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Sample records for assessment study year

  1. Assessing Information Literacy Skills Development in First Year Students: A Multi-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Assessment data from 5 years of a pretest/posttest with first-year students was analyzed using McNemar's test. The results show that revisiting previous assessment data can identify significant changes in information literacy skill development.

  2. Prediction of outcome at 5 years from assessments at 2 years among extremely preterm children: a Norwegian national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Leversen, Katrine Tyborg; Sommerfelt, Kristian; Elgen, Irene Bircow; Eide, Geir Egil; Irgens, Lorentz M; Júlíusson, Pétur B; Markestad, Trond

    2012-03-01

    To examine the predictive value of early assessments on developmental outcome at 5 years in children born extremely preterm. This is a prospective observational study of all infants born in Norway in 1999-2000 with gestational age (GA) <28 weeks or birth weight (BW) <1000 g. At 2 years of age, paediatricians assessed mental and motor development from milestones. At 5 years, parents completed questionnaires on development and professional support before cognitive function was assessed with Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R) and motor function with the Movement Assessment Battery for children (ABC test). Twenty-six of 373 (7%) children had cerebral palsy at 2 and 29 of 306 (9%) children at 5 years. Of children without major impairments, 51% (95% CI 35-67) of those with and 22% (95% CI 16-28) without mental delay at 2 years had IQ <85 at 5 years, and 36% (95% CI 20-53 with and 16% (95% CI 11-21) without motor delay at 2 years had an ABC score >95th percentile (poor function). Approximately half of those without major impairments but IQ <85 or ABC score >95th percentile had received support or follow-up beyond routine primary care. Previous assessments had limited value in predicting cognitive and motor function at 5 years in these extremely preterm children without major impairments. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  3. Assessing Motor Skill Competency in Elementary School Students: A Three-Year Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiyun; Mason, Steve; Hypnar, Andrew; Bennett, Austin

    2016-03-01

    This study was to examine how well fourth- and fifth-grade students demonstrated motor skill competency assessed with selected PE Metrics assessment rubrics (2009). Fourth- and fifth-grade students (n = 1,346-1,926) were assessed on their performance of three manipulative skills using the PE Metrics Assessment Rubrics during the pre-intervention year, the post-intervention year 1, and the post-intervention year 3. Descriptive statistics, independent t-test, ANOVA, and follow-up comparisons were conducted for data analysis. The results indicated that the post-intervention year 2 cohort performed significantly more competent than the pre-intervention cohort and the post-intervention year 1 cohort on the three manipulative skill assessments. The post-intervention year 1 cohort significantly outperformed the pre-intervention cohort on the soccer dribbling, passing, and receiving and the striking skill assessments, but not on the throwing skill assessment. Although the boys in the three cohorts performed significantly better than the girls on all three skills, the girls showed substantial improvement on the overhand throwing and the soccer skills from baseline to the post-intervention year 1 and the post-intervention year 2. However, the girls, in particular, need to improve striking skill. The CTACH PE was conducive to improving fourth- and fifth-grade students' motor skill competency in the three manipulative skills. This study suggest that PE Metrics assessment rubrics are feasible tools for PE teachers to assess levels of students' demonstration of motor skill competency during a regular PE lesson. Key pointsCATCH PE is an empirically-evidenced quality PE curricular that is conducive to improving students' manipulative skill competency.Boys significantly outperformed than girls in all three manipulative skills.Girls need to improve motor skill competency in striking skill. PE Metrics are feasible assessment rubrics that can be easily used by trained physical

  4. Assessing Motor Skill Competency in Elementary School Students: A Three-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weiyun; Mason, Steve; Hypnar, Andrew; Bennett, Austin

    2016-01-01

    This study was to examine how well fourth- and fifth-grade students demonstrated motor skill competency assessed with selected PE Metrics assessment rubrics (2009). Fourth- and fifth-grade students (n = 1,346-1,926) were assessed on their performance of three manipulative skills using the PE Metrics Assessment Rubrics during the pre-intervention year, the post-intervention year 1, and the post-intervention year 3. Descriptive statistics, independent t-test, ANOVA, and follow-up comparisons were conducted for data analysis. The results indicated that the post-intervention year 2 cohort performed significantly more competent than the pre-intervention cohort and the post-intervention year 1 cohort on the three manipulative skill assessments. The post-intervention year 1 cohort significantly outperformed the pre-intervention cohort on the soccer dribbling, passing, and receiving and the striking skill assessments, but not on the throwing skill assessment. Although the boys in the three cohorts performed significantly better than the girls on all three skills, the girls showed substantial improvement on the overhand throwing and the soccer skills from baseline to the post-intervention year 1 and the post-intervention year 2. However, the girls, in particular, need to improve striking skill. The CTACH PE was conducive to improving fourth- and fifth-grade students’ motor skill competency in the three manipulative skills. This study suggest that PE Metrics assessment rubrics are feasible tools for PE teachers to assess levels of students’ demonstration of motor skill competency during a regular PE lesson. Key points CATCH PE is an empirically-evidenced quality PE curricular that is conducive to improving students’ manipulative skill competency. Boys significantly outperformed than girls in all three manipulative skills. Girls need to improve motor skill competency in striking skill. PE Metrics are feasible assessment rubrics that can be easily used by trained

  5. The Longitudinal Assessment Study (LAS): Eighteen Year Follow-Up. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Christopher M.

    Premised on the view that students with more years of Montessori education (MEY) would possess to a higher degree those qualities emphasized in the Montessori environment and that Montessori students would be as successful as students more traditionally educated, this report presents the final assessment for the Longitudinal Assessment Study,…

  6. Assessment of dental caries predictors in 6-year-old school children - results from 5-year retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This was a retrospective cohort study undertaken to assess the rate and pattern of dental caries development in 6-year-old school children followed-up for a period of 5 years, and to identify baseline risk factors that were associated with 5 years caries experience in Malaysian children. Methods This 5-years retrospective cohort study comprised primary school children initially aged 6 years in 2004. Caries experience of each child was recorded annually using World Health Organization criteria. The rates of dental caries were recorded in prevalence and incidence density of carious lesions from baseline to final examination. Risk assessment was done to assess relative risk for caries after 5 years in children with baseline caries status. Simple and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to identify significant independent risk factors for caries. Results The sample consisted of 1830 school children. All components of DMFT showed significant differences between baseline and final examination. Filled teeth (FT) component of the DMFT showed the greatest increases. Results revealed the initial baseline caries level in permanent dentition was a strong predictor for future caries after 5 years (RR=3.78, 95% CI=3.48-4.10, P<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed significant association between caries occurrence and residence (urban/rural) (OR=1.80, P<0.001). However, it was not significantly associated with gender and ethnicity. The incidence density of caries, affected persons (IDp) observed from baseline and after 5 years was 5.80 persons/100 person-year of observation. The rate of new caries-affected tooth (IDt) in the period from baseline and after 5-years was 0.76 teeth/100 teeth-year of observation. Conclusion The majority of 12-year-old school children (70%) were caries-free and most of the caries were concentrated in only a small proportion (30%) of them. We found that the presence of caries in permanent teeth at the age of 6 years was

  7. Assessing the long-term outcomes of minor lower limb amputations: a 5-year study.

    PubMed

    Uzzaman, Mohammed Mohsin; Jukaku, Saud; Kambal, Amir; Hussain, Syed Tahir

    2011-07-01

    Our aim was to assess the long-term outcome for minor forefoot amputations. A retrospective study of 126 patients who had such amputations between 1999 and 2004 was performed. Patients were divided into 2 groups, diabetic (group A: 79 patients) and nondiabetic (group B: 47 patients). Angiograms were requested in 45 patients in group A compared with 31 patients in group B (P = ·77). In group A, 11 patients underwent further ipsilateral amputations compared with 30 patients in group B (P = ·02.). The 2 groups were equally likely to have vascular reconstruction (35% vs 37%). The overall 5-year mortality was 27%, with 58% of deaths occurring within the first year. This study shows that foot amputees have high mortality and reintervention rates. Adequate utilization of vascular services, extra vigilance in the prevention of complications, and risk factor modifications are required to improve postoperative outcomes.

  8. Minnesota School Readiness Year Two Study: Developmental Assessment at Kindergarten Entrance, Fall 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    A large and growing body of research supports the critical relationship between early childhood experiences and successful life-long outcomes. Assessing the readiness of children as they enter school is a high priority. This report describes findings from Year Two of the assessment of school readiness with a larger random sample of children…

  9. [The Octabaix study. Baseline assessment and 5 years of follow-up].

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Assumpta; Formiga, Francesc; Padrós, Gloria; Badia, Teresa; Almeda, Jesús; Octabaix, Grupo Estudio

    This is a review of a prospective, community-based study with a follow-up period of 5years. It is a study of 328 participants aged 85 at baseline, of which 62% were female, 53% widows, and a third of them living alone. High blood pressure was observed in 75.9%, dyslipidaemia in 51.2%, and diabetes in 17.7%. At baseline the median Barthel Index was 95, the Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination was 28, the Charlson index 1, the Mini Nutritional Assessment 25, the Gijón test 10, the visual analogue scale of the Quality of Life Test was 60, and with a mean of 6.1 prescription drugs. A lower quality of life was also associated with female gender, a phenotype of frailty, heart failure, and a high level of social risk. At 5years of follow-up, the mortality rate was high, with 138 (42.1%) of the population sample dying at the end of the period. It represents an annual mortality rate of 8.4%. Thus, a common denominator of this review has been the high importance of functionality and overall comorbidity factors associated with mortality in this very old age group, compared to other more traditional factors in younger populations. Several studies of frailty have also been assessed in this group, as well as falls, nutritional risk, diabetes and successful aging, including important aspects to better understand this population group. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing Acculturation Over Time: A Four-year Prospective Study of Asian American Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Kate E.; Klonoff, Elizabeth A.; Garcini, Luz M.; Ullman, Jodie B.; Wall, Tamara L.; Myers, Mark G.

    2014-01-01

    Acculturation is commonly defined as a dynamic and multidimensional process in which individuals and groups change over time when coming into contact with another culture. Despite the emphasis on acculturation as a process of change over time, few researchers have directly assessed this hypothesis. The current study first identifies and then examines “stable” and “dynamic” dimensions of acculturation within a 4-year prospective study of 433 first- and second-generation Chinese- and Korean-American college students. Separate growth model analyses revealed significant linear change for first-generation students toward greater U.S. acculturation. In comparison, tests of linear and quadratic change for second-generation students were not significant. When stratifying by gender, acculturation increased for women but there was no significant change in acculturation for men. While all students reported increases in alcohol consumption over the study period, changes in acculturation predicted changes in alcohol consumption only for women. Chinese men showed greater increases in alcohol consumption than Korean men but there was no effect for ethnicity among women. There was significant individual variability in the models, which underscores the importance of examining change prospectively through within and between person analyses. The findings highlight the importance of examining acculturation changes over time for different migrant groups with implications for further development of acculturation measures, research methodologies, and health interventions. More prospective research designs of acculturation are needed to examine changes in health behavior and overall adaptation across migrant groups at varying stages of development. PMID:25558310

  11. Faculty Engagement with Learning Outcomes Assessment: A Study of Public Two-Year Colleges in Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    The problem addressed in this study was the assumption that faculty at the postsecondary level in the U. S. are not sufficiently or effectively engaged with student learning outcomes assessment (LOA) activities and/or practices. This issue emerged in two primary ways within the Scholarship of Assessment (SoA) body of literature: (1) as a…

  12. Nature, nurture and academic achievement: a twin study of teacher assessments of 7-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Walker, Sheila O; Petrill, Stephen A; Spinath, Frank M; Plomin, Robert

    2004-09-01

    Twin research has consistently shown substantial genetic influence on individual differences in cognitive ability; however, much less is known about the genetic and environmental aetiologies of school achievement. Our goal is to test the hypotheses that teacher-assessed achievement in the early school years shows substantial genetic influence but only modest shared environmental influence when children are assessed by the same teachers and by different teachers. 1,189 monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs born in 1994 in England and Wales. Teachers evaluated academic achievement for 7-year-olds in Mathematics and English. Results were based on the twin method, which compares the similarity between identical and fraternal twins. Suggested substantial genetic influence in that identical twins were almost twice as similar as fraternal twins when compared on teacher assessments for Mathematics, English and a total score. The results confirm prior research suggesting that teacher assessments of academic achievement are substantially influenced by genetics. This finding holds even when twins are assessed independently by different teachers.

  13. Assessing Honor Code Effectiveness: Results of a Multipronged Approach from a Five Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sledge, Sally; Pringle, Pam

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing study at a small public university to assess student, faculty and alumni perceptions of academic integrity and business ethics. The phases of the research are detailed for application or replication by other institutions of higher education. The study involves anonymous surveys and academic integrity-based…

  14. Assessment of Peer-Led Team Learning in Calculus I: A Five-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merkel, John Conrad; Brania, Abdelkrim

    2015-01-01

    This five-year study of the peer-led team learning (PLTL) paradigm examined its implementation in a Calculus I course at an all-male HBCU institution. For this study we set up a strong control group and measured the effect of PLTL in the teaching and learning of Calculus I through two points of measure: retention and success rates and learning…

  15. Foreign Language: Year One (9-12). Performance-Based Assessment. Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenner, Peggy J.

    2004-01-01

    In response to a need for curricular support, the Idaho State Department of Education gathered teams of exemplary educators from throughout the state to write courses of study related to all subject areas within Idaho's Achievement Standards. A need arose to assess areas not tested statewide in a performance-based manner. Teachers involved in…

  16. Communication Skills in Standardized-Patient Assessment of Final-Year Medical Students: A Psychometric Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiton, Gretchen; Hodgson, Carol S.; Delandshere, Ginett; Wilkerson, Luann

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the content-specificity of communication skills. It investigates the reliability and dimensionality of standardized patient (SP) ratings of communication skills in an Objective Structured Clinical Examination(OSCE) for final year medical students. An OSCE consisting of seven standardized patient(SP)…

  17. A retrospective analysis of the added value of 1-year dog studies in pesticide human health risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Linke, Brenda; Mohr, Sara; Ramsingh, Deborah; Bhuller, Yadvinder

    2017-08-01

    The 1-year dog toxicity study is no longer required by certain pesticide regulatory jurisdictions, including the United States and the European Union. Health Canada's Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) examined its current requirement for this study to determine if it could be refined or eliminated. A retrospective analysis was conducted to examine the impact of the 1-year dog study on human health risk assessment. The Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI), a measure of the amount of a pesticide in food that can be ingested on a daily basis over a lifetime without an appreciable health risk, was the metric for this analysis. For 143 pesticides evaluated by the PMRA between 2008 and 2015, the supporting toxicology databases were examined to determine if other toxicology studies were protective of the findings in the 1-year dog study. When this criterion was not met, further investigation was undertaken to determine the potential impact of not having the 1-year dog study. For most of the pesticides, effect levels in the 1-year dog study were not substantially different from those in other toxicology studies, when considering factors such as dose-spacing and known experimental variability. The results of this analysis suggest that absence of the 1-year dog study would have minimal impact on the assessment of human health risk. Therefore, Health Canada's PMRA has removed the routine requirement for the 1-year dog study from its pesticide data requirements.

  18. Consumer Needs Assessment: A Qualitative Study of the Needs of People with Disabilities. Consumer Needs Assessment Project Year 1: Results of the First Year of a Five Year Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Lynn

    This paper describes the first year of a 5-year study which, when completed, will identify the needs and concerns of disabled consumers from virtually all categories of functional limitations and all walks of life. The participants will include men and women between the ages of 18 and 65 from a variety of socioeconomic and geographical…

  19. MiSight Assessment Study Spain (MASS). A 2-year randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Pomeda, Alicia; Pérez-Sánchez, Belén; Valls, Isabel; Prieto-Garrido, Francisco Luis; Gutiérrez-Ortega, Ramón; Villa-Collar, César

    2018-05-01

    To compare myopia progression in children randomized to MiSight contact lenses (CLs) versus children corrected with single-vision spectacles (SV) over a 2-year period. Subjects aged 8 to 12 with myopia (-0.75 to -4.00 D sphere) and astigmatism (< -1.00 D cylinder) were assigned to the lens study group (MiSight) or the control group (single vision). Measurements of visual acuity and subjective refraction were taken at 6-month intervals, and axial length, anterior chamber, corneal power, and cycloplegic autorefraction were measured at the baseline, 12-month, and 24-month visits. Eighty-nine subjects were recruited. Forty-fix children were assigned to the MiSight group, and 33 to the single-vision spectacle group. In total, 74 children completed the clinical trial, with the following parameters at the beginning of the study: n =  41 in the MiSight group (age: 11.01 ± 1.23 years, spherical equivalent: -2.16 ± 0.94 D, gender: male: 21, female: 20) and n = 33 in the single-vision group (age: 10.12 ± 1.38 years, spherical equivalent: -1.75 ± 0.94 D, gender: male: 12, female: 21). After 2 years of follow-up, myopia progressed slowly in the MiSight group compared to the control group (0.45 D vs 0.74 D, p < 0.001) and there was less axial elongation in the MiSight group compared to the single-vision group (0.28 mm vs 0.44 mm, p < 0.001). Therefore, use of MiSight CLs produced lower myopia progression (39.32%) and lower axial growth of the eye (36.04%) at 2 years compared to spectacle use. MiSight contact lens wear reduces axial elongation and myopia progression in comparison to distance single-vision spectacles in children. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01917110.

  20. A Mixed-Methods Study Assessing Special Education Preservice Candidates' Preparedness for Their First Year of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Beverly A.; Richards, Stephen B.; Frank, Catherine Lawless

    2011-01-01

    This study employed a Likert-type survey, "Praxis/Pathwise" written observations, as well as guided and open-ended reflections to assess the perceptions of preparedness for the first year of teaching for special education student teaching candidates. Cooperating teachers completed the survey and "Praxis/Pathwise" observations.…

  1. Outcomes assessment of the regional health information exchange: a five-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Mäenpää, T; Asikainen, P; Gissler, M; Siponen, K; Maass, M; Saranto, K; Suominen, T

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of a technology such as health information exchange (HIE) through a Regional Health Information System (RHIS) may improve the mobilization of health care information electronically across organizations. There is a need to coordinate care and bring together regional and local stakeholders. To describe how HIE had influenced health care delivery in one hospital district area in Finland. Trend analysis was used to evaluate the influence of a regional HIE. We conducted a retrospective, longitudinal study for the period 2004-2008 for the eleven federations of municipalities in the study area. We reviewed statistical health data from the time of implementation of an RHIS. The t-test was used to determine statistical significance. The selected outcomes were the data obtained from the regional database on total appointments, emergency department visits, laboratory tests and radiology examinations, and selected laboratory tests and radiology examinations carried out in both primary care and special health care. Access to HIE may have influenced health care delivery in the study area. There are indications that there is a connection between access to regional HIE and the number of laboratory tests and radiology examinations performed in both primary care and specialized health care, as observed in the decreased frequency in outcomes such as radiology examinations, number of appointments, and emergency department visits in the study environment. The decreased frequencies of the latter suggest an increased efficiency of outpatient care, but we were not able to estimate to what extent the readily available comprehensive clinical information contributed to these trends. Outcome assessment of HIE through an RHIS is essential for the success of health information technology (HIT) and as evidence to use in the decision-making process. As health care information becomes more digital, it increases the potential for a strong HIE effect on health care delivery.

  2. [Epidemiology of familial prostatic cancer: 4-year assessment of French studies].

    PubMed

    Valeri, A; Drelon, E; Azzouzi, R; Delannoy, A; Teillac, P; Fournier, G; Mangin, P; Berthon, P; Cussenot, O

    1999-09-01

    (1) To determine the frequency of familial (at least 2 cases) and hereditary forms of prostate cancer (CaP), (2) to define the results according to the patient's age at diagnosis, as various epidemiological studies have demonstrated a possible familial aggregation of CaP in about 15 to 25% of cases. Carter's familial segregation study (P.N.A.S. 1992, 89, 3367-71) showed that a genetic predisposition, with autosomal dominant transmission, could be responsible for 9% of all cases of prostate cancer. We conducted a systematic genealogy study of patients suffering from newly diagnosed CaP or followed for known CaP in 3 French urological centres, by means of questionnaires completed by the patients. Subsequently, a national collection of families with at least 2 cases of CaP identified families with hereditary forms of CaP. Hereditary cases were considered to be those presenting at least: one CaP in three 1st degree relatives, or 3 cases over 3 generations in the same branch of the family (paternal or maternal), or finally 2 early cases before the age of 55 years. Statistical analysis used the univariate logistic regression test between family status and the medical centre or the patient's age at diagnosis. From July 1994 onwards, we included 801 patients (all stages combined) in the systematic study and 110 patients (13.7%) were excluded (refusal to participate, advanced age). For 691 of the families studied (Brest: 225, Nancy: 249, Paris St Louis: 217), we observed 32 (14.2%), 29 (11.6%), 37 (17.1%) of familial forms (mean: 14.2%) and 11 (4.9%), 6 (2.4%), 8 (3.7%) of hereditary forms (mean: 3.6%), respectively (no significant differences between centres). Analysis of the results according to age at diagnosis of CaP also showed a higher incidence of familial (significant difference) and hereditary forms (limit of significance) for CaP occurring at a younger age (before 65 years). The national collection collected a total of 624 familial forms of CaP, including 236 (37

  3. A 2-year study of patient safety competency assessment in 29 clinical laboratories.

    PubMed

    Reed, Robyn C; Kim, Sara; Farquharson, Kara; Astion, Michael L

    2008-06-01

    Competency assessment is critical for laboratory operations and is mandated by the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988. However, no previous reports describe methods for assessing competency in patient safety. We developed and implemented a Web-based tool to assess performance of 875 laboratory staff from 29 laboratories in patient safety. Question categories included workplace culture, categorizing error, prioritization of patient safety interventions, strength of specific interventions, and general patient safety concepts. The mean score was 85.0%, with individual scores ranging from 56% to 100% and scores by category from 81.3% to 88.6%. Of the most difficult questions (<72% correct), 6 were about intervention strength, 3 about categorizing error, 1 about workplace culture, and 1 about prioritization of interventions. Of the 13 questions about intervention strength, 6 (46%) were in the lowest quartile, suggesting that this may be a difficult topic for laboratory technologists. Computer-based competency assessments help laboratories identify topics for continuing education in patient safety.

  4. Fiscal Year 2012 Revegetation Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Jenifer Nordstrom

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2012 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: • Summary of each site • Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location • Actions and Resolutions for each site. Ten disturbed sites were evaluated for this assessment. Six have achievedmore » final stabilization. The remaining four sites not meeting the criteria for final stabilization will be evaluated again in the next fiscal year.« less

  5. A 2-year study of Gram stain competency assessment in 40 clinical laboratories.

    PubMed

    Goodyear, Nancy; Kim, Sara; Reeves, Mary; Astion, Michael L

    2006-01-01

    We used a computer-based competency assessment tool for Gram stain interpretation to assess the performance of 278 laboratory staff from 40 laboratories on 40 multiple-choice questions. We report test reliability, mean scores, median, item difficulty, discrimination, and analysis of the highest- and lowest-scoring questions. The questions were reliable (KR-20 coefficient, 0.80). Overall mean score was 88% (range, 63%-98%). When categorized by cell type, the means were host cells, 93%; other cells (eg, yeast), 92%; gram-positive, 90%; and gram-negative, 88%. When categorized by type of interpretation, the means were other (eg, underdecolorization), 92%; identify by structure (eg, bacterial morphologic features), 91%; and identify by name (eg, genus and species), 87%. Of the 6 highest-scoring questions (mean scores, > or = 99%) 5 were identify by structure and 1 was identify by name. Of the 6 lowest-scoring questions (mean scores, < 75%) 5 were gram-negative and 1 was host cells. By type of interpretation, 2 were identify by structure and 4 were identify by name. Computer-based Gram stain competency assessment examinations are reliable. Our analysis helps laboratories identify areas for continuing education in Gram stain interpretation and will direct future revisions of the tests.

  6. Fiscal Year 2009 Revegetation Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Lewis

    2009-10-01

    This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2009 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: • Summary of each site • Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location • Recommendation(s) for each site.

  7. Fiscal Year 2010 Revegetation Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Jenifer Nordstrom; Mike Lewis

    2010-11-01

    This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2010 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: • Summary of each site • Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location • Recommendation(s) for each site.

  8. Ethnic Heritage Studies Program: Assessment of the First Year, July 1, 1974-June 30, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    The report explains how the federal Ethnic Heritage Studies Program was created, gives an overview of the 1974 program, and makes recommendations for future development of the program. Summaries of the 1974 projects, bibliographies of replicable materials produced by the projects, and ethnic and regional indexes are included. The overview…

  9. PARS risk charts: A 10-year study of risk assessment for cardiovascular diseases in Eastern Mediterranean Region

    PubMed Central

    Talaei, Mohammad; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Roohafza, Hamid Reza; Masoudkabir, Farzad; OveisGharan, Shahram; Mohebian, Mohammad Reza; Mañanas, Miquel Angel

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to develop a risk assessment chart for the clinical management and prevention of the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Iranian population, which is vital for developing national prevention programs. The Isfahan Cohort Study (ICS) is a population-based prospective study of 6504 Iranian adults ≥35 years old, followed-up for ten years, from 2001 to 2010. Behavioral and cardiometabolic risk factors were examined every five years, while biennial follow-ups for the occurrence of the events was performed by phone calls or by verbal autopsy. Among these participants, 5432 (2784 women, 51.3%) were CVD free at baseline examination and had at least one follow-up. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to predict the risk of ischemic CVD events, including sudden cardiac death due to unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and stroke. The model fit statistics such as area under the receiver-operating characteristic (AUROC), calibration chi-square and the overall bias were used to assess the model performance. We also tested the Framingham model for comparison. Seven hundred and five CVD events occurred during 49452.8 person-years of follow-up. The event probabilities were calculated and presented color-coded on each gender-specific PARS chart. The AUROC and Harrell’s C indices were 0.74 (95% CI, 0.72–0.76) and 0.73, respectively. In the calibration, the Nam-D’Agostino χ2 was 10.82 (p = 0.29). The overall bias of the proposed model was 95.60%. PARS model was also internally validated using cross-validation. The Android app and the Web-based risk assessment tool were also developed as to have an impact on public health. In comparison, the refitted and recalibrated Framingham models, estimated the CVD incidence with the overall bias of 149.60% and 128.23% for men, and 222.70% and 176.07% for women, respectively. In conclusion, the PARS risk assessment chart is a simple, accurate, and well-calibrated tool for predicting a 10-year risk of

  10. Seven-Year Weight Trajectories and Health Outcomes in the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS) Study.

    PubMed

    Courcoulas, Anita P; King, Wendy C; Belle, Steven H; Berk, Paul; Flum, David R; Garcia, Luis; Gourash, William; Horlick, Mary; Mitchell, James E; Pomp, Alfons; Pories, Walter J; Purnell, Jonathan Q; Singh, Ashima; Spaniolas, Konstantinos; Thirlby, Richard; Wolfe, Bruce M; Yanovski, Susan Z

    2017-12-06

    More information is needed about the durability of weight loss and health improvements after bariatric surgical procedures. To examine long-term weight change and health status following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). The Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS) study is a multicenter observational cohort study at 10 US hospitals in 6 geographically diverse clinical centers. Adults undergoing bariatric surgical procedures as part of clinical care between 2006 and 2009 were recruited and followed up until January 31, 2015. Participants completed presurgery, 6-month, and annual research assessments for up to 7 years. Percentage of weight change from baseline, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, determined by physical measures, laboratory testing, and medication use. Of 2348 participants, 1738 underwent RYGB (74%) and 610 underwent LAGB (26%). For RYBG, the median age was 45 years (range, 19-75 years), the median body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) was 47 (range, 34-81), 1389 participants (80%) were women, and 257 participants (15%) were nonwhite. For LAGB, the median age was 48 years (range, 18-78), the body mass index was 44 (range, 33-87), 465 participants (76%) were women, and 63 participants (10%) were nonwhite. Follow-up weights were obtained in 1300 of 1569 (83%) eligible for a year-7 visit. Seven years following RYGB, mean weight loss was 38.2 kg (95% CI, 36.9-39.5), or 28.4% (95% CI, 27.6-29.2) of baseline weight; between years 3 and 7 mean weight regain was 3.9% (95% CI, 3.4-4.4) of baseline weight. Seven years after LAGB, mean weight loss was 18.8 kg (95% CI, 16.3-21.3) or 14.9% (95% CI, 13.1-16.7), with 1.4% (95% CI, 0.4-2.4) regain. Six distinct weight change trajectory patterns for RYGB and 7 for LAGB were identified. Most participants followed trajectories in which weight regain from 3 to 7 years was small relative to year-3 weight

  11. Emotional support predicts more sickness absence and poorer self assessed work ability: a two-year prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Nadine; Skargren, Elisabeth; Kristenson, Margareta

    2010-10-26

    While back pain and stressful work environment are shown to be important causes of sickness absence the effect of psychosocial resources on sickness absence, and on self assessed work ability, is less commonly investigated. The aim of this study was to assess these associations in a two-year follow-up study. 341 working people aged 45 to 64, randomly drawn from the population, responded to a questionnaire at baseline and at a two-year follow-up. Poisson regression was used to analyse the association of psychosocial factors (psychosocial instruments on work environment, emotional support and psychological resources) and previous back pain (low back and/or neck) at baseline with sickness absence (spells and days) at follow-up, controlling for effects of age, sex, BMI, smoking, alcohol, occupation, disease and previous sickness absence. Logistic regression was used to study the associations of psychosocial factors and previous back pain at baseline with self assessed prognosis of poor work ability six months from follow-up. Finally, a multivariate analysis tested the independent effects of previous back pain and 3 psychosocial factors derived in a factor analysis: 1. work environment; 2. emotional support; 3. psychological resources, on work ability and absence days and spells. 80% of the sickness absence spells within the last 12 months before follow-up were short-term (≤ 14 days). In the final model, high emotional support predicted more sickness absence spells (RR 1.36; 1.11-1.67) and days (RR 1.68, 1.22-2.31). Previous back pain (OR 2.56; 1.13-5.81), high emotional support (OR 1.58; 1.02-2.46), and low psychological resources (OR 0.62; 0.44-0.89) were related to poorer self assessed prognosis of work ability at follow up. In a general middle aged working population high emotional support was related to more sickness absence and also poorer self assessed prognosis of work ability. Our findings suggest that both sickness absence and self assessed work ability are

  12. Developmental neuropsychological assessment of 4- to 5-year-old children born following Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD): A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Gilat Chaya; Altarescu, Gheona; Guedalia, Judith; Varshaver, Irit; Gilboa, Tal; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Eldar-Geva, Talia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate developmental neuropsychological profiles of 4- to 5-year-old children born after Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD). Twenty-seven participants received a neurological examination and a battery of neuropsychological assessments including Wechsler Preschool & Primary Scale of Intelligence - Third Edition (WPPSI-III; cognitive development), Preschool Language Scale, Fourth Edition (PLS-4; language development), Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (visual motor abilities), Childhood Autism Rating Scales II (a screening test for autistic spectrum disorders), and the Miles ABC Test (ocular dominance). Parental questionnaires included the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Preschool Version (BRIEF-P; executive function), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Carey Temperament Scales Behavioral Style Questionnaire (socioemotional development and temperament), and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Interview Edition, Second Edition (general adaptive behavior). Subjects' tests results were compared to each test's norms. Children born after PGD demonstrated scores within the normal or above-normal ranges for all developmental outcomes (mean ± SD): WPPSI-III-VIQ 107.4 ± 14.4 (p = .013), PLS-4-Total 113.2 ± 12.4, p < .001), CBCL-Total 41.1 ± 8.6 (p < .001), BRIEF-P-Global Executive Composite 44.8 ± 9.5 (p = .009). Twelve (44%) of the PGD children had a significant difference between their VIQ and PIQ scores (compared to 27% in the general population). One subject was found to show possible signs of autistic spectrum disorder, although a family history of autism was noted. In conclusion, in this pilot study, children assessed at age 4-5 years and conceived after PGD displayed developmental neuropsychological outcomes within normal limits as compared to their chronologic peers. A larger study is needed to evaluate and follow the neuropsychological development of children born after PGD.

  13. Long-term outcome and risk assessment in premature acute myocardial infarction: A 10-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Winter, Max-Paul; Blessberger, Hermann; Alimohammadi, Arman; Pavo, Noemi; Huber, Kurt; Wojta, Johann; Lang, Irene M; Wiesbauer, Franz; Goliasch, Georg

    2017-08-01

    Premature acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a rare disease carrying significant morbidity and mortality. Existing data on outcome in these patients is based on retrospective analysis of angiographic reports or refer to time periods with incomparable treatment regimes, making them unusable for risk assessment in times of widespread use of reperfusion therapy. Aim of this study was to assess the outcome of premature AMI in a prospectively recruited study population enrolled in the times of modern reperfusion therapy. We included 102 consecutive AMI survivors (≤40years) in this prospective multicentre study. Outcome was assessed via retrieval query of the Austrian Death Registry and the centralized patient management system of Vienna. During a median follow up time of 10.3years (IQR:8.9-11.1), 23% of all patients experienced MACE, of those 6% died, 17% experienced re-AMI and 5% patients an ischemic stroke. Furthermore, forty patients underwent cardiac re-catheterization and twenty-five needed recurrent revascularization. MACE were associated among the classic cardiovascular risk factors with elevated levels of HbA1c (adj. HR 1.32; 95%CI 1.06-1.64; P=0.012), total cholesterol (adj. HR 2.16; 95%CI 1.27-3.48; P=0.004), and c-reactive protein (adj. HR 1.67; 95%CI 1.29-2.17; P=0-003) for an increase of 1-standard deviation. Although myocardial re-infarction was the driving force of morbidity in premature myocardial infarction, we observed an excellent long-term survival opposed to previous reports. We found that persistence risk factors rather than the clinical risk profile at baseline influences the outcome in these patients, emphasizing the importance of secondary prevention in young patients after AMI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fiscal Year 2016 Revegetation Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Nordstrom, Jenifer B.

    This report summarizes the Fiscal Year (FY) 2016 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to document revegetation efforts at Idaho National Laboratory to verify restoration of disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations occurs as required. This report provides the following information for projects at Idaho National Laboratory completed during FY 2016 that were identified during the National Environmental Policy Act review process as having the potential to disturb soils or vegetation: 1) A summary of all projects identified as having the potential to require revegetation efforts 2) A summary of site disturbance and restorationmore » efforts of each project. For FY 2016, one project required revegetation and sagebrush restoration. For other projects, implementation of best management practices minimized impacts to vegetation and revegetation efforts were not required.« less

  15. The Auckland Cataract Study: 2 year postoperative assessment of aspects of clinical, visual, corneal topographic and satisfaction outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, A M; Sachdev, N; Wong, T; Riley, A F; Grupcheva, C N; McGhee, C N

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To assess clinical, visual, computerised corneal topographic, and subjective satisfaction with visual acuity, in a cohort of subjects 2 years after phacoemulsification surgery in a public hospital in New Zealand. Methods: Prospective study of a representative sample of 97 subjects (20%) randomly selected from 480 subjects in the original Auckland Cataract Study (ACS) cohort. The clinical assessment protocol was identical to the ACS and included an extensive questionnaire to enable direct comparisons to be made between the two groups. Results: The study population was predominantly female (66%) with a mean age of 76.3 (SD 9.9) years. New systemic and ocular disease affected 18.4% and 10.3% of subjects respectively, and 10.3% required referral to either a general practitioner (2.1%) or ophthalmologist (8.2%). Mean best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) was 0.2 (0.2) logMAR units (6/9 Snellen equivalent), with mean spherical equivalent −0.37 (1.01) dioptres (D) and astigmatism −1.07 (0.70) D 2 years postoperatively, compared to mean BSCVA 0.1 (0.2) logMAR units (6/7.5 Snellen equivalent), spherical equivalent −0.59 (1.07) D, and astigmatism −1.14 (0.77) D 4 weeks after surgery. 94.9% of subjects retained a BSCVA of 6/12 or better, irrespective of pre-existing ocular disease. The overall posterior capsule opacification (PCO) rate was 20.4% and this was visually insignificant in all but 3.1% of eyes that had already undergone Nd:YAG posterior capsulotomy. Orbscan II elevation technology demonstrated corneal stability 2 years after uncomplicated phacoemulsification. Although corneal astigmatism was eliminated in approximately half of the subjects 1 month postoperatively, astigmatism showed a tendency to regress towards the preoperative level with local corneal thickening at the site of incision 2 years after cataract surgery. Of fellow eyes, 61.2% had undergone cataract surgery. Overall, 75.3% of subjects were moderately to very satisfied with their

  16. Neuropsychological assessment and perinatal risk: A study amongst very premature born 4- and 5-year old children.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Joya, Mª Del Mar; Sanchez-Labraca, Nuria; Roldan-Tapia, Mª Dolores; Moral Rodríguez, Teresa; Ramos Lizana, Julio; Roman, Pablo

    2017-10-01

    Prematurity and its consequences are serious problems that can result in numerous neurosensory disabilities and cerebral cognitive dysfunctions. The Perinatal Risk Index (PERI) might provide a predictive measure of these problems. This study compared the cognitive development of prematurely born children at 4 and 5 years of age with age-matched peers born at term. The secondary objective was to determine whether a correlation exists between perinatal risk and performance on neuropsychological tests among premature children. A total of 54 children between four and five years of age were evaluated; 27 were born very premature (premature group; PG), and 27 were born at term (term group; TG). Executive function, attention, memory, language, visual perception, and spatial structuring were evaluated. Subtests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, the Rey Complex Figure Test, the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Test A, Trails A and B, the spatial structuring questionnaire from the Child Neuropsychological Maturity Questionnaire, and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children were used. A PERI score was also obtained for the PG. The PG showed significantly lower scores than the TG in all the studied cognitive domains. Visual-perceptive scores were significantly and negatively correlated with the PERI scores of the PG. The PG showed neurocognitive deficits compared with the TG. The PERI can be used to predict the development of visual-perceptive abilities in children between four and five years of age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Criterion validity of a competency-based assessment center in medical education--a 4-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Rotthoff, Thomas; Ostapczuk, Martin S; Kröncke, Klaus D; Zimmerhofer, Alexander; Decking, Ulrich; Schneider, Matthias; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Core competencies have progressively gained importance in medical education. In other contexts, especially personnel selection and development, assessment centers (ACs) are used to assess competencies, but there is only a limited number of studies on competency-based ACs in medical education. To the best of our knowledge, the present study provides the first data on the criterion-related validity of a competency-based AC in medical education. We developed an AC tailored to measure core competencies relevant to medical education (social-ethical, communicative, self, and teaching) and tested its validity in n=30 first-year medical students using 3- to 4-year follow-up measures such as (a) objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE) on basic clinical skills (n=26), (b) OSCE on communication skills (n=21), and (c) peer feedback (n=18). The AC contained three elements: interview, group discussion, and role play. Additionally, a self-report questionnaire was provided as a basis for the interview. Baseline AC average score and teaching competency correlated moderately with the communication OSCE average score (r=0.41, p=0.03, and r=0.38, p=0.04, respectively). Social-ethical competency in the AC showed a very strong convergent association with the communication OSCE average score (r=0.60, p<0.01). The AC total score also showed a moderate correlation with the overall peer feedback score provided in Year 4 (r=0.38, p=0.06). In addition, communicative competency correlated strongly with the overall peer feedback (r=0.50, p=0.02). We found predominantly low and insignificant correlations between the AC and the OSCE on basic clinical skills (r=-0.33 to 0.30, all p's>0.05). The results showed that competency-based ACs can be used at a very early stage of medical training to successfully predict future performance in core competencies.

  18. Criterion validity of a competency-based assessment center in medical education - a 4-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Rotthoff, Thomas; Ostapczuk, Martin S; Kröncke, Klaus D; Zimmerhofer, Alexander; Decking, Ulrich; Schneider, Matthias; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Core competencies have progressively gained importance in medical education. In other contexts, especially personnel selection and development, assessment centers (ACs) are used to assess competencies, but there is only a limited number of studies on competency-based ACs in medical education. To the best of our knowledge, the present study provides the first data on the criterion-related validity of a competency-based AC in medical education. Methods We developed an AC tailored to measure core competencies relevant to medical education (social-ethical, communicative, self, and teaching) and tested its validity in n=30 first-year medical students using 3- to 4-year follow-up measures such as (a) objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE) on basic clinical skills (n=26), (b) OSCE on communication skills (n=21), and (c) peer feedback (n=18). The AC contained three elements: interview, group discussion, and role play. Additionally, a self-report questionnaire was provided as a basis for the interview. Results Baseline AC average score and teaching competency correlated moderately with the communication OSCE average score (r=0.41, p=0.03, and r=0.38, p=0.04, respectively). Social-ethical competency in the AC showed a very strong convergent association with the communication OSCE average score (r=0.60, p<0.01). The AC total score also showed a moderate correlation with the overall peer feedback score provided in Year 4 (r=0.38, p=0.06). In addition, communicative competency correlated strongly with the overall peer feedback (r=0.50, p=0.02). We found predominantly low and insignificant correlations between the AC and the OSCE on basic clinical skills (r=-0.33 to 0.30, all p's>0.05). Conclusion The results showed that competency-based ACs can be used at a very early stage of medical training to successfully predict future performance in core competencies.

  19. Animal Welfare in Studies on Murine Tuberculosis: Assessing Progress over a 12-Year Period and the Need for Further Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Nuno Henrique; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Olsson, I. Anna S.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing concern over the welfare of animals used in research, in particular when these animals develop pathology. The present study aims to identify the main sources of animal distress and to assess the possible implementation of refinement measures in experimental infection research, using mouse models of tuberculosis (TB) as a case study. This choice is based on the historical relevance of mouse studies in understanding the disease and the present and long-standing impact of TB on a global scale. Literature published between 1997 and 2009 was analysed, focusing on the welfare impact on the animals used and the implementation of refinement measures to reduce this impact. In this 12-year period, we observed a rise in reports of ethical approval of experiments. The proportion of studies classified into the most severe category did however not change significantly over the studied period. Information on important research parameters, such as method for euthanasia or sex of the animals, were absent in a substantial number of papers. Overall, this study shows that progress has been made in the application of humane endpoints in TB research, but that a considerable potential for improvement remains. PMID:23110093

  20. The Next Generation of Risk Assessment Multi-Year Study-Highlights of Findings, Applications to Risk Assessment, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Cote, Ila; Andersen, Melvin E; Ankley, Gerald T; Barone, Stanley; Birnbaum, Linda S; Boekelheide, Kim; Bois, Frederic Y; Burgoon, Lyle D; Chiu, Weihsueh A; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Crofton, Kevin M; DeVito, Michael; Devlin, Robert B; Edwards, Stephen W; Guyton, Kathryn Z; Hattis, Dale; Judson, Richard S; Knight, Derek; Krewski, Daniel; Lambert, Jason; Maull, Elizabeth Anne; Mendrick, Donna; Paoli, Gregory M; Patel, Chirag Jagdish; Perkins, Edward J; Poje, Gerald; Portier, Christopher J; Rusyn, Ivan; Schulte, Paul A; Simeonov, Anton; Smith, Martyn T; Thayer, Kristina A; Thomas, Russell S; Thomas, Reuben; Tice, Raymond R; Vandenberg, John J; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Wesselkamper, Scott; Whelan, Maurice; Whittaker, Christine; White, Ronald; Xia, Menghang; Yauk, Carole; Zeise, Lauren; Zhao, Jay; DeWoskin, Robert S

    2016-11-01

    The Next Generation (NexGen) of Risk Assessment effort is a multi-year collaboration among several organizations evaluating new, potentially more efficient molecular, computational, and systems biology approaches to risk assessment. This article summarizes our findings, suggests applications to risk assessment, and identifies strategic research directions. Our specific objectives were to test whether advanced biological data and methods could better inform our understanding of public health risks posed by environmental exposures. New data and methods were applied and evaluated for use in hazard identification and dose-response assessment. Biomarkers of exposure and effect, and risk characterization were also examined. Consideration was given to various decision contexts with increasing regulatory and public health impacts. Data types included transcriptomics, genomics, and proteomics. Methods included molecular epidemiology and clinical studies, bioinformatic knowledge mining, pathway and network analyses, short-duration in vivo and in vitro bioassays, and quantitative structure activity relationship modeling. NexGen has advanced our ability to apply new science by more rapidly identifying chemicals and exposures of potential concern, helping characterize mechanisms of action that influence conclusions about causality, exposure-response relationships, susceptibility and cumulative risk, and by elucidating new biomarkers of exposure and effects. Additionally, NexGen has fostered extensive discussion among risk scientists and managers and improved confidence in interpreting and applying new data streams. While considerable uncertainties remain, thoughtful application of new knowledge to risk assessment appears reasonable for augmenting major scope assessments, forming the basis for or augmenting limited scope assessments, and for prioritization and screening of very data limited chemicals. Citation: Cote I, Andersen ME, Ankley GT, Barone S, Birnbaum LS, Boekelheide K

  1. Enhancing Teachers' Technological Knowledge and Assessment Practices to Enhance Student Learning in Technology: A Two-year Classroom Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreland, Judy; Jones, Alister; Northover, Ann

    2001-02-01

    This paper reports on a two-year classroom investigation of primary school (Years 1-8) technology education. The first year of the project explored emerging classroom practices in technology. In the second year intervention strategies were developed to enhance teaching, learning and assessment practices. Findings from the first year revealed that assessment was often seen in terms of social and managerial aspects, such as teamwork, turn taking and co-operative skills, rather than procedural and conceptual technological aspects. Existing formative interactions with students distorted the learning away from the procedural and conceptual aspects of the subject. The second year explored the development of teachers' technological knowledge in order to enhance formative assessment practices in technology, to inform classroom practice in technology, and to enhance student learning. Intervention strategies were designed to enhance the development of procedural, conceptual, societal and technical aspects of technology for teachers and students. The results from this intervention were very positive. This paper highlights the importance of developing teacher expertise pertaining to broad concepts of technology, detailed concepts in different technological areas and general pedagogical knowledge. The findings from this research therefore have implications for thinking about teaching, learning and assessment in technology.

  2. Assessment of DNA damage in Ardea cinerea and Ciconia ciconia: A 5-year study in Portuguese birds retrieved for rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Santos, Cátia S A; Brandão, Ricardo; Monteiro, Marta S; Bastos, Ana C; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2017-02-01

    Over the past decades, the presence of micronucleated blood cells has been used to detect genotoxic effects of xenobiotics in fish, amphibians and birds. This study assessed the frequency of micronuclei (MN) and other nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes of individuals of Ardea cinerea and Ciconia ciconia retrieved for rehabilitation in order to evaluate the influence of age, temporal and spatial factors on the occurrence of DNA damage in Portuguese wild birds. Blood smears from 65 birds with different life-history backgrounds (e.g. geographic origin, age) were collected between 2007 and 2011 and the frequency of erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENAs) was analysed. Differences in DNA damage between ages were observed to occur in C. ciconia, with chicks displaying significantly higher frequencies of ENAs (both when looking at total ENAs or only MN frequency) than juveniles and adults. Additionally, significant differences in ENAs frequencies were observed between different years and geographic origins, whereas MN frequency alone did not show significant alterations concerning spatial and temporal variations. These results suggest that the assessment of ENAs rather than MN frequency alone may be a useful and valuable tool to complement the evaluation of DNA damage in populations of birds, as prompted by individual life-history traits and environmental factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Laying a Foundation for Lifelong Learning: Case Studies of E-Assessment in Large 1st-Year Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicol, David

    2007-01-01

    Concerns about noncompletion and the quality of the 1st-year student experience have been linked to recent changes in higher education such as modularisation, increased class sizes, greater diversity in the student intake and reduced resources. Improving formative assessment and feedback processes is seen as one way of addressing academic failure,…

  4. Usefulness of overnight pulse oximeter as the sleep assessment tool to assess the 6-year risk of road traffic collision: evidence from the Taiwan Bus Driver Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei-Te; Tsai, Su-Shan; Liao, Hui-Yi; Lin, Yu-Jen; Lin, Ming-Hsiu; Wu, Trong-Neng; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Liou, Saou-Hsing

    2017-02-01

    In order to support health service organizations in arranging a system for prevention of road traffic collisions (RTC), it is important to study the usefulness of sleep assessment tools. A cohort study was used to evaluate the effectiveness of subjective and objective sleep assessment tools to assess for the 6-year risk of both first RTC event only and recurrent RTC events. The Taiwan Bus Driver Cohort Study (TBDCS) recruited 1650 professional drivers from a large bus company in Taiwan in 2005. The subjects were interviewed in person, completed the sleep assessment questionnaires and had an overnight pulse oximeter survey. Moreover, this cohort of drivers was linked to the National Traffic Accident Database (NTAD) and researchers found 139 new RTC events from 2005 to 2010. Primary outcomes were traffic collisions from NTAD, nocturnal oxygen desaturation index (ODI) from pulse oximeter, Pittsburg sleeping quality score, Epworth daytime sleepiness score, Snore Outcomes Survey score and working patterns from questionnaires. A Cox proportional hazards model and an extended Cox regression model for repeated events were performed to estimate the hazard ratio for RTC. The RTC drivers had increased ODI4 levels (5.77 ± 4.72 vs 4.99 ± 6.68 events/h; P  = 0.008) and ODI3 levels (8.68 ± 6.79 vs 7.42 ± 7.94 events/h; P  = 0.007) in comparison with non-RTC drivers. These results were consistent regardless of whether ODI was evaluated as a continuous or a categorical variable. ODI4 and ODI3 levels increased the 6-year RTC risks among professional drivers even after adjusting for age, education, history of cardiovascular disease, caffeine intake, sleeping pills used, bus driving experience and shift modes. Moreover, there was an increased trend for ODI between the stratification of the number of RTCs in comparison with the non-RTC group. In the extended Cox regression models for repeated RTC events with the Anderson and Gill intensity model and Prentice

  5. A Multiple Case Study Exploring Members' Perceptions of Threat Assessment Teams' Training and Resources at Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendleton, Kristi A.

    2017-01-01

    Incorporating a qualitative approach, the purpose of this multiple case study dissertation was: 1) to explore the perceptions of threat assessment teams on campus safety; 2) to study the challenges and barriers two-year colleges experience in relation to the threat assessment team process; and 3) to describe how the teams' perceptions of risk may…

  6. Listening to the Experts: The Views of Working-Aged Consumers with Disabilities. Consumer Needs Assessment Project Year Four: Results of the Fourth Year of a Five Year Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Carolyn

    This monograph details the findings from the fourth year of a 5-year Consumer Needs Assessment Project. Sixteen focus groups consisting of 133 working-aged persons (25 to 60 years old) with disabilities were convened in 3 different parts of the United States to discuss their personal and technological needs. Consumers identified problems they face…

  7. Beginning a Higher Trajectory: Grade 11 Study. State Teachers of the Year Compare Former and New State Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Catherine; Joe, Jilliam; Bassett, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    This study continues the work that National Network of State Teachers of the Year (NNSTOY) and its partners, Clowder Consulting and Education-Counsel, began with their "Right Trajectory" study (see ED581172), released in 2015, and continued in their "Still the Right Trajectory" study (see ED581173) released in early 2017. In…

  8. Clinical nurse leaders' and academics' perspectives in clinical assessment of final-year nursing students: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xi Vivien; Enskär, Karin; Pua, Lay Hoon; Heng, Doreen Gek Noi; Wang, Wenru

    2017-09-01

    The nature of nursing practice is diverse; therefore, clinical assessment is a complex process. This study explores the perceptions of clinical nurse leaders and academics on clinical assessment for undergraduate nursing education during transition to practice. An explorative qualitative approach was applied. Eight nurse managers, six clinical nurse educators, and eight academics from two tertiary hospitals and a university in Singapore participated in four focus group discussions. Thematic analysis was conducted. Four overriding themes were revealed: the need for a valid and reliable clinical assessment tool, preceptors' competency in clinical assessment, challenges encountered by the students in clinical assessment, and the need for close academic and clinical collaboration to support preceptors and students. Closer academic-clinical partnership is recommended to review the clinical education curriculum. Clinical and educational institutions need to work closely to design a learning program to enhance preceptors' competence in clinical pedagogy and assessment. Furthermore, a stress management program could build students' resiliency in coping with unfamiliar clinical environments. Ongoing support needs to be provided for both preceptors and students to enrich the preceptorship and learning experiences. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Validity and reliability of portfolio assessment of student competence in two dental school populations: a four-year study.

    PubMed

    Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; McCracken, Michael S; Woldt, Janet L; Brennan, Robert L

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically investigate the validity and reliability of portfolio assessment in two U.S. dental schools using a unified framework for validity. In the process of validation, it is not the test that is validated but rather the claims (interpretations and uses) about test scores that are validated. Kane's argument-based validation framework provided the structure for reporting results where validity claims are followed by evidence to support the argument. This multivariate generalizability theory study found that the greatest source of variance was attributable to faculty raters, suggesting that portfolio assessment would benefit from two raters' evaluating each portfolio independently. The results are generally supportive of holistic scoring, but analytical scoring deserves further research. Correlational analyses between student portfolios and traditional measures of student competence and readiness for licensure resulted in significant correlations between portfolios and National Board Dental Examination Part I (r=0.323, p<0.01) and Part II scores (r=0.268, p<0.05) and small and non-significant correlations with grade point average and scores on the Western Regional Examining Board (WREB) exam. It is incumbent upon the users of portfolio assessment to determine if the claims and evidence arguments set forth in this study support the proposed claims for and decisions about portfolio assessment in their respective institutions.

  10. A 20-Year multi-followup longitudinal study assessing whether antipsychotic medications contribute to work functioning in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Harrow, Martin; Jobe, Thomas H; Faull, Robert N; Yang, Jie

    2017-10-01

    To assess the long-term effectiveness of antipsychotic medications in facilitating work functioning in patients with schizophrenia we conducted longitudinal multifollowup research on 139 initially psychotic patients. The 70 patients with schizophrenia and 69 initially psychotic mood disordered control patients were followed up 6 times over 20 years. We compared the influence on work functioning of patients with schizophrenia continuously prescribed antipsychotics with patients with schizophrenia not prescribed antipsychotics, using statistical controls for inter-subject differences. While antipsychotics reduce or eliminate flagrant psychosis for most patients with schizophrenia at acute hospitalizations, four years later and continually until the 20 year followups, patients with schizophrenia not prescribed antipsychotics had significantly better work functioning. The work performance of the patients who were continuously prescribed antipsychotics was at a low rate and did not improve over time. Multiple other factors also interfere with work functioning. The data suggest that some patients with schizophrenia not prescribed antipsychotics for prolonged periods can function relatively well. Multiple other factors are associated with poor post-hospital work performance. The longitudinal data raise questions about prolonged treatment of schizophrenia with antipsychotic medications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fatigue and Sleep Among Employees With Prospective Increase in Work Time Control: A 1-Year Observational Study With Objective Assessment.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Tomohide; Takahashi, Masaya; Liu, Xinxin; Ikeda, Hiroki; Togo, Fumiharu; Shimazu, Akihito; Tanaka, Katsutoshi; Kamata, Naoki; Kubo, Yoshiko; Uesugi, Junko

    2016-11-01

    This observational study aimed to determine how 1-year changes in work time control (WTC) have an impact upon objectively measured fatigue and sleep among employees. Thirty-nine employees were divided into two groups according to whether or not their WTC increased from baseline to 1 year later. Psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and wrist actigraphy were used to objectively measure fatigue and sleep, respectively. Self-reported outcomes were also measured. The increased WTC group showed gradual improvements in PVT performance and sleep quality over the course of the follow-up period compared with the not-increased WTC group. Between-group differences were statistically significant for PVT lapses and tended to be significant for PVT speed after 1 year. A progressive increase in WTC could play a crucial role in reducing fatigue and promoting sleep among employees.

  12. Increasing Independence through Technology: The Views of Older Consumers with Disabilities and Their Caregivers. Consumer Needs Assessment Project Year 3: Results of the Third Year of a Five Year Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Carolyn

    The goal of this third year of an ongoing 5-year study was to identify and evaluate the diverse technology and product needs of persons with functional limitations, from users' perspectives. This qualitative research study involved 14 focus groups representing 4 different categories of people; those included persons 50 years and older with sensory…

  13. Exploring Alignment among Learning Progressions, Teacher-Designed Formative Assessment Tasks, and Student Growth: Results of a Four-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furtak, Erin Marie; Circi, Ruhan; Heredia, Sara C.

    2018-01-01

    This article describes a 4-year study of experienced high school biology teachers' participation in a five-step professional development experience in which they iteratively studied student ideas with the support of a set of learning progressions, designed formative assessment activities, practiced using those activities with their students,…

  14. Performance assessment of different day-of-the-year-based models for estimating global solar radiation - Case study: Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Gasser E.; Youssef, M. Elsayed; Ali, Mohamed A.; Mohamed, Zahraa E.; Shehata, Ali I.

    2016-11-01

    Different models are introduced to predict the daily global solar radiation in different locations but there is no specific model based on the day of the year is proposed for many locations around the world. In this study, more than 20 years of measured data for daily global solar radiation on a horizontal surface are used to develop and validate seven models to estimate the daily global solar radiation by day of the year for ten cities around Egypt as a case study. Moreover, the generalization capability for the best models is examined all over the country. The regression analysis is employed to calculate the coefficients of different suggested models. The statistical indicators namely, RMSE, MABE, MAPE, r and R2 are calculated to evaluate the performance of the developed models. Based on the validation with the available data, the results show that the hybrid sine and cosine wave model and 4th order polynomial model have the best performance among other suggested models. Consequently, these two models coupled with suitable coefficients can be used for estimating the daily global solar radiation on a horizontal surface for each city, and also for all the locations around the studied region. It is believed that the established models in this work are applicable and significant for quick estimation for the average daily global solar radiation on a horizontal surface with higher accuracy. The values of global solar radiation generated by this approach can be utilized in the design and estimation of the performance of different solar applications.

  15. Psychological and Work Stress Assessment of Patients following Angioplasty or Heart Surgery: Results of 1-year Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Fiabane, Elena; Giorgi, Ines; Candura, Stefano M; Argentero, Piergiorgio

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore changes in subjective psychological health and perceived work stress among patients who returned to work (RTW) after a multidisciplinary cardiac rehabilitation (CR) following cardiac interventions. A total of 108 patients were evaluated at the beginning of their CR, at 6 and 12 months after discharge. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess depression, anxiety, illness perception and work stress at each time stage. Results showed reports of depressive symptoms significantly decreased (p < 0.05) and subjective mental (p = 0.001) and physical health (p < 0.001) improved over time. Patients revealed a decrease in Type A behaviour pattern (p < 0.001) and in job satisfaction levels (p = 0.01), greater internal locus of control (p < 0.01) and increased use of the coping strategy 'Involvement' (p < 0.01). Major findings are that cardiac patients had an improvement in subjective psychological health and did not perceive increased work stress after their RTW. Patients' psychological health and work stress need to be assessed during the CR and should be also carefully monitored after the RTW in order to identify patients' psychological and work-related barriers and facilitate a safe and successful work reintegration. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. A 20-Year Prospective Longitudinal Study of Degeneration of the Cervical Spine in a Volunteer Cohort Assessed Using MRI: Follow-up of a Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Daimon, Kenshi; Fujiwara, Hirokazu; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Okada, Eijiro; Nojiri, Kenya; Watanabe, Masahiko; Katoh, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Kentaro; Ishihama, Hiroko; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Tsuji, Takashi; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Watanabe, Kota

    2018-05-16

    Few studies have addressed in detail long-term degenerative changes in the cervical spine. In this study, we evaluated the progression of degenerative changes of the cervical spine that occurred over a 20-year period in an originally healthy cohort. We also sought to clarify the relationship between the progression of cervical degenerative changes and the development of clinical symptoms. For this prospective follow-up investigation, we recruited 193 subjects from an original cohort of 497 participants who had undergone magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine between 1993 and 1996. The subjects were asked about the presence or absence of cervical spine-related symptoms. Degenerative changes of the cervical spine were assessed on MRI using an original numerical grading system. The relationship between the progression of degenerative changes and the onset of clinical symptoms was evaluated by logistic regression analysis. Degeneration in the cervical spine was found to have progressed in 95% of the subjects during the 20-year period. The finding of a decrease in signal intensity of the intervertebral disc progressed in a relatively high proportion of the subjects in all age groups and occurred with similar frequency (around 60%) at all intervertebral disc levels. The rate of progression of other structural failures on MRI increased with age and was highest at C5-C6. The progression of foraminal stenosis was associated with the onset of upper-limb pain (odds ratio, 4.71 [95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 21.7]). A progression of degenerative changes in the cervical spine on MRI over the 20-year period was detected in nearly all subjects. There was no relationship between the progression of degeneration on MRI and the development of clinical symptoms, with the exception of an association found between foraminal stenosis and upper-limb pain. Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  17. Assessment of chemical and material contamination in waste wood fuels--A case study ranging over nine years.

    PubMed

    Edo, Mar; Björn, Erik; Persson, Per-Erik; Jansson, Stina

    2016-03-01

    The increased demand for waste wood (WW) as fuel in Swedish co-combustion facilities during the last years has increased the import of this material. Each country has different laws governing the use of chemicals and therefore the composition of the fuel will likely change when combining WW from different origins. To cope with this, enhanced knowledge is needed on WW composition and the performance of pre-treatment techniques for reduction of its contaminants. In this study, the chemical and physical characteristics of 500 WW samples collected at a co-combustion facility in Sweden between 2004 and 2013 were investigated to determine the variation of contaminant content over time. Multivariate data analysis was used for the interpretation of the data. The concentrations of all the studied contaminants varied widely between sampling occasions, demonstrating the highly variable composition of WW fuels. The efficiency of sieving as a pre-treatment measure to reduce the levels of contaminants was not sufficient, revealing that sieving should be used in combination with other pre-treatment methods. The results from this case study provide knowledge on waste wood composition that may benefit its management. This knowledge can be applied for selection of the most suitable pre-treatments to obtain high quality sustainable WW fuels. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. The Direct Assessment of Nonvertebral Fractures in Community Experience (DANCE) study: 2-year nonvertebral fragility fracture results.

    PubMed

    Silverman, S; Miller, P; Sebba, A; Weitz, M; Wan, X; Alam, J; Masica, D; Taylor, K A; Ruff, V A; Krohn, K

    2013-08-01

    This observational study evaluated the occurrence of nonvertebral fragility fractures (NVFX) in over 4,000 men and women with osteoporosis treated with teriparatide (TPTD). The incidence of new NVFX decreased for patients receiving TPTD treatment for greater than 6 months. No new significant safety findings were observed in this large trial. The Direct Assessment of Nonvertebral Fractures in Community Experience (DANCE) study evaluated the occurrence of NVFX in patients receiving TPTD for osteoporosis in a real-world setting. DANCE is a multicenter, prospective, observational trial that examined the long-term effectiveness of TPTD in men and women with osteoporosis whom study physicians judged to be suitable for TPTD therapy. Patients received 20 μg TPTD per day by subcutaneous injection for up to 24 months and were followed for 24 months after treatment cessation. The incidence of patients experiencing a new NVFX, defined as a fracture associated with low trauma, was evaluated during four 6-month periods in both the treatment and cessation phases with >0 to ≤6 months serving as the reference. We also observed the spectrum and occurrence of serious adverse events. Of the 4,167 patients enrolled, 4,085 took one or more doses of TPTD (safety population); 3,720 were included in the efficacy analysis. The incidence of patients experiencing a NVFX was 1.42, 0.91, 0.70, and 0.81 % for the four treatment periods, respectively, and 0.80, 0.68, 0.33, and 0.33 % for the four periods after treatment cessation. Differences for each period were statistically significant compared with the reference period (first 6-month interval, each p < 0.05). No new significant safety findings were observed. In this study, the incidence of NVFX decreased for patients receiving TPTD for all three treatment periods >6 months compared to 0 to ≤6 months, and this trend persisted throughout the cessation phase. TPTD was generally well tolerated.

  19. Study for the quality assessment of abstracts presented to Italian public health national conferences: a six years survey.

    PubMed

    Castaldi, S; Colombo, A; D'Errico, R; Bert, F; Siliquini, R; Ceruti, M; Curti, S; Gaietta, M; Garavelli, E; Legouellec, L; Lovato, E; Martinese, M; Visco, F

    2013-01-01

    Oral and poster presentations at congresses are essential to spread scientific knowledge among the medical community. Many scientific societies have analyzed the quality of papers presented at their meetings but no information on abstracts' evaluation has been presented in Public Health field. This study aims to examine the quality of abstracts presented at annual meetings of Italian Public Health Society (SItI) in the period 2005-2010 through a validated checklist grid, evaluating eight dimensions: Inherency, Structure, Originality, Objectives, Study design, Sources, Results, Conclusions. Each item was scored from 0 to 3 points (max score: 24) and we used the average score in our study (15) as threshold of good quality. A multivariate analysis was performed in order to investigate predictors of score of abstracts presented. A total of 4,399 abstracts (1,172 oral communications, 3,227 posters) was examined. Around 60% were submitted by Universities and around 40% were from Central Italy. The highest quality was found in the fields of Vaccines (average score 18.9), Infectious Diseases (18) and in abstracts submitted by Universities (16.4). Predictors of lower quality identified were geographical area and affiliation (p= 0.002). Abstracts containing well-written Results, Conclusions and Objectives (3 points) were more likely to be of high quality(OR=55.6, OR=41.9, and OR=157.4; p>0.001) CONCLUSIONS: This is the first European study evaluating the quality of abstracts in the public health field. A reliable evaluation tool is fundamental to offer a transparent methodology of assessment and to improve the quality of research.

