample was traced. The sample was divided into three skeletal pattern groups: Class I, Class II and Class III, based on the ANB angle and profile, Beta angle was assessed in each group. The data was subjected to statistical analysis student's t-test, ANOVA test and correlation and regression analysis, using the software namely SPSS Software version 13. Microsoft word and Excel were used to generate graphs and tables. In the local Davangere population, Class I skeletal pattern group exhibited Beta angle between 26°-34°, Beta angle less than 27° was found in Class II skeletal pattern, and Beta angle greater than 32° was seen Class III skeletal pattern. The coefficient of variation of Beta angle in all the three groups was significantly homogenous compared to ANB angle and Wits appraisal. The correlation and regression analysis of the total sample indicated a highly significant correlation between Beta angle and ANB angle (p<.001), and between Beta angle and Wits appraisal (p<.01). Beta angle can be used to classify subjects into different skeletal patterns. The Correlation and regression analysis for the total sample suggests a highly significant relation between Beta angle and ANB angle and, between Beta angle and Wits appraisal. It can be more reliably used to assess sagittal jaw discrepancies than ANB angle and Wits appraisal.

  8. Life cycle assessment study of a Chinese desktop personal computer.

    PubMed

    Duan, Huabo; Eugster, Martin; Hischier, Roland; Streicher-Porte, Martin; Li, Jinhui

    2009-02-15

    Associated with the tremendous prosperity in world electronic information and telecommunication industry, there continues to be an increasing awareness of the environmental impacts related to the accelerating mass production, electricity use, and waste management of electronic and electric products (e-products). China's importance as both a consumer and supplier of e-products has grown at an unprecedented pace in recent decade. Hence, this paper aims to describe the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the environmental performance of Chinese e-products from a global level. A desktop personal computer system has been selected to carry out a detailed and modular LCA which follows the ISO 14040 series. The LCA is constructed by SimaPro software version 7.0 and expressed with the Eco-indicator'99 life cycle impact assessment method. For a sensitivity analysis of the overall LCA results, the so-called CML method is used in order to estimate the influence of the choice of the assessment method on the result. Life cycle inventory information is complied by ecoinvent 1.3 databases, combined with literature and field investigations on the present Chinese situation. The established LCA study shows that that the manufacturing and the use of such devices are of the highest environmental importance. In the manufacturing of such devices, the integrated circuits (ICs) and the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) are those parts contributing most to the impact. As no other aspects are taken into account during the use phase, the impact is due to the way how the electricity is produced. The final process steps--i.e. the end of life phase--lead to a clear environmental benefit if a formal and modern, up-to-date technical system is assumed, like here in this study.

  9. Assessment of Commercial Satellite Communications Initiative (CSCI) studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, N.; Kearns, W.; Chapell, P.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the fixed and mobile satellite services (FSS, MSS) as studied by three contractors: COMSAT, Hughes, and Space Systems/LORAL. Each contractor developed a commercial satellite communications initiative (CSCI) architecture based on the requirements provided them from DOD's Integrated Communications Data Base (ICDB). An implementation plan, recommending an acquisition, transition, logistics, and host nation approval plan, was developed according to each contractor's recommended architecture. In addition, this report summarizes the demonstrations conducted by each contractor and the vulnerabilities inherent in using commercial satellites. This summary information is provided as the foundation for the section on the government's assessment and critique of the CSCI study which emphasizes the highlights and remaining uncertainties from this program.

  10. Assessing the quality of clinical teaching: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Conigliaro, Rosemarie L; Stratton, Terry D

    2010-04-01

    Evaluations in the clinical arena are fraught with problems. Current assessments of clinical teaching typically measure attributes of clinical teachers in overly broad terms, are often subjective and often succumb to the halo effect. This is in contradistinction to measurements of lectures, workshops or online educational content, which can more readily be assessed using objective criteria. As a result, clinical evaluations are often insufficient to provide focused feedback, guide faculty development or identify specific areas for clinical teachers to implement change and improvement. The aim of our study was to offset these limitations. We developed a structured, 15-item objective structured clinical examination (OSCE)-type checklist of discrete teaching behaviours intended to be: (i) observable; (ii) applicable to multiple disciplines, and (iii) reliably identifiable. Our goal was to test and utilise this checklist as an objective assessment of clinical teaching across a range of in-patient teaching rounds experiences. During 2007-2008, pairs of external raters on two separate occasions observed nine attending physicians during actual in-patient paediatrics and internal medicine ward rounds at a large, academic medical centre. Observers documented the extent to which specific teaching behaviours did or did not occur. The internal consistency of the 15-item checklist was good (alpha = 0.85). A two-facet, partially nested G study found the generalisability of ratings to be generally acceptable, but inter-rater reliability varied greatly between occasions and across individual checklist items. Despite attempts to identify discrete and observable target behaviours, placing observers on rounds to detect these behaviours may not be as straightforward as it would seem. Clinical teaching may be a more inherently subjective process, based on different teaching styles of faculty staff. However, a set of objective checklist items to be completed by trained observers on

  11. Integrated Watershed Assessment: The Northern River Basins Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrona, F. J.; Gummer, W. D.

    2001-05-01

    Begun in 1991 and completed in 1996, the Northern River Basins Study (NRBS) was a \\$12 M initiative established by the governments of Canada, Alberta, and the Northwest Territories to assess the cumulative impacts of development, particularly pulp mill related effluent discharges, on the health of the Peace, Athabasca and Slave river basins. The NRBS was launched in response to concerns expressed by northern residents following the 1991 approval of the Alberta Pacific Pulp Mill in Athabasca. Although initiated by governments, the NRBS was set-up to be `arms-length' and was managed by a 25 member Study Board that represented the many interests in the basins, including industry, environmental groups, aboriginal peoples, health, agriculture, education, municipalities, and the federal, territorial and provincial governments. Overseen by an independent Science Advisory Committee, an integrated research program was designed covering eight scientific components: fate and distribution of contaminants, food chain impacts, nutrients, hydrology/hydraulics and sediment transport, uses of the water resources, drinking water quality, traditional knowledge, and synthesis/modeling. Using a 'weight of evidence' approach with a range of ecological and sociological indicators, cumulative impacts from pulp and paper-related discharges and other point and non-point sources of pollution were determined in relation to the health and contaminant levels of aquatic biota, nutrient and dissolved oxygen-related stress, hydrology and climate related changes, and human health and use of the river basins. Based on this assessment and Study Board deliberations, site-specific and basin-wide scientific and management-related recommendations were made to Ministers regarding regulatory and policy changes, basin management and monitoring options, and future research. The Study reinforces the importance of conducting ecosystem-based , interdisciplinary science and the need for public involvement in

  12. Market Assessment and Technical Feasibility Study of PFBC Ash Use

    SciTech Connect

    Bland, A.E.; Brown, T.H.; Georgiou, D.N.

    1995-03-01

    The commercial introduction of pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) has spurred evaluation of ash management options for this technology. The unique operating characteristics of PFBC compared to atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) units indicate that PFBC ash will exhibit unique chemical and physical characteristics, and hence, unique ash use opportunities. Western Research Institute (WRI), under sponsorship of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Ahlstrom Pyropower, Inc., and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), has initiated a study of the use properties of PFBC ashes involving both an assessment of the potential markets, as well as a technical feasibility study of specific use options. The market assessment is designed to address six applications, including: (1) structural fill, (2) road base construction, (3) supplementary cementing materials in portland cement, (4) bricks and blocks, (5) synthetic aggregate, and (6) agricultural/soil amendment applications. Ashes from the Ahlstrom circulating PFBC pilot facility in Caroler, Finland, combusting western U.S. low-sulfur subbituminous coal with limestone sorbent, were made available for the technical feasibility study. The technical feasibility study examined the use of PFBC ash in construction-related applications, including its use as a supplemental cementing material in concrete, fills and embankments, soil stabilization, and synthetic aggregate production. In addition, testing was conducted to determine the technical feasibility of PFBC ash as a soil amendment for agricultural and reclamation applications. PFBC ash does not meet the ASTM chemical requirements as a pozzolan for cement replacement. However, it does appear that potential may exist for its use in cement production as a pozzolan and/or set retardant. PFBC ash shows relatively high strength development, low expansion and low permeability properties that make its use in fills and

  13. Physiological studies on regulation of glycerol utilization by the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system in Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed Central

    Romano, A H; Saier, M H; Harriott, O T; Reizer, J

    1990-01-01

    In vitro studies with purified glycerol kinase from Enterococcus faecalis have established that this enzyme is activated by phosphorylation of a histidyl residue in the protein, catalyzed by the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS), but the physiological significance of this observation is not known. In the present study, the regulation of glycerol uptake was examined in a wild-type strain of E. faecalis as well as in tight and leaky ptsI mutants, altered with respect to their levels of enzyme I of the PTS. Glycerol kinase was shown to be weakly repressible by lactose and strongly repressible by glucose in the wild-type strain. Greatly reduced levels of glycerol kinase activity were also observed in the ptsI mutants. Uptake of glycerol into intact wild-type and mutant cells paralleled the glycerol kinase activities in extracts. Glycerol uptake in the leaky ptsI mutant was hypersensitive to inhibition by low concentrations of 2-deoxyglucose or glucose even though the rates and extent of 2-deoxyglucose uptake were greatly reduced. These observations provide strong support for the involvement of reversible PTS-mediated phosphorylation of glycerol kinase in the regulation of glycerol uptake in response to the presence or absence of a sugar substrate of the PTS in the medium. Glucose and 2-deoxyglucose were shown to elicit rapid efflux of cytoplasmic [14C]lactate derived from [14C]glycerol. This phenomenon was distinct from the inhibition of glycerol uptake and was due to phosphorylation of the incoming sugar by cytoplasmic phosphoenolpyruvate. Lactate appeared to be generated by sequential dephosphorylation and reduction of cytoplasmic phosphoenolpyruvate present in high concentrations in resting cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2123855

  14. Phase II Study of Adjuvant Immunotherapy with the CSF-470 Vaccine Plus Bacillus Calmette–Guerin Plus Recombinant Human Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor vs Medium-Dose Interferon Alpha 2B in Stages IIB, IIC, and III Cutaneous Melanoma Patients: A Single Institution, Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Mordoh, José; Pampena, María Betina; Aris, Mariana; Blanco, Paula Alejandra; Lombardo, Mónica; von Euw, Erika María; Mac Keon, Soledad; Yépez Crow, Michelle; Bravo, Alicia Inés; O’Connor, Juan Manuel; Orlando, Ana Gabriela; Ramello, Franco; Levy, Estrella Mariel; Barrio, María Marcela

    2017-01-01

    The irradiated, allogeneic, cellular CSF-470 vaccine plus Bacillus Calmette–Guerin (BCG) and recombinant human granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) is being tested against medium-dose IFN-α2b in stages IIB–III cutaneous melanoma (CM) patients (pts) after surgery in an open, randomized, Phase II/III study. We present the results of the Phase II part of the ongoing CASVAC-0401 study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01729663). Thirty-one pts were randomized to the CSF-470 vaccine (n = 20) or to the IFN-α2b arm (n = 11). During the 2-year treatment, immunized pts should receive 13 vaccinations. On day 1 of each visit, 1.6 × 107 irradiated CSF-470 cells plus 106 colony-forming units BCG plus 100 µg rhGM-CSF were administered intradermally, followed on days 2–4 by 100 µg rhGM-CSF. IFN-α2b pts should receive 10 million units (MU)/day/5 days a week for 4 weeks; then 5 MU thrice weekly for 23 months. Toxicity and quality of life (QOL) were evaluated at each visit. With a mean and a maximum follow-up of 39.4 and 83 months, respectively, a significant benefit in the distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) for CSF-470 was observed (p = 0.022). Immune monitoring showed an increase in antitumoral cellular and humoral response in vaccinated pts. CSF-470 was well tolerated; 20/20 pts presented grades 1–2 dermic reactions at the vaccination site; 3/20 pts presented grade 3 allergic reactions. Other adverse events (AEs) were grade 1. Pts in the IFN-α2b arm presented grades 2–3 hematological (7/11), hepatic (2/11), and cardiac (1/11) toxicity; AEs in 9/11 pts forced treatment interruptions. QOL was significantly superior in the vaccine arm (p < 0.0001). Our results suggest that CSF-470 vaccine plus BCG plus GM-CSF can significantly prolong, with lower toxicity, the DMFS of high-risk CM pts with respect to medium-dose IFN-α2b. The continuation of a Phase III part of the CASVAC-0401 study is encouraged. PMID:28620382

  15. Assessing stapes piston position using computed tomography: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Yoav; Diaz, Rodney; Hartman, Jonathan; Bobinski, Matthew; Brodie, Hilary

    2009-02-01

    Temporal bone computed tomographic (CT) scanning in the postoperative stapedotomy patient is inaccurate in assessing stapes piston position within the vestibule. Poststapedotomy patients that have persistent vertigo may undergo CT scanning to assess the position of the stapes piston within the vestibule to rule out overly deep insertion. Vertigo is a recognized complication of the deep piston, and CT evaluation is often recommended. The accuracy of CT scan in this setting is unestablished. Stapedotomy was performed on 12 cadaver ears, and stainless steel McGee pistons were placed. The cadaver heads were then scanned using a fine-cut temporal bone protocol. Temporal bone dissection was performed with microscopic measurement of the piston depth in the vestibule. These values were compared with depth of intravestibular penetration measured on CT scan by 4 independent measurements. The intravestibular penetration as assessed by computed tomography was consistently greater than the value found on cadaveric anatomic dissection. The radiographic bias was greater when piston location within the vestibule was shallower. The axial CT scan measurement was 0.53 mm greater, on average, than the anatomic measurement. On average, the coronal CT measurement was 0.68 mm greater than the anatomic measurement. The degree of overestimation of penetration, however, was highly inconsistent. Standard temporal bone CT scan is neither an accurate nor precise examination of stapes piston depth within the vestibule. We found that CT measurement consistently overstated intravestibular piston depth. Computed tomography is not a useful study in the evaluation of piston depth for poststapedectomy vertigo and is of limited value in this setting.

  16. Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reising, Bob

    1998-01-01

    Argues (guided by "The Challenge of Change: Assessment in the 21st Century") that in the decades ahead, assessment will play an unprecedented role as the vehicle that will influence and guide scheduling, curriculum, and instruction. (SR)

  17. Liquid flyback booster pre-phase: A study assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, W.; Ankney, W.; Bell, J.; Berning, M.; Bryant, L.; Bufkin, A.; Cain, L.; Caram, J.; Cockrell, B.; Curry, D.

    1994-01-01

    The concept of a flyback booster has been around since early in the shuttle program. The original two-stage shuttle concepts used a manned flyback booster. These boosters were eliminated from the program for funding and size reasons. The current shuttle uses two Redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM's), which are recovered and refurbished after each flight; this is one of the major cost factors of the program. Replacement options have been studied over the past ten years. The conclusion reached by the most recent study is that the liquid flyback booster (LFBB) is the only competitive option from a life-cycle cost perspective. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and practicality of LFBB's. The study provides an expansion of the recommendations made during the aforementioned study. The primary benefits are the potential for enhanced reusability and a reduction of recurring costs. The potential savings in vehicle turnaround could offset the up-front costs. Development of LFBB's requires a commitment to the shuttle program for 20 to 30 years. LFBB's also offer enhanced safety and abort capabilities. Currently, any failure of an RSRM can be considered catastrophic, since there are no intact abort capabilities during the burn of the RSRM's. The performance goal of the LFBB's was to lift a fully loaded orbiter under optimal conditions, so as not to be the limiting factor of the performance capability of the shuttle. In addition, a final benefit is the availability of growth paths for applications other than shuttle.

  18. Importance of posture assessment in ankylosing spondylitis. Preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Roşu, Mihaela Oana; Ancuţa, Codrina; Iordache, Cristina; Chirieac, Rodica

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to perform a screening of patients diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in order to evaluate the static spinal disorders and correlate the results with the main clinical and functional parameters that characterize this disease. Ninety-five patients diagnosed with AS according to the 1994 New York criteria were screened, and 68 of them (all males) presenting static spinal disorders and on physical therapy programs in different outpatient physical therapy units throughout 2011 entered the study. The distribution of the patients according to static spinal disorders was almost even. There were no statistically significant differences in mean age and disease duration (p>0.05). The assessment oflumbosacral pain in the morning (VAS1) and daytime lumbosacral pain (VAS2) showed a higher scores in patients suffering from kyphoscoliosis than in those with scoliosis (p=0.020), (p=0.000), or kyphosis. Ott and modified Schöber index, and chest expansion, had higher mean values in patients with scoliosis compared with the other postural disorders (p<0.001). Statistically higher mean BASFI values were recorded in patients with kyphoscoliosis (p=0.038), while the mean BASMI values were lower in scoliosis patients (p<0.001). As to the quality of life of AS patients, HAQ-DI index recorded significantly lower mean values for kyphoscoliosis compared with other postural disorders (p<0.001). Our study suggests that posture assessment and implicitly the correction of possible misalignments should be part of the kinetic physical therapy program. Rigorous observing of postural recommendations can prevent the respiratory system complications.