  20. Two-Year Systematic Study To Assess Norovirus Contamination in Oysters from Commercial Harvesting Areas in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Gustar, Nicole E.; Powell, Andrew L.; Hartnell, Rachel E.; Lees, David N.

    2012-01-01

    The contamination of bivalve shellfish with norovirus from human fecal sources is recognized as an important human health risk. Standardized quantitative methods for the detection of norovirus in molluscan shellfish are now available, and viral standards are being considered in the European Union and internationally. This 2-year systematic study aimed to investigate the impact of the application of these methods to the monitoring of norovirus contamination in oyster production areas in the United Kingdom. Twenty-four monthly samples of oysters from 39 United Kingdom production areas, chosen to represent a range of potential contamination risk, were tested for norovirus genogroups I and II by using a quantitative real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR method. Norovirus was detected in 76.2% (643/844) of samples, with all sites returning at least one positive result. Both prevalences (presence or absence) and norovirus levels varied markedly between sites. However, overall, a marked winter seasonality of contamination by both prevalence and quantity was observed. Correlations were found between norovirus contamination and potential risk indicators, including harvesting area classifications, Escherichia coli scores, and environmental temperatures. A predictive risk score for norovirus contamination was developed by using a combination of these factors. In summary, this study, the largest of its type undertaken to date, provides a systematic analysis of norovirus contamination in commercial oyster production areas in the United Kingdom. The data should assist risk managers to develop control strategies to reduce the risk of human illness resulting from norovirus contamination of bivalve molluscs. PMID:22685151

  1. Semblance analysis to assess GPR data from a five-year forensic study of simulated clandestine graves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Adam D.; Pringle, Jamie K.

    2016-02-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys have proven useful for locating clandestine graves in a number of forensic searches. There has been extensive research into the geophysical monitoring of simulated clandestine graves in different burial scenarios and ground conditions. Whilst these studies have been used to suggest optimum dominant radar frequencies, the data themselves have not been quantitatively analysed to-date. This study uses a common-offset configuration of semblance analysis, both to characterise velocity trends from GPR diffraction hyperbolae and, since the magnitude of a semblance response is proportional to signal-to-noise ratio, to quantify the strength of a forensic GPR response. 2D GPR profiles were acquired over a simulated clandestine burial, with a wrapped-pig cadaver monitored at three-month intervals between 2008 and 2013 with GPR antennas of three different centre-frequencies (110, 225 and 450 MHz). The GPR response to the cadaver was a strong diffraction hyperbola. Results show, in contrast to resistivity surveys, that semblance analysis have little sensitivity to changes attributable to decomposition, and only a subtle influence from seasonality: velocity increases (0.01-0.02 m/ns) were observed in summer, associated with a decrease (5-10%) in peak semblance magnitude, SM, and potentially in the reflectivity of the cadaver. The lowest-frequency antennas consistently gave the highest signal-to-noise ratio although the grave was nonetheless detectable by all frequencies trialled. These observations suggest that forensic GPR surveys could be undertaken with little seasonal hindrance. Whilst GPR analysis cannot currently provide a quantitative diagnostic proxy for time-since-burial, the consistency of responses suggests that graves will remain detectable beyond the five years shown here.

  2. Can Perceptuo-Motor Skills Assessment Outcomes in Young Table Tennis Players (7-11 years) Predict Future Competition Participation and Performance? An Observational Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Faber, Irene R; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Faber, Niels R; Oosterveld, Frits G J; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2016-01-01

    Forecasting future performance in youth table tennis players based on current performance is complex due to, among other things, differences between youth players in growth, development, maturity, context and table tennis experience. Talent development programmes might benefit from an assessment of underlying perceptuo-motor skills for table tennis, which is hypothesized to determine the players' potential concerning the perceptuo-motor domain. The Dutch perceptuo-motor skills assessment intends to measure the perceptuo-motor potential for table tennis in youth players by assessing the underlying skills crucial for developing technical and tactical qualities. Untrained perceptuo-motor tasks are used as these are suggested to represent a player's future potential better than specific sport skills themselves as the latter depend on exposure to the sport itself. This study evaluated the value of the perceptuo-motor skills assessment for a talent developmental programme by evaluating its predictive validity for competition participation and performance in 48 young table tennis players (7-11 years). Players were tested on their perceptuo-motor skills once during a regional talent day, and the subsequent competition results were recorded half-yearly over a period of 2.5 years. Logistic regression analysis showed that test scores did not predict future competition participation (p >0.05). Yet, the Generalized Estimating Equations analysis, including the test items 'aiming at target', 'throwing a ball', and 'eye-hand coordination' in the best fitting model, revealed that the outcomes of the perceptuo-motor skills assessment were significant predictors for future competition results (R2 = 51%). Since the test age influences the perceptuo-motor skills assessment's outcome, another multivariable model was proposed including test age as a covariate (R2 = 53%). This evaluation demonstrates promising prospects for the perceptuo-motor skills assessment to be included in a talent

  3. Five Years of Strategic Environmental Assessment Efforts at a Research University: A Case Study of an Organizational Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearn, James C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The development and five-year history of the University of Minnesota's environmental scanning effort, a strategic approach to institutional management, are discussed. Over time, scanning efforts became less theory-based and failed to become institutionalized. Inherent limitations in the organizational structure and culture of educational…

  4. Prevention of traffic accidents: the assessment of perceptual-motor alterations before obtaining a driving license. A longitudinal study of the first years of driving.

    PubMed

    Martín, Fermina Sánchez; Estévez, M Angeles Quiroga

    2005-03-01

    A longitudinal study was designed with two objectives: first, to provide a wide cognitive, personality and social description of new drivers before they started to drive cars. Second, to examine the relationship between cognitive and other characteristics drivers had before obtaining their driving license and the number and type of accidents they were involved in during the first years as drivers. The longitudinal study started in 1997 and ended in 2002. The first assessment was made up of 241 individuals at the time they enrolled on the driving course. The follow-up evaluation in the year 2002 was carried out on 144 components of the initial sample after five years driving. Age, gender and education level were matched to represent the population of Spain. Participants were assessed with the Bender Test for visual-motor ability, the B101 Test for practical intelligence, the B19 Test for visual-motor bi-manual coordination, and the TKK-1108 for speed anticipation. Personality was also evaluated with the Rorschach test and the PSY (Psychological Assessment Questionnaire). Five years later, a new examination of all those variables was made as well as a structured interview with each participant in order to collect data relating to significant life events during that time, driving habits, opinions in relation to certain traffic rules and information on accidents, incidents and/or sanctions. Serious and/or minor accidents are concentrated on a few drivers. Accidentality is not related to gender or age, but educational level is related to serious accidents. The number of accidents (severe or minor ones) cannot be predicted if considered as a continuous variable, but it is possible if considered as a discrete variable. In this case two different cognitive profiles account for the number and type of accidents. The number and type of accidents during their first years of driving are related to the cognitive profiles of drivers assessed before they obtained their driving

  5. Resident Self-Assessment and Self-Reflection: University of Wisconsin-Madison’s Five-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrand, Christopher; Trowbridge, Elizabeth; Roach, Mary A.; Sullivan, Anne Gravel; Broman, Aimee Teo

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Chart review represents a critical cornerstone for practice-based learning and improvement in our internal medicine residency program. OBJECTIVE To document residents’ performance monitoring and improvement skills in their continuity clinics, their satisfaction with practice-based learning and improvement, and their ability to self-reflect on their performance. DESIGN Retrospective longitudinal design with repeated measures. PARTICIPANTS Eighty Internal Medicine residents abstracted data for 3 consecutive years from the medical records of their 4,390 patients in the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW) Hospital and Clinics and William S. Middleton Veterans Administration (VA) outpatient clinics. MEASUREMENT Logistic modeling was used to determine the effect of postgraduate year, resident sex, graduation cohort, and clinic setting on residents’ “compliance rate” on 17 nationally recognized health screening and chronic disease management parameters from 2003 to 2007. RESULTS Residents’ adherence to national preventive and chronic disease standards increased significantly from intern to subsequent years for administering immunizations, screening for diabetes, cholesterol, cancer, and behavioral risks, and for management of diabetes. Of the residents, 92% found the chart review exercise beneficial, with 63% reporting gains in understanding about their medical practices, 26% reflecting on specific gaps in their practices, and 8% taking critical action to improve their patient outcomes. CONCLUSIONS This paper provides support for the feasibility and practicality of this limited-cost method of chart review. It also directs our residency program’s attention in the continuity clinic to a key area important to internal medicine training programs by highlighting the potential benefit of enhancing residents’ self-reflection skills. PMID:19156469

  6. A prospective observational cohort study to assess the incidence of acute otitis media among children 0-5 years of age in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lanzieri, Tatiana M; Cunha, Clóvis Arns da; Cunha, Rejane B; Arguello, D Fermin; Devadiga, Raghavendra; Sanchez, Nervo; Barria, Eduardo Ortega

    To estimate acute otitis media incidence among young children and impact on quality of life of parents/caregivers in a southern Brazilian city. Prospective cohort study including children 0-5 years of age registered at a private pediatric practice. Acute otitis media episodes diagnosed by a pediatrician and impact on quality of life of parents/caregivers were assessed during a 12-month follow-up. During September 2008-March 2010, of 1,136 children enrolled in the study, 1074 (95%) were followed: 55.0% were ≤2 years of age, 52.3% males, 94.7% white, and 69.2% had previously received pneumococcal vaccine in private clinics. Acute otitis media incidence per 1000 person-years was 95.7 (95% confidence interval: 77.2-117.4) overall, 105.5 (95% confidence interval: 78.3-139.0) in children ≤2 years of age and 63.6 (95% confidence interval: 43.2-90.3) in children 3-5 years of age. Acute otitis media incidence per 1000 person-years was 86.3 (95% confidence interval: 65.5-111.5) and 117.1 (95% confidence interval: 80.1-165.3) among vaccinated and unvaccinated children, respectively. Nearly 68.9% of parents reported worsening of their overall quality of life. Acute otitis media incidence among unvaccinated children in our study may be useful as baseline data to assess impact of pneumococcal vaccine introduction in the Brazilian National Immunization Program in April 2010. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluating the Turning Points Curriculum: A Three-Year Study to Assess Parenting Knowledge in a Sample of Incarcerated Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Lynn S.; Burton, Barb

    2015-01-01

    The current study is an evaluation of the Turning Points parenting curriculum specially designed for use with incarcerated populations. The project combines intensive parent education with supervised offender mother/child visits in special family visiting rooms as well as ongoing offender support groups to help offender mothers become more…

  8. Relevance of the 1-year dog study in assessing human health risks for registration of pesticides. An update to include pesticides registered in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kobel, Werner; Fegert, Ivana; Billington, Richard; Lewis, Richard; Bentley, Karin; Langrand-Lerche, Carole; Botham, Phil; Sato, Masako; Debruyne, Eric; Strupp, Christian; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2014-11-01

    Over 400 active pesticides are registered in Japan (FAMIC 2013). The results of dog toxicity studies (usually, the 1-year study) were used by the Japanese regulatory authorities to establish the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for 45 pesticide active ingredients (about 9%). A retrospective review of ADIs established in Japan with dog studies as pivotal data for their derivation was performed: the ADIs were reassessed under the assumption that the 1-year dog study would not be available and an alternate ADI was derived based on the remaining toxicology database. In 35 of the 45 cases (77.8%) the ADI resulting from the absence of the 1-year dog study was no greater than twice the Japanese ADI, a difference considered not to be of biological significance. In 6 cases (13%) the resulting ADI was 2-5 times higher, which is considered of questionable biological relevance. On further evaluation of the database, three of these six cases were assessed as to clarify that there is no clear difference and for the other three additional studies to clarify that uncertain findings would have been required. In 3 of the 45 cases (7%) there may be a real difference within the ADI ratio of 2-5. Only in 1 case (2.2%) ADI was five times higher than that has been set. Accordingly, the absence of a 1-year dog study does not appear to influence the ADI derivation in a relevant manner in more than 98% of cases. For the four compounds with a real difference in ADI, consumer exposure would still be well below the alternative ADI. Therefore, a strong case can be made that the standard mandatory requirement to conduct a 1-year dog study, in addition to the 3-month study, is not justified and of no additional value in protecting human health. In addition, a substantial reduction in test animals could be achieved.

  9. Emergency CT for assessment and management of blunt traumatic splenic injuries at a Level 1 Trauma Center: 13-year study.

    PubMed

    Margari, Sergio; Garozzo Velloni, Fernanda; Tonolini, Massimo; Colombo, Ettore; Artioli, Diana; Allievi, Niccolò Ettore; Sammartano, Fabrizio; Chiara, Osvaldo; Vanzulli, Angelo

    2018-05-12

    To determine the relationship between multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) findings, management strategies, and ultimate clinical outcomes in patients with splenic injuries secondary to blunt trauma. This Institutional Review Board-approved study collected 351 consecutive patients admitted at the Emergency Department (ED) of a Level I Trauma Center with blunt splenic trauma between October 2002 and November 2015. Their MDCT studies were retrospectively and independently reviewed by two radiologists to grade splenic injuries according to the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) organ injury scale (OIS) and to detect intraparenchymal (type A) or extraparenchymal (type B) active bleeding and/or contained vascular injuries (CVI). Clinical data, information on management, and outcome were retrieved from the hospital database. Statistical analysis relied on Student's t, chi-squared, and Cohen's kappa tests. Emergency multiphase MDCT was obtained in 263 hemodynamically stable patients. Interobserver agreement for both AAST grading of injuries and vascular lesions was excellent (k = 0.77). Operative management (OM) was performed in 160 patients (45.58% of the whole cohort), and high-grade (IV and V) OIS injuries and type B bleeding were statistically significant (p < 0.05) predictors of OM. Nonoperative management (NOM) failed in 23 patients out of 191 (12.04%). In 75% of them, NOM failure occurred within 30 h from the trauma event, without significant increase of mortality. Both intraparenchymal and extraparenchymal active bleeding were predictive of NOM failure (p < 0.05). Providing detection and characterization of parenchymal and vascular traumatic lesions, MDCT plays a crucial role for safe and appropriate guidance of ED management of splenic traumas and contributes to the shift toward NOM in hemodynamically stable patients.

  10. Long-term liver stiffness assessment in hepatitis C virus patients undergoing antiviral therapy: Results from a 5-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Facciorusso, Antonio; Del Prete, Valentina; Turco, Antonio; Buccino, Rosario Vincenzo; Nacchiero, Maurizio Cosimo; Muscatiello, Nicola

    2018-04-01

    Observational studies showed significant liver stiffness regression after sustained virological response, but long-term effects of antiviral therapy are still unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the magnitude of change in stiffness up to 5 years after therapy in hepatitis C patients undergoing antiviral treatment. Data of 153 patients were retrieved. Stiffness was assessed by Fibroscan at baseline, end of treatment, 6 months after treatment, and every year hereafter up to 5 years. Seventy patients were treated with interferon-based regimens and 83 with direct antiviral agents. Baseline cirrhosis was diagnosed in 53 (34.6%) patients. Sustained virological response was achieved in 112 patients, whereas 41 were non-responders. In responders, stiffness decreased from 12.3 kPa (9-17.8) to 6.6 kPa (5.3-7.4) at 5 years. A sharper decline was observed immediately after treatment (-2.5 kPa at the end of treatment and -3.7 kPa at 6 months), while from 1 year onwards, the magnitude of stiffness decrease was progressively lower. In non-responders, stiffness showed a slight decrease at the end of treatment (from 19.2 to 18.1 kPa), then returned to baseline levels at 6 months (19.4 kPa), and finally increased over time up to 23.7 kPa (15-32.5) at 5 years. The proportion of cirrhotic patients decreased by 50% at 6 months and finally fell < 5% at 4 years after treatment. Stiffness declines significantly after achieving response, and the magnitude of decline is greater in the first year after treatment, while it tends to plateau from 1 year onwards. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Can Perceptuo-Motor Skills Assessment Outcomes in Young Table Tennis Players (7–11 years) Predict Future Competition Participation and Performance? An Observational Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Forecasting future performance in youth table tennis players based on current performance is complex due to, among other things, differences between youth players in growth, development, maturity, context and table tennis experience. Talent development programmes might benefit from an assessment of underlying perceptuo-motor skills for table tennis, which is hypothesized to determine the players’ potential concerning the perceptuo-motor domain. The Dutch perceptuo-motor skills assessment intends to measure the perceptuo-motor potential for table tennis in youth players by assessing the underlying skills crucial for developing technical and tactical qualities. Untrained perceptuo-motor tasks are used as these are suggested to represent a player’s future potential better than specific sport skills themselves as the latter depend on exposure to the sport itself. This study evaluated the value of the perceptuo-motor skills assessment for a talent developmental programme by evaluating its predictive validity for competition participation and performance in 48 young table tennis players (7–11 years). Players were tested on their perceptuo-motor skills once during a regional talent day, and the subsequent competition results were recorded half-yearly over a period of 2.5 years. Logistic regression analysis showed that test scores did not predict future competition participation (p >0.05). Yet, the Generalized Estimating Equations analysis, including the test items ‘aiming at target’, ‘throwing a ball’, and ‘eye-hand coordination’ in the best fitting model, revealed that the outcomes of the perceptuo-motor skills assessment were significant predictors for future competition results (R2 = 51%). Since the test age influences the perceptuo-motor skills assessment’s outcome, another multivariable model was proposed including test age as a covariate (R2 = 53%). This evaluation demonstrates promising prospects for the perceptuo-motor skills assessment to be

  12. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging assessment of circumferential resection margin predicts disease-free survival and local recurrence: 5-year follow-up results of the MERCURY study.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Fiona G M; Quirke, Philip; Heald, Richard J; Moran, Brendan J; Blomqvist, Lennart; Swift, Ian R; Sebag-Montefiore, David; Tekkis, Paris; Brown, Gina

    2014-01-01

    The prognostic relevance of preoperative high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment of circumferential resection margin (CRM) involvement is unknown. This follow-up study of 374 patients with rectal cancer reports the relationship between preoperative MRI assessment of CRM staging, American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM stage, and clinical variables with overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and time to local recurrence (LR). Patients underwent protocol high-resolution pelvic MRI. Tumor distance to the mesorectal fascia of ≤ 1 mm was recorded as an MRI-involved CRM. A Cox proportional hazards model was used in multivariate analysis to determine the relationship of MRI assessment of CRM to survivorship after adjusting for preoperative covariates. Surviving patients were followed for a median of 62 months. The 5-year OS was 62.2% in patients with MRI-clear CRM compared with 42.2% in patients with MRI-involved CRM with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.97 (95% CI, 1.27 to 3.04; P < .01). The 5-year DFS was 67.2% (95% CI, 61.4% to 73%) for MRI-clear CRM compared with 47.3% (95% CI, 33.7% to 60.9%) for MRI-involved CRM with an HR of 1.65 (95% CI, 1.01 to 2.69; P < .05). Local recurrence HR for MRI-involved CRM was 3.50 (95% CI, 1.53 to 8.00; P < .05). MRI-involved CRM was the only preoperative staging parameter that remained significant for OS, DFS, and LR on multivariate analysis. High-resolution MRI preoperative assessment of CRM status is superior to AJCC TNM-based criteria for assessing risk of LR, DFS, and OS. Furthermore, MRI CRM involvement is significantly associated with distant metastatic disease; therefore, colorectal cancer teams could intensify treatment and follow-up accordingly to improve survival outcomes.

  13. [Risk of depression in 75 years or older persons, comprehensive geriatric assessment and associated factors in primary care: cross sectional study].

    PubMed

    Kronfly Rubiano, Eduardo; Rivilla Frias, Daniel; Ortega Abarca, Isabel; Villanueva Villanueva, Montserrat; Beltrán Martínez, Eva; Comellas Villalba, Montserrat; Almeda Ortega, Jesús; Casals Fransi, Jordi; Rico García, Yolanda; Martínez Carmona, Sonia; Carrasco Coria, Rosa; Bonfill Gavaldà, Montserrat; Calderón Loren, Belén; Fernández Fernández, Mercedes; Barranco Oliver, Laura

    2015-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of the risk of depression, major defining characteristics and factors associated with. Sub-study of comprehensive geriatric assessment cross-study. Primary health center. For an estimated 14% prevalence we need a sample of 288 people. From 3854, 290 people ≥75 years were selected. Excluding terminals, chemotherapy, recent surgery, temporary residence, mental retardation, serious psychiatric illness, or under home care. risk of depression (≥2 points on the Goldberg depression subscale. Sociodemographic and five study areas of the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment: medical -comorbidity, polypharmacy, falls and hospital admissions-, functional -Up&Go Test, Lawton-Brody and Barthel Index-, nutritional -Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA)-, mental-affective -Pfeiffer Questionnaire and Goldberg scale-, and social. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression. We obtained 290 interviews, with 102 (35.1%) male and mean age of 79.4 years (SD:3.2). The prevalence of the risk of depression was 37.2%, 26.5% in men and 43.1% in women (p=0.005). Association of risk of depression is observed with arterial hypertension (OR:3.87 95% CI:1.61-9.34), cancer (OR:4.12 95%, CI:1.58-10.76), lack of leisure activity (OR:2.75 95%, CI:1.33-5.67), increase of anxiety scale (OR:1.87 95%, CI:1.57-2.22) and decrease in MNA (OR:0.78 95%, CI:0.68-0.9). The prevalence of risk of depression is higher than expected, although overestimated until being confirmed with a diagnostic test. We appreciate new associations of comorbidity variables with risk of depression and corroborate other known. The studied factors that were associated with the risk of depression should be included in future studies of geriatric depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Caries Risk Assessment of 12-13-year-old Government and Private School Going Children of Mysore City Using Cariogram: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Naik, Sandhya P; Moyin, Shabna; Patel, Bhakti; Warad, Lata Prabhu; Punathil, Sameer; Sudeep, C B

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the caries risk assessment of 12-13-year-old government and private school going children of Mysore city using Cariogram. A cross-sectional examination was carried out on a total of 104 government and private schoolchildren aged 12-13 years. Ten factors from the Cariogram software(D Bratthall, Computer software, Malmo, Sweden) were included from study participant's records to complete the Cariogram. The percentage of "chances of avoiding new lesions" (caries risk) among government and private school study participants were obtained from Cariogram, and the participants were classified into five risk groups. Statistical analysis was performed using the software program Statistical Package of Social Science (version 17.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago IL, USA). Findings revealed that there is slight difference in caries risk among government and private schoolchildren, where 48% caries risk development and 52% chance to avoid dental caries were showed in government schoolchildren, and 51% caries risk development and 49% chance to avoid dental caries were showed in private schoolchildren, according to Cariogram. Decayed, missing, and filled teeth component, mutans streptococci, and Lactobacillus counts were slightly higher in private schoolchildren compared with government schoolchildren. The private schoolchildren had less favorable values than government schoolchildren for most of the caries-related factors. Cariogram can be the most modest and reliable tool for caries prediction, thus aiding in identifying different risk groups in a community so that appropriate preventive strategies can be provided to overcome new carious lesion formation.

  15. Hierarchy of evidence referring to the central nervous system in a high-impact radiation oncology journal: a 10-year assessment. Descriptive critical appraisal study.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Fabio Ynoe; Bonifacio, Lorine Arias; Marta, Gustavo Nader; Hanna, Samir Abdallah; Atallah, Álvaro Nagib; Moraes, Vinícius Ynoe; Silva, João Luis Fernandes; Carvalho, Heloísa Andrade

    2015-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, there has been no systematic assessment of the classification of scientific production within the scope of radiation oncology relating to central nervous system tumors. The aim of this study was to systematically assess the status of evidence relating to the central nervous system and to evaluate the geographic origins and major content of these published data. Descriptive critical appraisal study conducted at a private hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. We evaluated all of the central nervous system studies published in the journal Radiotherapy & Oncology between 2003 and 2012. The studies identified were classified according to their methodological design and level of evidence. Information regarding the geographical location of the study, the institutions and authors involved in the publication, main condition or disease investigated and time of publication was also obtained. We identified 3,004 studies published over the 10-year period. Of these, 125 (4.2%) were considered eligible, and 66% of them were case series. Systematic reviews and randomized clinical trials accounted for approximately 10% of all the published papers. We observed an increase in high-quality evidence and a decrease in low-quality published papers over this period (P = 0.036). The inter-rater reliability demonstrated significant agreement between observers in terms of the level of evidence. Increases in high-level evidence and in the total number of central nervous system papers were clearly demonstrated, although the overall number of such studies remained relatively small.

  16. Adherence to Web-Based Self-Assessments in Long-Term Direct-to-Patient Research: Two-Year Study of Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kremer, Ingrid E.H; Hristodorova, Elena; Evers, Silvia M.A.A; Kool, Anton; van Noort, Esther M; Hiligsmann, Mickaël

    2017-01-01

    Background Direct-to-patient research via Web-based questionnaires is increasingly being used. Missed data or delayed reporting of data may negatively affect the quality of study results. It is insufficiently known to what degree patients adhere to agreed self-assessment schedule over the long term and whether questionnaires are filled out in a timely manner. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate patients’ adherence to a self-assessment schedule with low-frequency long questionnaires versus that with a high-frequency short questionnaire. Methods In this study, the 36-item MS Impact Profile (MSIP) questionnaire measured (perceived) disabilities and the 54-item MS Quality of Life-54 (MSQoL-54) questionnaire measured health-related quality of life at 6-month intervals. Additionally, the 2-item Medication and Adherence (MA) questionnaire documented medication and adherence to disease-modifying medication every month. An experienced MS nurse assessed the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score via phone. For both the self-assessment schedules, we calculated the percentage of patients who had completed all the questionnaires in the first 2 years (completion adherence), the percentage of patients who completed all the questionnaires within set time frames (interval adherence), the relationship between adherence and the EDSS score, and the timing of EDSS assessment. Results Of the 331 patients who enrolled themselves, 301 patients completed at least one questionnaire. At month six (M6), M12, M18, and M24, the MSIP was completed by 83.4% (251/301), 71.8% (216/301), 68.1% (205/301), and 58.5% (176/301) of the patients, respectively; the MSQoL-54 by 82.1% (247/301), 71.8% (216/301), 66.8% (201/301), and 57.1% (172/301), respectively; and the MA questionnaire by 80.1% (241/301), 70.4% (212/301), 62.1% (187/301), and 53.5% (161/301), respectively. For the MSIP, 56.8% (171/301) of the patients were 2-year completion adherent; 55.5% (167/301) and 53

  17. Adherence to Web-Based Self-Assessments in Long-Term Direct-to-Patient Research: Two-Year Study of Multiple Sclerosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Jongen, Peter Joseph; Kremer, Ingrid E H; Hristodorova, Elena; Evers, Silvia M A A; Kool, Anton; van Noort, Esther M; Hiligsmann, Mickaël

    2017-07-21

    Direct-to-patient research via Web-based questionnaires is increasingly being used. Missed data or delayed reporting of data may negatively affect the quality of study results. It is insufficiently known to what degree patients adhere to agreed self-assessment schedule over the long term and whether questionnaires are filled out in a timely manner. The objective of this study was to investigate patients' adherence to a self-assessment schedule with low-frequency long questionnaires versus that with a high-frequency short questionnaire. In this study, the 36-item MS Impact Profile (MSIP) questionnaire measured (perceived) disabilities and the 54-item MS Quality of Life-54 (MSQoL-54) questionnaire measured health-related quality of life at 6-month intervals. Additionally, the 2-item Medication and Adherence (MA) questionnaire documented medication and adherence to disease-modifying medication every month. An experienced MS nurse assessed the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score via phone. For both the self-assessment schedules, we calculated the percentage of patients who had completed all the questionnaires in the first 2 years (completion adherence), the percentage of patients who completed all the questionnaires within set time frames (interval adherence), the relationship between adherence and the EDSS score, and the timing of EDSS assessment. Of the 331 patients who enrolled themselves, 301 patients completed at least one questionnaire. At month six (M6), M12, M18, and M24, the MSIP was completed by 83.4% (251/301), 71.8% (216/301), 68.1% (205/301), and 58.5% (176/301) of the patients, respectively; the MSQoL-54 by 82.1% (247/301), 71.8% (216/301), 66.8% (201/301), and 57.1% (172/301), respectively; and the MA questionnaire by 80.1% (241/301), 70.4% (212/301), 62.1% (187/301), and 53.5% (161/301), respectively. For the MSIP, 56.8% (171/301) of the patients were 2-year completion adherent; 55.5% (167/301) and 53.5% (161/301) of the patients were

  18. Pilot Study to Show the Feasibility of a Multicenter Trial of Home-based Assessment of People Over 75 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Mary; Egelko, Susan; Ferris, Steven; Kaye, Jeffrey; Hayes, Tamara L.; Mundt, James C.; Donohue, Michael; Walter, Sarah; Sun, Shelly; Sauceda-Cerda, Luis

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a pilot study to evaluate feasibility of new home-based assessment technologies applicable to clinical trials for prevention of cognitive loss and Alzheimer disease. Methods Community-dwelling nondemented individuals ≥ 75 years old were recruited and randomized to 1 of 3 assessment methodologies: (1) mail-in questionnaire/live telephone interviews (MIP); (2) automated telephone with interactive voice recognition (IVR); and (3) internet-based computer Kiosk (KIO). Brief versions of cognitive and noncognitive outcomes were adapted to the different methodologies and administered at baseline and 1-month. An Efficiency measure, consisting of direct staff-to-participant time required to complete assessments, was also compared across arms. Results Forty-eight out of 60 screened participants were randomized. The dropout rate across arms from randomization through 1-month was different: 33% for KIO, 25% for IVR, and 0% for MIP (Fisher Exact Test P = 0.04). Nearly all participants who completed baseline also completed 1-month assessment (38 out of 39). The 1-way ANOVA across arms for total staff-to-participant direct contact time (ie, training, baseline, and 1-month) was significant: F (2,33) = 4.588; P = 0.017, with lowest overall direct time in minutes for IVR (Mn = 44.4; SD = 21.5), followed by MIP (Mn = 74.9; SD = 29.9), followed by KIO (Mn = 129.4; SD = 117.0). Conclusions In this sample of older individuals, a higher dropout rate occurred in those assigned to the high-technology assessment techniques; however, once participants had completed baseline in all 3 arms, they continued participation through 1 month. High-technology home-based assessment methods, which do not require live testers, began to emerge as more time-efficient over the brief time of this pilot, despite initial time-intensive participant training. PMID:20592583

  19. Understanding Environmental and Contextual Influences of Physical Activity During First-Year University: The Feasibility of Using Ecological Momentary Assessment in the MovingU Study

    PubMed Central

    Bedard, Chloe; King-Dowling, Sara; McDonald, Madeline; Dunton, Genevieve; Cairney, John

    2017-01-01

    Background It is well established that drastic declines in physical activity (PA) occur during young adults’ transition into university; however, our understanding of contextual and environmental factors as it relates to young adults’ PA is limited. Objective The purpose of our study was to examine the feasibility of using wrist-worn accelerometers and the use of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to assess the context and momentary correlates of PA on multiple occasions each day during first-year university. Methods First-year university students were asked to participate in the study. The participants completed a brief questionnaire and were subsequently asked to wear an ActiGraph GT9X-Link accelerometer and respond to a series of EMA prompts (7/day) via their phones for 5 consecutive days. Results A total of 96 first-year university students with smartphones agreed to participate in the study (mean age 18.3 [SD 0.51]; n=45 females). Overall, there was good compliance for wearing the accelerometers, with 91% (78/86) of the participants having ≥2 days of ≥10 hours of wear time (mean=3.53 valid days). Students were generally active, averaging 10,895 steps/day (SD 3413) or 1123.23 activity counts/min (SD 356.10). Compliance to EMA prompts was less desirable, with 64% (55/86) of the participants having usable EMA data (responding to a minimum of ≥3 days of 3 prompts/day or ≥4 days of 2 prompts/day), and only 47% (26/55) of these participants were considered to have excellent EMA compliance (responding to ≥5 days of 4 prompts/day or ≥ 4 days of 5 prompts/day). Conclusions This study represents one of the first studies to use an intensive real-time data capture strategy to examine time-varying correlates of PA among first-year university students. These data will aim to describe the physical and social contexts in which PA occurs and examine the relationships between momentary correlates of PA among the first-year university students. Overall

  20. Understanding Environmental and Contextual Influences of Physical Activity During First-Year University: The Feasibility of Using Ecological Momentary Assessment in the MovingU Study.

    PubMed

    Bedard, Chloe; King-Dowling, Sara; McDonald, Madeline; Dunton, Genevieve; Cairney, John; Kwan, Matthew

    2017-05-31

    It is well established that drastic declines in physical activity (PA) occur during young adults' transition into university; however, our understanding of contextual and environmental factors as it relates to young adults' PA is limited. The purpose of our study was to examine the feasibility of using wrist-worn accelerometers and the use of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to assess the context and momentary correlates of PA on multiple occasions each day during first-year university. First-year university students were asked to participate in the study. The participants completed a brief questionnaire and were subsequently asked to wear an ActiGraph GT9X-Link accelerometer and respond to a series of EMA prompts (7/day) via their phones for 5 consecutive days. A total of 96 first-year university students with smartphones agreed to participate in the study (mean age 18.3 [SD 0.51]; n=45 females). Overall, there was good compliance for wearing the accelerometers, with 91% (78/86) of the participants having ≥2 days of ≥10 hours of wear time (mean=3.53 valid days). Students were generally active, averaging 10,895 steps/day (SD 3413) or 1123.23 activity counts/min (SD 356.10). Compliance to EMA prompts was less desirable, with 64% (55/86) of the participants having usable EMA data (responding to a minimum of ≥3 days of 3 prompts/day or ≥4 days of 2 prompts/day), and only 47% (26/55) of these participants were considered to have excellent EMA compliance (responding to ≥5 days of 4 prompts/day or ≥ 4 days of 5 prompts/day). This study represents one of the first studies to use an intensive real-time data capture strategy to examine time-varying correlates of PA among first-year university students. These data will aim to describe the physical and social contexts in which PA occurs and examine the relationships between momentary correlates of PA among the first-year university students. Overall, current results suggest that wrist-worn accelerometers and

  1. Exposure-response analysis and risk assessment for lung cancer in relationship to silica exposure: a 44-year cohort study of 34,018 workers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuewei; Steenland, Kyle; Rong, Yi; Hnizdo, Eva; Huang, Xiji; Zhang, Hai; Shi, Tingming; Sun, Yi; Wu, Tangchun; Chen, Weihong

    2013-11-01

    Crystalline silica has been classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (Lyon, France); however, few previous studies have provided quantitative data on silica exposure, silicosis, and/or smoking. We investigated a cohort in China (in 1960-2003) of 34,018 workers without exposure to carcinogenic confounders. Cumulative silica exposure was estimated by linking a job-exposure matrix to work history. Cox proportional hazards model was used to conduct exposure-response analysis and risk assessment. During a mean 34.5-year follow-up, 546 lung cancer deaths were identified. Categorical analyses by quartiles of cumulative silica exposure (using a 25-year lag) yielded hazard ratios of 1.26, 1.54, 1.68, and 1.70, respectively, compared with the unexposed group. Monotonic exposure-response trends were observed among nonsilicotics (P for trend < 0.001). Analyses using splines showed similar trends. The joint effect of silica and smoking was more than additive and close to multiplicative. For workers exposed from ages 20 to 65 years at 0.1 mg/m(3) of silica exposure, the estimated excess lifetime risk (through age 75 years) was 0.51%. These findings confirm silica as a human carcinogen and suggest that current exposure limits in many countries might be insufficient to protect workers from lung cancer. They also indicate that smoking cessation could help reduce lung cancer risk for silica-exposed individuals.

  2. Usefulness of the comprehensive geriatric assessment in older patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding: a two-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Pilotto, Alberto; Ferrucci, Luigi; Scarcelli, Carlo; Niro, Valeria; Di Mario, Francesco; Seripa, Davide; Andriulli, Angelo; Leandro, Gioacchino; Franceschi, Marilisa

    2007-01-01

    The potential usefulness of standardized comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) in evaluating treatment and follow-up of older patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding is unknown. To evaluate the usefulness of the CGA as a 2-year mortality multidimensional prognostic index (MPI) in older patients hospitalized for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients aged > or =65 years consecutively hospitalized for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding were included. Diagnosis of bleeding was based on clinical and endoscopic features. All patients underwent a CGA that included six standardized scales, i.e., Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ), Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Exton-Smith Score (ESS) and Comorbity Index Rating Scale (CIRS), as well as information on medication history and cohabitation, for a total of 63 items. A MPI was calculated from the integrated total scores and expressed as MPI 1 = low risk, MPI 2 = moderate risk, and MPI 3 = severe risk. The predictive value of the MPI for mortality over a 24-month follow-up was calculated. 36 elderly patients (M 16/F 20, mean age 82.8 +/- 7.9 years, range 70-101 years) were included in the study. A significant difference in mean age was observed between males and females (M 80.1 +/- 4.8 vs. F 84.9 +/- 9.3 years; p < 0.05). The causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding were duodenal ulcer in 38.8%, gastric ulcer in 22.2%, and erosive gastritis in 16.6% of the patients, while 16.6% had gastrointestinal bleeding from unknown origin. The overall 2-year mortality rate was 30.5%. 18 patients (50%) were classified as having a low-risk MPI (mean value 0.18 +/- 0.09), 12 (33.3%) as having a moderate-risk MPI (mean value 0.48 +/- 0.08) and 6 (16.6%) as having a severe-risk MPI (mean value 0.83 +/- 0.06). Higher MPI grades were significantly associated with higher mortality (grade 1 = 12.5%, grade 2 = 41.6%, grade 3 = 83

  3. Assessment of Vitamin B12 and Its Correlation with Dental Caries and Gingival Diseases in 10- to 14-year-old Children: A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    M Hugar, Shivayogi; S Dhariwal, Neha; Majeed, Andleeb; Badakar, Chandrashekhar; Gokhale, Niraj; Mistry, Laresh

    2017-01-01

    To assess the level of vitamin B 12 and correlate it with dental caries [decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth (DMFT) score] and gingival diseases [plaque index (PI) and gingival index (GI)]. Healthy children according to the inclusion criteria were selected by the computerized randomization method from a school to assess the vitamin B 12 levels using Centaur/ Versace machine. Blood samples were collected to assess vitamin B 12 levels using automated analyzer. Oral examination was done by a single calibrated dentist. A thorough oral examination was carried out and the DMFT, PI, and GI scores of all the children were recorded and assessed. Data were analyzed using Karl Pearson's correlation test. Vitamin B 12 levels were deficient in 64% of the children. In boys, vitamin B 12 deficiency was found in about 76.2%, whereas, in girls it was 57.1%, which was not statistically significant. The vitamin B 12 deficient children showed a significantly high DMFT scores than the children with normal vitamin B 12 levels. The Pearson's correlation was -0.614 for DMFT, PI value -0.663, and GI value of -0.477. The negative correlation stated that there was a reverse relation between these indices and vitamin B 12 . In children with systemic vitamin B 12 deficiency, there is increased dental caries prevalence and associated gingival problems. Hugar SM, Dhariwal NS, Majeed A, Badakar C, Gokhale N, Mistry L. Assessment of Vitamin B 12 and Its Correlation with Dental Caries and Gingival Diseases in 10- to 14-year-old Children: A Cross-sectional Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(2):142-146.

  4. Assessment of Vitamin B12 and Its Correlation with Dental Caries and Gingival Diseases in 10- to 14-year-old Children: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    S Dhariwal, Neha; Majeed, Andleeb; Badakar, Chandrashekhar; Gokhale, Niraj; Mistry, Laresh

    2017-01-01

    Aim To assess the level of vitamin B12 and correlate it with dental caries [decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth (DMFT) score] and gingival diseases [plaque index (PI) and gingival index (GI)]. Design Healthy children according to the inclusion criteria were selected by the computerized randomization method from a school to assess the vitamin B12 levels using Centaur/ Versace machine. Materials and methods Blood samples were collected to assess vitamin B12 levels using automated analyzer. Oral examination was done by a single calibrated dentist. A thorough oral examination was carried out and the DMFT, PI, and GI scores of all the children were recorded and assessed. Data were analyzed using Karl Pearson’s correlation test. Results Vitamin B12 levels were deficient in 64% of the children. In boys, vitamin B12 deficiency was found in about 76.2%, whereas, in girls it was 57.1%, which was not statistically significant. The vitamin B12 deficient children showed a significantly high DMFT scores than the children with normal vitamin B12 levels. The Pearson’s correlation was -0.614 for DMFT, PI value -0.663, and GI value of -0.477. The negative correlation stated that there was a reverse relation between these indices and vitamin B12. Conclusion In children with systemic vitamin B12 deficiency, there is increased dental caries prevalence and associated gingival problems. How to cite this article Hugar SM, Dhariwal NS, Majeed A, Badakar C, Gokhale N, Mistry L. Assessment of Vitamin B12 and Its Correlation with Dental Caries and Gingival Diseases in 10- to 14-year-old Children: A Cross-sectional Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(2):142-146. PMID:28890613

  5. An Analysis of the Content, Policies and Assessment of ICT Curricula in the Final Years of Secondary Schooling in Australia and Vietnam: A Comparative Educational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Thang Manh; Stoilescu, Dorian

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores and analyses similarities and differences in ICT curricula, policies, and assessment between the Vietnamese and Australian educational systems for the final years of secondary educational level. It was found that while having a common core set of tendencies, the Australian ICT curricula, policies, and assessments differ…

  6. Jump starting skeletal health: a 4-year longitudinal study assessing the effects of jumping on skeletal development in pre and circum pubertal children.

    PubMed

    Gunter, Katherine; Baxter-Jones, Adam D G; Mirwald, Robert L; Almstedt, Hawley; Fuller, Arwen; Durski, Shantel; Snow, Christine

    2008-04-01

    Evidence suggests bone mineral increases attributable to exercise training prior to puberty may confer a significant advantage into adulthood. However, there is a dearth of supportive prospective longitudinal data. The purpose of this study was to assess bone mineral content (BMC) of the whole body (WB), total hip (TH), femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) over four years in pre-pubertal boys and girls following a 7-month jumping intervention. The study population included 107 girls and 98 boys aged 8.6+/-0.88 years at baseline. Participating schools were randomly assigned as either intervention or control school. Children at the intervention school (n=101) participated in a jumping intervention embedded within the standard PE curriculum. The control school children (n=104) had similar exposure to PE without the jumping intervention. BMC was assessed by DXA at baseline, at 7-month post intervention, and annually thereafter for three years totaling 5 measurement opportunities. Multi-level random effects models were constructed and used to predict change from study entry in BMC parameters at each measurement occasion. A significant intervention effect was found at all bone sites. The effect was greatest immediately following the intervention (at 7 months) but still significant three years after the intervention. At 7 months, intervention participants had BMC values that were 7.9%, 8.4%, 7.7% and 7.3% greater than the controls at the LS, TH, FN and WB, respectively (p<0.05), when the confounders of age, maturity and tissue mass were controlled. Three years after the intervention had concluded the intervention group had 2.3%, 3.2%, 4.4% and 2.9% greater BMC than controls at the LS, TH, FN and WB respectively (p<0.05), when the confounders of age, maturity and tissue mass were controlled. This provides evidence that short-term high impact exercise in pre-puberty has a persistent effect over and above the effects of normal growth and development. If the benefits are

  7. Preliminary study on assessment of lead exposure in Thai children aged between 3-7 years old who live in Umphang district, Tak Province.

    PubMed

    Neesanan, Naiyana; Kasemsup, Rachada; Ratanachuaeg, Suntree; Kojaranjit, Puangporn; Sakulnoom, Kim; Padungtod, Chantana

    2011-08-01

    Centers of Disease Control of the United States of America (CDC) informs Ministry of Public Health, Thailand that up to 13% of Burmese refugee children who are transferred to the United States of America during 2007-2009 have elevated blood lead levels (EBLL, Blood Lead Level > or = 10 microg/dl). These are children from a number of refugee camps in Tak Province; two camps are near Umphang but other camps are not. In June 2008, CDC, the result of investigation of Centers for Disease Control/Thailand Ministry of Public Health Collaboration (CDC/TUC) and International Organization for Migration, Thailand indicates that 33 of 64 children aged 6 months to 15 years (5.1%) who live in Mae La, Umpiem and Nupo camps have elevated blood lead level. However, no study on how Thai children who live nearby those camps are exposed to lead. Subsequently, Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health, Bangkok, Thailand contacts relevant organizations in Tak Province in order to investigate lead exposure and evaluate health status of Thai children who live close to Burmese refugee camps. 1) Evaluation of lead exposure of Thai children who live nearby Burmese refugee camps; 2) Assessment of risk factors on lead exposure of the children as mentioned above. The present study adopts a retrospective study based on information gathered from health assessment on 213 Thai children aged between 3-7 years old who live nearby Burmese refugee camps. The health assessment was conducted from April 30th, 2010 to May 5th, 2010. The information is from 3 sources. The first source is from blood sampling in order to assess lead level and ferritin level. The next source is from interview of persons who provide primary care in order to identify risk factors on lead exposure of target children. The last source is from physical examination and developmental assessment conducted by pediatricians and special nurses for child development in order to identify health and developmental problems. The

  8. Assessing clinical sequelae of untreated caries among 5-, 12-, and 15-year-old school children in ambala district: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sudan, Jasneet; Sogi, Girish Malleshappa; Veeresha, L Koretigire

    2018-01-01

    Dental caries is a public health problem globally, especially in children. Thus, it is important to quantify its clinical consequences in terms of its prevalence and severity. This study aims to assess the prevalence and severity of oral conditions linked with untreated dental caries using pulp involvement, ulceration, fistula, abscess (pufa/PUFA) index in 5-, 12-, and 15-year-old school children in Ambala district. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 433 school children of 5-, 12-, and 15-year-old age group in Ambala district. In the present study, participants were recruited from randomly selected schools and were examined according to pufa/PUFA index and Oral Health Surveys Dentition Status. Data were analyzed using SPSS Software Version 20.0 (Chicago, USA). The statistical significance was determined by Chi-square test, and level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Correlation analysis was expressed in terms of Pearson's correlation coefficient (r). Caries prevalence was reported to be 58.4% while the prevalence of odontogenic infections was 45.3%. Untreated caries pufa/PUFA ratio among 5, 12, and 15 years old was 44.58%, 38.33%, and 36.18%, respectively. The care index among 5, 12, and 15 years old was 0, 3.31%, and 36.18% emphasizing the lack of utilization of dental services by school children. The use of PUFA/pufa index as an adjunct to the classical caries indices can address the neglected problem of untreated caries and its consequences.

  9. Using ecological momentary assessment to examine antecedents and correlates of physical activity bouts in adults age 50+ years: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Atienza, Audie A; Castro, Cynthia M; King, Abby C

    2009-12-01

    National recommendations supporting the promotion of multiple short (10+ minute) physical activity bouts each day to increase overall physical activity levels in middle-aged and older adults underscore the need to identify antecedents and correlates of such daily physical activity episodes. This pilot study used Ecological Momentary Assessment to examine the time-lagged and concurrent effects of empirically supported social, cognitive, affective, and physiological factors on physical activity among adults age 50+ years. Participants (N = 23) responded to diary prompts on a handheld computer four times per day across a 2-week period. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), self-efficacy, positive and negative affect, control, demand, fatigue, energy, social interactions, and stressful events were assessed during each sequence. Multivariate results showed that greater self-efficacy and control predicted greater MVPA at each subsequent assessment throughout the day (p < 0.05). Also, having a positive social interaction was concurrently related to higher levels of MVPA (p = 0.052). Time-varying multidimensional individual processes predict within daily physical activity levels.

  10. Caries Risk Assessment of 12–13-year-old Government and Private School Going Children of Mysore City Using Cariogram: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Sandhya P.; Moyin, Shabna; Patel, Bhakti; Warad, Lata Prabhu; Punathil, Sameer; Sudeep, C. B.

    2018-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the caries risk assessment of 12–13-year-old government and private school going children of Mysore city using Cariogram. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional examination was carried out on a total of 104 government and private schoolchildren aged 12–13 years. Ten factors from the Cariogram software(D Bratthall, Computer software, Malmo, Sweden) were included from study participant's records to complete the Cariogram. The percentage of “chances of avoiding new lesions” (caries risk) among government and private school study participants were obtained from Cariogram, and the participants were classified into five risk groups. Statistical analysis was performed using the software program Statistical Package of Social Science (version 17.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago IL, USA). Results: Findings revealed that there is slight difference in caries risk among government and private schoolchildren, where 48% caries risk development and 52% chance to avoid dental caries were showed in government schoolchildren, and 51% caries risk development and 49% chance to avoid dental caries were showed in private schoolchildren, according to Cariogram. Decayed, missing, and filled teeth component, mutans streptococci, and Lactobacillus counts were slightly higher in private schoolchildren compared with government schoolchildren. Conclusion: The private schoolchildren had less favorable values than government schoolchildren for most of the caries-related factors. Cariogram can be the most modest and reliable tool for caries prediction, thus aiding in identifying different risk groups in a community so that appropriate preventive strategies can be provided to overcome new carious lesion formation. PMID:29780742

  11. Objectively Assessed Physical Activity and Subsequent Health Service Use of UK Adults Aged 70 and Over: A Four to Five Year Follow Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Simmonds, Bethany; Fox, Kenneth; Davis, Mark; Ku, Po-Wen; Gray, Selena; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Sharp, Debbie; Stathi, Afroditi; Thompson, Janice; Coulson, Joanna; Trayers, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the associations between volume and intensity of older peoples' physical activity, with their subsequent health service usage over the following four to five years. Study Design A prospective cohort design using baseline participant characteristics, objectively assessed physical activity and lower limb function provided by Project OPAL (Older People and Active Living). OPAL-PLUS provided data on numbers of primary care consultations, prescriptions, unplanned hospital admissions, and secondary care referrals, extracted from medical records for up to five years following the baseline OPAL data collection. Participants and Data Collection OPAL participants were a diverse sample of 240 older adults with a mean age of 78 years. They were recruited from 12 General Practitioner surgeries from low, middle, and high areas of deprivation in a city in the West of England. Primary care consultations, secondary care referrals, unplanned hospital admissions, number of prescriptions and new disease diagnoses were assessed for 213 (104 females) of the original 240 OPAL participants who had either consented to participate in OPAL-PLUS or already died during the follow-up period. Results In regression modelling, adjusted for socio-economic variables, existing disease, weight status, minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day predicted subsequent numbers of prescriptions. Steps taken per day and MVPA also predicted unplanned hospital admissions, although the strength of the effect was reduced when further adjustment was made for lower limb function. Conclusions Community-based programs are needed which are successful in engaging older adults in their late 70s and 80s in more walking, MVPA and activity that helps them avoid loss of physical function. There is a potential for cost savings to health services through reduced reliance on prescriptions and fewer unplanned hospital admissions. PMID:24866573

  12. Outcomes of Synergetic Peer Assessment: First-Year Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Paula; Chan, Kitty; Liu, Justina

    2014-01-01

    Active participation in learning activities and reviewing assessment activity can facilitate learners engaged in these processes. This case study reports student experiences of the process of peer assessment with teacher guidance in a group project for a first-year nursing course with 153 students. Twenty groups of students were assigned roles in…

  13. A qualitative study to assess school nurses' views on vaccinating 12-13 year old school girls against human papillomavirus without parental consent.

    PubMed

    Stretch, Rebecca; McCann, Rosemary; Roberts, Stephen A; Elton, Peter; Baxter, David; Brabin, Loretta

    2009-07-21

    In the UK, parental consent for the routine vaccination of 12-13 year olds schoolgirls against human papillomavirus (HPV) is recommended, although legally girls may be able to consent themselves. As part of a vaccine study conducted ahead of the National HPV Vaccine Programme we sought the views of school nurses on vaccinating girls who did not have parental consent. HPV vaccination was offered to all 12 year old girls attending schools in two Primary Care Trusts in Greater Manchester. At the end of the study semi-structured, tape-recorded interviews were conducted with school nurses who had delivered the vaccine (Cervarix). The interview template was based on concepts derived from the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Transcripts were analysed thematically in order to understand school nurses' intentions to implement vaccination based on an assessment of Gillick competency. School nurses knew how to assess the competency of under-16s but were still unwilling to vaccinate if parents had refused permission. If parents had not returned the consent form, school nurses were willing to contact parents, and also to negotiate with parents who had refused consent. They seemed unaware that parental involvement required the child's consent to avoid breaking confidentiality. Nurses' attitudes were influenced by the young appearance and age of the school year group rather than an individual's level of maturity. They were also confused about the legal guidelines governing consent. School nurses acknowledged the child's right to vaccination and strongly supported prevention of HPV infection but ultimately believed that it was the parents' right to give consent. Most were themselves parents and shared other parents' concerns about the vaccine's novelty and unknown long-term side effects. Rather than vaccinate without parental consent, school nurses would defer vaccination. Health providers have a duty of care to girls for whom no parental consent for HPV vaccination has been given

  14. A qualitative study to assess school nurses' views on vaccinating 12–13 year old school girls against human papillomavirus without parental consent

    PubMed Central

    Stretch, Rebecca; McCann, Rosemary; Roberts, Stephen A; Elton, Peter; Baxter, David; Brabin, Loretta

    2009-01-01

    Background In the UK, parental consent for the routine vaccination of 12–13 year olds schoolgirls against human papillomavirus (HPV) is recommended, although legally girls may be able to consent themselves. As part of a vaccine study conducted ahead of the National HPV Vaccine Programme we sought the views of school nurses on vaccinating girls who did not have parental consent. Methods HPV vaccination was offered to all 12 year old girls attending schools in two Primary Care Trusts in Greater Manchester. At the end of the study semi-structured, tape-recorded interviews were conducted with school nurses who had delivered the vaccine (Cervarix™). The interview template was based on concepts derived from the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Transcripts were analysed thematically in order to understand school nurses' intentions to implement vaccination based on an assessment of Gillick competency. Results School nurses knew how to assess the competency of under-16s but were still unwilling to vaccinate if parents had refused permission. If parents had not returned the consent form, school nurses were willing to contact parents, and also to negotiate with parents who had refused consent. They seemed unaware that parental involvement required the child's consent to avoid breaking confidentiality. Nurses' attitudes were influenced by the young appearance and age of the school year group rather than an individual's level of maturity. They were also confused about the legal guidelines governing consent. School nurses acknowledged the child's right to vaccination and strongly supported prevention of HPV infection but ultimately believed that it was the parents' right to give consent. Most were themselves parents and shared other parents' concerns about the vaccine's novelty and unknown long-term side effects. Rather than vaccinate without parental consent, school nurses would defer vaccination. Conclusion Health providers have a duty of care to girls for whom no parental

  15. Single-Dose Hepatitis A Immunization: 7.5-Year Observational Pilot Study in Nicaraguan Children to Assess Protective Effectiveness and Humoral Immune Memory Response.

    PubMed

    Mayorga, Orlando; Bühler, Silja; Jaeger, Veronika K; Bally, Seraina; Hatz, Christoph; Frösner, Gert; Protzer, Ulrike; Van Damme, Pierre; Egger, Matthias; Herzog, Christian

    2016-11-15

     Universal 2-dose hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccination of toddlers effectively controls hepatitis A. High vaccine costs, however, impede implementation in endemic countries. To test single-dose vaccination as a possible alternative, we initiated an observational, longitudinal study in Nicaragua, to assess protective effectiveness and-through challenge vaccination-humoral immune memory response.  After a 2003 serosurvey, 130 originally seronegative children received one dose of virosomal HAV vaccine in 2005, followed by yearly serological and clinical assessments until 2012. After 7.5 years, a vaccine booster was administered. Concurrent antibody screening of patients presenting with hepatitis symptoms documented persistent HAV circulation in the communities studied.  Between serosurvey and vaccination, 25 children contracted hepatitis A subclinically (>8000 mIU/mL anti-HAV). In the remaining 105 children, immunization resulted in anti-HAV levels of 17-572 mIU/mL. Based on the ≥15% annual infection risk, an estimated 60% of children were exposed to HAV encounters during follow-up. No child presented with hepatitis symptoms. Serological breakthrough infection (7106 mIU/mL) was documented in 1 child, representing an estimated protective effectiveness of 98.3% (95% confidence interval, 87.9-99.8). Boosting elicited an average 29.7-fold increase of anti-HAV levels.  In children living in hyperendemic settings, a single dose of virosomal HAV vaccine is sufficient to activate immune memory and may provide long-term protection. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Measuring Library Impacts through First Year Course Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luetkenhaus, Holly; Hvizdak, Erin; Johnson, Corey; Schiller, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    This study shows the value of library instruction in the building of first-year students' information literacy skills and it illustrates librarians as partners in leading student learning outcome assessment. Using research papers from a required first-year course, raters from units across the institution evaluated student information literacy (IL)…

  17. Assessment of safety and efficacy of lamotrigine over the course of 1-year observation in Japanese patients with bipolar disorder: post-marketing surveillance study report

    PubMed Central

    Terao, Takeshi; Ishida, Atsuko; Kimura, Toshifumi; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro; Hara, Terufumi

    2017-01-01

    Background A post-marketing surveillance (PMS) study was conducted with a 1-year observation period to assess the safety and efficacy of lamotrigine in routine clinical practice in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Patients and methods Central enrollment method was used to recruit patients diagnosed with BD who were being treated for the first time with lamotrigine to prevent the recurrence/relapse of BD mood episodes. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and recurrence/relapse were assessed. Improvement of mania and depression was also assessed using the Hamilton’s Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) and the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) at treatment initiation, 4–6 months post treatment initiation, and 10–12 months post treatment initiation. Results A total of 237/989 patients (24.0%) reported ADRs, most commonly rash (9.1%), and the incidence of serious ADRs was 3.3% (33/989 patients). Skin disorders occurred in 130 patients (13.1%), mostly within 8 weeks post treatment. A total of 237/703 patients (33.7%) experienced recurrence/relapse of mood episodes. The 25th percentile of the time to recurrence/relapse of mood episodes was 105 days. Remission of depression symptoms (HAM-D ≤7) occurred in 147/697 patients (21.1%) at treatment initiation, rising to 361 patients (67.4%) at 10–12 months post treatment. Remission of manic symptoms (YMRS ≤13) occurred in 615/676 patients (91.0%) at treatment initiation, rising to 500 patients (97.3%) at 10–12 months post treatment. Conclusion The results of this PMS study suggest that lamotrigine is a well-tolerated and effective drug for preventing recurrence/relapse of BD in clinical practice. PMID:28652744

  18. A Study on the Validity of a Computer-Based Game to Assess Cognitive Processes, Reward Mechanisms, and Time Perception in Children Aged 4-8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Hurks, Petra PM; Aldenkamp, Albert P; van der Spek, Erik D; Rauterberg, GWM; Vles, Johan SH; Hendriksen, Jos GM

    2016-01-01

    Background A computer-based game, named Timo’s Adventure, was developed to assess specific cognitive functions (eg, attention, planning, and working memory), time perception, and reward mechanisms in young school-aged children. The game consists of 6 mini-games embedded in a story line and includes fantasy elements to enhance motivation. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of Timo’s Adventure in normally developing children and in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods A total of 96 normally developing children aged 4-8 years and 40 children with ADHD were assessed using the game. Clinical validity was investigated by examining the effects of age on performances within the normally developing children, as well as performance differences between the healthy controls and the ADHD group. Results Our analyses in the normally developing children showed developmental effects; that is, older children made fewer inhibition mistakes (r=−.33, P=.001), had faster (and therefore better) reaction times (r=−.49, P<.001), and were able to produce time intervals more accurately than younger children (ρ=.35, P<.001). Discriminant analysis showed that Timo’s Adventure was accurate in most classifications whether a child belonged to the ADHD group or the normally developing group: 78% (76/97) of the children were correctly classified as having ADHD or as being in the normally developing group. The classification results showed that 72% (41/57) children in the control group were correctly classified, and 88% (35/40) of the children in the ADHD group were correctly classified as having ADHD. Sensitivity (0.89) and specificity (0.69) of Timo’s Adventure were satisfying. Conclusions Computer-based games seem to be a valid tool to assess specific strengths and weaknesses in young children with ADHD. PMID:27658428

  19. From Subjective Cognitive Decline to Alzheimer's Disease: The Predictive Role of Neuropsychological Assessment, Personality Traits, and Cognitive Reserve. A 7-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Bessi, Valentina; Mazzeo, Salvatore; Padiglioni, Sonia; Piccini, Carolina; Nacmias, Benedetta; Sorbi, Sandro; Bracco, Laura

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of neuropsychological assessment in predicting conversion from subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the effect of personality traits and cognitive reserve in progression from SCD to MCI. As part of a longitudinal, clinical-neuropsychological-genetic survey on SCD and MCI, 284 patients referred to our hospital between 1990 and 2017 were included. All patients underwent clinical-extensive neuropsychological evaluation and Apolipoprotein E genotyping; personality traits were assessed in a subgroup. Each patient underwent clinical-neuropsychological follow-up. Subjects with a follow-up shorter than two years were excluded. A total of 212 subjects were, after exclusions, considered: 26 out of 109 SCD subjects progressed to MCI (SCD-p), 15 converted to AD (SCD-c), and 68 remained stable (SCD-s). Of 103 MCI subjects, 39 converted to AD (MCI-c) and 64 remained stable (MCI-s). At baseline, SCD-c performed significantly worse than SCD-s in tests assessing long-term verbal memory. MCI-c showed worse performance on neuropsychological tests for short- and long-term verbal memory and for ecological evaluation of memory (RBMT). These tests provided good accuracy in distinguishing MCI-c and MCI-s. Emotional stability was significantly lower in SCD-s than in SCD-p while higher intellectual activities were associated with a lower risk of conversion to MCI. Our results suggest that memory neuropsychological tests may represent a reliable tool to estimate the risk of progression to AD. Personality and lifestyle factors could provide useful information to identify SCD subjects who may develop an objective cognitive impairment.

  20. Implementation of the interdisciplinary curriculum Teaching and Assessing Communicative Competence in the fourth academic year of medical studies (CoMeD).

    PubMed

    Mortsiefer, Achim; Rotthoff, Thomas; Schmelzer, Regine; Immecke, J; Ortmanns, B; in der Schmitten, J; Altiner, A; Karger, André

    2012-01-01

    Implementation of a longitudinal curriculum for training in advanced communications skills represents an unmet need in most German medical faculties, especially in the 4rth and 5th years of medical studies. The CoMeD project (communication in medical education Düsseldorf) attempted to establish an interdisciplinary program to teach and to assess communicative competence in the 4th academic year. In this paper, we describe the development of the project and report results of its evaluation by medical students. Teaching objectives and lesson formats were developed in a multistage process. A teaching program for simulated patients (SP) was built up and continuous lecturer trainings were estabilshed. Several clinical disciplines co-operated for the purpose of integrating the communication training into the pre-existing clinical teaching curriculum. The CoMeD project was evaluated using feedback-forms after each course. Until now, six training units for especially challenging communication tasks like "dealing with aggression" or "breaking bad news" were implemented, each unit connected with a preliminary tutorial or e-learning course. An OSCE (objective structured clinical examination) with 4 stations was introduced. The students' evaluation of the six CoMeD training units showed the top or second-best rating in more than 80% of the answers. Introducing an interdisciplinary communication training and a corresponding OSCE into the 4th year medical curriculum is feasible. Embedding communication teaching in a clinical context and involvement of clinicians as lecturers seem to be important factors for ensuring practical relevance and achieving high acceptance by medical students.

  1. Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale as a predictor of cognitive development and IQ in full-term infants: a 6-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Canals, Josefa; Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Esparó, Griselda; Fernández-Ballart, Joan

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the predictive capacity of neonatal behaviour on infant mental and psychomotor development at 4 and 12 months, and infant intelligence at 6 years. Eighty full-term newborns were followed from 3 days until 6 years. Neonatal behaviour was assessed by the Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale (NBAS) at 3 days postpartum, infant mental and psychomotor development was assessed by the Bayley Scales for Infant Development at 4 and 12 months, and child intelligence was assessed by the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence at 6 years. Neonatal general irritability was the predictor of mental development at 12 months. Self-regulation behaviours were predictors of psychomotor development at 4 and 12 months and verbal and total intelligence quotient at 6 years. Neonatal orientation was a predictor of performance Wechsler subtests related to visomotor abilities and attention. Neonatal self-regulation behaviours were the best predictors of infant development and intelligence. We suggest that the NBAS could be a useful tool to observe behaviours related to later development in healthy infants. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  2. Can Touch Screen Tablets be Used to Assess Cognitive and Motor Skills in Early Years Primary School Children? A Cross-Cultural Study.

    PubMed

    Pitchford, Nicola J; Outhwaite, Laura A

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of cognitive and motor functions is fundamental for developmental and neuropsychological profiling. Assessments are usually conducted on an individual basis, with a trained examiner, using standardized paper and pencil tests, and can take up to an hour or more to complete, depending on the nature of the test. This makes traditional standardized assessments of child development largely unsuitable for use in low-income countries. Touch screen tablets afford the opportunity to assess cognitive functions in groups of participants, with untrained administrators, with precision recording of responses, thus automating the assessment process. In turn, this enables cognitive profiling to be conducted in contexts where access to qualified examiners and standardized assessments are rarely available. As such, touch screen assessments could provide a means of assessing child development in both low- and high-income countries, which would afford cross-cultural comparisons to be made with the same assessment tool. However, before touch screen tablet assessments can be used for cognitive profiling in low-to-high-income countries they need to be shown to provide reliable and valid measures of performance. We report the development of a new touch screen tablet assessment of basic cognitive and motor functions for use with early years primary school children in low- and high-income countries. Measures of spatial intelligence, visual attention, short-term memory, working memory, manual processing speed, and manual coordination are included as well as mathematical knowledge. To investigate if this new touch screen assessment tool can be used for cross-cultural comparisons we administered it to a sample of children ( N = 283) spanning standards 1-3 in a low-income country, Malawi, and a smaller sample of children ( N = 70) from first year of formal schooling from a high-income country, the UK. Split-half reliability, test-retest reliability, face validity, convergent

  3. Assessing Rates and Predictors of Tachyphylaxis During the Prevention of Recurrent Episodes of Depression With Venlafaxine ER for Two Years (PREVENT) Study

    PubMed Central

    Rothschild, Anthony J.; Dunlop, Boadie W.; Dunner, David L.; Friedman, Edward S.; Gelenberg, Alan; Holland, Peter; Kocsis, James H.; Kornstein, Susan G.; Shelton, Richard; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Zajecka, John M.; Goldstein, Corey; Thase, Michael E.; Pedersen, Ron; Keller, Martin B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Antidepressant tachyphylaxis describes the return of apathetic depressive symptoms, such as fatigue and decreased motivation, despite continued use of a previously effective treatment. Methods Data were collected from a multiphase, double-blind, placebo-controlled study that assessed the efficacy of venlafaxine extended release (ER) during 2 sequential 1-year maintenance phases (A and B) in patients with recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD). The primary outcome was the cumulative probability of tachyphylaxis in patients receiving venlafaxine ER, fluoxetine, or placebo. Tachyphylaxis was defined as Rothschild Scale for Antidepressant Tachyphylaxis (RSAT) scored ≥ 7 in patients with prior satisfactory therapeutic response. A Kaplan-Meier estimate of the cumulative probability of not experiencing tachyphylaxis, and a 2-sided Fisher exact test was used to assess the relationship between tachyphylaxis and recurrence. Results The maintenance phase A population was comprised of 337 patients (venlafaxine ER [n = 129], fluoxetine [n = 79], placebo [n = 129]), whereas 128 patients (venlafaxine ER [n = 43], fluoxetine [n = 45], placebo [n = 40]) were treated during maintenance phase B. No difference in the probability of experiencing tachyphylaxis were observed between the active treatment groups during either maintenance phase; however, a significant difference between venlafaxine ER and placebo was observed at the completion of maintenance phase A. A significant relationship between tachyphylaxis and recurrence was observed. Limitations Despite demonstrating psychometric validity and reliability, the current definition of tachyphylaxis has not been widely studied Conclusions Although no significant differences were observed in the probability of tachyphylaxis among patients receiving active treatment, the relationship between tachyphylaxis and recurrence suggests that tachyphylaxis may be a predrome of recurrence. PMID:19752838

  4. Validation of a Multimarker Model for Assessing Risk of Type 2 Diabetes from a Five-Year Prospective Study of 6784 Danish People (Inter99)

    PubMed Central

    Urdea, Mickey; Kolberg, Janice; Wilber, Judith; Gerwien, Robert; Moler, Edward; Rowe, Michael; Jorgensen, Paul; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Jørgensen, Torben; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2009-01-01

    Background Improved identification of subjects at high risk for development of type 2 diabetes would allow preventive interventions to be targeted toward individuals most likely to benefit. In previous research, predictive biomarkers were identified and used to develop multivariate models to assess an individual's risk of developing diabetes. Here we describe the training and validation of the PreDx™ Diabetes Risk Score (DRS) model in a clinical laboratory setting using baseline serum samples from subjects in the Inter99 cohort, a population-based primary prevention study of cardiovascular disease. Methods Among 6784 subjects free of diabetes at baseline, 215 subjects progressed to diabetes (converters) during five years of follow-up. A nested case-control study was performed using serum samples from 202 converters and 597 randomly selected nonconverters. Samples were randomly assigned to equally sized training and validation sets. Seven biomarkers were measured using assays developed for use in a clinical reference laboratory. Results The PreDx DRS model performed better on the training set (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.837) than fasting plasma glucose alone (AUC = 0.779). When applied to the sequestered validation set, the PreDx DRS showed the same performance (AUC = 0.838), thus validating the model. This model had a better AUC than any other single measure from a fasting sample. Moreover, the model provided further risk stratification among high-risk subpopulations with impaired fasting glucose or metabolic syndrome. Conclusions The PreDx DRS provides the absolute risk of diabetes conversion in five years for subjects identified to be “at risk” using the clinical factors. PMID:20144324

  5. Validation of a multimarker model for assessing risk of type 2 diabetes from a five-year prospective study of 6784 Danish people (Inter99).

    PubMed

    Urdea, Mickey; Kolberg, Janice; Wilber, Judith; Gerwien, Robert; Moler, Edward; Rowe, Michael; Jorgensen, Paul; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Jørgensen, Torben; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2009-07-01

    Improved identification of subjects at high risk for development of type 2 diabetes would allow preventive interventions to be targeted toward individuals most likely to benefit. In previous research, predictive biomarkers were identified and used to develop multivariate models to assess an individual's risk of developing diabetes. Here we describe the training and validation of the PreDx Diabetes Risk Score (DRS) model in a clinical laboratory setting using baseline serum samples from subjects in the Inter99 cohort, a population-based primary prevention study of cardiovascular disease. Among 6784 subjects free of diabetes at baseline, 215 subjects progressed to diabetes (converters) during five years of follow-up. A nested case-control study was performed using serum samples from 202 converters and 597 randomly selected nonconverters. Samples were randomly assigned to equally sized training and validation sets. Seven biomarkers were measured using assays developed for use in a clinical reference laboratory. The PreDx DRS model performed better on the training set (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.837) than fasting plasma glucose alone (AUC = 0.779). When applied to the sequestered validation set, the PreDx DRS showed the same performance (AUC = 0.838), thus validating the model. This model had a better AUC than any other single measure from a fasting sample. Moreover, the model provided further risk stratification among high-risk subpopulations with impaired fasting glucose or metabolic syndrome. The PreDx DRS provides the absolute risk of diabetes conversion in five years for subjects identified to be "at risk" using the clinical factors. Copyright 2009 Diabetes Technology Society.

  6. The role of occupational medicine in assessing work limitation: A cross-sectional study on construction workers over a five-year period in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Božić, Tajana; Meštrović, Tomislav; Profozić, Zora; Profozić, Velimir

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining adequate working ability of construction workers is of considerable importance for society, as the construction sector is burdened with high prevalence of work-related diseases and health-issues. To determine the number and age of construction workers in Croatia with temporary or permanent work limitation status, as well as to identify the most common health causes of such work limitation. A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed using the data from 2534 construction workers, aged between 18 and 65 years, who underwent standardized routine occupational health examinations between 2011 and 2015. Thorough medical history and medical record reviews, blood and urine analyses, vision parameters and hearing range evaluation, as well as mental health assessment were conducted on every study participant. A total of 210 construction workers (8.29%) received occupational/work limitation status (either temporary or permanent). Four main categories of work limitation were high blood pressure, disorders of the liver and digestive system, hearing loss and amblyopia, comprising 61.69% of all diagnoses. A total of 37.62% of workers with work limitation status had two or more different diagnoses (i.e. co-morbid conditions). Those with work limitation (either temporary or long-term) were significantly older than those fit enough to work (p-value <0.00001). This type of organized screening represents a significant preventative effort in the construction industry, as workers may become more cognizant of the conditions that may affect their work ability.

  7. Interim results of quality-control sampling of surface water for the Upper Colorado River National Water-Quality Assessment Study Unit, water years 1995-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spahr, N.E.; Boulger, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    Quality-control samples provide part of the information needed to estimate the bias and variability that result from sample collection, processing, and analysis. Quality-control samples of surface water collected for the Upper Colorado River National Water-Quality Assessment study unit for water years 1995?96 are presented and analyzed in this report. The types of quality-control samples collected include pre-processing split replicates, concurrent replicates, sequential replicates, post-processing split replicates, and field blanks. Analysis of the pre-processing split replicates, concurrent replicates, sequential replicates, and post-processing split replicates is based on differences between analytical results of the environmental samples and analytical results of the quality-control samples. Results of these comparisons indicate that variability introduced by sample collection, processing, and handling is low and will not affect interpretation of the environmental data. The differences for most water-quality constituents is on the order of plus or minus 1 or 2 lowest rounding units. A lowest rounding unit is equivalent to the magnitude of the least significant figure reported for analytical results. The use of lowest rounding units avoids some of the difficulty in comparing differences between pairs of samples when concentrations span orders of magnitude and provides a measure of the practical significance of the effect of variability. Analysis of field-blank quality-control samples indicates that with the exception of chloride and silica, no systematic contamination of samples is apparent. Chloride contamination probably was the result of incomplete rinsing of the dilute cleaning solution from the outlet ports of the decaport sample splitter. Silica contamination seems to have been introduced by the blank water. Sampling and processing procedures for water year 1997 have been modified as a result of these analyses.

  8. Assessment of Skeletal Maturation in Concordance to Statural Height and Body Weight in 12-Year-Old Children - A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Vikram Vishwanath; Parameswaran, Ratna; Vijayalakshmi, Devaki; Khan, Nayeemullah; Nandakumar, Arani

    2016-06-01

    To analyse the importance of bodily characteristics of growing children and its correlation towards skeletal maturity. This further aids orthodontists in proper treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between cervical vertebrae maturation, statural height and body weight as measured in 12 -year-old children. Lateral cephalograms were taken as a part of treatment records in 94 children along with their statural height and body weight. The Cervical Vertebrae Maturation Index (CVMI) was used to trace the C2, C3 and C4 vertebrae respectively and the data were then correlated to the chart provided by the Indian Council for Medical Research (ICMR). The overall sample showed a statistically significant correlation between CVMI and height (p=0.047). Girls showed significant correlation in their mean heights to the CVMI staging (p=0.012) while the boys exhibited a maximal mean height value in Cervical Stage (CS) 5 followed by CS3. There was no significant correlation between weight and CVMI. The mean CVMI stage seen in boys and girls were CS2 and CS3 respectively. There exists a definitive correlation between height and CVMI stages in growing children. Girls showed an advanced level of skeletal maturity in comparison to boys. CVMI staging should be used along with statural height and body weight when considering growth modification procedures.

  9. Use of Curricular and Extracurricular Assessments to Predict Performance on the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1: A Multi-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandy, Robyn A.; Herial, Nabeel A.; Khuder, Sadik A.; Metting, Patricia J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies student performance predictions based on the United States Medical Licensure Exam (USMLE) Step 1. Subjects were second-year medical students from academic years of 2002 through 2006 (n = 711). Three measures of basic science knowledge (two curricular and one extracurricular) were evaluated as predictors of USMLE Step 1 scores.…

  10. Cohort Profile Update: 2004 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study. Body composition, mental health and genetic assessment at the 6 years follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio JD; Matijasevich, Alicia; Zanini, Roberta; Chrestani Cesar, Maria Aurora; Camargo-Figuera, Fabio Alberto; Oliveira, Isabel O; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2014-01-01

    This is an update of the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort profile, originally published in 2011. In view of the high prevalence of overweight and mental health problems among Brazilian children, together with the availability of state-of-the-art equipment to assess body composition and diagnostic tests for mental health in childhood, the main outcomes measured in the fifth follow-up (mean age 6.8 years) included child body composition, mental health and cognitive ability. A total of 3722 (90.2%) of the original mothers/carers were interviewed and their children examined in a clinic where they underwent whole-body dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), air displacement plethysmography and a 3D photonic scan. Saliva samples for DNA were obtained. Clinical psychologists applied the Development and Well-Being Assessment questionnaire and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children to all children. Results are being compared with those of the two earlier cohorts to assess the health effects of economic growth and full implementation of public policies aimed at reducing social inequalities in the past 30 years. For further information visit the programme website at [http://www.epidemio-ufpel.org.br/site/content/coorte_2004/questionarios.php]. Applications to use the data should be made by contacting 2004 cohort researchers and filling in the application form available at [http://www.epidemio-ufpel.org.br/site/content/estudos/formularios.php]. PMID:25063002

  11. The Battle for Vocational Education: An Evaluation of the Study Plan for the National Assessment (NAVE) and Its First Year Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merkel-Keller, Claudia

    This paper examines the study plan for the National Assessment of Vocational Education (NAVE) and outlines some of the preliminary results that have been determined to date. According to the paper, the NAVE has identified five broad areas in which to conduct research: (1) implementation of the Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act; (2)…

  12. Cohort profile update: 2004 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study. Body composition, mental health and genetic assessment at the 6 years follow-up.

    PubMed

    Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio J D; Matijasevich, Alicia; Zanini, Roberta; Chrestani Cesar, Maria Aurora; Camargo-Figuera, Fabio Alberto; Oliveira, Isabel O; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2014-10-01

    This is an update of the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort profile, originally published in 2011. In view of the high prevalence of overweight and mental health problems among Brazilian children, together with the availability of state-of-the-art equipment to assess body composition and diagnostic tests for mental health in childhood, the main outcomes measured in the fifth follow-up (mean age 6.8 years) included child body composition, mental health and cognitive ability. A total of 3722 (90.2%) of the original mothers/carers were interviewed and their children examined in a clinic where they underwent whole-body dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), air displacement plethysmography and a 3D photonic scan. Saliva samples for DNA were obtained. Clinical psychologists applied the Development and Well-Being Assessment questionnaire and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children to all children. Results are being compared with those of the two earlier cohorts to assess the health effects of economic growth and full implementation of public policies aimed at reducing social inequalities in the past 30 years. For further information visit the programme website at [http://www.epidemio-ufpel.org.br/site/content/coorte_2004/questionarios.php]. Applications to use the data should be made by contacting 2004 cohort researchers and filling in the application form available at [http://www.epidemio-ufpel.org.br/site/content/estudos/formularios.php]. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  13. Objectively assessed physical activity and subsequent health service use of UK adults aged 70 and over: a four to five year follow up study.

    PubMed

    Simmonds, Bethany; Fox, Kenneth; Davis, Mark; Ku, Po-Wen; Gray, Selena; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Sharp, Debbie; Stathi, Afroditi; Thompson, Janice; Coulson, Joanna; Trayers, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    To examine the associations between volume and intensity of older peoples' physical activity, with their subsequent health service usage over the following four to five years. A prospective cohort design using baseline participant characteristics, objectively assessed physical activity and lower limb function provided by Project OPAL (Older People and Active Living). OPAL-PLUS provided data on numbers of primary care consultations, prescriptions, unplanned hospital admissions, and secondary care referrals, extracted from medical records for up to five years following the baseline OPAL data collection. OPAL participants were a diverse sample of 240 older adults with a mean age of 78 years. They were recruited from 12 General Practitioner surgeries from low, middle, and high areas of deprivation in a city in the West of England. Primary care consultations, secondary care referrals, unplanned hospital admissions, number of prescriptions and new disease diagnoses were assessed for 213 (104 females) of the original 240 OPAL participants who had either consented to participate in OPAL-PLUS or already died during the follow-up period. In regression modelling, adjusted for socio-economic variables, existing disease, weight status, minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day predicted subsequent numbers of prescriptions. Steps taken per day and MVPA also predicted unplanned hospital admissions, although the strength of the effect was reduced when further adjustment was made for lower limb function. Community-based programs are needed which are successful in engaging older adults in their late 70s and 80s in more walking, MVPA and activity that helps them avoid loss of physical function. There is a potential for cost savings to health services through reduced reliance on prescriptions and fewer unplanned hospital admissions.

  14. The communication skills course for second year medical students at Hannover Medical School: An evaluation study based on students' self-assessments.

    PubMed

    von Lengerke, Thomas; Kursch, Angelika; Lange, Karin

    2011-01-01

    In the model medical curriculum HannibaL at Hannover Medical School (MHH, Hannover, Germany), communication skills in taking case histories and disclosing diagnoses (breaking bad news) are assessed through an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). This is part of the examinations which at the MHH represent the equivalent to the First Part of the Medical Examinations. The second year doctor-patient communication course preparing for these examinations was evaluated during the 2009/10 academic year.Using questionnaires specific to the learning objectives, learning needs were assessed, pre-post comparisons of self-assessed competencies were performed and key teaching methods were evaluated (5-point Likert scales, "5"=fully agree). At T0 (start of the course) 267 students participated (response rate: 93.7%), of which 180 filled out the T1 questionnaire during the last session of the course (67.4%). Within-subject analyses of variance and paired t-tests were conducted.The highest learning needs were found for the "to show how"-items regarding history taking and disclosing diagnoses (M=4.4). The T1-T0 comparisons showed the greatest improvements for history taking ("to know how": mean difference = +1.7, "to show how": +1.8, p<.0001 as with all tests) and the "to know how"-item regarding the disclosure of diagnoses (+1.6), followed by the "to show how"-items on disclosing a diagnosis (+1.4), shared decision making (+1.2), self-assessing one's own strengths/weaknesses (+1.0) and confidently approaching new patients (+0.7). Students with T0 values of 1 or 2 on the respective scales improved on average by 2.2 points across all items, students with the value of 3 by 1.1, and from 4 or 5 by 0.1. Methodically, the use of simulated patients was rated the most helpful (M=4.8, 87% with the scale value 5). This doctor-patient communication course is associated with substantial improvements regarding all key learning objectives. Regarding methods, the deployed simulated

  15. Does self-assessed physical capacity predict development of low back pain among health care workers? A 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Charlotte D N; Jørgensen, Marie B; Clausen, Thomas; Andersen, Lars L; Strøyer, Jesper; Holtermann, Andreas

    2013-02-01

    Prospective cohort study. To determine the prognostic value of self-assessed physical capacity for the development of low back pain (LBP) among female health care workers without LBP. High physical capacities in terms of strength, endurance, flexibility, and balance are assumed to prevent LBP among persons with high physical work demands. However, the few existing studies investigating this relationship show contrasting findings. Female health care workers answered a questionnaire about physical capacity in 2004, and days with LBP in 2005 and 2006. The odds ratios (ORs) for developing nonchronic (1-30 d of the past 12 mo) and persistent (>30 d of the past 12 mo) LBP in 2006 from self-assessed physical capacity were investigated with multiadjusted logistic regressions among female health care workers without LBP in 2005 (n = 1612). Health care workers with low and medium physical capacity had increased risk of developing nonchronic LBP (OR = 1.52 [CI = 1.05-2.20] and OR = 1.37 [CI = 1.01-1.84], respectively), and health care workers with low physical capacity had an increased risk of developing persistent LBP (OR = 2.13 [CI = 1.15-3.96]), referencing those with high physical capacity. Self-assessed low physical capacity is a strong predictor for developing nonchronic and persistent LBP among pain-free female health care workers. Future intervention studies should investigate whether increased physical capacity, for example, through exercise training prevents development of LBP among female health care workers.

  16. Monitoring and assessment of seasonal land cover changes using remote sensing: a 30-year (1987-2016) case study of Hamoun Wetland, Iran.

    PubMed

    Kharazmi, Rasoul; Tavili, Ali; Rahdari, Mohammad Reza; Chaban, Lyudmila; Panidi, Evgeny; Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús

    2018-05-23

    The availability of Landsat data allows improving the monitoring and assessment of large-scale areas with land cover changes in rapid developing regions. Thus, we pretend to show a combined methodology to assess land cover changes (LCCs) in the Hamoun Wetland region (Iran) over a period of 30-year (1987-2016) and to quantify seasonal and decadal landscape and land use variabilities. Using the pixel-based change detection (PBCD) and the post-classification comparison (PCC), four land cover classes were compared among spring, summer, and fall seasons. Our findings showed for the water class a higher correlation between spring and summer (R 2  = 0.94) than fall and spring (R 2  = 0.58) seasons. Before 2000, ~ 50% of the total area was covered by bare soil and 40% by water. However, after 2000, more than 70% of wetland was transformed into bare soils. The results of the long-term monitoring period showed that fall season was the most representative time to show the inter-annual variability of LCCs monitoring and the least affected by seasonal-scale climatic variations. In the Hamoun Wetland region, land cover was highly controlled by changes in surface water, which in turn responded to both climatic and anthropogenic impacts. We were able to divide the water budget monitoring into three different ecological regimes: (1) a period of high water level, which sustained healthy extensive plant life, and approximately 40% of the total surface water was retained until the end of the hydrological year; (2) a period of drought during high evaporation rates was observed, and a mean wetland surface of about 85% was characterized by bare land; and (3) a recovery period in which water levels were overall rising, but they are not maintained from year to year. After a spring flood, in 2006 and 2013, grassland reached the highest extensions, covering till more than 20% of the region, and the dynamics of the ecosystem were affected by the differences in moisture. The Hamoun

  17. [Revival after Ebola: multidisciplinary assessment at 1 year, prospect and follow-up study of surviving patients from Ebola in Guinea (PostEboGui cohort)].

    PubMed

    Msellati, P; Touré, A; Sow, M S; Cécé, K; Taverne, B; Desclaux, A; Barry, M; Etard, J-F; Delaporte, E

    2016-10-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic that spread in West Africa from the end of 2013 to early 2016 has reached more people than all past epidemics. Beyond care management of acute phase ill patients and measures for the control of the epidemic, the outcome of Ebola survivors became an important question as their number increased and raised new issues. A multidisciplinary prospective cohort of survivors in Guinea has been launched by IRD UMI 233 and Donka National Hospital, Conakry, Guinea, to assess the long-term clinical, psychological, sociological, immunological, and viral outcomes potentially related to EVD. This paper describes PostEboGui Programme, constraints and changes to the initial proposal, participants, first results, and new issues, 1 year after its start, in a descriptive and critical view. We started also to work on ethical aspects in the context of epidemics and of mass interventions with a risk of overinvestigation of patients.

  18. Relation of Sex Hormone Levels With Prevalent and 10-Year Change in Aortic Distensibility Assessed by MRI: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Subramanya, Vinita; Ambale-Venkatesh, Bharath; Ohyama, Yoshiaki; Zhao, Di; Nwabuo, Chike C; Post, Wendy S; Guallar, Eliseo; Ouyang, Pamela; Shah, Sanjiv J; Allison, Matthew A; Ndumele, Chiadi E; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Bluemke, David A; Lima, Joao A; Michos, Erin D

    2018-06-11

    Women experience a steeper decline in aortic elasticity related to aging compared to men. We examined whether sex hormone levels were associated with ascending aortic distensibility (AAD) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. We studied 1,345 postmenopausal women and 1,532 men aged 45-84 years, who had serum sex hormone levels, AAD measured by phase-contrast cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and ejection fraction>50% at baseline. Among these participants, 457 women and 548 men returned for follow-up magnetic resonance imaging 10-years later. Stratified by sex, and using mixed effects linear regression methods, we examined associations of sex hormones (as tertiles) with baseline and annual change in log-transformed AAD (mm Hg-110-3), adjusting for demographics, body size, lifestyle factors, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, hypertensive medication use (and in women, for hormone therapy use and years since menopause). The mean (SD) age was 65 (9) for women and 62 (10) years for men. AAD was lower in women than men (P < 0.001). In adjusted cross-sectional analysis, the highest tertile of free testosterone (compared to lowest) in women was significantly associated with lower AAD [-0.10 (-0.19, -0.01)] and the highest tertile of estradiol in men was associated with greater AAD [0.12 (0.04, 0.20)]. There were no associations of sex hormones with change in AAD over 10 years, albeit in a smaller sample size. Lower free testosterone in women and higher estradiol in men were associated with greater aortic distensibility at baseline, but not longitudinally. Sex hormone levels may account for differences in AAD between women and men.

  19. Howitzer Technology Assessment Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    AD-A091 782 VEDA INC SOUTHAMPTON PA p~1t HOWITZER TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT STUDY.CU) Fs1/ NOV 80 A J CURRAN , J M MAGINN N000OI8?gC-0925 UNCLASSIFIED...ADIO SCONTRACTOR REPORT ARLCD-CR-SO036 0 HOWITZER TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT STUDY ROGER I. CURRAN - JAMES M. MAGINN VEDA INCORPORATED 1360 INDUSTRIAL...C-0925," 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME ARC ADDRESS VI POGAMEUNTPRJCAS JPROe &. M HaSN. RJETTn Veda Incorporated 1360 Industrial Highway Southampton

  20. One Year Later: Assessing Our Progress | NOAA Gulf Spill Restoration

    Science.gov Websites

    Archive Home One Year Later: Assessing Our Progress One Year Later: Assessing Our Progress oil in the wake Restoration Area A year ago, the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig sank, starting an oil spill that became the samples, surveyed thousands of miles of shoreline for oil, posted more than 60 work plans and other data

  1. Longitudinal study on potential neurotoxic effects of aluminium: II. Assessment of exposure and neurobehavioral performance of Al welders in the automobile industry over 4 years.

    PubMed

    Kiesswetter, Ernst; Schäper, M; Buchta, M; Schaller, K H; Rossbach, B; Kraus, T; Letzel, S

    2009-11-01

    This is the second of two parallel longitudinal studies investigating Al exposure and neurobehavioral health of Al welders over 4 years. While the first published study in the trail and truck construction industry examined the neurobehavioral development of Al welders from age 41-45 in the group mean (Kiesswetter et al. in Int Arch Occup Environ Health 81:41-67, 2007), the present study in the automobile industry followed the development from 35 to 39. Although no conspicuous neurobehavioral developments were detected in the first study, which furthermore exhibited the higher exposure, it cannot be excluded that exposure effects appear in earlier life and exposure stages. The longitudinal study is based on a repeated measurement design comprising 4 years with three measurements in 2 years intervals. 92 male Al welders in the automobile industry were compared with 50 non-exposed construction workers of the same industry and of similar age. The repeated measurements included total dust in air, and Al pre- and post-shift plasma and urine samples. Neurobehavioral methods comprised symptoms, verbal intelligence, logic thinking, psychomotor behavior, memory, and attention. The computer aided tests came from the Motor Performance Series and the European Neurobehavioral Evaluation System. The courses of neurobehavioral changes were analyzed with multivariate covariance-analytical methods considering the covariates age, indicators of 'a priori' intelligence differences (education or markers of 'premorbid' intelligence), and alcohol consumption (carbohydrate-deficient transferrin in plasma). Additionally, the interrelationship, reliability and validity of biomonitoring measures were examined. The mean environmental dust load during welding, 0.5-0.8 mg/m(3), and the mean internal load of the welders (pre-shift: 23-43 microg Al/g creatinine in urine; 5-9 microg Al/l plasma) were significantly lower than in the parallel study. Under low exposure, the stability of biomonitoring

  2. Baseline and 1-year interim follow-up assessment of Japanese patients initiating insulin therapy who were enrolled in the cardiovascular risk evaluation in people with type 2 diabetes on insulin therapy study: an international, multicenter, observational study.

    PubMed

    Kawamori, Ryuzo; Node, Koichi; Hanafusa, Toshiaki; Atsumi, Yoshihito; Naito, Yusuke; Oka, Yoshitomo

    2013-09-08

    The Cardiovascular Risk Evaluation in people with type 2 Diabetes on Insulin Therapy (CREDIT) study is an international, multicenter, observational study designed to assess metabolic parameters and cardiovascular risk of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on insulin therapy. The present report summarizes results at baseline and 1-year follow-up for the cohort of Japanese patients. Male and female patients (n = 511), aged >40 years, with T2DM for >1 year, treated with insulin therapy for ≥1 month and <6 months were eligible for participation in the study. Glycemic and lipid parameters, duration of diabetes, diabetic complications, oral antidiabetic medications, and all hypoglycemic episodes were recorded. Effectiveness was assessed based on changes in clinical parameters and attainment of target HbA1c levels. Safety was evaluated based on episodes of hypoglycemia and weight gain. At baseline, the mean ± SD duration of diabetes was 11.8 ± 8.8 years. Microvascular and macrovascular diabetic complications were present in 83.4% and 25.1% of patients, respectively. At the 1-year follow-up, significant improvements were observed in mean HbA1c (10.3 ± 2.0% vs. 7.5 ± 1.3%, P < .001), fasting plasma glucose (217.3 ± 80.8 mg/dL vs. 139.0 ± 48.7 mg/dL, P < .001), and postprandial plasma glucose levels (296.1 ± 96.0 mg/dL vs. 178.2 ± 68.6 mg/dL, P < .001) compared with baseline. Mean total cholesterol (P < .001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < .001), triglycerides (P < .01), and diastolic blood pressure (P < .01) also significantly decreased. Good glycemic control (HbA1c < 7.0%) was achieved in 40% of patients at the 1-year follow-up. Glycemic control tended to be better in patients with lower baseline HbA1c levels (P < .01). Patients with a shorter duration of diabetes were more likely to achieve glycemic control and discontinue insulin for diabetes control at the 1-year follow-up (P < .05 for trend). Symptomatic hypoglycemic episodes occurred in

  3. Stability of physical assessment of older drivers over 1 year.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew; Marshall, Shawn; Porter, Michelle; Ha, Linda; Bédard, Michel; Gélinas, Isabelle; Man-Son-Hing, Malcolm; Mazer, Barbara; Rapoport, Mark; Tuokko, Holly; Vrkljan, Brenda

    2013-12-01

    Older adults represent the fastest-growing population of drivers with a valid driver's licence. Also common in this age group are multiple chronic medical conditions that may have an effect on physical function and driving ability. Determining the reliability of physical measures used to assess older drivers' functional ability is important to identifying those who are safe to continue driving. Most previous reliability studies of clinical physical measures of health used test-retest intervals shorter than those between patient visits with a clinician. In the present study we examined a more clinically representative interval of 1 year to determine the stability of commonly used physical measures collected during the Candrive II prospective cohort study of older drivers. Reliability statistics indicate that the sequential finger-thumb opposition, rapid pace walk and the Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity tests have adequate stability over 1 year. Poor stability was observed for the one-legged stance and Snellen visual acuity test. Several assessments with nominal data (Marottoli method [functional neck range of motion], whispered voice test, range of motion and strength testing) lacked sufficient variability to conduct reliability analyses; however, a lack of variability between test days suggests consistency over a 1-year time frame. Our results provide evidence that specific physical measures are stable in monitoring functional ability over the course of a year. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of Utilization and Cost-Effectiveness of Telemedicine Program in Western Regions of China: A 12-Year Study of 249 Hospitals Across 112 Cities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting-Ting; Li, Jin-Mei; Zhu, Cai-Rong; Hong, Zhen; An, Dong-Mei; Yang, Hong-Yu; Ren, Jie-Chuan; Zou, Xue-Mei; Huang, Cheng; Chi, Xiao-Sa; Chen, Jia-Ni; Hong, Zhen; Wang, Wen-Zhi; Xu, Cai-Gang; He, Li; Li, Wei-Min; Zhou, Dong

    2016-11-01

    The imbalance in healthcare between urban and rural areas is still a problem in China. In recent decades, China has aimed to develop telemedicine. We assessed the implementation, utilization, and cost-effectiveness of a large telemedicine program across western China. In 2002-2013, a government-sponsored major telemedicine program was established by West China Hospital of Sichuan University (hub), covering 249 spoke hospitals in 112 cities throughout western China and in 40 medical expertise areas. We analyzed the cross-sectional data from 11,987 consultations conducted at West China Hospital using the telemedicine network over a 12-year period. The types of diseases as well as the diagnosis and treatment changes were assessed. We also performed a cost-savings analysis and a one-way sensitivity analysis. Of the 11,987 teleconsultations, we noted that neoplasms (19.4%), injuries (13.9%), and circulatory diseases (10.3%) were the three most common diagnoses. Teleconsultations resulted in a change of diagnosis in 4,772 (39.8%) patients, and 3,707 (77.7%) of them underwent major diagnosis changes. Moreover, it led to a change of treatment in 6,591 (55.0%) patients, including 3,677 (55.8%) changes not linked to diagnosis changes. The telemedicine network resulted in an estimated net saving of $2,364,525 (if the patients traveled to the hub) or $3,759,014 (if the specialists traveled to the spoke hospitals). The introduction of telemedicine in China, linking highly specialized major hospitals (hub) with hundreds of small rural hospitals (spoke), can greatly improve the quality, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness of healthcare delivery and utilization. This new Internet-based healthcare model should be utilized more widely in developing countries.

  5. A mixed methods study to assess the effectiveness of food-based interventions to prevent stunting among children under-five years in Districts Thatta and Sujawal, Sindh Province, Pakistan: study protocol.

    PubMed

    Kureishy, Sumra; Khan, Gul Nawaz; Arrif, Shabina; Ashraf, Khizar; Cespedes, Angela; Habib, Muhammad Atif; Hussain, Imtiaz; Ullah, Asmat; Turab, Ali; Ahmed, Imran; Zaidi, Shehla; Soofi, Sajid Bashir

    2017-01-05

    Maternal and child malnutrition is widely prevalent in low and middle income countries. In Pakistan, widespread food insecurity and malnutrition are the main contributors to poor health, low survival rates and the loss of human capital development. The nutritional status trends among children exhibit a continuous deteriorating with rates of malnutrition exceeding the WHO critical threshold. With the high prevalence of maternal and child malnutrition, it is important to identify effective preventative approaches, especially for reducing stunting in children under-five years of age. The primary aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of food-based interventions to prevent stunting in children under-five years. A mixed methods study design will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of food-based interventions to prevent stunting among children under-five years in districts Thatta and Sujawal, Sindh Province, Pakistan. The study will include cross sectional surveys, a community-based cluster randomized controlled trial and a process evaluation. The study participants will be pregnant women, lactating mothers and children under-five years. The cross-sectional surveys will be conducted with 7360 study participants at baseline and endline. For the randomized control trial, 5000 participants will be recruited and followed monthly for compliance of food-based supplements, dietary diversity, pregnancy outcomes, and maternal and child morbidity and mortality. Anthropometric measurements and hemoglobin levels will be measured at baseline, quarterly and at endline. The interventions will consist of locally produced lipid-based nutrient supplement (Wawamum) for children 6-23 months, micronutrient powders for children 24-59 months, and wheat soya blends for pregnant and lactating mothers. Government lady health workers will deliver interventions to participants. The effectiveness of the project will be measured in terms of the impact of the proposed interventions on

  6. Scandcleft randomised trials of primary surgery for unilateral cleft lip and palate: 8. Assessing naso-labial appearance in 5-year-olds - a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Mølsted, Kirsten; Humerinta, Kirsti; Küseler, Annelise; Skaare, Pål; Bellardie, Haydn; Shaw, William; Karsten, Agneta; Kåre Sæle, Paul; Rizell, Sara; Marcusson, Agneta; Eyres, Philip; Semb, Gunvor

    2017-02-01

    Facial appearance is one of the most relevant measures of success in cleft lip and palate treatment. The aim was to assess nasolabial appearance at 5 years of age in all children in the project. In this part of the project the local protocol for lip closure continued to be used because the primary lip and nose operations were not part of the randomisation. The great majority of the surgeons used Millard's technique together with McComb's technique for the nose. One center used Tennison-Randalls technique and in one center the centers own technique as well as nose plugs were used. Three hundred and fifty-nine children participated in this part of the project. Standardised photos according to a specific protocol developed for the Scandcleft project were taken. Only the nasolabial area was shown, the surrounding facial features were masked. Three components were scored using a 5-point ordinal scale. A new developed Scandcleft Yardstick was used. The reliability of the method was tested using the weighted kappa statistics. Both the interrater and intrarater reliability scores were good to very good. There were statistically significant differences between the three trials. The Millard procedure combined with McComb technique had been used in the majority of the cases in all three trials. There were statistically significant differences between the three trials concerning upper lip, nasal form, and cleft side profile. ISRCTN29932826.

  7. Assessment of Drywells as Effective Tools for Stormwater Management and Aquifer Recharge: Results of a Two-Year Field and Numerical Modeling Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, E.; Washburn, B.; Harter, T.; Fogg, G. E.; Nelson, C.; Lock, B.; Li, X.

    2016-12-01

    Drywells are gravity-fed, excavated pits with perforated casings used to facilitate stormwater infiltration and groundwater recharge in areas with low permeability soils or cover. Stormwater runoff that would otherwise be routed to streams or drains in urban areas can be used as a source of aquifer recharge, potentially mitigating the effects of drought and harm to natural water bodies. However, the potential for groundwater contamination caused by urban runoff bypassing surface soil and near surface sediment attenuation processes has prevented more widespread use of drywells as a recharge mechanism. A field study was conducted in Elk Grove, CA, to determine the effects of drywell-induced stormwater infiltration on the local hydrogeologic system. Two drywells 13.5 meters in depth were constructed for the project: one in a preexisting drainage basin fed by residential lots, and one at an industrial site. Both sites were outfitted with vegetated pretreatments, and upgradient and downgradient groundwater monitoring wells. Site stormwater and groundwater were sampled between November, 2014, and May, 2016, and analyzed for contaminants. Results of water quality sampling have been statistically analyzed for trends and used to determine the contaminants of interest and the concentrations of these contaminants in influent stormwater. The fate and transport of these contaminants have been simulated using a 1D variably saturated flow and transport model and site specific parameters to predict long-term effects of stormwater infiltration on the surrounding hydrogeologic system. The potential for remobilization of geogenic heavy metals from changes in subsurface hydrochemistry caused by drywell infiltration have also been assessed. The results of the field study and numerical modeling assessment indicate that the study's drywells do not pose a long-term threat to groundwater quality and may be an effective source of aquifer recharge and tool for urban stormwater management.

  8. Assessing Statewide All-Cause Future One-Year Mortality: Prospective Study With Implications for Quality of Life, Resource Utilization, and Medical Futility.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanting; Zheng, Gang; Fu, Tianyun; Hao, Shiying; Ye, Chengyin; Zheng, Le; Liu, Modi; Xia, Minjie; Jin, Bo; Zhu, Chunqing; Wang, Oliver; Wu, Qian; Culver, Devore S; Alfreds, Shaun T; Stearns, Frank; Kanov, Laura; Bhatia, Ajay; Sylvester, Karl G; Widen, Eric; McElhinney, Doff B; Ling, Xuefeng Bruce

    2018-06-04

    cohort. The mortality was 0.99% in the low-risk group, 16.75% in the intermediate-risk group, and 72.12% in the high-risk group. A total of 99 independent risk factors (n=99) for mortality were identified (reported as odds ratios; 95% CI). Age was on the top of list (1.41; 1.06-1.48); congestive heart failure (20.90; 15.41-28.08) and different tumor sites were also recognized as driving risk factors, such as cancer of the ovaries (14.42; 2.24-53.04), colon (14.07; 10.08-19.08), and stomach (13.64; 3.26-86.57). Disparities were also found in patients' social determinants like respiratory hazard index (1.24; 0.92-1.40) and unemployment rate (1.18; 0.98-1.24). Among high-risk patients who expired in our dataset, cerebrovascular accident, amputation, and type 1 diabetes were the top 3 diseases in terms of average cost in the last year of life. Our study prospectively validated an accurate 1-year risk prediction model and stratification for the elderly population (≥65 years) at risk of mortality with statewide electronic medical record datasets. It should be a valuable adjunct for helping patients to make better quality-of-life choices and alerting care givers to target high-risk elderly for appropriate care and discussions, thus cutting back on futile treatment. ©Yanting Guo, Gang Zheng, Tianyun Fu, Shiying Hao, Chengyin Ye, Le Zheng, Modi Liu, Minjie Xia, Bo Jin, Chunqing Zhu, Oliver Wang, Qian Wu, Devore S Culver, Shaun T Alfreds, Frank Stearns, Laura Kanov, Ajay Bhatia, Karl G Sylvester, Eric Widen, Doff B McElhinney, Xuefeng Bruce Ling. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 04.06.2018.

  9. Formative Assessment in Year 12 English: A Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dargusch, Jo

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a research project investigating the formative assessment practices of two teachers of Year 12 English in Queensland. This is a high-stakes year that is focused on summative assessment for certification purposes. In this school-based, externally-moderated, standards-referenced system, however, teachers are also expected to…

  10. Forty years of carabid beetle research in Europe - from taxonomy, biology, ecology and population studies to bioindication, habitat assessment and conservation.

    PubMed

    Kotze, D Johan; Brandmayr, Pietro; Casale, Achille; Dauffy-Richard, Emmanuelle; Dekoninck, Wouter; Koivula, Matti J; Lövei, Gábor L; Mossakowski, Dietrich; Noordijk, Jinze; Paarmann, Wilfried; Pizzolotto, Roberto; Saska, Pavel; Schwerk, Axel; Serrano, José; Szyszko, Jan; Taboada, Angela; Turin, Hans; Venn, Stephen; Vermeulen, Rikjan; Zetto, Tullia

    2011-01-01

    'Carabidologists do it all' (Niemelä 1996a) is a phrase with which most European carabidologists are familiar. Indeed, during the last half a century, professional and amateur entomologists have contributed enormously to our understanding of the basic biology of carabid beetles. The success of the field is in no small part due to regular European Carabidologists' Meetings, which started in 1969 in Wijster, the Netherlands, with the 14th meeting again held in the Netherlands in 2009, celebrating the 40th anniversary of the first meeting and 50 years of long-term research in the Dwingelderveld. This paper offers a subjective summary of some of the major developments in carabidology since the 1960s. Taxonomy of the family Carabidae is now reasonably established, and the application of modern taxonomic tools has brought up several surprises like elsewhere in the animal kingdom. Progress has been made on the ultimate and proximate factors of seasonality and timing of reproduction, which only exceptionally show non-seasonality. Triggers can be linked to evolutionary events and plausibly explained by the "taxon cycle" theory. Fairly little is still known about certain feeding preferences, including granivory and ants, as well as unique life history strategies, such as ectoparasitism and predation on higher taxa. The study of carabids has been instrumental in developing metapopulation theory (even if it was termed differently). Dispersal is one of the areas intensively studied, and results show an intricate interaction between walking and flying as the major mechanisms. The ecological study of carabids is still hampered by some unresolved questions about sampling and data evaluation. It is recognised that knowledge is uneven, especially concerning larvae and species in tropical areas. By their abundance and wide distribution, carabid beetles can be useful in population studies, bioindication, conservation biology and landscape ecology. Indeed, 40 years of carabidological

  11. Forty years of carabid beetle research in Europe – from taxonomy, biology, ecology and population studies to bioindication, habitat assessment and conservation

    PubMed Central

    Kotze, D. Johan; Brandmayr, Pietro; Casale, Achille; Dauffy-Richard, Emmanuelle; Dekoninck, Wouter; Koivula, Matti J.; Lövei, Gábor L.; Mossakowski, Dietrich; Noordijk, Jinze; Paarmann, Wilfried; Pizzolotto, Roberto; Saska, Pavel; Schwerk, Axel; Serrano, José; Szyszko, Jan; Taboada, Angela; Turin, Hans; Venn, Stephen; Vermeulen, Rikjan; Zetto, Tullia

    2011-01-01

    Abstract ‘Carabidologists do it all’ (Niemelä 1996a) is a phrase with which most European carabidologists are familiar. Indeed, during the last half a century, professional and amateur entomologists have contributed enormously to our understanding of the basic biology of carabid beetles. The success of the field is in no small part due to regular European Carabidologists’ Meetings, which started in 1969 in Wijster, the Netherlands, with the 14th meeting again held in the Netherlands in 2009, celebrating the 40th anniversary of the first meeting and 50 years of long-term research in the Dwingelderveld. This paper offers a subjective summary of some of the major developments in carabidology since the 1960s. Taxonomy of the family Carabidae is now reasonably established, and the application of modern taxonomic tools has brought up several surprises like elsewhere in the animal kingdom. Progress has been made on the ultimate and proximate factors of seasonality and timing of reproduction, which only exceptionally show non-seasonality. Triggers can be linked to evolutionary events and plausibly explained by the “taxon cycle” theory. Fairly little is still known about certain feeding preferences, including granivory and ants, as well as unique life history strategies, such as ectoparasitism and predation on higher taxa. The study of carabids has been instrumental in developing metapopulation theory (even if it was termed differently). Dispersal is one of the areas intensively studied, and results show an intricate interaction between walking and flying as the major mechanisms. The ecological study of carabids is still hampered by some unresolved questions about sampling and data evaluation. It is recognised that knowledge is uneven, especially concerning larvae and species in tropical areas. By their abundance and wide distribution, carabid beetles can be useful in population studies, bioindication, conservation biology and landscape ecology. Indeed, 40 years

  12. Four years of early benefit assessment of new drugs in Germany: a qualitative study on methodological requirements for quality of life data.

    PubMed

    Blome, Christine; Augustin, Matthias; Metin, Hidayet; Lohrberg, David

    2017-03-01

    Since 2011, an early benefit assessment (EBA) of new drugs constricts free price setting in Germany. According to the Pharmaceutical Market Restructuring Act (AMNOG), pharmaceutical companies are obliged to demonstrate added benefit of new drugs over comparative treatment. Benefit is usually evaluated by the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG). The final appraisal is made by the Federal Joint Committee, Germany's highest-ranking decision body in the health sector, triggering drug prize negotiations between companies and statutory health insurance funds. One of four evaluation criteria is quality of life (QoL). QoL outcomes have, however, only rarely been pivotal in EBAs. This study determined methodological requirements for QoL measurement and data presentation in the EBA. In a qualitative content analysis, documents of all EBAs completed by 2014 were searched for the term QoL. Relevant passages of all EBAs of 2011-2013 were independently extracted and reduced to key content by two researchers. Recurring patterns were identified and verified through comparison with EBAs of 2014. We identified a range of requirements regarding QoL assessment, analysis, presentation, and interpretation, which go beyond official regulations. Disease-specific questionnaires are preferred and have to be validated according to certain standards and in the respective patient group. Effects must exceed the minimal important difference, which in turn must be validated in compliance with specific requirements. Often, instruments were not accepted as QoL measures, sometimes inconsistently across EBAs. Another frequent reason for non-acceptance of QoL data was that more than 30 % of randomized patients could not be analyzed due to missing data. Non-compliance with methodological requirements for QoL evidence impairs chances for positive benefit evaluation.

  13. Pilot Study: Survey Tools for Assessing Parenting Styles and Family Contributors to the Development of Obesity in Arab Children Ages 6 to 12 Years.

    PubMed

    Tami, Suzan H; Reed, Debra B; Trejos, Elizabeth; Boylan, Mallory; Wang, Shu

    2015-11-05

    Our pilot study was conducted to test the reliability of the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) and the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity Assessment (FNPA) in a sample of Arab mothers. Twenty-five Arab mothers completed the CFSQ, FNPA, and the Participant Background Survey for the first administration. After 1-2 weeks, participants completed the CFSQ and the FNPA for the second administration. The two administrations of the surveys allowed for test/retest reliability of the CFSQ and the FNPA and to measure the internal consistency of the two surveys. Pearson's correlation between the first and second administrations or the 19-item scale (demandingness) and the 7-item scale (responsiveness) of the CFSQ were .95 and .86, respectively. As for the FNPA, Pearson's correlation was .80. The estimated reliabilities (Cronbach's alpha) of the CFSQ increased from .86 for the first administration to .93 for the second administration. However, the estimated reliabilities of the FNPA slightly increased from .58 for first administration to .59 for the second administration. In our pilot study of Arab mothers, the CFSQ and FNPA were shown to be promising in terms of reliability and content validity.

  14. The APU and Assessment in the Middle Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marjoram, D. T. E.

    1978-01-01

    Because of student characteristics in the middle years, several types of assessment are needed. The national monitoring system being developed by the Assessment of Performance Unit (APU) may prove a useful assessment framework for individual schools, providing developmental data for program comparisons and student movement between schools. (SJL)

  15. Assessment of visual perception in adolescents with a history of central coordination disorder in early life – 15-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Ireneusz M.; Domagalska, Małgorzata; Szopa, Andrzej; Dwornik, Michał; Kujawa, Jolanta; Stępień, Agnieszka; Śliwiński, Zbigniew

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Central nervous system damage in early life results in both quantitative and qualitative abnormalities of psychomotor development. Late sequelae of these disturbances may include visual perception disorders which not only affect the ability to read and write but also generally influence the child's intellectual development. This study sought to determine whether a central coordination disorder (CCD) in early life treated according to Vojta's method with elements of the sensory integration (S-I) and neuro-developmental treatment (NDT)/Bobath approaches affects development of visual perception later in life. Material and methods The study involved 44 participants aged 15-16 years, including 19 diagnosed with moderate or severe CCD in the neonatal period, i.e. during the first 2-3 months of life, with diagnosed mild degree neonatal encephalopathy due to perinatal anoxia, and 25 healthy people without a history of developmental psychomotor disturbances in the neonatal period. The study tool was a visual perception IQ test comprising 96 graphic tasks. Results The study revealed equal proportions of participants (p < 0.05) defined as very skilled (94-96), skilled (91-94), aerage (71-91), poor (67-71), and very poor (0-67) in both groups. These results mean that adolescents with a history of CCD in the neonatal period did not differ with regard to the level of visual perception from their peers who had not demonstrated psychomotor development disorders in the neonatal period. Conclusions Early treatment of children with CCD affords a possibility of normalising their psychomotor development early enough to prevent consequences in the form of cognitive impairments in later life. PMID:23185199

  16. Using Astin's I-E-O Model to Explain the Development of a Culture of Assessment: A Case Study of a Four-Year University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Mary Genusa

    2013-01-01

    The researcher sought to describe the culture of assessment for post-secondary program improvement that had resulted from the new requirements for reaffirmation through regional accreditation. The literature was deficient in a conceptual framework and surveys to measure a culture of assessment. The researcher developed a conceptual framework…

  17. Is Clinical Assessment of Addiction Severity of Individuals with Substance Use Disorder, Using the Addiction Severity Index, A Predictor of Future Inpatient Mental Health Hospitalization? A Nine-Year Registry Study.

    PubMed

    Padyab, Mojgan; Armelius, Bengt-Åke; Armelius, Kerstin; Nyström, Siv; Blom, Björn; Grönlund, Ann-Sofie; Lundgren, Lena

    2018-04-23

    In Sweden, the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) is the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare's recommended substance use disorder assessment tool and used routinely for patient intakes. Our study of 213 individuals assessed for substance use disorder with the ASI used nine years of the National Patient Register and examined whether clinical social workers' assessments of addiction severity at baseline were associated with later hospitalizations for mental health disorder (MHD). ASI composite scores and interviewer severity rating were used to measure clients' problems in seven areas (mental health, family and social relationships, employment, alcohol, drug use, health, and legal) at baseline. A stepwise regression method was used to assess the relative importance of ASI composite scores, MHD hospitalization two years prior to baseline, age, and gender for MHD hospitalization seven years post-baseline. Almost two-thirds of the individuals (63%) were hospitalized at least once for MHD in the seven years post-baseline. At the multivariable level, MHD hospitalization prior to baseline was the strongest predictor of future MHD hospitalization, followed by ASI composite scores for drug use, employment, mental health and, last, male gender. A key finding is that higher ASI composite scores for drug use and mental health are predictors of future need for MHD treatment. Future studies will replicate this effort with a national population of individuals with substance use disorder.

  18. Baseline and 1-year interim follow-up assessment of Japanese patients initiating insulin therapy who were enrolled in the cardiovascular risk evaluation in people with type 2 diabetes on insulin therapy study: an international, multicenter, observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Cardiovascular Risk Evaluation in people with type 2 Diabetes on Insulin Therapy (CREDIT) study is an international, multicenter, observational study designed to assess metabolic parameters and cardiovascular risk of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on insulin therapy. The present report summarizes results at baseline and 1-year follow-up for the cohort of Japanese patients. Methods Male and female patients (n = 511), aged >40 years, with T2DM for >1 year, treated with insulin therapy for ≥1 month and <6 months were eligible for participation in the study. Glycemic and lipid parameters, duration of diabetes, diabetic complications, oral antidiabetic medications, and all hypoglycemic episodes were recorded. Effectiveness was assessed based on changes in clinical parameters and attainment of target HbA1c levels. Safety was evaluated based on episodes of hypoglycemia and weight gain. Results At baseline, the mean ± SD duration of diabetes was 11.8 ± 8.8 years. Microvascular and macrovascular diabetic complications were present in 83.4% and 25.1% of patients, respectively. At the 1-year follow-up, significant improvements were observed in mean HbA1c (10.3 ± 2.0% vs. 7.5 ± 1.3%, P < .001), fasting plasma glucose (217.3 ± 80.8 mg/dL vs. 139.0 ± 48.7 mg/dL, P < .001), and postprandial plasma glucose levels (296.1 ± 96.0 mg/dL vs. 178.2 ± 68.6 mg/dL, P < .001) compared with baseline. Mean total cholesterol (P < .001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < .001), triglycerides (P < .01), and diastolic blood pressure (P < .01) also significantly decreased. Good glycemic control (HbA1c < 7.0%) was achieved in 40% of patients at the 1-year follow-up. Glycemic control tended to be better in patients with lower baseline HbA1c levels (P < .01). Patients with a shorter duration of diabetes were more likely to achieve glycemic control and discontinue insulin for

  19. Final analysis of a study assessing genital human papillomavirus genoprevalence in young Australian women, following eight years of a national vaccination program.

    PubMed

    Garland, Suzanne M; Cornall, Alyssa M; Brotherton, Julia M L; Wark, John D; Malloy, Michael J; Tabrizi, Sepehr N

    2018-05-31

    The VACCINE [Vaccine Against Cervical Cancer Impact and Effectiveness] study evaluated the prevalence of quadrivalent vaccine-targeted human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes (HPV 6, 11, 16, 18) amongst young women of vaccine-eligible age. Between October 2011 - June 2015, women aged 18-25 years from Victoria, Australia, were recruited through targeted advertising on the social networking website Facebook. Participants completed an online questionnaire and provided a self-collected vaginal swab for HPV DNA detection and genotyping (Linear Array HPV genotyping assay). Self-reported HPV vaccination details were verified with the National HPV Vaccination Program Register (NHVPR). Of 1223 who agreed to participate, 916 (74.9%) completed the survey and, for 1007 (82.3%) sexually-active participants, 744 (73.9%) returned the self-collected swab, of which 737 contained detectable DNA. 184/737 (25.0%) were positive for HPV. Vaccine-targeted HPV genotypes were detected in only 13 (1.7%) women: 11 HPV 16 (six vaccinated after sexual debut, five unvaccinated) and two HPV 6. Prevalence of any of HPV 31/33/45 collectively was 2.9%, varying significantly by vaccination status (fully 2.0%, unvaccinated 6.8%; p = 0.01). Vaccination rates among the sexually-active cohort were high, with 65.6%, 71.6% and 74.2% of participants having received three, at least two or at least one dose of vaccine, respectively. Of women self-reporting HPV vaccination, the NHVPR confirmed one or more doses were received in 90%. Strong associations were observed between vaccination status, age, language spoken at home and country of birth, as well as between HPV detection and the number of male sexual partners. Surveillance five to eight years' post-initiation of a national HPV vaccination program demonstrated a consistent and very low prevalence of vaccine-related HPV genotypes and some evidence of cross protection against related types amongst vaccine-eligible women from Victoria, Australia

  20. Assessment of Inaugural Two-Year NPM Guidance Process

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Assessment intended to facilitate discussions among EPA Headquarters, Regional and state staff and management -- to identify opportunities to improve the two-year process for the FY 2018-2019 NPM Guidance development.

  1. "This Is My Best": The Report of Vermont's Writing Assessment Program, Pilot Year 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermont State Dept. of Education, Montpelier.

    A study examined the background, methods, and results of the pilot year of Vermont's Writing Assessment program. Students and teachers from 46 Vermont schools were invited to participate in the 1990-91 pilot year of portfolio assessment. Students in grades 4 and 8 chose samples of their best writing from the school year. Each portfolio was…

  2. EMAP-VIRGINIAN PROVINCE FOUR YEAR ASSESSMENT (1990-1993)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessments with the four years (1990-93) of ecological condition data collected by the USEPA Environmntal Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) in estuaries of the Virginian Biogeographic Province (Cape Henry to Cape Cod) were presented. EMAP data were used to quantify, with ...

  3. Twenty Years of Progress in Violence Risk Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, R. Karl

    2005-01-01

    Violence risk assessment has advanced considerably in the last 20 years. In the 1980s, leading professionals questioned the very possibility of valid violence risk assessments; now, many of the major risk factors have been identified, and professional debate focuses on how best to combine these risk factors into meaningful evaluations. An…

  4. Federal Highway Administration 100-year coating study.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-11-01

    The Federal Highway Administration 100-Year Coating Study was initiated in August 2009 to search for durable : coating systems at a reasonable cost. The objective of the study was to identify and evaluate coating materials that can : provide 100 year...

  5. A cross-sectional study assessing the pharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in subjects aged 1-24 years in the city of Embu das Artes, São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Weckx, Lily Yin; Puccini, Rosana Fiorini; Machado, Antónia; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Tuboi, Suely; de Barros, Eliana; Devadiga, Raghavendra; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo; Colindres, Romulo

    Meningococcal carriage is a prerequisite for invasive infection. This cross-sectional study assessed the pharyngeal carriage prevalence in healthy subjects aged 1-24 years in Embu das Artes city, São Paulo, Brazil. Pharyngeal swabs were examined for the presence of Neisseria meningitidis. The isolates were tested for different serogroups using agglutination and polymerase chain reaction. A logistic regression model assessed any independent association between Neisseria meningitidis carriage and various risk factors. A total of 87/967 subjects (9%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 7.3-11.0) tested positive for N. meningitidis: 6.2% (95% CI: 3.8-9.4) in 1-4 years, 8.5% (95% CI: 5.1-13.0) in 5-9 years, 12.5% (95% CI: 7.8-18.6) in 10-14 years, 12.6% (95% CI: 7.4-19.7) in 15-19 years and 9% (95% CI: 4.9-14.9) in 20-24 years age groups. Highest carriage prevalence was observed in adolescents 10-19 years old. Serogroup C was predominant (18.4%) followed by serogroup B (12.6%). The 15-19 years age group showed a significant association between number of household members and carriers of N. meningitidis. This cross-sectional study is the first in Brazil to evaluate meningococcal carriage prevalence and associated factors in a wide age range. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Does early return to theatre add value to rates of revision at 3 years in assessing surgeon performance for elective hip and knee arthroplasty? National observational study.

    PubMed

    Bottle, Alex; Chase, Helen E; Aylin, Paul P; Loeffler, Mark

    2018-05-01

    Joint replacement revision is the most widely used long-term outcome measure in elective hip and knee surgery. Return to theatre (RTT) has been proposed as an additional outcome measure, but how it compares with revision in its statistical performance is unknown. National hospital administrative data for England were used to compare RTT at 90 days (RTT90) with revision rates within 3 years by surgeon. Standard power calculations were run for different scenarios. Funnel plots were used to count the number of surgeons with unusually high or low rates. From 2006 to 2011, there were 297 650 hip replacements (HRs) among 2952 surgeons and 341 226 knee replacements (KRs) among 2343 surgeons. RTT90 rates were 2.1% for HR and 1.5% for KR; 3-year revision rates were 2.1% for HR and 2.2% for KR. Statistical power to detect surgeons with poor performance on either metric was particularly low for surgeons performing 50 cases per year for the 5 years. The correlation between the risk-adjusted surgeon-level rates for the two outcomes was +0.51 for HR and +0.20 for KR, both p<0.001. There was little agreement between the measures regarding which surgeons had significantly high or low rates. RTT90 appears to provide useful and complementary information on surgeon performance and should be considered alongside revision rates, but low case loads considerably reduce the power to detect unusual performance on either metric. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Formative Assessment by First-Year Chemistry Students as Predictor of Success in Summative Assessment at a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siweya, Hlengani J.; Letsoalo, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether formative assessment is a predictor of summative assessment in a university first-year chemistry class. The sample comprised a total of 1687 first-year chemistry students chosen from the 2011 and 2012 cohorts. Both simple and multiple linear regression (SLR and MLR) techniques were applied to perform the primary aim…

  8. National Assessment Program--Civics and Citizenship Year 10 School Assessment, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    In 2007, the Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (MCEETYA) conducted an assessment of a sample of Year 6 and Year 10 students across Australia to assess their proficiency in civics and citizenship. The assessment of civics and citizenship is part of a national plan that has been put in place to monitor and…

  9. National Assessment Program--ICT Literacy Years 6 & 10 School Assessment Exemplars, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2005

    2005-01-01

    In 2005, the Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (MCEETYA) conducted an assessment of Year 6 and Year 10 students across Australia to assess their proficiency in ICT literacy. The 2005 ICT literacy assessment instrument consisted of seven discrete thematic modules. One module, the General Skills Test, included…

  10. Twenty years of assessment in WORK: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Lynn; Campbell, Heather; Jacobs, Karen; Prodinger, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this review was to gain an understanding of the first 20 years of contributions to WORK within the assessment domain and to reflect on the perspectives underscoring this knowledge base. A narrative review of assessment articles using the WORK ARTicle database was conducted. Assessment articles were searched using issues from 1990 to 2009. Descriptive data was analyzed to examine historical trends of the specific types and dimensions of articles, the regional location of the contributions, and the methodological accordance. A reflective process was used by an editorial board member of WORK to inductively interpret perspectives and contextual issues that underpinned the evolution of the assessment domain in WORK. Over half of $N=$ 108 of the articles on assessment in WORK focused on establishing or reporting reliability and validity of assessments used in clinical practice or evaluation research. The majority of the assessment articles were predominantly focused on the person. Contributions of articles were from 5 regions: North America, Europe, Australia, Asia and Africa. Assessment articles in WORK have contributed to the development of evidence to support assessment of the worker. These articles represent a knowledge base that emphasizes evidence-based assessments to evaluate what a person can and cannot do to participate in work. Efforts are needed to expand knowledge generation in assessment to include more evaluations on the workplace and occupation dimensions, and that also considers the worker in context.

  11. Assessing the effectiveness of 30% sodium chloride aqueous solution for the preservation of fixed anatomical specimens: a 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Fabrício Singaretti

    2014-07-01

    Anatomical specimens used in human or veterinary anatomy laboratories are usually prepared with formaldehyde (a cancerous and teratogenic substance), glycerin (an expensive and viscous fluid), or ethanol (which is flammable). This research aimed to verify the viability of an aqueous 30% sodium chloride solution for preservation of anatomical specimens previously fixed with formaldehyde. Anatomical specimens of ruminant, carnivorous, equine, swine and birds were used. All were previously fixed with an aqueous 20% formaldehyde solution and held for 7 days in a 10% aqueous solution of the same active ingredient. During the first phase of the experiment, small specimens of animal tissue previously fixed in formaldehyde were distributed in vials with different concentrations of formaldehyde, with or without 30% sodium chloride solution, a group containing only 30% sodium chloride, and a control group containing only water. During this phase, no contamination was observed in any specimen containing 30% sodium chloride solution, whether alone or in combination with different concentrations of formaldehyde. In the second phase of the experiment, the 30% sodium chloride solution, found to be optimal in the first phase of the experiment, was tested for its long-term preservation properties. For a period of 5 years, the preserved specimens were evaluated three times a week for visual contamination, odors, and changes in color and texture. There was no visual contamination or decay found in any specimen. Furthermore, no strange odors, or changes in color or softness were noted. The 30% sodium chloride solution was determined to be effective in the preservation of anatomic specimens previously fixed in formaldehyde. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  12. Assessing the effectiveness of 30% sodium chloride aqueous solution for the preservation of fixed anatomical specimens: a 5-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Fabrício Singaretti

    2014-01-01

    Anatomical specimens used in human or veterinary anatomy laboratories are usually prepared with formaldehyde (a cancerous and teratogenic substance), glycerin (an expensive and viscous fluid), or ethanol (which is flammable). This research aimed to verify the viability of an aqueous 30% sodium chloride solution for preservation of anatomical specimens previously fixed with formaldehyde. Anatomical specimens of ruminant, carnivorous, equine, swine and birds were used. All were previously fixed with an aqueous 20% formaldehyde solution and held for 7 days in a 10% aqueous solution of the same active ingredient. During the first phase of the experiment, small specimens of animal tissue previously fixed in formaldehyde were distributed in vials with different concentrations of formaldehyde, with or without 30% sodium chloride solution, a group containing only 30% sodium chloride, and a control group containing only water. During this phase, no contamination was observed in any specimen containing 30% sodium chloride solution, whether alone or in combination with different concentrations of formaldehyde. In the second phase of the experiment, the 30% sodium chloride solution, found to be optimal in the first phase of the experiment, was tested for its long-term preservation properties. For a period of 5 years, the preserved specimens were evaluated three times a week for visual contamination, odors, and changes in color and texture. There was no visual contamination or decay found in any specimen. Furthermore, no strange odors, or changes in color or softness were noted. The 30% sodium chloride solution was determined to be effective in the preservation of anatomic specimens previously fixed in formaldehyde. PMID:24762210

  13. The Association Between Self-Assessed Future Work Ability and Long-Term Sickness Absence, Disability Pension and Unemployment in a General Working Population: A 7-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Lundin, A; Kjellberg, K; Leijon, O; Punnett, L; Hemmingsson, T

    2016-06-01

    Purpose Work ability is commonly measured with self-assessments, in the form of indices or single items. The validity of these assessments lies in their predictive ability. Prospective studies have reported associations between work ability and sickness absence and disability pension, but few examined why these associations exist. Several correlates of work ability have been reported, but their mechanistic role is largely unknown. This study aims to investigate to what extent individual's own prognosis of work ability predicts labor market participation and whether this was due to individual characteristics and/or working conditions. Methods Self-assessed prognosis of work ability, 2 years from "now," in the Stockholm Public Health Questionnaire (2002-2003) was linked to national registers on sickness absence, disability pension and unemployment up to year 2010. Effects were studied with Cox regression models. Results Of a total of 12,064 individuals 1466 reported poor work ability. There were 299 cases of disability pension, 1466 long-term sickness absence cases and 765 long-term unemployed during follow-up. Poor work ability increased the risk of long-term sickness absence (HR 2.25, CI 95 % 1.97-2.56), disability pension (HR 5.19, CI 95 % 4.07-6.62), and long-term unemployment (HR 2.18, CI 95 % 1.83-2.60). These associations were partially explained by baseline health conditions, physical and (less strongly) psychosocial aspects of working conditions. Conclusions Self-assessed poor ability predicted future long-term sickness absence, disability pension and long-term unemployment. Self-assessed poor work ability seems to be an indicator of future labor market exclusion of different kinds, and can be used in public health monitoring.