  19. The First Social Studies Assessment: An Overview. National Assessment of Educational Progress. Report No. 03-SS-00.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Robert

    Discussed in this report are the results of the first social studies assessment from the National Assessment of Educational Progress, a project of the Education Commission of the States. Exercises especially designed to test the attainment of social studies skills, knowledges, and attitudes were administered to a random sampling of 9-year-olds,…

  20. An Assessment of Publication Status of Pediatric Liver Transplantation Studies.

    PubMed

    Breil, Thomas; Wenning, Daniel; Teufel, Ulrike; Hoffmann, Georg F; Ries, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric liver transplantation is a highly specialized, challenging field. Selective reporting may introduce bias into evidence based clinical decision making, but the precise extent of unpublished data in pediatric liver transplantation is unknown today. We therefore assessed the public availability of completed clinical trials in pediatric liver transplantation. We determined the proportion of published and unpublished pre-registered, completed pediatric liver transplantation studies on ClinicalTrials.gov. The major trial and literature databases, i.e., clinicaltrials.gov, Pubmed, and Google Scholar were searched for publications. In addition, principal investigators or sponsors were contacted directly. STROBE criteria were applied for the descriptive analysis. Out of N = 33 studies focusing on pediatric liver transplantation registered as completed until March 2014 on clinicaltrials.gov, N = 19 (58%) studies were published until February 2015, whereas N = 14 (42%) studies remained unpublished. The unpublished trials contain data from N = 2105 (35%) patients out of a total population of N = 6044 study participants. Median time-to-publication, i.e., the period from completion of the trial until public availability of the data was 23 IQR 10 to 28 months. Most pertinent key questions in pediatric liver transplantation, i.e., surgical procedures, immunosuppression, concomitant infections, and graft rejection were addressed in 48% of studies (N = 16/33), half of which were published. Half of the clinical trials in pediatric liver transplantation focused on key questions such as surgical procedures, immunosuppression, concomitant infections, and graft rejection. There is still a considerable amount of unpublished studies results in pediatric liver transplantation. Time from study completion to publication was almost twice as long as the 12 months mandatory FDAAA-timeline with a trend towards acceleration over time. The data should serve as a baseline for future

  1. An Assessment of Publication Status of Pediatric Liver Transplantation Studies

    PubMed Central

    Breil, Thomas; Wenning, Daniel; Teufel, Ulrike; Hoffmann, Georg F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pediatric liver transplantation is a highly specialized, challenging field. Selective reporting may introduce bias into evidence based clinical decision making, but the precise extent of unpublished data in pediatric liver transplantation is unknown today. We therefore assessed the public availability of completed clinical trials in pediatric liver transplantation. Methods We determined the proportion of published and unpublished pre-registered, completed pediatric liver transplantation studies on ClinicalTrials.gov. The major trial and literature databases, i.e., clinicaltrials.gov, Pubmed, and Google Scholar were searched for publications. In addition, principal investigators or sponsors were contacted directly. STROBE criteria were applied for the descriptive analysis. Results Out of N = 33 studies focusing on pediatric liver transplantation registered as completed until March 2014 on clinicaltrials.gov, N = 19 (58%) studies were published until February 2015, whereas N = 14 (42%) studies remained unpublished. The unpublished trials contain data from N = 2105 (35%) patients out of a total population of N = 6044 study participants. Median time-to-publication, i.e., the period from completion of the trial until public availability of the data was 23 IQR 10 to 28 months. Most pertinent key questions in pediatric liver transplantation, i.e., surgical procedures, immunosuppression, concomitant infections, and graft rejection were addressed in 48% of studies (N = 16/33), half of which were published. Conclusion Half of the clinical trials in pediatric liver transplantation focused on key questions such as surgical procedures, immunosuppression, concomitant infections, and graft rejection. There is still a considerable amount of unpublished studies results in pediatric liver transplantation. Time from study completion to publication was almost twice as long as the 12 months mandatory FDAAA-timeline with a trend towards acceleration over time. The data

  2. Strategic risk assessment: A case study of climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, T.

    1996-12-31

    The philosophical basis for the on-going international and Australian action on climate change is the precautionary principle. The version of this relevant to Australia is that agreed to by the Australian States and by the Commonwealth of Australia as expressed in the Inter-Governmental Agreement on the Environment (IGAE). This study addresses the following questions: 1. What form of assessment of the risk-weighted consequences of climate change has been undertaken, as required under the precautionary principle? This paper claims that the IPCC process constitutes the risk-weighted assessment that is needed to justify the use of the precautionary principle. 2. Reducing the risk due to climate change requires actions on the basis of some combination of environmental integrity, equity, and economic efficiency as measured by cost-benefit analysis. Is the concept of intergenerational equity consistent with cost-benefit analysis? This paper claims that the problems of valuation over future time-scales, which may range from decades to centuries, make it difficult to apply cost-benefit analysis to the problem.

  3. Gender in health technology assessment: pilot study on agency approaches.

    PubMed

    Panteli, Dimitra; Zentner, Annette; Storz-Pfennig, Philipp; Busse, Reinhard

    2011-07-01

    Gender as a social construct is a recognized health determinant. Because best practice in reporting health technology assessment (HTA) clearly specifies the need to appraise a technology's social impact within the target population, the extent to which gender issues are taken into account in HTA production is of interest, not only in light of equitable practices but also for reasons of effectiveness. The aim of this study is to provide a first assessment of the degree of gender sensitivity shown by HTA agencies around the world today. The Web sites of sixty HTA agencies were analyzed. The consideration of gender aspects was specifically looked for in each agency's general mission statement, its priority setting process, and its methodological approach. Additionally, specific gender-oriented initiatives not belonging to any of the aforementioned categories were identified. Of the sixty agencies, less than half mention a commitment to addressing the social implication of health technologies. Only fifteen institutions make information on their priority setting principles available on their Web sites and gender was an issue in two of those cases. Data on methodology were obtainable online from 18 agencies, two of which mentioned gender issues explicitly. Finally, gender-oriented initiatives were identified by thirteen agencies. A gender-sensitive approach is apparently rarely adopted in current HTA production. Exceptional practices and relevant tools do exist and could serve as examples to be promoted by international collaborative networks.

  4. [Assessment of risk of bias in controlled studies].

    PubMed

    Buchberger, B; von Elm, E; Gartlehner, G; Huppertz, H; Antes, G; Wasem, J; Meerpohl, J J

    2014-12-01

    Practicing physicians are faced with many medical decisions daily. These are mainly influenced by personal experience but should also consider patient preferences and the scientific evidence reflected by a constantly increasing number of medical publications and guidelines. With the objective of optimal medical treatment, the concept of evidence-based medicine is founded on these three aspects. It should be considered that there is a high risk of misinterpreting evidence, leading to medical errors and adverse effects without knowledge of the methodological background. This article explains the concept of systematic error (bias) and its importance. Causes and effects as well as methods to minimize bias are discussed. This information should impart a deeper understanding, leading to a better assessment of studies and implementation of its recommendations in daily medical practice. Developed by the Cochrane Collaboration, the risk of bias (RoB) tool is an assessment instrument for the potential of bias in controlled trials. Good handling, short processing time, high transparency of judgements and a graphical presentation of findings that is easily comprehensible are among its strengths. Attached to this article the German translation of the RoB tool is published. This should facilitate the applicability for non-experts and moreover, support evidence-based medical decision-making.

  5. Assessing monoclonal antibody product quality attribute criticality through clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Goetze, Andrew M; Schenauer, Matthew R; Flynn, Gregory C

    2010-01-01

    Recombinant therapeutic proteins, including antibodies, contain a variety of chemical and physical modifications. Great effort is expended during process and formulation development in controlling and minimizing this heterogeneity, which may not affect safety or efficacy, and, therefore, may not need to be controlled. Many of the chemical conversions also occur in vivo, and knowledge about the alterations can be applied to assessment of the potential impact on characteristics and the biological activity of therapeutic proteins. Other attributes may affect the drug clearance and thereby alter drug efficacy. In this review article, we describe attribute studies conducted using clinical samples and how information gleaned from them is applied to attribute criticality assessment. In general, how fast attributes change in vivo compared to the rate of mAb elimination is the key parameter used in these evaluations. An attribute with more rapidly changing levels may have greater potential to affect safety or efficacy and thereby reach the status of a Critical Quality Attribute (CQA) that should be controlled during production and storage, but the effect will depend on whether compositional changes are due to chemical conversion or differential clearance.

  6. Scrotal infrared digital thermography in assessment of varicocele--pilot study to assess diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Kulis, T; Kolaric, D; Karlovic, K; Knezevic, M; Antonini, S; Kastelan, Z

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess scrotal thermography in diagnostics of varicocele and suggest potential diagnostic criteria. Twelve patients with clinically diagnosed varicocele were examined with scrotal infrared digital thermography, physical examination and ultrasound/doppler. The main outcome measure was evaluation of thermography diagnostic criteria for varicocele. Mean temperature at left pampiniform plexus was ≥ 34 °C in 83%, and at right pampiniform plexus in all cases was ≤ 34 °C. In 92% of patients, temperature at the left testicle was ≥ 32 °C, whereas at the right testicle it was >32 °C in 50% patients. Temperatures between left and right pampiniform plexus and between left and right testicle were significantly different with P < 0.0001 and P < 0.006 respectively. In all patients, temperature difference between pampiniform plexuses was ≥ 0.6 °C. In 92% of patients, temperature at left pampiniform plexus was equal or higher to thigh temperature with the mean temperature difference of 1.1 ± 1.1 °C. Temperature at right pampiniform plexus was colder than the thigh in 92% of patients. This study suggests diagnostic criteria of five thermographic signs to easily diagnose varicocele. Scrotal thermography presents feasible, short and low cost diagnostic method for varicocele. Further study on a larger number of patients and healthy participants is needed to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of this method.

  7. Variation in anticonvulsant selection and EEG monitoring following severe traumatic brain injury in children – Understanding resource availability in sites participating in a comparative effectiveness study

    PubMed Central

    Kurz, Jonathan E.; Poloyac, Samuel M.; Abend, Nicholas S.; Fabio, Anthony; Bell, Michael J.; Wainwright, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Early post-traumatic seizures (PTS) may contribute to worsened outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Evidence to guide the evaluation and management of early PTS in children is limited. We undertook a survey of current practices of continuous electroencephalographic monitoring (cEEG), seizure prophylaxis and the management of early PTS to provide essential information for trial design and the development of PTS management pathways. Design Surveys were sent to site principal investigators at all 43 sites participating in the ADAPT (Approaches and Decisions in Acute Pediatric TBI) trial at the time of the survey. Surveys consisted of 12 questions addressing strategies to (i) implement cEEG monitoring, (ii) PTS prophylaxis, (iii) treat acute PTS, (iv) treat status epilepticus (SE) and refractory status epilepticus (RSE) and (v) monitor anti-seizure drug levels. Setting Institutions comprised a mixture of free-standing children’s hospitals and university medical centers across the United States and Europe. Measurements and Main Results cEEG monitoring was available in the pediatric intensive care unit in the overwhelming majority of clinical sites (98%); however, the plans to operationalize such monitoring for children varied considerably. A similar majority of sites report that administration of prophylactic anti-seizure medications is anticipated in children (93%), yet a minority reports that a specified protocol for treatment of PTS is in place (43%). Reported medication choices varied substantially between sites, but the majority of sites reported pentobarbital for RSE (81%). Presence of an treatment protocols for seizure prophylaxis, early PTS, post-traumatic SE and RSE was associated with decreased reported medications (all p < 0.05). Conclusions This study reports the current management practices for early PTS in select academic centers after pediatric severe TBI. The substantial variation in cEEG implementation, choice of seizure prophylaxis

  8. Assessing pharmacy residents' knowledge of biostatistics and research study design.

    PubMed

    Bookstaver, P Brandon; Miller, April D; Felder, Tisha M; Tice, Danielle L; Norris, LeAnn B; Sutton, S Scott

    2012-01-01

    Historically, clinicians have demonstrated a lack of confidence and poor aptitude for biostatistics as a tool for medical literature interpretation. Evaluation of pharmacy residents' ability to interpret biostatistics commonly used in peer-reviewed literature has not been previously conducted. To evaluate the level of understanding and perception of biostatistics concepts among pharmacy residents. A survey of postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) residents in American Society of Health-System Pharmacists-accredited residency programs was conducted in May 2009. The survey instrument consisted of 27 items, including 10 knowledge-based questions, and was distributed to residency programs for anonymous reporting via SurveyMonkey. The primary outcome of interest was biostatistics knowledge, defined as the percent total score of correct knowledge items. Statistical attitude and confidence questions were rated on a 5-point Likert-type scale (1 = strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree). The t-test or 1-way analysis of variance was conducted, as appropriate, to assess for differences in mean biostatistics knowledge scores by respondent characteristics. Forward stepwise regression was used to identify which characteristics were independently associated with biostatistics knowledge. A total of 214 PGY1 residents responded to the online survey assessment, and a subset of respondents (n = 166) answered 1 or more of the biostatistics knowledge questions. Of those who responded to at least 1 knowledge assessment, the overall mean (SD) biostatistics knowledge score was 47.3% (18.50%; range 0-90). Overall, respondents were predominantly female (74%) and younger than 30 years (81%). Residents scored highest in the recognition of the purpose of a double-blind study (92.6%; 95% CI 88.52 to 96.67), interpretation of relative risk (75.8%; 95% CI 69.02 to 82.57), and identification of the appropriate analytic method for a nominal variable (69.4%; 95% CI 62.16 to 76.59). Bivariate analyses showed

  9. Spacelab user implementation assessment study. Volume 4: SUIAS appendixes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The capital investment for the integration and checkout of Spacelab payloads is assessed. Detailed data pertaining to this assessment and a computer cost model utilized in the compilation of programmatic resource requirements are delineated.

  10. Cost/variance optimization for human exposure assessment studies.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, Roy W; Pellizzari, Edo D; Zelon, Harvey S; Michael, Larry C; Quackenboss, James J

    2005-11-01

    The National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) field study in EPA Region V (one of three NHEXAS field studies) provides extensive exposure data on a representative sample of 249 residents of the Great Lakes states. Concentration data were obtained for both metals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from multiple environmental media and from human biomarkers. A variance model for the logarithms of concentration measurements is used to define intraclass correlations between observations within primary sampling units (PSUs) (nominally counties) and within secondary sampling units (SSUs) (nominally Census blocks). A model for the total cost of the study is developed in terms of fixed costs and variable costs per PSU, SSU, and participant. Intraclass correlations are estimated for media and analytes with sufficient sample sizes. We demonstrate how the intraclass correlations and variable cost components can be used to determine the sample allocation that minimizes cost while achieving pre-specified precision constraints for future studies that monitor environmental concentrations and human exposures for metals and VOCs.

  11. Assessment of global phase uncertainty in case-control studies

    PubMed Central

    Uh, Hae-Won; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; Putter, Hein; van Houwelingen, Hans C

    2009-01-01

    Background In haplotype-based candidate gene studies a problem is that the genotype data are unphased, which results in haplotype ambiguity. The measure [1] quantifies haplotype predictability from genotype data. It is computed for each individual haplotype, and for a measure of global relative efficiency a minimum value is suggested. Alternatively, we developed methods directly based on the information content of haplotype frequency estimates to obtain global relative efficiency measures: and based on A- and D-optimality, respectively. All three methods are designed for single populations; they can be applied in cases only, controls only or the whole data. Therefore they are not necessarily optimal for haplotype testing in case-control studies. Results A new global relative efficiency measure was derived to maximize power of a simple test statistic that compares haplotype frequencies in cases and controls. Application to real data showed that our proposed method gave a clear and summarizing measure for the case-control study conducted. Additionally this measure might be used for selection of individuals, who have the highest potential for improving power by resolving phase ambiguity. Conclusion Instead of using relative efficiency measure for cases only, controls only or their combined data, we link uncertainty measure to case-control studies directly. Hence, our global efficiency measure might be useful to assess whether data are informative or have enough power for estimation of a specific haplotype risk. PMID:19751505

  12. Assessment of global phase uncertainty in case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Uh, Hae-Won; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; Putter, Hein; van Houwelingen, Hans C

    2009-09-14

    In haplotype-based candidate gene studies a problem is that the genotype data are unphased, which results in haplotype ambiguity. The R(h)(2) measure 1 quantifies haplotype predictability from genotype data. It is computed for each individual haplotype, and for a measure of global relative efficiency a minimum R(h)(2) value is suggested. Alternatively, we developed methods directly based on the information content of haplotype frequency estimates to obtain global relative efficiency measures: R(A)(2) and R(D)(2) based on A- and D-optimality, respectively. All three methods are designed for single populations; they can be applied in cases only, controls only or the whole data. Therefore they are not necessarily optimal for haplotype testing in case-control studies. A new global relative efficiency measure R(T)(2) was derived to maximize power of a simple test statistic that compares haplotype frequencies in cases and controls. Application to real data showed that our proposed method R(T)(2) gave a clear and summarizing measure for the case-control study conducted. Additionally this measure might be used for selection of individuals, who have the highest potential for improving power by resolving phase ambiguity. Instead of using relative efficiency measure for cases only, controls only or their combined data, we link uncertainty measure to case-control studies directly. Hence, our global efficiency measure might be useful to assess whether data are informative or have enough power for estimation of a specific haplotype risk.