  14. Does objectively assessed sleep at five years predict sleep and psychological functioning at 14 years? - Hmm, yes and no!

    PubMed

    Brand, Serge; Hatzinger, Martin; Stadler, Christina; Bolten, Margarete; von Wyl, Agnes; Perren, Sonja; von Klitzing, Kai; Stadelmann, Stephanie; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2015-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that objectively assessed sleep at kindergarten level predicts sleep and psychological functioning in adolescence. Thirty-seven adolescents aged 14 years (SD = 1.3), of 67 participants assessed as preschoolers, took part in a follow-up study nine years later. Participants completed a series of questionnaires related to sleep and psychological functioning. Sleep-EEG clusters of poor, normal and good sleepers assessed as children nine years earlier were used as predictors for subjective sleep and psychological functioning in adolescence. At the age of 14, those who were normal and good sleepers rather than poor sleepers at the age of five had more positive psychological functioning on dimensions including mental toughness, peer relationship, self-esteem, and perceived stress, but did not differ in current sleep patterns. Objectively assessed sleep patterns at the age of five are predictive of aspects of psychological functioning during adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Audit and Assessment Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Craig

    Project to assess 46 low-income multifamily residences owned and managed by THRHA in up to 14 southeast Alaska communities. The Objective of project was to identify efficiency measures to reduce energy costs by 30% for low-income multifamily housing by; 1. Decreasing energy demand by increasing multifamily housing energy efficiency; 2. Reducing household energy consumption through energy conservation education and installation of energy upgrades; and 3. Projecting energy savings based on fossil fuel reduction to environmentally and economically benefit Tribal southeast communities

  16. Local- and regional-scale air pollution modelling (PM10) and exposure assessment for pregnancy trimesters, infancy, and childhood to age 15 years: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents And Children (ALSPAC).

    PubMed

    Gulliver, John; Elliott, Paul; Henderson, John; Hansell, Anna L; Vienneau, Danielle; Cai, Yutong; McCrea, Adrienne; Garwood, Kevin; Boyd, Andy; Neal, Lucy; Agnew, Paul; Fecht, Daniela; Briggs, David; de Hoogh, Kees

    2018-04-01

    We established air pollution modelling to study particle (PM 10 ) exposures during pregnancy and infancy (1990-1993) through childhood and adolescence up to age ~15 years (1991-2008) for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents And Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. For pregnancy trimesters and infancy (birth to 6 months; 7 to 12 months) we used local (ADMS-Urban) and regional/long-range (NAME-III) air pollution models, with a model constant for local, non-anthropogenic sources. For longer exposure periods (annually and the average of birth to age ~8 and to age ~15 years to coincide with relevant follow-up clinics) we assessed spatial contrasts in local sources of PM 10 with a yearly-varying concentration for all background sources. We modelled PM 10 (μg/m 3 ) for 36,986 address locations over 19 years and then accounted for changes in address in calculating exposures for different periods: trimesters/infancy (n = 11,929); each year of life to age ~15 (n = 10,383). Intra-subject exposure contrasts were largest between pregnancy trimesters (5 th to 95 th centile: 24.4-37.3 μg/m 3 ) and mostly related to temporal variability in regional/long-range PM 10 . PM 10 exposures fell on average by 11.6 μg/m 3 from first year of life (mean concentration = 31.2 μg/m 3 ) to age ~15 (mean = 19.6 μg/m 3 ), and 5.4 μg/m 3 between follow-up clinics (age ~8 to age ~15). Spatial contrasts in 8-year average PM 10 exposures (5 th to 95 th centile) were relatively low: 25.4-30.0 μg/m 3 to age ~8 years and 20.7-23.9 μg/m 3 from age ~8 to age ~15 years. The contribution of local sources to total PM 10 was 18.5%-19.5% during pregnancy and infancy, and 14.4%-17.0% for periods leading up to follow-up clinics. Main roads within the study area contributed on average ~3.0% to total PM 10 exposures in all periods; 9.5% of address locations were within 50 m of a main road. Exposure estimates will be used in a number of planned epidemiological

  17. Telemonitoring in Cystic Fibrosis: A 4-year Assessment and Simulation for the Next 6 Years.

    PubMed

    Tagliente, Irene; Trieste, Leopoldo; Solvoll, Terje; Murgia, Fabrizio; Bella, Sergio

    2016-05-03

    Innovative technologies and informatics offer a wide range of services to health districts, doctors, nurses, and patients, and is changing the traditional concept of health care. In the last few years, the availability of portable devices, their easiness to transport and use, and the capability to collect and transmit various clinical data have resulted in the fast development of telemedicine. However, despite its potential impact in improving patient conditions, and its cost effectiveness reported in literature, telemedicine is not in daily practice. The aim of this study is to provide evidence of the positive impact of telemonitoring proving the sustainability of an application by sending spirometry outcomes from patients' homes to the hospital doctors via the Internet, and from doctors to patients by an additional phone call solution. We examined collected data related to clinical improvement of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The patients were followed-up at home using telemonitoring for a period of 10 years, with the aims to prove the sustainability of the methodology (transmissions of spirometry from the patients' home to the doctors and feedback from the doctors to the patients by phone call from the hospital). We stored and analyzed all spirometry transmissions received, and tested the possible presence to decrease the costs between the standard clinical trial (only ambulatory visits) and standard clinical trial with telemonitoring for the follow-up of patients with CF (telemedicine). This was done through an economic analysis of the costs for patients followed at home by telemonitoring. We assessed four years of observation and a simulation of total long-term costs between 2010 and 2020. We discovered a potential saving of €40,397.00 per patient for 10 years, actualized at €36,802.97 for the follow-up of all patients enrolled. The results from the study suggest that telemedicine can improve the health of patients with CF. It is a relatively cheap

  18. Optimal Cut-Offs of Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) to Identify Dysglycemia and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A 15-Year Prospective Study in Chinese.

    PubMed

    Lee, C H; Shih, A Z L; Woo, Y C; Fong, C H Y; Leung, O Y; Janus, E; Cheung, B M Y; Lam, K S L

    The optimal reference range of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in normal Chinese population has not been clearly defined. Here we address this issue using the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Study (CRISPS), a prospective population-based cohort study with long-term follow-up. In this study, normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were defined according to the 1998 World Health Organization criteria. Dysglycemia referred to IFG, IGT or T2DM. This study comprised two parts. Part one was a cross-sectional study involving 2,649 Hong Kong Chinese subjects, aged 25-74 years, at baseline CRISPS-1 (1995-1996). The optimal HOMA-IR cut-offs for dysglycemia and T2DM were determined by the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Part two was a prospective study involving 872 subjects who had persistent NGT at CRISPS-4 (2010-2012) after 15 years of follow-up. At baseline, the optimal HOMA-IR cut-offs to identify dysglyceia and T2DM were 1.37 (AUC = 0.735; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.713-0.758; Sensitivity [Se] = 65.6%, Specificity [Sp] = 71.3%] and 1.97 (AUC = 0.807; 95% CI = 0.777-0.886; Se = 65.5%, Sp = 82.9%) respectively. These cut-offs, derived from the cross-sectional study at baseline, corresponded closely to the 75th (1.44) and 90th (2.03) percentiles, respectively, of the HOMA-IR reference range derived from the prospective study of subjects with persistent NGT. HOMA-IR cut-offs, of 1.4 and 2.0, which discriminated dysglycemia and T2DM respectively from NGT in Southern Chinese, can be usefully employed as references in clinical research involving the assessment of insulin resistance.

  19. An epidemiological study to determine the prevalence and risk assessment of gingivitis in 5-, 12- and 15-year-old children of rural and urban area of Panchkula (Haryana).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Avninder; Gupta, Nidhi; Baweja, Devinder Kaur; Simratvir, Mauli

    2014-01-01

    The aim and objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence and severity of gingivitis and evaluate the factors associated with gingivitis in children residing in rural and urban areas of Panchkula. The present study was carried out on a sample of 1269 school children, aged 5, 12 and 15 years, randomly selected from the rural and the urban schools of Panchkula and gingival index was recorded as devised by Loe and Silness (1963) to assess the severity of gingivitis. A standardized questionnaire was self prepared, which was filled by the examiner prior to the clinical examination. The data were subjected to SPSS, version 13, and statistically analyzed using Chi test, F test, ANOVA test. In the age group of 5 years, the children affected with gingivitis in the rural and the urban areas were 67 and 33%, respectively, which was statistically highly significant (P = 0.0001). In the age group of 12 years, the children affected with gingivitis in the rural and the urban areas were 94 and 92%, respectively (P = 0.537), whereas in 15-year olds, the children affected with gingivitis in the rural and the urban areas were 98 and 64%, respectively (P = 0.0001). The children who brushed once a day had higher prevalence of gingivitis as compared to children who brushed more than once per day in all the age groups. The results showed that the percentage of children affected with gingivitis was significantly higher in the rural areas in 5- and 15-year-old children, but this trend was not seen in 12-year age group, reflecting the lack of awareness in rural areas.

  20. Quantification for complex assessment: uncertainty estimation in final year project thesis assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ho Sung

    2013-12-01

    A quantitative method for estimating an expected uncertainty (reliability and validity) in assessment results arising from the relativity between four variables, viz examiner's expertise, examinee's expertise achieved, assessment task difficulty and examinee's performance, was developed for the complex assessment applicable to final year project thesis assessment including peer assessment. A guide map can be generated by the method for finding expected uncertainties prior to the assessment implementation with a given set of variables. It employs a scale for visualisation of expertise levels, derivation of which is based on quantified clarities of mental images for levels of the examiner's expertise and the examinee's expertise achieved. To identify the relevant expertise areas that depend on the complexity in assessment format, a graphical continuum model was developed. The continuum model consists of assessment task, assessment standards and criterion for the transition towards the complex assessment owing to the relativity between implicitness and explicitness and is capable of identifying areas of expertise required for scale development.

  1. Analysis of the associations among Helicobacter pylori infection, adiponectin, leptin, and 10-year fracture risk using the fracture risk assessment tool: A cross-sectional community-based study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fang-Ping; Hsieh, Chia-Wen; Kuo, Sheng-Fong; Chien, Rong-Nan

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection may induce inflammatory cytokines or adipokines that influence bone turnover and bone fracture risk. This study aimed to evaluate the association among H. pylori infection, adipokines, and 10-year fracture risk using the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool scale. From August 2013 to February 2016, a community-based cohort was surveyed by Keelung Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital. Subjects were included if they were older than 40 years and not pregnant. All participants underwent a standardized questionnaire survey, physical examination, urea breath test, and blood tests. A total of 2,689 participants (1,792 women) were included in this cross-sectional study. In both sexes, participants with a high fracture risk were older and had higher adiponectin values than participants without a high fracture risk (mean age, female: 72.9 ± 5.6 vs. 55.8 ± 7.3 years, P < 0.0001; male: 78.9 ± 4.7 vs. 58.1 ± 8.9 years, P < 0.001) (adiponectin, female: 10.8 ± 6.3 vs. 8.7 ± 5.2 ng/ml, P < 0.001; male: 9.7 ± 6.1 vs. 5.5 ± 3.8 ng/ml, P < 0.001). Adiponectin was correlated with high fracture risk in both sexes, but H. pylori infection and leptin was not. In logistic regression analysis, adiponectin could not predict high fracture risk when adjusting the factor of body mass index (BMI) in men group. In conclusion, H. pylori infection and leptin could not predict 10-year fracture risk in either sex. Adiponectin was correlated with bone fracture risk in both sexes and the correlation might be from the influence of BMI. PMID:28388631

  2. Conceptualizing the Science Curriculum: 40 Years of Developing Assessment Frameworks in Three Large-Scale Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kind, Per Morten

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyzes conceptualizations in the science frameworks in three large-scale assessments, Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), and National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The assessments have a shared history, but have developed different conceptualizations. The…

  3. Environmental assessment of PSS, feedback on 2 years of experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allais, Romain; Gobert, Julie

    2018-05-01

    This communication details the sustainability assessment of the partial transition of business model from selling products to product renting for small household equipment (SHE). Perceived by the French SHE manufacturer as a strategic opportunity to meet customers' expectations and environmental regulation, 2-years experimentation was performed on a specific territory with the support of a network of new competencies (B-to-B-to-C market). Researchers were mandated for the sustainability assessment of such a transition but this communication focuses on the environmental performance of the experimentation. The results of the comparative LCA are presented and the main environmental impacts linked to this business model transition are specified and discussed. Then, different eco-design scenarios are explored and recommendations for this specific case are proposed.

  4. Optimal Cut-Offs of Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) to Identify Dysglycemia and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A 15-Year Prospective Study in Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C. H.; Shih, A. Z. L.; Woo, Y. C.; Fong, C. H. Y.; Leung, O. Y.; Janus, E.; Cheung, B. M. Y.; Lam, K. S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The optimal reference range of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in normal Chinese population has not been clearly defined. Here we address this issue using the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Study (CRISPS), a prospective population-based cohort study with long-term follow-up. Material & Methods In this study, normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were defined according to the 1998 World Health Organization criteria. Dysglycemia referred to IFG, IGT or T2DM. This study comprised two parts. Part one was a cross-sectional study involving 2,649 Hong Kong Chinese subjects, aged 25–74 years, at baseline CRISPS-1 (1995–1996). The optimal HOMA-IR cut-offs for dysglycemia and T2DM were determined by the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Part two was a prospective study involving 872 subjects who had persistent NGT at CRISPS-4 (2010–2012) after 15 years of follow-up. Results At baseline, the optimal HOMA-IR cut-offs to identify dysglyceia and T2DM were 1.37 (AUC = 0.735; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.713–0.758; Sensitivity [Se] = 65.6%, Specificity [Sp] = 71.3%] and 1.97 (AUC = 0.807; 95% CI = 0.777–0.886; Se = 65.5%, Sp = 82.9%) respectively. These cut-offs, derived from the cross-sectional study at baseline, corresponded closely to the 75th (1.44) and 90th (2.03) percentiles, respectively, of the HOMA-IR reference range derived from the prospective study of subjects with persistent NGT. Conclusions HOMA-IR cut-offs, of 1.4 and 2.0, which discriminated dysglycemia and T2DM respectively from NGT in Southern Chinese, can be usefully employed as references in clinical research involving the assessment of insulin resistance. PMID:27658115

  5. A cross-sectional study to assess the intelligence quotient (IQ) of school going children aged 10-12 years in villages of Mysore district, India with different fluoride levels.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Shibu Thomas; Sunitha, S

    2015-01-01

    Besides dental and skeletal fluorosis, excessive fluoride intake can also affect the central nervous system without first causing the physical deformities associated with skeletal fluorosis. With the existence of widespread endemic fluorosis in India, the possible adverse effect of elevated fluoride in drinking water on the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) level of children is a potentially serious public health problem. This study assessed the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of school going children aged 10-12 years in villages of Mysore district with different fluoride levels. In this cross-sectional study, 405 school children aged 10-12 years were selected from three villages in Mysore district with normal fluoride (1.20 mg F/l), low fluoride (0.40 mg F/l) and high fluoride (2.20 mg F/l) in their water supplies. A pre designed questionnaire was used to collect the required data for the survey which included socio demographic details, oral hygiene practices, diet history, body mass index and dental fluorosis. Intelligence Quotient was assessed using Raven's colored Progressive Matrices Test. In bivariate analysis, significant relationships were found between water fluoride levels and Intelligence Quotient of school children (P < 0.05). In the high fluoride village, the proportion of children with IQ below 90, i.e. below average IQ was larger compared to normal and low fluoride village. Age, gender, parent education level and family income had no significant association with IQ. School children residing in area with higher than normal water fluoride level demonstrated more impaired development of intelligence when compared to school children residing in areas with normal and low water fluoride levels. Thus, children's intelligence can be affected by high water fluoride levels.

  6. Assessing global risk factors for non-fatal injuries from road traffic accidents and falls in adults aged 35-70 years in 17 countries: a cross-sectional analysis of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study.

    PubMed

    Raina, Parminder; Sohel, Nazmul; Oremus, Mark; Shannon, Harry; Mony, Prem; Kumar, Rajesh; Li, Wei; Wang, Yang; Wang, Xingyu; Yusoff, Khalid; Yusuf, Rita; Iqbal, Romaina; Szuba, Andrzej; Oguz, Aytekin; Rosengren, Annika; Kruger, Annamarie; Chifamba, Jephat; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Darwish, Ebtihal Ahmad; Dagenais, Gilles; Diaz, Rafael; Avezum, Alvaro; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Seron, Pamela; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Teo, Koon; Yusuf, Salim

    2016-04-01

    To assess risk factors associated with non-fatal injuries (NFIs) from road traffic accidents (RTAs) or falls. Our study included 151 609 participants from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiological study. Participants reported whether they experienced injuries within the past 12 months that limited normal activities. Additional questions elicited data on risk factors. We employed multivariable logistic regression to analyse data. Overall, 5979 participants (3.9% of 151 609) reported at least one NFI. Total number of NFIs was 6300: 1428 were caused by RTAs (22.7%), 1948 by falls (30.9%) and 2924 by other causes (46.4%). Married/common law status was associated with fewer falls, but not with RTA. Age 65-70 years was associated with fewer RTAs, but more falls; age 55-64 years was associated with more falls. Male versus female was associated with more RTAs and fewer falls. In lower-middle-income countries, rural residence was associated with more RTAs and falls; in low-income countries, rural residence was associated with fewer RTAs. Previous alcohol use was associated with more RTAs and falls; current alcohol use was associated with more falls. Education was not associated with either NFI type. This study of persons aged 35-70 years found that some risk factors for NFI differ according to whether the injury is related to RTA or falls. Policymakers may use these differences to guide the design of prevention policies for RTA-related or fall-related NFI. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Ten Years of Using Presentations at a Student Conference as a Final Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Nick

    2013-01-01

    The final assessment for all psychology courses in the department of interdisciplinary studies, MMU Cheshire programmes, in the past 10 years has been a presentation of project work at an undergraduate conference. It is argued that this acts as an "authentic" assessment method which helps prepare students for future experiences. Alumni…

  8. Predicting End-of-Year Achievement Test Performance: A Comparison of Assessment Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettler, Ryan J.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kurz, Alexander; Zigmond, Naomi; Lemons, Christopher J.; Kloo, Amanda; Shrago, Jacqueline; Beddow, Peter A.; Williams, Leila; Bruen, Charles; Lupp, Lynda; Farmer, Jeanie; Mosiman, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the multiple-measures clause of recent federal policy regarding student eligibility for alternate assessments based on modified academic achievement standards (AA-MASs), this study examined how scores or combinations of scores from a diverse set of assessments predicted students' end-of-year proficiency status on statewide achievement…

  9. Assessing factors associated with long-term work disability after cancer in Belgium: a population-based cohort study using competing risks analysis with a 7-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaie, Alina Mioara; Goetghebeur, Els; Otter, Renee; Mortelmans, Katrien; Missinnne, Sarah; Arbyn, Marc; Bouland, Catherine; de Brouwer, Christophe

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The number of workers with cancer has dramatically increasing worldwide. One of the main priorities is to preserve their quality of life and the sustainability of social security systems. We have carried out this study to assess factors associated with the ability to work after cancer. Such insight should help with the planning of rehabilitation needs and tailored programmes. Participants We conducted this register-based cohort study using individual data from the Belgian Disability Insurance. Data on 15 543 socially insured Belgian people who entered into the long-term work disability between 2007 and 2011 due to cancer were used. Primary and secondary outcome measures We estimated the duration of work disability using Kaplan-Meier and the cause-specific cumulative incidence of ability to work stratified by age, gender, occupational class and year of entering the work disability system for 11 cancer sites using the Fine and Gray model allowing for competing risks. Results The overall median time of work disability was 1.59 years (95% CI 1.52 to 1.66), ranging from 0.75 to 4.98 years. By the end of follow-up, more than one-third of the disabled cancer survivors were able to work (35%). While a large proportion of the women were able to work at the end of follow-up, the men who were able to work could do so sooner. Being women, white collar, young and having haematological, male genital or breast cancers were factors with the bestlikelihood to be able to return to work. Conclusion Good prognostic factors for the ability to work were youth, woman, white collar and having breast, male genital or haematological cancers. Reviewing our results together with the cancer incidence predictions up to 2025 offers a high value for social security and rehabilitation planning and for ascertaining patients’ perspectives. PMID:29455161

  10. Validity of a self-administered food frequency questionnaire in the 5-year follow-up survey of the JPHC Study Cohort I to assess sodium and potassium intake: comparison with dietary records and 24-hour urinary excretion level.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Satoshi; Ishihara, Junko; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2003-01-01

    We compared the intake levels of sodium and potassium assessed with a self-administered semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used in a 5-year follow-up survey of the JPHC study and 28-day dietary record (DR), and the corresponding two 24-hour urinary excretion levels (32 men and 57 women) in 3-areas, i.e., Ninohe, Yokote, and Saku Public Health Center areas. The Spearman rank correlation coefficients between dietary sodium assessed with FFQ and the urinary excretion for crude values were 0.24 and -0.10 in men and women, respectively. After adjusting for energy and creatinine, the sodium correlation coefficients were 0.35 and 0.25 in men and women, respectively. The correlation coefficients for crude potassium values were 0.18 and -0.13 in men and women, respectively. After adjusting for energy and creatinine, the potassium correlation coefficients were 0.48 and 0.18 in men and women, respectively in conclusion, a weak correlation was observed both for sodium and potassium after energy and creatinine adjustment in men, whereas no meaningful correlation was observed in women.

  11. Developing Assessment through Lesson Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischman, Davida; Wasserman, Kelli

    2017-01-01

    Lesson study cultivates teachers' capacity for formative assessment by placing student thinking front and center throughout. Lesson study is a form of professional development in which a team of teachers determines a mathematical focus, collaboratively studies student thinking about the topic, designs a lesson about this content, implements the…

  12. Longitudinal assessment of psychopathological domains over late-stage schizophrenia in relation to duration of initially untreated psychosis: 3-year prospective study in a long-term inpatient population.

    PubMed

    Meagher, David J; Quinn, John F; Bourke, Stephanie; Linehan, Sally; Murphy, Patrice; Kinsella, Anthony; Mullaney, James; Waddington, John L

    2004-05-30

    There remains uncertainty regarding any progressive nature of psychopathology and cognitive dysfunction in late-stage schizophrenia, and whether duration of initially untreated psychosis (DUP) might be associated with such 'progression'. This study examines longitudinally, over 3 years, the psychopathology and neuropsychology in 82 inpatients with DSM-IV schizophrenia, many of whom were admitted in the pre-neuroleptic era. Increase in executive dysfunction exceeded that in general cognitive impairment. Positive but not negative symptom severity decreased modestly; the primary predictor of negative symptom severity was DUP. On index assessment, psychopathology evidenced a three-factor structure; at follow-up, psychomotor poverty evidenced greater prominence and cohesion, and was on both occasions predicted primarily by DUP, while reality distortion was altered and disorganisation disassembled into alternative elements. It would appear that as years of chronic, refractory illness accrue, psychomotor poverty becomes more sharply delineated and dominant within the overall structure of psychopathology, and its prominence is predicted enduringly by DUP. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Assessing metabolomic and chemical diversity of a soybean lineage representing 35 years of breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Information on crop genotype- and phenotype-metabolite associations can be of value to trait development as well as to food security and safety. The unique study presented here assessed seed metabolomic and ionomic diversity in a soybean lineage representing ~35 years of breeding (launch years 1972-...

  14. Assessing Two-Year-Olds' Knowledge of Number Agreement Morphology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blossom, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Previous research in the area of children's knowledge of number agreement morphology has yielded mixed results. Some researchers have found evidence for sensitivity to agreement morphology at as early as 16 months, while others report that children do not comprehend number agreement morphology until as late as five or six years old. Studies of…

  15. Examining the Frequency and Contribution of Foods Eaten Away From Home in the Diets of 18- to 30-Year-Old Australians Using Smartphone Dietary Assessment (MYMeals): Protocol for a Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jisu; Kay, Judy; Rangan, Anna; Chapman, Kathy; Watson, Wendy L; Hughes, Clare; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Bauman, Adrian; Gemming, Luke; Yacef, Kalina; Koprinska, Irena; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2018-01-01

    Background Young Australians aged between 18 and 30 years have experienced the largest increase in the body mass index and spend the largest proportion of their food budget on fast food and eating out. Frequent consumption of foods purchased and eaten away from home has been linked to poorer diet quality and weight gain. There has been no Australian research regarding quantities, type, or the frequency of consumption of food prepared outside the home by young adults and its impact on their energy and nutrient intakes. Objectives The objective of this study was to determine the relative contributions of different food outlets (eg, fast food chain, independent takeaway food store, coffee shop, etc) to the overall food and beverage intake of young adults; to assess the extent to which food and beverages consumed away from home contribute to young adults’ total energy and deleterious nutrient intakes; and to study social and physical environmental interactions with consumption patterns of young adults. Methods A cross-sectional study of 1008 young adults will be conducted. Individuals are eligible to participate if they: (1) are aged between 18 and 30 years; (2) reside in New South Wales, Australia; (3) own or have access to a smartphone; (4) are English-literate; and (5) consume at least one meal, snack, or drink purchased outside the home per week. An even spread of gender, age groups (18 to 24 years and 25 to 30 years), metropolitan or regional geographical areas, and high and low socioeconomic status areas will be included. Participants will record all food and drink consumed over 3 consecutive days, together with location purchased and consumed in our customized smartphone app named Eat and Track (EaT). Participants will then complete an extensive demographics questionnaire. Mean intakes of energy, nutrients, and food groups will be calculated along with the relative contribution of foods purchased and eaten away from home. A subsample of 19.84% (200/1008) of

  16. Utility of overnight pulse oximeter as a screening tool for sleep apnea to assess the 8-year risk of cardiovascular disease: Data from a large-scale bus driver cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei-Te; Tsai, Su-Shan; Lin, Yu-Jen; Lin, Ming-Hsiu; Wu, Trong-Neng; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Liou, Saou-Hsing

    2016-12-15

    Professional drivers' work under conditions predisposes them for development of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the effect of SDB on CVD risk among professional drivers has never been investigated. A cohort study was used to evaluate the effectiveness of overnight pulse oximeter as a sleep apnea screening tool to assess the 8-year risk of CVD events. The Taiwan Bus Driver Cohort Study (TBDCS) recruited 1014 professional drivers in Taiwan since 2005. The subjects completed questionnaire interview and overnight pulse oximeter survey. This cohort was linked to the National Health Insurance Research Dataset (NHIRD). Researchers found 192 CVD cases from 2005 to 2012. Cox proportional hazards model was performed to estimate the hazard ratio for CVD. The statistical analysis was performed using SAS software in 2015. ODI4 and ODI3 levels increased the 8-year CVD risk, even adjusting for CVD risk factors (HR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.78; p=0.022, and HR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.90; p=0.033). ODI4 and ODI3 thresholds of 6.5 and 10events/h revealed differences of CVD risks (HR: 1.72, 95% CI: 1.00 to 2.95; p=0.048, and HR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.03 to 3.03; p=0.041). Moreover, the ODI levels had an increased risk for hypertensive disease (not including essential hypertension). This study concludes that ODI for a sign of SDB is an independent predictor of elevated risk of CVD. Further research should be conducted regarding measures to prevent against SDB in order to reduce CVD risk in professional drivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Diabetic retinopathy complications--12-year retrospective study].

    PubMed

    Ignat, Florica; Davidescu, Livia

    2002-01-01

    It is analyzed, on a retrospective study on 12 years, the incidence of diabetus melitus cases, hospitalized in the Ophthalmologic Clinic from Craiova with special mention to the frequency of the diabetic retinopathy, of it's complications and in an accordance to other general diseases, especially cardiovascular's, which contributes to the aggravation of the diabetic ocular in juries evolution. The study underlines the high incidence of the new founded cases with diabetus melitus in complicated diabetes retinopathy stage; the high frequency of ocular complications is explained, according to our statistic facts and through an insufficient treatment, sometimes incorrect and many other cases total neglected by the patients.

  18. Ten-year cardiovascular risk assessment in university students.

    PubMed

    Uvacsek, Martina; Kneffel, Zs; Tóth, M; Johnson, A W; Vehrs, P; Myrer, J W; Hager, R

    2014-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is responsible for more than half of all deaths in the European region. The aim of the study was to compare body composition, blood pressure, total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), family history, activity behaviors, and the 10-year risk of having a heart attack between 166 university students (21.62 ± 2.59 yrs) from Utah (USA) and 198 students (22.11 ± 2.51 yrs) from Hungary. Ninety-two percent of the Hungarian students and 100% of the Utah students had an estimated 10-year Framingham risk score of 1% or less. The high prevalence of low risk was primarily due to the young age of study participants, healthy body composition and non-smoking behavior. Hungarians who had higher 10-year risk of heart attack had significantly higher waist hip ratio (WHR), TC, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and were smokers compared to those Hungarians with lower risk. The self-reported physical activity levels between the two groups of students were not different. In conclusion the young men and women who participated in this study were, for the most part healthy; however the smoking habits and the lower physical activity of the Hungarian students likely elevated their risk of CVD.

  19. Five-Year Effectiveness of the Multidisciplinary Risk Assessment and Management Programme-Diabetes Mellitus (RAMP-DM) on Diabetes-Related Complications and Health Service Uses-A Population-Based and Propensity-Matched Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Wan, Eric Yuk Fai; Fung, Colman Siu Cheung; Jiao, Fang Fang; Yu, Esther Yee Tak; Chin, Weng Yee; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak; Wong, Carlos King Ho; Chan, Anca Ka Chun; Chan, Karina Hiu Yen; Kwok, Ruby Lai Ping; Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the 5-year effectiveness of a multidisciplinary Risk Assessment and Management Programme-Diabetes Mellitus (RAMP-DM) in primary care patients with type 2 diabetes. A 5-year prospective cohort study was conducted with 121,584 Chinese primary care patients with type 2 DM who were recruited between August 2009 and June 2011. Missing data were dealt with multiple imputations. After excluding patients with prior diabetes mellitus (DM)-related complications and one-to-one propensity score matching on all patient characteristics, 26,718 RAMP-DM participants and 26,718 matched usual care patients were followed up for a median time of 4.5 years. The effect of RAMP-DM on nine DM-related complications and all-cause mortality were evaluated using Cox regressions. The first incidence for each event was used for all models. Health service use was analyzed using negative binomial regressions. Subgroup analyses on different patient characteristics were performed. The cumulative incidence of all events (DM-related complications and all-cause mortality) was 23.2% in the RAMP-DM group and 43.6% in the usual care group. RAMP-DM led to significantly greater reductions in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by 56.6% (95% CI 54.5, 58.6), microvascular complications by 11.9% (95% CI 7.0, 16.6), mortality by 66.1% (95% CI 64.3, 67.9), specialist attendance by 35.0% (95% CI 33.6, 36.4), emergency attendance by 41.2% (95% CI 39.8, 42.5), and hospitalizations by 58.5% (95% CI 57.2, 59.7). Patients with low baseline CVD risks benefitted the most from RAMP-DM, which decreased CVD and mortality risk by 60.4% (95% CI 51.8, 67.5) and 83.6% (95% CI 79.3, 87.0), respectively. This naturalistic study highlighted the importance of early optimal DM control and risk factor management by risk stratification and multidisciplinary, protocol-driven, chronic disease model care to delay disease progression and prevent complications. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  20. The Baby Moves prospective cohort study protocol: using a smartphone application with the General Movements Assessment to predict neurodevelopmental outcomes at age 2 years for extremely preterm or extremely low birthweight infants

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, J; Kwong, A; Doyle, LW; Marschik, PB; Einspieler, C; Cheong, JLY

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Infants born extremely preterm (EP; <28 weeks' gestation) and/or with extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1000 g birth weight) are at increased risk for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, it is challenging to predict those EP/ELBW infants destined to have long-term neurodevelopmental impairments in order to target early intervention to those in most need. The General Movements Assessment (GMA) in early infancy has high predictive validity for neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants. However, access to a GMA may be limited by geographical constraints and a lack of GMA-trained health professionals. Baby Moves is a smartphone application (app) developed for caregivers to video and upload their infant's general movements to be scored remotely by a certified GMA assessor. The aim of this study is to determine the predictive ability of using the GMA via the Baby Moves app for neurodevelopmental impairment in infants born EP/ELBW. Methods and analysis This prospective cohort study will recruit infants born EP/ELBW across the state of Victoria, Australia in 2016 and 2017. A control group of normal birth weight (>2500 g birth weight), term-born (≥37 weeks' gestation) infants will also be recruited as a local reference group. Parents will video their infant's general movements at two time points between 3 and 4 months' corrected age using the Baby Moves app. Videos will be scored by certified GMA assessors and classified as normal or abnormal. Parental satisfaction using the Baby Moves app will be assessed via survey. Neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years' corrected age includes developmental delay according to the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III and cerebral palsy diagnosis. Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by the Human Research and Ethics Committees at the Royal Children's Hospital, The Royal Women's Hospital, Monash Health and Mercy Health in Melbourne, Australia. Study findings will be

  1. The Baby Moves prospective cohort study protocol: using a smartphone application with the General Movements Assessment to predict neurodevelopmental outcomes at age 2 years for extremely preterm or extremely low birthweight infants.

    PubMed

    Spittle, A J; Olsen, J; Kwong, A; Doyle, L W; Marschik, P B; Einspieler, C; Cheong, Jly

    2016-10-03

    Infants born extremely preterm (EP; <28 weeks' gestation) and/or with extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1000 g birth weight) are at increased risk for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, it is challenging to predict those EP/ELBW infants destined to have long-term neurodevelopmental impairments in order to target early intervention to those in most need. The General Movements Assessment (GMA) in early infancy has high predictive validity for neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants. However, access to a GMA may be limited by geographical constraints and a lack of GMA-trained health professionals. Baby Moves is a smartphone application (app) developed for caregivers to video and upload their infant's general movements to be scored remotely by a certified GMA assessor. The aim of this study is to determine the predictive ability of using the GMA via the Baby Moves app for neurodevelopmental impairment in infants born EP/ELBW. This prospective cohort study will recruit infants born EP/ELBW across the state of Victoria, Australia in 2016 and 2017. A control group of normal birth weight (>2500 g birth weight), term-born (≥37 weeks' gestation) infants will also be recruited as a local reference group. Parents will video their infant's general movements at two time points between 3 and 4 months' corrected age using the Baby Moves app. Videos will be scored by certified GMA assessors and classified as normal or abnormal. Parental satisfaction using the Baby Moves app will be assessed via survey. Neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years' corrected age includes developmental delay according to the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III and cerebral palsy diagnosis. This study was approved by the Human Research and Ethics Committees at the Royal Children's Hospital, The Royal Women's Hospital, Monash Health and Mercy Health in Melbourne, Australia. Study findings will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publications and conference

  2. Assessment of toxicology knowledge in the fourth-year medical students: Three years of data.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Jennie; Windels, Daniel; Druck, Jeffrey; Heard, Kennon

    2018-01-01

    Pharmacology and toxicology are core content knowledge for physicians. Medical students should demonstrate understanding of general pharmacology and basic treatment of poisoning. The objective of this study was to measure the knowledge of the 4th-year medical students (MS4) on these topics over 3 years. A multiple-choice exam (15 questions) was administered to MS4 students in spring of 2010, 2011, and 2012. Questions were developed by medical toxicologists to evaluate basic knowledge in three areas: pharmacologic effects (PE), treatment of poisoning (TOP), and pharmacokinetics (PK). The students were grouped by intended specialties into pharmacologic intense (anesthesia, emergency medicine, internal medicine, pediatrics, and psychiatry), less pharmacologic intense specialties (dermatology, OB/GYN, ophthalmology, pathology, physical medicine and rehabilitation, radiology, and surgery) and by completion of a pharmacology or toxicology elective. Mean group scores were compared using ANOVA. Totally 332 of 401 (83%) students completed the survey. Mean scores were stable over the three years, higher for students completing a toxicology rotation and for students entering a pharmacologically intense specialty. The external validity is limited to a single medical school with incomplete participation and content was limited by the survey length. Consistent results over the three-year period and correlation of performance with completing a toxicology rotation and intent to enter a pharmacology intensive specialty suggest this survey may correlate with toxicology knowledge. Implementation of required core courses focused on toxicology may improve core content knowledge in fourth year medical students.

  3. Evaluation bias in objective response rate and disease control rate between blinded independent central review and local assessment: a study-level pooled analysis of phase III randomized control trials in the past seven years.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianrong; Zhang, Yiyin; Tang, Shiyan; Liang, Hengrui; Chen, Difei; Jiang, Long; He, Qihua; Huang, Yu; Wang, Xinyu; Deng, Kexin; Jiang, Shuhan; Zhou, Jiaqing; Xu, Jiaxuan; Chen, Xuanzuo; Liang, Wenhua; He, Jianxing

    2017-12-01

    In previous studies, complete-case implementation of blind independent central review has been considered unnecessary based on no sign of systematic bias between central and local assessments. In order to further evaluate its value, this study investigated evaluation status between both assessments in phase III trials of anti-cancer drugs for non-hematologic solid tumors. Eligible trials were searched in PubMed with the date of Jan 1, 2010 to Jun 30, 2017. We compared objective response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) between central and local assessments by study-level pooled analysis and correlation analysis. In pooled analysis, direct comparison was measured by the odds ratio (OR) of central-assessed response status to local-assessed response status; to investigate evaluation bias between central and local assessments, the above calculated OR between experimental (exp-) and control (con-) arms were compared, measured by the ratio of OR. A total of 28 included trials involving 17,466 patients were included (28 with ORR, 16 with DCR). Pooled analysis showed central assessment reported lower ORR and DCR than local assessment, especially in trials with open-label design, central-assessed primary endpoint, and positive primary endpoint outcome, respectively. However, this finding could be found in both experimental [exp-ORR: OR=0.81 (95% CI: 0.76-0.87), P<0.01, I 2 =11%; exp-DCR: OR=0.90 (0.81-1.01), P=0.07, I 2 =42%] and control arms [con-ORR: OR=0.79 (0.72-0.85), P<0.01, I 2 =17%; con-DCR: OR=0.94 (0.86-1.02), P=0.14, I 2 =12%]. No sign of evaluation bias between two assessments was indicated through further analysis [ORR: ratio of OR=1.02 (0.97-1.07), P=0.42, I 2 =0%; DCR: ratio of OR=0.98 (0.93-1.03), P=0.37, I 2 =0%], regardless of mask (open/blind), sample size, tumor type, primary endpoint (central-assessed/local-assessed), and primary endpoint outcome (positive/negative). Correlation analysis demonstrated a high-degree concordance between central

  4. Examining the Frequency and Contribution of Foods Eaten Away From Home in the Diets of 18- to 30-Year-Old Australians Using Smartphone Dietary Assessment (MYMeals): Protocol for a Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Wellard-Cole, Lyndal; Jung, Jisu; Kay, Judy; Rangan, Anna; Chapman, Kathy; Watson, Wendy L; Hughes, Clare; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Bauman, Adrian; Gemming, Luke; Yacef, Kalina; Koprinska, Irena; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2018-01-26

    Young Australians aged between 18 and 30 years have experienced the largest increase in the body mass index and spend the largest proportion of their food budget on fast food and eating out. Frequent consumption of foods purchased and eaten away from home has been linked to poorer diet quality and weight gain. There has been no Australian research regarding quantities, type, or the frequency of consumption of food prepared outside the home by young adults and its impact on their energy and nutrient intakes. The objective of this study was to determine the relative contributions of different food outlets (eg, fast food chain, independent takeaway food store, coffee shop, etc) to the overall food and beverage intake of young adults; to assess the extent to which food and beverages consumed away from home contribute to young adults' total energy and deleterious nutrient intakes; and to study social and physical environmental interactions with consumption patterns of young adults. A cross-sectional study of 1008 young adults will be conducted. Individuals are eligible to participate if they: (1) are aged between 18 and 30 years; (2) reside in New South Wales, Australia; (3) own or have access to a smartphone; (4) are English-literate; and (5) consume at least one meal, snack, or drink purchased outside the home per week. An even spread of gender, age groups (18 to 24 years and 25 to 30 years), metropolitan or regional geographical areas, and high and low socioeconomic status areas will be included. Participants will record all food and drink consumed over 3 consecutive days, together with location purchased and consumed in our customized smartphone app named Eat and Track (EaT). Participants will then complete an extensive demographics questionnaire. Mean intakes of energy, nutrients, and food groups will be calculated along with the relative contribution of foods purchased and eaten away from home. A subsample of 19.84% (200/1008) of the participants will complete

  5. SCI Longitudinal Aging Study: 40 Years of Research.

    PubMed

    Krause, James S; Clark, Jillian M R; Saunders, Lee L

    2015-01-01

    The Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Longitudinal Aging Study was initiated in 1973 and has conducted 8 assessments over the past 40 years. It was designed to help rehabilitation professionals understand the life situation of people with SCI, but it has developed into the most long-standing study of aging and SCI and has resulted in over 50 publications. Our purpose was to provide a detailed history of the study, response patterns, utilization of measures, and a summary of key findings reported in the literature. Five participant samples have been incorporated over the 40 years, with enrollment in 1973, 1984, 1993 (2 samples), and 2003. A total of 2,208 participants have completed 6,001 assessments, with a particularly large number of assessments among those who are more than 40 years post injury (n = 349). The overall results have indicated changing patterns of outcomes over time as persons with SCI age, with some notable declines in participation and health. There has been a survivor effect whereby persons who are more active, well-adjusted, and healthier live longer. This study has several important features that are required for longitudinal research including (a) consistency of follow-up, (b) consistency of measures over time, (c) addition of new participant samples to counteract attrition, and (d) inclusion of a large number of individuals who have reached aging milestones unparalleled in the literature. Data from this study can inform the literature on the natural course of aging with SCI.

  6. Assess Yourself! How Did You Do This Year?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easton, Lois Brown

    2011-01-01

    Most teachers look back on their first year (or years) of teaching with humility, many with some regret. The author stresses that teachers are always learners, especially so in their first years. At the beginning of each year, they start over again with new students. A learning teacher takes risks and makes mistakes but derives new information,…

  7. Proving and Improving: Strategies for Assessing the First College Year. The First-Year Experience Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swing, Randy L., Ed.

    The essays in this collection, initially written for an online audience, focus on the philosophy, methods, and outcomes of assessing the first-year experience of college students. Several recurrent themes highlight general agreement about best practices in first-year assessment, but the collection contains some differences of opinion also. The…

  8. Evolution of US DOE Performance Assessments Over 20 Years - 13597

    SciTech Connect

    Suttora, Linda C.; Seitz, Roger R.

    2013-07-01

    Performance assessments (PAs) have been used for many years for the analysis of post-closure hazards associated with a radioactive waste disposal facility and to provide a reasonable expectation of the ability of the site and facility design to meet objectives for the protection of members of the public and the environment. The use of PA to support decision-making for LLW disposal facilities has been mandated in United States Department of Energy (US DOE) directives governing radioactive waste management since 1988 (currently DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management). Prior to that time, PAs were also used in a less formal role.more » Over the past 20+ years, the US DOE approach to conduct, review and apply PAs has evolved into an efficient, rigorous and mature process that includes specific requirements for continuous improvement and independent reviews. The PA process has evolved through refinement of a graded and iterative approach designed to help focus efforts on those aspects of the problem expected to have the greatest influence on the decision being made. Many of the evolutionary changes to the PA process are linked to the refinement of the PA maintenance concept that has proven to be an important element of US DOE PA requirements in the context of supporting decision-making for safe disposal of LLW. The PA maintenance concept is central to the evolution of the graded and iterative philosophy and has helped to drive the evolution of PAs from a deterministic compliance calculation into a systematic approach that helps to focus on critical aspects of the disposal system in a manner designed to provide a more informed basis for decision-making throughout the life of a disposal facility (e.g., monitoring, research and testing, waste acceptance criteria, design improvements, data collection, model refinements). A significant evolution in PA modeling has been associated with improved use of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques to support

  9. Evolution Of USDOE Performance Assessments Over 20 Years

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Roger R.; Suttora, Linda C.

    2013-02-26

    Performance assessments (PAs) have been used for many years for the analysis of post-closure hazards associated with a radioactive waste disposal facility and to provide a reasonable expectation of the ability of the site and facility design to meet objectives for the protection of members of the public and the environment. The use of PA to support decision-making for LLW disposal facilities has been mandated in United States Department of Energy (USDOE) directives governing radioactive waste management since 1988 (currently DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management). Prior to that time, PAs were also used in a less formal role. Overmore » the past 20+ years, the USDOE approach to conduct, review and apply PAs has evolved into an efficient, rigorous and mature process that includes specific requirements for continuous improvement and independent reviews. The PA process has evolved through refinement of a graded and iterative approach designed to help focus efforts on those aspects of the problem expected to have the greatest influence on the decision being made. Many of the evolutionary changes to the PA process are linked to the refinement of the PA maintenance concept that has proven to be an important element of USDOE PA requirements in the context of supporting decision-making for safe disposal of LLW. The PA maintenance concept represents the evolution of the graded and iterative philosophy and has helped to drive the evolution of PAs from a deterministic compliance calculation into a systematic approach that helps to focus on critical aspects of the disposal system in a manner designed to provide a more informed basis for decision-making throughout the life of a disposal facility (e.g., monitoring, research and testing, waste acceptance criteria, design improvements, data collection, model refinements). A significant evolution in PA modeling has been associated with improved use of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques to support efficient

  10. Firework injuries: a ten-year study.

    PubMed

    Puri, Vinita; Mahendru, Sanjay; Rana, Roshani; Deshpande, Manish

    2009-09-01

    Fireworks are used worldwide to celebrate popular events (e.g. festivals, official celebrations, weddings). The festival of lights (Diwali) is celebrated with fireworks in India. During this period, many patients from all age groups present to hospital with injuries due to fireworks. Prevalence, period of occurrence, sex and age variation, adult supervision, causative fireworks, mode of lighting, age groups prone to injury, patterns of injury caused by individual fireworks, and the body parts injured were studied. One hundred and fifty-seven cases (92 retrospective, 65 prospective) with injury due to fireworks presenting to the Department of Plastic Surgery at KEM Hospital between 1997 and 2006 were studied. The prevalence of injuries has decreased steadily over the last 10 years (41 cases in 1997, 3 cases in 2006). The maximum number of injuries (35%) was seen in the age group 5-14 years; 92% of these children were unsupervised. The commonest cause of injury was firework misuse (41% of cases), followed by device failure (35%). Device failure was commonest with flares/fountains (ground firework emitting sparks upwards) and aerial devices. Flare/fountains caused most injury (39%), sparklers the least (0.6%). Flare/fountains, ground spinners, sparklers, and gunpowder (explosive material from cracker, obtained by tearing paper wrapper and obtaining chemicals) caused only soft tissue burns; stringbombs (high-intensity fire cracker made by wrapping chemicals with jute strings/coir in layers) and rockets (aerial device that zooms upwards and bursts) caused blast injuries, leading to soft tissue disruption and bony injuries. Emergency surgery was done if indicated: tendon and/or neurovascular repair, fracture fixation, flap cover or amputation. Superficial burns were treated with dressings. Certain wounds needed only thorough cleansing of the wound and primary suturing. We concluded that, over a 10-year period, the prevalence of firework injury decreased due to increased

  11. Assessing HITECH Implementation and Lessons: 5 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    McLAUGHLIN, CATHERINE

    2016-01-01

    Policy Points: The expansive goals of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act required the simultaneous development of a complex and interdependent infrastructure and a wide range of relationships, generating points of vulnerability.While federal legislation can be a powerful stimulus for change, its effectiveness also depends on its ability to accommodate state and local policies and private health care markets.Ambitious goals require support over a long time horizon, which can be challenging to maintain. The future of health information technology (health IT) support nationally is likely to depend on the ability of the technology to satisfy its users that its functionalities address the interests policymakers and other stakeholders have in using technology to promote better care, improved outcomes, and reduced costs. Context The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act set ambitious goals for developing electronic health information as one tool to reform health care delivery and improve health outcomes. With HITECH's grant funding now mostly exhausted but statutory authority for standards remaining, this article looks back at HITECH's experience in the first 5 years to assess its implementation, remaining challenges, and lessons learned. Methods This review derives from a global assessment of the HITECH Act. Earlier, we examined the logic of HITECH and identified interdependencies critical to its ultimate success. In this article, we build on that framework to review what has and has not been accomplished in building the infrastructure authorized by HITECH since it was enacted. The review incorporates quantitative and qualitative evidence of progress from the global assessment and from the evaluations funded by the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) of individual programs authorized by the HITECH Act. Findings Our review of the evidence provides a

  12. Assessing HITECH Implementation and Lessons: 5 Years Later.

    PubMed

    Gold, Marsha; McLAUGHLIN, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    The expansive goals of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act required the simultaneous development of a complex and interdependent infrastructure and a wide range of relationships, generating points of vulnerability. While federal legislation can be a powerful stimulus for change, its effectiveness also depends on its ability to accommodate state and local policies and private health care markets. Ambitious goals require support over a long time horizon, which can be challenging to maintain. The future of health information technology (health IT) support nationally is likely to depend on the ability of the technology to satisfy its users that its functionalities address the interests policymakers and other stakeholders have in using technology to promote better care, improved outcomes, and reduced costs. The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act set ambitious goals for developing electronic health information as one tool to reform health care delivery and improve health outcomes. With HITECH's grant funding now mostly exhausted but statutory authority for standards remaining, this article looks back at HITECH's experience in the first 5 years to assess its implementation, remaining challenges, and lessons learned. This review derives from a global assessment of the HITECH Act. Earlier, we examined the logic of HITECH and identified interdependencies critical to its ultimate success. In this article, we build on that framework to review what has and has not been accomplished in building the infrastructure authorized by HITECH since it was enacted. The review incorporates quantitative and qualitative evidence of progress from the global assessment and from the evaluations funded by the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) of individual programs authorized by the HITECH Act. Our review of the evidence provides a mixed picture. Despite HITECH

  13. Minimising twins in in vitro fertilisation: a modelling study assessing the costs, consequences and cost-utility of elective single versus double embryo transfer over a 20-year time horizon.

    PubMed

    Scotland, G S; McLernon, D; Kurinczuk, J J; McNamee, P; Harrild, K; Lyall, H; Rajkhowa, M; Hamilton, M; Bhattacharya, S

    2011-08-01

    To assess the cumulative costs and consequences of double embryo transfer (DET) or elective single embryo transfer (eSET) in women commencing in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment aged 32, 36 and 39 years. Microsimulation model. Three assisted reproduction centres in Scotland. A total of 6153 women undergoing treatment at one of three Scottish IVF clinics, between January 1997 and June 2007. A microsimulation model, populated using data inputs derived from a large clinical data set and published literature, was developed to compare the costs and consequences of using eSET or DET over multiple treatment cycles. Disability-free live births; twin pregnancy rate; women's quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs); health service costs. Not only did DET produce a higher cumulative live birth rate compared with eSET for women of all three ages, but also a higher twin pregnancy rate. Compared with eSET, DET ranged from costing an additional £ 27,356 per extra live birth in women commencing treatment aged 32 years, to costing £ 15,539 per extra live birth in 39-year-old women. DET cost ∼ £ 28,300 and ∼ £ 20,300 per additional QALY in women commencing treatment aged 32 and 39 years, respectively. Considering the high twin pregnancy rate associated with DET, coupled with uncertainty surrounding QALY gains, eSET is likely to be the preferred option for most women aged ≤ 36 years. The cost-effectiveness of DET improves with age, and may be considered cost-effective in some groups of older women. The decision may best be considered on a case-by-case basis for women aged 37-39 years. © 2011 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 RCOG.

  14. Physical inactivity post-stroke: a 3-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Kunkel, Dorit; Fitton, Carolyn; Burnett, Malcolm; Ashburn, Ann

    2015-01-01

    To explore change in activity levels post-stroke. We measured activity levels using the activPAL™ in hospital and at 1, 2 and 3 years' post-stroke onset. Of the 74 participants (mean age 76 (SD 11), 39 men), 61 were assessed in hospital: 94% of time was spent in sitting/lying, 4% standing and 2% walking. Activity levels improved over time (complete cases n = 15); time spent sitting/lying decreased (p = 0.001); time spent standing, walking and number of steps increased (p = 0.001, p = 0.028 and p = 0.03, respectively). At year 3, 18% of time was spent in standing and 9% walking. Time spent upright correlated significantly with Barthel (r = 0.69 on admission, r = 0.68 on discharge, both p < 0.01) and functional ambulation category scores (r = 0.55 on admission, 0.63 on discharge, both p < 0.05); correlations remained significant at all assessment points. Depression (in hospital), left hemisphere infarction (Years 1-2), visual neglect (Year 2), poor mobility and balance (Years 1-3) correlated with poorer activity levels. People with stroke were inactive for the majority of time. Time spent upright improved significantly by 1 year post-stroke; improvements slowed down thereafter. Poor activity levels correlated with physical and psychological measures. Larger studies are indicated to identify predictors of activity levels. Implications for Rehabilitation Activity levels (measured using activPAL™ activity monitor), increased significantly by 1 year post-stroke but improvements slowed down at 2 and 3 years. People with stroke were inactive for the majority of their day in hospital and in the community. Poor activity levels correlated with physical and psychological measures. Larger studies are indicated to identify the most important predictors of activity levels.

  15. The Impact of Multi-Year Math Response to Intervention as Measured by Smarter Balanced Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Maysoon Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    This quantitative study evaluated how two consecutive years of math Response to Intervention (RtI) demonstrated its effectiveness on 995 fifth grade students within the School District A (SDA) on Smarter Balanced (SB) assessments. Research questions: "What is the relationship between the duration of math RtI implementation and math…

  16. Inquiry-Based Learning: A Framework for Assessing Science in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marian, Hazel; Jackson, Claire

    2017-01-01

    This article draws on current literature leading to the development of a holistic framework to support practitioners in observation and assessment of childrens evolving inquiry skills. Evidence from the 2011 Trends in International Maths and Science Study (TIMSS) in England identifies a decline of year five student achievement in science. A…

  17. Reference Framework for Describing and Assessing Students' Understanding in First Year Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kannemeyer, Larry

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents aspects of a study that investigates the development of an instrument, a reference framework, to analyse students' written responses to non-routine problems in a first year calculus course in order to describe the complexities of their understanding and to assess their understanding of particular mathematical concepts.…

  18. A 10-Year Assessment of Information and Communication Technology Tasks Required in Undergraduate Agriculture Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Leslie D.; Johnson, Donald M.; Cox, Casandra

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to assess required information and communication technology (ICT) tasks in selected undergraduate agriculture courses in a land-grant university during a 10-year period. Selected agriculture faculty members in the fall 1999 (n = 63), 2004 (n = 55), and 2009 (n = 64) semesters were surveyed to determine the ICT tasks they required…

  19. Using Wikis and Blogs for Assessment in First-Year Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elizabeth Joy; Mills, Julie Evelyn; Myers, Baden

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine some of the strengths and weaknesses of the use of online tools such as wikis and blogs for assessment purposes, with the aim of proposing future developments and improvements. Design/methodology/approach: The paper utilises a case study approach by examining the outcomes of a new first-year course for all…

  20. The 150-Year History of English Language Assessment in Japanese Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasaki, Miyuki

    2008-01-01

    In the present study I describe the 150-year history of school-based English language assessment in Japan. The history is divided into four major periods according to the purposes of English language education set by the government in the different periods: (1) 1860 to 1945, when English was first introduced and taught in schools mainly for elite…

  1. Teachers' Perceptions of the Influence of Assessment on Their Teaching of Year 9 English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portelli, Leanne; O'Sullivan, Kerry-Ann

    2016-01-01

    This article draws from a Masters research study investigating the early implementation of the NSW English K-10 Syllabus in Year 9 with a focus on, teachers' perceptions of the various forms and purposes of assessment and the role these play in the classroom. The five participants were drawn from one English faculty in a single sex school in the…

  2. National Assessment Program--Science Literacy Year 6 Report, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Jenny; Lennon, Melissa; O'Connor, Gayl; Morrissey, Noni

    2008-01-01

    In 2003 the first nationally-comparable science assessment was designed, developed and carried out under the auspices of the national council of education ministers, the Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (MCEETYA). In 2006 a second science assessment was conducted and, for the first time nationally, the…

  3. Assessment of a two-year school-based physical activity intervention among 7-9-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) in children has declined in recent decades, highlighting the need for effective intervention programs for school-aged children. The main objective of this study was to assess to what extent PA during and after school hours changed among children who received a progressive two-year long intervention vs. that of children who only received general curriculum-based PA. Methods A cluster randomized intervention study was conducted and six elementary schools randomly assigned to serve as control- or intervention schools. All children attending second grade (mean age = 7.4 years - born in 1999) were invited to participate in the fall of 2006 (N = 320, 82% participated), again in 2007 (midpoint) and 2008 (end of intervention). The intervention consisted of multi-component PA-intervention during school hours and was conducted by teachers at each intervention school. PA was assessed by means of accelerometers and subjectively at the intervention schools via teachers' PA log-books. Results There was no difference in PA intensity (minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity - min of MVPA) between the two study groups at baseline, but children in the intervention schools were more physically active at moderate-to-vigorous intensity compared to those in control schools after one year of intervention (mean difference of MVPAlog-minutes: 0.61, 95%CI: 0.02, 1.20, p = 0.04). Moreover, the model for minutes of MVPA during school hours, showed a significant three-way interaction between time at mid-point, group and gender (mean difference of MVPAlog-minutes: 1.06, 95%CI: 0.15, 1.97, p = .02), indicating a significantly greater increase among the boys in the intervention schools compared to girls. No difference in PA was detected between the study groups at the end of the study period after two years of intervention. Conclusions The results suggest that the objective of increasing PA at school was met after one year of intervention, and it was

  4. Assessment of imatinib as first-line treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia: 10-year survival results of the randomized CML study IV and impact of non-CML determinants.

    PubMed

    Hehlmann, R; Lauseker, M; Saußele, S; Pfirrmann, M; Krause, S; Kolb, H J; Neubauer, A; Hossfeld, D K; Nerl, C; Gratwohl, A; Baerlocher, G M; Heim, D; Brümmendorf, T H; Fabarius, A; Haferlach, C; Schlegelberger, B; Müller, M C; Jeromin, S; Proetel, U; Kohlbrenner, K; Voskanyan, A; Rinaldetti, S; Seifarth, W; Spieß, B; Balleisen, L; Goebeler, M C; Hänel, M; Ho, A; Dengler, J; Falge, C; Kanz, L; Kremers, S; Burchert, A; Kneba, M; Stegelmann, F; Köhne, C A; Lindemann, H W; Waller, C F; Pfreundschuh, M; Spiekermann, K; Berdel, W E; Müller, L; Edinger, M; Mayer, J; Beelen, D W; Bentz, M; Link, H; Hertenstein, B; Fuchs, R; Wernli, M; Schlegel, F; Schlag, R; de Wit, M; Trümper, L; Hebart, H; Hahn, M; Thomalla, J; Scheid, C; Schafhausen, P; Verbeek, W; Eckart, M J; Gassmann, W; Pezzutto, A; Schenk, M; Brossart, P; Geer, T; Bildat, S; Schäfer, E; Hochhaus, A; Hasford, J

    2017-11-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)-study IV was designed to explore whether treatment with imatinib (IM) at 400 mg/day (n=400) could be optimized by doubling the dose (n=420), adding interferon (IFN) (n=430) or cytarabine (n=158) or using IM after IFN-failure (n=128). From July 2002 to March 2012, 1551 newly diagnosed patients in chronic phase were randomized into a 5-arm study. The study was powered to detect a survival difference of 5% at 5 years. After a median observation time of 9.5 years, 10-year overall survival was 82%, 10-year progression-free survival was 80% and 10-year relative survival was 92%. Survival between IM400 mg and any experimental arm was not different. In a multivariate analysis, risk group, major-route chromosomal aberrations, comorbidities, smoking and treatment center (academic vs other) influenced survival significantly, but not any form of treatment optimization. Patients reaching the molecular response milestones at 3, 6 and 12 months had a significant survival advantage. For responders, monotherapy with IM400 mg provides a close to normal life expectancy independent of the time to response. Survival is more determined by patients' and disease factors than by initial treatment selection. Although improvements are also needed for refractory disease, more life-time can currently be gained by carefully addressing non-CML determinants of survival.

  5. Children and Young People-Mental Health Safety Assessment Tool (CYP-MH SAT) study: Protocol for the development and psychometric evaluation of an assessment tool to identify immediate risk of self-harm and suicide in children and young people (10-19 years) in acute paediatric hospital settings.

    PubMed

    Manning, Joseph C; Walker, Gemma M; Carter, Tim; Aubeeluck, Aimee; Witchell, Miranda; Coad, Jane

    2018-04-12

    Currently, no standardised, evidence-based assessment tool for assessing immediate self-harm and suicide in acute paediatric inpatient settings exists. The aim of this study is to develop and test the psychometric properties of an assessment tool that identifies immediate risk of self-harm and suicide in children and young people (10-19 years) in acute paediatric hospital settings. Development phase: This phase involved a scoping review of the literature to identify and extract items from previously published suicide and self-harm risk assessment scales. Using a modified electronic Delphi approach, these items will then be rated according to their relevance for assessment of immediate suicide or self-harm risk by expert professionals. Inclusion of items will be determined by 65%-70% consensus between raters. Subsequently, a panel of expert members will convene to determine the face validity, appropriate phrasing, item order and response format for the finalised items.Psychometric testing phase: The finalised items will be tested for validity and reliability through a multicentre, psychometric evaluation. Psychometric testing will be undertaken to determine the following: internal consistency, inter-rater reliability, convergent, divergent validity and concurrent validity. Ethical approval was provided by the National Health Service East Midlands-Derby Research Ethics Committee (17/EM/0347) and full governance clearance received by the Health Research Authority and local participating sites. Findings from this study will be disseminated to professionals and the public via peer-reviewed journal publications, popular social media and conference presentations. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Children and Young People-Mental Health Safety Assessment Tool (CYP-MH SAT) study: Protocol for the development and psychometric evaluation of an assessment tool to identify immediate risk of self-harm and suicide in children and young people (10–19 years) in acute paediatric hospital settings

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Gemma M; Carter, Tim; Aubeeluck, Aimee; Witchell, Miranda; Coad, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Currently, no standardised, evidence-based assessment tool for assessing immediate self-harm and suicide in acute paediatric inpatient settings exists. Aim The aim of this study is to develop and test the psychometric properties of an assessment tool that identifies immediate risk of self-harm and suicide in children and young people (10–19 years) in acute paediatric hospital settings. Methods and analysis Development phase: This phase involved a scoping review of the literature to identify and extract items from previously published suicide and self-harm risk assessment scales. Using a modified electronic Delphi approach, these items will then be rated according to their relevance for assessment of immediate suicide or self-harm risk by expert professionals. Inclusion of items will be determined by 65%–70% consensus between raters. Subsequently, a panel of expert members will convene to determine the face validity, appropriate phrasing, item order and response format for the finalised items. Psychometric testing phase: The finalised items will be tested for validity and reliability through a multicentre, psychometric evaluation. Psychometric testing will be undertaken to determine the following: internal consistency, inter-rater reliability, convergent, divergent validity and concurrent validity. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was provided by the National Health Service East Midlands—Derby Research Ethics Committee (17/EM/0347) and full governance clearance received by the Health Research Authority and local participating sites. Findings from this study will be disseminated to professionals and the public via peer-reviewed journal publications, popular social media and conference presentations. PMID:29654046

  7. Water quality assessment in the "German River of the years 2014/2015": how a case study on the impact of a storm water sedimentation basin displayed impairment of fish health in the Argen River (Southern Germany).

    PubMed

    Thellmann, Paul; Kuch, Bertram; Wurm, Karl; Köhler, Heinz-R; Triebskorn, Rita

    2017-01-01

    The present work investigates the impact of discharges from a storm water sedimentation basin (SSB) receiving runoff from a connected motorway in southern Germany. The study lasted for almost two years and was aimed at assessing the impact of the SSB on the fauna of the Argen River, which is a tributary of Lake Constance. Two sampling sites were examined up- and downstream of the SSB effluent. A combination of different diagnostic methods (fish embryo test with the zebrafish, histopathology, micronucleus test) was applied to investigate health impairment and genotoxic effects in indigenous fish as well as embryotoxic potentials in surface water and sediment samples of the Argen River, respectively, in samples of the SSB effluent. In addition, sediment samples from the Argen River and tissues of indigenous fish were used for chemical analyses of 33 frequently occurring pollutants by means of gas chromatography. Furthermore, the integrity of the macrozoobenthos community and the fish population were examined at both investigated sampling sites. The chemical analyses revealed a toxic burden with trace substances (originating from traffic and waste water) in fish and sediments from both sampling sites. Fish embryo tests with native sediment and surface water samples resulted in various embryotoxic effects in exposed zebrafish embryos (Fig. 1). In addition, the health condition of the investigated fish species (e.g., severe alterations in the liver and kidney) provided clear evidence of water contamination at both Argen River sites (Fig. 2). At distinct points in time, some parameters (fish development, kidney and liver histopathology) indicated stronger effects at the sampling site downstream of the SSB effluent than at the upstream site. Our results clearly showed that the SSB cannot be assigned as the main source of pollutants that are released into the investigated Argen River section. Moreover, we showed that there is moderate background pollution with substances

  8. A Report Card for Risk Management in Higher Education for Two-Year Colleges in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan: A Study to Assess Gaps Regarding Risk Management in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centko, John David

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to organize the identified risks into one of the five classifications in order to establish a taxonomy created by peers and to measure the variances in the level of risk at two-year colleges. A universal problem for colleges and universities is the difficulty of finding peer groups that have and are willing to share…

  9. Objectively assessed physical activity and lower limb function and prospective associations with mortality and newly diagnosed disease in UK older adults: an OPAL four-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Kenneth R.; Ku, Po-Wen; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Davis, Mark G.; Simmonds, Bethany A. J.; Thompson, Janice L.; Stathi, Afroditi; Gray, Selena F.; Sharp, Deborah J.; Coulson, Joanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: objective measures of physical activity and function with a diverse cohort of UK adults in their 70s and 80s were used to investigate relative risk of all-cause mortality and diagnoses of new diseases over a 4-year period. Participants: two hundred and forty older adults were randomly recruited from 12 general practices in urban and suburban areas of a city in the United Kingdom. Follow-up included 213 of the baseline sample. Methods: socio-demographic variables, height and weight, and self-reported diagnosed diseases were recorded at baseline. Seven-day accelerometry was used to assess total physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous activity and sedentary time. A log recorded trips from home. Lower limb function was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery. Medical records were accessed on average 50 months post baseline, when new diseases and deaths were recorded. Analyses: ANOVAs were used to assess socio-demographic, physical activity and lower limb function group differences in diseases at baseline and new diseases during follow-up. Regression models were constructed to assess the prospective associations between physical activity and function with mortality and new disease. Results: for every 1,000 steps walked per day, the risk of mortality was 36% lower (hazard ratios 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.44–0.91, P = 0.013). Low levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (incident rate ratio (IRR) 1.67, 95% CI 1.04–2.68, P = 0.030) and low frequency of trips from home (IRR 1.41, 95% CI 0.98–2.05, P = 0.045) were associated with diagnoses of more new diseases. Conclusion: physical activity should be supported for adults in their 70s and 80s, as it is associated with reduced risk of mortality and new disease development. PMID:25377744

  10. Objectively assessed physical activity and lower limb function and prospective associations with mortality and newly diagnosed disease in UK older adults: an OPAL four-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Fox, Kenneth R; Ku, Po-Wen; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Davis, Mark G; Simmonds, Bethany A J; Thompson, Janice L; Stathi, Afroditi; Gray, Selena F; Sharp, Deborah J; Coulson, Joanne C

    2015-03-01

    Objective measures of physical activity and function with a diverse cohort of UK adults in their 70s and 80s were used to investigate relative risk of all-cause mortality and diagnoses of new diseases over a 4-year period. Two hundred and forty older adults were randomly recruited from 12 general practices in urban and suburban areas of a city in the United Kingdom. Follow-up included 213 of the baseline sample. Socio-demographic variables, height and weight, and self-reported diagnosed diseases were recorded at baseline. Seven-day accelerometry was used to assess total physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous activity and sedentary time. A log recorded trips from home. Lower limb function was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery. Medical records were accessed on average 50 months post baseline, when new diseases and deaths were recorded. ANOVAs were used to assess socio-demographic, physical activity and lower limb function group differences in diseases at baseline and new diseases during follow-up. Regression models were constructed to assess the prospective associations between physical activity and function with mortality and new disease. For every 1,000 steps walked per day, the risk of mortality was 36% lower (hazard ratios 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.44-0.91, P=0.013). Low levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (incident rate ratio (IRR) 1.67, 95% CI 1.04-2.68, P=0.030) and low frequency of trips from home (IRR 1.41, 95% CI 0.98-2.05, P=0.045) were associated with diagnoses of more new diseases. Physical activity should be supported for adults in their 70s and 80s, as it is associated with reduced risk of mortality and new disease development. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  11. Human Fetal Behavior: 100 Years of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisilevsky, B. S.; Low, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews literature on human fetal behavior. Includes descriptions of coupling of body movements and fetal heart rate and behavior maturation from conception to term. Discusses use of stimulus-induced behavior to examine sensory and cognitive development, and spontaneous and stimulus-induced behavior to assess fetal well-being. Notes research focus…

  12. EOS Aura MLS, first year post-launch engineering assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Karen A.; Lay, Richard R.; Jarnot, Robert F.; Cofield, Richard E.; Flower, Dennis A.; Pickett, Herbert M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the current status of the MLS instrument which now continuously provides data to produce global maps of targeted chemical species as well as temperature, cloud ice, and gravity wave activity. Performance trends are assessed with respect to characterization during initial on-orbit activiation of the instrument, and with data from ground test verification prior to launch.

  13. The Conservation Effects Assessment Project—The First Five Years

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) was initiated by USDA’s Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), and Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES) in response to a general call for better accountability of how soci...

  14. Opportunities, Challenges and Questions: Continual Assessment in Year 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Karl; Neal, Christina

    2004-01-01

    Our means of assessment might pose a problem. History teachers regularly set specific targets, with implicit or explicit reference to National Curriculum Levels, which are designed to move our pupils on and make them better historians. How, though, are we to prevent them from achieving their targets in a rather mechanistic way, ticking the boxes…

  15. Living memorials project: year 1 social and site assessment

    Treesearch

    Erika S. Svendsen; Lindsay K. Campbell

    2005-01-01

    The Living Memorials Project (LMP) social and site assessment identified more than 200 public open spaces created, used, or enhanced in memory of the tragic events of September 11, 2001 (9-11). A national registry of these sites is available for viewing and updating online. Researchers interviewed 100 community groups using social ecology methods of observation,...

  16. Seaside, Oregon, Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Varner, J.

    2006-12-01

    The results of a pilot study to assess the risk from tsunamis for the Seaside-Gearhart, Oregon region will be presented. To determine the risk from tsunamis, it is first necessary to establish the hazard or probability that a tsunami of a particular magnitude will occur within a certain period of time. Tsunami inundation maps that provide 100-year and 500-year probabilistic tsunami wave height contours for the Seaside-Gearhart, Oregon, region were developed as part of an interagency Tsunami Pilot Study(1). These maps provided the probability of the tsunami hazard. The next step in determining risk is to determine the vulnerability or degree of loss resulting from the occurrence of tsunamis due to exposure and fragility. The tsunami vulnerability assessment methodology used in this study was developed by M. Papathoma and others(2). This model incorporates multiple factors (e.g. parameters related to the natural and built environments and socio-demographics) that contribute to tsunami vulnerability. Data provided with FEMA's HAZUS loss estimation software and Clatsop County, Oregon, tax assessment data were used as input to the model. The results, presented within a geographic information system, reveal the percentage of buildings in need of reinforcement and the population density in different inundation depth zones. These results can be used for tsunami mitigation, local planning, and for determining post-tsunami disaster response by emergency services. (1)Tsunami Pilot Study Working Group, Seaside, Oregon Tsunami Pilot Study--Modernization of FEMA Flood Hazard Maps, Joint NOAA/USGS/FEMA Special Report, U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2006, Final Draft. (2)Papathoma, M., D. Dominey-Howes, D.,Y. Zong, D. Smith, Assessing Tsunami Vulnerability, an example from Herakleio, Crete, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 3, 2003, p. 377-389.

  17. Assessment of Chemistry Anxiety in a Two-Year College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Wanda C.; Widanski, Bozena Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Chemistry anxiety encompasses apprehension regarding learning chemistry, evaluation in chemistry courses, and fears about handling chemicals. Our goal was to ascertain the prevalence of these three types of anxiety in college students enrolled in a two-year college. In our sample, chemistry-evaluation provoked the most chemistry anxiety followed…

  18. Assessing the Quality of Early Years Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Glenda; Gardner, John

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a means of evaluating early years classrooms from the perspective of the child's experience. Nine key themes, such as motivation and independence, are identified as representing significant aspects of a high-quality environment for learning. The manner in which these manifest themselves in relation to the three elements of…

  19. Socioeconomic Outcomes in Adults Malnourished in the First Year of Life: A 40-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Bryce, Cyralene; Waber, Deborah P.; Zichlin, Miriam L.; Fitzmaurice, Garret M.; Eaglesfield, David

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lifelong functional, adaptive, and economic outcomes of moderate to severe infantile malnutrition are not well known. We assessed social status and income at midlife in a cohort of Barbadian adults, hospitalized for protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) during the first year of life, with good nutrition and health thereafter, in the context of a 40-year longitudinal case-control study. We also examined to what extent childhood IQ mediated any group differences. METHODS: Educational achievement, occupational status, and standard of living were assessed by the Hollingshead scales and a site-specific Ecology Questionnaire in Barbadian adults (aged 37–43 years) with a history of malnutrition (n = 80) and a matched healthy control group (n = 63), classmates of the index cases. Malnutrition effects, adjusted for childhood standard of living, were estimated by longitudinal multiple regression analyses, with and without childhood IQ, in the models. RESULTS: PEM predicted poorer socioeconomic outcomes with medium to large effect sizes (0.50–0.94), but childhood IQ substantially attenuated the magnitude of these effects (adjusted effect sizes: 0.17–0.34). The gap in weekly household income between the PEM and control groups increased substantially over the life span (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Moderate to severe PEM during the first year of life with adequate nutrition and health care thereafter is associated with significant depression of socioeconomic outcomes in adulthood, mediated in part by cognitive compromise in affected individuals. This finding underscores the potential long-term economic burden of infant malnutrition, which is of major concern given the continued high prevalence of malnutrition worldwide. PMID:22732170

  20. Mental health assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for children born extremely preterm without severe disabilities at 11 years of age: a Norwegian, national population-based study.

    PubMed

    Fevang, Silje Katrine Elgen; Hysing, Mari; Sommerfelt, Kristian; Elgen, Irene

    2017-12-01

    The aims were to investigate mental health problems with the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in children born extremely preterm/extremely low birth weight (EP/ELBW) without severe disabilities compared to controls, and to identify peri-, or neonatal factors possibly predicting later mental health problems. A national Norwegian cohort of 11-year-old EP/ELBW children, excluding those with intellectual disabilities, non-ambulatory cerebral palsy, blindness and/or deafness, was assessed. Parents and teachers completed the SDQ. Mean scores and scores ≥90th percentile for the control group, combined (parent and/or teacher reporting the child ≥90th percentile), and pervasive ratings (both parent and teacher reporting the child ≥90th percentile) were presented. The controls consisted of an unselected population of all 11-year-old children born in 1995 who attended public or private schools in Bergen. Of the eligible children, 216 (64%) EP/ELBW and 1882 (61%) control children participated. The EP/ELBW children had significantly higher scores and/or increased risk of parent, teacher, combined, and pervasive rated hyperactivity/inattention, emotional-, and peer problems (OR 2.1-6.3). Only parents reported the EP/ELBW children to be at an increased risk of conduct problems (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.6). Only low maternal education at birth was significantly associated with mental health problems at 11 years of age (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2-5.4). EP/ELBW children without severe disabilities had increased risk of symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention, emotional-, and peer problems. None of the peri- or neonatal factors were significantly associated with later mental health problems, except for low maternal education.

  1. National Children's Study Dietary Assessment Workshop

    Cancer.gov

    The National Children's Study dietary assessment workshop was an opportunity for experts in dietary assessment methodology to gather and discuss the current state of knowledge about methodologies used to assess dietary intake during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.

  2. Social Studies in the Formative Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooster, Judith S., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This collection of eight articles was written to assist schools in rethinking and strengthening social studies programs, grades K-6. The articles offer practical suggestions for classroom teachers, social studies supervisors, and other professionals who have responsibility for planning and implementing programs. The issue begins with an article by…

  3. Responsibility-centered management: a 10-year nursing assessment.

    PubMed

    McBride, A B; Neiman, S; Johnson, J

    2000-01-01

    In 1988-89, Indiana University became the first public university to implement responsibility-centered management (RCM) comprehensively. This article describes and assesses the implementation of RCM on the core campus of Indiana University School of Nursing in Indianapolis. It describes how RCM encouraged an information-rich environment, particularly with the advent of economic modeling; decision making linked to strategic goals/objectives; and a performance-based reward structure (e.g., merit pay increases and incentive plans). It ends with a discussion about the worth of RCM and the changes that frame-work produced, particularly in reconceptualizing the roles of the business officer and dean. The most profound consequence of RCM may be the effect it has in encouraging rethinking of what it means to be a school of nursing at this point in time.

  4. National Assessment Program--Civics and Citizenship Years 6 & 10 Report, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellor, Suzanne; Ainley, John; Fraillon, Julian; Wernert, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    The National Assessment Program--Civics and Citizenship assessment measures the civic knowledge and understanding and the citizenship participation skills and civic values of Year 6 and Year 10 students in schools across Australia. It reports on student achievement using proficiency levels on a common civics and citizenship assessment scale, and…

  5. What Is Next after 40 Years? Part 2: Prior Learning Assessment--2012 and after

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travers, Nan L.

    2012-01-01

    The previous article, "Prior Learning Assessment: What is next after 40 years? Part 1: Prior Learning Assessment: 1970-2011" focused on the history of prior learning assessment (PLA) in the United States over the past 40 years. After exploring more recent recognition and development of PLA across institutions of higher education, the…

  6. Pre-K Longitudinal Study: Findings from the 1999-2000 School Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Gary T.; Gordon, Craig S.; Mashburn, Andrew; Ponder, Bentley D.

    The Georgia Prekindergarten Program was established in 1993 to provide the state's 4-year-olds with high-quality preschool experiences. A five-year, longitudinal study examined the ways in which differences in prekindergarten services received by 3,639 Pre-K 4-year-olds affected them during their first 3 years of elementary school and assessed the…

  7. Asteroid Studies: A 35-Year Forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivkin, A. S.; Denevi, B. W.; Klima, R. L.; Ernst, C. M.; Chabot, N. L.; Barnouin, O. S.; Cohen, B. A.

    2017-02-01

    We are in an active time for asteroid studies, which fall at the intersection of science, planetary defense, human exploration, and in situ resource utilization. We look forward and extrapolate what the future may hold for asteroid science.

  8. [70 years of Nikola Tesla studies].

    PubMed

    Juznic, Stanislav

    2013-01-01

    Nikola Tesla's studies of chemistry are described including his not very scholarly affair in Maribor. After almost a century and half of hypothesis at least usable scenario of Tesla's life and "work" in Maribor is provided. The chemistry achievements of Tesla's most influential professors Martin Sekulić and Tesla's Graz professors are put into the limelight. The fact that Tesla in Graz studied on the technological chemistry Faculty of Polytechnic is focused.

  9. A randomized study to assess the immunogenicity, antibody persistence and safety of a tetravalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in children aged 2–10 years

    PubMed Central

    Vesikari, Timo; Forstén, Aino; Boutriau, Dominique; Bianco, Véronique; Van der Wielen, Marie; Miller, Jacqueline M.

    2012-01-01

    Incidence of meningococcal diseases is high in children, and effective vaccines are needed for this age group. In this phase II, open, controlled study, 309 children aged 2–10 y from Finland were randomized (3:1) into two parallel groups to receive one dose of meningococcal ACWY-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (ACWY-TT group; n = 231) or a licensed meningococcal ACWY polysaccharide vaccine (Men-PS group; n = 78). Serum bactericidal activity using rabbit complement (rSBA) was evaluated up to three years post-vaccination. Exploratory comparisons suggested that rSBA vaccine response rates and geometric mean titers (GMTs) for each serogroup at one month post-vaccination and rSBA GMTs for serogroups A, W-135 and Y up to three years post-vaccination were higher in the ACWY-TT compared with Men-PS group, but did not detect any difference between groups in terms of rSBA-MenC GMTs at three years post-vaccination; this is explained by the higher proportion of children from the Men-PS group who were excluded because they were re-vaccinated with a monovalent meningococcal serogroup C vaccine due to loss of protective antibody levels against this serogroup. Although there was a higher incidence of local reactogenicity in the ACWY-TT group, general and unsolicited symptoms reporting rates were comparable in both groups. This study showed that MenACWY-TT was immunogenic with a clinically acceptable safety profile in children aged 2–10 y. MenACWY-TT induced higher functional antibody titers for all serogroups, which persisted longer for serogroups A, W-135 and Y, than the MenACWY polysaccharide vaccine. This study has been registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00427908. PMID:23032168

  10. Effectiveness of a national cardiovascular disease risk assessment program (NHS Health Check): results after one year.

    PubMed

    Artac, Macide; Dalton, Andrew R H; Majeed, Azeem; Car, Josip; Millett, Christopher

    2013-08-01

    We aimed to assess whether the National Health Service (NHS) Health Check, a systematic cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment and management program, was associated with reduction in CVD risk in attendees after one year. We extracted data from patients aged 40-74 years, with high estimated CVD risk, who were registered with general practices in a deprived, culturally diverse setting in England. We included 4748 patients at baseline (July 2008-November 2009), with 3712 at follow-up (December 2009-March 2011). We used a pre-post study design to assess changes in global CVD risk, individual CVD risk factors and statin prescription in patients with a complete and partial Health Check. There were significant reductions in mean CVD risk score (28.2%; 95% confidence interval (CI)=27.3-29.1 to 26.2%; 95% CI, 25.4-27.1), diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol levels and lipid ratios after one year in patients with a complete Health Check. Statin prescription increased from 14.0% (95% CI=11.9-16.0) to 60.6% (95% CI=57.7-63.5). The introduction of NHS Health Check was associated with significant but modest reductions in CVD risk among screened high-risk individuals. Further cost-effectiveness analysis and work accounting for uptake is required to assess whether the program can make significant changes to population health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Beyond height and weight: a programme of school nurse assessed skinfold measurements from white British and South Asian origin children aged 4-5 years within the Born in Bradford cohort study.

    PubMed

    West, Jane; Santorelli, Gillian; Lennon, Laura; O'Connell, Kathy; Corkett, John; Wright, John; Brierley, Shirley; Whincup, Peter; Cameron, Noel; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2015-11-26

    To describe the feasibility, reliability and additional information gained from collecting additional body fatness measures (beyond height and weight) from UK reception year children. Prospective cohort study. Bradford, UK. 2458 reception year children participating in the Born in Bradford (BiB) cohort study. The feasibility and reliability of subscapular and triceps skinfold measurements and differences in adiposity between ethnic groups. Of those children who were matched to their school, 91% had a subscapular skinfold measurement and 92% had a triceps skinfold measurement recorded. Reliability was generally over 90% for all measurers and both measurements. Pakistani children were slightly taller but weighed less and had lower triceps skinfold thickness (mean difference -1.8 mm, 95% CI -2.1 to -1.4 mm) but higher subscapular (mean difference 0.1 mm, 95% CI -0.1 to 0.4 mm) than white British children. We have shown that it is feasible for school nurses to collect skinfold measurements in a similar way to the height and weight measurements collected from reception year children for the National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP), and that these measurements are reliable. It is important for healthcare practice to acknowledge ethnic-specific risk and these additional measurements can provide important information to examine population-level risk in populations with large proportions of South Asian children. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. After 50 Years, Ethnic Studies Still Controversial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetschler, Ed

    2011-01-01

    In the early 1900s, sociologist and civil-rights activist W.E.B. DuBois advocated the teaching of African-American studies in American schools. The goal was to teach a history and heritage that was being ignored, not just so blacks would better understand their own past, but so white society would be more respectful. But by 1968, when students…

  13. Thirty-year assessment of released, overtopped white oaks

    Treesearch

    C. Miller; S. Grayson; A. Houser; W. Clatterbuck; K. Kuers

    2011-01-01

    White oak (Quercus alba L.) is a slow-growing species that is often overtopped in the mixed upland hardwood forests of the Cumberland Plateau. Forest managers have concerns about the potential economic value of releasing overtopped white oaks to become valuable crop trees. This study follows the growth and development of 104 overtopped white oaks...

  14. Chronic pain in multiple sclerosis: A 10-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Young, Jamie; Amatya, Bhasker; Galea, Mary P; Khan, Fary

    2017-07-01

    Pain is a common symptom associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), and has lasting effects on an individual's functional capacity and quality of life. A wide range of prevalence rates of pain (between 23% and 90%)have been reported in MS and this is mainly due to the methodological differences amongst the studies such as variability in patient sources, method of sampling and the definition of pain used. Chronic pain in MS, defined as pain lasting for greater than 3-6 months, can have a significant impact on their biopsychosocial health, including negative impact on activities of daily living, relationships and social participation. The long-term course of MS-related pain and its impact in an Australian cohort over a 7-year period has been investigated earlier. The aim of this longitudinal study was to describe the impact of chronic pain, pain-related disability and carer burden in persons with MS over a 10-year period. The aim of this longitudinal study was to describe the impact of chronic pain, pain-related disability and carer burden in persons with MS over a 10-year period. This was a prospective longitudinal study conducted at the Rehabilitation Department of Royal Melbourne Hospital (RMH), a tertiary referral hospital in Victoria and Australia. The source of participants was from the RMH MS database and contains detailed MS patient information including demographic data, diagnosis details (using McDonald's criteria), pain characteristics. Structured face-face interviews and validated measures were used, which include the visual analogue scale (VAS); chronic pain grade (CPG); the assessment of quality of life (AQoL) and the carer strain index (CSI). The mean age of the participants (n=70) was 55.3 years and majority (70%) were female. The mean age of the participants (n=70) was 55.3 years and majority (70%) were female. The findings show that over time (10 years), participants report having greater bilateral bodily pain and greater description of pain as 'worse

  15. The Offense Patterns of Rural Delinquents: A Ten Year Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thilmony, Jeri J.; And Others

    Research on rural delinquency is far from prolific and tends to focus on non-trend comparisons with the urban sector (see, for example, Clinard, 1942 and Lentz, 1956). The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a trend study of rural delinquents (N=3,347 non-traffic cases) based on the 1965 through 1974 juvenile court records of nine…

  16. ALVEOLAR BREATH SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS IN HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alveolar breath sampling and analysis can be extremely useful in exposure assessment studies involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Over recent years scientists from the EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory have developed and refined an alveolar breath collection ...

  17. Overview of the Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation Study

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) study was conducted over a five-year period from 1994-1998, to characterize determinants of indoor air quality (IAQ) and occupant perceptions in representative public and commercial office buildings.

  18. Quantification for Complex Assessment: Uncertainty Estimation in Final Year Project Thesis Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ho Sung

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative method for estimating an expected uncertainty (reliability and validity) in assessment results arising from the relativity between four variables, viz examiner's expertise, examinee's expertise achieved, assessment task difficulty and examinee's performance, was developed for the complex assessment applicable to final…

  19. Assessing Vocal Performances Using Analytical Assessment: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gynnild, Vidar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated ways to improve the appraisal of vocal performances within a national academy of music. Since a criterion-based assessment framework had already been adopted, the conceptual foundation of an assessment rubric was used as a guide in an action research project. The group of teachers involved wanted to explore thinking…

  20. Five-year longitudinal assessment of the prognosis of apical microsurgery.

    PubMed

    von Arx, Thomas; Jensen, Simon S; Hänni, Stefan; Friedman, Shimon

    2012-05-01

    Apical surgery is an important treatment option for teeth with post-treatment apical periodontitis. Knowledge of the long-term prognosis is necessary when weighing apical surgery against alternative treatments. This study assessed the 5-year outcome of apical surgery and its predictors in a cohort for which the 1-year outcome was previously reported. Apical microsurgery procedures were uniformly performed using SuperEBA (Staident International, Staines, UK) or mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) (ProRoot MTA; Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK) root-end fillings or alternatively Retroplast capping (Retroplast Trading, Rorvig, Denmark). Subjects examined at 1 year (n = 191) were invited for the 5-year clinical and radiographic examination. Based on blinded, independent assessment by 3 calibrated examiners, the dichotomous outcome (healed or nonhealed) was determined and associated with patient-, tooth-, and treatment-related variables using logistic regression. At the 5-year follow-up, 9 of 191 teeth were unavailable, 12 of 191 teeth were extracted, and 170 of 191 teeth were examined (87.6% recall rate). A total of 129 of 170 teeth were healed (75.9%) compared with 83.8% at 1 year, and 85.3% were asymptomatic. Two significant outcome predictors were identified: the mesial-distal bone level at ≤ 3 mm versus >3 mm from the cementoenamel junction (78.2% vs 52.9% healed, respectively; odds ratio = 5.10; confidence interval, 1.67-16.21; P < .02) and root-end fillings with ProRoot MTA versus SuperEBA (86.4% vs. 67.3% healed, respectively; odds ratio = 7.65; confidence interval, 2.60-25.27; P < .004). This study suggested that the 5-year prognosis after apical microsurgery was 8% poorer than assessed at 1 year. It also suggested that the prognosis was significantly impacted by the interproximal bone levels at the treated tooth and by the type of root-end filling material used. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. All rights reserved.

  1. If First-Year Students Are Afraid of Public Speaking Assessments What Can Teachers Do to Alleviate Such Anxiety?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Gregory; Crimmins, Gail; Oprescu, Florin

    2016-01-01

    Public speaking and oral assessments are common in higher education, and they can be a major cause of anxiety and stress for students. This study was designed to measure the student experience of public speaking assessment tasks in a mandatory first-year course at a regional Australian university. The research conducted was an instrumental case…

  2. Eight years of regional scale, benthic assessments of the U.S. West Coast: Lessons learned and future directions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA National Coastal Assessment (NCA) conducted regional scale assessments of benthic condition for the US West Coast from Washington to California, several regions of Alaska, Hawaii, and the Trust Territories of Guam and American Samoa. Over an 8-year period, studies focuse...

  3. Safety assessment in pediatric studies.

    PubMed

    Koren, Gideon; Elzagallaai, Abdelbasset; Etwel, Fatma

    2011-01-01

    It typically takes many years before an association of a drug with a rare, serious adverse reaction is established. As related to pediatric drug use, evidence is even more erratic, as most drugs are used off labels. To enhance child safety, there is an urgent need to develop robust and rapid methods to identify such associations in as timely a manner as possible. In this chapter, several novel methods, both clinically based pharmacoepidemiological approaches and laboratory-based methods, are described.

  4. Assessing the Mathematical Thinking of Young Children in New Zealand: The Initial School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young-Loveridge, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of assessment policy and practice in mathematics for early years classrooms in New Zealand between 1993 and the present day. It describes the introduction of school entry assessment for children starting school at age five. A numeracy initiative, the Numeracy Development Projects (NDP), for students in Years 1-10…

  5. Centralisation of Assessment: Meeting the Challenges of Multi-Year Team Projects in Information Systems Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Grahame; Heinze, Aleksej

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the difficulties of assessing multi-year team projects, in which a team of students drawn from all three years of a full-time degree course works on a problem with and for a real-life organization. Although potential solutions to the problem of assessing team projects may be context-dependent, we believe that discussing these…

  6. 78 FR 52761 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; One Year Assessment of the Social and Economic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... Collection; Comment Request; One Year Assessment of the Social and Economic Impacts of Hurricane Sandy on New... is for a new information collection. The Northeast Fisheries Science Center's Social Sciences Branch seeks to conduct a one year assessment of the social and economic impacts from Hurricane Sandy to the...

  7. Assessing Physicians' Intentions to Talk about Sex when They Vaccinate Nine-Year-Old to 15-Year-Old Girls against HPV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Campo, Shelly; Smith, Sandi; Lowe, John B.; Dennis, Leslie; Andsager, Julie

    2011-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine provides physicians with an opportunity to have conversations with girls about sex and sex-related topics. Current research suggests that these conversations are not happening. This study was designed to assess whether physicians would use the HPV vaccination as an opening to communicate with nine-year-old to…

  8. Balancing Formative and Summative Science Assessment Practices: Year One of the GenScope Assessment Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, Daniel T.; Kruger, Ann Cale; Fredrick, Laura D.; Schafer, Nancy Jo; Kindfield, Ann C. H.

    This paper describes the GenScope Assessment Project, a project that is exploring ways of using multimedia computers to teach complex science content, refining sociocultural views of assessment and motivation, and considering different ways of reconciling the differences between these newer views and prior behavioral and cognitive views. The…

  9. Changes in Perceptions of Studying for the GCSE among Year 10 and Year 11 Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Lynne; Hallam, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This research aimed to explore whether pupils' perceptions of studying for the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) altered during the two-year period of study of this qualification. Six hundred and forty four pupils from eight schools in outer London completed a self-report questionnaire on two occasions, once in Year 10 and once in…

  10. Mortality in acromegaly: a 20-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Ritvonen, Elina; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Jaatinen, Pia; Ebeling, Tapani; Moilanen, Leena; Nuutila, Pirjo; Kauppinen-Mäkelin, Ritva; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla

    2016-06-01

    It is unclear whether mortality still is increased in acromegaly and whether there are gender-related differences. We dynamically assessed outcome during long-term follow-up in our nationwide cohort. We studied standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) relative to the general population and causes of death in acromegaly (n=333) compared with age- and gender-matched controls (n=4995). During 20 (0-33) years follow-up, 113 (34%) patients (n=333, 52% women) and 1334 (27%) controls (n=4995) died (P=0.004). SMR (1.9, 95% CI: 1.53-2.34, P<0.001) and all-cause mortality (OR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.2, P<0.001) were increased in acromegaly. Overall distribution of causes of death (P<0.001) differed between patients and controls but not cardiovascular (34% vs 33%) or cancer deaths (27% vs 27%). In acromegaly, but not in controls, causes of deaths shifted from 44% cardiovascular and 28% cancer deaths during the first decade, to 23% cardiovascular and 35% cancer deaths during the next two decades. In acromegaly, cancer deaths were mostly attributed to pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n=5), breast (n=4), lung (n=3) and colon (n=3) carcinoma. In acromegaly, men were younger than women at diagnosis (median 44.5 vs 50 years, P<0.001) and death (67 vs 76 years, P=0.0015). Compared with controls, women (36% vs 25%, P<0.01), but not men (31% vs 28%, P=0.44), had increased mortality. In acromegaly, men are younger at diagnosis and death than women. Compared with controls, mortality is increased during 20 years of follow-up, especially in women. Causes of deaths shift from predominantly cardiovascular to cancer deaths. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  11. Using the Scaffolding Numeracy in the Middle Years Assessment Materials to Support Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breed, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    The Scaffolding Numeracy in the Middle Years 2003-2006 Project (SNMY) focussed on the efficacy of an assessment-guided approach to improving student outcomes in numeracy in Years 4-8. The project was prompted by previous research (e.g., Siemon, Virgona & Corneille, 2001), which identified an "eight-year" range in student mathematical achievement…

  12. Assessment and Quality Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Tom V.

    2003-01-01

    Those anonymous individuals who develop high-stakes tests by which educational quality is measured exercise great influence in defining educational quality. In this article, the author examines the impact of high-stakes testing on the welfare of the children and the quality of social studies instruction. He presents the benefits and drawbacks of…

  13. African Savanna-Forest Boundary Dynamics: A 20-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Cuni-Sanchez, Aida; White, Lee J. T.; Calders, Kim; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Abernethy, Katharine; Burt, Andrew; Disney, Mathias; Gilpin, Martin; Gomez-Dans, Jose L.; Lewis, Simon L.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show widespread encroachment of forest into savannas with important consequences for the global carbon cycle and land-atmosphere interactions. However, little research has focused on in situ measurements of the successional sequence of savanna to forest in Africa. Using long-term inventory plots we quantify changes in vegetation structure, above-ground biomass (AGB) and biodiversity of trees ≥10 cm diameter over 20 years for five vegetation types: savanna; colonising forest (F1), monodominant Okoume forest (F2); young Marantaceae forest (F3); and mixed Marantaceae forest (F4) in Lopé National Park, central Gabon, plus novel 3D terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) measurements to assess forest structure differences. Over 20 years no plot changed to a new stage in the putative succession, but F1 forests strongly moved towards the structure, AGB and diversity of F2 forests. Overall, savanna plots showed no detectable change in structure, AGB or diversity using this method, with zero trees ≥10 cm diameter in 1993 and 2013. F1 and F2 forests increased in AGB, mainly as a result of adding recruited stems (F1) and increased Basal Area (F2), whereas F3 and F4 forests did not change substantially in structure, AGB or diversity. Critically, the stability of the F3 stage implies that this stage may be maintained for long periods. Soil carbon was low, and did not show a successional gradient as for AGB and diversity. TLS vertical plant profiles showed distinctive differences amongst the vegetation types, indicating that this technique can improve ecological understanding. We highlight two points: (i) as forest colonises, changes in biodiversity are much slower than changes in forest structure or AGB; and (ii) all forest types store substantial quantities of carbon. Multi-decadal monitoring is likely to be required to assess the speed of transition between vegetation types. PMID:27336632

  14. African Savanna-Forest Boundary Dynamics: A 20-Year Study.

    PubMed

    Cuni-Sanchez, Aida; White, Lee J T; Calders, Kim; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Abernethy, Katharine; Burt, Andrew; Disney, Mathias; Gilpin, Martin; Gomez-Dans, Jose L; Lewis, Simon L

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show widespread encroachment of forest into savannas with important consequences for the global carbon cycle and land-atmosphere interactions. However, little research has focused on in situ measurements of the successional sequence of savanna to forest in Africa. Using long-term inventory plots we quantify changes in vegetation structure, above-ground biomass (AGB) and biodiversity of trees ≥10 cm diameter over 20 years for five vegetation types: savanna; colonising forest (F1), monodominant Okoume forest (F2); young Marantaceae forest (F3); and mixed Marantaceae forest (F4) in Lopé National Park, central Gabon, plus novel 3D terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) measurements to assess forest structure differences. Over 20 years no plot changed to a new stage in the putative succession, but F1 forests strongly moved towards the structure, AGB and diversity of F2 forests. Overall, savanna plots showed no detectable change in structure, AGB or diversity using this method, with zero trees ≥10 cm diameter in 1993 and 2013. F1 and F2 forests increased in AGB, mainly as a result of adding recruited stems (F1) and increased Basal Area (F2), whereas F3 and F4 forests did not change substantially in structure, AGB or diversity. Critically, the stability of the F3 stage implies that this stage may be maintained for long periods. Soil carbon was low, and did not show a successional gradient as for AGB and diversity. TLS vertical plant profiles showed distinctive differences amongst the vegetation types, indicating that this technique can improve ecological understanding. We highlight two points: (i) as forest colonises, changes in biodiversity are much slower than changes in forest structure or AGB; and (ii) all forest types store substantial quantities of carbon. Multi-decadal monitoring is likely to be required to assess the speed of transition between vegetation types.

  15. Rumination, Age, and Years of Experience: A Predictive Study of Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDuffy, Moriel S.

    2016-01-01

    This study used a non-experimental design to examine whether job satisfaction, rumination, age and years of experience predict burnout among human service workers serving high-risk populations. The study also used a stepwise regression to assess whether job satisfaction, rumination, age, or years of experience predict burnout equally. Burnout was…

  16. Children's Sympathy, Guilt, and Moral Reasoning in Helping, Cooperation, and Sharing: A 6-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malti, Tina; Ongley, Sophia F.; Peplak, Joanna; Chaparro, Maria P.; Buchmann, Marlis; Zuffianò, Antonio; Cui, Lixian

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the role of sympathy, guilt, and moral reasoning in helping, cooperation, and sharing in a 6-year, three-wave longitudinal study involving 175 children (M[subscript age] 6.10, 9.18, and 12.18 years). Primary caregivers reported on children's helping and cooperation; sharing was assessed behaviorally. Child sympathy was assessed…

  17. Speech Characteristics of 8-Year-Old Children: Findings from a Prospective Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wren, Yvonne; McLeod, Sharynne; White, Paul; Miller, Laura L.; Roulstone, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Speech disorder that continues into middle childhood is rarely studied compared with speech disorder in the early years. Speech production in single words, connected speech and nonword repetition was assessed for 7390 eight-year-old children within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The majority (n=6399) had typical…

  18. Differential effects of two types of formative assessment in predicting performance of first-year medical students.

    PubMed

    Krasne, Sally; Wimmers, Paul F; Relan, Anju; Drake, Thomas A

    2006-05-01

    Formative assessments are systematically designed instructional interventions to assess and provide feedback on students' strengths and weaknesses in the course of teaching and learning. Despite their known benefits to student attitudes and learning, medical school curricula have been slow to integrate such assessments into the curriculum. This study investigates how performance on two different modes of formative assessment relate to each other and to performance on summative assessments in an integrated, medical-school environment. Two types of formative assessment were administered to 146 first-year medical students each week over 8 weeks: a timed, closed-book component to assess factual recall and image recognition, and an un-timed, open-book component to assess higher order reasoning including the ability to identify and access appropriate resources and to integrate and apply knowledge. Analogous summative assessments were administered in the ninth week. Models relating formative and summative assessment performance were tested using Structural Equation Modeling. Two latent variables underlying achievement on formative and summative assessments could be identified; a "formative-assessment factor" and a "summative-assessment factor," with the former predicting the latter. A latent variable underlying achievement on open-book formative assessments was highly predictive of achievement on both open- and closed-book summative assessments, whereas a latent variable underlying closed-book assessments only predicted performance on the closed-book summative assessment. Formative assessments can be used as effective predictive tools of summative performance in medical school. Open-book, un-timed assessments of higher order processes appeared to be better predictors of overall summative performance than closed-book, timed assessments of factual recall and image recognition.

  19. A preliminary assessment of the fifth-year chiropractic students' knowledge of anatomy.

    PubMed

    Strkalj, Goran; Schroder, Tania; Pather, Nalini; Solyali, Veli

    2011-01-01

    Anatomy has been at the foundation of medical students' training. In recent decades, medical programs in many countries have undergone major reform in both pedagogy and content. These reforms generated intense debates, focusing mainly on the way the new programs affected medical graduates' knowledge of anatomy and their clinical capabilities. Anatomy, however, is not only core to medicine, but also to a number of allied and complementary health disciplines. While the evaluation of anatomy teaching and learning in the medical programs has been heavily scrutinized, anatomy education in the complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) professions, including those, such as chiropractic, in which anatomy has traditionally been one of the main preclinical subjects, has been less frequently evaluated. The study aimed to make a preliminary assessment of the final year chiropractic students' knowledge of anatomy using the "carpal bone test." The testing was conducted on the final-year chiropractic students at Macquarie University in 2009. In this test, the students were given 5 minutes to label an illustration of the bony skeleton of the carpal region. The results of this assessment were then compared to results of previously published surveys using the "carpal bone test." A total of 84 students participated in the study. Thirty-eight percent (38%) of students identified all eight bones, while 60% of students identified five or more carpal bones. The most frequent correctly identified bone was the pisiform, followed by the scaphoid bone (82% and 74% of students, respectively). The trapezium and trapezoid bones were least frequently identified: both by 52% of students each. These results were generally better than those of the previously tested final-year medical students. The importance of anatomy in chiropractors' education has been generally acknowledged. This study suggests that the comparatively high number of hours devoted to anatomy in Macquarie University

  20. Collaborative Assessment: Middle School Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkison, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing a participant observer research model, a case study of the efficacy of a collaborative assessment methodology within a middle school social studies class was conducted. A review of existing research revealed that students' perceptions of assessment, evaluation, and accountability influence their intrinsic motivation to learn. A…

  1. Six Case-Studies of Performance Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Ruth; Stempel, Amy

    Six cases are studied to give some idea of the range of performance assessments in use in the United States. Contrast and comparison are made possible through the study of the following: (1) the South Brunswick (New Jersey) Public Schools Observational Portfolio for kindergarten through grade 12; (2) the Arizona Student Assessment Program (not yet…

  2. Assessment of Student Learning in Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austen, Caryn Kellerhals; And Others

    This document, part of a series of papers which describe the assessment of student learning in various aspects of the South Carolina curriculum from prekindergarten through grade 12, focuses on the assessment of student learning in the social studies classroom. It begins with an overview of current curriculum goals in social studies education and…

  3. Divorce and death: forty years of the Charleston Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Sbarra, David A; Nietert, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    Forty years of follow-up data from the Charleston Heart Study (CHS) were used to examine the risk for early mortality associated with marital separation or divorce in a sample of more than 1,300 adults assessed on several occasions between 1960 and 2000. Participants who were separated or divorced at the start of the study evidenced significantly elevated rates of early mortality, and these results held after adjusting for baseline health status and other demographic variables. Being separated or divorced throughout the CHS follow-up window was one of the strongest predictors of early mortality. However, the excess mortality risk associated with separation or divorce was completely eliminated when participants who had ever experienced a marital separation or divorce during the study were compared with all other participants. These findings suggest that a key predictor of early death is the amount of time people live as separated or divorced. It is possible that the mortality risk conferred by marital dissolution is due to dimensions of personality that predict divorce as well as a decreased likelihood of future remarriage.

  4. Three Mile Island epidemiologic radiation dose assessment revisited: 25 years after the accident.

    PubMed

    Field, R William

    2005-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, public health concerns following the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident prompted several epidemiologic investigations in the vicinity of TMI. One of these studies is ongoing. This commentary suggests that the major source of radiation exposure to the population has been ignored as a potential confounding factor or effect modifying factor in previous and ongoing TMI epidemiologic studies that explore whether or not TMI accidental plant radiation releases caused an increase in lung cancer in the community around TMI. The commentary also documents the observation that the counties around TMI have the highest regional radon potential in the United States and concludes that radon progeny exposure should be included as part of the overall radiation dose assessment in future studies of radiation-induced lung cancer resulting from the TMI accident.

  5. Biofidelity assessment of the 6-year-old ATDs in lateral impact.

    PubMed

    Yaek, J L; Li, Y; Lemanski, P J; Begeman, P C; Rouhana, S W; Cavanaugh, J M

    2016-07-03

    The objective of this study was to assess and compare the current lateral impact biofidelity of the shoulder, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis of the Q6, Q6s, and Hybrid III (HIII) 6-year-old anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) through lateral impact testing. A series of lateral impact pendulum tests, vertical drop tests, and Wayne State University (WSU) sled tests was performed, based on the procedures detailed in ISO/TR 9790 (1999) and scaling to the 6-year-old using Irwin et al. ( 2002 ). The HIII used in this study was tested with the Ford-designed abdomen described in Rouhana ( 2006 ) and Elhagediab et al. ( 2006 ). The data collected from the 3 different ATDs were filtered using SAE J211 (SAE International 2003 ), aligned using the methodology described by Donnelly and Moorhouse ( 2012 ), and compared for each body region tested (shoulder, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis). The biofidelity performance in lateral impact for the 3 ATDs was assessed against the scaled biofidelity targets published in Irwin et al. ( 2002 ), the abdominal biofidelity target suggested in van Ratingen et al. ( 1997 ), and the biofidelity targets published in Rhule et al. ( 2013 ). Regional and overall biofidelity rankings for each of the 3 ATDs were performed using both the ISO 9790 biofidelity rating system (ISO/TR 9790 1999) and the NHTSA's external biofidelity ranking system (BRS; Rhule et al. 2013 ). All 3 6-year-old ATD's pelvises were rated as least biofidelic of the 4 body regions tested, based on both the ISO and BRS biofidelity rating systems, followed by the shoulder and abdomen, respectively. The thorax of all 3 ATDs was rated as the most biofidelic body region using the aforementioned biofidelity rating systems. The HIII 6-year-old ATD was rated last in overall biofidelity of the 3 tested ATDs, based on both rating systems. The Q6s ATD was rated as having the best overall biofidelity using both rating systems. All 3 ATDs are more biofidelic in the thorax and abdomen than the

  6. Uncertainty Analysis for Peer Assessment: Oral Presentation Skills for Final Year Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ho Sung

    2014-01-01

    Peer assessment plays an important role in engineering education for an active involvement in the assessment process, developing autonomy, enhancing reflection, and understanding of how to achieve the learning outcomes. Peer assessment uncertainty for oral presentation skills as part of the FYP assessment is studied. Validity and reliability for…

  7. Mars Sample Return Architecture Assessment Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Centuori, S.; Hermosín, P.; Martín, J.; De Zaiacomo, G.; Colin, S.; Godfrey, A.; Myles, J.; Johnson, H.; Sachdev, T.; Ahmed, R.

    2018-04-01

    Current paper presents the results of ESA funded activity "Mars Sample Return Architecture Assessment Study" carried-out by DEIMOS Space, Lockheed Martin UK Ampthill, and MDA Corporation, where more than 500 mission design options have been studied.

  8. Mathematical tasks, study approaches, and course grades in undergraduate mathematics: a year-by-year analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, Wes; Merchant, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    Students approach learning in different ways, depending on the experienced learning situation. A deep approach is geared toward long-term retention and conceptual change while a surface approach focuses on quickly acquiring knowledge for immediate use. These approaches ultimately affect the students' academic outcomes. This study takes a cross-sectional look at the approaches to learning used by students from courses across all four years of undergraduate mathematics and analyses how these relate to the students' grades. We find that deep learning correlates with grade in the first year and not in the upper years. Surficial learning has no correlation with grades in the first year and a strong negative correlation with grades in the upper years. Using Bloom's taxonomy, we argue that the nature of the tasks given to students is fundamentally different in lower and upper year courses. We find that first-year courses emphasize tasks that require only low-level cognitive processes. Upper year courses require higher level processes but, surprisingly, have a simultaneous greater emphasis on recall and understanding. These observations explain the differences in correlations between approaches to learning and course grades. We conclude with some concerns about the disconnect between first year and upper year mathematics courses and the effect this may have on students.

  9. Presence, concentrations and risk assessment of selected antibiotic residues in sediments and near-bottom waters collected from the Polish coastal zone in the southern Baltic Sea - Summary of 3years of studies.

    PubMed

    Siedlewicz, Grzegorz; Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Borecka, Marta; Winogradow, Aleksandra; Stepnowski, Piotr; Pazdro, Ksenia

    2018-04-01

    Concentrations of selected antibiotic compounds from different groups were measured in sediment samples (14 analytes) and in near-bottom water samples (12 analytes) collected in 2011-2013 from the southern Baltic Sea (Polish coastal zone). Antibiotics were determined at concentration levels of a few to hundreds of ng g -1 d.w. in sediments and ng L -1 in near-bottom waters. The most frequently detected compounds were sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, oxytetracycline in sediments and sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in near-bottom waters. The occurrence of the identified antibiotics was characterized by spatial and temporal variability. A statistically important correlation was observed between sediment organic matter content and the concentrations of sulfachloropyridazine and oxytetracycline. Risk assessment analyses revealed a potential high risk of sulfamethoxazole contamination in near-bottom waters and of contamination by sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and tetracyclines in sediments. Both chemical and risk assessment analyses show that the coastal area of the southern Baltic Sea is highly exposed to antibiotic residues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing prescription stimulant use, misuse and diversion among youth 10 to 18 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Cottler, Linda B.; Striley, Catherine Woodstock; Lasopa, Sonam O.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Assessing medical and non-medical use of stimulants and diversion is a challenge, especially among youth, with different methods for recruitment, and definitions of non-medical use and use. The field needs inexpensive, yet effective and reliable, methods of data collection to understand the prescription drug use problem. Most studies of youth are school or web-based, and conducted with teens. Recent Findings The National Monitoring of Adolescent Prescription Stimulants Study (N-MAPSS) recruited 11,048 youth 10 to 18 years of age from urban, rural and suburban areas in ten US cities using an entertainment venue intercept study. This review discusses the effectiveness of the method and results from four cross sections as well as the representativeness of the sample. Lifetime prevalence of any stimulant use was 14.8%, with rates highest among rural 16 to 18 year olds. The rate of past 30 day use was 7.3%, with over half (3.9%) non-medical use. Nearly 12% of all youth (whether a user or not) reported lifetime incoming/outgoing diversion of prescription stimulants. Summary Because no study has focused on stimulant use among youth as young as 10 and 11, this study is a landmark for future comparisons and offers a unique strategy for sampling and data collection. PMID:23896947

  11. Assessment of Nutritional Status of Children Under Five years of age in rural Nepal.

    PubMed

    Chataut, J; Khanal, K

    2016-01-01

    Background Nutritional status of children is one of the major predictors of child survival. However, malnutrition is a major public health problem in most of the developing countries and occurs prominently among under-five children. In context of Nepal, nearly 37% children are suffering from underweight, 41% from stunting and 11% are suffering from wasting. These children are at a substantially greater risk of severe acute malnutrition and death. Objective The objective of the study was to assess the nutritional status of children under five years of age and to find the factors associated with malnutrition. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted in Dolakha and Kavre districts of Nepal for assessing the nutritional status of under-five children and associated factors. A total of 243 under five children were included from two purposively selected village development committees (VDCs) i.e. one from each district. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 22 Version and ENA Software Version 2011 were used for analyzing the data. Result Out of 243 children, according to WHO based on weight for height assessment, 17 (7.0%) were wasted, in height for age analysis, 97 (39.9%) were stunted and in weight for age assessment, 46 (18.9%) were underweight. Conclusion In the study population, there is high prevalence of malnutrition, especially stunting among under-five. Taking into account weight, height, age, and mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) measurements of malnourished children more than threefifths of them were found below -2SD and nearly one-fourths below -3SD which needs intervention.

  12. Divorce and Death: Forty Years of the Charleston Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Nietert, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Forty years of follow-up data from the Charleston Heart Study (CHS) were used to examine the risk for early mortality associated with marital separation or divorce in a sample of over 1,300 adults assessed on several occasions between 1960 and 2000. Participants who were separated or divorced at study inception evidenced significantly higher rates of early mortality, and these results held after adjusting for baseline health status and other demographic variables. Being separated or divorced throughout the CHS follow-up window was one of the strongest predictors of early mortality. However, the excess mortality risk associated with remaining separated/divorced was completely eliminated when participants were re-classified as having ever experienced a marital separation or divorce. These findings suggest a key determinant of early death is the amount of time people live as separated or divorced and/or dimensions of personality that predict divorce as well as a decreased likelihood of future remarriage. PMID:19076315

  13. [Evidence-based quality assessment of 10-year orthodontic clinical trials in 4 major dental journals].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan-nan; Lei, Fei-fei; Cao, Yan-li; Fu, Min-kui

    2010-02-01

    To assess the quality of orthodontic clinical trials published in 4 major dental journals in the past 10 years and establish the reference standard for orthodontic clinical trials and quality control of dental journals. All the clinical trials published in Chinese Journal of Stomatology, West China Journal of Stomatology, Journal of Practice Stomatology and Chinese Journal of Orthodontics from 1999 to 2008 were searched. The demographic information of the papers was extracted and the quality of the clinical trials according to the consolidated standards of reporting trials (CONSORT) was assessed. Four hundred and ninety-four clinical trials were retrieved, and 21.3% (105/494) of them were supported by grants. For the study design, only 26.1% (129/494) were prospective studies, and 3.8% (19/494) were randomized clinical trials. It was hard to evaluate precisely due to the lack of information about the details of the study designs. For the randomized clinical trials, the lack of details for randomization, allocation concealment, blinding and intention to treat compromised the quality. The general quality of clinical trials in orthodontics is poor. It needs to be improved both in the clinical study design and the paper writing.

  14. What "Our" 17-Year-Olds Know: One District's Assessment. Publication No. 88.20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, L. David; Galindo, Letticia

    The knowledge that 17-year-old students in a local city school district had of literature and history was assessed using the same test items administered by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). A review of national results of the NAEP examination in 1986 has highlighted the gaps in knowledge of this age group. The Austin (Texas)…

  15. Japanese Language and Culture: 9-Year Program Classroom Assessment Materials, Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document is designed to provide assessment materials for specific Grade 4 outcomes in the Japanese Language and Culture Nine-year Program, Grades 4-5-6. The assessment materials are designed for the beginner level in the context of teaching for communicative competence. Grade 4 learning outcomes from the Japanese Language and Culture…

  16. Investigating Key Psychometric Properties of the French Version of the Early Years Evaluation-Teacher Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurie, Robert; Sloat, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates key psychometric properties of the French Early Years Evaluation-Teacher Assessment measure designed to systematically assess kindergarten children across five social and academic developmental domains: awareness of self and environment, social skills and behaviour, cognitive abilities, language and communication, and…

  17. German Language and Culture: 9-Year Program Classroom Assessment Materials, Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document is designed to provide assessment materials for specific Grade 4 outcomes in the German Language and Culture Nine-year Program, Grades 4-5-6. The assessment materials are designed for the beginner level in the context of teaching for communicative competence. Grade 4 learning outcomes from the German Language and Culture Nine-year…

  18. Two Years into the Journey: AACSB Assessment of Learning in a "Principles of Marketing" Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Steven R.; Marco, Gayle; Chu, Yun

    2009-01-01

    Using a "Principles of Marketing" course, the authors demonstrate how compliance with AACSB standards and assessment of learning has been undertaken at Robert Morris University over a two-year period. Learning goals and objectives are tied to a specific assessment instrument to provide an illustration of how broad conceptual ideas are…

  19. Punjabi Language and Culture: 9-Year Program Classroom Assessment Materials, Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document is designed to provide assessment materials for specific Grade 4 outcomes in the Punjabi Language and Culture Nine-year Program, Grades 4-5-6. The assessment materials are designed for the beginner level in the context of teaching for communicative competence. Grade 4 learning outcomes from the Punjabi Language and Culture Nine-year…

  20. Natural course of behavioral addictions: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Konkolÿ Thege, Barna; Woodin, Erica M; Hodgins, David C; Williams, Robert J

    2015-01-22

    Resolving the theoretical controversy on the labeling of an increasing number of excessive behaviors as behavioral addictions may also be facilitated by more empirical data on these behavioral problems. For instance, an essential issue to the classification of psychiatric disorders is information on their natural course. However, longitudinal research on the chronic vs. episodic nature of behavioral addictions is scarce. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to provide data on prevalence, substance use comorbidity, and five-year trajectories of six excessive behaviors-namely exercising, sexual behavior, shopping, online chatting, video gaming, and eating. Analyses were based on the data of the Quinte Longitudinal Study, where a cohort of 4,121 adults from Ontario, Canada was followed for 5 years (2006 to 2011). The response rate was 21.3%, while retention rate was 93.9%. To assess the occurrence of each problem behavior, a single self-diagnostic question asked people whether their over-involvement in the behavior had caused significant problems for them in the past 12 months. To assess the severity of each problem behavior reported, the Behavioral Addiction Measure was administered. A mixed design ANOVA was used to investigate symptom trajectories over time for each problem behavior and whether these symptom trajectories varied as a function of sex. The large majority of people reported having problematic over-involvement for just one of these behaviors and just in a single time period. A main effect of time was found for each problem behavior, indicating a moderately strong decrease in symptom severity across time. The time x sex interaction was insignificant in each model indicating that the decreasing trend is similar for males and females. The data also showed that help seeking was very low in the case of excessive sexual behavior, shopping, online chatting, and video gaming but substantially more prevalent in the case of excessive eating and

  1. Child Nutrition Program Operations Study: First Year Report Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Pierre, Robert; And Others

    Summarizing the first year report of a multi-year study of the Food and Nutrition Service's (Department of Agriculture) Child Nutrition Programs, this report describes the programs and methods of the study. Data were collected through telephone interviews with states and School Food Authorities (SFAs) between 1987 and 1992. Findings from 1987-1988…

  2. The Possible Value of a Gap Year: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coetzee, M.; Bester, S.

    2009-01-01

    The taking of a "gap year", immediately after completing their secondary school education, to explore life before embarking on formal studies or starting their career, is a growing phenomenon among young people in South Africa. This research study explores the experiences of three young people who engaged in a gap year and focuses on the…

  3. Mentoring Support and Power: A Three Year Predictive Field Study on Protege Networking and Career Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blickle, Gerhard; Witzki, Alexander H.; Schneider, Paula B.

    2009-01-01

    Career success of early employees was analyzed from a power perspective and a developmental network perspective. In a predictive field study with 112 employees mentoring support and mentors' power were assessed in the first wave, employees' networking was assessed after two years, and career success (i.e. income and hierarchical position) and…

  4. Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models: Annual Progress Report for Fiscal Year 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Fellows, Robert J.

    2004-12-02

    This Annual Progress Report describes the work performed and summarizes some of the key observations to date on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report describes activities undertaken to collect samples of soils from three regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and perform analyses to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Section 3 summarizes information gathered regardingmore » agricultural practices and common and unusual crops grown in each of these three areas. Section 4 describes progress in studying radionuclide uptake in several representative crops from the three soil types in controlled laboratory conditions. Section 5 describes a range of international coordination activities undertaken by Project staff in order to support the underlying data needs of the Project. Section 6 provides a very brief summary of the status of the GENII Version 2 computer program, which is a “client” of the types of data being generated by the Project, and for which the Project will be providing training to the US NRC staff in the coming Fiscal Year. Several appendices provide additional supporting information.« less

  5. Assessment of the global intelligence and selective cognitive capacities in preterm 8-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Begega, Azucena; Méndez López, Magdalena; de Iscar, María Jesús; Cuesta-Izquierdo, Marcelino; Solís, Gonzalo; Fernández-Colomer, Belén; Álvarez, Luis; Méndez, Marta; Arias, Jorge L

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess various cognitive abilities such as attention, IQ, reasoning, and memory related to academic achievement in 8- and 9-year-old preterm children. A total of 141 children were assessed. The preterm group (=37 weeks) comprised 63 children and was compared to 78 full-term children. Attention was evaluated using the d2 Selective Attention test, and the IQ by the L-M form of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, establishing a profile of abilities: perception, memory, comprehension, reasoning, and verbal fluency. Significant differences in IQ were found between the preterm and full-term children. Of the cognitive abilities assessed, the only significant differences were found in verbal fluency, with preterm boys showing lower verbal fluency scores than full-term children. In conclusion, all preterm groups have attention ability similar to that of full-term children. However, preterm children obtain lower scores in intelligence measures. In addition, preterm boys have verbal fluency difficulties. Taking into account the increase in preterm births, suitable intervention programs must be planned to attend the difficulties found.

  6. 75 FR 1632 - Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Asset Management Transition Year 2 Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... accounting under asset management, also known as ``Transition Year 2.'' FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: The... System (PHAS): Asset Management Transition Year 2 Information AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary... by HUD under the Public Housing Management Assessment Program (PHMAP), the regulations for which are...

  7. Improving the Retention of First-Year College Students: A Temporal Model of Assessment and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Hall P.; Davidson, William B.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation sought to determine when colleges should conduct assessments to identify first-year students at risk of dropping out. Thirty-five variables were used to predict the persistence of 2,024 first-year students from four universities in the southeastern United States. The predictors were subdivided into groups according to when they…

  8. Intellectual Curiosity in Action: A Framework to Assess First-Year Seminars in Liberal Arts Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Kenneth H.; Longest, Kyle C.; Barnett, Jenna C.

    2014-01-01

    Fostering students' intellectual curiosity is a common goal of first-year seminar programs--especially in liberal arts settings. The authors propose an alternative method to assess this ambiguous, value-laden concept. Relying on data gathered from pre- and posttest in-depth interviews of 34 students enrolled in first-year seminars, they construct…

  9. The Assessment of Metacognition in Children Aged 4-16 Years: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gascoine, Louise; Higgins, Steve; Wall, Kate

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of a systematic review of methods that have been used to measure or assess metacognition in children aged 4-16 years over a 20-year period (1992-2012). It includes an overview of the types of tool and methods used linked with the ages of the participants targeted and how metacognition and associated concepts are…

  10. Assessment of critical thinking: a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sheila A

    2014-11-01

    Nurse educators are responsible for preparing nurses who critically analyze patient information and provide meaningful interventions in today's complex health care system. By using the Delphi research method, this study, utilized the specialized and experiential knowledge of Certified Nurse Educators. This original Delphi research study asked Certified Nurse Educators how to assess the critical-thinking ability of nursing students in the clinical setting. The results showed that nurse educators need time, during the clinical experience, to accurately assess each individual nursing student. This study demonstrated the need for extended student clinical time, and a variety of clinical learning assessment tools. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. International Civic and Citizenship Education Study: Assessment Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Wolfram; Fraillon, Julian; Ainley, John; Losito, Bruno; Kerr, David

    2008-01-01

    This document outlines the framework and assessment design for the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) sponsored by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). Over the past 50 years, IEA has conducted comparative research studies focusing on educational policies, practices, and…

  12. A Study of Prior Learning Assessment in Degree Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Jean Marie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of prior learning assessment (PLA) in postsecondary degree completion for adult community college students at Mountwest Community and Technical College (MCTC). The study group consisted of 339 MCTC graduates, who applied PLA credits toward degree completion between the academic year 2006 and 2011.…

  13. Counselling for burnout in Norwegian doctors: one year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rø, Karin E Isaksson; Gude, Tore; Tyssen, Reidar; Aasland, Olaf G

    2008-11-11

    To investigate levels and predictors of change in dimensions of burnout after an intervention for stressed doctors. Cohort study followed by self reported assessment at one year. Norwegian resource centre. 227 doctors participating in counselling intervention, 2003-5. Counselling (lasting one day (individual) or one week (group based)) aimed at motivating reflection on and acknowledgement of the doctors' situation and personal needs. Levels of burnout (Maslach burnout inventory) and predictors of reduction in emotional exhaustion investigated by linear regression. 185 doctors (81%, 88 men, 97 women) completed one year follow-up. The mean level of emotional exhaustion (scale 1-5) was significantly reduced from 3.00 (SD 0.94) to 2.53 (SD 0.76) (t=6.76, P<0.001), similar to the level found in a representative sample of 390 Norwegian doctors. Participants had reduced their working hours by 1.6 hours/week (SD 11.4). There was a considerable reduction in the proportion of doctors on full time sick leave, from 35% (63/182) at baseline to 6% (10/182) at follow-up and a parallel increase in the proportion who had undergone psychotherapy, from 20% (36/182) to 53% (97/182). In the whole cohort, reduction in emotional exhaustion was independently associated with reduced number of work hours/week (beta=0.17, P=0.03), adjusted for sex, age, and personality dimensions. Among men "satisfaction with the intervention" (beta=0.25, P=0.04) independently predicted reduction in emotional exhaustion. A short term counselling intervention could contribute to reduction in emotional exhaustion in doctors. This was associated with reduced working hours for the whole cohort and, in men, was predicted by satisfaction with the intervention.

  14. Assessing diets of 3-year-old children: evaluation of an FFQ.

    PubMed

    Jarman, Megan; Fisk, Catherine M; Ntani, Georgia; Crozier, Sarah R; Godfrey, Keith M; Inskip, Hazel M; Cooper, Cyrus; Robinson, Sian M

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the use of an administered eighty-item FFQ to assess nutrient intake and diet quality in 3-year-old children. Frequency of consumption and portion size of the foods listed on the FFQ during the 3 months preceding the interview were reported by the child's main caregiver; after the interview a 2 d prospective food diary (FD) was completed on behalf of the child. Nutrient intakes from the FFQ and FD were estimated using UK food composition data. Diet quality was assessed from the FFQ and FD according to the child's scores for a principal component analysis-defined dietary pattern ('prudent' pattern), characterised by high consumption of fruit, vegetables, water and wholemeal cereals. Southampton, UK. Children (n 892) aged 3 years in the Southampton Women's Survey. Intakes of all nutrients assessed by the FFQ were higher than FD estimates, but there was reasonable agreement in terms of ranking of children (range of Spearman rank correlations for energy-adjusted nutrient intakes, r s = 0·41 to 0·59). Prudent diet scores estimated from the FFQ and FD were highly correlated (r = 0·72). Some family and child characteristics appeared to influence the ability of the FFQ to rank children, most notably the number of child's meals eaten away from home. The FFQ provides useful information to allow ranking of children at this age with respect to nutrient intake and quality of diet, but may overestimate absolute intakes. Dietary studies of young children need to consider family and child characteristics that may impact on reporting error associated with an FFQ.