  13. Motor Skill Assessment in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ting; Breslin, Casey M.; ElGarhy, Sayed

    2017-01-01

    Without proper motor assessment, children with autism spectrum disorder may be placed in educational settings that are inappropriate for their motor abilities. However, many practitioners find it challenging to choose which assessment to use to assess these children, especially with the number of instruments available. The purpose of this study…

  14. How University Teachers Design Assessments: A Cross-Disciplinary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearman, Margaret; Dawson, Phillip; Bennett, Sue; Hall, Matt; Molloy, Elizabeth; Boud, David; Joughin, Gordon

    2017-01-01

    There are dissonances between educators' aspirations for assessment design and actual assessment implementation in higher education. Understanding how assessment is designed "on the ground" can assist in resolving this tension. Thirty-three Australian university educators from a mix of disciplines and institutions were interviewed. A…

  15. Assessing maternal healthcare inequities among migrants: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Lígia Moreira; Caldas, José Peixoto; Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo; Dias, Sónia

    2014-02-01

    Considering pregnancy and motherhood as periods of increased vulnerability in migrant women, to characterize the healthcare provided to this collective, we sought to identify and understand patterns of satisfaction and demand of maternal and child healthcare, assessing women's perceptions about its quality. The study followed a qualitative methodology (semi-structured interviews) for collecting and analysing data (content analysis) and was conducted in Porto, the second largest city of Portugal. Participants were 25 recent immigrant mothers from Eastern European countries, Brazil, Portuguese-speaking African countries and six native Portuguese recent mothers (for comparison), contacted through social associations and institutions. Data suggests that healthcare depends not only on accessibility but especially on social opportunities. Equitable public health action must provide individuals and groups the equal opportunity to meet their needs, which may not be achieved by providing the same standard if care to all.

  16. Mechanical systems readiness assessment and performance monitoring study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The problem of mechanical devices which lack the real-time readiness assessment and performance monitoring capability required for future space missions is studied. The results of a test program to establish the feasibility of implementing structure borne acoustics, a nondestructive test technique, are described. The program included the monitoring of operational acoustic signatures of five separate mechanical components, each possessing distinct sound characteristics. Acoustic signatures were established for normal operation of each component. Critical failure modes were then inserted into the test components, and faulted acoustic signatures obtained. Predominant features of the sound signature were related back to operational events occurring within the components both for normal and failure mode operations. All of these steps can be automated. The structure borne acoustics technique lends itself to reducing checkout time, simplifying maintenance procedures, and reducing manual involvement in the checkout, operation, maintenance, and fault diagnosis of mechanical systems.

  17. System Safety Hazards Assessment in Conceptual Program Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eben, Dennis M.; Saemisch, Michael K.

    2003-01-01

    Providing a program in the concept development phase with a method of determining system safety benefits of potential concepts has always been a challenge. Lockheed Martin Space and Strategic Missiles has developed a methodology for developing a relative system safety ranking using the potential hazards of each concept. The resulting output supports program decisions with system safety as an evaluation criterion with supporting data for evaluation. This approach begins with a generic hazards list that has been tailored for the program being studied and augmented with an initial hazard analysis. Each proposed concept is assessed against the list of program hazards and ranked in three derived areas. The hazards can be weighted to show those that are of more concern to the program. Sensitivities can be also be determined to test the robustness of the conclusions

  18. The Methods Behind 2015 Informatics Capacity and Needs Assessment Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 Informatics Needs and Capacity of Local Health Departments (LHDs) survey is the most recent comprehensive source of quantitative data on LHD informatics. Conducted by the National Association of County & City Health Officials (NACCHO), this is the third nationally representative quantitative study of LHD informatics since 2009. The previous 2 comprehensive quantitative assessments were conducted by NACCHO in 2009-2010 and 2011. Given that public health informatics is rapidly evolving, the 2015 Informatics survey is a much-needed country-wide assessment of the current informatics needs and capacities of LHDs. This article outlines detailed methodology used in the 2015 Informatics survey, including instrument development, pretesting, sampling design and sample size, survey administration, and sampling weights. A 9-member advisory committee representing federal, state, and local health agency representatives guided the design and implementation of this study. The survey instrument was organized into 6 topic areas: demographics, physical infrastructure, skills and capacity available, public health workforce development needs, electronic health records, and health information exchange. The instrument was pretested with a sample of 20 LHDs and subsequently pilot-tested with 30 LHDs. The survey was administered via the Qualtrics survey software to the sample of 650 LHDs, selected using stratified random sampling. The survey was fielded for approximately 8 weeks and 324 usable responses were received, constituting a response rate of 50%. Statistical weights were developed to account for 3 factors: (a) disproportionate response rate by population size (using 7 population strata), (b) oversampling of LHDs with larger population sizes, and (c) sampling rather than a census approach. PMID:27684627

  19. The Methods Behind 2015 Informatics Capacity and Needs Assessment Study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Gulzar H

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 Informatics Needs and Capacity of Local Health Departments (LHDs) survey is the most recent comprehensive source of quantitative data on LHD informatics. Conducted by the National Association of County & City Health Officials (NACCHO), this is the third nationally representative quantitative study of LHD informatics since 2009. The previous 2 comprehensive quantitative assessments were conducted by NACCHO in 2009-2010 and 2011. Given that public health informatics is rapidly evolving, the 2015 Informatics survey is a much-needed country-wide assessment of the current informatics needs and capacities of LHDs. This article outlines detailed methodology used in the 2015 Informatics survey, including instrument development, pretesting, sampling design and sample size, survey administration, and sampling weights. A 9-member advisory committee representing federal, state, and local health agency representatives guided the design and implementation of this study. The survey instrument was organized into 6 topic areas: demographics, physical infrastructure, skills and capacity available, public health workforce development needs, electronic health records, and health information exchange. The instrument was pretested with a sample of 20 LHDs and subsequently pilot-tested with 30 LHDs. The survey was administered via the Qualtrics survey software to the sample of 650 LHDs, selected using stratified random sampling. The survey was fielded for approximately 8 weeks and 324 usable responses were received, constituting a response rate of 50%. Statistical weights were developed to account for 3 factors: (a) disproportionate response rate by population size (using 7 population strata), (b) oversampling of LHDs with larger population sizes, and (c) sampling rather than a census approach.

  20. Integrated assessment in the Mediterranean: the CIRCE case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodess, C. M.; Agnew, M. D.; Hemming, D.; Giannakopoulos, C.

    2012-04-01

    The heterogeneous nature of the Mediterranean environment, combined with a wide diversity of economic, social and cultural identities, make this region particularly amenable to integrated research on climate change impacts, vulnerabilities, and adaptive response. Within the framework of the EU FP7 CIRCE project, eleven case-study locations were selected to reflect three generic environments (urban, rural and coastal), to quantify current and future climate change and to assess the potential consequences to human communities and ecosystems at the regional to local scale. The case studies (Athens, Beirut, Alexandria, Tuscany, Apulia, Tel Hadya, Judean Foothills, Gulf of Valencia, Gulf of Oran, Gulf of Gabes, West Nile Delta) were chosen to reflect the east-west and north-south contrasts across the Mediterranean, using common selection criteria. A rigorous common framework, referred to as the CIRCE Case studies Integrating Framework was developed to facilitate a structured and systematic basis for identifying and selecting indicators. Within this framework, climate dynamics is viewed as a key driver of changes in social and biogeophysical systems and is modulated by the inherent dynamics of these systems. The top-down, indicator-based approach was complemented by a bottom-up approach involving local and regional stakeholders. A participatory level of involvement was aimed for, with stakeholder dialogue on an informal basis throughout the project, culminating in a series of more formal regional stakeholder workshops. Identification and construction of physical and socio-economic indicators was the most challenging and time-consuming aspect of the case-study work. A detailed set of selection criteria was defined and the process of reviewing and refining indicators was iterative. Nonetheless, a number of data and methodological challenges were encountered. Despite these issues, indicator linkages diagrams provided a useful preparatory stage for structuring the integrated

  1. Scaling studies and conceptual experiment designs for NGNP CFD assessment

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. McEligot; G. E. McCreery

    2004-11-01

    The objective of this report is to document scaling studies and conceptual designs for flow and heat transfer experiments intended to assess CFD codes and their turbulence models proposed for application to prismatic NGNP concepts. The general approach of the project is to develop new benchmark experiments for assessment in parallel with CFD and coupled CFD/systems code calculations for the same geometry. Two aspects of the complex flow in an NGNP are being addressed: (1) flow and thermal mixing in the lower plenum ("hot streaking" issue) and (2) turbulence and resulting temperature distributions in reactor cooling channels ("hot channel" issue). Current prismatic NGNP concepts are being examined to identify their proposed flow conditions and geometries over the range from normal operation to decay heat removal in a pressurized cooldown. Approximate analyses have been applied to determine key non-dimensional parameters and their magnitudes over this operating range. For normal operation, the flow in the coolant channels can be considered to be dominant turbulent forced convection with slight transverse property variation. In a pressurized cooldown (LOFA) simulation, the flow quickly becomes laminar with some possible buoyancy influences. The flow in the lower plenum can locally be considered to be a situation of multiple hot jets into a confined crossflow -- with obstructions. Flow is expected to be turbulent with momentumdominated turbulent jets entering; buoyancy influences are estimated to be negligible in normal full power operation. Experiments are needed for the combined features of the lower plenum flows. Missing from the typical jet experiments available are interactions with nearby circular posts and with vertical posts in the vicinity of vertical walls - with near stagnant surroundings at one extreme and significant crossflow at the other. Two types of heat transfer experiments are being considered. One addresses the "hot channel" problem, if necessary

  2. A subjective study to evaluate video quality assessment algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshadrinathan, Kalpana; Soundararajan, Rajiv; Bovik, Alan C.; Cormack, Lawrence K.

    2010-02-01

    Automatic methods to evaluate the perceptual quality of a digital video sequence have widespread applications wherever the end-user is a human. Several objective video quality assessment (VQA) algorithms exist, whose performance is typically evaluated using the results of a subjective study performed by the video quality experts group (VQEG) in 2000. There is a great need for a free, publicly available subjective study of video quality that embodies state-of-the-art in video processing technology and that is effective in challenging and benchmarking objective VQA algorithms. In this paper, we present a study and a resulting database, known as the LIVE Video Quality Database, where 150 distorted video sequences obtained from 10 different source video content were subjectively evaluated by 38 human observers. Our study includes videos that have been compressed by MPEG-2 and H.264, as well as videos obtained by simulated transmission of H.264 compressed streams through error prone IP and wireless networks. The subjective evaluation was performed using a single stimulus paradigm with hidden reference removal, where the observers were asked to provide their opinion of video quality on a continuous scale. We also present the performance of several freely available objective, full reference (FR) VQA algorithms on the LIVE Video Quality Database. The recent MOtion-based Video Integrity Evaluation (MOVIE) index emerges as the leading objective VQA algorithm in our study, while the performance of the Video Quality Metric (VQM) and the Multi-Scale Structural SIMilarity (MS-SSIM) index is noteworthy. The LIVE Video Quality Database is freely available for download1 and we hope that our study provides researchers with a valuable tool to benchmark and improve the performance of objective VQA algorithms.

  3. [The incidence and clinical implications of left ventricular thrombosis in 769 patients with acute myocardial infarct treated with antithrombotics and fibrinolytics].

    PubMed

    Boccardi, L; Natale, E; Minardi, G; Tubaro, M; Pucci, E; Ricci, R; Di Segni, M; Di Marcotullio, G; Malinconico, U; Giovannini, E

    1991-10-01

    Seven hundred sixty-nine patients (pts) admitted to the Coronary Care Unit (CCU) between January 1987 and January 1990 suffering from first acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were studied. The presence of left ventricular thrombosis (LVT) was evaluated by two-dimensional echocardiography (2D-echo). The relation of LVT to site, size and intra-CCU clinical outcome of AMI, in terms of systemic embolic events, Killip class and mortality, was also assessed. AMI was transmural in 707 pts (92%), anterior in 446 pts (58%) and inferior in 261 pts (34%), non-Q in 62 pts (8%). Two hundred sixty-one pts (34%) were treated with IV thrombolytic therapy followed by IV heparin 1000 IU/h over 12 hrs and then calcium heparin (CH) 12500 IU s.c. bid; 508 pts (66%) were given only antithrombotic therapy (CH 12500 IU s.c. bid). 2D-Echo was performed within 48 hours and on day 5-7 from the onset of AMI. In 41 pts (5.3%) LVT was observed: 39 had anterior AMI (8.7% of all anterior AMI pts), one had inferior AMI (0.4% of all inferior AMI pts), and one had non-Q AMI (1.6% of all non-Q AMI pts) [p less than 0.001 for anterior AMI vs inferior and non-Q AMI]. Pts with LVT had a greater infarct size (number of akinetic plus dyskinetic segments/total number of segments x 100) compared to pts without LVT (32.3 +/- 12.6% vs 16.4 +/- 5.7%, p less than 0.001). In pts treated with thrombolytic therapy, LVT incidence was not significantly different from that of pts treated with antithrombotic therapy (4.2% vs 5.9%) alone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Clinical utility of reflex studies in assessing cervical radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Miller, T A; Pardo, R; Yaworski, R

    1999-08-01

    We prospectively studied the diagnostic utility of upper limb segmental reflexes in patients with suspected cervical radiculopathy (CR). Fifty-three patients (29 men and 24 women), referred for electrodiagnostic testing, were positive for at least one of four clinical criteria for CR: abnormal (1) history, (2) motor (myotomal) examination, (3) sensory (dermatomal) examination, and (4) changes in deep tendon reflexes (DTR). All underwent electrodiagnostic assessment, needle electrode examination (NEE), specialized segmental reflexes (heteronymous and Hoffman's reflexes [H reflexes]), and neuroimaging. The clinical diagnosis was supported in all 32 patients who entered the study with two or more clinical signs for CR. Abnormal NEE was found in 90% of subjects with three clinical signs, 59% with two signs, and only 10% of those with one sign. H reflexes demonstrated a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 85% for detection of CR and were particularly helpful when forming conclusions in the 21 subjects with only one clinical sign for CR. Specialized segmental H-reflex studies of the upper limb were as sensitive and specific as neuroimaging (magnetic resonance imaging). Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. A preliminary study to Assess Model Uncertainties in Fluid Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Marc Oliver Delchini; Jean C. Ragusa

    2009-09-01

    The goal of this study is to assess the impact of various flow models for a simplified primary coolant loop of a light water nuclear reactor. The various fluid flow models are based on the Euler equations with an additional friction term, gravity term, momentum source, and energy source. The geometric model is purposefully chosen simple and consists of a one-dimensional (1D) loop system in order to focus the study on the validity of various fluid flow approximations. The 1D loop system is represented by a rectangle; the fluid is heated up along one of the vertical legs and cooled down along the opposite leg. A pressurizer and a pump are included in the horizontal legs. The amount of energy transferred and removed from the system is equal in absolute value along the two vertical legs. The various fluid flow approximations are compressible vs. incompressible, and complete momentum equation vs. Darcy’s approximation. The ultimate goal is to compute the fluid flow models’ uncertainties and, if possible, to generate validity ranges for these models when applied to reactor analysis. We also limit this study to single phase flows with low-Mach numbers. As a result, sound waves carry a very small amount of energy in this particular case. A standard finite volume method is used for the spatial discretization of the system.

  6. Rescuing Data from International Scientific Assessments: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downs, R. R.; Chen, R. S.; Xing, X.

    2016-12-01

    International scientific assessments such as the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessments represent significant efforts by the global scientific community to review, synthesize, and communicate diverse scientific knowledge, data, and information to support societal decision making on pressing problems such as resource management and climate change. To support the transparency, integrity, and usability of these assessments, it is vital that the underlying data used in these assessments be made openly available and usable by diverse stakeholders. Unfortunately, due to the many geographically dispersed contributors to assessments of this kind, as well as the severe time pressures and limited resources when assessments are conducted, appropriate management and preservation of these data are not always a priority. This can lead to the need to "rescue" key data to ensure their long-term preservation, integrity, accessibility, and appropriate reuse, especially in subsequent assessments. We describe here efforts over two decades to rescue selected data from the MA and IPCC assessments, to work with assessment authors and other contributors to validate and document assessment data, and to develop appropriate levels of data stewardship in light of potential user needs and constrained resources. The IPCC efforts are supported by the IPCC Data Distribution Center (DDC), which is operated collaboratively by the Center for Environmental Data Analysis in the United Kingdom, the World Data Center-Climate in Germany, and the NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) in the U.S. With the sixth IPCC assessment cycle now starting, a key challenge is to help the assessment community improve data management during the assessment process to reduce the risks of data loss, inadequate documentation, incomplete provenance, unnecessary data restrictions, and other problems.

  7. Assessing the role of static length scales behind glassy dynamics in polydisperse hard disks

    PubMed Central

    Russo, John; Tanaka, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    The possible role of growing static order in the dynamical slowing down toward the glass transition has recently attracted considerable attention. On the basis of random first-order transition theory, a new method to measure the static correlation length of amorphous order, called “point-to-set” (PTS) length, has been proposed and used to show that the dynamic length grows much faster than the static length. Here, we study the nature of the PTS length, using a polydisperse hard-disk system, which is a model that is known to exhibit a growing hexatic order upon densification. We show that the PTS correlation length is decoupled from the steeper increase of the correlation length of hexatic order and dynamic heterogeneity, while closely mirroring the decay length of two-body density correlations. Our results thus provide a clear example that other forms of order can play an important role in the slowing down of the dynamics, casting a serious doubt on the order-agnostic nature of the PTS length and its relevance to slow dynamics, provided that a polydisperse hard-disk system is a typical glass former. PMID:26038545

  8. Assessing the use of poplar tree systems as a landfill evapotranspiration barrier with the SHAW model.

    PubMed

    Preston, G M; McBride, R A

    2004-08-01

    The use of poplar tree systems (PTS) as evapotranspiration barriers on decommissioned landfills is gaining attention as an option for leachate management. This study involved field-testing the Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) model for its ability to reliably estimate poplar transpiration, volumetric soil water content, and soil temperature at a landfill located in southern Ontario, Canada. The model was then used to estimate deep drainage and to ascertain the influence of a young PTS on the soil water balance of the landfill cover. The SHAW model tended to underestimate poplar transpiration [mean difference (MD) ranged from 0.33 to 3.55 mm on a daily total basis] and overestimate volumetric soil water content by up to 0.10 m3 m(-3). The model estimated soil temperature very well, particularly in the upper 1 m of the landfill cover (MD ranged from -0.1 to 1.6 x degrees C in this layer). The SHAW model simulations showed that deep drainage decreased appreciably with the presence of a young PTS largely through increased interception of rainfall, and that PTS have a good potential to act as effective evapotranspiration barriers in northern temperate climate zones.

  9. Assessing the role of static length scales behind glassy dynamics in polydisperse hard disks.

    PubMed

    Russo, John; Tanaka, Hajime

    2015-06-02

    The possible role of growing static order in the dynamical slowing down toward the glass transition has recently attracted considerable attention. On the basis of random first-order transition theory, a new method to measure the static correlation length of amorphous order, called "point-to-set" (PTS) length, has been proposed and used to show that the dynamic length grows much faster than the static length. Here, we study the nature of the PTS length, using a polydisperse hard-disk system, which is a model that is known to exhibit a growing hexatic order upon densification. We show that the PTS correlation length is decoupled from the steeper increase of the correlation length of hexatic order and dynamic heterogeneity, while closely mirroring the decay length of two-body density correlations. Our results thus provide a clear example that other forms of order can play an important role in the slowing down of the dynamics, casting a serious doubt on the order-agnostic nature of the PTS length and its relevance to slow dynamics, provided that a polydisperse hard-disk system is a typical glass former.

  10. Impact of the agricultural research service watershed assessment studies on the conservation effects assessment project cropland national assessment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    USDA initiated the Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) in 2002 to analyze societal and environmental benefits gained from the increased conservation program funding provided in the 2002 Farm Bill. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), and...

  11. A Prospective Investigation of Emotion Dysregulation as a Moderator of the Relation between Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Substance Use Severity

    PubMed Central

    Tull, Matthew T.; Bardeen, Joseph R.; DiLillo, David; Messman-Moore, Terri; Gratz, Kim L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite strong evidence for an association between the experience of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms and substance use, little is known about the particular individuals most at-risk for problematic substance use in response to PTS symptoms. Consequently, the goal of this study was to conduct a prospective investigation of the moderating role of emotion dysregulation (assessed through self-report and behavioral measures) in the relation between PTS symptoms and substance use 8-months later within a sample of 106 young adult women. No main effect of PTS symptoms on substance use was found. Instead, PTS symptoms were only associated with later substance use in the context of heightened emotion dysregulation. Results provide support for emotion dysregulation as a key factor that may increase risk for substance use among women experiencing PTS symptoms and highlight a target for future interventions aimed at reducing risk for the development of maladaptive behaviors stemming from PTS symptoms. PMID:25483275

  12. Assessing Conifer Ray Parenchyma for Ecological Studies: Pitfalls and Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    von Arx, Georg; Arzac, Alberto; Olano, José M.; Fonti, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Ray parenchyma is an essential tissue for tree functioning and survival. This living tissue plays a major role for storage and transport of water, nutrients, and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), thus regulating xylem hydraulics and growth. However, despite the importance of rays for tree carbon and water relations, methodological challenges hamper knowledge about ray intra- and inter-tree variability and its ecological meaning. In this study we provide a methodological toolbox for soundly quantifying spatial and temporal variability of different ray features. Anatomical ray features were surveyed in different cutting planes (cross-sectional, tangential, and radial) using quantitative image analysis on stem-wood micro-sections sampled from 41 mature Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris). The percentage of ray surface (PERPAR), a proxy for ray volume, was compared among cutting planes and between early- and latewood to assess measurement-induced variability. Different tangential ray metrics were correlated to assess their similarities. The accuracy of cross-sectional and tangential measurements for PERPAR estimates as a function of number of samples and the measured wood surface was assessed using bootstrapping statistical technique. Tangential sections offered the best 3D insight of ray integration into the xylem and provided the most accurate estimates of PERPAR, with 10 samples of 4 mm2 showing an estimate within ±6.0% of the true mean PERPAR (relative 95% confidence interval, CI95), and 20 samples of 4 mm2 showing a CI95 of ±4.3%. Cross-sections were most efficient for establishment of time series, and facilitated comparisons with other widely used xylem anatomical features. Earlywood had significantly lower PERPAR (5.77 vs. 6.18%) and marginally fewer initiating rays than latewood. In comparison to tangential sections, PERPAR was systematically overestimated (6.50 vs. 4.92%) and required approximately twice the sample area for similar accuracy. Radial cuttings

  13. Assessing Conifer Ray Parenchyma for Ecological Studies: Pitfalls and Guidelines.

    PubMed

    von Arx, Georg; Arzac, Alberto; Olano, José M; Fonti, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Ray parenchyma is an essential tissue for tree functioning and survival. This living tissue plays a major role for storage and transport of water, nutrients, and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), thus regulating xylem hydraulics and growth. However, despite the importance of rays for tree carbon and water relations, methodological challenges hamper knowledge about ray intra- and inter-tree variability and its ecological meaning. In this study we provide a methodological toolbox for soundly quantifying spatial and temporal variability of different ray features. Anatomical ray features were surveyed in different cutting planes (cross-sectional, tangential, and radial) using quantitative image analysis on stem-wood micro-sections sampled from 41 mature Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris). The percentage of ray surface (PERPAR), a proxy for ray volume, was compared among cutting planes and between early- and latewood to assess measurement-induced variability. Different tangential ray metrics were correlated to assess their similarities. The accuracy of cross-sectional and tangential measurements for PERPAR estimates as a function of number of samples and the measured wood surface was assessed using bootstrapping statistical technique. Tangential sections offered the best 3D insight of ray integration into the xylem and provided the most accurate estimates of PERPAR, with 10 samples of 4 mm(2) showing an estimate within ±6.0% of the true mean PERPAR (relative 95% confidence interval, CI95), and 20 samples of 4 mm(2) showing a CI95 of ±4.3%. Cross-sections were most efficient for establishment of time series, and facilitated comparisons with other widely used xylem anatomical features. Earlywood had significantly lower PERPAR (5.77 vs. 6.18%) and marginally fewer initiating rays than latewood. In comparison to tangential sections, PERPAR was systematically overestimated (6.50 vs. 4.92%) and required approximately twice the sample area for similar accuracy. Radial cuttings

  14. Family context assessment in a public health study.

    PubMed

    Velasco, David; Sánchez de Miguel, Manuel; Egurza, Maitane; Arranz, Enrique; Aranbarri, Aritz; Fano, Eduardo; Ibarluzea, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the factorial structure of a new instrument to assess the quality of the family context (Etxadi-Gangoiti Scale) in a sample from the Gipuzkoa cohort of the Environment and Childhood (Infancia y Medio Ambiente [INMA]) study. Families in a sample of 433 two-year-old children were assessed in a home visit with subsequent analysis of the factorial structure and psychometric properties of the data. An exploratory factorial analysis (principal axis factoring and varimax rotation) and a confirmatory factorial analysis were carried out; partial confirmation of the original factorial structure of the instrument was obtained, which revealed the following factorial structures. Subscale (1): promotion of cognitive and linguistic development, social skills, psychomotor skills, and pretend play and imitation; subscale (2): promotion of independence and self-esteem, provision of optimal frustration, social and emotional quality of the relationship, and absence of physical punishment; subscale (3): paternal involvement, low exposure to family conflict, low frequency of family conflict, relationship with the extended family, social support, diversity of experiences, low frequency of stressful events, and low parental perception of stress. The structure of the original instrument structure was partially confirmed, which was attributed to the characteristics of the sample. We stress the importance of the variability obtained in the evaluation of the families, as well as of adequate indicators of reliability in such evaluation. The new instrument could be used in public health to identify deficient family contexts and to design preventive interventions focused on parenting skills. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. EOS imaging versus current radiography: A health technology assessment study.

    PubMed

    Mahboub-Ahari, Alireza; Hajebrahimi, Sakineh; Yusefi, Mahmoud; Velayati, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    EOS is a 2D/3D muscle skeletal diagnostic imaging system. The device has been developed to produce a high quality 2D, full body radiographs in standing, sitting and squatting positions. Three dimensional images can be reconstructed via sterEOS software. This Health Technology Assessment study aimed to investigate efficacy, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of new emerged EOS imaging system in comparison with conventional x-ray radiographic techniques. All cost and outcome data were assessed from Iran's Ministry of Health Perspective. Data for clinical effectiveness was extracted using a rigorous systematic review. As clinical outcomes the rate of x-ray emission and related quality of life were compared with Computed Radiography (CR) and Digital Radiography (DR). Standard costing method was conducted to find related direct medical costs. In order to examine robustness of the calculated Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratios (ICERs) we used two-way sensitivity analysis. GDP Per capita of Islamic Republic of Iran (2012) adopted as cost-effectiveness threshold. Review of related literature highlighted the lack of rigorous evidence for clinical outcomes. Ultra low dose EOS imaging device is known as a safe intervention because of FDA, CE and CSA certificates. The rate of emitted X-ray was 2 to 18 fold lower for EOS compared to the conventional techniques (p<0.001). The Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio for EOS relative to CR calculated $50706 in baseline analysis (the first scenario) and $50714, $9446 respectively for the second and third scenarios. Considering the value of neither $42146 as upper limit, nor the first neither the second scenario could pass the cost-effectiveness threshold for Iran. EOS imaging technique might not be considered as a cost-effective intervention in routine practice of health system, especially within in-patient wards. Scenario analysis shows that, only in an optimum condition such as lower assembling costs and higher utilization rates

  16. [Study on application of two risk assessment methods in coal dust occupational health risk assessment].

    PubMed

    Wu, B; Zhang, Y L; Chen, Y Q

    2017-04-20

    Objective: To evaluate the applicability of quantitative grading method (GBZ/T 229.1-2010) and occupational hazard risk index method in coal dust occupational health risk assessment. Methods: Taking 4 coal mines as the research object of risk assessment and making occupational health field testing and investigation. Based on two risk assessment methods, we analysed the health risk levels of 20 occupations which were exposed to coal dust in workplaces. Results: Coal dust working post had different risk levels in 4 coal mines, the post of higher risk level were mainly concentrated in the underground workplace of coal mine, especially the post of coal mining and tunneling system. The two risk assessment results showed that the risk levels of coal-mining machine drivers and tunneling machine drivers were the highest. The risk levels of coal dust working post used by two risk assessment methods had no significant difference (P>0.05) and were highly correlated (r=0.821, P<0.001) . Evaluation results of two risk assessment methods were supported by the field investigation and literatures. Conclusion: The two risk assessment methods can be used in coal dust occupational health risk assessment.

  17. A Case Study of Teacher Personal Practice Assessment Theories and Complexities of Implementing Formative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Box, Cathy; Skoog, Gerald; Dabbs, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    The value and effectiveness of formative assessment in the classroom has gained an increasing amount of attention during the past decade, especially since the publication of seminal work by Black and Wiliam titled "Assessment and Classroom Learning." Since that time, there has been a renewed interest in describing and evaluating teacher…

  18. A Case Study of Teacher Personal Practice Assessment Theories and Complexities of Implementing Formative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Box, Cathy; Skoog, Gerald; Dabbs, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    The value and effectiveness of formative assessment in the classroom has gained an increasing amount of attention during the past decade, especially since the publication of seminal work by Black and Wiliam titled "Assessment and Classroom Learning." Since that time, there has been a renewed interest in describing and evaluating teacher…

  19. Lunar and planetary science XXV; Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 25th, Houston, TX, Mar. 14-18, 1994, Abstracts of Papers. Pts. 1, 2, & 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-01-01

    The present volume on lunar and planetary science discusses an experimental project regarding Martian fluvio-thermal erosion, radiative signals from the impact of Shoemaker-Levy on Jupiter, evidence for short SiC lifetimes in the ISM, and distributions of the preatmospheric sizes of Antarctic and non-Antarctic chondrites. Attention is given to the calculation of cosmic-ray exposure ages of meteorites, meteorites as differential detectors of events over a long time scale, a comparison of surface characteristics of steep-sided domes on Venus and terrestrial silicic domes, the surface and interior of Phobos, and the hypsometric distribution of impact craters on Venus. Topics addressed include impact craters as indicators of subsurface H2O on Mars, a quantitative assessment of an impact-generated ring vortex, ordinary chondrites in space and time, and a geologic map of Callisto. Also discussed are postshock cooling and annealing within L-Group ordinary chondrites, primitive material in lunar highland soils, refractory carbides in interstellar graphite, and a mineralogical instrument for planetary applications.

  20. Health technology assessment in its local contexts: studies of telehealthcare.

    PubMed

    May, Carl; Mort, Maggie; Williams, Tracy; Mair, Frances; Gask, Linda

    2003-08-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) is one of the major research enterprises of late modernity, reaching into fields of previously autonomous professional practice, and critically interrogating the organisation and delivery of health care. The 'evaluation' of new health technologies within the field of HTA is increasingly a normative political expectation, as discourses of 'evidence-based' practice run through health policy in the UK and elsewhere. Despite its importance in governing the direction of innovation in health care delivery, there are hardly any empirical studies of HTA in practice. In this paper, we draw on two ethnographic studies of telehealthcare implementation and evaluation in the UK to explore the practical conduct of HTA, and we focus specifically on the social organisation and conduct of randomised controlled trials of these new technologies. The paper examines how evaluation forms a mediating set of practices that make the embedding or normalisation of a new technology possible; and present a simple model of the social and technical contingencies within the evaluation process.

  1. Use of wearable technology for performance assessment: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Papi, Enrica; Osei-Kuffour, Denise; Chen, Yen-Ming A; McGregor, Alison H

    2015-07-01

    The prevalence of osteoarthritis is increasing globally but current compliance with rehabilitation remains poor. This study explores whether wearable sensors can be used to provide objective measures of performance with a view to using them as motivators to aid compliance to osteoarthritis rehabilitation. More specifically, the use of a novel attachable wearable sensor integrated into clothing and inertial measurement units located in two different positions, at the waist and thigh pocket, was investigated. Fourteen healthy volunteers were asked to complete exercises adapted from a knee osteoarthritis rehabilitation programme whilst wearing the three sensors including five times sit-to-stand test, treadmill walking at slow, preferred and fast speeds. The performances of the three sensors were validated against a motion capture system and an instrumented treadmill. The systems showed a high correlation (r(2) > 0.7) and agreement (mean difference range: -0.02-0.03 m, 0.005-0.68 s) with gold standards. The novel attachable wearable sensor was able to monitor exercise tasks as well as the inertial measurement units (ICC > 0.95). Results also suggested that a functional placement (e.g., situated in a pocket) is a valid position for performance monitoring. This study shows the potential use of wearable technologies for assessing subject performance during exercise and suggests functional solutions to enhance acceptance. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Use of wearable technology for performance assessment: A validation study

    PubMed Central

    Papi, Enrica; Osei-Kuffour, Denise; Chen, Yen-Ming A; McGregor, Alison H

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of osteoarthritis is increasing globally but current compliance with rehabilitation remains poor. This study explores whether wearable sensors can be used to provide objective measures of performance with a view to using them as motivators to aid compliance to osteoarthritis rehabilitation. More specifically, the use of a novel attachable wearable sensor integrated into clothing and inertial measurement units located in two different positions, at the waist and thigh pocket, was investigated. Fourteen healthy volunteers were asked to complete exercises adapted from a knee osteoarthritis rehabilitation programme whilst wearing the three sensors including five times sit-to-stand test, treadmill walking at slow, preferred and fast speeds. The performances of the three sensors were validated against a motion capture system and an instrumented treadmill. The systems showed a high correlation (r2 > 0.7) and agreement (mean difference range: −0.02–0.03 m, 0.005–0.68 s) with gold standards. The novel attachable wearable sensor was able to monitor exercise tasks as well as the inertial measurement units (ICC > 0.95). Results also suggested that a functional placement (e.g., situated in a pocket) is a valid position for performance monitoring. This study shows the potential use of wearable technologies for assessing subject performance during exercise and suggests functional solutions to enhance acceptance. PMID:25937613

  3. A preliminary study for quantitative assessment of upper limb proprioception.

    PubMed

    Contu, Sara; Hussain, Asif; Masia, Lorenzo; Campolo, Domenico

    2016-08-01

    Proprioception, or sense of position and movement of the body, strongly correlates with motor recovery of the hemiplegic arm. The evaluation of the awareness of the location of joints in space involves measuring the accuracy of joint-angle replication. Robotic devices allow an accurate manipulation of joint movements necessary to assess proprioceptive status. This study evaluated the proprioceptive performance of healthy subjects by mean of the H-Man, a planar robot designed for upper-limb rehabilitation to gather preliminary normative data for neurorehabilitation applications. Twelve participants were equally divided into Aged and Young groups and were asked to indicate when their dominant hand position matched a predefined target in the contralateral, sagittal and ipsilateral direction. Results indicated a better performance for movements towards the contralateral target in terms of both absolute and signed error while there was not a significant effect of age group. Error variability was not affected by the target location and participants' age. The present study established preliminary proprioceptive metrics that could assist in providing information about the normal range of proprioceptive acuity of healthy subjects of different age.