  15. Behavioral assessment of language brain processing in the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Guzzetta, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    An up-to-date review of the behavioral assessments of language development in the first year of life is reported. After recalling the anatomical bases of the early development of the auditory system, the different stages of language development during the first year of life are considered: discrimination, transition and perception. The different kinds of behavioral assessment during the course of the first year are then described by stressing their indications and limitations. Copyright © 2014 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Predictors of Reading Development in Deaf Children: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, Fiona E.; Harris, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    The development of reading ability in a group of deaf children was followed over a 3-year period. A total of 29 deaf children (7-8 years of age at the first assessment) participated in the study, and every 12 months they were given a battery of literacy, cognitive, and language tasks. Earlier vocabulary and speechreading skills predicted…

  17. The Preschool Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Study (PATS) 6-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Mark A.; Yershova, Kseniya; Lazzaretto, Deborah; Paykina, Natalya; Yenokyan, Gayane; Greenhill, Laurence; Abikoff, Howard; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Tim; McCracken, James T.; Kollins, Scott H.; Murray, Desiree W.; Wigal, Sharon; Kastelic, Elizabeth; McGough, James J.; dosReis, Susan; Bauzo-Rosario, Audrey; Stehli, Annamarie; Posner, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinical course of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom severity and diagnosis from ages 3 to 5 up to 9 to 12 years during a 6-year follow-up after the original Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS). Method: A total of 207 participants (75% male) from the original PATS, assessed at baseline (mean age,…

  18. Accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value for third molar in assessing 18 years of age.

    PubMed

    De Luca, S; Biagi, R; Begnoni, G; Farronato, G; Cingolani, M; Merelli, V; Ferrante, L; Cameriere, R

    2014-02-01

    Due to increasingly numerous international migrations, estimating the age of unaccompanied minors is becoming of enormous significance for forensic professionals who are required to deliver expert opinions. The third molar tooth is one of the few anatomical sites available for estimating the age of individuals in late adolescence. This study verifies the accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value of the third molar index (I3M) in assessing 18 years of age. For this purpose, a sample of orthopantomographs (OPTs) of 397 living subjects aged between 13 and 22 years (192 female and 205 male) was analyzed. Age distribution gradually decreases as I3M increases in both males and females. The results show that the sensitivity of the test was 86.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (80.8%, 91.1%), and its specificity was 95.7%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92.1%, 98%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 91.4%. Estimated post-test probability, p was 95.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92%, 98%). Hence, the probability that a subject positive on the test (i.e., I3M<0.08) was 18 years of age or older was 95.6%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Performance assessment of diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging instruments in a 2-year multicenter breast cancer trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leproux, Anaïs; O'Sullivan, Thomas D.; Cerussi, Albert; Durkin, Amanda; Hill, Brian; Hylton, Nola; Yodh, Arjun G.; Carp, Stefan A.; Boas, David; Jiang, Shudong; Paulsen, Keith D.; Pogue, Brian; Roblyer, Darren; Yang, Wei; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2017-12-01

    We present a framework for characterizing the performance of an experimental imaging technology, diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI), in a 2-year multicenter American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN) breast cancer study (ACRIN-6691). DOSI instruments combine broadband frequency-domain photon migration with time-independent near-infrared (650 to 1000 nm) spectroscopy to measure tissue absorption and reduced scattering spectra and tissue hemoglobin, water, and lipid composition. The goal of ACRIN-6691 was to test the effectiveness of optically derived imaging endpoints in predicting the final pathologic response of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Sixty patients were enrolled over a 2-year period at participating sites and received multiple DOSI scans prior to and during 3- to 6-month NAC. The impact of three sources of error on accuracy and precision, including different operators, instruments, and calibration standards, was evaluated using a broadband reflectance standard and two different solid tissue-simulating optical phantoms. Instruments showed <0.0010 mm-1 (10.3%) and 0.06 mm-1 (4.7%) deviation in broadband absorption and reduced scattering, respectively, over the 2-year duration of ACRIN-6691. These variations establish a useful performance criterion for assessing instrument stability. The proposed procedures and tests are not limited to DOSI; rather, they are intended to provide methods to characterize performance of any instrument used in translational optical imaging.

  20. Travel Efficiency Assessment Method: Three Case Studies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This slide presentation summarizes three case studies EPA conducted in partnership with Boston, Kansas City, and Tucson, to assess the potential benefits of employing travel efficiency strategies in these areas.

  1. Proving and Improving. Volume ll: Tools and Techniques for Assessing the First College Year. The First-Year Experience Monograph Series No. 37

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swing, Randy L., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This second volume of "Proving and Improving" collects essays from the First-Year Assessment Listserv, which is hosted by the Policy Center on the First Year of College and the National Resource Center. Like the first volume, this one brings together the nation's leading experts and practitioners of assessment in the first college year. They offer…

  2. Undergraduate study in psychology: Curriculum and assessment.

    PubMed

    Norcross, John C; Hailstorks, Robin; Aiken, Leona S; Pfund, Rory A; Stamm, Karen E; Christidis, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    The undergraduate curriculum in psychology profoundly reflects and shapes the discipline. Yet, reliable information on the undergraduate psychology curriculum has been difficult to acquire due to insufficient research carried out on unrepresentative program samples with disparate methods. In 2014, APA launched the first systematic effort in a decade to gather national data on the psychology major and program outcomes. We surveyed a stratified random sample of department chairs/coordinators of accredited colleges and universities in the United States that offer undergraduate courses and programs in psychology. A total of 439 undergraduate psychology programs (45.2%) completed the survey. This article summarizes, for both associate and baccalaureate programs, the results of the Undergraduate Study in Psychology. Current practices concerning the introductory course, the courses offered, core requirements, the psychology minor, and tracks/concentrations are presented. The frequency of formal program reviews and program-level assessment methods are also addressed. By extending prior research on the undergraduate curriculum, we chronicle longitudinal changes in the psychology major over the past 20 years. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. A NEW HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT SYSTEM FOR DEVICES: THE FIRST FIVE YEARS.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Bruce; Dobson, Lee; Higgins, Joanne; Dillon, Bernice; Marlow, Mirella; Pomfrett, Chris

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review 5 years of activity from a new system devised by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), for assessing medical devices and diagnostics aimed at identifying and speeding adoption of technologies with clinical and cost advantages, compared with current practice in the United Kingdom healthcare system. All eligible notified technologies were classified using the Food and Drug Administration and Global Medical Device Nomenclature nomenclatures. Decisions about selecting technologies for full assessment to produce NICE recommendations were reviewed, along with the reasons given to companies for not selecting products. Between 2009 and 2014, 186 technologies were notified (46 percent therapeutic and 54 percent diagnostic). Thirty-nine were judged ineligible (no regulatory approval), and 147 were considered by an independent committee. Of these, eighty (54 percent) were not selected for full assessment, most commonly because of insufficient evidence (86 percent): there were uncertainties specifically about benefits to the health service (54 percent), to patients (39 percent), and about cost (24 percent). The remaining 67 were selected and assessed for Medical Technology guidance (52 percent) (noninferior and/or lower cost consequences than current practice), for Diagnostics guidance (43 percent) or other NICE recommendations about adoption and use. Classifying technologies by two different systems showed no selection bias for any technology type or disease area. Identifying new or under-used devices and diagnostics with potential benefits and promoting their adoption is important to health services in the United Kingdom and worldwide. This new system offers a means of fostering both uptake and further research. Lack of research data on new products is a major obstacle to evaluation.

  4. Disability adjusted life year (DALY): a useful tool for quantitative assessment of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tingting; Wang, Xiaochang C; Chen, Rong; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan

    2015-04-01

    Disability adjusted life year (DALY) has been widely used since 1990s for evaluating global and/or regional burden of diseases. As many environmental pollutants are hazardous to human health, DALY is also recognized as an indicator to quantify the health impact of environmental pollution related to disease burden. Based on literature reviews, this article aims to give an overview of the applicable methodologies and research directions for using DALY as a tool for quantitative assessment of environmental pollution. With an introduction of the methodological framework of DALY, the requirements on data collection and manipulation for quantifying disease burdens are summarized. Regarding environmental pollutants hazardous to human beings, health effect/risk evaluation is indispensable for transforming pollution data into disease data through exposure and dose-response analyses which need careful selection of models and determination of parameters. Following the methodological discussions, real cases are analyzed with attention paid to chemical pollutants and pathogens usually encountered in environmental pollution. It can be seen from existing studies that DALY is advantageous over conventional environmental impact assessment for quantification and comparison of the risks resulted from environmental pollution. However, further studies are still required to standardize the methods of health effect evaluation regarding varied pollutants under varied circumstances before DALY calculation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Incorporating DNA barcodes into a multi-year inventory of the fishes of the hyperdiverse Lower Congo River, with a multi-gene performance assessment of the genus Labeo as a case study.

    PubMed

    Lowenstein, Jacob H; Osmundson, Todd W; Becker, Sven; Hanner, Robert; Stiassny, Melanie L J

    2011-10-01

    Here we describe preliminary efforts to integrate DNA barcoding into an ongoing inventory of the Lower Congo River (LCR) ichthyofauna. The 350 km stretch of the LCR from Pool Malebo to Boma includes the world's largest river rapids. The LCR ichthyofauna is hyperdiverse and rich in endemism due to high habitat heterogeneity, numerous dispersal barriers, and its downstream location in the basin. We have documented 328 species from the LCR, 25% of which are thought to be endemic. In addition to detailing progress made to generate a reference sequence library of DNA barcodes for these fishes, we ask how DNA can be used at the current stage of the Fish Barcode of Life initiative, as a work in progress currently of limited utility to a wide audience. Two possibilities that we explore are the potential for DNA barcodes to generate discrete diagnostic characters for species, and to help resolve problematic taxa lacking clear morphologically diagnostic characters such as many species of the cyprinid genus Labeo, which we use as a case study. Our molecular analysis helped to clarify the validity of some species that were the subject of historical debate, and we were able to construct a molecular key for all monophyletic and morphologically recognizable species. Several species sampled from across the Congo Basin and widely distributed throughout Central and West Africa were recovered as paraphyletic based on our molecular data. Our study underscores the importance of generating reference barcodes for specimens collected from, or in close proximity to, type localities, particularly where species are poorly understood taxonomically and the extent of their geographical distributions have yet to be established.

  6. Midlife muscle strength and human longevity up to age 100 years: a 44-year prospective study among a decedent cohort.

    PubMed

    Rantanen, Taina; Masaki, Kamal; He, Qimei; Ross, G Webster; Willcox, Bradley J; White, Lon

    2012-06-01

    We studied prospectively the midlife handgrip strength, living habits, and parents' longevity as predictors of length of life up to becoming a centenarian. The participants were 2,239 men from the Honolulu Heart Program/Honolulu-Asia Aging Study who were born before the end of June 1909 and who took part in baseline physical assessment in 1965-1968, when they were 56-68 years old. Deaths were followed until the end of June 2009 for 44 years with complete ascertainment. Longevity was categorized as centenarian (≥100 years, n = 47), nonagenarian (90-99 years, n = 545), octogenarian (80-89 years, n = 847), and ≤79 years (n = 801, reference). The average survival after baseline was 20.8 years (SD = 9.62). Compared with people who died at the age of ≤79 years, centenarians belonged 2.5 times (odds ratio (OR) = 2.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.23-5.10) more often to the highest third of grip strength in midlife, were never smokers (OR = 5.75 95% CI = 3.06-10.80), had participated in physical activity outside work (OR = 1.13 per daily hour, 95% CI = 1.02-1.25), and had a long-lived mother (≥80 vs. ≤60 years, OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.06-5.01). Associations for nonagenarians and octogenarians were parallel, but weaker. Multivariate modeling showed that mother's longevity and offspring's grip strength operated through the same or overlapping pathway to longevity. High midlife grip strength and long-lived mother may indicate resilience to aging, which, combined with healthy lifestyle, increases the probability of extreme longevity.

  7. Assessment of asthma control: the SERENA study.

    PubMed

    Corrado, Antonio; Renda, Teresa; Polese, Guido; Rossi, Andrea

    2013-11-01

    Several studies suggest that many asthmatic subjects have uncontrolled asthma. The control of asthma is now considered the major goal of therapy. to ascertain the level of asthma control, by Asthma Control Test (ACT), in "real-life" clinical practice and the potential risk factors for uncontrolled disease in patients treated with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting beta-adrenergic agonists (LABA). SERENA is a multi-centre, cross-sectional, 6-month observational, non-interventional study carried out in 16 Pulmonary Units in Italy. Asthmatic outpatients aged over 18, undergoing treatment with ICS at medium-high daily doses associated with LABA, were enrolled. The patients were divided in 3 subgroups according to the level of asthma control by ACT score (25:controlled; 20-24:partly controlled; <20: uncontrolled). Out of a total of 548 patients, 396 met the inclusion criteria. Only 9.1% of patients had asthma controlled, while partly controlled and uncontrolled asthma accounted for 39.6% and 51.3% respectively. The mean age was 54.5 ± 15.8 and the mean duration of asthma was 16.1 ± 14.1 years. There were more females than males (63% vs 37%) and females had highest prevalence of uncontrolled asthma (63.1%). The mean values of FEV1% predicted were lower in the uncontrolled group (p < 0.001). The percentage of patients with at least 1 exacerbation, unscheduled visit and/or admissions was lower in controlled (22.2%, 8.3%, 8.3%) than in partly controlled (50%, 38.6%, 9.2%) and uncontrolled (83.2%, 66.2%, 27.8%) groups (p < 0.0001). The multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis identified female sex, FEV1 and exacerbations as the strongest independent factors associated with the uncontrolled disease. This study highlights the importance in clinical practice of a periodic assessment by a validated asthma control instrument and exacerbations/health care contacts during previous year. Clinicians should be aware that a significant proportion of patients can

  8. Case studies of first-year critical science teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, Kurt A.

    technical controls (i.e. district-wide curriculum, state testing, district-wide common assessments, and state standards) and bureaucratic controls (i.e. mandates from administration that reinforce compliance to the technical controls) (Edwards, 1979; Irwin, 1996), sociocultural cues from administrators, colleagues, and students, and were made seemingly impenetrable via intensification, or high workloads that prevent reflective and critical thinking (Apple, 1988; Irwin, 1996). The internalized hegemonic pressures included their own feelings of internalized domination, surplus powerlessness (driven by feelings of isolation and self-blame) (Irwin, 1996; Lerner, 1986), and internalized dispositional views of their students (driven by feelings that their students were not capable of critical social thinking). Each of their case studies focus on how the philosophical differences between the first-year teachers and the sociocultural contexts contrasted providing constant tension for each of the three teachers in terms of their decision-making and their teaching practices. The technical controls seemed to be at the root of most of the external hegemonic pressures and even their internal hegemonic pressures. This paper will focus on the philosophical underpinnings of the state standards in science, the statewide tests, the district curricula, and district-wide common assessments that drove the teachers' practices. The philosophical foundations of their sociocultural contexts were: (1) knowledge as static and objectified, (2) curricular knowledge as the preferred knowledge, (3) standardized testing as a preferred method of gaining data about students' understandings of content, (4) uniform, decontextualized information as "neutral" facts and preferred knowledge, and (5) the summative view of 1-4 as a schooling process that produces learning that is preferred. The first-year teachers' philosophies together contrasted the philosophies of their sociocultural contexts. The first-year

  9. Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of…

  10. Evaluation of Low-Cost, Objective Instruments for Assessing Physical Activity in 10-11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Teresa L.; Brusseau, Timothy; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; McClain, James J.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2011-01-01

    This study compared step counts detected by four, low-cost, objective, physical-activity-assessment instruments and evaluated their ability to detect moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) compared to the ActiGraph accelerometer (AG). Thirty-six 10-11-year-old children wore the NL-1000, Yamax Digiwalker SW 200, Omron HJ-151, and Walk4Life…

  11. Setting Them up for Success: Assessing a Pre-Research Assignment for First-Year International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Susan

    2017-01-01

    As the international student population continues to grow, librarians must adjust their instruction to meet the needs of students who are adapting to a new country, culture, and language. This study assesses first-year international students as they engage in the research process through the completion of concept maps that precede database…

  12. Year One Implications of a Teacher Performance Assessment's Impact on Multicultural Education across a Secondary Education Teacher Preparation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Laura B.; Milman, Natalie B.

    2013-01-01

    This case study examines the impact of the 1-year implementation of a state-mandated, standardized teacher performance assessment (TPA) on a faculty's infusion of multicultural education across a secondary education teacher preparation program. Findings show that faculty and teacher candidate (TC) perceptions predominantly concluded that the TPA…

  13. Assessment of body posture in 12- and 13-year-olds attending primary schools in Pabianice.

    PubMed

    Motylewski, Sławomir; Zientala, Aleksandra; Pawlicka-Lisowska, Agnieszka; Poziomska-Piątkowska, Elżbieta

    2015-12-01

    of study was to estimate the body posture in children finishing primary schools. This is the last moment to make any improvement in body posture needed, because after the end of the child's growth the correction of postural defects is practically impossible. The study was conducted on 236 pupils aged 12-13 years attending primary schools number 3, 5 and 17 in Pabianice. To evaluate body posture Kasperczyk's points method was used. It is a commonly applied method for screening purposes. Over 50% of studied children had poor body posture and just under 6% of pupils' posture was assessed as very good. In the study population of children finishing primary schools the occurrence of faulty posture was shown to be very high. The most common defect in body posture among pupils was an uneven alignment of shoulders and shoulder blades. The results obtained in this study indicate the need to undertake action reducing the occurrence of faulty posture among children in Pabianice. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  14. Psychological stress and burnout in medical students: a five-year prospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, E; Black, D; Bagalkote, H; Shaw, C; Campbell, M; Creed, F

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess psychological morbidity and symptoms of burnout in medical students during their undergraduate training, and to identify baseline factors that predict psychological morbidity in students in the final year of the course. It was a 5-year prospective longitudinal cohort study. Students were assessed in years 1, 4 and 5 of their medical undergraduate training by means of the GHQ-12 and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. 172 (84.3%), 157 (77.0%) and 155 (75.9%) students out of an original group of 204 completed assessments in years 1, 4 and 5, respectively. 18 students were above threshold on the GHQ-12 on all three occasions, 25 on two occasions and 43 on one occasion; 69 students were never a 'case'. Students who were cases on two or more occasions were more likely to find the medical course stressful during the first year, but not subsequent years. There was no significant difference between the percentages of men and women who scored as cases on the GHQ-12 in any of the years. The best predictor of psychological morbidity in the final year of the course was the GHQ-12 score in year 1. This study suggests that a small group of students repeatedly experience psychological distress during their medical training. PMID:9764076

  15. Psychological stress and burnout in medical students: a five-year prospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, E; Black, D; Bagalkote, H; Shaw, C; Campbell, M; Creed, F

    1998-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess psychological morbidity and symptoms of burnout in medical students during their undergraduate training, and to identify baseline factors that predict psychological morbidity in students in the final year of the course. It was a 5-year prospective longitudinal cohort study. Students were assessed in years 1, 4 and 5 of their medical undergraduate training by means of the GHQ-12 and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. 172 (84.3%), 157 (77.0%) and 155 (75.9%) students out of an original group of 204 completed assessments in years 1, 4 and 5, respectively. 18 students were above threshold on the GHQ-12 on all three occasions, 25 on two occasions and 43 on one occasion; 69 students were never a 'case'. Students who were cases on two or more occasions were more likely to find the medical course stressful during the first year, but not subsequent years. There was no significant difference between the percentages of men and women who scored as cases on the GHQ-12 in any of the years. The best predictor of psychological morbidity in the final year of the course was the GHQ-12 score in year 1. This study suggests that a small group of students repeatedly experience psychological distress during their medical training.

  16. Multi-year assessment of coastal planktonic fungi reveals environmental drivers of diversity and abundance

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Joe D; Cunliffe, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplankton have so far been a neglected component of pelagic marine ecosystems, having been poorly studied relative to other plankton groups. Currently, there is a lack of understanding of how mycoplankton diversity changes through time, and the identity of controlling environmental drivers. Using Fungi-specific high-throughput sequencing and quantitative PCR analysis of plankton DNA samples collected over 6 years from the coastal biodiversity time series site Station L4 situated off Plymouth (UK), we have assessed changes in the temporal variability of mycoplankton diversity and abundance in relation to co-occurring environmental variables. Mycoplankton diversity at Station L4 was dominated by Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Chytridiomycota, with several orders within these phyla frequently abundant and dominant in multiple years. Repeating interannual mycoplankton blooms were linked to potential controlling environmental drivers, including nitrogen availability and temperature. Specific relationships between mycoplankton and other plankton groups were also identified, with seasonal chytrid blooms matching diatom blooms in consecutive years. Mycoplankton α-diversity was greatest during periods of reduced salinity at Station L4, indicative of riverine input to the ecosystem. Mycoplankton abundance also increased during periods of reduced salinity, and when potential substrate availability was increased, including particulate organic matter. This study has identified possible controlling environmental drivers of mycoplankton diversity and abundance in a coastal sea ecosystem, and therefore sheds new light on the biology and ecology of an enigmatic marine plankton group. Mycoplankton have several potential functional roles, including saprotrophs and parasites, that should now be considered within the consensus view of pelagic ecosystem functioning and services. PMID:26943623

  17. Music@Home: A novel instrument to assess the home musical environment in the early years.

    PubMed

    Politimou, Nina; Stewart, Lauren; Müllensiefen, Daniel; Franco, Fabia

    2018-01-01

    The majority of children under the age of 5 appear to show spontaneous enjoyment of singing, being exposed to music and interacting with musical instruments, but whether variations in engaging in such activities in the home could contribute to developmental outcomes is still largely unknown. Critically, researchers lack a comprehensive instrument with good psychometric properties to assess the home musical environment from infancy to the preschool years. To address this gap, this paper presents two studies that describe the development and validation of the Music@Home questionnaire, which comprises two versions: Infant and Preschool. In Study 1, an initial pool of items was generated and administered to a wide audience of parents (n = 287 for the Infant, n = 347 for the Preschool version). Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify different dimensions comprising the home musical environment of both infants and pre-schoolers, and to reduce the initial pool of items to a smaller number of meaningful items. In Study 2, convergent and divergent validity and internal and test-retest reliability of the new instrument were established, using data from a different sample of participants (n = 213 for the Infant, n = 213 for the Preschool version). The second study also investigated associations between the Music@Home and musical characteristics of the parents, such as their musical education and personal engagement with music. Overall, the Music@Home constitutes a novel, valid and reliable instrument that allows for the systematic assessment of distinct aspects of the home musical environment in families with children under the age of 5. Furthermore, the Infant and Preschool versions of the Music@Home present differential associations with musical characteristics of the parents opening a new area of inquiry into how musical exposure and interaction in the home may vary across different developmental stages.

  18. Music@Home: A novel instrument to assess the home musical environment in the early years

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Lauren; Müllensiefen, Daniel; Franco, Fabia

    2018-01-01

    The majority of children under the age of 5 appear to show spontaneous enjoyment of singing, being exposed to music and interacting with musical instruments, but whether variations in engaging in such activities in the home could contribute to developmental outcomes is still largely unknown. Critically, researchers lack a comprehensive instrument with good psychometric properties to assess the home musical environment from infancy to the preschool years. To address this gap, this paper presents two studies that describe the development and validation of the Music@Home questionnaire, which comprises two versions: Infant and Preschool. In Study 1, an initial pool of items was generated and administered to a wide audience of parents (n = 287 for the Infant, n = 347 for the Preschool version). Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify different dimensions comprising the home musical environment of both infants and pre-schoolers, and to reduce the initial pool of items to a smaller number of meaningful items. In Study 2, convergent and divergent validity and internal and test-retest reliability of the new instrument were established, using data from a different sample of participants (n = 213 for the Infant, n = 213 for the Preschool version). The second study also investigated associations between the Music@Home and musical characteristics of the parents, such as their musical education and personal engagement with music. Overall, the Music@Home constitutes a novel, valid and reliable instrument that allows for the systematic assessment of distinct aspects of the home musical environment in families with children under the age of 5. Furthermore, the Infant and Preschool versions of the Music@Home present differential associations with musical characteristics of the parents opening a new area of inquiry into how musical exposure and interaction in the home may vary across different developmental stages. PMID:29641607

  19. The Prevalence of Idiopathic Scoliosis in Eleven Year-Old Korean Adolescents: A 3 Year Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin-Young; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Han Jo; Suh, Bo-Kyung; Nam, Ji Hoon; Jung, Jae Kyun; Lee, Hwan-Mo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose School screening allows for early detection and early treatment of scoliosis, with the purpose of reducing the number of patients requiring surgical treatment. Children between 10 and 14 years old are considered as good candidates for school screening tests of scoliosis. The purpose of the present study was to assess the epidemiological findings of idiopathic scoliosis in 11-year-old Korean adolescents. Materials and Methods A total of 37856 11-year-old adolescents were screened for scoliosis. There were 17110 girls and 20746 boys. Adolescents who were abnormal by Moiré topography were subsequently assessed by standardized clinical and radiological examinations. A scoliotic curve was defined as 10° or more. Results The prevalence of scoliosis was 0.19% and most of the curves were small (10° to 19°). The ratio of boys to girls was 1:5.5 overall. Sixty adolescents (84.5%) exhibited single curvature. Thoracolumbar curves were the most common type of curve identified, followed by thoracic and lumbar curves. Conclusion The prevalence of idiopathic scoliosis among 11-year-old Korean adolescents was 0.19%. PMID:24719147

  20. Reliability and agreement on embryo assessment: 5 years of an external quality control programme.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Granados, Luis; Serrano, María; González-Utor, Antonio; Ortiz, Nereyda; Badajoz, Vicente; López-Regalado, María Luisa; Boada, Montserrat; Castilla, Jose A

    2018-03-01

    An external quality-control programme for morphology-based embryo quality assessment, incorporating a standardized embryo grading scheme, was evaluated over a period of 5 years to determine levels of inter-observer reliability and agreement between practising clinical embryologists at IVF centres and the opinions of a panel of experts. Following Guidelines for Reporting Reliability and Agreement Studies, the Gwet index and proportion of positive (Ppos) and negative agreement were calculated. For embryo morphology assessment, a substantial degree of reliability was measured between the centres and the panel of experts (Gwet index: 0.76; 95% CI 0.70 to 0.84). The agreement was higher for good- versus poor-quality embryos. When multinucleation or vacuoles were observed, low levels of reliability were obtained (Ppos: 0.56 and 0.43, respectively). In blastocysts, the characteristic that presented the largest discrepancy was that related to the inner cell mass. In decisions about the final disposition of the embryo, reliability between centre and the panel of experts was moderate (Gwet index: 0.51; 95% CI 0.41 to 0.60). In conclusion, the ability of clinical embryologists to evaluate the presence of multinucleation and vacuoles in the early cleavage embryo, and to determine the category of the inner cell mass in blastocysts, needs to be improved. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Personal Access Satellite System (PASS) study. Fiscal year 1989 results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sue, Miles K. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is exploring the potential and feasibility of a personal access satellite system (PASS) that will offer the user greater freedom and mobility than existing or currently planned communications systems. Studies performed in prior years resulted in a strawman design and the identification of technologies that are critical to the successful implementation of PASS. The study efforts in FY-89 were directed towards alternative design options with the objective of either improving the system performance or alleviating the constraints on the user terminal. The various design options and system issues studied this year and the results of the study are presented.

  2. A Validation Study of Early Adolescents' Pubertal Self-Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Katharine E.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Nichols, Jeanne F.; Irvin, Veronica L.; Keating, Kristen; Simon, Gayle M.; Gehrman, Christine; Jones, Kenneth Lee

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether self-assessed puberty is sufficiently reliable and valid to substitute for physician examination when feasibility of physician examination is low (e.g., behavioral research). Adolescents (convenience sample N = 178 endocrinology patients and N = 125 from educational trial; mean age 12.7 and 11.3 years,…

  3. A Longitudinal Study Assessing the Microsoft Office Skills Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Donald A.; McGinnis, Denise; Slauson, Gayla Jo; Snyder, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    This paper explains a four-year longitudinal study of the assessment process for a Microsoft Office skills course. It examines whether there is an increase in students' knowledge based on responses to pre- and post-surveys that asked students to evaluate how well they can do particular tasks. Classical classroom teaching methods were used in the…

  4. Special Education Faculty Needs Assessment Study Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, D.D.; Tyler, N.; Montrosse, B.E.; Young, C.; Robb, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the highlights of the Special Education Faculty Needs Assessment Study (SEFNA). Actions taken after the release of The 2001 Faculty Shortage Study demonstrate that supply-and-demand imbalances can be improved. The projected shortage of special education faculty will directly and negatively affect students with disabilities and…

  5. Alabama Allied Health Needs Assessment Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Libby V.

    This study assessed the supply of and demand for allied health professionals in Alabama, focusing on the relationship between supply and demand in various workplace settings in the context of Alabama's demographics, current educational programs, and projected changes in health care. The health care professions included in the study were all fields…

  6. Designing Assessment into a Study Abroad Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santanello, Cathy; Wolff, Laura

    2008-01-01

    One faces several challenges when designing an education abroad program. These include engaging non-traditional majors in study abroad experiences; facilitating learning activities that directly align with the learning goals of the courses; assessing specific learning outcomes; and finding ways to close the circle after the study abroad programs…

  7. Environmental Assessment 819th Red Horse Five Year Plan, Malmstrom Air Force Base, Montana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-07

    1 FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT 3 819TU RED HORSE FIVE YEAR PLAN 4 MALMSTROM AIR FORCE BASE, MONTANA 5 AGENCY...7 BACKGROUND: The 819th RHS was activated on 8 August 1997 at Malmstrom AFB. The 8 RED HORSE mission requires rapid deployment of personnel and... HORSE SQ 5-year Plan 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Jonathan Anstey; Heidi Brothers; Tamara Carroll; Pete Feigley; Sarah

  8. Accidental poisoning in childhood: five year urban population study with 15 year analysis of fatality.

    PubMed Central

    Pearn, J; Nixon, J; Ansford, A; Corcoran, A

    1984-01-01

    Patterns of accidental poisoning in children are changing dramatically. A five year population study (1977-81) was undertaken in urban children from Brisbane (population 1 000 000). A total of 2098 children were poisoned during this period with only one fatality, which represents a dramatic reduction in mortality. Over the past 15 years (1968-82) 13 children have died from accidental poisoning from this population, and two were murdered with drugs. A study of secular trends has indicated that peak incidence occurred in 1979, and the rate has been falling progressively since. The current age corrected rate of poisoning is 393 per 100 000 children per year (0-5 year olds). The rank order of poisons, drugs, and chemicals causing hospital admission and death is: petroleum distillates 13%; antihistamines 9%; benzodiazepines 9%; bleach and detergents 7%; and aspirin 6%. The ratio of fatalities to ingestions requiring hospital admission was calculated to give an index of a practical danger of noxious agents to which children are currently exposed and the rank order is: cardiotoxic drugs, one fatality to 25 ingestions; tricyclic antidepressants, one to 44; sympathomimetic drugs, one to 54; caustic soda, one to 68; aspirin, one fatality to 350 ingestions. Accidental poisoning of children leading to death has been reduced because patterns of drug prescriptions have changed, packaging of dangerous drugs has been made safer, and substances such as kerosene have been coloured blue. PMID:6140065

  9. Bacterial Chemotaxis: The Early Years of Molecular Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hazelbauer, Gerald L.

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the early years of molecular studies of bacterial chemotaxis and motility, beginning in the 1960s with Julius Adler's pioneering work. It describes key observations that established the field and made bacterial chemotaxis a paradigm for the molecular understanding of biological signaling. Consideration of those early years includes aspects of science seldom described in journals: the accidental findings, personal interactions, and scientific culture that often drive scientific progress. PMID:22994495

  10. Early Predictors of Adolescent Depression: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…

  11. Thirty Years of School Based Curriculum Development: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Peretz, Miriam; Dor, Ben Zion

    A study of one school's involvement in school-based curriculum development (SBCD) for nearly 30 years provided researchers with information on the factors affecting the success of SBCD programs. The school studied serves 3,500 students in 12 grades at several sites in an Israeli city. Following interviews with faculty members, the researchers…

  12. Calculating expected years of life lost for assessing local ethnic disparities in causes of premature death.

    PubMed

    Aragón, Tomás J; Lichtensztajn, Daphne Y; Katcher, Brian S; Reiter, Randy; Katz, Mitchell H

    2008-04-10

    A core function of local health departments is to conduct health assessments. The analysis of death certificates provides information on diseases, conditions, and injuries that are likely to cause death - an important outcome indicator of population health. The expected years of life lost (YLL) measure is a valid, stand-alone measure for identifying and ranking the underlying causes of premature death. The purpose of this study was to rank the leading causes of premature death among San Francisco residents, and to share detailed methods so that these analyses can be used in other local health jurisdictions. Using death registry data and population estimates for San Francisco deaths in 2003-2004, we calculated the number of deaths, YLL, and age-standardized YLL rates (ASYRs). The results were stratified by sex, ethnicity, and underlying cause of death. The YLL values were used to rank the leading causes of premature death for men and women, and by ethnicity. In the years 2003-2004, 6312 men died (73,627 years of life lost), and 5726 women died (51,194 years of life lost). The ASYR for men was 65% higher compared to the ASYR for women (8971.1 vs. 5438.6 per 100,000 persons per year). The leading causes of premature deaths are those with the largest average YLLs and are largely preventable. Among men, these were HIV/AIDS, suicide, drug overdose, homicide, and alcohol use disorder; and among women, these were lung cancer, breast cancer, hypertensive heart disease, colon cancer, and diabetes mellitus. A large health disparity exists between African Americans and other ethnic groups: African American age-adjusted overall and cause-specific YLL rates were higher, especially for homicide among men. Except for homicide among Latino men, Latinos and Asians have comparable or lower YLL rates among the leading causes of death compared to whites. Local death registry data can be used to measure, rank, and monitor the leading causes of premature death, and to measure and monitor

  13. A Study of Governance in the Unionized Two-Year Institution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Margaret K.; Julius, Daniel J.

    A study was conducted to assess the extent to which faculty associations in two-year colleges have penetrated certain management functions or rights, to determine the impact of academic unions on traditional "faculty rights," and to develop predictors of the extent of faculty association penetration into management areas. The study involved an…

  14. Prediction of Readiness in Kindergarten and Achievement in the First Primary Year. Study Number Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University City School District, MO.

    A 4-year United States Office of Education prekindergarten-kindergarten series of research studies has provided data useful in predicting school success. The present study compares test scores of the Complete Assessment Battery administered before the children entered kindergarten with scores of the same children on the Metropolitan Readiness…

  15. The Status of Emerging Technologies: An Economic/Technological Assessment to the Year 2000. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Commerce, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Department of Commerce reviewed emerging technologies and their future impact on the economy. This report lists the emerging technologies and suggests their potential contribution to the gross national product by the year 2000. It is based on an assessment by technical experts and agency heads within the Department of Commerce, who…

  16. Assessment Gaze, Refraction, and Blur: The Course of Achievement Testing in the Past 100 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.; Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Cai, Li

    2016-01-01

    This chapter addresses assessment (testing) with an emphasis on the 100-year period since the American Education Research Association was formed. The authors start with definitions and explanations of contemporary tests. They then look backward into the 19th century to significant work by Horace Mann and Herbert Spencer, who engendered two…

  17. The Carter Administration and Civil Rights; An Assessment of the First Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, William; And Others

    In this paper the first year accomplishments and failings of the Carter Administration in civil rights enforcement are assessed. Areas considered include the following: leadership and management, employment, education, housing, health and social services, and veterans affairs. Enforcement in some areas has improved but progress has been slow and…

  18. Guidelines for Health Assessment and Intervention Techniques for 3, 4, and 5 Year Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Judy K.

    These guidelines were developed to help registered nurses identify preschoolers with potential handicaps in the course of health assessments. Contents include guidelines on 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds. Contents are organized within age levels in terms of functioning levels and anticipatory guidance. Functional areas covered include physical,…

  19. Assessing the Impact of Academic Support: University of the Witwatersrand First-Year Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onsongo, W. M.

    2006-01-01

    On average the B.Sc. (Eng.) degree programmes in South Africa universities graduate about 50-60 per cent of the students admitted. Generally, the highest dropout occurs in the first year of registration. This article reviews admission and graduation statistics at the University of the Witwatersrand (Wits) and assesses the impact of recent academic…

  20. Biohorizons: An eConference to Assess Human Biology in Large, First-Year Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moni, Roger W.; Moni, Karen B.; Poronnik, Philip; Lluka, Lesley J.

    2007-01-01

    The authors detail the design, implementation and evaluation of an eConference entitled "Biohorizons," using a presage-process-product model to describe the development of an eLearning community. Biohorizons was a summative learning and assessment task aiming to introduce large classes of first-year Human Biology students to the practices of…

  1. Using Formative & Summative Assessment to Evaluate Library Instruction in an Online First Year Writing Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, Natalie; Mitchell, Tiffany N.

    2017-01-01

    Ensuring quality library instruction in an online-exclusive First Year Writing (FYW) course is important and challenging. Assessing what the students learned and how is equally important. The authors collaborate and co-teach the information literacy portion of an online-exclusive second semester FYW course at the University of Tennessee at…

  2. Assessment of Family Resource and Youth Services Centers: A First Year Report to the Prichard Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeder, Phillip W.

    Based on interviews with those involved in the adoption and implementation of the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA) and its Youth Service Centers, as well as on analysis of program data gathered by state and local agencies, this first year assessment is intended to highlight successes in the early stages of implementation, raise appropriate…

  3. Student Acceptance and Application of Peer Assessment in a Final Year Genetics Undergraduate Oral Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkade, Heather; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate students benefit from observation of each other's oral presentations through both exposure to content and observation of presentation style. In order to increase the engagement and reflection of final year students in an oral presentation task, a peer assessment component was introduced using a rubric that emphasised scientific…

  4. Shifting to Active Learning: Assessment of a First-Year Biology Course in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Colleen T.; Wilson, Amy-Leigh

    2015-01-01

    Large first-year class sizes have resulted in many lecturers adopting coping strategies consisting of direct-transmission mode teaching, reduced practical time, and assessment. Recently several strategies have been implemented in an attempt to improve student participation and active learning; however, these changes have to be facilitated and…

  5. Writing and Reading Skills as Assessed by Teachers in 7-Year Olds: A Behavioral Genetic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Bonamy R.; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2007-01-01

    A behavioral genetic analysis of general writing ability was conducted using teacher assessments based on UK National Curriculum criteria for a sample of 3296 same-sex pairs of 7-year-old twins. Writing was highly heritable within the normal range (0.66) and at the low extreme (0.70). Environmental influences were almost all non-shared, with…

  6. A Clinical Assessment Tool for Advanced Theory of Mind Performance in 5 to 12 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, Anne E.; Bremner, Lynne; Nash, Marysia; Happe, Francesca; Pettigrew, Luisa M.

    2009-01-01

    One hundred forty typically developing 5- to 12-year-old children were assessed with a test of advanced theory of mind employing Happe's strange stories. There was no significant difference in performance between boys and girls. The stories discriminated performance across the different ages with the lowest performance being in the younger…

  7. 30 years of ergonomics at 3M: a case study.

    PubMed

    Larson, N; Wick, H

    2012-01-01

    The added value of the Ergonomics Program at 3M was found to be improved employee safety, compliance with regulations and reduction of work-related illness, increases in productivity, and quality and operating efficiency. This paper describes the thirty years of existence of this program. For the first twenty years, the program objectives were to: respond to requests for assistance related to work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) concerns, raise employee awareness of MSDs and ergonomics; educate engineers in ergonomics design; and develop ergonomics teams at manufacturing locations. Since the year 2000, 3M's Ergonomics Program has been in transition from a US-centric and corporate-based technical-expertled program to a global program applying participatory ergonomics strategies within a macroergonomics framework. During that transition, the existing program requirements were revised, new methods and program tools were created, and expectations for implementation at the manufacturing locations clarified. This paper focuses on the company's manufacturing ergonomics program activities during the past ten years and includes specifics of the program's objectives, risk assessment reduction process, and ergonomics technical expertise development. The main benefit achieved throughout the company is reducing employee injury while also increasing productivity and operating efficiency.

  8. Parents' Ability to Assess Dental Fear in their Six- to 10-year-old Children.

    PubMed

    Klein, Ulrich; Manangkil, Rochelle; DeWitt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    To investigate parents' ability to assess dental anxiety of their six- to 10-year-old children and to determine how parents' and children's fear assessments correlate with patient behavior during dental treatment. From a continuous convenience sample, 184 child/parent dyads were recruited to complete the Children's Fear Survey Schedule-Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS) questionnaire prior to dental treatment. One provider treated all children, assessed their behavior, and assigned a Frankl score rating to them. Parent/child anxiety scores were compared to each other and to the behavior children presented during dental treatment. The mean dental anxiety score reported by the children was 30.30; the score reported by their parents was 2.94 points higher (P=.0016). There was poor consistency within parent/child pairs when precisely assessing dental anxiety. Parental assessments of their children's dental anxiety were a poor to fair predictor for observed behavior, whereas the children's self-assessments were fair to good. Child age was not associated with ability to assess anxiety. Parents of children with low anxiety overestimated their children's anxiety, whereas parents of children with high anxiety underestimated their children's anxiety. Parents and children showed moderate agreement assessing dental anxiety measured by the CFSS-DS. The child's score is preferable for predicting behavior.

  9. TVT versus TOT, 2-year prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Wadie, Bassem S; El-Hefnawy, Ahmed S; Elhefnawy, Ahmed S

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate in a comprehensive way TVT in comparison with TOT, the results of a single-center RCT are presented. Many studies addressed efficacy and safety of TVT and TOT. Women included were adults having predominant SUI with positive stress test. They were randomized to get either TVT (Gynecare(®)) or TOT (Aris(®)). All women were seen 1 week, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Seventy-one women completed 2-year follow-up. Median age was 47 (range 33-60 years). Mean ± SD BMI in TVT group was 34 ± 5 while in TOT group was 32 ± 5 kg/m(2). POP of any degree was seen in 50 % (35 women). At 1 year, pad test-negative women were 31 and 29 for TVT and TOT, respectively. At 2 years, figures became 28 in TVT group and 27 in TOT. At 1 year, UDI 6 and IIQ 7 decreased by 78.5 and 81 % for TVT and by 69 % and 75 % for TOT group. At 2 year, comparable percentages were 73 and 79 % for TVT and 69 and 82 % for TOT. Fifteen unique patients had adverse events, 10 of them had TOT. Both tapes have similar efficacy, regarding cure of incontinence. TVT is more effective, albeit insignificantly, than TOT at 2 years. However, serious adverse events were more frequent with TVT, yet TOT has more unique adverse events.

  10. Assessment of student learning with hypermedia tools in first-year college chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skov, Neil Martin

    Learning chemistry is difficult for some students. In response to this difficulty, many educators argue that hypermedia technology can promote learning of abstract chemistry concepts. This research assesses learning outcomes and use patterns exhibited by first-year college general chemistry students using an instructional hypermedia system called Seeing Through Chemistry (STC) as part of their first course. STC was designed to help students with inadequate preparation for college chemistry. The assessment answers two questions: (a) do students learn from instructional hypermedia, and (b) what kind of students benefit from this medium? This non-experimental, quantitative research involved 82 student volunteers in their first college chemistry course. Data include SAT scores, high school science and mathematics grades, career orientation, chemistry placement score, motivation, laboratory and lecture section enrollment, and chemistry course grade. The investigation requires two specialized assessment tools: a measure of conceptual understanding of acids and bases, and a measure of cognitive engagement with hypermedia. Data analysis methods include two causal path models to examine hypermedia use and learning outcomes: one showing STC's effect on overall chemistry course performance, and the other demonstrating the effect of a single STC module on students' conceptual knowledge of acids and bases. Though there is no significant effect on course grade, the second analysis shows statistically significant learning from students' work with instructional hypermedia. Both causal models demonstrate that students with poorer preparation for college chemistry used STC more than students with better preparation, which matches the designers' intent. Some better prepared students were relatively more motivated to use the hypermedia system. Other findings show positive effects of high school science and college laboratory coursework on concept learning. This research informs the

  11. The Environmental Assessment Technique: An Empirical Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overall, Jesse U., IV

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of Alexander Astin's Environmental Assessment Technique (EAT) in describing the environmental press at a large public university, California State University at Los Angeles. Results indicate that EAT is a very economical method for broadly describing aspects of a university's…

  12. Student Engagement and Assessment Modes: A Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathak, Anil

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this project is to attempt a factorial analysis of the congruence amongst three layers of assessments of Oral Presentation: "Expert, Self, and Peer". Participants included graduate and undergraduate students of Asian background studying Research Writing at a technological university. The research instrument consisted of a set…

  13. Assessing Learning with Logo: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Jane; Ryba, Ken

    1986-01-01

    This study used the Model for Assessing Learning with Logo (Nolan and Ryba) to examine effects of Logo programming on junior high school students' thinking skills. The model addresses both student acquisition of Logo-related thinking skills and the extent to which they transfer skills to noncomputer problem solving tasks. (MBR)

  14. TPH-contaminated Mexican refinery soil: health risk assessment and the first year of changes.

    PubMed

    Iturbe, Rosario; Flores, Rosa M; Flores, Carlos R; Torres, Luis G

    2004-02-01

    The soil of a coastal Mexican refinery is quite contaminated, especially by hydrocarbons, with detected concentrations up to 130000 mg kg(-1) as TPHs (total petroleum hydrocarbons). The main sources of contamination are pipelines, valves, and old storage tanks, besides the land disposal of untreated hydrocarbon sediments derived from the cleaning of storage tanks. A health risk assessment (HRA) was carried out in order to measure the risk hazard indexes and clean-up standards for the refinery soil. HRA suggested the following actions to be taken: benzene concentrations must be reduced in eight of the 16 studied refinery zones to 0.0074-0.0078 mg kg(-1). Also, vanadium concentration must be reduced in two zones up to a concentration of 100 mg kg(-1). In only one of all of the studied zones, benzo(a)pyrene concentration must be reduced to 0.1 mg kg(-1). After 1 yr, TPHs showed a diminution of about 52%. Even though TPHs concentrations were variable, during 1999 the average concentrations were as much as 15.5 times the goal concentration. For year 2000, TPHs concentrations were only 7.4-fold the proposed value. For the 1999-2000 period, PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) concentrations decreased by 82%. Some PAHs with 2, 3, 4, and 5 aromatic rings were removed up to 100% values.

  15. Psychometric Properties of Language Assessments for Children Aged 4–12 Years: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Denman, Deborah; Speyer, Renée; Munro, Natalie; Pearce, Wendy M.; Chen, Yu-Wei; Cordier, Reinie

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Standardized assessments are widely used by speech pathologists in clinical and research settings to evaluate the language abilities of school-aged children and inform decisions about diagnosis, eligibility for services and intervention. Given the significance of these decisions, it is important that assessments have sound psychometric properties. Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the psychometric quality of currently available comprehensive language assessments for school-aged children and identify assessments with the best evidence for use. Methods: Using the PRISMA framework as a guideline, a search of five databases and a review of websites and textbooks was undertaken to identify language assessments and published material on the reliability and validity of these assessments. The methodological quality of selected studies was evaluated using the COSMIN taxonomy and checklist. Results: Fifteen assessments were evaluated. For most assessments evidence of hypothesis testing (convergent and discriminant validity) was identified; with a smaller number of assessments having some evidence of reliability and content validity. No assessments presented with evidence of structural validity, internal consistency or error measurement. Overall, all assessments were identified as having limitations with regards to evidence of psychometric quality. Conclusions: Further research is required to provide good evidence of psychometric quality for currently available language assessments. Of the assessments evaluated, the Assessment of Literacy and Language, the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-5th Edition, the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool: 2nd Edition and the Preschool Language Scales-5th Edition presented with most evidence and are thus recommended for use. PMID:28936189

  16. Assessing Learning in the Early Years' Outdoor Classroom: Examining Challenges in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Ruth; Hamilton, Paula

    2018-01-01

    The benefit the outdoor environment has for young children's development is widely documented. However, there is less literature outlining practitioners' experiences of assessing learning in the outdoors and factors which impact the level and quality of assessments undertaken. This study, based on a pragmatic mixed methods approach, undertaken in…

  17. Emergent Literacy Performance across Two Languages: Assessing Four-Year-Old Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerveld, Marleen F.

    2014-01-01

    There are few emergent literacy assessments available for bilingual children. This study investigated the usefulness of a screening battery of oral language and print-related measures as an assessment tool for bilingual Samoan-English speaking children. A total of 18 children were recruited from three Samoan language immersion kindergartens (Aoga…

  18. Institutional Assessment and the Intellectual Work of Teaching and Learning in First-Year Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelli-Sallee, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Institutional assessment initiatives can provide opportunities to make the intellectual work of teaching and learning in composition studies more visible. Reciprocally, the scholarship of teaching and learning's situatedness within disciplinary norms and values can enhance institutional assessments, providing a check on the tendency to rely…

  19. Unemployment risk 2 years and 4 years following gastric cancer diagnosis: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Rottenberg, Yakir; Jacobs, Jeremy M; Ratzon, Navah Z; Grinshpun, Albert; Cohen, Miri; Uziely, Beatrice; de Boer, Angela G E M

    2017-02-01

    The needs of gastric cancer survivors have received limited attention. Returning to work after gastric cancer has not yet been described in a population-based study. We aimed to examine the unemployment risk at 2 and 4 years after gastric cancer. The present historical prospective cohort study included baseline measurements from the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics 1995 National Census, with follow-up until 2011. A group with gastric cancer and an age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched control group were sampled from the census population. Binary logistic regression analyses were used to assess odds ratios (ORs) for the study outcomes, controlling for socioeconomic factors, and employment status at 2 years before diagnosis. Data for 152 gastric cancer cases and 464 matched controls were analyzed. Those who died during the study period were excluded. Two years after diagnosis, 53.3 % of gastric cancer survivors and 43.8 % of controls were unemployed (p = 0.04); 4 years after diagnosis, 53.9 % of survivors, and 47.2 % of controls were unemployed (p = 0.15). In the adjusted models, gastric cancer was only associated with unemployment 2 years after diagnosis (OR = 1.47, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-2.12). This association weakened and lost significance 4 years after diagnosis (OR = 1.42, 95 % CI = 0.89-2.28). Gastric cancer was not associated with decreased income at 2 (OR = 1.48, 95 % CI = 0.91-1.48) or 4 years (OR = 1.65, 95 % CI = 0.99-2.74) after diagnosis. Gastric cancer survivorship was associated with unemployment 2 years after diagnosis. Longer-term survivors may have the prospect of returning to work. For patients with cancer, returning to work may be an indicator for returning to a normal lifestyle after serious illness. This study highlights the need for early social support in gastric cancer survivors to promote faster recovery.

  20. Motivating First-Year University Students by Interdisciplinary Study Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Franziska D.; Dirsch-Weigand, Andrea; Awolin, Malte; Pinkelman, Rebecca J.; Hampe, Manfred J.

    2017-01-01

    In order to increase student commitment from the beginning of students' university careers, the Technische Universität Darmstadt has introduced interdisciplinary study projects involving first-year students from the engineering, natural, social and history, economics and/or human sciences departments. The didactic concept includes sophisticated…

  1. Competent Communication in the First College Year: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morreale, Sherwyn; Staley, Constance; Campbell, Tajshen

    2015-01-01

    First-year students' communication abilities are critical to succeeding in college and interacting professionally with faculty, student affairs staff, and administrators. The purpose of this exploratory study is to better understand how introductory-level college students, particularly those born since 1990, define competent communication in the…

  2. Men's Aggression toward Women: A 10-Year Panel Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyoun K.; Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Feingold, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the longitudinal course of men's physical and psychological aggression toward a partner across 10 years, using a community sample of young couples (N = 194) from at-risk backgrounds. Findings indicated that men's aggression decreased over time and that women's antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms predicted changes…

  3. [NRC/GT: Six Year One Research Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubbins, E. Jean, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This newsletter focuses on six Year 1 research projects associated with the National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented (NRC/GT). The updates address: "Regular Classroom Practices With Gifted Students: Findings from the Classroom Practices Survey" (Francis X. Archambault, Jr. and others); "The Classroom Practices Study:…

  4. Linguistic Attention in Rhetorical Genre Studies and First Year Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aull, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Since Carolyn Miller's Genre as Social Action, North American Rhetorical Genre Studies (RGS) has facilitated analysis of how typified rhetorical actions constitute the contexts and communities in which writers write. In first-year writing (FYW) specifically, RGS approaches have focused on macro-level textual constructs, like the audience and…

  5. Anxiety Sensitivity and Panic Attacks: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Wen; Zinbarg, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    The hypothesis that anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a risk factor for panic genesis has obtained compelling support, but the clinical/practical importance of AS in panic genesis has been questioned. In addition, the association between panic experience and AS increase has not been clearly demonstrated. Through this 1-year longitudinal study among…

  6. The Program of Special Directed Studies: A Five Year Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mornell, Eugene S.

    The report described one relatively small but extensively researched special admission and compensatory education program at The Claremont Colleges, California. The Program of Special Directed Studies for Transition to College (PSDS) was administered by the Claremont University Center. PSDS was a 5-year experimental project primarily funded by the…

  7. The First-Year Seminar: Designing, Implementing, and Assessing Courses to Support Student Learning and Success: Volume Three: Teaching in the First-Year Seminar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Brad

    2012-01-01

    "The First-Year Seminar: Designing, Implementing, and Assessing Courses to Support Student Learning and Success," a five-volume series, is designed to assist educators who are interested in launching a first-year seminar or revamping an existing program. Each volume examines a different aspect of first-year seminar design or…

  8. Executive function assessment in New Zealand 2-year olds born at risk of neonatal hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Ansell, Judith M; Wouldes, Trecia A; Harding, Jane E

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of babies are born with perinatal risk factors that may impair later development. These children are often assessed at 2 years to help predict outcome and direct support services. Executive function is an important predictor of academic achievement and behavior, but there are limited assessments of executive function in 2-year-olds and few have been tested in at-risk populations. Therefore, we developed a battery of four age-appropriate tasks to assess executive function in 2-year-olds. At 24 months' corrected age 368 children completed tasks assessing attention, inhibition, working memory and cognitive flexibility. Scores on different tasks were weakly correlated, suggesting that they measured separate aspects of executive function, with combined scores for this cohort approximating a normal distribution. Significantly more boys (67%) than girls (57%) were unable to inhibit their behavior on the Snack Delay Task and girls (M = 3.24, SD = 2.4) had higher mean scores than boys (M = 2.7, SD = 2.7) on the Ducks and Buckets Reverse Categorization Task of working memory. Performance was significantly affected by family socioeconomic status. Mean scores were lower on all four individual tasks and on the global score of overall performance in children from a low household income (<$40,000) compared to those from medium ($40,001-$70,000) and high income households (>$70,001). Maternal education was only associated with scores on the working memory task and the global score; and a measure of neighborhood deprivation was only associated with scores on the two inhibitory tasks and the global score. Our findings confirm the feasibility of assessing executive function in 2-year-olds, and its ability to discriminate effects of socioeconomic status, a common confounder in child development research. Further development and standardization of this test battery comparing at-risk children with a normative population would provide a much-needed measure of executive

  9. Executive function assessment in New Zealand 2-year olds born at risk of neonatal hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of babies are born with perinatal risk factors that may impair later development. These children are often assessed at 2 years to help predict outcome and direct support services. Executive function is an important predictor of academic achievement and behavior, but there are limited assessments of executive function in 2-year-olds and few have been tested in at-risk populations. Therefore, we developed a battery of four age-appropriate tasks to assess executive function in 2-year-olds. At 24 months’ corrected age 368 children completed tasks assessing attention, inhibition, working memory and cognitive flexibility. Scores on different tasks were weakly correlated, suggesting that they measured separate aspects of executive function, with combined scores for this cohort approximating a normal distribution. Significantly more boys (67%) than girls (57%) were unable to inhibit their behavior on the Snack Delay Task and girls (M = 3.24, SD = 2.4) had higher mean scores than boys (M = 2.7, SD = 2.7) on the Ducks and Buckets Reverse Categorization Task of working memory. Performance was significantly affected by family socioeconomic status. Mean scores were lower on all four individual tasks and on the global score of overall performance in children from a low household income (<$40,000) compared to those from medium ($40,001-$70,000) and high income households (>$70,001). Maternal education was only associated with scores on the working memory task and the global score; and a measure of neighborhood deprivation was only associated with scores on the two inhibitory tasks and the global score. Our findings confirm the feasibility of assessing executive function in 2-year-olds, and its ability to discriminate effects of socioeconomic status, a common confounder in child development research. Further development and standardization of this test battery comparing at-risk children with a normative population would provide a much-needed measure of executive

  10. The Ahmed Versus Baerveldt study: one-year treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Christakis, Panos G; Kalenak, Jeffrey W; Zurakowski, David; Tsai, James C; Kammer, Jeffrey A; Harasymowycz, Paul J; Ahmed, Iqbal I K

    2011-11-01

    To report the 1-year treatment outcomes of the Ahmed Versus Baerveldt (AVB) Study. Multicenter randomized clinical trial. A total of 238 patients were enrolled in the study, including 124 in the Ahmed group and 114 in the Baerveldt group. Patients aged 18 years or older with uncontrolled glaucoma refractory to medicinal, laser, and surgical therapy were randomized to undergo implantation of an Ahmed-FP7 valve (New World Medical, Inc., Rancho Cucamonga, CA) or a Baerveldt-350 implant (Abbott Medical Optics, Inc., Santa Ana, CA), to be followed for 5 years. The primary outcome measure was failure, defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) out of target range (5-18 mmHg with ≥ 20% reduction from baseline) for 2 consecutive visits after 3 months, vision-threatening complications, additional glaucoma procedures, or loss of light perception. Secondary outcome measures included IOP, medication use, visual acuity, complications, and interventions. There were no significant differences in baseline ocular or demographic characteristics between the study groups with the exception of sex. Preoperatively, the study group had a mean IOP of 31.4 ± 10.8 mmHg on a mean of 3.1 ± 1.0 glaucoma medications with a median Snellen acuity of 20/100. The cumulative probability of failure a 1-year was 43% in the Ahmed group and 28% in the Baerveldt group (P = 0.02). The mean IOP at 1 year was 16.5 ± 5.3 mmHg in the Ahmed group and 13.6 ± 4.8 mmHg in the Baerveldt group (P < 0.001). The mean number of glaucoma medications required was 1.6 ± 1.3 in the Ahmed group and 1.2 ± 1.3 in the Baerveldt group (P = 0.03). Visual acuity was similar in both groups at all visits in the first year (P = 0.66). In the first year after surgery, there were a similar number of patients who experienced postoperative complications in the 2 groups (45% Ahmed, 54% Baerveldt, P = 0.19), but a greater number of patients in the Baerveldt group required interventions (26% Ahmed vs. 42% Baerveldt, P = 0.009). The

  11. An Assessment of Student Learning in an Online Oceanography Course: Five Years After Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, D. L.

    2002-12-01

    The results of assessing student learning in an online oceanography class offered over the past five years are compiled to reveal several general trends. In order to understand the context of these trends, it is important to first note that SJSU has a two-tiered general education program consisting of a category of core courses for frosh and sophomores and an advanced category for juniors and seniors, most of whom are community college transfers. The course described in this study is in the latter category and therefore composed largely of seniors. Enrollments in the course have exploded from 6 students in a pilot section offered during the 1998 fall semester to over 170 students in the summer semester of 2002. The course is now offered in both semesters of the academic year with four sections offered during 2002 summer session as part of a system-wide conversion to year-round operation. No other course, be it classroom, hybrid or online, in the general education category has experienced the level of student demand as this online course. All sections of the online course reach enrollment limits in the first days of registration with an equal or greater number of students turned away each semester. More female, students of color, returning students and K-12 in-service teachers enroll in the online sections than in the equivalent classroom sections of the course. Students enroll in the online section for the convenience of self-paced learning since attending a classroom section is not a viable option. Enrollments in concurrent classroom sections have not been negatively impacted by the addition of online sections. Enrollment attrition is higher in the first few days of the online course, but similar to that experienced in the classroom sections, once the class is underway. However, student requests for incompletes tend to be somewhat higher in the online course, especially during the summer offerings. Learning outcomes are reviewed at the beginning of the course and

  12. Age Effects on Upper Limb Kinematics Assessed by the REAplan Robot in Healthy Subjects Aged 3 to 93 Years.

    PubMed

    Gilliaux, Maxime; Lejeune, Thierry M; Sapin, Julien; Dehez, Bruno; Stoquart, Gaëtan; Detrembleur, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Kinematics is recommended for the quantitative assessment of upper limb movements. The aims of this study were to determine the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish normative values in healthy subjects. Three hundred and seventy healthy subjects, aged 3-93 years, participated in the study. They performed two unidirectional and two geometrical tasks ten consecutive times with the REAplan, a distal effector robotic device that allows upper limb displacements in the horizontal plane. Twenty-six kinematic indices were computed for the four tasks. For the four tasks, nineteen of the computed kinematic indices showed an age effect. Seventeen indices (the accuracy, speed and smoothness indices and the reproducibility of the accuracy, speed and smoothness) improved in young subjects aged 3-30 years, showed stabilization in adults aged 30-60 years and declined in elderly subjects aged 60-93 years. Additionally, for both geometrical tasks, the speed index exhibited a decrease throughout life. Finally, a principal component analysis provided the relations between the kinematic indices, tasks and subjects' age. This study is the first to assess age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish normative values in subjects aged 3-93 years.

  13. Assessing the first wave of epidemiological studies of nanomaterial workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing; Tsai, Candace S. J.; Pelclova, Daniela; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Schulte, Paul A.

    2015-10-01

    The results of early animal studies of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and air pollution epidemiology suggest that it is important to assess the health of ENM workers. Initial epidemiological studies of workers' exposure to ENMs (<100 nm) are reviewed and characterized for their study designs, findings, and limitations. Of the 15 studies, 11 were cross-sectional, 4 were longitudinal (1 was both cross-sectional and longitudinal in design), and 1 was a descriptive pilot study. Generally, the studies used biologic markers as the dependent variables. All 11 cross-sectional studies showed a positive relationship between various biomarkers and ENM exposures. Three of the four longitudinal studies showed a negative relationship; the fourth showed positive findings after a 1-year follow-up. Each study considered exposure to ENMs as the independent variable. Exposure was assessed by mass concentration in 10 studies and by particle count in six studies. Six of them assessed both mass and particle concentrations. Some of the studies had limited exposure data because of inadequate exposure assessment. Generally, exposure levels were not very high in comparison to those in human inhalation chamber studies, but there were some exceptions. Most studies involved a small sample size, from 2 to 258 exposed workers. These studies represent the first wave of epidemiological studies of ENM workers. They are limited by small numbers of participants, inconsistent (and in some cases inadequate) exposure assessments, generally low exposures, and short intervals between exposure and effect. Still, these studies are a foundation for future work; they provide insight into where ENM workers are experiencing potentially adverse effects that might be related to ENM exposures.

  14. Quality of reporting in oncology phase II trials: A 5-year assessment through systematic review.

    PubMed

    Langrand-Escure, Julien; Rivoirard, Romain; Oriol, Mathieu; Tinquaut, Fabien; Rancoule, Chloé; Chauvin, Frank; Magné, Nicolas; Bourmaud, Aurélie

    2017-01-01

    Phase II clinical trials are a cornerstone of the development in experimental treatments They work as a "filter" for phase III trials confirmation. Surprisingly the attrition ratio in Phase III trials in oncology is significantly higher than in any other medical specialty. This suggests phase II trials in oncology fail to achieve their goal. Objective The present study aims at estimating the quality of reporting in published oncology phase II clinical trials. A literature review was conducted among all phase II and phase II/III clinical trials published during a 5-year period (2010-2015). All articles electronically published by three randomly-selected oncology journals with Impact-Factors>4 were included: Journal of Clinical Oncology, Annals of Oncology and British Journal of Cancer. Quality of reporting was assessed using the Key Methodological Score. 557 articles were included. 315 trials were single-arm studies (56.6%), 193 (34.6%) were randomized and 49 (8.8%) were non-randomized multiple-arm studies. The Methodological Score was equal to 0 (lowest level), 1, 2, 3 (highest level) respectively for 22 (3.9%), 119 (21.4%), 270 (48.5%) and 146 (26.2%) articles. The primary end point is almost systematically reported (90.5%), while sample size calculation is missing in 66% of the articles. 3 variables were independently associated with reporting of a high standard: presence of statistical design (p-value <0.001), multicenter trial (p-value = 0.012), per-protocol analysis (p-value <0.001). Screening was mainly performed by a sole author. The Key Methodological Score was based on only 3 items, making grey zones difficult to translate. This literature review highlights the existence of gaps concerning the quality of reporting. It therefore raised the question of the suitability of the methodology as well as the quality of these trials, reporting being incomplete in the corresponding articles.

  15. Medical prescriptions falsified by the patients: a 12-year national monitoring to assess prescription drug diversion.

    PubMed

    Jouanjus, Emilie; Guernec, Grégory; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse

    2018-06-01

    Diversion of prescription drugs is difficult to assess in quality and quantity. This study aimed to characterize diversion of prescription drugs in France through a comparative analysis of falsified prescriptions collected during three periods from 2001 to 2012. The data recorded in a national program which records all falsified prescriptions presented to community pharmacies were studied. Included data regarded: subjects, prescription forms, and drugs. Description of the dataset in three periods (2001-2004, 2005-2008, and 2009-2012) was completed with clustering analyses to characterize profiles of prescriptions and subjects associated with the most reported drugs. The 4469 falsified prescriptions concerned most often females (51.6%). Average age was 46.5 years. Zolpidem, bromazepam, and buprenorphine were the most frequent drugs. Alone, 13 drugs (1.7%, 13/772) represented more than 40% of the total reports (3055/7272). They were associated with three diversion profiles: (i) buprenorphine, flunitrazepam, and morphine were mentioned on overlapping secure prescription forms presented by young men; (ii) alprazolam, bromazepam, zolpidem, codeine/acetaminophen were mentioned on simple prescription forms presented by experienced women; and (iii) acetaminophen and lorazepam were mentioned on modified prescription forms presented by elderly subjects. Clonazepam, clorazepate, dextropropoxyphene, zopiclone moved between those profiles. The patterns of falsified prescriptions provided in this study contribute to enhance the scientific knowledge on the most diverted prescription drugs. The latter follow distinct trajectories across time depending on their pharmacology (including their abuse/addiction potential) and on their regulation's history. The close and continuous analysis of falsified prescriptions is an excellent way to monitor prescription drug diversion. © 2018 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  16. Using a natural abilities battery for academic and career guidance: a ten-year study.

    PubMed

    Brown, Corrie C; Harvey, Stephen B; Stiles, Dori

    2011-01-01

    Over a period of 10 years, first-year students from 11 consecutive veterinary classes conducted a self-assessment using a natural abilities survey. The present study analyzes the data compiled from students' self-assessment results. As a group, veterinary students are exceptional problem solvers, either through inductive or deductive reasoning, and have strong spatial relations capacities. Veterinary students have a range of learning styles with design memory being the primary vehicle for information delivery and tonal memory being the least frequently used style overall. Information gained on each student's natural abilities can be used to guide effective career decision making and enhance prospects for long-term career satisfaction.

  17. Space Station Freedom Data Assessment Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Anngienetta R.; Deskevich, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    The SSF Data Assessment Study was initiated to identify payload and operations data requirements to be supported in the Space Station era. To initiate the study payload requirements from the projected SSF user community were obtained utilizing an electronic questionnaire. The results of the questionnaire were incorporated in a personal computer compatible database used for mission scheduling and end-to-end communications analyses. This paper discusses data flow paths and associated latencies, communications bottlenecks, resource needs versus availability, payload scheduling 'warning flags' and payload data loading requirements for each major milestone in the Space Station buildup sequence. This paper also presents the statistical and analytical assessments produced using the data base, an experiment scheduling program, and a Space Station unique end-to-end simulation model. The modeling concepts and simulation methodologies presented in this paper provide a foundation for forecasting communication requirements and identifying modeling tools to be used in the SSF Tactical Operations Planning (TOP) process.

  18. Motor development during the first year: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Santos, D C; Gabbard, C; Goncalves, V M

    2001-06-01

    This investigation of the motor development characteristics of Brazilian infants during the 1st year of postnatal life compared the findings with those of a widely used U.S. sample (N. Bayley, 1993). Analysis of the 12 monthly assessments indicated that Brazilian infants' scores increased with age, with the greatest increase occurring over the first 8 months. As a general comparison, the results are similar to the U.S. patterns of development. However, the Brazilian sample exhibited mean scores significantly lower than the U.S. sample's in the 3rd, 4th, and 5th months. More specific analyses indicated that the difference within these months was on tasks of sitting and grasping. Possible explanations for the differences focus on variations in child-rearing practices and the influence of biological maturation in early movement behaviors.

  19. Predictors and Characteristics of Erikson's Life Cycle Model Among Men: A 32-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westermeyer, Jerry F.

    2004-01-01

    To assess Erikson's life cycle model, 86 men, initially selected for health, were prospectively studied at age 21, and reassessed 32 years later at age 53. Using the Vaillant and Milofsky (1980) modification of Erikson's model, 48 men (56%) achieved generativity, an advanced developmental stage, at follow-up. Results generally support Erikson's…

  20. The national bicycling and walking study : 15–year status report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-05-01

    This report is the third status update to the National Bicycling and Walking Study, originally published in 1994 as an assessment of bicycling and walking as transportation modes in the United States. Following the 5-year status report (1999) and 10-...

  1. Studies Using Single-Subject Designs in Sport Psychology: 30 Years of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, G. L.; Thompson, K.; Regehr, K.

    2004-01-01

    A prominent feature of behavior-analytic research has been the use of single-subject designs. We examined sport psychology journals and behavioral journals published during the past 30 years, and located 40 studies using single-subject designs to assess interventions for enhancing the performance of athletes and coaches. In this paper, we…

  2. Using Facebook to Enhance Independent Student Engagement: A Case Study of First-Year Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    A case study was conducted to assess the efficacy of online communication tools for enhancing independent student engagement in a first-year undergraduate class. Material relevant to course topics was shared with students through three communication platforms and data were extracted to measure student engagement. A questionnaire was also used to…

  3. Characteristics of Patients Visiting the Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic: A 26-Year Study from North India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, Savita; Biswas, Parthasarathy; Sharan, Pratap; Grover, Sandeep

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To study the sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients, who presented to the child and adolescent psychiatric services of a tertiary care centre over a 26-year period (1980-2005). Methodology: Data were abstracted retrospectively from detailed work up files of all subjects assessed in the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (CAP) Clinic…

  4. Posttraumatic Intrusion, Avoidance, and Social Functioning: A 20-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Zahava; Mikulincer, Mario

    2007-01-01

    The study assesses posttraumatic intrusion, avoidance, and social functioning among 214 Israeli combat veterans from the first Lebanon War with and without combat stress reaction (CSR) 1, 2, 3, and 20 years after the war. CSR veterans reported higher intrusion and avoidance than did non-CSR veterans. With time, there was a decline in these…

  5. Does Attention Constrain Developmental Trajectories in Fragile X Syndrome? A 3-Year Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornish, Kim; Cole, Victoria; Longhi, Elena; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Scerif, Gaia

    2012-01-01

    Basic attentional processes and their impact on developmental trajectories in fragile X syndrome were assessed in a 3-year prospective study. Although fragile X syndrome is a monogenic X-linked disorder, there is striking variability in outcomes even in young boys with the condition. Attention is a key factor constraining interactions with the…

  6. Clinical Observed Performance Evaluation: A Prospective Study in Final Year Students of Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markey, G. C.; Browne, K.; Hunter, K.; Hill, A. D.

    2011-01-01

    We report a prospective study of clinical observed performance evaluation (COPE) for 197 medical students in the pre-qualification year of clinical education. Psychometric quality was the main endpoint. Students were assessed in groups of 5 in 40-min patient encounters, with each student the focus of evaluation for 8 min. Each student had a series…

  7. Do lunar phases influence menstruation? A year-long retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Ilias, I; Spanoudi, F; Koukkou, E; Adamopoulos, D A; Nikopoulou, S C

    2013-07-01

    We assessed with cross-approximate entropy menstruation onset versus moon phases in 74 women with 980 menstrual cycles over a calendar year. In defiance of traditional beliefs and contrary to what some researchers have argued with short-term research work, in this long-term study we did not find any synchrony of lunar phases with the menstrual cycle.

  8. The Development of Core Cognitive Skills in Autism: A 3-Year Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study tested the veracity of one candidate multiple-deficits account of autism by assessing 37 children with autism (M age = 67.9 months) and 31 typical children (M age = 65.2 months) on tasks tapping components of theory of mind (ToM), executive function (EF), and central coherence (CC) at intake and again 3 years later. As a…

  9. Condition Assessment of a 2,500-Year-Old Mummy Coffin

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Ross; Turker Dundar

    2012-01-01

    This work was conducted to assess the condition of a 2,500-year-old mummy coffin. The coffin, part of a collection of funerary objects at the Nelson–Atkins Museum of Art in St. Louis, Missouri, is made of wood obtained from a sycamore fig tree, Ficus sycomorus. Visual and acoustic-based nondestructive testing techniques were used to inspect the...

  10. Assessment of fire-damaged mesquite trees 8 years following an illegal burn

    Treesearch

    Gerald J. Gottfried; Peter F. Ffolliott; Pablo Garcia; Diego Valdez-Zamudio; Akram Al-Khouri

    2003-01-01

    Effects of an illegal burn on the Santa Rita Experimental Range on mesquite (Prosopis velutina) survival in the semidesert grass-shrub ecosystem was initially assessed in terms of firedamage classes 18 months after the fire and again 8 years after the burn. While many of the mesquite trees on the burned site were damaged by the fire, some of the trees appear to have...

  11. Five-year assessment of causative agents and antibiotic resistances in urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Çoban, Bayram; Ülkü, Nesrin; Kaplan, Halit; Topal, Burhan; Erdoğan, Haluk; Baskın, Esra

    2014-06-01

    To show the distribution and changes of causative agents of urinary tract infections in children and resistance rates by years and select the most appropriate antibiotics. In this study, the Başkent University Alanya Research and Application Hospital automation system microbiology recording book was screened retrospectively. Growth of a single microorganism above 105 colonies (cfu/mL) was included in the assessment. Throughout the study, 10 691 urinary cultures were studies and growth was found in 392 (3.7%). Three hundred and nine (78.8%) of the samples with growth belonged to girls. Growth was found in the neonatal period in 32 patients (8.2%). The most commonly isolated microorganism was Escherichia coli (E. coli) which was found in 68.4% of the patients. Klebsiella spp. were found with a rate of 12.0%; Enterobacter spp. were found with a rate of 10.7% and proteus spp. were found with a rate of 5.1%. Resistance to cefalotin (62.1%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxasole (43.1%), amoxycillin-clavulanate (34.8%), ampicillin (30.4%), cefixim (26.3%) and nitrofurantoin (3.6%) was found in E. coli species. The antibiotic which had the highest resistance rate was ampicillin with a rate of 93.2% for klebsiella and 83.4% for enterobacter. Klebsiella spp. were the most commonly grown pathogens in newborns (40.6%). In a follow-up period of 5 years, the resistance of E. coli to amoxycillin-clavulanate regressed from 40.3% to 31.3%, while the resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxasole (TMP-SMX) regressed from 45.6% to 34.7%. A high resistance against first-generation cephalosporins, ampicillin, amoxycillin-clavulanate and TMP-SMX which are the first-line antibiotics in childhood urinary tract infections was found. Carbapenem (meropenem, imipenem) resistance was not found in our center. Nitrofurantoin, aminoglycosides and cefixime can be recommended for empirical treatment in our hospital because of low resistance. Antibiotic treatment should be redecided according to in vitro

  12. Tinea capitis in Campania, Italy: a 9-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Calabrò, G; Patalano, A; Fiammenghi, E; Chianese, C

    2015-08-01

    The present work was carried out to study the prevalence of Tinea capitis (TC) in Campania over a 9-year period and also to delineate the prevalence of the causative fungus responsible and the clinical forms of tinea capitis. This retrospective study included all the cases of TC occurring between January 2004 and December 2012 to the Mycology Laboratory at the University of Naples "Federico II" and mycologically confirmed. Samples for potassium hydroxide 20% mounts and fungal cultures were collected. Sabouraud dextrose agar were inoculated with the samples. TC was diagnosed by direct microscopy and culture in 143 patients. TC was found to be most common in the group including patients aged between 1-18 years; 13% of patients were over 18 years old. Non-inflammatory clinical forms were the most common type (80.4%). M. canis was the dermatophyte most frequently isolated (64.1%). Microscopic examination revealed an ectothrix pattern of hair invasion to be more common (72% cases). TC was clinical and mycologically diagnosed in 143 patients. It was prevalent in patients aged 1-18 years old; 73.2% of adults affected by TC had possible risk factors and in these patients TC often presented in atypical forms; atypical forms were also observed in children. M. canis was the most common dermatophyte species isolated in children, T. rubrum in adults. We noticed a significant increase of anthropophilic dermatophytes possibly linked to the immigration from African countries. For the diagnosis of TC, mycological examinations are essential.

  13. Learning-oriented assessment increases performance and written skills in a second year metabolic biochemistry course.

    PubMed

    Vanderlelie, Jessica J; Alexander, Heather G

    2016-07-08

    Assessment plays a critical role in learning and teaching and its power to enhance engagement and student outcomes is still underestimated in tertiary education. The current project considers the impact of a staged redesign of an assessment strategy that emphasized relevance of learning, formative assessment, student engagement, and feedback on student performance, failure rates and overall engagement in the course. Significant improvements in final grades (p < 0.0001) and written performance (p < 0.0001) in the final examination were noted that coincided with increased lecture attendance and overall engagement in the course. This study reinforces the importance of an integrated approach to assessment that includes well developed formative tasks and a continuous summative assessment strategy. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):412-420, 2016. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  14. Psychological reactions after multifetal pregnancy reduction: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Garel, M; Stark, C; Blondel, B; Lefebvre, G; Vauthier-Brouzes, D; Zorn, J R

    1997-03-01

    This study had two objectives. Firstly we assessed the effects of multifetal pregnancy reduction on the mothers' emotional well-being and the relationship with the children during the 2 years following intervention. Secondly at 2 years we compared mothers who had a reduction with mothers who had not and had delivered triplets. The comparisons focused on the mothers' health and their relationship with the children. Women having had a reduction in two hospitals in Paris, between May 1992 and June 1993, were contacted just after intervention for a prospective study. In all, 18 women were included. At 1 and 2 years, 10 women participated. At 2 years, 10 additional women were included. The answers of these 20 mothers were compared to those of 11 consecutive mothers of 2 year old triplets, assessed by the same psychologist in a previous prospective study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted at home. The mothers' social characteristics, their parity, the children's condition at birth and 4 months were very similar between the reduction and triplet groups. One year after birth one-third of the women in the reduction group reported persistent depressive symptoms related to the reduction, mainly sadness and guilt. The others made medical and rational comments expressing no emotion. At 2 years all but two women seemed to have overcome the emotional pain associated with the reduction. The comparison with mothers of triplets indicated that the mothers' anxiety and depression, and difficult relationship with the children were less acute in the reduction group. These results presented some limitations, since a high number of women who miscarried or refused to participate in the follow-up were not assessed at 1 and 2 years. However, a majority of women who participated in the study 2 years after intervention seemed able to accept a multifetal pregnancy reduction to achieve parental goals.

  15. A 20-Year High-Resolution Wave Resource Assessment of Japan with Wave-Current Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, A.; Waseda, T.; Kiyomatsu, K.

    2016-02-01

    Energy harvested from surface ocean waves and tidal currents has the potential to be a significant source of green energy, particularly for countries with extensive coastlines such as Japan. As part of a larger marine renewable energy project*, The University of Tokyo (in cooperation with JAMSTEC) has conducted a state-of-the-art wave resource assessment (with uncertainty estimates) to assist with wave generator site identification and construction in Japan. This assessment will be publicly available and is based on a large-scale NOAA WAVEWATCH III (version 4.18) simulation using NCEP and JAMSTEC forcings. It includes several key components to improve model skill: a 20-year simulation to reduce aleatory uncertainty, a four-nested-layer approach to resolve a 1 km shoreline, and finite-depth and current effects included in all wave power density calculations. This latter component is particularly important for regions near strong currents such as the Kuroshio. Here, we will analyze the different wave power density equations, discuss the model setup, and present results from the 20-year assessment (with a focus on the role of wave-current interactions). Time permitting, a comparison will also be made with simulations using JMA MSM 5 km winds. *New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO): "Research on the Framework and Infrastructure of Marine Renewable Energy; an Energy Potential Assessment"

  16. The Role of Training in Improving Peer Assessment Skills amongst Year Six Pupils in Primary School Writing: An Action Research Enquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boon, Stuart Ian

    2015-01-01

    Peer assessment is where students assess the quality of a peer's work. Studies have demonstrated its positive impact on learning yet most of these are in higher education. This study used training to improve the quality of written feedback in a year six primary school classroom. Action Research was selected as a research strategy given the need to…

  17. Predicting school readiness from neurodevelopmental assessments at age 2 years after respiratory distress syndrome in infants born preterm.

    PubMed

    Patrianakos-Hoobler, Athena I; Msall, Michael E; Huo, Dezheng; Marks, Jeremy D; Plesha-Troyke, Susan; Schreiber, Michael D

    2010-04-01

    To determine whether neurodevelopmental outcomes at the age of 2 years accurately predict school readiness in children who survived respiratory distress syndrome after preterm birth. Our cohort included 121 preterm infants who received surfactant and ventilation and were enrolled in a randomized controlled study of inhaled nitric oxide for respiratory distress syndrome. Abnormal outcomes at the age of 2 years were defined as neurosensory disability (cerebral palsy, blindness, or bilateral hearing loss) or delay (no neurosensory disability but Bayley Scales of Infant Development mental or performance developmental index scores <70). School readiness (assessed at a mean age of 5y 6mo, SD 1y) was determined using neurodevelopmental assessments of motor, sensory, receptive vocabulary, perceptual, conceptual, and adaptive skills. The mean birthweight of the cohort (57 males, 64 females) was 987g (SD 374), and the mean gestational age was 27.3 weeks (SD 2.6). At the age of 2 years, the neurodevelopmental classification was 'disabled' in 11% and 'delayed' in 23%. At the age of 5 years 6 months, intensive special education was required for 11% and some special education for 21%. Disability and delay at the age of 2 years were 92% and 50% predictive of lack of school readiness respectively, whereas only 15% of children who were normal at the age of 2 years were not school ready at the later assessment. Children with delay at 2 years were more likely to need special education if they were socially disadvantaged. Without preschool developmental supports, preterm survivors living in poverty will require more special education services.

  18. Diffusion tensor imaging assessment of brain white matter maturation during the first postnatal year.

    PubMed

    Provenzale, James M; Liang, Luxia; DeLong, David; White, Leonard E

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to use diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging to investigate the status of cerebral white matter (WM) at term gestation and the rate of WM maturation throughout the first year of life in healthy infants. Fifty-three children (35 boys) ranging in age from 1.5 weeks premature to 51.5 weeks (mean age, 22.9 weeks) underwent conventional MRI, diffusion imaging in three directions (b = 1,000 s/mm2), and diffusion tensor imaging with gradient encoding in six directions, all on a 1.5-T MRI system. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were measured in three deep WM structures (posterior limb of internal capsule, genu, and splenium of corpus callosum) and two peripheral WM regions (associational WM underlying prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex) with a standard region of interest (44 +/- 4 cm2). ADC and FA were expressed as a percentage of corresponding values measured in a group of healthy young adults. Mean ADC and FA values for deep and peripheral WM were plotted against gestational age normalized to term. The data were fit best with a broken-line linear regression model with a breakpoint at 100 days. ADC and FA values at term were estimated according to the intercept of the initial linear period (before day 100) with day 0. The slope of the linear fits was used to determine the rate of WM maturation in both the early and the late (after day 100) periods. Multivariate analysis of variance tests were used to compare deep and peripheral WM structures at term and at representative early and late ages (days 30 and 200) and to compare rates of ADC and FA maturation in early and late periods within the first year. At term, peripheral WM was less mature than deep WM according to results of extrapolation of ADC and FA values in the first 100 days of life to day 0 (p < 0.01). Mean ADC and FA value (percentage of mean adult value) for peripheral WM were 1.32 x 10(-3) mm2/s (163%) and 0.16 (32%), respectively

  19. Children's Sympathy, Guilt, and Moral Reasoning in Helping, Cooperation, and Sharing: A 6-Year Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Malti, Tina; Ongley, Sophia F; Peplak, Joanna; Chaparro, Maria P; Buchmann, Marlis; Zuffianò, Antonio; Cui, Lixian

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the role of sympathy, guilt, and moral reasoning in helping, cooperation, and sharing in a 6-year, three-wave longitudinal study involving 175 children (M age 6.10, 9.18, and 12.18 years). Primary caregivers reported on children's helping and cooperation; sharing was assessed behaviorally. Child sympathy was assessed by self- and teacher reports, and self-attributed feelings of guilt-sadness and moral reasoning were assessed by children's responses to transgression vignettes. Sympathy predicted helping, cooperation, and sharing. Guilt-sadness and moral reasoning interacted with sympathy in predicting helping and cooperation; both sympathy and guilt-sadness were associated with the development of sharing. The findings are discussed in relation to the emergence of differential motivational pathways to helping, cooperation, and sharing. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  20. Experiences of Sexuality Six Years After Stroke: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Marie I; Fugl-Meyer, Kerstin; von Koch, Lena; Ytterberg, Charlotte

    2017-06-01

    Little is known about the long-term consequences of stroke on sexuality, and studies on how individuals with stroke communicate with health care professionals about information and/or interventions on sexuality are even sparser. To explore experiences of sexuality 6 years after stroke, including communication with health care professionals concerning sexuality. This qualitative study was based on data collected by semistructured interviews with 12 informants 43 to 81 years old 6 years after stroke. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was performed. The analysis resulted in the following three themes. Not exclusively negative experiences in sexuality after stroke: Most informants experienced some change in their sexual life from before their stroke. Decreased sexual interest and function were ascribed to decreased sensibility, post-stroke pain, or fatigue. Some informants reported positive changes in sexuality, which were attributed to feelings of increased intimacy. Individual differences and variability on how to handle sexuality after stroke: Different strategies were used to manage unwanted negative changes such as actively trying to adapt by planning time with the partner and decreasing pressure or stress. Open communication about sexuality with one's partner also was described as important. Strikingly, most informants with negative experiences of sexual life attributed these to age or a stage in life and not to the stroke or health issues. Furthermore, they compared themselves with others without stroke but with changes in sexuality, thus achieving a sense of normality. Communication and counseling concerning sexuality-many unmet needs: Experiences of communication with health care professionals varied. Very few informants had received any information or discussed sexuality with health care professionals during the 6 years since the stroke, although such needs were identified by most informants. When encountering individuals

  1. Malnutrition, functional ability and mortality among older people aged ⩾ 60 years: a 7-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Naseer, M; Forssell, H; Fagerström, C

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the association between risk of malnutrition and 7-year mortality, controlling for functional ability, socio-demographics, lifestyle behavior and diseases, and investigate the interaction between risk of malnutrition and functional ability on the risk of mortality. A longitudinal study on home-living and special-housing residents aged ⩾ 60 years was conducted. Of 2312 randomly invited participants, 1402 responded and 1203 provided information on both nutritional status and functional ability. The risk of malnutrition was estimated by the occurrence of at least one anthropometric measure (BMI, MAC and CC) below cut-off in addition to the presence of at least one subjective measure (decreased food intake, weight loss and eating difficulty). At baseline, 8.6% of subjects were at risk of malnutrition and during the 7-year follow-up 34.6% subjects died. The risk of malnutrition was independently associated with 7-year mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 1.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-2.65). Additional independent predictors were dementia (HR 2.76, 95% CI 1.85-4.10), activity of daily living (ADL) dependence (HR 2.08, 95% CI 1.62-2.67), heart disease (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.16-1.78), diabetes (HR 1.41, 95% CI 1.03-1.93) and older age (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.07-1.10). Moreover, the risk of malnutrition and ADL dependence in combination predicted the poorest survival rate (18.7%, P<0.001). The risk of malnutrition significantly increases the risk of mortality in older people. Moreover, risk of malnutrition and ADL dependence together explain a significantly poorer survival rate; however, the importance of this interaction decreased in the multivariable model and risk of malnutrition and ADL dependence independently explained a significant risk of mortality.

  2. Phenylalanine tolerance can already reliably be assessed at the age of 2 years in patients with PKU.

    PubMed

    van Spronsen, F J; van Rijn, M; Dorgelo, B; Hoeksma, M; Bosch, A M; Mulder, M F; de Klerk, J B C; de Koning, T; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela; de Vries, M; Verkerk, P H

    2009-02-01

    The clinical severity of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency is usually defined by either pre-treatment phenylalanine (Phe) concentration or Phe tolerance at 5 years of age. So far, little is known about the course of Phe tolerance or the ability of both pre-treatment Phe and Phe tolerance at early age to predict Phe tolerance at later age. This study was conducted to investigate the course of the individual Phe tolerance and to assess the predictive value of both the pre-treatment Phe concentration and Phe tolerance at 1 and 6 months and 1, 2, 3 and 5 years for Phe tolerance at 10 years of age. Data on blood Phe concentration, prescribed Phe intake and weight of 213 early and continuously treated Dutch PKU patients up to 10 years of age were collected. Data acquired under good metabolic control were used in the study. Tolerance was expressed in mg/day and mg/kg per day. Data at 1 and 6 months and at 1, 2, 3 and 5 years of 61, 58, 59, 57, 56 and 59 patients were included for comparison with the Phe tolerance at 10 years. Phe tolerances (mg/kg per day) at 2, 3 and 5 years showed a clear correlation with the tolerance at 10 years of age (r = 0.608, r = 0.725 and r = 0.661). Results for tolerance expressed as mg/day were comparable. Pre-treatment Phe concentrations did not correlate significantly with the tolerance. Pre-treatment Phe is unreliable but Phe tolerance is a reliable predictor of the tolerance at 10 years of age, starting at 2 years of age.

  3. A feasibility study for an International Year of Landcare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutota, E.; Arnalds, A.

    2009-04-01

    Human-induced activities place enormous pressures on the land worldwide, creating competition and conflict, and suboptimal use of the land. Climate change, loss of biodiversity and land degradation leads to decreasing productivity, food and water shortages, and reduced economic benefits, among others. In order to address these challenges and achieve sustainability goals, the need to change the way global resources are being utilized is crucial. A holistic and integrated community-based approach such as Landcare could be a viable approach to meet this worldwide challenge. Landcare is about committed people working together on land rehabilitation and restoration projects at the local level, transforming attitudes and stimulating new ideas among land users, generating support and building partnerships between and among local communities, governments and the private sector. Landcare initiatives have grown in a number of countries where success stories of actions on the ground clearly show the wider application of the Landcare approach in resolving many of the world's environmental problems and livelihood challenges. However, the potential of Landcare have not yet been widely exploited on a scale that really matters—as local actions build up towards global progress, there is more scope for unified efforts towards a global Landcare movement. Following the recommendation given at the International Forum on Soils, Society and Global Change in 2007 in Iceland (http://www.iisd.ca/YMB/SDFSS/), an International Year of Landcare should be established. Such a year would bring into focus efforts to build local capacity and share knowledge and experiences between provinces, countries and continents on Landcare. Additionally, holding a year concerned with Landcare would greatly contribute to the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals, the UN environmental conventions and many other sustainability goals. Our study supports the notion that Landcare offers a robust platform

  4. Cumulative impact assessment: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, J.S.; Bain, M.B.

    The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) indirectly addressed cumulative impacts. Attempts to include cumulative impacts in environmental impact assessments, however, did not began until the early 1980's. One such effort began when The Federal Energy and Regulatory Commission (FERC) received over 1200 applications for hydroelectric projects in the Pacific Northwest. Federal and State Agencies, Indian tribes and environmental groups realized the potential cumulative effect such development could have on fish and wildfire resources. In response, the FERC developed the Cluster Impact Assessment Procedure (CIAP). The CIAP consisted of public scoping meetings; interactive workshops designed to identify projects withmore » potential for cumulative effects, important resources, available data; and preparation of a NEPA document (EA or EIS). The procedure was modifies to assess the cumulative impacts of fifteen hydroelectric projects in the Salmon River Basin, Idaho. The methodology achieved its basic objective of evaluating the impact of hydroelectric development on fish and wildfire resources. In addition, the use of evaluative techniques to determine project interactions and degrees of impact hindered acceptance of the conclusions. Notwithstanding these problems, the studies provided a basis for decision-makers to incorporate the potential effects of cumulative impacts into the decision-making process. 22 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.« less

  5. Quality of reporting in oncology phase II trials: A 5-year assessment through systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Langrand-Escure, Julien; Rivoirard, Romain; Oriol, Mathieu; Tinquaut, Fabien; Rancoule, Chloé; Chauvin, Frank; Magné, Nicolas; Bourmaud, Aurélie

    2017-01-01

    Background Phase II clinical trials are a cornerstone of the development in experimental treatments They work as a "filter" for phase III trials confirmation. Surprisingly the attrition ratio in Phase III trials in oncology is significantly higher than in any other medical specialty. This suggests phase II trials in oncology fail to achieve their goal. Objective The present study aims at estimating the quality of reporting in published oncology phase II clinical trials. Data sources A literature review was conducted among all phase II and phase II/III clinical trials published during a 5-year period (2010–2015). Study eligibility criteria All articles electronically published by three randomly-selected oncology journals with Impact-Factors>4 were included: Journal of Clinical Oncology, Annals of Oncology and British Journal of Cancer. Intervention Quality of reporting was assessed using the Key Methodological Score. Results 557 articles were included. 315 trials were single-arm studies (56.6%), 193 (34.6%) were randomized and 49 (8.8%) were non-randomized multiple-arm studies. The Methodological Score was equal to 0 (lowest level), 1, 2, 3 (highest level) respectively for 22 (3.9%), 119 (21.4%), 270 (48.5%) and 146 (26.2%) articles. The primary end point is almost systematically reported (90.5%), while sample size calculation is missing in 66% of the articles. 3 variables were independently associated with reporting of a high standard: presence of statistical design (p-value <0.001), multicenter trial (p-value = 0.012), per-protocol analysis (p-value <0.001). Limitations Screening was mainly performed by a sole author. The Key Methodological Score was based on only 3 items, making grey zones difficult to translate. Conclusions & implications of key findings This literature review highlights the existence of gaps concerning the quality of reporting. It therefore raised the question of the suitability of the methodology as well as the quality of these trials

  6. Quantitative Assessment of Theses at Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences Years-(1995-2014).

    PubMed

    Balaghafari, Azita; Siamian, Hasan; Kharamin, Farideh; Rashida, Seyyedeh Shahrbanoo; Ghahrani, Nassim

    2016-07-16

    Review and evaluation of research for the correct steps towards real progress is essential which is a healthy and dynamic feature of the system. For the correct step toward real progress, evaluation research is essential which is feature of healthy and dynamic system. Considering the importance of scientific thesis in production and development and be aware of as the lack of structured information and qualitative and quantitative assessment at Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, therefore we decided to do qualitative stud of theirs prepared 1995-2014. This study was a descriptive survey, a sample of 325 graduate and PhD thesis and dissertation in clinical and basic science at the university of medical sciences of the population in 2060 is a thesis from 1994 to the end of 2014. To study the population, stratified sampling method was used. The descriptive study was conducted in terms of matching the degree thesis students, theses subjects, specialty of supervisors and Advisers. The data gathering tool was checklist of information (gender, discipline, degree and department education of students, School, year of dependence, title of theses and dissertations, specialty and departments of supervisors and advisers, type of research, grade obtained of students). Statistical analysis of the data was performed using 21 SPSS software. We studied 325 theses; 303 dissertations which 1 researcher; 21 dissertations which 2 researchers and 1 dissertation with 3 researchers. A total of 348 students (174 females and 174 males) researcher had theses. The number of students in the Department of Basic Science 82 (23.5%), 266 (76.5 %) in clinical group; 29(8.33%), 29 (8.33%) master degree; 260 (74.71%) general practitioner; 58 (16.67%) specialty and 1(29) at the PhD level. There was no relationship between research and level of education (p = 0.081). However, it was found that majority of the theses for the general practitioner (59.8%) wryer type 1(status condition). By matching

  7. [Tinea capitis: Main mycosis child. Epidemiological study on 10years].

    PubMed

    Kallel, A; Hdider, A; Fakhfakh, N; Belhadj, S; Belhadj-Salah, N; Bada, N; Chouchen, A; Ennigrou, S; Kallel, K

    2017-09-01

    Despite the changes in their epidemiology, and the improving level of hygiene of the population, tinea capitis is still considered a public health problem in our country, and is the most common type of dermatophytosis in our country. The aim of our study was to evaluate the epidemiological, clinical and mycological features of tinea capitis in children encountered in the Tunis region. A retrospective study concerned 1600 children aged 6 months to 15 years suspected to have tinea capitis was conducted in Parasitology-Mycology laboratory, Rabta hospital, over a 10-years period (2005-2014). Dermatophyte infections were confirmed using scalp scrapings examinated with direct microscopy using potash at 30% and/or culture on Sabouraud medium agar. Tinea capitis diagnosis was confirmed in 947 cases (59.18%). The sex ratio was 2.61 and the average age of 6.28 years with predominance in the age group of 4 to 8 years (52.27%). The most common clinical presentation was ringworm (87.65%). Ringworm large plaque was predominant (65.9%). Direct examination was positive in 884 cases (93.35%). Microsporic tinea was the most frequent (63.25%) followed by trichophytic tinea (29.78%). Positive cultures of dermatophytes were obtained in 912 cases (96.30%). The following dermatophyte species were isolated: Microsporum canis (67%), Trichophyton violaceum (31.68%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (0.66%), Microsporum audouinii (0.22%), Trichophyton schoenleinii (0.22%) and Microsporum gypseum (0.22%). M. canis is currently the most frequently incriminated species in tinea capitis in Tunisia. This change is related to a change in behavior of our population, in fact the cat; main reservoir of M. canis cohabiting increasingly with Tunisian families. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. [Comprehensive care program for the mentally ill in Spanish prisons (PAIEM): assessment after four years operation].

    PubMed

    Sanz, J; Gómez-Pintado, P; Ruiz, A; Pozuelo, F; Arroyo, J M

    2014-01-01

    To assess the comprehensive care program for the mentally ill in prison (PAIEM), which has been implemented for 3 years in Spanish prisons with the aim of improving processes and results. Descriptive study of the data gathered from an anonymous questionnaire completed by members of the PAIEM team in prisons. Frequency distributions were obtained of all the variables relating to facts, attitudes, opinions, experiences, situations and processes of the PAIEM. 91.2% of the PAIEM teams responded. Psychologists, educators, doctors and social workers were the professionals that collaborated most actively in the PAIEM (73%-84%) and were the ones to act most frequently as tutors. The mentally ill are usually located in ordinary modules (80%). The most commonly used activities for their psycho-social rehabilitation are self care (73%), education for health, preparation for daily life and social skills (more than 60%). Interventions with families are basically by telephone (79%). Bivariate analysis showed that the PAIEMs that operate most effectively are those that coordinate well with other technical teams, that prepare referral more than six months prior to release and ones where the NGOs process the referrals. Over 71% of the professionals observed improvements of disabilities and needs in over half the patients more than half of the professionals involved are satisfied (3.4/5) with their participation, although they acknowledge that there is a greater work load. The activities of the PAIEM are adequate, especially in the phases of early detection, stabilisation and rehabilitation and less so in the social incorporation phase, which improves when the third sector intervenes in referrals of patients to the social health care network outside prison.

  9. Modeling and risk assessment of a 30-Year-old subsurface radioactive-liquid drain field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Lon A.; Pohl, Phillip I.

    1997-11-01

    The contamination from a 30-year-old radioactive liquid drain field was assessed for movement in the subsurface and potential risks to humans. This assessment included determining field concentrations of cesium 137 (137Cs) and other inorganic contaminants and modeling of the flow and transport of the liquid waste that was sent to the drain field. The field investigation detected no contamination deeper than 15 feet (4.6 m) from the bottom of the drain field. Prediction of the water content of the vadose zone showed no saturated conditions for times greater than 10 years after the known infiltration. Sensitivity analysis of the modeling parameters showed the equilibrium sorption coefficient to be the most important factor in predicting the contaminant plumes. Calibration of modeling results with field data gave a 137Cs sorption coefficient that is within the range of values found in the literature. The risk assessment for the site showed that the contamination poses no significant risk to human health.

  10. Fifteen years of portfolio assessment of dental hygiene student competency: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; Bray, Kimberly Krust; Austin, Kylie J

    2014-10-01

    Adoption of portfolio assessment in the educational environment is gaining attention as a means to incorporate self-assessment into the curriculum and to use evidence to support learning outcomes and to demonstrate competency. Portfolios provide a medium for students to demonstrate and document their personal and professional growth across the curriculum. The purpose of this literature review is to discuss the drivers for portfolio education, the benefits to both students and program faculty/administrators, the barriers associated with portfolio use, and suggested solutions that have been determined through several years of "lessons learned." The University of Missouri Kansas City School of Dentistry, Division of Dental Hygiene department has been utilizing portfolio assessment for over 15 years and has collected data related to portfolio performance since 2001. Results from correlational statistics calculated on the 312 dental hygiene students that graduated from 2001 to 2013 demonstrate a positive and significant relationship between portfolio performance and overall GPA as well as portfolio performance and NBDHE scores. Copyright © 2014 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  11. Engine system assessment study using Martian propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelaccio, Dennis; Jacobs, Mark; Scheil, Christine; Collins, John

    1992-01-01

    A top-level feasibility study was conducted that identified and characterized promising chemical propulsion system designs which use two or more of the following propellant combinations: LOX/H2, LOX/CH4, and LOX/CO. The engine systems examined emphasized the usage of common subsystem/component hardware where possible. In support of this study, numerous mission scenarios were characterized that used various combinations of Earth, lunar, and Mars propellants to establish engine system requirements to assess the promising engine system design concept examined, and to determine overall exploration leverage of such systems compared to state-of-the-art cryogenic (LOX/H2) propulsion systems. Initially in the study, critical propulsion system technologies were assessed. Candidate expander and gas generator cycle LOX/H2/CO, LOX/H2/CH4, and LOX/CO/CH4 engine system designs were parametrically evaluated. From this evaluation baseline, tripropellant Mars Transfer Vehicle (MTV) LOX cooled and bipropellant Lunar Excursion Vehicle (LEV) and Mars Excursion Vehicle (MEV) engine systems were identified. Representative tankage designs for a MTV were also investigated. Re-evaluation of the missions using the baseline engine design showed that in general the slightly lower performance, smaller, lower weight gas generator cycle-based engines required less overall mission Mars and in situ propellant production (ISPP) infrastructure support compared to the larger, heavier, higher performing expander cycle engine systems.

  12. Safety Assessment of Docosahexaenoic Acid in X-Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa: The 4-Year DHAX Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hughbanks-Wheaton, Dianna K.; Birch, David G.; Fish, Gary E.; Spencer, Rand; Pearson, N. Shirlene; Takacs, Alison; Hoffman, Dennis R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) continues to be evaluated and recommended as treatment and prophylaxis for various diseases. We recently assessed efficacy of high-dose DHA supplementation to slow vision loss in patients with X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) in a randomized clinical trial. Because DHA is a highly unsaturated fatty acid, it could serve as a target for free-radical induced oxidation, resulting in increased oxidative stress. Biosafety was monitored during the 4-year trial to determine whether DHA supplementation was associated with identifiable risks. Methods. Males (n = 78; 7–31 years) meeting entry criteria were enrolled. The modified intent-to-treat cohort (DHA = 33; placebo = 27) adhered to the protocol ≥ 1 year. Participants were randomized to an oral dose of 30 mg/kg/d DHA or placebo plus a daily multivitamin. Comprehensive metabolic analyses were assessed for group differences. Treatment-emergent adverse events including blood chemistry metabolites were recorded. Results. By year 4, supplementation elevated plasma and red blood cell–DHA 4.4- and 3.6-fold, respectively, compared with the placebo group (P < 0.00001). Over the trial duration, no significant differences between DHA and placebo groups were found for vitamin A, vitamin E, platelet aggregation, antioxidant activity, lipoprotein cholesterol, or oxidized LDL levels (all P > 0.14). Adverse events were transient and not considered severe (e.g., gastrointestinal [GI] irritability, blood chemistry alterations). One participant was unable to tolerate persistent GI discomfort. Conclusions. Long-term, high-dose DHA supplementation to patients with XLRP was associated with limited safety risks in this 4-year trial. Nevertheless, GI symptoms should be monitored in all patients taking high dose DHA especially those with personal or family history of GI disturbances. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00100230.) PMID:25015354

  13. Community-level assessment of dental plaque bacteria susceptibility to triclosan over 19 years.

    PubMed

    Haraszthy, Violet I; Sreenivasan, Prem K; Zambon, Joseph J

    2014-06-02

    Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent used in toothpaste to reduce dental plaque, gingivitis and oral malodor. This community-level assessment evaluated the susceptibility of dental plaque bacteria to triclosan in samples collected over 19 years. A total of 155 dental plaque samples were collected at eleven different times over 19 years from 58 adults using 0.3% triclosan, 2% copolymer, 0.243% sodium fluoride toothpaste and from 97 adults using toothpaste without triclosan. These included samples from 21 subjects who used triclosan toothpaste for at least five years and samples from 20 control subjects. The samples were cultured on media containing 0, 7.5 or 25 μg/ml triclosan. Descriptive statistics and p values were computed and a linear regression model and the runs test were used to examine susceptibility over time. Growth inhibition averaged 99.451% (91.209 - 99.830%) on media containing 7.5 μg/ml triclosan and 99.989% (99.670 - 100%) on media containing 25 μg/ml triclosan. There was no change in microbial susceptibility to triclosan over time discernible by regression analysis or the runs test in plaque samples taken over 19 years including samples from subjects using a triclosan-containing dentifrice for at least five years. This community-level assessment of microbial susceptibility to triclosan among supragingival plaque bacteria is consistent with the long-term safety of a 0.3% triclosan, 2% copolymer, 0.243% sodium fluoride dentifrice.

  14. Community-level assessment of dental plaque bacteria susceptibility to triclosan over 19 years

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent used in toothpaste to reduce dental plaque, gingivitis and oral malodor. This community-level assessment evaluated the susceptibility of dental plaque bacteria to triclosan in samples collected over 19 years. Methods A total of 155 dental plaque samples were collected at eleven different times over 19 years from 58 adults using 0.3% triclosan, 2% copolymer, 0.243% sodium fluoride toothpaste and from 97 adults using toothpaste without triclosan. These included samples from 21 subjects who used triclosan toothpaste for at least five years and samples from 20 control subjects. The samples were cultured on media containing 0, 7.5 or 25 μg/ml triclosan. Descriptive statistics and p values were computed and a linear regression model and the runs test were used to examine susceptibility over time. Results Growth inhibition averaged 99.451% (91.209 - 99.830%) on media containing 7.5 μg/ml triclosan and 99.989% (99.670 - 100%) on media containing 25 μg/ml triclosan. There was no change in microbial susceptibility to triclosan over time discernible by regression analysis or the runs test in plaque samples taken over 19 years including samples from subjects using a triclosan-containing dentifrice for at least five years. Conclusions This community-level assessment of microbial susceptibility to triclosan among supragingival plaque bacteria is consistent with the long-term safety of a 0.3% triclosan, 2% copolymer, 0.243% sodium fluoride dentifrice. PMID:24889743

  15. Single lump breast surface stress assessment study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vairavan, R.; Ong, N. R.; Sauli, Z.; Kirtsaeng, S.; Sakuntasathien, S.; Paitong, P.; Alcain, J. B.; Lai, S. L.; Retnasamy, V.

    2017-09-01

    Breast cancer is one of the commonest cancers diagnosed among women around the world. Simulation approach has been utilized to study, characterize and improvise detection methods for breast cancer. However, minimal simulation work has been done to evaluate the surface stress of the breast with lumps. Thus, in this work, simulation analysis was utilized to evaluate and assess the breast surface stress due to the presence of a lump within the internal structure of the breast. The simulation was conducted using the Elmer software. Simulation results have confirmed that the presence of a lump within the breast causes stress on the skin surface of the breast.

  16. Measuring Knowledge Integration Learning of Energy Topics: A two-year longitudinal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Ryoo, Kihyun; Linn, Marcia C.; Sato, Elissa; Svihla, Vanessa

    2015-05-01

    Although researchers call for inquiry learning in science, science assessments rarely capture the impact of inquiry instruction. This paper reports on the development and validation of assessments designed to measure middle-school students' progress in gaining integrated understanding of energy while studying an inquiry-oriented curriculum. The assessment development was guided by the knowledge integration framework. Over 2 years of implementation, more than 4,000 students from 4 schools participated in the study, including a cross-sectional and a longitudinal cohort. Results from item response modeling analyses revealed that: (a) the assessments demonstrated satisfactory psychometric properties in terms of reliability and validity; (b) both the cross-sectional and longitudinal cohorts made progress on integrating their understanding energy concepts; and (c) among many factors (e.g. gender, grade, school, and home language) associated with students' science performance, unit implementation was the strongest predictor.

  17. Risk assessment for pesticides' MRL non-compliances in Poland in the years 2011-2015.

    PubMed

    Struciński, Paweł; Ludwicki, Jan K; Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Czaja, Katarzyna; Hernik, Agnieszka; Liszewska, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Human exposure to trace levels of pesticide residues present in food of plant origin is inevitable as long as pesticides continue to be applied in agriculture. Since Maximum Residue Levels (MRL) are not toxicological endpoint values, their violation is not by default equivalent to health risk for consumers. However, its essential to provide a health- based risk assessment for each case of MRL non-compliance reported during monitoring and official control of foodstuffs. To assess the potential short-term risk associated with consumption of food products of plant origin containing pesticide residues above MRL values based on notifications forwarded by the National Contact Point for RASFF in Poland during 2011-2015. 115 notifications including 127 analytical results non-compliant with respective MRL values were forwarded to provide risk assessment. An internationally accepted deterministic approach based on conservative model assumptions for short-term exposure assessment was applied. The risk was characterized by comparing an estimated dietary intake with respective acute reference dose (ARfD). Black currant, tea, lettuce, Chinese cabbage and carrot were among the most frequently notified products in years 2011-2015. Among pesticides exceeding respective MRL values, over 90% belonged to fungicides and insecticides/acaricides such as acetamiprid, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, imidacloprid, dithiocarbamates and procymidone. For 15 and 6 results noncompliant with respective MRL value, a predicted short-term intake exceeded ARfD for children and adults, respectively. Residue levels that could potentially pose a health threat are found incidentally. The science-based and transparent risk assessment process with regard to the data, methods and assumptions that are applied is essential to risk management authorities. risk assessment, pesticide residues, MRL, dietary intake, RASFF, food safety.

  18. Nursing diagnoses determined by first year students: a vignette study.

    PubMed

    Hakverdioğlu Yönt, Gülendam; Korhan, Esra Akın; Erdemir, Firdevs; Müller-Staub, Maria

    2014-02-01

    The study aimed to determine the ability of first year students in identifying nursing diagnoses. In a descriptive evaluation study, an expert-validated vignette containing 18 nursing diagnoses was used. The students determined 15 nursing diagnoses. The highest percentages of diagnoses identified were disturbed sleep pattern and nutrition imbalance. Students also considered medical diagnoses as nursing diagnoses: hypertension and tachycardia. Despite the fact that students were only at the end of their first semester and had limited clinical experience, they successfully identified the majority of nursing diagnoses. Patient case study vignettes are recommended for education. To foster students' knowledge and experience, it is also suggested that evaluating nursing diagnoses in clinical practicals becomes a requirement. © 2013 NANDA International, Inc.

  19. Motivating first-year university students by interdisciplinary study projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Franziska D.; Dirsch-Weigand, Andrea; Awolin, Malte; Pinkelman, Rebecca J.; Hampe, Manfred J.

    2017-01-01

    In order to increase student commitment from the beginning of students' university careers, the Technische Universität Darmstadt has introduced interdisciplinary study projects involving first-year students from the engineering, natural, social and history, economics and/or human sciences departments. The didactic concept includes sophisticated task design, individual responsibility and a differentiated support system. Using a self-determination theory framework, this study examined the effects of the projects based on survey findings from two projects with more than 1000 students. The results showed that the projects were successful in fulfilling students' basic psychological needs and in promoting students' academic engagement. Basic psychological needs were found to be significant predictors of academic engagement. These findings suggest that interdisciplinary study projects can potentially contribute to improving higher education as they fulfil students' basic psychological needs for competence, relatedness and autonomy and enhance students' academic engagement.

  20. New Madrid seismotectonic study. Activities during fiscal year 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Buschbach, T.C.

    1984-04-01

    The New Madrid Seismotectonic Study is a coordinated program of geological, geophysical, and seismological investigations of the area within a 200-mile radius of New Madrid, Missouri. The study is designed to define the structural setting and tectonic history of the area in order to realistically evaluate earthquake risks in the siting of nuclear facilities. Fiscal year 1982 included geological and geophysical studies aimed at better definition of the east-west trending fault systems - the Rough Creek and Cottage Grove systems - and the northwest-trending Ste. Genevieve faulting. A prime objective was to determine the nature and history of faulting andmore » to establish the relationship with that faulting and the northeast-trending faults of the Wabash Valley and New Madrid areas. 27 references, 61 figures.« less

  1. Environment, Safety, and Health Self-Assessment Report, Fiscal Year 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Chernowski, John

    2009-02-27

    Self-Assessment annually. The primary focus of the review is workplace safety. The MESH review is an evaluation of division management of ES&H in its research and operations, focusing on implementation and effectiveness of the division's ISM plan. It is a peer review performed by members of the LBNL Safety Review Committee (SRC), with staff support from OCA. Each division receives a MESH review every two to four years, depending on the results of the previous review. The ES&H Technical Assurance Program (TAP) provides the framework for systematic reviews of ES&H programs and processes. The intent of ES&H Technical Assurance assessments is to provide assurance that ES&H programs and processes comply with their guiding regulations, are effective, and are properly implemented by LBNL divisions. The Appendix B Performance Evaluation and Measurement Plan (PEMP) requires that LBNL sustain and enhance the effectiveness of integrated safety, health, and environmental protection through a strong and well-deployed system. Information required for Appendix B is provided by EH&S Division functional managers. The annual Appendix B report is submitted at the close of the fiscal year. This assessment is the Department of Energy's (DOE) primary mechanism for evaluating LBNL's contract performance in ISM.« less

  2. Assessment of Sensory Processing Characteristics in Children between 3 and 11 Years Old: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Jorquera-Cabrera, Sara; Romero-Ayuso, Dulce; Rodriguez-Gil, Gemma; Triviño-Juárez, José-Matías

    2017-01-01

    The assessment of sensory perception, discrimination, integration, modulation, praxis, and other motor skills, such as posture, balance, and bilateral motor coordination, is necessary to identify the sensory and motor factors influencing the development of personal autonomy. The aim of this work is to study the assessment tools currently available for identifying different patterns of sensory processing. There are 15 tests available that have psychometric properties, primarily for the US population. Nine of them apply to children in preschool and up to grade 12. The assessment of sensory processing is a process that includes the use of standardized tests, administration of caregiver questionnaires, and clinical observations. The review of different studies using PRISMA criteria or Osteba Critical Appraisal Cards reveals that the most commonly used tools are the Sensory Integration and Praxis Test, the Sensory Processing Measure, and the Sensory Profile.

  3. Assessment of Sensory Processing Characteristics in Children between 3 and 11 Years Old: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jorquera-Cabrera, Sara; Romero-Ayuso, Dulce; Rodriguez-Gil, Gemma; Triviño-Juárez, José-Matías

    2017-01-01

    The assessment of sensory perception, discrimination, integration, modulation, praxis, and other motor skills, such as posture, balance, and bilateral motor coordination, is necessary to identify the sensory and motor factors influencing the development of personal autonomy. The aim of this work is to study the assessment tools currently available for identifying different patterns of sensory processing. There are 15 tests available that have psychometric properties, primarily for the US population. Nine of them apply to children in preschool and up to grade 12. The assessment of sensory processing is a process that includes the use of standardized tests, administration of caregiver questionnaires, and clinical observations. The review of different studies using PRISMA criteria or Osteba Critical Appraisal Cards reveals that the most commonly used tools are the Sensory Integration and Praxis Test, the Sensory Processing Measure, and the Sensory Profile. PMID:28424762

  4. Personality Strengths as Resilience: A One-Year Multiwave Study.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Fallon R; Disabato, David J; Kashdan, Todd B; Machell, Kyla A

    2017-06-01

    We examined how personality strengths prospectively predict reactions to negative life events. Participants were 797 community adults from 42 countries. At five points over the course of 1 year, participants completed a series of questionnaires measuring seven personality strengths (hope, grit, meaning in life, curiosity, gratitude, control beliefs, and use of strengths), subjective well-being, and frequency and severity of negative life events. Using hierarchical linear modeling with assessment periods nested within participants, results from lagged analyses found that only hope emerged as a resilience factor. To illustrate the importance of using appropriate lagged analyses in resilience research, we ran nonlagged analyses; these results suggest that all seven personality strengths moderated the effect of negative life events on subjective well-being, with greater strengths associated with healthier outcomes. To provide evidence that personality strengths confer resilience, a prospective examination is needed with the inclusion of events and responses to them. The use of concurrent methodologies and analyses, which is the norm in psychology, often leads to erroneous conclusions. Hope, the ability to generate routes to reach goals and the motivation to use those routes, was shown to be particularly important in promoting resilience. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Statistical Analysis of 30 Years Rainfall Data: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvind, G.; Ashok Kumar, P.; Girish Karthi, S.; Suribabu, C. R.

    2017-07-01

    Rainfall is a prime input for various engineering design such as hydraulic structures, bridges and culverts, canals, storm water sewer and road drainage system. The detailed statistical analysis of each region is essential to estimate the relevant input value for design and analysis of engineering structures and also for crop planning. A rain gauge station located closely in Trichy district is selected for statistical analysis where agriculture is the prime occupation. The daily rainfall data for a period of 30 years is used to understand normal rainfall, deficit rainfall, Excess rainfall and Seasonal rainfall of the selected circle headquarters. Further various plotting position formulae available is used to evaluate return period of monthly, seasonally and annual rainfall. This analysis will provide useful information for water resources planner, farmers and urban engineers to assess the availability of water and create the storage accordingly. The mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation of monthly and annual rainfall was calculated to check the rainfall variability. From the calculated results, the rainfall pattern is found to be erratic. The best fit probability distribution was identified based on the minimum deviation between actual and estimated values. The scientific results and the analysis paved the way to determine the proper onset and withdrawal of monsoon results which were used for land preparation and sowing.

  6. Comparative studies of groundwater vulnerability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maria, Rizka

    2018-02-01

    Pollution of groundwater is a primary issue because aquifers are susceptible to contamination from land use and anthropogenic impacts. Groundwater susceptibility is intrinsic and specific. Intrinsic vulnerability refers to an aquifer that is susceptible to pollution and to the geological and hydrogeological features. Vulnerability assessment is an essential step in assessing groundwater contamination. This approach provides a visual analysis for helping planners and decision makers to achieve the sustainable management of water resources. Comparative studies are applying different methodologies to result in the basic evaluation of the groundwater vulnerability. Based on the comparison of methods, there are several advantages and disadvantages. SI can be overlaid on DRASTIC and Pesticide DRASTIC to extract the divergence in sensitivity. DRASTIC identifies low susceptibility and underestimates the pollution risk while Pesticide DRASTIC and SI represents better risk and is recommended for the future. SINTACS method generates very high vulnerability zones with surface waters and aquifer interactions. GOD method could be adequate for vulnerability mapping in karstified carbonate aquifers at small-moderate scales, and EPIK method can be used for large scale. GOD method is suitable for designing large area such as land management while DRASTIC has good accuracy and more real use in geoenvironmental detailed studies.

  7. Communication skills assessment in the final postgraduate years to established practice: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Amy E; Morris, Marie C; Ridgway, Paul F

    2015-01-01

    Communication breakdown is a factor in the majority of all instances of medical error. Despite the importance, a relative paucity of time is invested in communication skills in postgraduate curricula. Our objective is to systematically review the literature to identify the current tools used to assess communication skills in postgraduate trainees in the latter 2 years of training and in established practice. Two reviewers independently reviewed the literature identifying communication skill assessment tools, for postgraduate trainees in the latter 2 years of training and in established practice following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses framework, and inclusion/exclusion criteria from January 1990 to 15 August 2014. PubMed/CINAHL/ERIC/EMBASE/PsycInfo/Psyc Articles/Cochrane. 222 articles were identified; after review, 34 articles fulfilled criteria for complete evaluation; the majority (26) had a high level of evidence scoring 3 or greater on the Best Evidence Medical Education guide. 22 articles used objective structured clinical examination/standardised patient (SP)-based formats in an assessment or training capacity. Evaluation tools included author-developed questionnaires and validated tools. Nineteen articles demonstrated an educational initiative. The reviewed literature is heterogeneous for objectives and measurement techniques for communication. Observed interactions, with patients or SPs, is the current favoured method of evaluation using author-developed questionnaires. The role of self-evaluation of skill level is questioned. The need for a validated assessment tool for communication skills is highlighted. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. A novel approach to assess clinical competence of postgraduate year 1 surgery residents

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xin; Ding, Lian; Zhai, Wei; Li, Qiang; Li, Yan; Li, Haichao; Wen, Bing

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: An increased demand for accountability and transparency in medicine have initiated a shift toward a more objective and standardized approach for postgraduate medical training. Objective: To develop and evaluate an objective method to assess clinical competence of postgraduate year 1 surgery residents. Design: Thirty-one postgraduate year 1 surgery residents, who had been trained in the Surgical School of Peking University First Hospital for one year, participated in an objective structured clinical examination as a final assessment of their clinical competence. A test station of irregular wound repair (debridement and suture) was specially designed to test the residents’ surgical integrative competence in a complex-trauma treatment procedure. A modified global rating scale, in combination with wound area measurement, was applied to evaluate residents’ surgical performance. The validity of the subjective global rating scale was evaluated by the objective measurement results from the software. Results: The global rating scale score had no obvious correlation with the area of the removed tissue and the residual wound area after the suture. There was significant difference in the debridement time and the residual wound area between 0–3 and >3 total stitches. There were significant differences in the area of the removed tissue between 0 and 1–2 grey stitches and 0 and 3–4 grey stitches, and in the residual wound area after suture between 0 and 3–4 grey stitches and 1–2 and 3–4 grey stitches. Conclusions: An irregular wound repair procedure could be an effective method to assess the integrative competence of surgery residents. The training for surgical thinking in the early stage of junior residents needs to be strengthened. The entire measurement process was more complex and time-consuming than expected. The possibility of measurement by simply counting the numbers of the key spots might be explored in the future. Abbreviations: ACS

  9. Thirty years of beta Pic and debris disks studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagrange, Anne-Marie; Boccaletti, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    In the last 30 years, our knowledge of planetary systems has considerably evolved, in particular thanks to the development of observational techniques and computer simulations for modeling. From the observational point of view, emblematic discoveries thirty years ago have opened a way to dedicated studies, among which the IRAS detections of IR excess associated to dust surrounding main-sequence stars. Shortly after these discoveries, the first image of a debris disk around the star beta Pictoris in 1984 was made, followed in the 90's by the indirect detection of extrasolar planets and, a decade later, by the direct imaging of young giant planets. Beta Pictoris is a ground-breaking object for the study of formation and evolution of planetary systems. It is a unique system in many regards, as it is made of dust, planetesimals, comets and at least one giant planet. Observations with various techniques (imaging, spectroscopy, interferometry) at multiple wavelengths (from the UV to radio waves) have allowed significant progress in the understanding of this system. Yet, many questions are still open, and more results are expected in the coming decade thanks to the next generation of instruments like for instance ALMA, JWST, SPHERE and many others. To celebrate the thirtieth anniversary of the first debris disk image, we propose to gather experts on the analysis of beta Pictoris and interested colleagues to review and discuss the observational knowledge on this archetypal system (including the latest results), as well as its current understanding and related open questions to be addressed in the next decade, such as the history of the disk and planet formation, dynamical evolution, etc. Similar, well-studied debris disks systems with significant amount of observational data that allow in-depth modeling will be also presented and discussed. Second, in a two-days dedicated workshop, we will gather to define an action plan for the typically 3-5 next years to achieve a full

  10. Thirty years of beta Pic and debris disks studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagrange, A.-M.; Boccaletti, A.

    2014-09-01

    In the last 30 years, our knowledge of planetary systems has considerably evolved, in particular thanks to the development of observational techniques and computer simulations for modeling. From the observational point of view, emblematic discoveries thirty years ago have opened a way to dedicated studies, among which the IRAS detections of IR excess associated to dust surrounding main-sequence stars. Shortly after these discoveries, the first image of a debris disk around the star beta Pictoris in 1984 was made, followed in the 90's by the indirect detection of extrasolar planets and, a decade later, by the direct imaging of young giant planets. Beta Pictoris is a ground-breaking object for the study of formation and evolution of planetary systems. It is a unique system in many regards, as it is made of dust, planetesimals, comets and at least one giant planet. Observations with various techniques (imaging, spectroscopy, interferometry) at multiple wavelengths (from the UV to radio waves) have allowed significant progress in the understanding of this system. Yet, many questions are still open, and more results are expected in the coming decade thanks to the next generation of instruments like for instance ALMA, JWST, SPHERE and many others. To celebrate the thirtieth anniversary of the first debris disk image, we propose to gather experts on the analysis of beta Pictoris and interested colleagues to review and discuss the observational knowledge on this archetypal system (including the latest results), as well as its current understanding and related open questions to be addressed in the next decade, such as the history of the disk and planet formation, dynamical evolution, etc. Similar, well-studied debris disks systems with significant amount of observational data that allow in-depth modeling will be also presented and discussed. Second, in a two-days dedicated workshop, we will gather to define an action plan for the typically 3-5 next years to achieve a full

  11. A Two Year Longitudinal Study of the Impact of a "Man: A Course of Study" Preservice Social Studies Methods Course on the Classroom Teaching of Practicing Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Bob

    This study assesses the degree of influence that the elementary curriculum project "Man: A Course of Study" (MACOS) and its process approach has on the use of teaching strategies of first and second year elementary teachers. The sample teachers had been enrolled in an undergraduate social studies methods course that used MACOS. Of the 17…

  12. Coping Trajectories in Later Life: A 20-Year Predictive Study

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Penny L.; Holland, Jason M.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives and Method Information about aging-related change in coping is limited mainly to results of cross-sectional studies of age differences in coping, and no research has focused on predictors of aging-related change in coping behavior. To extend research in this area, we used longitudinal multilevel modeling to describe older adults’ (n=719; baseline M=61 years) 20-year, intra-individual approach and avoidance coping trajectories, and to determine the influence of two sets of predictors (threat appraisal and stressor characteristics; gender and baseline personal and social resources) on level and rate of change in these trajectories. Results Over the 20-year study interval participants declined in use of approach coping and most avoidance coping strategies, but there was significant variation in this trend. In simultaneous predictive models, female gender, more threat appraisal, stressor severity, social resources, and depressive symptoms; and fewer financial resources, were independently associated with higher initial levels of coping responses. Having more social resources, and fewer financial resources, at baseline in late-middle-age predicted faster decline over time in approach coping. Having more baseline depressive symptoms, and fewer baseline financial resources, hastened decline in use of avoidance coping. Independent of other variables in these models, decline over time in approach coping and avoidance coping remained statistically significant. Conclusion Overall decline in coping may be a normative pattern of coping change in later life. However, it also is modifiable by older adults’ stressor appraisals, their stressors, and the personal and social resources they possess at entry to later life, in late-middle age. PMID:22394319

  13. How was the intern year?: self and clinical assessment of four cohorts, from two medical curricula

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Problem-based curricula have provoked controversy amongst educators and students regarding outcome in medical graduates, supporting the need for longitudinal evaluation of curriculum change. As part of a longitudinal evaluation program at the University of Adelaide, a mixed method approach was used to compare the graduate outcomes of two curriculum cohorts: traditional lecture-based ‘old’ and problem-based ‘new’ learning. Methods Graduates were asked to self-assess preparedness for hospital practice and consent to a comparative analysis of their work-place based assessments from their intern year. Comparative data were extracted from 692 work-place based assessments for 124 doctors who graduated from the University of Adelaide Medical School between 2003 and 2006. Results Self-assessment: Overall, graduates of the lecture-based curriculum rated the medical program significantly higher than graduates of the problem-based curriculum. However, there was no significant difference between the two curriculum cohorts with respect to their preparedness in 13 clinical skills. There were however, two areas where the cohorts rated their preparedness in the 13 broad practitioner competencies as significantly different: problem-based graduates rated themselves as better prepared in their ‘awareness of legal and ethical issues’ and the lecture-based graduates rated themselves better prepared in their ‘understanding of disease processes’. Work-place based assessment: There were no significant differences between the two curriculum cohorts for ‘Appropriate Level of Competence’ and ‘Overall Appraisal’. Of the 14 work-place based assessment skills assessed for competence, no significant difference was found between the cohorts. Conclusions The differences in the perceived preparedness for hospital practice of two curriculum cohorts do not reflect the work-place based assessments of their competence as interns. No significant difference was found

  14. Using among-year variation to assess maternal effects in Pinus aristata and Pinus flexilis

    Treesearch

    Erin M. Borgman; Anna W. Schoettle; Amy L. Angert

    2014-01-01

    Maternal effects, the effect of the maternal environment during development on offspring growth, can complicate the interpretation of common garden studies. Growing one or more generations in a common environment can help minimize maternal effects, but is often not practical with long-lived species. In Pinus aristata Engelm. and Pinus flexilis James, we assessed...