  4. Exposure Assessment Issues in Epidemiology Studies of Phthalates

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Lauren E.; Cooper, Glinda S.; Galizia, Audrey; Meeker, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review exposure assessment issues that need to be addressed in designing and interpreting epidemiology studies of phthalates, a class of chemicals commonly used in consumer and personal care products. Specific issues include population trends in exposure, temporal reliability of a urinary metabolite measurement, and how well a single urine sample may represent longer-term exposure. The focus of this review is on seven specific phthalates: diethyl phthalate (DEP); di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP); diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP); butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP); di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP); diisononyl phthalate (DiNP); and diisodecyl phthalate (DiDP). Methods Comprehensive literature search using multiple search strategies Results Since 2001, declines in population exposure to DEP, BBzP, DBP, and DEHP have been reported in the United States and Germany, but DEHP exposure has increased in China. Although the half-lives of various phthalate metabolites are relatively short (3 to 18 hours), the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for phthalate metabolites, based on spot and first morning urine samples collected over a week to several months, range from weak to moderate, with a tendency toward higher ICCs (greater temporal stability) for metabolites of the shorter-chained (DEP, DBP, DiBP and BBzP, ICCs generally 0.3 to 0.6) compared with those of the longer-chained (DEHP, DiNP, DiDP, ICCs generally 0.1 to 0.3) phthalates. Additional research on optimal approaches to addressing the issue of urine dilution in studies of associations between biomarkers and different type of health effects is needed. Conclusions In conclusion, the measurement of urinary metabolite concentrations in urine could serve as a valuable approach to estimating exposure to phthalates in environmental epidemiology studies. Careful consideration of the strengths and limitations of this approach when interpreting study results is required. PMID:26313703

  5. Assessing community readiness online: a concurrent validation study.

    PubMed

    Kostadinov, Iordan; Daniel, Mark; Stanley, Linda; Cargo, Margaret

    2015-07-02

    Community readiness for facilitation and uptake of interventions can impact the success of community-based prevention efforts. As currently practiced, measuring community readiness can be a resource intensive process, compromising its use in evaluating multisite community-based prevention efforts. The purpose of this study was to develop, test and validate a more efficient online version of an existing community readiness tool and identify potential problems in completing assessments. This study was conducted in the context of a complex community-based childhood obesity prevention program in South Australia. Following pre-testing, an online version of the community readiness tool was created, wherein respondents, with detailed knowledge of their community and prevention efforts, rated their communities on five anchored rating scales (Knowledge of Efforts, Leadership, Knowledge of the Issue, Community Climate, and Resources). Respondents completed the standard, over-the-phone community readiness interview ("gold standard") and the new online survey. Paired t-test, St. Laurent's correlation coefficient and intra-class correlation (ICC) were used to determine the validity of the online tool. Contact summary forms were completed after each interview to capture interview quality. Twenty-five respondents completed both assessments. There was a statistically significant difference in the overall community readiness scores between the two methods (paired t-test p = 0.03); online scores were consistently higher than interview scores. St. Laurent's correlation of 0.58 (95% CI 0.42-0.73) was moderate; the ICC of 0.65 (95% CI 0.35-0.83) was good. Only for the leadership and resources dimensions was there no statistically significant difference between the scores from the two methods (p = 0.61, p = 0.08 respectively). St Laurent's correlation (r = 0.83, 95% CI 0.71-0.92) and the ICC (0.78, 95% CI 0.57-0.90) were excellent for leadership. Qualitative results from the standard

  6. Submersible Aircraft Concept Design Study - Amendment 1. Additional Assessment of Design Risks & Sensitivities within the Original Study, and an Initial Assessment of Key Control Aspects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    Design Department Technical report Submersible Aircraft Concept Design Study – Amendment 1 Additional assessment of design risks...COVERED (Feb2010-Aug20) Submersible Aircraft Concept Design Study – Amendment 1 - Additional assessment of key design risks & sensitivities within...Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The original Submersible Aircraft Concept Design Study (J. Eastgate and R. Goddard, NSWCCD-CISD-2010/011

  7. Sedentary time assessed by actigraphy and mortality: The Rotterdam Study.

    PubMed

    Koolhaas, Chantal M; Dhana, Klodian; van Rooij, Frank J A; Kocevska, Desana; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Tiemeier, Henning

    2017-02-01

    Research suggests that sedentary behavior is a risk factor for mortality. However, most studies rely on questionnaires, which are prone to reporting error. We examined the association between sedentary time assessed by actigraphy and mortality among 1839 participants, aged 45-98years, from the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study, enrolled between 2004 and 2007. Participants wore an actigraph around the wrist for seven days. Sedentary time was evaluated continuously, per 1h/day increase, and categorically in three groups (<8, 8-11, ≥11h/day). The lowest category was used as reference. Mortality risks were examined using Cox proportional hazard models, adjusted for confounders and biological risk factors. We examined the association between sedentary behavior and mortality over and beyond other activity measures (including physical activity (PA) and activities of daily living (ADL)) in a final model. During 11years of follow-up (median: 7.5years, interquartile range: 6.6-8.3years), 212 participants (11.5%) died. In the multivariable model, the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) per 1 more hour/day sedentary time was 1.09 (1.00, 1.18). The HR (95% CI) after adjustment for PA and ADL was 1.04 (0.96, 1.13). Participants sedentary for ≥11h/day had a higher mortality risk (HR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.14, 2.84) than those sedentary <8h/day, in the multivariable model. After adjusting for PA and ADL, this association was clearly attenuated (HR: 1.50, 95% CI: 0.93, 2.41). In conclusion, our study suggests that sedentary behavior is a risk factor for mortality. Further investigation is needed to examine whether this association is distinct from the effect of other measures of activity.

  8. Study on territorial risk assessment in Beibu Gulf of Guangxi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Hou, L. S.; Zhang, M. S.

    2016-08-01

    This study is based on the theories of terrestrial exploration risk in the Beibu Gulf Economic Zone in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Using ArcGIS and modelling methods, the spatial distributions of resources and environmental carrying capacity, terrestrial exploration dynamics, and terrestrial exploration potential are studied and evaluated in an integrated way. The results of the study are as follows: Mashan county, Longan county, Luchuan county, et al. have some low-risk land that can be explored, and infrastructure investment should be increased in these locations. Whereas, low-risk terrestrial development is possible in Qinzhou city, Heng county, Longan county, et al. and should be carried out in a planned and gradual fashion. The medium risk regions are distributed all over the region, but are concentrated in the city area of Nanning. However, the middle and north parts of Yulin city, the south part of Chongzuo city, Qinnan district, et al. are also in the same category and priority can be given to improve the quality and efficiency of these regions. The high risk regions, mainly distribute in the Liangqin district, Yining district, Binyang county, et al. This region should focus on the development principles of priority protection, appropriate development, and point-like development. Whereas, the extremely-high-risk areas, of which more than 60% are in Tiandeng county, Daxin county, Shanglin county, et al., are unsuitable for further development. The three-dimensional risk matrix method can make up for the deficiencies of other methods and has broad prospects in regional terrestrial development risk assessment.

  9. Acute coagulopathy in children with multiple trauma: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Sakellaris, George; Blevrakis, Evangelos; Petrakis, Ioannis; Dimopoulou, Anastasia; Dede, Olga; Partalis, Nikolaos; Alegakis, Athanasios; Seremeti, Chrysa; Spanaki, Anna Maria; Briassoulis, George

    2014-11-01

    Acute coagulopathy associated with trauma has been recognized for decades and is a constituent of the "triad of death" together with hypothermia and acidosis. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent coagulopathy is already established upon emergency department (ED) admission and the association with the severity of injury, impaired outcome, and mortality. Ninety-one injured children were admitted to the ED in our hospital. Pediatric Trauma Score (PTS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score were used to estimate injury severity, and organ function was assessed by the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score. Coagulopathy upon pediatric intensive care unit admission was present in 33 children (39.3%): 21 males and 12 females. PTS ranged from 1 to 12 (mean 8.2) in 51 children without coagulopathy and from -1 to +11 (mean 6.8) in 33 children with coagulopathy (p = 0.087). ISS and GCS ranged from 4 to 57 (mean 28) and from 3 to 11 (mean 7.3), respectively, in the coagulopathy group, whereas in the group without coagulopathy, ISS score ranged from 4 to 41 (mean 20.5; p = 0.08) and GCS from 8 to 15 (mean 12.8; p = 0.01). SOFA ranged from 0 to 10 (mean 3.4) in children without coagulopathy and from 0 to 15 (mean 5.4) in the coagulopathy group (p = 0.002). Among 33 children with coagulopathy, 7 did not survive (21%), all with parenchymal brain damage, whereas all trauma patients without coagulopathy survived (p < 0.001). Acute coagulopathy is present on admission to the ED and is associated with injury severity and significantly higher mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. UPLC-MS method for quantification of pterostilbene and its application to comparative study of bioavailability and tissue distribution in normal and Lewis lung carcinoma bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Deng, Li; Li, Yongzhi; Zhang, Xinshi; Chen, Bo; Deng, Yulin; Li, Yujuan

    2015-10-10

    A UPLC-MS method was developed for determination of pterostilbene (PTS) in plasma and tissues of mice. PTS was separated on Agilent Zorbax XDB-C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm) with gradient mobile phase at the flow rate of 0.2 ml/min. The detection was performed by negative ion electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The linear calibration curve of PTS in mouse plasma and tissues ranged from 1.0 to 5000 and 0.50 to 500 ng/ml (r(2)>0.9979), respectively, with lowest limits of quantification (LLOQ) were between 0.5 and 2.0 ng/ml, respectively. The accuracy and precision of the assay were satisfactory. The validated method was applied to the study of bioavailability and tissue distribution of PTS in normal and Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) bearing mice. The bioavailability of PTS (dose 14, 28 and 56 mg/kg) in normal mice were 11.9%, 13.9% and 26.4%, respectively; and the maximum level (82.1 ± 14.2 μg/g) was found in stomach (dose 28 mg/kg). The bioavailability, peak concentration (Cmax), time to peak concentration (Tmax) of PTS in LLC mice was increased compared with normal mice. The results indicated the UPLC-MS method is reliable and bioavailability and tissue distribution of PTS in normal and LLC mice were dramatically different. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Case study applications of the BASINS climate assessment tool (CAT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This EPA report will illustrate the application of different climate assessment capabilities within EPA’s BASINS modeling system for assessing a range of potential questions about the effects of climate change on streamflow and water quality in different watershed settings and us...

  12. Voice Assessment of Student Work: Recent Studies and Emerging Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckhouse, Barry; Carroll, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Although relatively little attention has been given to the voice assessment of student work, at least when compared with more traditional forms of text-based review, the attention it has received strongly points to a promising form of review that has been hampered by the limits of an emerging technology. A fresh review of voice assessment in light…

  13. Health Assessment and Teaching Performance Examination: Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Cultural Education Center.

    The Health Assessment and Teaching Performance Examination (HATPE), a criterion-referenced examination, requires the application of theory and competence in the performance of health assessment and teaching. The HATPE incorporates the theory related to history taking, physical examination and organization of a summary of data as well as the…

  14. Wetlands in the ecological risk assessment process: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Saban, L.B.

    1995-12-31

    In the past few years, the ecological risk assessment (ERA) process as outlined in the EPA document Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment has been successfully used to assess risk to birds, mammals, aquatic organisms, plants, and to a limited extent, reptiles and amphibians, but has only recently been applied to wetlands. Due to the unique role that wetlands play in the environment as sources and sinks for nutrients, sediment retention, high productivity, habitat transition zones, aquifer recharge, high diversity and richness of biota, and aesthetic value, it is important to consider the entire wetland system in the ERA process. Because nearly sixty percent of Superfund sites are located in or near wetlands, a comprehensive approach is proposed to evaluate potential risks to flora and fauna in these wetland environments. Using the delineation and functional assessment techniques developed by wetland scientists, an estuarine wetland in western Washington was evaluated within the scope of ERA`S. The ERA was applied to the wetland using functional assessments as an integral part of the problem formulation phase of the risk assessment process. Applying the ERA process to wetlands enhances the functional assessment process and helps to define critical elements to evaluate within wetland systems. The results of this risk assessment help to define patches within a landscape that are potentially at risk and how to prioritize remedial actions.

  15. Case study applications of the BASINS climate assessment tool (CAT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This EPA report will illustrate the application of different climate assessment capabilities within EPA’s BASINS modeling system for assessing a range of potential questions about the effects of climate change on streamflow and water quality in different watershed settings and us...

  16. Academic Advising Assessment Practices: Results of a National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Keith L.; Carlstrom, Aaron H.

    2014-01-01

    Best practices of academic advising assessment involve identification of student learning outcomes, the development and use of multiple measures of student learning, and sound professional judgment to understand the information gathered and to improve student learning. However, the assessment results often come from minimal, narrow, and…

  17. Assessment at the Boundaries: Service Learning as Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shay, Suellen

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the value systems which inform assessment practices in higher education, specifically how particular forms of knowledge valued in the curriculum shape and constrain assessment practices. The data for this article is drawn from two courses which participated in a service learning research and development project at the…

  18. Scripted Drama Assessment in a Middle School Social Studies Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ronald V.; Welch, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Students who use drama assess their work through using a science fiction essay to help them look for and make connections between times, places, people, and situations. The students then use assessment guidelines to focus their ideas, stimulate their creativity, and demonstrate minimum standards of excellence. Finally, students have access to…

  19. Voice Assessment of Student Work: Recent Studies and Emerging Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckhouse, Barry; Carroll, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Although relatively little attention has been given to the voice assessment of student work, at least when compared with more traditional forms of text-based review, the attention it has received strongly points to a promising form of review that has been hampered by the limits of an emerging technology. A fresh review of voice assessment in light…

  20. Assessment at the Boundaries: Service Learning as Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shay, Suellen

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the value systems which inform assessment practices in higher education, specifically how particular forms of knowledge valued in the curriculum shape and constrain assessment practices. The data for this article is drawn from two courses which participated in a service learning research and development project at the…

  1. Experiential acceptance and trait-mindfulness as predictors of analogue post-traumatic stress.

    PubMed

    Boelen, Paul A; Lenferink, Lonneke I M

    2017-07-14

    Experiential acceptance and trait-mindfulness are associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after traumatic events. This study was a preliminary attempt to examine (1) associations of experiential acceptance and trait-mindfulness with post-traumatic stress (PTS) associated with negative, but not necessarily traumatizing, life events ('analogue' PTS), (2) the role of these variables in the context of neuroticism as well as worry and rumination - two other regulatory strategies associated with PTS, and (3) the impact of pre-trauma tendencies towards experiential acceptance and mindfulness on analogue PTS. Data were obtained from two distinct student samples. A first sample provided cross-sectional data. In a second sample, indices of acceptance, mindfulness, neuroticism, worry, and rumination were tapped at inclusion into the study, and analogue PTS and confrontation with stressful life events were subsequently assessed 1 year later. In the cross-sectional sample, higher acceptance and mindfulness were associated with lower analogue PTS, even when controlling for neuroticism, worry, and rumination. In the prospective sample, pre-trauma mindfulness (but not experiential acceptance, neuroticism, worry, and rumination) assessed at baseline predicted levels of analogue PTS 1 year later. Findings suggest that experiential acceptance and trait-mindfulness are incrementally related to PTS beyond neuroticism, worry, and rumination and that pre-trauma trait-mindfulness may be a resilience factor protecting against severe PTS. We examined associations of experiential acceptance and trait-mindfulness with post-traumatic stress (PTS) associated with negative life events ('analogue' PTS). Experiential acceptance and trait-mindfulness were associated with concurrent analogue PTS, over and above neuroticism, worry, and rumination. Pre-trauma trait-mindfulness (but not pre-trauma experiential acceptance) significantly predicted analogue PTS in prospective analyses

  2. Borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors display similar promoter methylation profiles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jo-Heon; Choi, Yoo Duk; Lee, Ji Shin; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Nam, Jong Hee; Choi, Chan; Park, Min Ho; Yoon, Jung Han

    2009-12-01

    Mammary phyllodes tumors (PTs) are uncommon fibroepithelial neoplasms. On the basis of histologic criteria, PTs can be divided into benign, borderline, and malignant groups; however, the histologic distinction of PTs is often difficult and arbitrary. In breast cancer, promoter hypermethylation is a common phenomenon, but there are no data available concerning methylation status in PTs. The aim of this study was to assess whether the methylation profiles support the classification of PTs into three subgroups. A multiplex, nested, methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction approach was used to examine promoter methylation of five genes (GSTP1, HIN-1, RAR-beta, RASSF1A, and Twist) in 87 PTs (54 benign, 23 borderline, and 10 malignant). Immunohistochemical staining for GSTP1 was performed using tissue microarray blocks to determine whether GSTP1 promoter hypermethylation correlated with loss of GSTP1 expression. There was a trend of increasing methylation frequency with increasing grade of PTs. The methylation frequency of all genes and the mean number of methylated genes in borderline and malignant PTs were higher than those in benign PTs; however, there were no statistically significant differences between borderline and malignant PTs. GSTP1 promoter hypermethylation was associated with loss of GSTP1 expression (p < 0.001). These results suggest that PTs segregate into only two groups on the basis of their methylation profiles: the benign group and the combined borderline/malignant group.

  3. Mixture risk assessment: a case study of Monsanto experiences.

    PubMed

    Nair, R S; Dudek, B R; Grothe, D R; Johannsen, F R; Lamb, I C; Martens, M A; Sherman, J H; Stevens, M W

    1996-01-01

    Monsanto employs several pragmatic approaches for evaluating the toxicity of mixtures. These approaches are similar to those recommended by many national and international agencies. When conducting hazard and risk assessments, priority is always given to using data collected directly on the mixture of concern. To provide an example of the first tier of evaluation, actual data on acute respiratory irritation studies on mixtures were evaluated to determine whether the principle of additivity was applicable to the mixture evaluated. If actual data on the mixture are unavailable, extrapolation across similar mixtures is considered. Because many formulations are quite similar in composition, the toxicity data from one mixture can be extended to a closely related mixture in a scientifically justifiable manner. An example of a family of products where such extrapolations have been made is presented to exemplify this second approach. Lastly, if data on similar mixtures are unavailable, data on component fractions are used to predict the toxicity of the mixture. In this third approach, process knowledge and scientific judgement are used to determine how the known toxicological properties of the individual fractions affect toxicity of the mixture. Three examples of plant effluents where toxicological data on fractions were used to predict the toxicity of the mixture are discussed. The results of the analysis are used to discuss the predictive value of each of the above mentioned toxicological approaches for evaluating chemical mixtures.

  4. Sierra ozone impact-assessment study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, J.J.

    1991-06-01

    The Sierra Cooperative Ozone Impact Assessment Study (SCOIAS) is a multi-agency effort involving the University of California, Davis (UCD), U.S. Forest Service and California Air Resources Board. The objectives of the SCOIAS are to monitor air quality and foliar damage in mixed-conifer forests in the Sierra Nevada of California, and to characterize the levels of ozone that forest trees are exposed to throughout the year. In the first year, UCD established air quality monitoring stations in five National forests (NF) to measure the concentration of ozone and a number of meteorological variables (i.e., wind speed and direction, temperature, humidity). The five stations are located at: Mountain Home (Sequoia NF), Jerseydale (Sierra NF), Five-Mile (Stanislaus NF), Sly Park (El Dorado NF) and White Cloud (Tahoe NF). Through March 20, 1991, 433 site-days of data were collected, and the loss of data due to instrument malfunction was less than eight percent of the cumulative sampling period. To date, the highest ozone concentrations were observed in October 1990, when hourly averaged concentrations exceeded 100 ppbv at Mountain Home, Jerseydale and White Cloud. In winter, ozone concentrations were generally below 80 ppbv.

  5. Recent Extremes in European Climate: Assessment, Case Studies and Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiou, P.; Vautard, R.; D'Andrea, F.; Cattiaux, J.; Naveau, P.; Ciais, P.; Garnier, E.

    2008-12-01

    During the last centuries and up to the present decade, extreme climate events have certainly had larger economic impacts than any trend of temperature in Europe. In addition to an intrinsic scientific interest, their study is thus essential for society. One of the challenges of their investigation is that, depending on their definition, extreme climate events potentially have a behavior that is not connected to the secular temperature trend in a simple fashion. This presentation will review the statistical assessments of extremes in Europe, focusing on surface temperature, precipitation, and their connections with large-scale features of the atmospheric circulation. In particular, the questions of modeling their severity and frequency will be discussed in the first part of the presentation. I will then give two kinds of examples of European climate extremes: summer heatwaves and droughts, and winter warm waves. The mechanisms leading to such phenomena will be explored, and I will examine some of the impacts on the biosphere that were recently observed. In order to provide a long term perspective of those events, examples of historical droughts in France will be presented and connected with proxy records of temperature. It appears that the mechanisms that are favored for present-day climate might still have been valid during the past centuries. To conclude, new challenges for dynamical and statistical modeling will be explored.

  6. APOC impact assessment studies: baseline ophthalmological findings in Morogoro, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Babalola, O E; Maegga, B; Katenga, S; Ogbuagu, F K; Umeh, R E; Seketeli, E; Braide, E

    2008-12-01

    The goal of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) is to eliminate Onchocerciasis as a disease of public Health significance and an important constraint to socio-economic development in the 19 none OCP (Onchocerciasis Control Project) countries covered through Community-Directed Treatment with Ivermectin, CDTI. In 1998, impact assessment studies were carried out in Morogoro, Tanzania during which baseline ophthalmological parameters were established. The hypothesis being tested is that CDTI will prevent or delay progression of onchocercal eye lesions and blindness. A total of 425 subjects aged 10 years or more from 14 villages within Bwakira district ofMorogoro region in Tanzania were examined for Snellen visual acuity, ocular microfilaria, lens opacities, uveitis and posterior segment disease especially chorioretinitis and optic nerve disease. Motion Sensitivity Screening Test (MSST) was carried out as well. Microfilaria was present in the anterior chamber of nearly half (49.2%) of all subjects examined. Prevalence of blindness was extremely high at 15.2%. Onchocercal lesions were responsible for blindness in 41.5% of these, followed by cataracts (27.7%), glaucoma (10.8%) and trachoma (6.2%). The main pathway to onchocercal blindness in this population was anterior uveitis with or without secondary cataracts. There is an urgent need to get CDTI underway and institute other horizontal primary eye care measures, especially cataract backlog reduction, in order to reduce the excessive burden of avoidable blindness in this community.

  7. Sediment quality assessment studies in Boston Harbor, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, R.S.; Chapman, D.C.; Biedenbach, J.M.; Long, E.R.; Thursby, G.; MacDonald, D.D.

    1995-12-31

    As part of NOAA`s National Status and Trends program, a bioeffects assessment study was conducted in the vicinity of Boston Harbor, Massachusetts. Surficial sediment samples were collected at 55 sites and subsamples were tested for toxicity using (1) the 10-day whole sediment test with Ampelisca abdita, (2) the sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development assays with sediment pore water, and (3) Microtox{trademark} assay with organic sediment extracts. Eleven percent of the samples were significantly toxic in the amphipod test, only 4% were toxic in the sea urchin fertilization test whereas all of the samples were highly toxic in the sea urchin embryological development assay; the Microtox assay determined 56% of the organic sediment extracts to be significantly toxic. Sediment chemical analyses for metals, AVS/SEM, PAHs, PCBs, and pesticides were performed on 30 of the 55 samples. Twenty-seven of the 30 samples exceeded at least one probable effects level (PEL) value. For the 20 samples that exceeded 5 or more PELS, the concordance between the predicted and observed toxicity was 20% for the amphipod test, 60% for the Microtox test, and 100% for the sea urchin embryological development assay. There were no significant correlations among the different toxicity tests or between the tests and the contaminant concentrations in the bulk sediment. Possible explanations for the apparent lack of correlation between the sediment chemistry and the toxicity tests will be discussed.

  8. Study Addiction – A New Area of Psychological Study: Conceptualization, Assessment, and Preliminary Empirical Findings

    PubMed Central

    Atroszko, Paweł A.; Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D.; Pallesen, Ståle

    2015-01-01

    Aims Recent research has suggested that for some individuals, educational studying may become compulsive and excessive and lead to ‘study addiction’. The present study conceptualized and assessed study addiction within the framework of workaholism, defining it as compulsive over-involvement in studying that interferes with functioning in other domains and that is detrimental for individuals and/or their environment. Methods The Bergen Study Addiction Scale (BStAS) was tested – reflecting seven core addiction symptoms (salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal, conflict, relapse, and problems) – related to studying. The scale was administered via a cross-sectional survey distributed to Norwegian (n = 218) and Polish (n = 993) students with additional questions concerning demographic variables, study-related variables, health, and personality. Results A one-factor solution had acceptable fit with the data in both samples and the scale demonstrated good reliability. Scores on BStAS converged with scores on learning engagement. Study addiction (BStAS) was significantly related to specific aspects of studying (longer learning time, lower academic performance), personality traits (higher neuroticism and conscientiousness, lower extroversion), and negative health-related factors (impaired general health, decreased quality of life and sleep quality, higher perceived stress). Conclusions It is concluded that BStAS has good psychometric properties, making it a promising tool in the assessment of study addiction. Study addiction is related in predictable ways to personality and health variables, as predicted from contemporary workaholism theory and research. PMID:26014668

  9. EOS imaging versus current radiography: A health technology assessment study

    PubMed Central

    Mahboub-Ahari, Alireza; Hajebrahimi, Sakineh; Yusefi, Mahmoud; Velayati, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Background: EOS is a 2D/3D muscle skeletal diagnostic imaging system. The device has been developed to produce a high quality 2D, full body radiographs in standing, sitting and squatting positions. Three dimensional images can be reconstructed via sterEOS software. This Health Technology Assessment study aimed to investigate efficacy, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of new emerged EOS imaging system in comparison with conventional x-ray radiographic techniques. Methods: All cost and outcome data were assessed from Iran's Ministry of Health Perspective. Data for clinical effectiveness was extracted using a rigorous systematic review. As clinical outcomes the rate of x-ray emission and related quality of life were compared with Computed Radiography (CR) and Digital Radiography (DR). Standard costing method was conducted to find related direct medical costs. In order to examine robustness of the calculated Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratios (ICERs) we used two-way sensitivity analysis. GDP Per capita of Islamic Republic of Iran (2012) adopted as cost-effectiveness threshold. Results: Review of related literature highlighted the lack of rigorous evidence for clinical outcomes. Ultra low dose EOS imaging device is known as a safe intervention because of FDA, CE and CSA certificates. The rate of emitted X-ray was 2 to 18 fold lower for EOS compared to the conventional techniques (p<0.001). The Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio for EOS relative to CR calculated $50706 in baseline analysis (the first scenario) and $50714, $9446 respectively for the second and third scenarios. Considering the value of neither $42146 as upper limit, nor the first neither the second scenario could pass the cost-effectiveness threshold for Iran. Conclusion: EOS imaging technique might not be considered as a cost-effective intervention in routine practice of health system, especially within in-patient wards. Scenario analysis shows that, only in an optimum condition such as lower

  10. District health information system assessment: a case study in iran.

    PubMed

    Raeisi, Ahmad Reza; Saghaeiannejad, Sakineh; Karimi, Saeed; Ehteshami, Asghar; Kasaei, Mahtab

    2013-03-01

    Health care managers and personnel should be aware and literate of health information system in order to increase the efficiency and effectiveness in their organization. Since accurate, appropriate, precise, timely, valid information and interpretation of information is required and is the basis for policy planning and decision making in various levels of the organization. This study was conducted to assess the district health information system evolution in Iran according to WHO framework. This research is an applied, descriptive cross sectional study, in which a total of twelve urban and eight rural facilities, and the district health center at Falavarjan region were surveyed by using a questionnaire with 334 items. Content and constructive validity and reliability of the questionnaire were confirmed with correlation coefficient of 0.99. Obtained data were analyzed with SPSS 16 software and descriptive statistics were used to examine measures of WHO compliance. The analysis of data revealed that the mean score of compliance of district health information system framework was 35.75 percent. The maximum score of compliance with district health information system belonged to the data collection process (70 percent). The minimum score of compliance with district health information system belonged to information based decision making process with a score of 10 percent. District Health Information System Criteria in Isfahan province do not completely comply with WHO framework. Consequently, it seems that health system managers engaged with underlying policy and decision making processes at district health level should try to restructure and decentralize district health information system and develop training management programs for their managers.

  11. District Health Information System Assessment: A Case Study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Raeisi, Ahmad Reza; Saghaeiannejad, Sakineh; Karimi, Saeed; Ehteshami, Asghar; Kasaei, Mahtab

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Health care managers and personnel should be aware and literate of health information system in order to increase the efficiency and effectiveness in their organization. Since accurate, appropriate, precise, timely, valid information and interpretation of information is required and is the basis for policy planning and decision making in various levels of the organization. This study was conducted to assess the district health information system evolution in Iran according to WHO framework. Methods This research is an applied, descriptive cross sectional study, in which a total of twelve urban and eight rural facilities, and the district health center at Falavarjan region were surveyed by using a questionnaire with 334 items. Content and constructive validity and reliability of the questionnaire were confirmed with correlation coefficient of 0.99. Obtained data were analyzed with SPSS 16 software and descriptive statistics were used to examine measures of WHO compliance. Results The analysis of data revealed that the mean score of compliance of district health information system framework was 35.75 percent. The maximum score of compliance with district health information system belonged to the data collection process (70 percent). The minimum score of compliance with district health information system belonged to information based decision making process with a score of 10 percent. Conclusions District Health Information System Criteria in Isfahan province do not completely comply with WHO framework. Consequently, it seems that health system managers engaged with underlying policy and decision making processes at district health level should try to restructure and decentralize district health information system and develop training management programs for their managers. PMID:23572859

  12. Physical fitness assessment in multiple sclerosis patients: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Guerra, E; di Cagno, A; Mancini, P; Sperandii, F; Quaranta, F; Ciminelli, E; Fagnani, F; Giombini, A; Pigozzi, F

    2014-10-01

    There is growing evidence to show the effectiveness of physical exercise for multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Aim of this study was to evaluate aerobic capacity, strength, balance, and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) after exercise, in ambulatory patients with mild MS and matched control healthy participants. Seventeen MS patients aged 48.09 ± 10.0 years, with mild MS disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale: EDSS 1.5 to 4.5) and 10 healthy sedentary age matched (41.9 ± 11.2 years) subjects volunteered for the study. MS patients underwent medical examination with resting electrocardiogram, arterial blood pressure, EDSS, and Modified Fatigue Impact Scale-MFIS. Both groups also underwent physical assessment with the Berg Balance Scale(,) test (Berg), Six Minutes Walking Test (6MWT), maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC) of forearm, lower limb, shoulder strength test, and the Borg 10-point scale test. The one-way ANOVA showed significant differences for MFIS (F1.19=9.420; p<0.01), Berg (F1.19=13.125; p<0.01), handgrip MIVC (F1.19=4.567; p<0.05), lower limbs MIVC (F1.19=7.429; p<0.01), and 6MWT (F1.19=28.061; p<0.01) between groups. EDSS, Berg test and Borg scores explained 80% of 6MWT variation. Mild grade EDSS patients exhibited impaired balance, muscle strength, and low self pace-6MWT scores, whereas RPE response after the exercise was similar to that of sedentary individuals. Both groups showed similar global physiological adjustments to exercise.

  13. Assessing function in patients undergoing joint replacement: a study protocol for a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Joint replacement is an effective intervention for people with advanced arthritis, although there is an important minority of patients who do not improve post-operatively. There is a need for robust evidence on outcomes after surgery, but there are a number of measures that assess function after joint replacement, many of which lack any clear theoretical basis. The World Health Organisation has introduced the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), which divides function into three separate domains: Impairment, activity limitations and participation restrictions. The aim of this study is to compare the properties and responsiveness of a selection of commonly used outcome tools that assess function, examine how well they relate to the ICF concepts, and to explore the changes in the measures over time. Methods/design Two hundred and sixty three patients listed for lower limb joint replacement at an elective orthopaedic centre have been recruited into this study. Participants attend the hospital for a research appointment prior to surgery and then at 3-months and 1-year after surgery. At each assessment time, function is assessed using a range of measures. Self-report function is assessed using the WOMAC, Aberdeen Impairment, Activity Limitation and Participation Restriction Measure, SF-12 and Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile 2. Clinician-administered measures of function include the American Knee Society Score for knee patients and the Harris Hip Score for hip patients. Performance tests include the timed 20-metre walk, timed get up and go, sit-to-stand-to-sit, step tests and single stance balance test. During the performance tests, participants wear an inertial sensor and data from motion analysis are collected. Statistical analysis will include exploring the relationship between measures describing the same ICF concepts, assessing responsiveness, and studying changes in measures over time. Discussion There are a

  14. AN OVERVIEW OF THE NATIONAL HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT SURVEY (NHEXAS) PHASE I STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) Phase I studies were sponsored by EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) to address critical information needs for assessing human exposures to multiple chemicals from multiple pathways and media. These studies were...

  15. AN OVERVIEW OF THE NATIONAL HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT SURVEY (NHEXAS) PHASE I STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) Phase I studies were sponsored by EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) to address critical information needs for assessing human exposures to multiple chemicals from multiple pathways and media. These studies were...

  16. Use of Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment to Improve Interpretation of a Recreational Water Epidemiological Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a supplemental water quality monitoring study and quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to complement the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA) National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water study at Boq...

  17. Use of Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment to Improve Interpretation of a Recreational Water Epidemiological Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a supplemental water quality monitoring study and quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to complement the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA) National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water study at Boq...

  18. FY11 Facility Assessment Study for Aeronautics Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loboda, John A.; Sydnor, George H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the approach and results for the Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) FY11 Facility Assessment Project. ATP commissioned assessments in FY07 and FY11 to aid in the understanding of the current condition and reliability of its facilities and their ability to meet current and future (five year horizon) test requirements. The principle output of the assessment was a database of facility unique, prioritized investments projects with budgetary cost estimates. This database was also used to identify trends for the condition of facility systems.

  19. FORMAL SCENARIO DEVELOPMENT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scenario analysis is a process of evaluating possible future events through the consideration of alternative plausible (though not equally likely) outcomes (scenarios). The analysis is designed to enable improved decision-making and assessment through a more rigorous evaluation o...

  20. FORMAL SCENARIO DEVELOPMENT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scenario analysis is a process of evaluating possible future events through the consideration of alternative plausible (though not equally likely) outcomes (scenarios). The analysis is designed to enable improved decision-making and assessment through a more rigorous evaluation o...

  1. Synthesis and assessment of date palm genetic diversity studies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A thorough assessment of genetic diversity and population differentiation of Phoenix dactylifera are critical for its dynamic conservation and sustainable utilization of its genetic diversity. Estimates of genetic diversity based on phenotypic, biochemical and molecular markers; and fruit quality tr...

  2. Executive Summary, Hydraulic Fracturing Study - Draft Assessment 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In this Executive Summary of the HF Draft report, EPA highlights the reviews of scientific literature to assess the potential for hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas to change the quality or quantity of drinking water resources.

  3. In vivo assessment of dopamine and serotonin receptors measured by C-11 n-methylspiperone (NMSP) in patients with schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, D.F.; Tune, L.E.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Suneja, S.; Bjorvinsson, E.; Pearlson, G.; Dannals, R.F.; Ravert, H.T.; Wilson, A.A.; Links, J.M.