  15. Mucus extravasation and retention phenomena: a 24-year study.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Alethea M; Zerbinatti, Daniel Cz; Balducci, Ivan; Cabral, Luiz Antonio G; Almeida, Janete D

    2010-06-07

    Mucoceles are benign lesions related to the minor salivary glands and their respective ducts frequently affecting oral structures which are generally asymptomatic. Mucoceles are generally characterized by swollen nodular lesions preferentially located on the lower lip and differ from the so-called ranulas, which are lesions located on the floor of the mouth and related to the sublingual or submandibular glands. The objective of the present study was to analyze data such as age, gender, race and site of the lesion of 173 mucocele cases diagnosed at the Discipline of Stomatology, São José dos Campos Dental School, UNESP, over a period of 24 years (April 1980 to February 2003). Of the 173 cases analyzed, 104 (60.12%) were females and 69 (39.88%) were males. Age ranged from 4 to 70 years (mean +/- SD: 17 +/- 9.53) and most patients were in the second decade of life (n = 86, 49.42%); white (n = 124, 71.68%). The lower lip was the site most frequently affected by the lesions (n = 135, 78.03%), whereas the lowest prevalence was observed for the soft palate, buccal mucosa, and lingual frenum. In this study, mucoceles predominated in white female subjects in the second decade of life, with the lower lip being the most frequently affected site.

  16. Suicide in India: a four year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Sachidananda; Sahu, Geeta; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar; Patnaik, Manju

    2007-05-01

    Suicide is one of the ten leading causes of death in the world, accounting for more than a million deaths annually. The purpose of the study was to identify the risk groups. In the four-year period from January 2000 to December 2003, 588 suicide victims were autopsied. Information was obtained by interviewing the acquaintances of the victim, perusal of hospital records and the autopsy findings. All the cases were analyzed as to sex, age, and methods of suicide, seasonal variation, diurnal variation and other sociological aspects. The present study depicts a suicidal rate of 11.76 per 100,000 population. Males and females were almost equally the sufferers. The largest number of victims were found in the age group of 21-30 years. Hanging and poisoning constituted the two major modes of suicides (63%). Majority of the victims were mentally sound, married and were from rural background. Victims were mostly drawn from low socioeconomic status (48%). Less educated or illiterates were usually the victims. Suicidal note was detected in 5% of cases. Suicidal tendency and alcohol intake could not be encountered in most of the cases. Indoor incidence was almost double of the outdoor incidence, mostly seen in rainy season (43%) and occurred almost equally during day and night. Financial burden (37%) and marital disharmony (35%) were the principal reasons for the suicide.

  17. [Acute myocardial infarction in Djibouti: 2-year prospective study].

    PubMed

    Maurin, O; Massoure, P L; de Regloix, S; Topin, F; Sbardella, F; Lamblin, G; Kaiser, E

    2012-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a life-threatening emergency. In Africa, the increasing prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is leading to an epidemiological transition. No data have yet been reported about AMI in Djibouti. This study prospectively included all patients with acute coronary syndrome and persistent ST segment elevation admitted to the emergency department of Bouffard Military Hospital in Djibouti from January 2009 through December 2010. It analyzed their clinical data and management. The study included 35 patients. Their mean age was 52 ± 11 years [range: 29-76]. The sex ratio was 7.7 (men/women). Cardiovascular risk factors were: hypercholesterolemia (83%), tobacco use (60%), khat chewing (57%), diabetes (49%), hypertension (46%), and heredity (20%). AMI was anterior in 40% of cases. Fifteen patients (43%) arrived within 12 hours after the onset of symptoms (average 5 hours); thrombolysis was successful for 11 of them (73%). Seven patients (20%) died over the entire follow-up (11.3 ± 9 months), 5 within the first month. Mortality was significantly associated with diabetes (p<0.01), initial severe clinical complications (p<0.01) and initial low left ventricular ejection fraction (p<10(-6)). Patients with AMI in Djibouti are 10 to 15 years younger than in Western countries. Their high level of cardiovascular risk is remarkable. Khat use did not significantly affect prognosis. The high mortality rate was similar to rates reported before the percutaneous coronary angioplasty era.

  18. Is the First-Year Predictive for Study Success in Subsequent Years? Findings from an Academy of Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mennen, Josien; van der Klink, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    In higher education, departments are under increasing pressure to improve study success. Research in this field focusing on higher music education is scarce. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the predictive capability of the first year for study success of students at an academy of music in subsequent years. Data on study progression…

  19. A Study of Assessments Designed for Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delepine, Sidney G., III

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study is to compare a new assessment tool, the SkillsUSA Connect Assessment with the NOCTI assessment to determine which test results in more students achieving success. A quantitative study, designed to compare test scores of students taking the NOCTI assessment and new assessments from SkillsUSA, called the…

  20. The association between orthostatic hypotension and cognitive state among adults 65 years and older who underwent a comprehensive geriatric assessment

    PubMed Central

    Punchick, Boris; Freud, Tamar; Press, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The prevalence of cognitive impairment and orthostatic hypotension (OH) increases with age, but the results of studies that assessed possible associations between them are inconsistent. The aim of this study is to assess possible associations between cognitive impairment and OH in patients ≥65 years of age who underwent a comprehensive geriatric assessment. A retrospective analysis was conducted of the computerized medical records of the study population from 2005 to 2013. Data collected included blood pressure measurements that enabled the calculation of OH, results of the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), results of the Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) test, and cognitive diagnoses that were determined over the course of the assessment. The rate of OH in the study population of 571 adults was 32.1%. The mean MMSE score was 22.5 ± 5.2 among participants with OH and 21.6 ± 5.8 among those without OH (P = 0.09). The absence of a significant association between OH and MMSE remained after adjusting the MMSE score for age and education level. The mean MoCA score was 16.4 ± 5.0 among participants with OH and 16.4 ± 4.8 among those without (P = 0.33). The prevalence of OH was 39% among participants without cognitive impairment, 28.9% among those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 30.6% among those with dementia (P = 0.13). There was no association between OH and cognitive impairment in adults who underwent a comprehensive geriatric assessment. PMID:27442658

  1. Integrated Operations Architecture Technology Assessment Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    As part of NASA's Integrated Operations Architecture (IOA) Baseline, NASA will consolidate all communications operations. including ground-based, near-earth, and deep-space communications, into a single integrated network. This network will make maximum use of commercial equipment, services and standards. It will be an Internet Protocol (IP) based network. This study supports technology development planning for the IOA. The technical problems that may arise when LEO mission spacecraft interoperate with commercial satellite services were investigated. Commercial technology and services that could support the IOA were surveyed, and gaps in the capability of existing technology and techniques were identified. Recommendations were made on which gaps should be closed by means of NASA research and development funding. Several findings emerged from the interoperability assessment: in the NASA mission set, there is a preponderance of small. inexpensive, low data rate science missions; proposed commercial satellite communications services could potentially provide TDRSS-like data relay functions; and. IP and related protocols, such as TCP, require augmentation to operate in the mobile networking environment required by the space-to-ground portion of the IOA. Five case studies were performed in the technology assessment. Each case represented a realistic implementation of the near-earth portion of the IOA. The cases included the use of frequencies at L-band, Ka-band and the optical spectrum. The cases also represented both space relay architectures and direct-to-ground architectures. Some of the main recommendations resulting from the case studies are: select an architecture for the LEO/MEO communications network; pursue the development of a Ka-band space-qualified transmitter (and possibly a receiver), and a low-cost Ka-band ground terminal for a direct-to-ground network, pursue the development of an Inmarsat (L-band) space-qualified transceiver to implement a global, low

  2. Ten years of Developing International Volcanology Graduate Study Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, W. I.

    2010-12-01

    In 2000 I reported at this symposium about multi-institutional graduate field trips to IAVCEI events, such as the Bali meeting and its importance in building international collegiality and awareness among the volcanology doctoral students. NSF was an enthusiastic supporter of these field sessions and this support has continued through the highly successful Pucon and Reykjavik sessions. International volcanology graduate program development began with several exchange programs. EHaz was a highly successful program (McGill, Simon Fraser, Michigan Tech, Buffalo, UNAM and Universidad de Colima) funded by the Department of Education (FIPSE) that moved students across North America where dozens of graduate students spent semesters of their study abroad and shared annual field trips and online student led graduate seminar classes. Michigan Tech’s volcanology graduate program started a Masters International program that combined Peace Corps service with hazards mitigation graduate study and students were placed by Peace Corps in countries with prominent natural hazards. The new program funded 2 year residences in foreign environments, principally in Pacific Latin America. NSF strongly supported this program from its inception, and eventually it gained NSF PIRE support. Dozens of students have initiated the 3 year program (15 completed) to date. A similar PIRE developed at UAF with a link to volcanology in the Russian Far East. One gain is the development of many socially-conscious research selections. Beginning this year transatlantic dual degree masters programs in volcanology are being offered by a consortium of US and European volcanology programs (Michigan Tech, Buffalo, Clermont Ferrand and University of Milan Bicocca), again aided by FIPSE funding. Students have dual advisors on both sides of the Atlantic and spend about half of their two year programs in Europe and half in US. Faculty also travel in the program and the four campuses are increasingly linked by

  3. A Three Year Clinicopathological Study of Cases of Rupture Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Setu; Swain, Sujata

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Rupture uterus is a life threatening obstetric complication with serious maternal and fetal side-effects. We report a 3 year (2010-2013) retrospective clinical study of pregnancy with rupture uterus cases attending a tertiary care hospital. Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of rupture uterus, incidence as per age, parity, clinical presentations, risk factors, complications and management. Materials and Methods Retrospective data of 74 cases of rupture uterus in SCB Medical college, Cuttack was collected from case records of 26,547 deliveries during a 3 year span (2010-2013). Parameters like cause of rupture, type, site of rupture and outcome were recorded. The collected data was analysed by SPSS software v19. Results Out of 26,547 deliveries during the three year period, there were 74 cases of rupture uterus with an incidence of rupture 1 in 359 (0.28%). The mean age of rupture uterus was 27.4 years. 95.8% were multigravida and majority were referred cases from low socioeconomic status. Only 40.5% had the required minimum of four antenatal visits as recommended by WHO (World Health Organisation). A total of 48.6% of cases with rupture uterus had history of previous Caesarean section. Prolonged labour was present in 75.6% of the cases. Only 12.2% of the cases had history of oxytocin use whereas 9.5% had undergone an operative vaginal delivery. Obstructed labour was the cause in 24.3% of cases, 85.1% had complete rupture. Majority had a rupture in the anterior wall (69%) and 81.1% had rupture in lower segment of uterus. Only 17.6% had broad ligament haematoma, 10.8% colporrhexis and 6.8% had associated bladder injury. Repair was possible in only 39.2% of cases, whereas majority landed up in hysterectomy. Internal iliac ligation was done in 2.7% of cases. Perinatal mortality was 90.5% whereas maternal death was seen in 13.5% cases. One patient developed VVF (vesicovaginal fistula). Duration of hospital stay was upto 14 days in 81

  4. A 3-year study of atorvastatin in children and adolescents with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Langslet, Gisle; Breazna, Andrei; Drogari, Euridiki

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of atorvastatin in children/adolescents aged 10-17 years with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) have been demonstrated in trials of up to 1 year in duration. However, the efficacy/safety of >1 year use of atorvastatin in children/adolescents with HeFH, including children from 6 years of age, has not been assessed. To characterize the efficacy and safety of atorvastatin over 3 years and to assess the impact on growth and development in children aged 6-15 years with HeFH. A total of 272 subjects aged 6-15 years with HeFH and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥4.0 mmol/L (154 mg/dL) were enrolled in a 3-year study (NCT00827606). Subjects were initiated on atorvastatin (5 mg or 10 mg) with doses increased to up to 80 mg based on LDL-C levels. Mean percentage reductions from baseline in LDL-C at 36 months/early termination were 43.8% for subjects at Tanner stage (TS) 1 and 39.9% for TS ≥2. There was no evidence of variations in the lipid-lowering efficacy of atorvastatin between the TS groups analyzed (1 vs ≥2) or in subjects aged <10 vs ≥10 years, and the treatment had no adverse effect on growth or maturation. Atorvastatin had a favorable safety and tolerability profile, and only 6 (2.2%) subjects discontinued because of adverse events. Atorvastatin over 3 years was efficacious, had no impact on growth/maturation, and was well tolerated in children and adolescents with HeFH aged 6-15 years. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Improving Academic Achievement through Continuous Assessment Methods: In the Case of Year Two Students of Animal and Range Sciences Department in Wolaita Sodo University, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarka, Samuel; Lijalem, Tsegay; Shibiru, Tilaye

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assessing and implementing of continuous assessment to enhance academic performance of 2nd year Animal and Range Sciences department students in Wolaita sodo university; and to take action (train) to raise the academic performance to a desirable state. For the purpose of surveying the students' level of performance…

  6. Risk model for estimating the 1-year risk of deferred lesion intervention following deferred revascularization after fractional flow reserve assessment.

    PubMed

    Depta, Jeremiah P; Patel, Jayendrakumar S; Novak, Eric; Gage, Brian F; Masrani, Shriti K; Raymer, David; Facey, Gabrielle; Patel, Yogesh; Zajarias, Alan; Lasala, John M; Amin, Amit P; Kurz, Howard I; Singh, Jasvindar; Bach, Richard G

    2015-02-21

    Although lesions deferred revascularization following fractional flow reserve (FFR) assessment have a low risk of adverse cardiac events, variability in risk for deferred lesion intervention (DLI) has not been previously evaluated. The aim of this study was to develop a prediction model to estimate 1-year risk of DLI for coronary lesions where revascularization was not performed following FFR assessment. A prediction model for DLI was developed from a cohort of 721 patients with 882 coronary lesions where revascularization was deferred based on FFR between 10/2002 and 7/2010. Deferred lesion intervention was defined as any revascularization of a lesion previously deferred following FFR. The final DLI model was developed using stepwise Cox regression and validated using bootstrapping techniques. An algorithm was constructed to predict the 1-year risk of DLI. During a mean (±SD) follow-up period of 4.0 ± 2.3 years, 18% of lesions deferred after FFR underwent DLI; the 1-year incidence of DLI was 5.3%, while the predicted risk of DLI varied from 1 to 40%. The final Cox model included the FFR value, age, current or former smoking, history of coronary artery disease (CAD) or prior percutaneous coronary intervention, multi-vessel CAD, and serum creatinine. The c statistic for the DLI prediction model was 0.66 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.61-0.70). Patients deferred revascularization based on FFR have variation in their risk for DLI. A clinical prediction model consisting of five clinical variables and the FFR value can help predict the risk of DLI in the first year following FFR assessment. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The 10-year Absolute Risk of Cardiovascular (CV) Events in Northern Iran: a Population Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Motamed, Nima; Mardanshahi, Alireza; Saravi, Benyamin Mohseni; Siamian, Hasan; Maadi, Mansooreh; Zamani, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study was conducted to estimate 10-year cardiovascular disease events (CVD) risk using three instruments in northern Iran. Material and methods: Baseline data of 3201 participants 40-79 of a population based cohort which was conducted in Northern Iran were analyzed. Framingham risk score (FRS), World Health Organization (WHO) risk prediction charts and American college of cardiovascular / American heart association (ACC/AHA) tool were applied to assess 10-year CVD events risk. The agreement values between the risk assessment instruments were determined using the kappa statistics. Results: Our study estimated 53.5%of male population aged 40-79 had a 10 –year risk of CVD events≥10% based on ACC/AHA approach, 48.9% based on FRS and 11.8% based on WHO risk charts. A 10 –year risk≥10% was estimated among 20.1% of women using the ACC/AHA approach, 11.9%using FRS and 5.7%using WHO tool. ACC/AHA and Framingham tools had closest agreement in the estimation of 10-year risk≥10% (κ=0.7757) in meanwhile ACC/AHA and WHO approaches displayed highest agreement (κ=0.6123) in women. Conclusion: Different estimations of 10-year risk of CVD event were provided by ACC/AHA, FRS and WHO approaches. PMID:26236160

  8. Reflective ability and moral reasoning in final year medical students: a semi-qualitative cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Patricia; Dunngalvin, Audrey; Shorten, George

    2011-01-01

    Moral reasoning and reflective ability are important concepts in medical education. To date, the association between reflective ability and moral reasoning in medical students has not been measured. This study tested the hypotheses that, amongst final year medical students, (1) moral reasoning and reflective ability improve over time and (2) positive change in reflective ability favourably influences moral reasoning. With Institutional Ethical approval, 56 medical students (of a class of 110) participated fully both at the beginning and end of the final academic year. Reflective ability and moral reasoning were assessed at each time using Sobral's reflection-in-learning scale (RLS), Boenink's overall reflection score and by employing Kohlberg's schema for moral reasoning. The most important findings were that (1) Students' level of reflective ability scores related to medicine decreased significantly over the course of the year, (2) students demonstrated a predominantly conventional level of moral reasoning at both the beginning and end of the year, (3) moral reasoning scores tended to decrease over the course of the year and (4) RLS is a strong predictor of change in moral reasoning over time. This study confirms the usefulness of Sobral's RLS and BOR score for evaluating moral development in the context of medical education. This study further documents regression and levelling in the moral reasoning of final year medical students and a decrease in reflective ability applied in the medical context. Further studies are required to determine factors that would favourably influence reflective ability and moral reasoning among final year medical students.

  9. Self-reported confidence in prescribing skills correlates poorly with assessed competence in fourth-year medical students.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, David J; Tichelaar, Jelle; van Agtmael, Michiel A; de Vries, Theo P G M; Richir, Milan C

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between students' self-reported confidence and their objectively assessed competence in prescribing. We assessed the competence in several prescribing skills of 403 fourth-year medical students at the VU University Medical Center, the Netherlands, in a formative simulated examination on a 10-point scale (1 = very low; 10 = very high). Afterwards, the students were asked to rate their confidence in performing each of the prescribing skills on a 5-point Likert scale (1 = very unsure; 5 = very confident). Their assessments were then compared with their self-confidence ratings. Students' overall prescribing performance was adequate (7.0 ± 0.8), but they lacked confidence in 2 essential prescribing skills. Overall, there was a weak positive correlation (r = 0.2, P < .01, 95%CI 0.1-0.3) between reported confidence and actual competence. Therefore, this study suggests that self-reported confidence is not an accurate measure of prescribing competence, and that students lack insight into their own strengths and weaknesses in prescribing. Future studies should focus on developing validated and reliable instruments so that students can assess their prescribing skills. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  10. Mental distress predicts divorce over 16 years: the HUNT study.

    PubMed

    Idstad, Mariann; Torvik, Fartein Ask; Borren, Ingrid; Rognmo, Kamilla; Røysamb, Espen; Tambs, Kristian

    2015-04-01

    The association between mental distress and divorce is well established in the literature. Explanations are commonly classified within two different frameworks; social selection (mentally distressed people are selected out of marriage) and social causation (divorce causes mental distress). Despite a relatively large body of literature on this subject, selection effects are somewhat less studied, and research based on data from both spouses is scarce. The purpose of the present study is to investigate selection effects both at the individual level and the couple level. The current study is based on couple-level data from a Norwegian representative sample including 20,233 couples. Long-term selection effects were tested for by means of Cox proportional hazard models, using mental distress in both partners at baseline as predictors of divorce the next 16 years. Three identical sets of analyses were run. The first included the total sample, whereas the second and third excluded couples who divorced within the first 4 or 8 years after baseline, respectively. An interaction term between mental distress in husband and in wife was specified and tested. Hazard of divorce was significantly higher in couples with one mentally distressed partner than in couples with no mental distress in all analyses. There was also a significant interaction effect showing that the hazard of divorce for couples with two mentally distressed partners was higher than for couples with one mentally distressed partner, but lower than what could be expected from the combined main effects of two mentally distressed partners. Our results suggest that mentally distressed individuals are selected out of marriage. We also found support for a couple-level effect in which spouse similarity in mental distress to a certain degree seems to protect against divorce.

  11. Environmental assessment of the CIESOL solar building after two years operation.

    PubMed

    Batlles, Francisco J; Rosiek, Sabina; Muñoz, Ivan; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2010-05-01

    Life cycle assessment is applied to assess the environmental benefits and trade-offs of a solar-assisted heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system installed in the CIESOL building in Almeria (southeastern Spain). The environmental performance of this system is compared to that of a conventional HVAC system using a heat pump. The study evaluates these systems from cradle to grave, and the impact assessment includes, in addition to the CML2001 method, an impact category dealing with impacts on freshwater resources. The results show that the solar-assisted HVAC involves lower impacts in many impact categories, achieving, as an example, a reduction of 80% in greenhouse-gas emissions. On the other hand, key weak points of this system are the production of capital goods, but specially water use for cooling, due to its high impact on freshwater resources. Minimization of water requirements should be a priority for further development of this promising technology.

  12. Differentiating maternal fatigue and depressive symptoms at six months and four years post partum: Considerations for assessment, diagnosis and intervention.

    PubMed

    Giallo, Rebecca; Gartland, Deirdre; Woolhouse, Hannah; Brown, Stephanie

    2015-02-01

    fatigue and depressive symptoms are common among women in the postpartum period, and it has been proposed that fatigue is a risk factor for later depression. To progress this research, there is a need to clarify the conceptual and measurement issue of whether these two sets of symptoms are distinct constructs. There is also a need to determine whether they are distinct constructs beyond the postnatal period. The aim of the study was to assess the construct and discriminant validity of fatigue and depressive symptoms as measured by the SF-36 Vitality subscale (SF-36) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at six months and at four years post partum. data from over 1000 women participating in the Maternal Health Study, a longitudinal study of women׳s physical and psychological health and recovery after childbirth were used. confirmatory factor analysis revealed a two-factor model of fatigue and depressive symptoms represented as distinct but related constructs was a better fit to the data than a one-factor model of fatigue and depression sharing the same underlying construct at both six months and four years post partum. this study provides empirical evidence that maternal fatigue and depression in the first year after having a baby and at four years post partum are best understood as separate psychological constructs or experiences. The findings have important implications for clinical practice, in particular underlining the importance of differentiating tiredness from depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. MAOA, abuse exposure and antisocial behaviour: 30-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Fergusson, David M; Boden, Joseph M; Horwood, L John; Miller, Allison L; Kennedy, Martin A

    2011-06-01

    Recent studies have raised issues concerning the replicability of gene × environment (G × E) interactions involving the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene in moderating the associations between abuse or maltreatment exposure and antisocial behaviour. This study attempted to replicate the findings in this area using a 30-year longitudinal study that has strong resemblance to the original research cohort. To test the hypothesis that the presence of the low-activity MAOA genotype was associated with an increased response to abuse exposure. Participants were 398 males from the Christchurch Health and Development Study who had complete data on: MAOA promoter region variable number tandem repeat genotype; antisocial behaviour to age 30; and exposure to childhood sexual and physical abuse. Regression models were fitted to five antisocial behaviour outcomes (self-reported property offending; self-reported violent offending; convictions for property/violent offending; conduct problems; hostility) observed from age 16 to 30, using measures of childhood exposure to sexual and physical abuse. The analyses revealed consistent evidence of G × E interactions, with those having the low-activity MAOA variant and who were exposed to abuse in childhood being significantly more likely to report later offending, conduct problems and hostility. These interactions remained statistically significant after control for a range of potentially confounding factors. Findings for convictions data were somewhat weaker. The present findings add to the evidence suggesting that there is a stable G × E interaction involving MAOA, abuse exposure and antisocial behaviour across the life course.

  14. An Exploratory Study: Assessment of Modeled Dioxin ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, An Exploratory Study: Assessment of Modeled Dioxin Exposure in Ceramic Art Studios. This report investigates the potential dioxin exposure to artists/hobbyists who use ball clay to make pottery and related products. Dermal, inhalation, and ingestion exposures to clay were measured at the ceramics art department of Ohio State University in Columbus, OH. The exposure estimates were based on measured levels of clay in the studio air, deposited on surrogate food samples and on the skin of the artists. The purpose of this report is to describe an exploratory investigation of potential dioxin exposures to artists/hobbyists who use ball clay to make pottery and related products.

  15. An Exploratory Study: Assessment of Modeled Dioxin ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has released an external review draft entitled, An Exploratory Study: Assessment of Modeled Dioxin Exposure in Ceramic Art Studios(External Review Draft). The public comment period and the external peer-review workshop are separate processes that provide opportunities for all interested parties to comment on the document. In addition to consideration by EPA, all public comments submitted in accordance with this notice will also be forwarded to EPA’s contractor for the external peer-review panel prior to the workshop. EPA has realeased this draft document solely for the purpose of pre-dissemination peer review under applicable information quality guidelines. This document has not been formally disseminated by EPA. It does not represent and should not be construed to represent any Agency policy or determination. The purpose of this report is to describe an exploratory investigation of potential dioxin exposures to artists/hobbyists who use ball clay to make pottery and related products.

  16. The Dutch Health Care Performance Report: seven years of health care performance assessment in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Michael J; Kringos, Dionne S; Marks, Lisanne K; Klazinga, Niek S

    2014-01-09

    In 2006, the first edition of a monitoring tool for the performance of the Dutch health care system was released: the Dutch Health Care Performance Report (DHCPR). The Netherlands was among the first countries in the world developing such a comprehensive tool for reporting performance on quality, access, and affordability of health care. The tool contains 125 performance indicators; the choice for specific indicators resulted from a dialogue between researchers and policy makers. In the 'policy cycle', the DHCPR can rationally be placed between evaluation (accountability) and agenda-setting (for strategic decision making). In this paper, we reflect on important lessons learned after seven years of health care system performance assessment. These lessons entail the importance of a good conceptual framework for health system performance assessment, the importance of repeated measurement, the strength of combining multiple perspectives (e.g., patient, professional, objective, subjective) on the same issue, the importance of a central role for the patients' perspective in performance assessment, how to deal with the absence of data in relevant domains, the value of international benchmarking and the continuous exchange between researchers and policy makers.

  17. Project W-211 initial tank retrieval systems year 2000 compliance assessment project plan

    SciTech Connect

    BUSSELL, J.H.

    1999-08-24

    This assessment describes the potential Year 2000 (Y2K) problems and describes the methods for achieving Y2K Compliance for Project W-211, Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS). The purpose of this assessment is to give an overview of the project. This document will not be updated and any dates contained in this document are estimates and may change. The scope of project W-211 is to provide systems for retrieval of radioactive wastes from ten double-shell tanks (DST). systems will be installed in tanks 102-AP, 104-AP, 105-AN, 104-AN, 102-AZ, 101-AW, 103-AN, 107-AN, 102-AY, and 102-SY. The current tank selection and sequence supports phasemore » I feed delivery to privatized processing plants. A detailed description of system dates, functions, interfaces, potential Y2K problems, and date resolutions can not be described since the project is in the definitive design phase. This assessment will describe the methods, protocols, and practices to assure that equipment and systems do not have Y2K problems.« less

  18. Fatal burns in Manipal area: a 10 year study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Virendra; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar; Kanth, Sarita

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to record and evaluate the causes and the magnitude of the fatal burn injuries retrospectively. An analysis of autopsy records revealed 19.4% cases of burn injuries amongst the total autopsies done over 10years period (1993-2002) in the mortuary of the department of Forensic Medicine of Kasturba medical College, Manipal. The majority of deaths (78.5%) occurred between 11 and 40years of age group with preponderance of females (74.8%). The flame burns were seen in 94.1% of the victims followed by scalds and electrical burns in 2.8% and 2.5% cases, respectively. The majority of burn incidents were accidental (75.8%) in nature followed by suicidal (11.5%) and homicidal (3.1%) deaths. The percentage of burn (TBSA) over 40% were observed in most of the cases (92.5%). The majority of deaths occurred within a week (69.87%) and most the victims died because of septicemia (50.9%).

  19. Acanthamoeba keratitis: study of the 5-year incidence in Israel.

    PubMed

    Graffi, Shmuel; Peretz, Avi; Jabaly, Haneen; Koiefman, Anna; Naftali, Modi

    2013-11-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is not a notifiable disease in Israel, so there are no accurate incidence rates for this condition in Israel. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of AK in Israel for the years 2008-2012. We distributed a survey questionnaire to laboratory managers in Israel. The laboratories were affiliated to medical institutes that either provided ophthalmology services or served community ophthalmology clinics. Our questionnaire requested survey respondents to provide information regarding the methods used to diagnose AK, and the number of positive and negative cultures for Acanthamoebae species performed for each of the years from 2008 to 2012. Six laboratories used non-nutrient agar with Escherichia coli as the culture medium, one used calcofluor-white staining with fluorescent microscopy, and two used PCR for diagnosing AK. Twenty-three AK cases were identified, to give an estimated incidence of 1/1 668 552. AK is mostly attributable to the use of contact lenses. As contact lenses are popular in Israel, we expected a higher incidence rate. A lower than expected incidence rate may indicate insufficient awareness of AK in Israel.

  20. New Madrid Seismotectonic Study: activities during fiscal year 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Buschbach, T.C.

    1985-04-01

    The New Madrid Seismotectonic Study is a coordinated program of geological, geophysical, and seismological investigations of the area within a 200-mile radius of New Madrid, Missouri. The study is designed to define the structural setting and tectonic history of the area in order to realistically evaluate earthquake risks in the siting of nuclear facilities. Our studies concentrated on defining boundaries of a proposed rift complex in the area, as well as establishing the relationships of the east-west trending fault systems with the northwest-trending faults of the Wabash Valley and New Madrid areas. There were 204 earthquakes located in 1983. Inmore » addition, the earthquake swarm in north-central Arkansas continued throughout the year, and 45,000 earthquakes have been recorded there since January, 1982. Current seismic activity in the Anna, Ohio, area appears to be related to the northwest-trending Fort Wayne rift and possibly with the rift's contact with a low-density pluton. Fault studies of the Rough Creek-Shawneetown Fault System showed mostly high-angle normal faults with a master fault that is a high-angle south-dipping reverse fault. Trenching of terrace deposits along the Kentucky River Fault System confirmed some anomalous conditions in terrace deposits previously indicated by electrical resistivity and augering programs. Thermal and chemical data from groundwater in the Mississippi Embayment appear to be useful in localizing deep faults that cut through the aquifers. Early indications from studies of jointing in Indiana are that the direction of major joint sets will be useful in determining regional stress directions. No Quaternary faulting was found in the Indiana or Illinois fault studies.« less

  1. Nutrition Education and Training Needs in Texas. Nutrition Education and Training Needs Assessment for Federal Fiscal Year 1995. Final Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ruth E.; Ahmad, Mahassen

    A 3-year needs assessment study examined nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and food practices. Subjects were 135 preschool children ages 3-5 years, 610 parents, 118 day care teachers and providers, 35 food service personnel, and 76 administrators throughout Texas. Registered family day care homes, group day care homes, and day care centers from 11…

  2. A Logistic Regression Analysis of Turkey's 15-Year-Olds' Scoring above the OECD Average on the PISA'09 Reading Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasapoglu, Koray

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate which factors are associated with Turkey's 15-year-olds' scoring above the OECD average (493) on the PISA'09 reading assessment. Collected from a total of 4,996 15-year-old students from Turkey, data were analyzed by logistic regression analysis in order to model the data of students who were split into two: (1)…

  3. Melatonin-micronutrients Osteopenia Treatment Study (MOTS): a translational study assessing melatonin, strontium (citrate), vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 (MK7) on bone density, bone marker turnover and health related quality of life in postmenopausal osteopenic women following a one-year double-blind RCT and on osteoblast-osteoclast co-cultures.

    PubMed

    Maria, Sifat; Swanson, Mark H; Enderby, Larry T; D'Amico, Frank; Enderby, Brianna; Samsonraj, Rebekah M; Dudakovic, Amel; van Wijnen, Andre J; Witt-Enderby, Paula A

    2017-01-26

    This one-year double blind randomized control trial assessed the effects of nightly melatonin, strontium (citrate), vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 (MK7; MSDK) on bone mineral density (BMD) and quality of life (QOL) in postmenopausal osteopenic women (ages 49-75). Compared to placebo, MSDK treatment increased BMD in lumbar spine (4.3%) and left femoral neck (2.2%), with an upward trend for total left hip (p=0.069). MSDK increased serum P1NP levels and reduced bone turnover (CTx:P1NP). Psychometric analyses indicated that mood and sleep quality improved for the MSDK group. MSDK-exposed human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human peripheral blood monocytes (hPBMCs) plated in transwells or layered demonstrated increases in osteoblastogenesis, decreases in osteoclastogenesis, increases in OPG (TNFRSF11B) and decreases in RANKL (TNFSF11) levels. In transwell osteoblasts, MSDK increased pERK1/2 (MAPK1/MAPK3) and RUNX2 levels; decreased ERK5 (MAPK7); and did not affect the expression of NFκB (NFKB1) and β1integrin (ITGB1). In layered osteoblasts, MSDK also decreased expression of the metabolic proteins PPARγ (PPARG) and GLUT4 (SLC2A4). In adipose-derived human MSCs, MSDK induced osteoblastogenesis. These findings provide both clinical and mechanistic support for the use of MSDK for the prevention or treatment of osteopenia, osteoporosis or other bone-related diseases.

  4. Melatonin-micronutrients Osteopenia Treatment Study (MOTS): a translational study assessing melatonin, strontium (citrate), vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 (MK7) on bone density, bone marker turnover and health related quality of life in postmenopausal osteopenic women following a one-year double-blind RCT and on osteoblast-osteoclast co-cultures

    PubMed Central

    Maria, Sifat; Swanson, Mark H.; Enderby, Larry T.; D'Amico, Frank; Enderby, Brianna; Samsonraj, Rebekah M.; Dudakovic, Amel; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Witt-Enderby, Paula A.

    2017-01-01

    This one-year double blind randomized control trial assessed the effects of nightly melatonin, strontium (citrate), vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 (MK7; MSDK) on bone mineral density (BMD) and quality of life (QOL) in postmenopausal osteopenic women (ages 49-75). Compared to placebo, MSDK treatment increased BMD in lumbar spine (4.3%) and left femoral neck (2.2%), with an upward trend for total left hip (p=0.069). MSDK increased serum P1NP levels and reduced bone turnover (CTx:P1NP). Psychometric analyses indicated that mood and sleep quality improved for the MSDK group. MSDK-exposed human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human peripheral blood monocytes (hPBMCs) plated in transwells or layered demonstrated increases in osteoblastogenesis, decreases in osteoclastogenesis, increases in OPG (TNFRSF11B) and decreases in RANKL (TNFSF11) levels. In transwell osteoblasts, MSDK increased pERK1/2 (MAPK1/MAPK3) and RUNX2 levels; decreased ERK5 (MAPK7); and did not affect the expression of NFκB (NFKB1) and β1integrin (ITGB1). In layered osteoblasts, MSDK also decreased expression of the metabolic proteins PPARγ (PPARG) and GLUT4 (SLC2A4). In adipose-derived human MSCs, MSDK induced osteoblastogenesis. These findings provide both clinical and mechanistic support for the use of MSDK for the prevention or treatment of osteopenia, osteoporosis or other bone-related diseases. PMID:28130552

  5. Methodological Implications of the Affect Revolution: A 35-Year Review of Emotion Regulation Assessment in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrian, Molly; Zeman, Janice; Veits, Gina

    2011-01-01

    This investigation analyzed the methods used over the past 35 years to study emotion regulation (ER) in children. Articles published from 1975 through 2010 were identified in 42 child clinical, developmental, and emotion psychology journals. Overall, 61.1% of published ER articles relied on one method and 23.6% used two methods. Analyses revealed…

  6. A Multi-Institutional Assessment of Moral Reasoning Development among First-Year Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Matthew J.; Seifert, Tricia A.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the co-curricular experiences, course-taking behaviors, and educational practices that influence the moral reasoning development of 1,469 first-year students at 19 American colleges and universities. Results showed that contexts and practices that encourage students to engage divergent perspectives when…

  7. Writing Placement and Proficiency Assessment Practices in Two Rural Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Melody Anne

    2013-01-01

    This research is a dual-case study which specifically focuses on two rural two-year colleges in separate parts of the United States: one in the central Southern region, and the other in the Northeastern region. I wanted to focus on these colleges' writing placement and proficiency practices in relation to their respective missions and how they…

  8. Assessing Side Effects of Pharmacotherapy Treatment of Bipolar Disorder: A 20-Year Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Gonzalez, Melissa L.; Smith, Kimberly R.; Terlonge, Cindy; Thorson, Ryan T.; Dixon, Dennis R.

    2006-01-01

    A substantial literature on the effective treatment of bipolar disorder has begun to appear, particularly in the last 20 years.The majority of treatments studied have employed medications, particularly mood stabilizers, a typical antipsychotics and antidepressants. Most treatments produce side effects and medications are no exception. A review of…

  9. Assessing the Scope and Feasibility of First-Year Students' Research Paper Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinto, Erin; Bowles-Terry, Melissa; Santos, Ariel J.

    2016-01-01

    This study applied a content analysis methodology in two ways to evaluate first-year students' research topics: a rubric to examine proposed topics in terms of scope, development, and the "researchability" of the topic, as well as textual analysis, using ATLAS.ti, to provide an overview of the types of subjects students select for a…

  10. Chlorinated, brominated and fluorinated organic pollutants in African Penguin eggs: 30 years since the previous assessment.

    PubMed

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Govender, Danny; Underhill, Les; Polder, Anuschka

    2015-05-01

    The African Penguin population has drastically declined over the last 100 years. Changes in food availability due to over-fishing and other oceanographic changes seem to be major causes. However, it has also been 30 years since organic pollutants as a potential factor have been assessed. We analysed penguin eggs collected in 2011 and 2012 from two breeding colonies 640 km apart: Robben Island near Cape Town on the Atlantic Ocean coast, and Bird Island near Port Elizabeth on the Indian Ocean coast of South Africa. We quantified organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants, and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). Compared to 30 years ago, concentrations of ΣDDT have remained about the same or slightly lower, while ΣPCBs declined almost four-fold. The use of DDT in malaria control is unlikely to have contributed. PFCs were detected in all eggs. Indications (non-significant) of eggshell thinning associated with ΣDDT and ΣPCB was found. It seems therefore that the concentrations of measured organic pollutants the African Penguin eggs are not contributing directly to its current demise, but concerns remain about thinner shells and desiccation. Effects of combinations of compounds and newer compounds cannot be excluded, as well as more subtle effects on reproduction, development, and behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Are schoolteachers able to teach first aid to children younger than 6 years? A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Ammirati, Christine; Gagnayre, Rémi; Amsallem, Carole; Némitz, Bernard; Gignon, Maxime

    2014-09-19

    This study was designed to assess the knowledge acquired by very young children (<6 years) trained by their own teachers at nursery school. This comparative study assessed the effect of training before the age of 6 years compared with a group of age-matched untrained children. Some schoolteachers were trained by emergency medical teams to perform basic first aid. Eighteen classes comprising 315 pupils were randomly selected: nine classes of trained pupils (cohort C1) and nine classes of untrained pupils (cohort C2). The test involved observing and describing three pictures and using the phone to call the medical emergency centre. Assessment of each child was based on nine criteria, and was performed by the teacher 2 months after completion of first aid training. This study concerned 285 pupils: 140 trained and 145 untrained. The majority of trained pupils gave the expected answers for all criteria and reacted appropriately by assessing the situation and alerting emergency services (55.7-89.3% according to the questions). Comparison of the two groups revealed a significantly greater ability of trained pupils to describe an emergency situation (p<0.005) and raise the alert (p<0.0001). This study shows the ability of very young children to assimilate basic skills as taught by their own schoolteachers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Unpredictable evolution in a 30-year study of Darwin's finches.

    PubMed

    Grant, Peter R; Grant, B Rosemary

    2002-04-26

    Evolution can be predicted in the short term from a knowledge of selection and inheritance. However, in the long term evolution is unpredictable because environments, which determine the directions and magnitudes of selection coefficients, fluctuate unpredictably. These two features of evolution, the predictable and unpredictable, are demonstrated in a study of two populations of Darwin's finches on the Galápagos island of Daphne Major. From 1972 to 2001, Geospiza fortis (medium ground finch) and Geospiza scandens (cactus finch) changed several times in body size and two beak traits. Natural selection occurred frequently in both species and varied from unidirectional to oscillating, episodic to gradual. Hybridization occurred repeatedly though rarely, resulting in elevated phenotypic variances in G. scandens and a change in beak shape. The phenotypic states of both species at the end of the 30-year study could not have been predicted at the beginning. Continuous, long-term studies are needed to detect and interpret rare but important events and nonuniform evolutionary change.

  13. Subjective age and personality development: a 10-year study.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Personality theory and research typically focus on chronological age as a key indicator of personality development. This study examines whether the subjective experience of age is an alternative marker of the biomedical and psychosocial factors that contribute to individual differences in personality development. The present study uses data from the Midlife in the United States longitudinal survey (N = 3,617) to examine how subjective age is associated with stability and change in personality and the dynamic associations between subjective age and personality traits over a 10-year period. Regression analyses indicated that a younger subjective age at baseline was associated with increases in Openness, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness; correlated changes were also found. The rank-order stability of Extraversion and Openness and overall profile consistency were higher among those with a younger subjective age at baseline and were also associated with the rate of subjective aging over time. The present study reveals that beyond chronological age, the age an individual feels is related to changes in characteristic ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving over time. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Parental Dermatoglyphics in Down's Syndrome. A Ten-year Study

    PubMed Central

    Priest, J. H.; Verhulst, C.; Sirkin, S.

    1973-01-01

    Fathers and mothers of Down's syndrome cases show dermal microsymptoms when a large series of parents are compared to the general population. A Walker dermal index score in the overlap range (-2·99 to +3·00) is more likely to occur in fathers of age-dependent Down's syndrome cases (mean paternal age 40, range 25 to 54 years) and in Down's syndrome mothers than in the general population. The relative risk for these fathers to have a dermal index in the overlap range is two times the risk for male controls; the corresponding risk for mothers of Down's syndrome cases is 1·6 times that for female controls. Thus a score in the overlap range may be used to indicate a group of parents at higher risk for recurrence and occurrence of trisomy 21 offspring. This higher risk parent group can be offered cytogenetic studies, including amniocentesis and chromosome analysis on peripheral blood and skin, as dictated by clinical circumstances. From a comparison of dermal indexes in these studies, the contribution of maternal mosaicism to all cases of Down's syndrome is estimated to be about 11% and the contribution of paternal mosaicism about 8%. The contribution from mosaicism in the father but not in the mother appears to increase with parental age. To confirm these estimates, more parents with trisomy 21 mosaicism and trisomy 21 offspring must be diagnosed and studied quantitatively for dermal microsymptoms. PMID:4272738

  15. Infant breast-feeding and childhood caries: a nine-year study.

    PubMed

    Hong, Liang; Levy, Steven M; Warren, John J; Broffitt, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This study's purpose was to assess the association between infant breast-feeding and caries experience of primary second molars in a nine-year longitudinal cohort study. Study sample was 509 subjects recruited at birth. Information about breast-feeding duration and other factors was collected through parents' responses to periodic questionnaires. Primary teeth were examined for dental caries at five years old and nine years old by calibrated dentist examiners. Caries experience (yes/no) and number of decayed and/or filled surfaces (dfs) were determined for five- and nine-year-olds. For primary second molars at five years old, 18 percent of children who were breast-fed less than six months had caries (mean dfs=0.55) while only 9 percent of children who were breast-fed at least six months had caries (mean dfs=0.33). From five to nine years old, caries incidence was 32 percent and 31 percent, respectively, for children breast-fed less than six months and at least six months. In multivariable regression analyses, shorter breast-feeding duration was positively associated with caries experience of primary second molars at five years old (P=.005), both before and after controlling for other important factors. Shorter duration of breast-feeding is suggested to be associated with increased risk for early childhood caries, but its impact might diminish with age.

  16. Study of Desert Dust Events over the Southwestern Iberian Peninsula in Year 2000: Two Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Cachorro, V. E.; Vergaz, R.; de Frutos, A. M.

    2006-03-07

    Strong desert dust events occurring in 2000 over the southwestern Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula are detected and evaluated by means of the TOMS Aerosol Index (A.I.) at three different sites, Funchal (Madeira Island, Portugal), Lisboa (Portugal), and El Arenosillo (Huelva, Spain). At the El Arenosillo station, measurements from an AERONET Cimel sunphotometer allow more retrieval of the spectral AOD and the derived alpha ''angstrom'' coefficient. After using different threshold values of these parameters, we conclude that it is difficult to establish reliable and robust criteria for an automatic estimation of the number of dust episodes and the totalmore » number of dusty days per year. As a result, additional information, such as airmass trajectories, were used to improve the estimation, from which reasonable results were obtained (although some manual editing was still needed). A detailed characterization of two selected desert dust episodes, a strong event in winter and another of less intensity in summer, was carried out using AOD derived from Brewer spectrometer measurements. Size distribution parameters and radiative properties, such as refractive index and the aerosol single scattering albedo derived from Cimel data, were analyzed in detail for one of these two case studies. Although specific to this dust episode, the retrieved range of values of these parameters clearly reflect the characteristics of desert aerosols. Back-trajectory analysis, synoptic weather maps and satellite images were also considered together, as supporting data to assess the aerosol desert characterization in this region of study.« less

  17. Predictive value of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children - Second Edition at 4 years, for motor impairment at 8 years in children born preterm.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Alison; Morgan, Prue; Anderson, Peter J; Doyle, Lex W; Lee, Katherine J; Spittle, Alicia J

    2017-05-01

    To assess the predictive validity at 4 years of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children - Second Edition (MABC-2) for motor impairment at 8 years in children born preterm. We also aimed to determine if sex, cognition, medical, or social risks were associated with motor impairment at 8 years or with a change in MABC-2 score between 4 years and 8 years. Ninety-six children born at less than 30 weeks' gestation were assessed with the MABC-2 at 4 years and 8 years of age. Motor impairment was defined as less than or equal to the 5th centile. The Differential Ability Scales - Second Edition (DAS-II) was used to measure General Conceptual Ability (GCA) at 4 years, with a score <90 defined as 'below average'. There was a strong association between the MABC-2 total standard scores at 4 years and 8 years (59% variance explained, regression coefficient=0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.69-0.91, p<0.001). The MABC-2 at 4 years had high sensitivity (79%) and specificity (93%) for predicting motor impairment at 8 years. Below average cognition and higher medical risk were associated with increased odds of motor impairment at 8 years (odds ratio [OR]=15.3, 95% CI 4.19-55.8, p<0.001, and OR=3.77, 95% CI 1.28-11.1, p=0.016 respectively). Sex and social risk did not appear to be associated with motor impairment at 8 years. There was little evidence that any variables were related to change in MABC-2 score between 4 years and 8 years. The MABC-2 at 4 years is predictive of motor functioning in middle childhood. Below average cognition and higher medical risk may be predictors of motor impairment. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  18. Relating Health Technology Assessment recommendations and reimbursement decisions in Poland in years 2012-2014, a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Kawalec, Paweł; Malinowski, Krzysztof Piotr

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the influence of public advisory bodies (the Transparency Council and the President of AOTMiT, the Polish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Tariff System) involved in the process on final reimbursement decisions performed by the Ministry of Health. We have analysed all statements of the Transparency Council as well as the President of the AOTMiT recommendations and final reimbursement decisions in Poland for the period of three years: 2012 till 2014. For each recommendation we collected data on decisions as well as potential additional requirements regarding the reimbursement; data was presented for the whole analysed period and separately for each year, to assess the general tendencies in the reimbursement decision-making in Poland. We collected all data accessible at February 2015. The kappa measurement of agreement was used to assess the compliance between statements, recommendations and reimbursement decisions. We collected data on 238 drugs evaluated by the Agency. The compliance between the Transparency Council and the President of the AOTMiT was 95% and remained constant in the analysed period. The agreement between the President of the AOTMiT recommendations and final reimbursement decisions was only fairly represented by a kappa coefficient of 0.23 and decreased in the subsequent years. We observed an increasing proportion of positive-conditional recommendations, with the introduction of a risk sharing scheme being the most common condition of a reimbursement recommendation. We observed that final reimbursement decisions did not reflect statements and recommendations issued by the advisory boards. Positive recommendations issued by the AOTMiT did not guarantee positive reimbursement status, and negative recommendations in some cases did not result in the lack of reimbursement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Studies using single-subject designs in sport psychology: 30 years of research

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Garry L.; Thompson, Kendra; Regehr, Kaleigh

    2004-01-01

    A prominent feature of behavior-analytic research has been the use of single-subject designs. We examined sport psychology journals and behavioral journals published during the past 30 years, and located 40 studies using single-subject designs to assess interventions for enhancing the performance of athletes and coaches. In this paper, we summarize that body of research, discuss its strengths and limitations, and identify areas for future research. PMID:22478434

  20. Social Strategies during University Studies Predict Early Career Work Burnout and Engagement: 18-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study spanning 18 years examined the role of social strategies in early career adaptation. The aim was to find out whether individuals' social strategies measured during their university studies had an impact on work burnout and work engagement measured 10-18 years later. A sample of 292 university students completed the SAQ…

  1. A 6-year follow-up of children assessed for suspected autism spectrum disorder: parents' experiences of society's support.

    PubMed

    Westman Andersson, Gunilla; Miniscalco, Carmela; Gillberg, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    Early support and interventions are suggested to be important for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental problems and their families. Parents are described to have a burdensome life situation where the child's problems have a great impact on the family's well-being. To obtain increased knowledge of parents' experiences of support and interventions 6 years after their child was assessed for ASD. A semi-structured questionnaire was sent to all parents (n=101) whose preschool children (<4 years of age) had been assessed for ASD about 6 years prior in Gothenburg, Sweden. The open-ended questions were analyzed thematically using a hermeneutic phenomenological approach. Parents of 56 children answered 30 questions about their experiences concerning support from society after the neuropsychiatric assessment. From the eight open-ended questions, three themes were identified: parental responsibility, resources and competence among actors in society, and inequality. The parents experienced that they had to take responsibility for meeting the needs of and securing support for their child. They found that the support given was unequal, uncoordinated, and with great variations between both geographical areas and professionals. Parents' own resources were described as impacting the possibility to secure adequate interventions, resulting in unequal treatment of families depending on socioeconomic status. Several parents also expressed experiencing a lack of individualization of services and interventions. All children had received some kind of action from society, but not to the degree they had wished for when the children got their ASD diagnosis. The essence of parents' comments was the experience of authorities and societal actors trying to push the responsibility onto someone else. The study indicates a need for continuous longitudinal support for children identified with neurodevelopmental problems before the age of 3 years. This requires

  2. Accuracy of Recalled Body Weight – A Study with 20-years of Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Anna K; Reynolds, Chandra A

    2013-01-01

    Objective Weight changes may be an important indicator of an ongoing pathological process. Retrospective self-report might be the only possibility to capture prior weight. The objective of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of retrospective recall of body weight in old age and factors that might predict accuracy. Design and Methods In 2007, 646 participants (mean age, 71.6 years) of the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA) answered questions about their present weight and how much they weighed 20-years ago. Of these, 436 had self-reported their weight twenty years earlier and among these 134 had also had their weight assessed at this time point. Results Twenty year retrospectively recalled weight underestimated the prior assessed weight by −1.89 ± 5.9 kg and underestimated prior self-reported weight by −0.55 ± 5.2 kg. Moreover, 82.4% of the sample were accurate within 10%, and 45.8% were accurate within 5% of their prior assessed weights; similarly, 84.2% and 58.0 % were accurate within 10% and 5% respectively, for prior self-reported weight. Current higher body mass index and preferences of reporting weights ending with zero or five was associated with an underestimation of prior weight, while greater weight change over 20 year, and low Mini-Mental State Scores (MMSE) (<25) led to an overestimation of prior weight. Conclusions Recalled weight comes close to the assessed population mean, but at the individual level there is a large variation. The accuracy is affected by current BMI, changes in weight, end-digit preferences, and current cognitive ability. Recalled weight should be used with caution. PMID:23913738

  3. Argentine references for the assessment of body proportions from birth to 17 years of age.

    PubMed

    Del Pino, Mariana; Orden, Alicia B; Arenas, María A; Fano, Virginia

    2017-06-01

    Abnormal body proportions may indicate skeletal disorders; therefore, their detection has great clinical significance. To estimate centiles for head circumference/height (HC/H) and sitting height/height (SH/H) ratios, and assess their diagnostic usefulness among a group of children with skeletal dysplasia. Centiles 3, 10, 25, 50, 75, 90 and 97 for HC/H and SH/H ratios were estimated with the LMS method using Box-Cox transformation to normalize data distribution for each age. Q-Q plot tests were applied to evaluate normality of residuals and the Q test to calculate goodness-of-fit. The sample included 4818 girls and4803 boys, all healthy, between 0-17 years old. The median of the SH/H ratio for each age decreased from 0.67 at birth to 0.57 at age 4. At 12 years of age, values reached 0.52 and 0.53 for males and females, respectively, remaining unchanged until age 17. The median of the HC/H ratio decreased from 0.45 at 6 years old to 0.34 at 17 years old for both sexes. Z-scores for SH/H among 20 children diagnosed with hypochondroplasia were better at showing abnormal proportions than the SH/H ratio not adjusted by age. Estimated centiles for HC/H and SH/H ratios show that the most dramatic changes in body proportions occur in the prepubertal period. These references allow an earlier detection of abnormal body proportions in children with skeletal dysplasia.

  4. Formal faculty observation and assessment of bedside skills for 3rd-year neurology clerks

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Christopher; Wexler, Erika; Mink, Jonathan; Post, Jennifer; Jozefowicz, Ralph F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and utility of instituting a formalized bedside skills evaluation (BSE) for 3rd-year medical students on the neurology clerkship. Methods: A neurologic BSE was developed for 3rd-year neurology clerks at the University of Rochester for the 2012–2014 academic years. Faculty directly observed 189 students completing a full history and neurologic examination on real inpatients. Mock grades were calculated utilizing the BSE in the final grade, and number of students with a grade difference was determined when compared to true grade. Correlation was explored between the BSE and clinical scores, National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) scores, case complexity, and true final grades. A survey was administered to students to assess their clinical skills exposure and the usefulness of the BSE. Results: Faculty completed and submitted a BSE form for 88.3% of students. There was a mock final grade change for 13.2% of students. Correlation coefficients between BSE score and clinical score/NBME score were 0.36 and 0.35, respectively. A statistically significant effect of BSE was found on final clerkship grade (F2,186 = 31.9, p < 0.0001). There was no statistical difference between BSE score and differing case complexities. Conclusions: Incorporating a formal faculty-observed BSE into the 3rd year neurology clerkship was feasible. Low correlation between BSE score and other evaluations indicated a unique measurement to contribute to student grade. Using real patients with differing case complexity did not alter the grade. PMID:27770072

  5. Formal faculty observation and assessment of bedside skills for 3rd-year neurology clerks.

    PubMed

    Thompson Stone, Robert; Mooney, Christopher; Wexler, Erika; Mink, Jonathan; Post, Jennifer; Jozefowicz, Ralph F

    2016-11-22

    To evaluate the feasibility and utility of instituting a formalized bedside skills evaluation (BSE) for 3rd-year medical students on the neurology clerkship. A neurologic BSE was developed for 3rd - year neurology clerks at the University of Rochester for the 2012-2014 academic years. Faculty directly observed 189 students completing a full history and neurologic examination on real inpatients. Mock grades were calculated utilizing the BSE in the final grade, and number of students with a grade difference was determined when compared to true grade. Correlation was explored between the BSE and clinical scores, National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) scores, case complexity, and true final grades. A survey was administered to students to assess their clinical skills exposure and the usefulness of the BSE. Faculty completed and submitted a BSE form for 88.3% of students. There was a mock final grade change for 13.2% of students. Correlation coefficients between BSE score and clinical score/NBME score were 0.36 and 0.35, respectively. A statistically significant effect of BSE was found on final clerkship grade (F 2,186 = 31.9, p < 0.0001). There was no statistical difference between BSE score and differing case complexities. Incorporating a formal faculty-observed BSE into the 3rd year neurology clerkship was feasible. Low correlation between BSE score and other evaluations indicated a unique measurement to contribute to student grade. Using real patients with differing case complexity did not alter the grade. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  6. Prospective 15-year study of neuromuscular function in a cohort of patients with prior poliomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Daube, Jasper R; Sorenson, Eric J; Windebank, Anthony J

    2009-01-01

    Poliomyelitis is a monophasic illness affecting lower motor neurons and individuals may describe new problems years after the initial weakness. We have studied 38 people with the post-polio syndrome over a 15-year period assessing a number of neuromuscular measures, including motor unit number estimation (MUNE). Twenty-five individuals reported progressive weakness but there was no objective change in MUNE and other measures. There was an association with reported weakness and initial deficits. There was a slow decline in MUNE values over time in both groups.

  7. A 30-year study of homicide recidivism and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Golenkov, Andrei; Large, Matthew; Nielssen, Olav

    2013-12-01

    A second homicide by a released mentally ill person is a potentially avoidable tragedy that can reduce the prospects of conditional release for other mentally ill offenders. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and criminological features of single and recidivist homicide offenders with schizophrenia from the Chuvash Republic of the Russian Federation. Data were extracted from the criminal and clinical records of all people with schizophrenia who had been convicted of a homicide in the Chuvash Republic at any time between 1 January 1981 and 31 December 2010. Those convicted of a second homicide offence during the 30 years of the study were compared with those convicted of a single homicide. Sixteen (10.7%) of 149 homicide offenders with schizophrenia had committed a previous homicide. The 16 recidivists included nine offenders who were diagnosed with schizophrenia at the time of their first homicide (after January 1981), three who were diagnosed with schizophrenia only after the first homicide and four who had already been diagnosed with schizophrenia at the time of a pre-1981 homicide. Time at risk for recidivists and non-recidivists differed, but the average time back in the community for the non-recidivists just exceeded the average time to second homicide for the recidivists. All the recidivists were men. Living in a rural area and dissocial personality traits were associated with homicide recidivism. In the Chuvash republic, most of the repeat homicide offences by people with schizophrenia were committed by people residing in rural areas with less access to psychiatric services, which provides indirect evidence for the efficacy of ongoing treatment and supervision in preventing repeat homicides. This area of study is, however, limited by the small numbers of cases and the long follow-up required. International collaborative studies are indicated to provide a more accurate estimate of the rate of recidivist homicide in schizophrenia. Copyright

  8. MAOA, abuse exposure and antisocial behaviour: 30-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Fergusson, David M.; Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John; Miller, Allison L.; Kennedy, Martin A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies have raised issues concerning the replicability of gene × environment (G × E) interactions involving the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene in moderating the associations between abuse or maltreatment exposure and antisocial behaviour. This study attempted to replicate the findings in this area using a 30-year longitudinal study that has strong resemblance to the original research cohort. Aims To test the hypothesis that the presence of the low-activity MAOA genotype was associated with an increased response to abuse exposure. Method Participants were 398 males from the Christchurch Health and Development Study who had complete data on: MAOA promoter region variable number tandem repeat genotype; antisocial behaviour to age 30; and exposure to childhood sexual and physical abuse. Results Regression models were fitted to five antisocial behaviour outcomes (self-reported property offending; self-reported violent offending; convictions for property/violent offending; conduct problems; hostility) observed from age 16 to 30, using measures of childhood exposure to sexual and physical abuse. The analyses revealed consistent evidence of G × E interactions, with those having the low-activity MAOA variant and who were exposed to abuse in childhood being significantly more likely to report later offending, conduct problems and hostility. These interactions remained statistically significant after control for a range of potentially confounding factors. Findings for convictions data were somewhat weaker. Conclusions The present findings add to the evidence suggesting that there is a stable G × E interaction involving MAOA, abuse exposure and antisocial behaviour across the life course. PMID:21628708

  9. Predictive Validity of the HKT-R Risk Assessment Tool: Two and 5-Year Violent Recidivism in a Nationwide Sample of Dutch Forensic Psychiatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Bogaerts, Stefan; Spreen, Marinus; Ter Horst, Paul; Gerlsma, Coby

    2018-06-01

    This study has examined the predictive validity of the Historical Clinical Future [ Historisch Klinisch Toekomst] Revised risk assessment scheme in a cohort of 347 forensic psychiatric patients, which were discharged between 2004 and 2008 from any of 12 highly secure forensic centers in the Netherlands. Predictive validity was measured 2 and 5 years after release. Official reconviction data obtained from the Dutch Ministry of Security and Justice were used as outcome measures. Violent reoffending within 2 and 5 years after discharge was assessed. With regard to violent reoffending, results indicated that the predictive validity of the Historical domain was modest for 2 (area under the curve [AUC] = .75) and 5 (AUC = .74) years. The predictive validity of the Clinical domain was marginal for 2 (admission: AUC = .62; discharge: AUC = .63) and 5 (admission: AUC = .69; discharge: AUC = .62) years after release. The predictive validity of the Future domain was modest (AUC = .71) for 2 years and low for 5 (AUC = .58) years. The total score of the instrument was modest for 2 years (AUC = .78) and marginal for 5 (AUC = .68) years. Finally, the Final Risk Judgment was modest for 2 years (AUC = .78) and marginal for 5 (AUC = .63) years time at risk. It is concluded that this risk assessment instrument appears to be a satisfactory instrument for risk assessment.

  10. Case studies in Bayesian microbial risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Marc C; Clough, Helen E; Turner, Joanne

    2009-12-21

    The quantification of uncertainty and variability is a key component of quantitative risk analysis. Recent advances in Bayesian statistics make it ideal for integrating multiple sources of information, of different types and quality, and providing a realistic estimate of the combined uncertainty in the final risk estimates. We present two case studies related to foodborne microbial risks. In the first, we combine models to describe the sequence of events resulting in illness from consumption of milk contaminated with VTEC O157. We used Monte Carlo simulation to propagate uncertainty in some of the inputs to computer models describing the farm and pasteurisation process. Resulting simulated contamination levels were then assigned to consumption events from a dietary survey. Finally we accounted for uncertainty in the dose-response relationship and uncertainty due to limited incidence data to derive uncertainty about yearly incidences of illness in young children. Options for altering the risk were considered by running the model with different hypothetical policy-driven exposure scenarios. In the second case study we illustrate an efficient Bayesian sensitivity analysis for identifying the most important parameters of a complex computer code that simulated VTEC O157 prevalence within a managed dairy herd. This was carried out in 2 stages, first to screen out the unimportant inputs, then to perform a more detailed analysis on the remaining inputs. The method works by building a Bayesian statistical approximation to the computer code using a number of known code input/output pairs (training runs). We estimated that the expected total number of children aged 1.5-4.5 who become ill due to VTEC O157 in milk is 8.6 per year, with 95% uncertainty interval (0,11.5). The most extreme policy we considered was banning on-farm pasteurisation of milk, which reduced the estimate to 6.4 with 95% interval (0,11). In the second case study the effective number of inputs was reduced

  11. Perceived Discrimination among Black Youth: An 18-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Frederick X.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Recent research has suggested vulnerability to perceived racial discrimination (PRD) as a mechanism behind high levels of depression seen in high socioeconomic status (SES) Black males. To better understand the effects of gender and SES on shaping experiences of PRD among Black youth in the United States, we used data from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS) to explore the trajectory of PRD in Black youth by gender, SES, and place. Methods: Data came from FACHS, 1997–2017, which followed 889 children aged 10–12 years old at Wave 1 (n = 478; 53.8% females and n = 411; 46.2% males) for up to 18 years. Data were collected in seven waves. The main predictors of interest were gender, SES (parent education and annual family income), age, and place of residence. Main outcomes of interest were baseline and slope of PRD. Latent growth curve modeling (LGCM) was used for data analysis. Results: Gender, SES, place, and age were correlated with baseline and change in PRD over time. Male, high family income, and younger Black youth reported lower PRD at baseline but a larger increase in PRD over time. Youth who lived in Iowa (in a predominantly White area) reported higher PRD at baseline and also an increase in PRD over time. High parental education was not associated with baseline or change in PRD. Conclusion: In the United States, Black youth who are male, high income, and live in predominantly White areas experience an increase in PRD over time. Future research is needed on the interactions between gender, SES, and place on exposure and vulnerability of Black youth to PRD. Such research may explain the increased risk of depression in high SES Black males. PMID:29702587

  12. Alpine skiing injuries. A nine-year study.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, T M; Laliotis, A T

    1996-01-01

    Injury patterns in alpine skiing have changed over time as ski, boot, binding, and slope-grooming technologies have evolved. We retrospectively examined injury patterns in alpine skiers over a 9-year period at the Mammoth and June mountains (California) ski area. A total of 24,340 injuries were reported for the 9 seasons studied, and total lift tickets sold numbered 9,201,486. The overall injury rate was 2.6 injuries per 1,000 skier days and increased slowly over the period studied. The knee was the most frequently injured area at 35% of all injuries. Increasing trends (P < .05) were noted for the rates of lower extremity injuries (37%) and knee injuries (45%). A decreasing trend was noted for the rate of lacerations (31% decrease). Slight increases were noted in upper extremity and axial injury rates. Skiing injuries continue to be a worrisome recreational problem despite improvements in ski equipment and slope-grooming techniques. The increasing trend in lower extremity, particularly knee, injury rates highlights the need for continued skier education and equipment innovation. PMID:8732730

  13. ORTHOPEDIC APPROACH TO PECTUS DEFORMITIES: 32 YEARS OF STUDIES

    PubMed Central

    Haje, Sydney Abrão; de Podestá Haje, Davi

    2015-01-01

    The authors summarize a 32-year experience in the study and in the non-operative approach of pectus carinatum and pectus excavatum. Data of 4,012 patients with pectus deformities were collected from 1977 to January 2009, allowing evaluation on the etiology, pathogenesis and treatment of these deformities. Growth disturbances of anterior chest wall bones and cartilages were detected in imaging studies. Heredity, and biomechanical factors, like respiratory disturbances and scoliosis were noticed in more than 40% of the patients. The method of dynamic remodeling of the thorax – compressive orthoses simultaneously to exercises practice – was indicated in 2453 patients. Concomitant treatment with bending brace was pr