    1985-05-01

    The authors carried out PET imaging with C-11 NMSP in 13 pts. diagnosed as chronic schizophrenic by (DSM 3) criteria. They had no detectable serum neuroleptics by radioassay at the time of the scan. No pt. had received a neuroleptic for at least 1 week before study, with an avg. abstinence of 7 mo. One had never been on neuroleptics. During the time of scanning, 8/13 had delusions and hallucinations. There was no statistically significant difference from 44 age and sex matched control subjects for the 43 min. Caudate/cerebellar ratio, or the Frontal/Cerebellar ratio, both measures of relative dopamine D2, and serotonin S2 binding. These preliminary studies suggest that these drug free pts. show no large differences in the receptor levels compared to normal data. Differences from in vitro data could be due to: differences in duration of illness (the avg. 10.3) yrs.; difference in age (our pts. vg. 32.7 are much younger than those dying with schizophrenia); drug induced effects at death or persistent neuroleptic effect in our pts.; or difference in method.

  4. Dietary Assessment in the California Teachers Study: Reproducibility and Validity

    PubMed Central

    Horn-Ross, Pamela L.; Lee, Valerie S.; Collins, Christine N.; Stewart, Susan L.; Canchola, Alison J.; Lee, Marion M.; Reynolds, Peggy; Clarke, Christina A.; Bernstein, Leslie; Stram, Daniel O.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the reproducibility and validity of the food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used in the California Teachers Study (CTS) cohort and to use this data to quantify the effects of correcting nutrient-breast cancer relative risks for measurement error. Methods 195 CTS cohort members participated in a 10-month dietary validation study that included four 24-hour dietary recalls and pre- and post-study FFQs. Shrout-Fleiss intraclass correlations for reproducibility were computed. Under several standard assumptions concerning the correlations of errors in the FFQs and 24-hour recalls, we calculated energy-adjusted deattenuated Pearson correlations for validity and tested for differences in validity according to a number of demographic and other risk factors. For each nutrient, we compared ot performance of the FFQ versus the 24-hour recalls, estimating the number of days of recalls that give equivalent information about true intake as does a single FFQ.. Finally, the effects of adjustment for measurement error on risk estimates were evaluated in 44,423 postmenopausal cohort members, 1,544 of whom developed breast cancer during seven years of follow-up. Relative risks (RR) and confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards with and without correction for measurement error. Results Reproducibility correlations for the nutrients ranged from 0.60 to 0.87. With a few exceptions, validity correlations were reasonably high (range: 0.55–0.85), including r=0.74 for alcohol. Performance of the FFQ differed by age for percent of calories from fat and by body mass index and hormone therapy use for alcohol consumption. For most nutrients examined, our FFQ is comparable to two to six recalls for each subject in capturing true intake. In the measurement error-adjusted risk analyses, corrected RRs were within 13% of uncorrected values for all nutrients examined except for linoleic acid. For alcohol consumption the corrected RR (per 20g/1000

  5. 76 FR 71341 - BASINS and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools: Case Study Guide to Potential Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... AGENCY BASINS and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools: Case Study Guide to Potential Applications AGENCY... Climate Assessment Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications (EPA/600/R-11/123A). EPA also... WEPP climate assessment tools. The report presents a series of short case studies designed to...

  6. Assessment of Student Performance. Volume I: Findings and Conclusions. Studies of Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khattri, Nidhi; And Others

    New to the current assessment-reform movement is an emphasis on the use of performance assessments to support systematic state-, district-, or school-wide objectives. This document presents findings of a study that sought to document and analyze the key characteristics of performance assessments, the facilitators and barriers in assessment reform,…

  7. An Action Research Study of Student Self-Assessment in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walser, Tamara M.

    2009-01-01

    Although student self-assessment is considered a critical component of assessment for learning, its use and related research are rare in higher education. This article describes an action research study of self-assessment as an instructional strategy in two university courses. Results indicate that self-assessment exercises provided students the…

  8. Case Studies in Making Assessment Efficient While Developing Student Professionalism and Managing Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossiter, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    It is known that assessment drives learning and hence a good assessment design is key to effective student development. This paper gives some case studies in effective assessment strategies within engineering. The main contribution is to demonstrate how one can simultaneously meet a number of requirements with individual assessments and therefore…

  9. Self-reported physical inactivity and health complaints: a cross-sectional study of Lithuanian adolescent schoolgirls.

    PubMed

    Malinauskas, Romualdas; Malinauskaiene, Vilija

    2015-05-01

    The study aimed to investigate the associations between physical inactivity and health complaints in relation to posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, behavioral and nutritional factors, and sense of coherence (SOC) in eighth-grade girls enrolled in secondary schools in Kaunas, Lithuania. A random sample of girls (N = 862) was interviewed anonymously on health complaints, physical activity level, PTS symptoms, Antonovsky's SOC scale, health behaviors, and dietary patterns. All health complaints were significantly associated with physical inactivity. Crude odds ratio (OR) for physical inactivity and health complaints was 1.67 (95%CI: 1.09-2.56); after adjusting for PTS symptoms, the OR decreased to 1.57 (95%CI: 0.95-2.45); further adjustment for smoking, daily alcohol intake, daily consumption of fresh vegetables, and SOC decreased the OR to 1.25 (95%CI: 0.76-2.04). The effect of PTS symptoms and sense of coherence remained stable after all adjustments. The significant association between physical inactivity and health complaints was mediated by PTS symptoms.

  10. Volume assessment accuracy in computed tomography: a phantom study

    PubMed Central

    Prionas, Nicolas D.; Ray, Shonket; Boone, John M.

    2011-01-01

    There is a broad push in the cancer imaging community to eventually replace linear tumor measurements with three-dimensional evaluation of tumor volume. To evaluate the potential accuracy of volume measurement in tumors by CT, a gelatin phantom consisting of 55 polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) spheres spanning diameters from 1.6 mm to 25.4 mm was fabricated and scanned using thin slice (0.625 mm) CT (GE LightSpeed 16). Nine different reconstruction combinations of field of view dimension (FOV = 20, 30, 40 cm) and CT kernel (standard, lung, bone) were analyzed. Contiguous thin-slice images were averaged to produce CT images with greater thicknesses (1.25, 2.50, 5.0 mm). Simple grayscale thresholding techniques were used to segment the PMMA spheres from the gelatin background, where a total of 1800 spherical volumes were evaluated across the permutations studied. The geometric simplicity of the phantom established upper limits on measurement accuracy. In general, smaller slice thickness and larger sphere diameters produced more accurate volume assessment than larger slice thickness and smaller sphere diameter. The measured volumes were smaller than the actual volumes by a common factor depending on slice thickness; overall, 0625 mm slices produced on average 18%, 1.25 mm slices produced 22%, 2.5 mm CT slices produced 29%, and 5.0 mm slices produced 39% underestimates of volume (mm3). Field of view did not have a significant effect on volume accuracy. Reconstruction algorithm significantly affected volume accuracy (p < 0.0001), with the lung kernel having the smallest error, followed by the bone and standard kernels. The results of this investigation provide guidance for CT protocol development and may guide the development of more advanced techniques to promote quantitatively accurate CT volumetric analysis of tumors. PMID:20592693

  11. Hydrodynamic and Ecological Assessment of Nearshore Restoration: A Modeling Study

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Khangaonkar, Tarang; Thom, Ronald M.; Fuller, Roger

    2010-04-10

    Along the Pacific Northwest coast, much of the estuarine habitat has been diked over the last century for agricultural land use, residential and commercial development, and transportation corridors. As a result, many of the ecological processes and functions have been disrupted. To protect coastal habitats that are vital to aquatic species, many restoration projects are currently underway to restore the estuarine and coastal ecosystems through dike breaches, setbacks, and removals. Information on physical processes and hydrodynamic conditions are critical for the assessment of the success of restoration actions. Restoration of a 160- acre property at the mouth of the Stillaguamish River in Puget Sound has been proposed. The goal is to restore native tidal habitats and estuary-scale ecological processes by removing the dike. In this study, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was developed for the Stillaguamish River estuary to simulate estuarine processes. The model was calibrated to observed tide, current, and salinity data for existing conditions and applied to simulate the hydrodynamic responses to two restoration alternatives. Responses were evaluated at the scale of the restoration footprint. Model data was combined with biophysical data to predict habitat responses at the site. Results showed that the proposed dike removal would result in desired tidal flushing and conditions that would support four habitat types on the restoration footprint. At the estuary scale, restoration would substantially increase the proportion of area flushed with freshwater (< 5 ppt) at flood tide. Potential implications of predicted changes in salinity and flow dynamics are discussed relative to the distribution of tidal marsh habitat.

  12. Phase I/II study of azacitidine and capecitabine/oxaliplatin (CAPOX) in refractory CIMP-high metastatic colorectal cancer: evaluation of circulating methylated vimentin

    PubMed Central

    Overman, Michael J.; Morris, Van; Moinova, Helen; Manyam, Ganiraju; Ensor, Joe; Lee, Michael S.; Eng, Cathy; Kee, Bryan; Fogelman, David; Shroff, Rachna T.; LaFramboise, Thomas; Mazard, Thibault; Feng, Tian; Hamilton, Stanley; Broom, Bradley; Lutterbaugh, James; Issa, Jean-Pierre; Markowitz, Sanford D.; Kopetz, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands (CIMP) has been strongly implicated in chemotherapy resistance and is implicated in the pathogenesis of a subset of colorectal cancers (CRCs) termed CIMP-high. Experimental Design This phase I/II study in CRC (phase II portion restricted to CIMP-high CRC), treated fluoropyrimidine/oxaliplatin refractory patients with azacitidine (75 mg/m2/day subcutaneously D1-5) and CAPOX (capecitibine and oxaliplatin) every three weeks. Results Twenty-six patients (pts) were enrolled in this study: 15 pts (12 treated at MTD) in phase I and 11 pts in phase II. No dose limiting toxicities were observed. A total of 14 pts were CIMP-high. No responses were seen. CIMP-high status did not correlate with efficacy endpoints [stable disease (SD) or progression-free survival (PFS)] or baseline vimentin methylation level. Changes in vimentin methylation over time did not correlate with efficacy outcomes. Baseline methylated vimentin correlated with tumor volume (P<0.001) and higher levels of baseline methylation correlated with the obtainment of stable disease (P=0.04). Conclusions Azacitidine and CAPOX were well tolerated with high rates of stable disease in CIMP-high pts, but no objective responses. Serum methylated vimentin may be associated with benefit from a regimen including a hypomethylation agent, although this study is not able to separate a potential prognostic or predictive role for the biomarker. PMID:27542211

  13. Phase I/II study of azacitidine and capecitabine/oxaliplatin (CAPOX) in refractory CIMP-high metastatic colorectal cancer: evaluation of circulating methylated vimentin.

    PubMed

    Overman, Michael J; Morris, Van; Moinova, Helen; Manyam, Ganiraju; Ensor, Joe; Lee, Michael S; Eng, Cathy; Kee, Bryan; Fogelman, David; Shroff, Rachna T; LaFramboise, Thomas; Mazard, Thibault; Feng, Tian; Hamilton, Stanley; Broom, Bradley; Lutterbaugh, James; Issa, Jean-Pierre; Markowitz, Sanford D; Kopetz, Scott

    2016-10-11

    Hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands (CIMP) has been strongly implicated in chemotherapy resistance and is implicated in the pathogenesis of a subset of colorectal cancers (CRCs) termed CIMP-high. This phase I/II study in CRC (phase II portion restricted to CIMP-high CRC), treated fluoropyrimidine/oxaliplatin refractory patients with azacitidine (75 mg/m2/day subcutaneously D1-5) and CAPOX (capecitibine and oxaliplatin) every three weeks. Twenty-six patients (pts) were enrolled in this study: 15 pts (12 treated at MTD) in phase I and 11 pts in phase II. No dose limiting toxicities were observed. A total of 14 pts were CIMP-high. No responses were seen. CIMP-high status did not correlate with efficacy endpoints [stable disease (SD) or progression-free survival (PFS)] or baseline vimentin methylation level. Changes in vimentin methylation over time did not correlate with efficacy outcomes. Baseline methylated vimentin correlated with tumor volume (P<0.001) and higher levels of baseline methylation correlated with the obtainment of stable disease (P=0.04). Azacitidine and CAPOX were well tolerated with high rates of stable disease in CIMP-high pts, but no objective responses. Serum methylated vimentin may be associated with benefit from a regimen including a hypomethylation agent, although this study is not able to separate a potential prognostic or predictive role for the biomarker.

  14. Assessment of Military Cultural Competence: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Eric G; Hall-Clark, Brittany N; Hamaoka, Derrick; Peterson, Alan L

    2015-08-01

    Cultural competence is widely considered a cornerstone of patient care. Efforts to improve military cultural competency have recently gained national attention. Assessment of cultural competence is a critical component to this effort, but no assessment of military cultural competence currently exists. An assessment of military cultural competence (AMCC) was created through broad input and consensus. Careful review of previous cultural competency assessment designs and analysis techniques was considered. The AMCC was organized into three sections: skills, attitudes, and knowledge. In addition to gathering data to determine absolute responses from groups with different exposure levels to the military (direct, indirect, and none), paired questions were utilized to assess relative competencies between military culture and culture in general. Piloting of the AMCC revealed significant differences between military exposure groups. Specifically, those with personal military exposure were more likely to be in absolute agreement that the military is a culture, were more likely to screen for military culture, and had increased knowledge of military culture compared to those with no military exposure. Relative differences were more informative. For example, all groups were less likely to agree that their personal culture could be at odds with military culture as compared to other cultures. Such perceptions could hinder asking difficult questions and thus undermine care. The AMCC is a model for the measurement of the skills, attitudes, and knowledge related to military cultural competence. With further validity testing, the AMCC will be helpful in the critical task of measuring outcomes in ongoing efforts to improve military cultural competence. The novel approach of assessing variance appears to reduce bias and may also be helpful in the design of other cultural competency assessments.

  15. Assessment of physical activity, capacity and nutritional status in elderly peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Cupisti, Adamasco; D'Alessandro, Claudia; Finato, Viviana; Del Corso, Claudia; Catania, Battista; Caselli, Gian Marco; Egidi, Maria Francesca

    2017-05-30

    This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of sedentarism, and to assess physical capacity and nutritional status in a cohort of older patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD), with respect to age-matched non-dialysis CKD population, using highly accessible, simple methods, namely the Rapid Assessment of Physical activity (RAPA) test and the 30″ Sit-to-stand (STS) test. This cross-sectional multicenter study included 151 renal patients older than 60 years; 71 pts. (44 m, age 72 ± 7 yrs) were on PD and 80 pts. (63 m, age 74 ± 7 yrs) were affected by 3-4 stage CKD. The prevalence of sedentary/underactive patients was double of that of the active patients as assessed by RAPA test, both in the PD (65.3%) and in the CKD (67.5%) cohort. The 30"STS test showed a reduced physical performance in both groups: 84.5% of PD patients and 87.5% of CKD patients did not reach the expected number of stands by age and gender. A malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS) ≥ 6 occurred in 37 % of PD patients and in 2.5 % of CKD patients. In PD patients, an independent significant association was observed between 30"STS test and MIS (beta -0.510, p = 0.013), as well as between RAPA and MIS (beta -0.544, p = 003) and phase angle (beta -0.506, p = 0.028). A high prevalence of low- performance capacity and sedentarism has been detected among elderly patients on PD or with CKD stage 3-4. Apart from age, a condition of malnutrition-inflammation was the major determinant of poor physical activity and capacity in PD patients. Better body composition seems to be positively associated with physical activity in PD and with physical capacity in CKD patients. Routine clinical management should include a close evaluation of nutritional status and evaluation of physical activity and capacity which can be easily assessed by RAPA and 30″STS tests.

  16. Drug abuse in Nepal: a rapid assessment study.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, A; Uprety, L; Chapagain, M; Kafle, K

    1996-01-01

    A rapid assessment of drug abuse in Nepal was conducted at different sites, including eight municipalities in the five development regions of the country. To interview various groups of key informants, such methods as semi-structured interviews, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were used. A snowball sampling strategy for respondents who were drug abusers and a judgemental sampling strategy for the non-drug-using key informants were applied. About one fifth of the sample was recruited from the treatment centres and the rest from the community. Drug abusers in prison were interviewed, and secondary data from treatment centres and prisons analysed. The study revealed that the sample of drug abusers had a mean age of 23.8 years and was overwhelmingly male. Most respondents lived with their families and were either unemployed or students. About 30 per cent of the sample was married. A large majority of the sample had a family member or a close relative outside the immediate family who smoked or drank alcohol and a friend who smoked, drank or used illicit drugs. Apart from tobacco and alcohol, the major drugs of abuse were cannabis, codeine-containing cough syrup, nitrazepam tablets, buprenor-phine injections and heroin (usually smoked, rarely injected). The commonest sources of drugs were other drug-using friends, cross-border supplies from India or medicine shops. The commonest source of drug money was the family. There has been a clear trend towards the injection of buprenorphine by abusers who smoke heroin or drink codeine cough syrup. The reasons cited for switching to injections were the unavailability and rising cost of non-injectable drugs and the easy availability and relative cheapness of injectables. About a half of the injecting drug users (IDUs) commonly reported sharing injecting equipment inadequately cleaned with water. Over a half of IDUs reported visiting needle-exchange programmes at two of the study sites where such programmes were

  17. Imaging of sternocostoclavicular joint in spondyloarthropaties and other rheumatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Guglielmi, G; Cascavilla, A; Scalzo, G; Salaffi, F; Grassi, W

    2009-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the role of the various imaging techniques in the study of the sternocostoclavicular joint, in patients with spondyloarthropathies and other rheumatic conditions and to assess potential pitfalls in the radiological diagnosis. Thirty patients, 11 male and 19 female, mean age 45 years, with involvement of the sternocostoclavicular joint as part of rheumatologic disorders (psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Tietze syndrome, SAPHO syndrome, and condensing osteitis of the clavicle) were studied. Conventional radiography, CT, MRI and bone scintigraphy were performed. The following imaging findings were evaluated: soft tissue swelling, bone sclerosis, cortical bone erosions, joint space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, periosteal new bone formation, synovial reaction and intrarticular effusion. All the images were independently reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Conventional radiography demonstrated only sclerosis of the clavicula in 8 pts (26%) and the sternum in 3 pts (10%), cortical bone erosions in 7 pts (23%), joint space narrowing in 6 pts (23%) and periosteal bone formation in 2 pts (10%). At the CT examination sclerosis of the clavicula and the sternum was observed in 13 pts (44%), cortical bone erosions in 22 pts (76%), joint space narrowing in 10 pts (34%), ligament ossification in 12 pts (41%), subchondral sclerosis in 9 pts (34%) and periosteal bone formation in 10 pts (34%). The MRI was the most sensitive technique in the evaluation of the soft tissue swelling in 9 pts (56%), intrarticular effusion in 13 pts (81%) and synovial reaction in 13 pts (81%). Finally, bone scintigraphy showed an increased uptake at the sterno-costoclavicular joint in all patients who underwent the examination. The radiological evaluation of the anterior chest wall in patients with different rheumatic disorders represents a problem of difficult diagnostic evaluation both for the anatomic region complexity and for the variability of

  18. Assessment in the Kindergarten Classroom: An Empirical Study of Teachers' Assessment Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyle, Angela; DeLuca, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Within the current accountability framework of public education, kindergarten teachers face the challenge of balancing traditional developmental programing and current academically oriented curriculum. Central to this challenge is teachers' uses of assessment to measure and communicate student learning in relation to their curricular stance.…

  19. The Assessment of Lesson Plans in Teacher Education: A Case Study in Assessment Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tummons, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    This paper forms part of an exploration of assessment on one part-time higher education (HE) course: an in-service, professional qualification for teachers and trainers in the learning and skills sector which is delivered on a franchise basis across a network of further education colleges in the north of England. This paper proposes that the…

  20. Assessment in the Kindergarten Classroom: An Empirical Study of Teachers' Assessment Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyle, Angela; DeLuca, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Within the current accountability framework of public education, kindergarten teachers face the challenge of balancing traditional developmental programing and current academically oriented curriculum. Central to this challenge is teachers' uses of assessment to measure and communicate student learning in relation to their curricular stance.…

  1. [Indices of static and dynamic components of pressure load (assessed by 24-hour blood pressure monitoring) and the state of renal function in patients with essential hypertension].

    PubMed

    Zelveian, P A; Buniatian, M S; Oshchepkova, E V; Lazareva, N V; Rogoza, A N

    2011-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate possible relationship between parameters of blood pressure (BP) profile and glomerular filtration rate in patients (pts) with I-II stage essential hypertension (EH). Material and methods. We studied 120 pts (97 men), aged 23-65 (50,2+/-0,6) years with I (n=98) and II (n=22) stage EH. In BP profile (SL-90207) we calculated 24-hour, daytime, nighttime values of systolic, diastolic, pulse pressures (SBP, DBP, PP), time load (TL), variability and nocturnal fall (NF) of BP. The state of renal function was assessed by measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) calculated by the Cockcroft formula. Results. After nonlinear statistical analysis by Gauss-Newton all patients were divided into three groups according to GFR tertiles. Significant differences were found between these groups by 24-hour, nighttime and daytime values of SBP and DBP. Values of SBP were the lowest in group II. In group II lowest values of PP were also observed, but statistically significant differences were found only in nocturnal PP values between groups II and III. There were no significant differences between groups by TL and NF of BP. In group Ill (high GFR) variability of daytime values of SBP and DBF were significantly higher. Univariate correlation analysis showed statistically significant negative relationship between GFR and nocturnal PP in patients with lowest level of GFR. Positive correlations between nocturnal values of PP and GFR in groups II and III were also observed. Conclusion. These results indicated the presence of strong relationship between high values of nocturnal PP and decreasing of glomerular filtration rate in patients with EH and thus confirmed significance of "constant" and "dynamic" components of pressure load as a marker of impairment of renal function.

  2. PARALLEL MODELS OF ASSESSMENT: INFANT MENTAL HEALTH AND THERAPEUTIC ASSESSMENT MODELS INTERSECT THROUGH EARLY CHILDHOOD CASE STUDIES.

    PubMed

    Gart, Natalie; Zamora, Irina; Williams, Marian E

    2016-07-01

    Therapeutic Assessment (TA; S.E. Finn & M.E. Tonsager, 1997; J.D. Smith, 2010) is a collaborative, semistructured model that encourages self-discovery and meaning-making through the use of assessment as an intervention approach. This model shares core strategies with infant mental health assessment, including close collaboration with parents and caregivers, active participation of the family, a focus on developing new family stories and increasing parents' understanding of their child, and reducing isolation and increasing hope through the assessment process. The intersection of these two theoretical approaches is explored, using case studies of three infants/young children and their families to illustrate the application of TA to infant mental health. The case of an 18-month-old girl whose parents fear that she has bipolar disorder illustrates the core principles of the TA model, highlighting the use of assessment intervention sessions and the clinical approach to preparing assessment feedback. The second case follows an infant with a rare genetic syndrome from ages 2 to 24 months, focusing on the assessor-parent relationship and the importance of a developmental perspective. Finally, assessment of a 3-year-old boy illustrates the development and use of a fable as a tool to provide feedback to a young child about assessment findings and recommendations.

  3. A study on the ergonomic assessment in the workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tee, Kian Sek; Low, Eugene; Saim, Hashim; Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani Wan; Khialdin, Safinaz Binti Mohd; Isa, Hazlita; Awad, M. I.; Soon, Chin Fhong

    2017-09-01

    Ergonomics has gained attention and take into consideration by the workers in the different fields of works recently. It has given a huge impact on the workers comfort which directly affects the work efficiency and productivity. The workers have claimed to suffer from the painful postures and injuries in their workplace. Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) is the most common problem frequently reported by the workers. This problem occurs due to the lack of knowledge and alertness from the workers to the ergonomic in their surroundings. This paper intends to review the approaches and instruments used by the previous works of the researchers in the evaluation of the ergonomics. The two main assessment methods often used for ergonomic evaluation are Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) and Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA). Popular devices are Inertial Measurement Units (IMU) and Microsoft Kinect.

  4. [Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, Hunter R., Ed.; Kerstiens, Gene, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    These four serial issues examine the effectiveness and appropriateness of a variety of assessment tests as well as their relationship to developmental education. Included are reviews of the following tests: (1) the Comparative Guidance and Placement Program, a self-scoring test of English and mathematics; (2) the Stanford Achievement Test, an…

  5. Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Theodore E., Ed.

    "The Role of the State in Performance-Based Teacher Education-Certification" by Robert Roth creates a context for viewing how state agencies are approaching performance education. Peter Airasian then explores the value questions that are at the heart of evaluation issues. Fred McDonald looks at "The State of the Art in Performance Assessment," and…

  6. Resource assessments in national planning - Pupua New Guinea case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Pintz, W.S.; Clark, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    The nation of Papua New Guinea, encompassing 462,000 square miles of land area and a population of approximately 3 million individuals, occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and includes the Bismarck Archipelago and Bougainville Island. The diversity and complexity of Papua New Guinea's geology, coupled with the large number of known mineral occurrences of various deposit types, leads to the inescapable conclusion that the resource potential of Papua New Guinea is very large. In recognition of this potential, a resource assessment of Papua New Guinea was undertaken for the stated purpose of integrating the results of such an assessment into the nation's planning activities.

  7. Compression to prevent PTS: a controversy?

    PubMed

    Amin, Elham; Joore, Manuela A; ten Cate-Hoek, Arina J

    2016-03-01

    Compression therapy, prescribed as elastic compression stockings, is the cornerstone in the management of post-thrombotic syndrome. The effectiveness of elastic compression stockings has recently been called into question in a large randomized placebo-controlled trial. The findings however may be less contradictory than assumed and presented. The mechanistic substrate for the effectiveness of compression therapy is based on its ability to counteract venous hypertension, which is a central aspect in the pathophysiology of post-thrombotic syndrome. Nevertheless, despite elastic compression stockings a significant percentage (20-50%) of patients develops post-thrombotic syndrome, suggesting that there are other factors to be considered next to compression. Every patient has an individual baseline risk value, constituted of non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors (i.e. age, sex, bodyweight etcetera). Straining patients at risk is therefore crucial. Exploring additional or alternative forms of therapy is desirable as well since these are in addition to the risk factors, costs aspects and quality of life, puzzle pieces in the management of post-thrombotic syndrome, which once pieced together enables multifactorial yet individualized therapy.

  8. Marine-target craters on Mars? An assessment study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ormo, J.; Dohm, J.M.; Ferris, J.C.; Lepinette, A.; Fairen, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Observations of impact craters on Earth show that a water column at the target strongly influences lithology and morphology of the resultant crater. The degree of influence varies with the target water depth and impactor diameter. Morphological features detectable in satellite imagery include a concentric shape with an inner crater inset within a shallower outer crater, which is cut by gullies excavated by the resurge of water. In this study, we show that if oceans, large seas, and lakes existed on Mars for periods of time, marine-target craters must have formed. We make an assessment of the minimum and maximum amounts of such craters based on published data on water depths, extent, and duration of putative oceans within "contacts 1 and 2," cratering rate during the different oceanic phases, and computer modeling of minimum impactor diameters required to form long-lasting craters in the seafloor of the oceans. We also discuss the influence of erosion and sedimentation on the preservation and exposure of the craters. For an ocean within the smaller "contact 2" with a duration of 100,000 yr and the low present crater formation rate, only ???1-2 detectable marine-target craters would have formed. In a maximum estimate with a duration of 0.8 Gyr, as many as 1400 craters may have formed. An ocean within the larger "contact 1-Meridiani," with a duration of 100,000 yr, would not have received any seafloor craters despite the higher crater formation rate estimated before 3.5 Gyr. On the other hand, with a maximum duration of 0.8 Gyr, about 160 seafloor craters may have formed. However, terrestrial examples show that most marine-target craters may be covered by thick sediments. Ground penetrating radar surveys planned for the ESA Mars Express and NASA 2005 missions may reveal buried craters, though it is uncertain if the resolution will allow the detection of diagnostic features of marine-target craters. The implications regarding the discovery of marine-target craters on

  9. Assessment Study of Small Space Debris Removal by Laser Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang H.; Papa, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    Space debris in Earth orbit poses significant danger to satellites, humans in space, and future space exploration activities. In particular, the increasing number of unidentifiable objects, smaller than 10 cm, presents a serious hazard. Numerous technologies have been studied for removing unwanted objects in space. Our approach uses a short wavelength laser stationed in orbit to vaporize these small objects. This paper discusses the power requirements for space debris removal using lasers. A short wavelength laser pumped directly or indirectly by solar energy can scan, identify, position, and illuminate the target, which will then be vaporized or slow down the orbital speed of debris by laser detonation until it re-enters the atmosphere. The laser-induced plasma plume has a dispersive motion of approximately 105 m/sec with a Lambertian profile in the direction of the incoming beam [1-2]. The resulting fast ejecting jet plume of vaporized material should prevent matter recombination and condensation. If it allows any condensation of vaporized material, the size of condensed material will be no more than a nanoscale level [3]. Lasers for this purpose can be indirectly pumped by power from an array of solar cells or directly pumped by the solar spectrum [4]. The energy required for vaporization and ionization of a 10 cm cube ( 2700 gm) of aluminum is 87,160 kJ. To remove this amount of aluminum in 3 minutes requires a continuous laser beam power of at least 5.38 MW under the consideration of 9% laser absorption by aluminum [5] and 5% laser pumping efficiency. The power needed for pumping 5.38 MW laser is approximately 108 MW, which can be obtained from a large solar array with 40% efficiency solar cells and a minimal area of 450 meters by 450 meters. This solar array would collect approximately 108 MW. The power required for system operation and maneuvering can be obtained by increasing solar panel size. This feasibility assessment covers roughly the power requirement

  10. Geochemical and microbiological assessment of groundwater status: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preziosi, E.; Del Bon, A.; Amalfitano, S.; Fazi, S.; Zoppini, A.; Parrone, D.; Ghergo, S.

    2012-04-01

    The qualitative status of the groundwater resources is drawing increasingly attention in relation to the requirements of the European legislative framework. The monitoring strategies are developed by considering the chemical processes affecting groundwater quality. However, despite the use of biological indicators is a common practice for the qualitative assessment of surface waters, a similar approach is hardly being taken into account by policy makers for ground waters. Aquifers are key environments due to the ecosystem capability to ameliorate water quality, e.g. through the natural biodegradation of chemical contaminants. The objective of this research was to characterize a porous water table aquifer from a geochemical and microbiological point of view, aiming to link the hydrogeochemical properties to distribution patterns of the free-living microbial communities. The broader perspective is to integrate the role of microorganisms in the groundwater evolution processes, with new insights in the knowledge of the different microbial communities inhabiting different aquifer typologies. Moreover, microbiological parameters that could be used as a valuable indicator of groundwater quality are sought. A field-scale analysis was performed along the southern Sabatini Mounts aquifer (Central Italy, 50 sampling sites), in an area of about 340 square km, where Pleistocene volcanic products overlay Pleistocene gravel and silt-clay layers, the latter being much more widespread in the downgradient part of the study area. The selected aquifer is contaminated by natural origin elements such as arsenic and fluoride, as well as by human activities, both diffuse (agriculture) and localized, especially in the downgradient part of the aquifer (e.g. landfills, quarries, oil deposits). The main physicochemical parameters of ground waters were determined in situ (redox status, pH, conductivity, T, DO, alkalinity) and in laboratory by ionic chromatography and mass spectrometry (major

  11. Case studies in making assessment efficient while developing student professionalism and managing transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossiter, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    It is known that assessment drives learning and hence a good assessment design is key to effective student development. This paper gives some case studies in effective assessment strategies within engineering. The main contribution is to demonstrate how one can simultaneously meet a number of requirements with individual assessments and therefore be efficient in both the student and staff assessment load. The paper also proposes that assessments should be challenging and the benefits of expecting students to rise to this challenge and also how one can meet many independent learning objectives in a single assignment in order to manage the overall assessment load for staff and students.

  12. Alaska national hydrography dataset positional accuracy assessment study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arundel, Samantha; Yamamoto, Kristina H.; Constance, Eric; Mantey, Kim; Vinyard-Houx, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Initial visual assessments Wide range in the quality of fit between features in NHD and these new image sources. No statistical analysis has been performed to actually quantify accuracy Determining absolute accuracy is cost prohibitive (must collect independent, well defined test points) Quantitative analysis of relative positional error is feasible.

  13. A Validity Study of the Salter Environmental Type Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Daniel W.

    2002-01-01

    Correlational analyses of data from 202 students on the Work Environment Scale and Salter Environmental Type Assessment (SETA) supported concurrent validity. Factor analysis identified three factors accounting for 70% of variance: positive work settings, structure, and work pressure/task orientation. SETA appears useful as a commensurate Myers…

  14. Quantum Mechanics Concept Assessment: Development and Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadaghiani, Homeyra R.; Pollock, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    As part of an ongoing investigation of students' learning in first semester upper-division quantum mechanics, we needed a high-quality conceptual assessment instrument for comparing outcomes of different curricular approaches. The process of developing such a tool started with converting a preliminary version of a 14-item open-ended quantum…

  15. Study, Examinations, and Stress: Blood Pressure Assessments in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Brian M.

    2005-01-01

    The issue of stress associated with higher education and its impact on markers of student health is explored in three experiments looking at blood pressure levels in college students. All participants were full-time undergraduate students of psychology. In Experiment 1, academic fear of failure, assessed using psychometric testing, was found to be…

  16. Institutional Assessment of Student Information Literacy Ability: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    With increasing interest in the assessment of learning outcomes in higher education, stakeholders are demanding concrete evidence of student learning. This applies no less to information literacy outcomes, which have been adopted by many colleges and universities around the world. This article describes the experience of a university library in…

  17. Needs Assessment Among Diverse Groups: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pooler, Anne E.; Toner, James F.

    A Teacher Corps project to deliver staff development services focused on five educational settings: a correctional youth center, a high school, a junior high school, a youth group home consortium, and a college of education. It was felt that comparing the results of needs assessments conducted at each facility would enable useful analyses of…

  18. Prenatal Child Abuse Risk Assessment: A Preliminary Validation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weberling, Lara Cady; Forgays, Deborah Kirby; Crain-Thoreson, Catherine; Hyman, Ira

    2003-01-01

    Tested the validity of the Brigid Collins Risk Screener (BCRS) to assess child abuse risk in a sample of 49 expectant mothers. Found that at 3 months postpartum, high-risk mothers scored significantly lower on the quality of infants' physical, social, and emotional environments than moderate or low-risk mothers. Concluded that the BCRS appears to…

  19. Qualitative Assessment across Language Barriers: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronje, Johannes C.

    2009-01-01

    If students cannot express themselves in the language of the assessor, and if the assessor is not familiar with the cultural constraints within which students operate, it is difficult for the assessor to collect evidence of adequate performance. This article describes the assessment of three digital artefacts where the assessor strove to…

  20. A Step-by-Step Study of Formative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietsch, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a guide to the development of formative assessments for school librarians participating in professional learning communities (PLC). It describes librarians' reading of assigned books, meeting with their PLCs, and incorporation of learned strategies in their daily instruction. Central library service readers' regular visits to…